Pregnancy Trimester, First
Family Planning Services
Dilatation and Curettage
Beginning of Human Life
Pregnancy Trimester, Second
Pregnancy Complications, Infectious
Women's Health Services
Legislation as Topic
Reproductive Health Services
Health Services Accessibility
Adherence by midwives to the Dutch national guidelines on threatened miscarriage in general practice: a prospective study. (1/51)OBJECTIVE: To determine the feasibility for midwives to adhere to Dutch national guidelines on threatened miscarriage in general practice. DESIGN: Prospective recording of appointments by midwives who agreed to adhere to the guidelines on threatened miscarriage. Interviews with the midwives after they had recorded appointments for one year. SETTING: Midwifery practices in The Netherlands. SUBJECTS: 56 midwives who agreed to adhere to the guidelines; 43 midwives actually made records from 156 clients during a period of 12 months. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Adherence to each recommendation and reasons for non-adherence. RESULTS: The recommendation that a physical examination should take place on the first and also on the follow up appointment was not always adhered to. Reasons for non-adherence were the midwives' criticism of this recommendation, their lack of knowledge or skills, and the specific client situation. Adherence to a follow up appointment after 10 days, a counselling consultation after six weeks, and not performing an ultrasound scan was low. Reasons for non-adherence were mainly based on the midwives' criticism of these recommendations and reluctance on the part of the client. Furthermore, many midwives did not give information and instructions to the client. It is noteworthy that in 13% of the cases the midwife's policy was overridden by the obstetrician taking control of the situation after the midwife had requested an ultrasound scan. CONCLUSIONS: Those recommendations in the guidelines on threatened miscarriage that are most often not adhered to should be reviewed. To reduce conflicts about ultrasound scans and referrals, agreement on the policy on threatened miscarriage should be mutually established between midwives and obstetricians. (+info)
Do patients matter? Contribution of patient and care provider characteristics to the adherence of general practitioners and midwives to the Dutch national guidelines on imminent miscarriage. (2/51)OBJECTIVE: To assess the relative contribution of patient and care provider characteristics to the adherence of general practitioners (GPs) and midwives to two specific recommendations in the Dutch national guidelines on imminent miscarriage. The study focused on performing physical examinations at the first contact and making a follow up appointment after 10 days because these are essential recommendations and there was much variation in adherence between different groups of providers. DESIGN: Prospective recording by GPs and midwives of care provided for patients with symptoms of imminent miscarriage. SETTING: General practices and midwifery practices in the Netherlands. SUBJECTS: 73 GPs and 38 midwives who agreed to adhere to the guidelines; 391 patients were recorded during a period of 12 months. MAIN MEASURES: Adherence to physical examinations and making a follow up appointment were measured as part of a larger prospective recording study on adherence to the guidelines on imminent miscarriage. Patient and care provider characteristics were obtained from case recordings and interviews, respectively. Multilevel analysis was performed to assess the contribution of several care provider and patient characteristics to adherence to two selected recommendations: the number of recommended physical examinations at the first contact and the number of days before a follow up appointment took place. RESULTS: In the multilevel model explaining variance in adherence to physical examinations, the care provider's acceptance of the recommendations was the most important factor. Severity of symptoms and referral to an obstetrician were significant factors at the patient level. In the model for follow up appointments the characteristics of the care provider were less important. Referral to an obstetrician and probability diagnosis were significant factors at the patient level. CONCLUSIONS: The study showed that characteristics of both the patient and care provider contribute to the variability in adherence. Furthermore, the contribution of the characteristics differed per recommendation. It is therefore advised that the contribution of both patient and care provider characteristics per recommendation should be carefully examined. If implementation is to be successful, strategies should be developed to address these specific contributions. (+info)
Pregnancy outcome of patients conceiving within one year after chemotherapy for gestational trophoblastic tumor: a clinical report of 22 cases. (3/51)OBJECTIVE: To determine the risk of pregnancy for patients who conceive within one year after successful chemotherapy for gestational trophoblastic tumor (GTT). METHODS: We followed up and analysed retrospectively 22 patients who conceived within one year after receiving chemotherapy for GTT from 1966 through 1996. RESULTS: Of 22 patients, 9 had term delivery, 1 had premature birth, 6 requested induced abortion, and 6 experienced therapeutic abortion because of repeated hydatidiform mole (1 patient), intrauterine death (1), inevitable abortion (1), or threatened abortion (3). The fetal wastage rate was 27.3% (6/22). The incidence of gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD), including hydatidiform mole, was 9.1% (2/22). The incidence of GTT was 4.5%. The average interval between completion of chemotherapy and pregnancy was 9.78 months in the group of term pregnancy and 6.50 months in the group of fetal wastage (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Patients conceiving within one year after successful chemotherapy for GTT are at higher risk for recurrence of GTD and fetal wastage. Therefore, patients with preserved fertility should practice contraception for at least one year after chemotherapy to get better pregnancy outcome. (+info)
Use of anti-D immunoglobulin in the treatment of threatened miscarriage in the accident and emergency department. (4/51)BACKGROUND: The UK guidelines for the use of anti-D immunoglobulin for rhesus prophylaxis have been revised. Anti-D immunoglobulin is no longer recommended for Rh D negative women after a threatened miscarriage less than 12 weeks gestation. These patients are at risk of rhesus immunisation, and there should be a policy for their treatment in the accident and emergency (A&E) department. DESIGN: A retrospective study over a 17 month period was conducted looking at women less than 12 weeks gestation who presented to an A&E department with a threatened miscarriage. OBJECTIVES: To determine how many of these patients presented with heavy or repeated bleeding, or abdominal pain, and whether the guidelines for the use of rhesus prophylaxis were followed. RESULTS: 112 women fulfilled the criteria for inclusion. Nineteen patients were Rh D negative. Eighty three patients (74.1%) presented with either abdominal pain or heavy or recurrent bleeding. Rhesus status was recorded in the A&E notes in only 15 patients (13.3%). Ninety seven patients (86.6 %) were discharged without rhesus status being checked. Fifteen Rh D negative patients were discharged without being offered anti-D immunoglobulin. CONCLUSION: Many women who present to the A&E department with a threatened miscarriage of less than 12 weeks gestation have heavy or recurrent bleeding or associated abdominal pain. These patients have an increased risk of fetomaternal haemorrhage and the consequent development of haemolytic disease of the newborn is possible. It should be mandatory for the A&E department to record rhesus status. In the context of A&E medicine, anti-D immunoglobulin should still be offered to all non-immune Rh D negative women presenting with a threatened miscarriage less than 12 weeks gestation. (+info)
A case of twin pregnancy with complete hydatidiform mole and coexisting fetus following IVF-ET. (5/51)Twin pregnancy consisting of complete hydatidiform mole (H-mole) and a coexisting fetus occurs with an estimated incidence of 1 per 22,000-100,000 pregnancies. The incidence of this unusual twin pregnancy with complete H-mole and a coexisting fetus after in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET) is not thought to be greater than that of general population. We present an unusual twin pregnancy with complete H-mole and a coexisting fetus that occurred following IVF-ET, which was terminated at 21 weeks of gestation and developed into nonmetastatic gestational trophoblastic tumor. (+info)
Threatened miscarriage in general practice: diagnostic value of history taking and physical examination. (6/51)BACKGROUND: Ultrasonography, the gold standard for establishing a diagnosis in first-trimester vaginal bleeding, is not always readily avaliable. Medical history and gynaecological examination are then used instead, to make a provisional diagnosis. AIM: To determine the diagnostic value of history taking and physical examination in first-trimester bleeding, to differentiate between patients requiring immediate further diagnostic examination from those in whom an expectant policy will initially suffice. DESIGN OF STUDY: Prospective population-based cohort study. SETTING: Seventy-four general practices in Amsterdam. METHOD: Two hundred and twenty-five patients with first trimester vaginal bleeding were referred for an early pregnancy assessment. The data from 204 patients were analysed. Two diagnostic models were constructed based on symptoms and the results of gynaecological examination to identify diagnostic subgroups relevant to clinical practice. RESULTS: Model 1, which separates viable pregnancies from other diagnoses, increased pre-test probability from 47% to a post-test probability of 70%. Model 2, which enabled the identification of complete miscarriages, resulted in a post-test probability of 41% of a complete miscarriage, given a pre-test sample probability of 25%. The tentative diagnosis of a general practitioner, based entirely on clinical judgement, turned out to be a poor predictor for the ultrasonographically confirmed diagnosis (pre-test probability of 47% changed to a post-test probability of 58%). CONCLUSION: This study shows that, in first trimester bleeding, neither statistical prediction models based on signs and symptoms, nor clinical judgement, are valid replacements for ultrasonographic assessment in establishing a diagnosis. (+info)
Ultrasound assessment of cervical length in threatened preterm labor. (7/51)OBJECTIVE: More than 70% of women presenting with threatened preterm labor do not progress to active labor and delivery. The aim of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that in women with threatened preterm labor, sonographic measurement of cervical length helps distinguish between true and false labor. METHODS: We examined 216 women with singleton pregnancies presenting with regular and painful uterine contractions at 24-36 (mean, 32) weeks of gestation. Women in active labor, defined by the presence of cervical dilatation > or = 3 cm, and those with ruptured membranes were excluded. On admission to the hospital a transvaginal scan was performed to measure the cervical length. The subsequent management was determined by the attending obstetrician. The primary outcome was delivery within 7 days of presentation. RESULTS: In 173 cases the cervical length was > or = 15 mm and only one of these women delivered within 7 days. In the 43 cases with cervical length < 15 mm delivery within 7 days of presentation occurred in 16 (37%) including 6/14 (42%) treated with tocolytics and 10/29 (35%) managed expectantly. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that the only significant contributor in the prediction of delivery within 7 days was cervical length < 15 mm (odds ratio = 101, 95% CI 12-800, P < 0.0001) with no significant contribution from ethnic group, maternal age, gestational age, body mass index, parity, previous history of preterm delivery, cigarette smoking, contraction frequency or use of tocolytics. CONCLUSIONS: In women with threatened preterm labor, sonographic measurement of cervical length helps distinguish between true and false labor. (+info)
Pregnancy outcome of threatened abortion with subchorionic hematoma: possible benefit of bed-rest? (8/51)BACKGROUND: Bleeding in the first trimester of pregnancy is a common phenomenon, associated with early pregnancy loss. In many instances a subchorionic hematoma is found sonographically. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the possible benefit of bed-rest in women with threatened abortion and sonographically proven subchorionic hematoma, and to examine the possible relationship of duration of vaginal bleeding, hematoma size, and gestational age at diagnosis to pregnancy outcome. METHODS: The study group consisted of 230 women of 2,556 (9%) referred for ultrasound examination because of vaginal bleeding in the first half of pregnancy, who were found to have a subchorionic hematoma in the presence of a singleton live embryo or fetus. All patients were advised bed-rest at home; 200 adhered to this recommendation for the duration of vaginal bleeding (group 1) and 30 continued their usual lifestyle (group 2). All were followed with repeated sonograms at 7 day intervals until bleeding ceased, the subchorionic hematoma disappeared, or abortion occurred. The groups were compared for size of hematoma, duration of bleeding, and gestational age at diagnosis in relation to pregnancy outcome (spontaneous abortion, term or preterm delivery). RESULTS: The first bleeding episode occurred at 12.6 +/- 3.4 weeks of gestation (range 7-20 weeks) and lasted for 28.8 +/- 19.1 days (range 4-72 days). The women who adhered to bed-rest had fewer spontaneous abortions (9.9% vs. 23.3%, P = 0.006) and a higher rate of term pregnancy (89 vs. 70%, P = 0.004) than those who did not. There was no association between duration of vaginal bleeding, hematoma size, or gestational age at diagnosis of subchorionic hematoma and pregnancy outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Fewer spontaneous abortions and a higher rate of term pregnancy were noted in the bed-rest group. However, the lack of randomization and retrospective design of the outcome data collection preclude a definite conclusion. A large prospective randomized study is required to confirm whether bed-rest has a real therapeutic effect. (+info)
Veterinary abortion refers to the intentional termination of a pregnancy in an animal, typically a farm or domesticated animal such as a dog, cat, horse, cow, or pig. The procedure is performed by a veterinarian and is usually done for reasons such as unwanted breeding, disease or genetic disorders in the fetus, or to prevent overpopulation of certain species.
Types of Veterinary Abortion:
1. Spontaneous Abortion (Miscarriage): This occurs naturally when the pregnancy is terminated by natural causes such as infection or trauma.
2. Induced Abortion: This is performed by a veterinarian using various methods such as injection of drugs or surgical procedures to terminate the pregnancy.
Methods of Veterinary Abortion:
1. Drug-induced abortion: This method involves administering medication to the animal to cause uterine contractions and expulsion of the fetus.
2. Surgical abortion: This method involves surgical intervention to remove the fetus from the uterus, usually through a small incision in the abdomen.
3. Non-surgical abortion: This method uses a device to remove the fetus from the uterus without making an incision.
Complications and Risks of Veterinary Abortion:
1. Infection: As with any surgical procedure, there is a risk of infection.
2. Hemorrhage: Excessive bleeding can occur during or after the procedure.
3. Uterine rupture: In rare cases, the uterus may rupture during the procedure.
4. Incomplete abortion: In some cases, not all of the fetus may be removed, leading to complications later on.
5. Scarring: Scars may form in the uterus or abdomen after the procedure, which can lead to reproductive problems in the future.
Prevention of Unwanted Pregnancies in Animals:
1. Spaying/neutering: This is the most effective way to prevent unwanted pregnancies in animals.
2. Breeding management: Proper breeding management, including selecting healthy and fertile breeding animals, can help reduce the risk of unwanted pregnancies.
3. Use of contraceptives: Hormonal contraceptives, such as injection or implants, can be used in some species to prevent pregnancy.
4. Behavioral management: In some cases, behavioral management techniques, such as separation or rehoming of animals, may be necessary to prevent unwanted breeding.
Ethical Considerations of Veterinary Abortion:
1. Animal welfare: The procedure should only be performed when necessary and with the intention of improving the animal's welfare.
2. Owner consent: Owners must provide informed consent before the procedure can be performed.
3. Veterinarian expertise: The procedure should only be performed by a licensed veterinarian with experience in the procedure.
4. Alternative options: All alternative options, such as spaying/neutering or rehoming, should be considered before performing an abortion.
Veterinary abortion is a complex issue that requires careful consideration of ethical and practical factors. While it may be necessary in some cases to prevent the suffering of unwanted litters, it is important to approach the procedure with caution and respect for animal welfare. Owners must provide informed consent, and the procedure should only be performed by a licensed veterinarian with experience in the procedure. Alternative options, such as spaying/neutering or rehoming, should also be considered before performing an abortion. Ultimately, the decision to perform a veterinary abortion should be made with the intention of improving the animal's welfare and quality of life.
1. Incomplete abortion: The abortion may not have been complete, leaving some tissue from the pregnancy remaining in the uterus.
2. Incorrect dosage: The person performing the abortion may have used too low of a dose of medication or performed the surgical procedure for too short a time, resulting in an incomplete termination.
3. Timing issues: The abortion may not have been performed at the correct stage of pregnancy, making it more difficult to terminate the pregnancy completely.
4. Uterine anomalies: Abnormalities in the shape or size of the uterus can make it more difficult for the abortion to be complete.
5. Ectopic pregnancy: The fertilized egg may have implanted outside of the uterus, making it impossible for a normal abortion to occur.
Symptoms of a missed abortion can include vaginal bleeding, abdominal pain, and a fetal heartbeat that can be detected through ultrasound. If a missed abortion is suspected, medical attention should be sought immediately as the pregnancy will continue to develop and can be dangerous for the mother's health.
Treatment for a missed abortion usually involves a surgical procedure to remove any remaining tissue from the pregnancy. In some cases, medication may be used to help soften the cervix and dilate the cervix before the surgical procedure. If the pregnancy is far enough along, a delivery may be necessary.
Prevention of missed abortion includes proper training and experience of the person performing the abortion, correct dosage and timing of medication or surgical procedures, and appropriate follow-up care after the procedure to ensure that it was complete.
Abortion, Septic: A potentially life-threatening complication of an abortion procedure that occurs when bacteria enter the uterus and cause infection. Symptoms may include fever, chills, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and vaginal discharge with a foul odor. Septic abortion can be caused by poor surgical technique, contamination of instruments, or failure to use sterile equipment. Treatment may involve antibiotics, surgical drainage of the infection, and supportive care. In severe cases, hospitalization and intensive care may be necessary to manage the infection and prevent complications such as sepsis or shock.
The term "septic abortion" is used to describe an abortion that has become infected, usually as a result of poor surgical technique or contamination during the procedure. This type of infection can be serious and potentially life-threatening, so it is important for women who have had an abortion to seek medical attention immediately if they experience any symptoms of infection.
Symptoms of septic abortion may include fever, chills, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and vaginal discharge with a foul odor. In severe cases, women may develop sepsis or shock, which can be fatal if not treated promptly.
Treatment for septic abortion typically involves antibiotics to clear the infection, as well as surgical drainage of any abscesses that have formed in the uterus or other pelvic tissues. In some cases, hospitalization and intensive care may be necessary to manage the infection and prevent complications.
Preventing septic abortion is important, and this can be achieved by ensuring that proper surgical technique is used during the abortion procedure, using sterile equipment and supplies, and providing adequate aftercare to women who have had an abortion. Women who have had an abortion should seek medical attention immediately if they experience any symptoms of infection, as prompt treatment can help prevent serious complications and improve outcomes.
A condition in which spontaneous abortions occur repeatedly, often due to an underlying cause such as a uterine anomaly or infection. Also called recurrent spontaneous abortion.
Synonym(s): habitual abortion, recurrent abortion, spontaneous abortion.
Antonym(s): multiple pregnancy, retained placenta.
Example Sentence: "The patient had experienced four habitual abortions in the past year and was concerned about her ability to carry a pregnancy to term."
Threatened abortion refers to a pregnancy that is at risk of ending prematurely, either due to complications or circumstances that could potentially harm the developing fetus or the mother. In this situation, the pregnancy is not yet fully developed, and the fetus may not have formed fully. Threatened abortion can occur in any trimester of pregnancy and can be caused by various factors.
Types of Threatened Abortion:
There are different types of threatened abortion, including:
1. Threatened miscarriage: This occurs when the pregnancy is at risk of ending prematurely due to complications such as bleeding, cramping, or spotting.
2. Threatened ectopic pregnancy: This occurs when the fertilized egg implants outside the uterus, often in the fallopian tube.
3. Threatened molar pregnancy: This occurs when a non-viable mass of cells develops in the uterus instead of a normal fetus.
4. Threatened hydatidiform mole: This is a type of molar pregnancy that occurs when the fertilized egg does not properly divide and forms a mass of cells that can be benign or malignant.
Causes of Threatened Abortion:
Threatened abortion can be caused by various factors, including:
1. Hormonal changes: Fluctuations in hormone levels can affect the development of the fertilized egg and increase the risk of threatened abortion.
2. Infections: Bacterial or viral infections can cause inflammation in the uterus and increase the risk of threatened abortion.
3. Uterine abnormalities: Structural problems with the uterus, such as fibroids or polyps, can increase the risk of threatened abortion.
4. Trauma: Physical trauma, such as a fall or a car accident, can cause the pregnancy to become threatened.
5. Maternal medical conditions: Certain medical conditions, such as diabetes or hypertension, can increase the risk of threatened abortion.
6. Smoking and drug use: Smoking and using drugs can increase the risk of threatened abortion by reducing blood flow to the developing fetus.
7. Poor prenatal care: Lack of proper prenatal care can increase the risk of threatened abortion by not detecting potential complications early on.
Signs and Symptoms of Threatened Abortion:
The signs and symptoms of threatened abortion can vary depending on the individual, but they may include:
1. Vaginal bleeding: This is the most common sign of threatened abortion and can range from light spotting to heavy bleeding.
2. Cramping: Women may experience mild to severe cramps in the lower abdomen.
3. Passing tissue or clots: Women may pass tissue or clots through the vagina, which can be a sign of a threatened abortion.
4. Decreased fetal movement: If the fetus is not developing properly, women may notice a decrease in fetal movement.
5. Premature contractions: Women may experience premature contractions, which can indicate a threatened abortion.
6. Cervical dilation: The cervix may begin to dilate before labor, which can be a sign of a threatened abortion.
7. Changes in vaginal discharge: Women may notice changes in their vaginal discharge, such as an increase in amount or a change in color or consistency.
Diagnosis and Treatment of Threatened Abortion:
If you suspect that you are experiencing a threatened abortion, it is essential to seek medical attention immediately. Your healthcare provider will perform a physical examination and may order additional tests, such as an ultrasound or blood tests, to confirm the diagnosis.
Treatment for a threatened abortion depends on the underlying cause and the stage of pregnancy. Your healthcare provider may recommend:
1. Bed rest: Women who are experiencing a threatened abortion may be advised to rest in bed and avoid strenuous activities.
2. Medication: In some cases, medication may be prescribed to help prevent the abortion from occurring.
3. Corticosteroids: If the fetus is not developing properly, corticosteroids may be given to help mature the fetus's lungs and other organs.
4. Antibiotics: If an infection is suspected, antibiotics may be prescribed to prevent or treat the infection.
5. Hospitalization: In severe cases, women may require hospitalization to monitor their condition and receive appropriate treatment.
6. Surgical intervention: In some cases, surgical intervention may be necessary to remove the fetus or repair any damage to the uterus.
Prevention of Threatened Abortion:
While some cases of threatened abortion cannot be prevented, there are steps that women can take to reduce their risk. These include:
1. Practicing good prenatal care: Regular check-ups with a healthcare provider can help identify any potential issues early on and prevent complications.
2. Avoiding harmful substances: Smoking, drug use, and excessive alcohol consumption can increase the risk of threatened abortion.
3. Maintaining a healthy diet: Eating a balanced diet that is rich in essential nutrients can help support fetal development and reduce the risk of complications.
4. Managing chronic medical conditions: Women with conditions like diabetes, hypertension, or thyroid disorders should work closely with their healthcare provider to manage their condition and prevent any complications.
5. Avoiding stress: High levels of stress can increase the risk of threatened abortion. Engaging in stress-reducing activities, such as exercise, meditation, or therapy, can help reduce stress and promote a healthy pregnancy.
6. Getting regular ultrasounds: Regular ultrasounds can help monitor fetal development and identify any potential issues early on.
In conclusion, threatened abortion is a serious condition that requires prompt medical attention. While some cases cannot be prevented, women can take steps to reduce their risk by practicing good prenatal care, avoiding harmful substances, maintaining a healthy diet, managing chronic medical conditions, avoiding stress, and getting regular ultrasounds. With appropriate treatment, many women who experience threatened abortion can go on to have a healthy pregnancy and a healthy baby.
There are several types of incomplete abortion, including:
1. Missed abortion: In this type, the pregnancy continues despite the attempt to end it. The fetus or embryo may have died, but some tissue remains in the uterus.
2. Incomplete evacuation: This occurs when not all of the contents of the uterus are removed during an abortion procedure.
3. Uterine rupture: This is a rare complication that can occur during pregnancy or labor, where the uterus tears and allows the fetus or embryo to move into the abdominal cavity.
Incomplete abortion can cause several symptoms, including:
* Vaginal bleeding that lasts for more than a few days
* Heavy cramping
* Pain in the lower abdomen
If you suspect that you have experienced an incomplete abortion, it is essential to seek medical attention as soon as possible. A healthcare provider can diagnose the condition by performing an ultrasound or a pelvic exam. Treatment options may include:
1. Surgical evacuation: This involves removing any remaining tissue from the uterus.
2. Medications: Antibiotics and pain medications may be prescribed to manage symptoms.
3. Dilation and curettage (D&C): This is a procedure where the healthcare provider opens the cervix and removes any remaining tissue from the uterus using a special instrument called a curette.
Preventing incomplete abortion is crucial, and it is essential to seek medical attention if you experience any symptoms of pregnancy complications after an attempted abortion. Proper follow-up care can help prevent or diagnose incomplete abortion early, reducing the risk of complications and improving outcomes.
There are different types of fetal death, including:
1. Stillbirth: This refers to the death of a fetus after the 20th week of gestation. It can be caused by various factors, such as infections, placental problems, or umbilical cord compression.
2. Miscarriage: This occurs before the 20th week of gestation and is usually due to chromosomal abnormalities or hormonal imbalances.
3. Ectopic pregnancy: This is a rare condition where the fertilized egg implants outside the uterus, usually in the fallopian tube. It can cause fetal death and is often diagnosed in the early stages of pregnancy.
4. Intrafamilial stillbirth: This refers to the death of two or more fetuses in a multiple pregnancy, usually due to genetic abnormalities or placental problems.
The diagnosis of fetal death is typically made through ultrasound examination or other imaging tests, such as MRI or CT scans. In some cases, the cause of fetal death may be unknown, and further testing and investigation may be required to determine the underlying cause.
There are various ways to manage fetal death, depending on the stage of pregnancy and the cause of the death. In some cases, a vaginal delivery may be necessary, while in others, a cesarean section may be performed. In cases where the fetus has died due to a genetic abnormality, couples may choose to undergo genetic counseling and testing to assess their risk of having another affected pregnancy.
Overall, fetal death is a tragic event that can have significant emotional and psychological impact on parents and families. It is essential to provide compassionate support and care to those affected by this loss, while also ensuring appropriate medical management and follow-up.
Symptoms of a uterine hemorrhage may include:
* Vaginal bleeding that may be heavy or light in flow
* Pain in the lower abdomen
* Pain during sexual activity
* Spotting or bleeding between menstrual periods
* Unusual discharge from the vagina
If you experience any of these symptoms, it is important to seek medical attention as soon as possible. Uterine hemorrhages can be diagnosed through a physical examination and imaging tests such as ultrasound or MRI. Treatment depends on the underlying cause of the bleeding, but may include medications to control bleeding, surgery to remove fibroids or polyps, or hysterectomy in severe cases.
It is important to note that while uterine hemorrhages can be managed with appropriate medical care, they can also be life-threatening if left untreated. Seeking prompt medical attention and following the advice of your healthcare provider are crucial to preventing complications and ensuring a successful outcome.
1. Preeclampsia: A condition characterized by high blood pressure during pregnancy, which can lead to complications such as stroke or premature birth.
2. Gestational diabetes: A type of diabetes that develops during pregnancy, which can cause complications for both the mother and the baby if left untreated.
3. Placenta previa: A condition in which the placenta is located low in the uterus, covering the cervix, which can cause bleeding and other complications.
4. Premature labor: Labor that occurs before 37 weeks of gestation, which can increase the risk of health problems for the baby.
5. Fetal distress: A condition in which the fetus is not getting enough oxygen, which can lead to serious health problems or even death.
6. Postpartum hemorrhage: Excessive bleeding after delivery, which can be life-threatening if left untreated.
7. Cesarean section (C-section) complications: Complications that may arise during a C-section, such as infection or bleeding.
8. Maternal infections: Infections that the mother may contract during pregnancy or childbirth, such as group B strep or urinary tract infections.
9. Preterm birth: Birth that occurs before 37 weeks of gestation, which can increase the risk of health problems for the baby.
10. Chromosomal abnormalities: Genetic disorders that may affect the baby's growth and development, such as Down syndrome or Turner syndrome.
It is important for pregnant women to receive regular prenatal care to monitor for any potential complications and ensure a healthy pregnancy outcome. In some cases, pregnancy complications may require medical interventions, such as hospitalization or surgery, to ensure the safety of both the mother and the baby.
Cattle diseases refer to any health issues that affect cattle, including bacterial, viral, and parasitic infections, as well as genetic disorders and environmental factors. These diseases can have a significant impact on the health and productivity of cattle, as well as the livelihoods of farmers and ranchers who rely on them for their livelihood.
Types of Cattle Diseases
There are many different types of cattle diseases, including:
1. Bacterial diseases, such as brucellosis, anthrax, and botulism.
2. Viral diseases, such as bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) and bluetongue.
3. Parasitic diseases, such as heartwater and gapeworm.
4. Genetic disorders, such as polledness and cleft palate.
5. Environmental factors, such as heat stress and nutritional deficiencies.
Symptoms of Cattle Diseases
The symptoms of cattle diseases can vary depending on the specific disease, but may include:
1. Fever and respiratory problems
2. Diarrhea and vomiting
3. Weight loss and depression
4. Swelling and pain in joints or limbs
5. Discharge from the eyes or nose
6. Coughing or difficulty breathing
7. Lameness or reluctance to move
8. Changes in behavior, such as aggression or lethargy
Diagnosis and Treatment of Cattle Diseases
Diagnosing cattle diseases can be challenging, as the symptoms may be similar for different conditions. However, veterinarians use a combination of physical examination, laboratory tests, and medical history to make a diagnosis. Treatment options vary depending on the specific disease and may include antibiotics, vaccines, anti-inflammatory drugs, and supportive care such as fluids and nutritional supplements.
Prevention of Cattle Diseases
Preventing cattle diseases is essential for maintaining the health and productivity of your herd. Some preventative measures include:
1. Proper nutrition and hydration
2. Regular vaccinations and parasite control
3. Sanitary living conditions and frequent cleaning
4. Monitoring for signs of illness and seeking prompt veterinary care if symptoms arise
5. Implementing biosecurity measures such as isolating sick animals and quarantining new animals before introduction to the herd.
It is important to work closely with a veterinarian to develop a comprehensive health plan for your cattle herd, as they can provide guidance on vaccination schedules, parasite control methods, and disease prevention strategies tailored to your specific needs.
Cattle diseases can have a significant impact on the productivity and profitability of your herd, as well as the overall health of your animals. It is essential to be aware of the common cattle diseases, their symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention methods to ensure the health and well-being of your herd.
By working closely with a veterinarian and implementing preventative measures such as proper nutrition and sanitary living conditions, you can help protect your cattle from disease and maintain a productive and profitable herd. Remember, prevention is key when it comes to managing cattle diseases.
Eimeria species are obligate intracellular parasites that infect the epithelial cells lining the intestinal tract of animals, causing damage to the gut mucosa and leading to diarrhea, vomiting, weight loss, and even death. The disease can be acute or chronic, depending on the severity of the infection and the host's immune response.
There are several species of Eimeria that can infect ruminants, with different species affecting different parts of the intestinal tract. For example, Eimeria bovis and Eimeria zuernii infect the caecum and abomasum, respectively, while Eimeria ellipsoidalis and Eimeria falciformis infect the small intestine.
Coccidiosis is typically diagnosed through fecal examination, where the presence of oocysts (eggs) in the feces is indicative of an infection. Treatment options include anticoccidial drugs, which can be administered orally or parenterally, and supportive care to manage symptoms such as diarrhea and dehydration.
Prevention is key to managing coccidiosis, and this includes the use of vaccines, cleanliness and hygiene practices, and controlling the parasite's environmental survival. In some cases, a combination of these methods may be necessary to effectively prevent and control coccidiosis in ruminant populations.
* Severe abdominal pain, often on one side of the abdomen
* Vaginal bleeding, which may be heavy or light
* Faintness or dizziness
* Shoulder pain or a sense of heaviness in the shoulder
* Feeling faint or lightheaded
An ectopic pregnancy occurs when a fertilized egg implants outside the uterus, usually in the fallopian tube. This can happen due to various reasons such as pelvic inflammatory disease, previous surgery, or abnormalities in the shape of the uterus or fallopian tubes. If left untreated, an ectopic pregnancy can lead to severe bleeding, organ damage, and even death.
There are several methods for diagnosing an ectopic pregnancy, including:
* Ultrasound: This test uses high-frequency sound waves to create images of the uterus and surrounding tissues. It can help identify the location of the pregnancy and detect any abnormalities.
* Blood tests: These tests can measure the levels of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), a hormone produced by the placenta during pregnancy. In an ectopic pregnancy, the level of hCG may be lower than expected.
* Laparoscopy: This is a minimally invasive surgical procedure that involves inserting a thin, lighted tube through a small incision in the abdomen to visualize the pelvic organs. It can help confirm the diagnosis and locate the ectopic pregnancy.
Treatment for an ectopic pregnancy usually involves medication or surgery, depending on the severity of the condition. Medications such as methotrexate can be used to dissolve the pregnancy tissue and allow it to pass out of the body. Surgery may be necessary if the pregnancy is not responding to medication or if there are any complications. In some cases, the fallopian tube may need to be removed if it is severely damaged or if there is a risk of further damage.
Preventive measures for ectopic pregnancy include:
* Using contraception: Using a reliable form of contraception can help prevent unintended pregnancies, which can reduce the risk of an ectopic pregnancy.
* Avoiding risky behaviors: Avoiding risky sexual behaviors such as unprotected sex and multiple partners can help reduce the risk of infection and other complications that can lead to an ectopic pregnancy.
* Getting regular pelvic exams: Regular pelvic exams can help detect any abnormalities or changes in the reproductive organs, which can help identify any potential problems early on.
It is important to note that while these measures can help reduce the risk of an ectopic pregnancy, they are not foolproof and there is always a risk of complications during any pregnancy. If you suspect you may be experiencing an ectopic pregnancy or have any other concerns, it is important to seek medical attention right away.
Sheep diseases can be caused by a variety of factors, including bacteria, viruses, parasites, and environmental factors. Here are some common sheep diseases and their meanings:
1. Scrapie: A fatal neurological disorder that affects sheep and goats, caused by a prion.
2. Ovine Progressive Pneumonia (OPP): A contagious respiratory disease caused by Mycobacterium ovipneumoniae.
3. Maedi-Visna: A slow-progressing pneumonia caused by a retrovirus, which can lead to OPP.
4. Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD): A highly contagious viral disease that affects cloven-hoofed animals, including sheep and goats.
5. Bloat: A condition caused by gas accumulation in the rumen, which can lead to abdominal pain and death if not treated promptly.
6. Pneumonia: An inflammation of the lungs, often caused by bacteria or viruses.
7. Cryptosporidiosis: A diarrheal disease caused by Cryptosporidium parvum, which can be fatal in young lambs.
8. Babesiosis: A blood parasitic disease caused by Babesia oviparasites, which can lead to anemia and death if left untreated.
9. Fascioliasis: A liver fluke infection that can cause anemia, jaundice, and liver damage.
10. Anthrax: A serious bacterial disease caused by Bacillus anthracis, which can be fatal if left untreated.
Sheep diseases can have a significant impact on the health and productivity of flocks, as well as the economy of sheep farming. It is important for sheep farmers to be aware of these diseases and take appropriate measures to prevent and control them.
There are several types of placenta diseases that can occur during pregnancy, including:
1. Placenta previa: This is a condition in which the placenta partially or completely covers the cervix, which can cause bleeding and other complications.
2. Placental abruption: This is a condition in which the placenta separates from the uterus, which can cause bleeding and can lead to premature delivery.
3. Placental invasion: This is a condition in which the placenta grows into the muscle of the uterus, which can cause complications during delivery.
4. Placental insufficiency: This is a condition in which the placenta does not function properly, which can lead to growth restriction and other complications.
5. Chorioamnionitis: This is an infection of the placenta and amniotic fluid, which can cause fever, chills, and other symptoms.
6. Placental tumors: These are rare growths that can occur on the placenta during pregnancy.
7. Placental blood clots: These are blood clots that can form in the placenta, which can cause complications such as preterm labor and delivery.
8. Preeclampsia: This is a condition that causes high blood pressure and other symptoms during pregnancy, which can lead to complications such as placental abruption and preterm delivery.
9. Gestational diabetes: This is a type of diabetes that occurs during pregnancy, which can increase the risk of placenta diseases.
10. Hypertension: This is high blood pressure during pregnancy, which can increase the risk of placenta diseases such as preeclampsia and placental abruption.
11. Multiple births: Women who are carrying multiple babies (twins, triplets, etc.) may be at higher risk for placenta diseases due to the increased demands on the placenta.
12. Age: Women who are over 35 years old may be at higher risk for placenta diseases due to age-related changes in the placenta and other factors.
13. Obesity: Women who are obese may be at higher risk for placenta diseases due to increased inflammation and other factors.
14. Smoking: Smoking during pregnancy can increase the risk of placenta diseases due to the harmful effects of smoking on the placenta and other organs.
15. Poor prenatal care: Women who do not receive adequate prenatal care may be at higher risk for placenta diseases due to lack of monitoring and treatment.
16. Medical conditions: Certain medical conditions, such as high blood pressure, diabetes, and kidney disease, can increase the risk of placenta diseases.
17. Infections: Women who develop infections during pregnancy, such as group B strep or urinary tract infections, may be at higher risk for placenta diseases.
18. Previous history of placenta problems: Women who have had previous complications with the placenta, such as placenta previa or placental abruption, may be at higher risk for placenta diseases in future pregnancies.
It's important to note that many women who experience one or more of these risk factors will not develop placenta diseases, and some women who do develop placenta diseases may not have any known risk factors. If you have any concerns about your health or your baby's health during pregnancy, it is important to discuss them with your healthcare provider.
1. Group B streptococcus (GBS): This type of bacterial infection is the leading cause of infections in newborns. GBS can cause a range of complications, including pneumonia, meningitis, and sepsis.
2. Urinary tract infections (UTIs): These are common during pregnancy and can be caused by bacteria such as Escherichia coli (E. coli) or Staphylococcus saprophyticus. UTIs can lead to complications such as preterm labor and low birth weight.
3. HIV: Pregnant women who are infected with HIV can pass the virus to their baby during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding.
4. Toxoplasmosis: This is an infection caused by a parasite that can be transmitted to the fetus through the placenta. Toxoplasmosis can cause a range of complications, including birth defects and stillbirth.
5. Listeriosis: This is a rare infection caused by eating contaminated food, such as soft cheeses or hot dogs. Listeriosis can cause complications such as miscarriage, stillbirth, and premature labor.
6. Influenza: Pregnant women who contract the flu can be at higher risk for complications such as pneumonia and hospitalization.
7. Herpes simplex virus (HSV): This virus can cause complications such as preterm labor, low birth weight, and neonatal herpes.
8. Human parvovirus (HPV): This virus can cause complications such as preterm labor, low birth weight, and stillbirth.
9. Syphilis: This is a sexually transmitted infection that can be passed to the fetus during pregnancy, leading to complications such as stillbirth, premature birth, and congenital syphilis.
10. Chickenpox: Pregnant women who contract chickenpox can be at higher risk for complications such as preterm labor and low birth weight.
It's important to note that the risks associated with these infections are relatively low, and many pregnant women who contract them will have healthy pregnancies and healthy babies. However, it's still important to be aware of the risks and take steps to protect yourself and your baby.
Here are some ways to reduce your risk of infection during pregnancy:
1. Practice good hygiene: Wash your hands frequently, especially before preparing or eating food.
2. Avoid certain foods: Avoid consuming raw or undercooked meat, eggs, and dairy products, as well as unpasteurized juices and soft cheeses.
3. Get vaccinated: Get vaccinated against infections such as the flu and HPV.
4. Practice safe sex: Use condoms or other forms of barrier protection to prevent the spread of STIs.
5. Avoid close contact with people who are sick: If someone in your household is sick, try to avoid close contact with them if possible.
6. Keep your environment clean: Regularly clean and disinfect surfaces and objects that may be contaminated with germs.
7. Manage stress: High levels of stress can weaken your immune system and make you more susceptible to infection.
8. Get enough rest: Adequate sleep is essential for maintaining a healthy immune system.
9. Stay hydrated: Drink plenty of water throughout the day to help flush out harmful bacteria and viruses.
10. Consider taking prenatal vitamins: Prenatal vitamins can help support your immune system and overall health during pregnancy.
Remember, it's always better to be safe than sorry, so if you suspect that you may have been exposed to an infection or are experiencing symptoms of an infection during pregnancy, contact your healthcare provider right away. They can help determine the appropriate course of action and ensure that you and your baby stay healthy.
Congenital Abnormalities are relatively common, and they affect approximately 1 in every 30 children born worldwide. Some of the most common types of Congenital Abnormalities include:
Heart Defects: These are abnormalities that affect the structure or function of the heart. They can range from mild to severe and can be caused by genetics, viral infections, or other factors. Examples include holes in the heart, narrowed valves, and enlarged heart chambers.
Neural Tube Defects: These are abnormalities that affect the brain and spine. They occur when the neural tube, which forms the brain and spine, does not close properly during fetal development. Examples include anencephaly (absence of a major portion of the brain), spina bifida (incomplete closure of the spine), and encephalocele (protrusion of the brain or meninges through a skull defect).
Chromosomal Abnormalities: These are changes in the number or structure of chromosomes that can affect physical and mental development. Examples include Down syndrome (an extra copy of chromosome 21), Turner syndrome (a missing or partially deleted X chromosome), and Klinefelter syndrome (an extra X chromosome).
Other types of Congenital Abnormalities include cleft lip and palate, clubfoot, and polydactyly (extra fingers or toes).
Congenital Abnormalities can be diagnosed before birth through prenatal testing such as ultrasound, blood tests, and amniocentesis. After birth, they can be diagnosed through physical examination, imaging studies, and genetic testing. Treatment for Congenital Abnormalities varies depending on the type and severity of the condition, and may include surgery, medication, and other forms of therapy. In some cases, the abnormality may be minor and may not require any treatment, while in other cases, it may be more severe and may require ongoing medical care throughout the person's life.
Some common horse diseases include:
1. Equine Influenza (EI): A highly contagious respiratory disease caused by the equine influenza virus. It can cause fever, coughing, and nasal discharge.
2. Strangles: A bacterial infection of the lymph nodes, which can cause swelling of the neck and difficulty breathing.
3. West Nile Virus (WNV): A viral infection that can cause fever, weakness, and loss of coordination. It is transmitted by mosquitoes and can be fatal in some cases.
4. Tetanus: A bacterial infection caused by Clostridium tetani, which can cause muscle stiffness, spasms, and rigidity.
5. Rabies: A viral infection that affects the central nervous system and can be fatal if left untreated. It is transmitted through the saliva of infected animals, usually through a bite.
6. Cushing's Disease: A hormonal disorder caused by an overproduction of cortisol, which can cause weight gain, muscle wasting, and other health issues.
7. Laminitis: An inflammation of the laminae, the tissues that connect the hoof to the bone. It can be caused by obesity, overeating, or excessive exercise.
8. Navicular Syndrome: A condition that affects the navicular bone and surrounding tissue, causing pain and lameness in the foot.
9. Pneumonia: An inflammation of the lungs, which can be caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungi.
10. Colic: A general term for abdominal pain, which can be caused by a variety of factors, including gas, impaction, or twisting of the intestines.
These are just a few examples of the many potential health issues that can affect horses. Regular veterinary care and proper management can help prevent many of these conditions, and early diagnosis and treatment can improve the chances of a successful outcome.
1. Caprine arthritis-encephalitis (CAE): A viral disease that affects the joints and central nervous system of goats.
2. Caseous lymphadenitis (CLA): A bacterial infection that causes abscesses in the lymph nodes and other organs.
3. Contagious ecthyma (Orf): A viral disease that causes skin lesions and scarring.
4. Goat pox: A viral disease that causes fever, weakness, and skin lesions.
5. Pneumonia: A bacterial or viral infection of the lungs that can be caused by a variety of pathogens.
6. Scabies: A parasitic infestation that causes skin irritation and hair loss.
7. Tetanus: A neurological disorder caused by a bacterial toxin that affects muscle contractions.
8. Toxoplasmosis: A parasitic infection that can cause fever, anemia, and other symptoms in goats.
9. Urinary tract infections (UTIs): Bacterial infections of the urinary system that can affect both male and female goats.
10. Vitamin deficiencies: Deficiencies in vitamins such as vitamin A, D, or E can cause a range of health problems in goats, including skin conditions, poor appetite, and weakness.
Goat diseases can be diagnosed through physical examination, laboratory tests, and imaging studies. Treatment depends on the specific disease and may involve antibiotics, antiviral medications, or supportive care such as fluid therapy and nutritional supplements. Prevention is key in managing goat diseases, and this includes maintaining good hygiene, providing clean water and a balanced diet, and vaccinating goats against common diseases.
There are different types of uterine perforation, including:
1. Cervical perforation: A tear in the cervix, which is the lower part of the uterus that opens into the vagina.
2. Uterine wall perforation: A tear or hole in the muscular wall of the uterus, which can be caused by instruments used during surgery or delivery.
3. Endometrial perforation: A tear in the lining of the uterus (endometrium), which is more common during invasive procedures such as hysteroscopy or endometrial ablation.
Symptoms of uterine perforation may include:
* Severe abdominal pain
* Heavy vaginal bleeding
* Nausea and vomiting
If you suspect that you have a uterine perforation, it is essential to seek medical attention immediately. Your healthcare provider will perform a physical examination and order imaging tests such as ultrasound or CT scan to confirm the diagnosis and determine the extent of the damage. Treatment options may include:
1. Observation: In mild cases, the body may be able to heal on its own without any intervention.
2. Surgery: Depending on the severity of the perforation, surgical repair or removal of the damaged tissue may be necessary.
3. Antibiotics: If there is an infection, antibiotics will be prescribed to treat it.
4. Blood transfusions: In cases where there is significant bleeding, blood transfusions may be required.
Prevention of uterine perforation is crucial, and it involves proper training and use of instruments during surgery or delivery, as well as careful monitoring of the patient's condition during these procedures.
The term 'fetal resorption' was first introduced by German anatomist and physiologist Karl Ludwig in the late 19th century. Since then, it has been extensively studied in the field of obstetrics and gynecology, and is widely recognized as a critical aspect of fetal development.
Fetal resorption can be observed during ultrasound examinations, where it appears as a decrease in the size of the placenta and umbilical cord over time. This process typically begins around 12 weeks of gestation and continues until about 20 weeks, when the fetus is able to sustain itself without relying on the mother's nutrients and oxygen.
While fetal resorption is a normal and necessary process during pregnancy, there are certain complications that can arise if it occurs too early or too late in pregnancy. For example, if the process begins too early, it can lead to a condition known as 'fetal growth restriction,' where the fetus does not receive enough nutrients and oxygen to grow and develop properly. On the other hand, if the process continues too long, it can result in a condition known as 'macrosomia,' where the fetus becomes too large for the mother's body to safely deliver.
In summary, fetal resorption is a critical aspect of fetal development that occurs during pregnancy, where the developing fetus absorbs nutrients and oxygen from the mother's body, resulting in a decrease in the size of the placenta and umbilical cord. While it is a normal process, there are certain complications that can arise if it occurs too early or too late in pregnancy.
1. Complete Hydatidiform Mole (CHM): This type of mole is characterized by the presence of multiple cysts filled with fluid (hydropic change) in the uterus. It is usually associated with an abnormal fertilization of an egg by two sperms, resulting in a diploid fetus with 46 chromosomes.
2. Partial Hydatidiform Mole (PHM): This type of mole is characterized by the presence of only a few cysts filled with fluid in the uterus. It is usually associated with an abnormal fertilization of an egg by one sperm, resulting in a diploid fetus with 46 chromosomes.
Hydatidiform moles are usually asymptomatic, but they can cause symptoms such as vaginal bleeding, pelvic pain, and enlargement of the uterus. They are typically diagnosed through ultrasound examination and blood tests that measure the levels of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) hormone in the body.
Treatment options for hydatidiform moles depend on the severity of the condition and may include:
1. Watchful waiting: In some cases, doctors may choose to monitor the patient's condition closely without immediate treatment.
2. Medication: Hydatidiform moles can be treated with medications that stimulate menstruation and induce abortion.
3. Surgery: In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove the molar tissue from the uterus.
4. Hysterectomy: If the mole is not removed, it can lead to complications such as excessive bleeding or infection, which may require a hysterectomy (removal of the uterus).
It is important for women who have had a hydatidiform mole to receive close monitoring and follow-up care from their healthcare provider to ensure that any future pregnancies are closely monitored and managed appropriately. In some cases, women who have had a hydatidiform mole may be at higher risk for complications in future pregnancies, such as placenta previa or placental abruption.
Some common examples of drug-induced abnormalities include:
1. Allergic reactions: Some drugs can cause an allergic reaction, which can lead to symptoms such as hives, itching, swelling, and difficulty breathing.
2. Side effects: Many drugs can cause side effects, such as nausea, dizziness, and fatigue, which can be mild or severe.
3. Toxic reactions: Some drugs can cause toxic reactions, which can damage the body's organs and tissues.
4. Autoimmune disorders: Certain drugs can trigger autoimmune disorders, such as lupus or rheumatoid arthritis, which can cause a range of symptoms including joint pain, fatigue, and skin rashes.
5. Gastrointestinal problems: Some drugs can cause gastrointestinal problems, such as stomach ulcers, diarrhea, or constipation.
6. Neurological disorders: Certain drugs can cause neurological disorders, such as seizures, tremors, and changes in mood or behavior.
7. Cardiovascular problems: Some drugs can increase the risk of cardiovascular problems, such as heart attack or stroke.
8. Metabolic changes: Certain drugs can cause metabolic changes, such as weight gain or loss, and changes in blood sugar levels.
9. Endocrine disorders: Some drugs can affect the body's endocrine system, leading to hormonal imbalances and a range of symptoms including changes in mood, energy levels, and sexual function.
10. Kidney damage: Certain drugs can cause kidney damage or failure, especially in people with pre-existing kidney problems.
It's important to note that not all drugs will cause side effects, and the severity of side effects can vary depending on the individual and the specific drug being taken. However, it's important to be aware of the potential risks associated with any medication you are taking, and to discuss any concerns or questions you have with your healthcare provider.
Causes of Female Infertility
There are several potential causes of female infertility, including:
1. Hormonal imbalances: Disorders such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), thyroid dysfunction, and premature ovarian failure can affect hormone levels and ovulation.
2. Ovulatory disorders: Problems with ovulation, such as anovulation or oligoovulation, can make it difficult to conceive.
3. Tubal damage: Damage to the fallopian tubes due to pelvic inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy, or surgery can prevent the egg from traveling through the tube and being fertilized.
4. Endometriosis: This condition occurs when tissue similar to the lining of the uterus grows outside of the uterus, causing inflammation and scarring that can lead to infertility.
5. Fibroids: Noncancerous growths in the uterus can interfere with implantation of a fertilized egg or disrupt ovulation.
6. Pelvic adhesions: Scar tissue in the pelvis can cause fallopian tubes to become damaged or blocked, making it difficult for an egg to travel through the tube and be fertilized.
7. Uterine or cervical abnormalities: Abnormalities such as a bicornuate uterus or a narrow cervix can make it difficult for a fertilized egg to implant in the uterus.
8. Age: A woman's age can affect her fertility, as the quality and quantity of her eggs decline with age.
9. Lifestyle factors: Factors such as smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and being overweight or underweight can affect fertility.
10. Stress: Chronic stress can disrupt hormone levels and ovulation, making it more difficult to conceive.
It's important to note that many of these factors can be treated with medical assistance, such as medication, surgery, or assisted reproductive technology (ART) like in vitro fertilization (IVF). If you are experiencing difficulty getting pregnant, it is recommended that you speak with a healthcare provider to determine the cause of your infertility and discuss potential treatment options.
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Threatened abortion?? | BabyCenter
Trump Administration Threatens California Over Mandate That Insurers Cover Abortion : NPR
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24.06.2022 - Pro-abortion group threatens 'night of rage' in anticipation of abortion ruling
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flip news & latest pictures from Newsweek.com
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What to know about Trump's CNN town hall: Lies about election and abortion, attacks on accuser | WTNH.com
Psychological care during prenatal attendance: abortion threaten and long-term hospitalization
Miscarriage - threatened: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia
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Religion - Capitol Hill Blue
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abortion on demand Articles - Breitbart
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Pregnant Travelers | CDC Yellow Book 2024
- The threat comes on the same day Trump addressed an anti-abortion rights march. (npr.org)
- Just hours before President Trump addressed thousands of anti-abortion rights activists at the annual March for Life in Washington, D.C., his administration has given its attendees reason to cheer. (npr.org)
- Denise Harle, an attorney for the group that filed the Texas lawsuit on behalf of anti-abortion doctors and health care organizations, said they aren't challenging uses of the drug beyond abortion. (wreg.com)
- A Texas federal judge with a history of anti-abortion beliefs has thrown into jeopardy the most common form of abortion since Roe v. Wade fell last summer. (juancole.com)
- And his critics accused the anti-abortion group that filed this lawsuit of judge shopping. (wuky.org)
- Abortion rights campaigners and anti-abortion demonstrators hold signs during the annual "March for Life" for the first time since the U.S. Supreme Court overturned Roe v Wade abortion decision, in Washington, U.S. January 20, 2023. (ibtimes.com)
- The vote presented a direct threat to the GOP's gubernatorial candidate-who is not only anti-abortion, but a proponent of the failed constitutional amendment. (newsweek.com)
- Philips, who used the drug Mifepristone to manage her miscarriage, is concerned that other women who miscarry could suffer if the pill, also used for abortions, is taken off the market. (wreg.com)
- Additionally, doctors worry this ruling could have serious health consequences for women experiencing miscarriage, which can be life-threatening. (juancole.com)
- The language of the reproductive rights initiative submitted in May is four paragraphs long, and sought to guarantee every individual a "fundamental right to reproductive freedom," which it defined as power over all matters relating to pregnancy such as prenatal care, childbirth, postpartum care, contraception, sterilization, abortion, and decisions made about how to handle miscarriage and infertility. (tucsonsentinel.com)
- We'll hear of women who died of infection because they couldn't access a timely abortion following a miscarriage. (indianahousedemocrats.org)
- A threatened miscarriage is a condition that indicates the potential for a miscarriage or early pregnancy loss. (medlineplus.gov)
- When the symptoms indicate a miscarriage is possible, the condition is called a "threatened abortion. (medlineplus.gov)
- Small falls, injuries or stress during the first trimester of pregnancy can cause threatened miscarriage. (medlineplus.gov)
- If abdominal cramps occur in the absence of significant bleeding, consult your health care provider to check for other problems besides threatened miscarriage. (medlineplus.gov)
- Most women with a threatened miscarriage go on to have a normal pregnancy. (medlineplus.gov)
- If you know you are (or are likely to be) pregnant and you have any symptoms of threatened miscarriage, contact your prenatal provider right away. (medlineplus.gov)
- The ruling by a U.S. federal judge to revoke longstanding U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval of the abortion pill mifepristone poses threats to U.S. government regulatory authority that could go far beyond one drug , The New York Times explains. (statnews.com)
- Mifepristone was approved in 2000 for early abortions but it is often used "off label" to treat early pregnancy loss or to speed up delivery when a fetus dies later in pregnancy. (wreg.com)
- U.S. District Judge Matthew J. Kacsmaryk released his decision on the cusp of Easter weekend to pause the Food and Drug Administration's 2000 approval of the abortion drug mifepristone while a lawsuit against the agency proceeds. (juancole.com)
- As of 2020, use of mifepristone in conjunction with the drug misoprostol accounted for more than half of abortions nationwide. (juancole.com)
- Nisen said about half of her patients seeking abortion use the mifepristone and misoprostol combination rather than a surgical procedure. (juancole.com)
- MCCAMMON: Yeah, it's about an abortion pill called mifepristone and whether or not the drug can stay on the market. (wuky.org)
- House Bill (HB) 2690 seeks to prevent the sale and distribution of abortion pills like Mifepristone and misoprostol, but it doesn't stop there. (eff.org)
- Mifepristone is one of two pills used in medication abortions, along with misoprostol. (wgntv.com)
- Legal challenges to the FDA's approval of mifepristone have destabilized patients ' ability to access controversial medicines like medication abortion . (bvsalud.org)
- But in the eight months since Roe v. Wade was overturned and the FDA loosened certain regulations, the prevalence of medication abortion regimen has expanded, especially for women living in one of the 13 states that currently fully or mostly ban abortion. (juancole.com)
- This law threatens pregnant people's ability to choose whether to carry a pregnancy to term in the United States, a right established by the Roe v. Wade decision in 1973. (dailycal.org)
- While there have been challenges to Roe v. Wade in intervening years, and some states have placed limits on how women can access abortion services, Roe v. Wade stands as the legal basis for access to pregnancy termination in the United States. (dailycal.org)
- Just weeks after the Roe v. Wade ruling was leaked in early May, Arizonans for Reproductive Freedom launched an initiative for the 2022 ballot to codify abortion protections in Arizona. (tucsonsentinel.com)
- Fast-forward to this week's leak from the Supreme Court signaling it's set to overturn Roe vs. Wade, abortion providers like Pittman are steeling themselves for these sorts of scenes to begin playing out across the country. (usf.edu)
- Trump's appearance at the March for Life marked the first time a sitting president has appeared in person at the event since it was organized decades ago to protest the Supreme Court's landmark decision in Roe v. Wade that legalized abortion nationwide. (kwit.org)
- A pro-abortion group in the US has threatened a "night of rage" when the Supreme Court issues its ruling that could see the overturning of Roe v Wade, the 1973 decision that legalised abortion across the United States. (prolifecampaign.ie)
- The radical abortion supporting group Jane's Revenge, which claimed responsibility for some of the more than 50 attacks (including firebombings) on pro-life offices since May, has been busy in recent days distributing flyers around Washington DC and across the country declaring that looting, burning and rioting will ensue if the Supreme Court dismantles Roe v Wade. (prolifecampaign.ie)
- The new abortion controversy comes less than a year after the Supreme Court's conservative majority overturned Roe v. Wade and allowed more than a dozen states to effectively ban abortion outright. (wgntv.com)
- A Texas federal judge is hearing arguments this morning in a case that could limit access to a drug widely used for medication abortions. (wuky.org)
- Seven (17%) of the women had previously had spontaneous abortions. (cdc.gov)
- There were three spontaneous abortions and one neonatal death. (cdc.gov)
- 1. [Recurrent spontaneous abortions]. (nih.gov)
- 4. [Statistical analysis of possible causes of repeated spontaneous abortions]. (nih.gov)
- 5. Chromosomal analysis in Japanese couples with repeated spontaneous abortions. (nih.gov)
- 6. [Repeated spontaneous abortions: discussion on its etiologies]. (nih.gov)
- 8. Survey of 1120 Japanese women with a history of recurrent spontaneous abortions. (nih.gov)
- 14. [Analysis of genetic etiology and related factors in 1 065 women with spontaneous abortions]. (nih.gov)
- 18. Chromosomal findings in 164 couples with repeated spontaneous abortions: with special consideration to prior reproductive history. (nih.gov)
- But the path to the 2024 ballot is threatened by three measures on the 2022 ballot placed there by Republican state legislators that will introduce new hurdles for Arizonans hoping to pass their own laws if voters approve them this month. (tucsonsentinel.com)
- and Federal Guidance on Abortion - Medscape - Jul 15, 2022. (medscape.com)
- Speaking at a Center for Reproductive Rights rally Wednesday outside the Supreme Court as the nine justices heard an aborton case, Schumer warned Justices Neil Gorsuch and Brett Kavanaugh by name that they had "released the whirlwind" and "will pay the price" if they rule the wrong way on abortion, adding that they "won't know what hit you. (dailysignal.com)
- The initiative , proposed by Ohioans for Reproductive Freedom - a coalition of eight pro-abortion and LGBT groups - and Ohio Physicians for Reproductive Rights, would ensconce abortion under the premise that "every individual has a right" to ending life in the womb and other "reproductive decisions. (thefederalist.com)
- By manipulating the tax code to punish individuals and small businesses who purchase plans that cover abortion, it could end abortion coverage in the private market and threaten the health and economic security of women and their families. (nwlc.org)
- In 25 states and the District of Columbia, insurance companies can decide for themselves whether or not to cover abortion, and many plans in the ACA marketplaces in those states are choosing to cover abortion in order to be responsive to the needs of their consumers. (nwlc.org)
- The ACA Repeal Bill could put these states - and others that are considering such requirements - in a bind: either allow plans not to cover abortion in violation of state law or force small businesses and residents in the state to forgo tax credits available to others. (nwlc.org)
- Already providers around the country have reported that their state's restrictive abortion laws have forced them to turn away pregnant patients even if they're experiencing, or at risk for, serious health complications. (juancole.com)
- This is affirmed in the state constitution that a pregnant person has the right to choose abortion until fetal viability and after that point in order to protect the pregnant person's own life or health. (dailycal.org)
- If this new standard endures, it will shift the legal consideration of how to weigh the rights of a pregnant person with the rights of an embryo, ultimately threatening the California law. (dailycal.org)
- The ballot initiative claims abortion could still be banned by the Ohio legislature after fetal viability, which occurs around 20 weeks gestation, but carved out an exception for any abortions deemed necessary by a doctor to "protect the pregnant patient's life or health. (thefederalist.com)
- Since the diagnosis of high-risk pregnancy, it was necessary for the pregnant woman to remain hospitalized, in absolute rest, in order to avoid a late abortion or a premature birth. (bvsalud.org)
- Vaginal bleeding occurs in almost all threatened miscarriages. (medlineplus.gov)
- In early September, the U.S. Supreme Court refused to block the implementation of a Texas law (SB8) that criminalizes abortion starting from the moment cardiac electrical activity in the embryo is detected, about the sixth week of pregnancy. (dailycal.org)
- In California, private insurers must offer coverage for pregnancy termination, and Medicaid funds can be used to pay for abortions. (dailycal.org)
- We heard from women who went through the heartbreaking experience of losing a wanted pregnancy whose health and lives were saved by access to abortion services. (indianahousedemocrats.org)
- Additional guidance reminded hospitals that doctors have to provide stabilizing treatment for patients with emergency medical conditions, which could include an abortion for a life-threatening pregnancy issue, under federal law. (medscape.com)
- Statistics show that abortion bans raise the national maternal mortality rate, and like many facets of our national health care systems, Black women are again disproportionally impacted. (indianahousedemocrats.org)
- We'll also hear about women who were left infertile - or lost their lives - trying to access a back alley abortion, because the statistics are clear: abortion bans don't prevent abortions, they prevent safe abortions. (indianahousedemocrats.org)
- Abortion bans violate the rights to be free from violence, to privacy, to family, to health, and even the right to life. (hrw.org)
- FLORIDO: Many of those calls were coming from Texas just next door because Texas had just banned abortion for pregnancies older than six weeks. (usf.edu)
- Unintended or problem pregnancies are by definition unplanned, which means that even if such plans existed, women would rarely purchase separate abortion coverage in anticipation of these circumstances. (nwlc.org)
- 15. A prospective study of 63 couples with a history of recurrent spontaneous abortion: contributing factors and outcome of subsequent pregnancies. (nih.gov)
- On Friday, the Trump administration suggested some of California's federal funds could be in jeopardy over the state's requirement that insurers cover abortions. (npr.org)
- Make no mistake, this action against CA is just one more attempt to chip away at women's rights & access to abortion. (npr.org)
- The high court was hearing arguments in a case involving a Louisiana law requiring that doctors who perform abortions at clinics have admitting privileges at a nearby hospital. (dailysignal.com)
- But for many, it's the only accessible abortion method, given how abortion clinics are now scattered across the country and separated by vast distances, and many of them don't offer the surgical procedure. (juancole.com)
- Access to clinics providing abortions is protected by the state. (dailycal.org)
- Large hematomas, which strip at least 30-40% of placenta away from endometrium, may enlarge further, compressing the gestational sac and leading to premature rupture of membranes with consequent spontaneous abortion. (medscape.com)
- Any delay in abortion care is unnecessary and cruel, and it's a dangerous precedent to deny access to a safe medication that science tells us is safe," said Dr. Mollie Nisen, a family physician and abortion provider in Washington state. (juancole.com)
- An initiative to protect abortion access planned for the 2024 ballot may face an uphill battle if voters approve a series of initiatives this year that critics say make it easier for legislators to reject citizen-led changes. (tucsonsentinel.com)
- Your clinic is in Granite City, Ill., just about 10 minutes from the Missouri border, where abortion access has already been quite restricted. (usf.edu)
- Making sure abortion remains safe and legal is also ensuring that women have access to potentially life-saving medical treatment if they should need it. (indianahousedemocrats.org)
- They also include access to legal and safe abortion. (hrw.org)
- Texas State Representative Steve Toth recently introduced a bill that targets the most viable form of safe and effective abortion access today- medication abortion . (eff.org)
- By restricting access to certain information online, the bill seeks to prevent people from learning about abortion drugs, or even being aware of their existence. (eff.org)
- HB 2690 would require ISPs to "make every reasonable and technologically feasible effort to block Internet access to information or material intended to assist or facilitate efforts to obtain an elective abortion or an abortion-inducing drug. (eff.org)
- An "interactive computer service" can also be sued if it "allows residents of [Texas] to access information or material that assists or facilitates efforts to obtain elective abortions or abortion-inducing drugs. (eff.org)
- The bill encourages people to notify ISPs of abortion-related content and "request that the provider block access to the information or material. (eff.org)
- The obvious goal of this bill is to restrict access to information about abortion medications online. (eff.org)
- Vice President Kamala Harris will host the third meeting of the Task Force on Reproductive Healthcare Access, an interagency group that has taken on added meaning in the wake of a federal judge's decision on Friday to suspend the Food and Drug Administration's 23-year-old approval of a key abortion drug. (ibtimes.com)
- The Federal Government issued guidelines aimed at protecting abortion access . (medscape.com)
- It would also systematically incentivize people and companies to silence anyone who wants to speak about abortion pills. (eff.org)
- The Office of Civil Rights, a division of the Department of Health and Human Services, announced Friday that it is taking action against California for requiring private insurers to cover abortions. (npr.org)
- The ACA Repeal Bill incentivizes insurers to exclude abortion coverage from their insurance plans in order to accept customers who receive the tax credits. (nwlc.org)
- The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) on Wednesday will propose a new rule prohibiting healthcare providers and insurers from sharing private health information if that information will be used to investigate someone for accessing or providing reproductive care, including abortion. (ibtimes.com)
- Ohio law currently states voters can amend the state constitution with only a simple majority vote, something that abortion activists desperately want to keep ahead of the expected vote on the abortion amendment in November. (thefederalist.com)
- One advertisement from Protect Women Ohio specifically asserts that the amendment's language barring the state from interfering with an individual's "right to make and carry out one's own reproductive decisions" could easily "cut" parents "out of the biggest decision" of their child's life, including abortion or even the deforming genital surgeries and chemical castration that transgender activists promote to vulnerable teens. (thefederalist.com)
- If Roe is overturned, about a dozen states would ban abortions immediately, with others likely to follow, so we wanted to check in with some abortion-rights advocates to see what the past few days have been like and how they're preparing for what might come next. (usf.edu)
- You were surrounded by other abortion-rights advocates, and I'm wondering what that moment was like. (usf.edu)
- Still, Trump has made no secret of his frustrations with California, which has repeatedly butted heads with his administration - not only on matters of abortion and health care , but also on issues pertaining to the environment , the U.S. Census and immigration , among other policy areas. (npr.org)
- Doctors and abortion providers around the country told States Newsroom the decision will likely exacerbate abortion care that has already been delayed and diminished following the U.S. Supreme Court's decision to let states regulate abortion laws. (juancole.com)
- She also knows of patients who have managed their own abortion care at home after obtaining the drugs by mail. (juancole.com)
- In order to provide abortion care in Louisiana, you have to be willing to have a certain amount of optimism. (usf.edu)
- The American Health Care Act, the budget reconciliation proposal to repeal the Affordable Care Act (ACA), seeks to eliminate a woman's ability to purchase a comprehensive health insurance plan that includes abortion. (nwlc.org)
- During the special session earlier this summer - where state Republicans overrode 50 years of precedent in just two weeks - we heard from countless doctors and health care professionals about their reservations regarding an abortion ban. (indianahousedemocrats.org)
- Doctors who testified shared their concerns that the law enacted today is too narrow, and many health care professionals may delay or deny abortion care if they believed it could threaten their medical license. (indianahousedemocrats.org)
- 11. [Early recurrent spontaneous abortion: How to take care in 2006? (nih.gov)
- FLORIDO: And finally, Odile Schalit, who directs the Brigid Alliance, a group that helps women connect with abortion services. (usf.edu)
- We'll hear from women who were turned away from hospitals until they were "sick enough" to qualify for an abortion. (indianahousedemocrats.org)
- NEW: In response to the for-profit abortion industry's new anti-parent amendment in Ohio, Protect Women Ohio has launched a $5M ad campaign to keep Ohio safe for women, girls, and babies. (thefederalist.com)
- The proposal is aimed at protecting woman who live in states where abortion is illegal who travel out of state to have the procedure done - something thousands of women are already doing, research shows. (ibtimes.com)
- 12. Live birth rate varies with gestational history and etiology in women experiencing recurrent spontaneous abortion. (nih.gov)
- Sequela of subchorionic hemorrhage included one extra spontaneous abortion per 11 women and one extra stillbirth per 103 women. (medscape.com)
- FLORIDO: I understand you all had just attended the National Abortion Federation conference earlier this week when the draft ruling from the Supreme Court was leaked. (usf.edu)
- And pretty much every other state that borders Illinois will immediately or, over this next several months after a Supreme Court decision, will have significant restrictions on abortion if not a complete ban on abortion. (usf.edu)
- It is unclear why the administration is taking action now over a mandate that has been in place for years and why it has chosen to target only California, which is just one of a handful of states that require abortion coverage in private health insurance plans. (npr.org)
- And the Office of Civil Rights, the division pressing California on Friday, accused a Vermont hospital of violating federal law by forcing a nurse to participate in an abortion over her objections. (kwit.org)
- In California and New York, state laws require insurance companies to provide coverage of abortion. (nwlc.org)
- National abortion groups are trying to convince Ohio voters to pass a constitutional amendment that threatens lives and parental rights. (thefederalist.com)
- But the drug has always been the subject of political debate, and medication abortion has become the dominant form of abortion in this country in recent years. (wuky.org)
- If passed, HB2690 would make it illegal to "provide information on how to obtain an abortion-inducing drug. (eff.org)
- Battles Over Medication Abortion Threaten the Integrity of Drug Approvals in the U.S. (bvsalud.org)
- Infection, severe high blood pressure and other complications can sometimes make abortion the best option to save the life of the mother. (indianahousedemocrats.org)
- Pro-abortion groups want to enshrine abortion in the Ohio state constitution via a proposed amendment that will not just threaten the lives of unborn babies but would also pose a risk to the rights of parents. (thefederalist.com)
- One patient aborted (3.8%) and 2 patients (7.7%) experienced threatened abortion but delivered term babies. (who.int)
- So a coalition of groups who oppose abortion sued the FDA last year. (wuky.org)
- The Daily Wire's Mary Margaret Olohan spread the news and initially received a peaceful response on Twitter stating, "I'm offering my Rosaries this weekend for the protection of the clergy and Mass-goers, the police/security, and for the safety and change-of-heart of the pro-abortion protestors. (bizpacreview.com)
- How we can manage a case of threatened abortion? (mdpathyqa.com)
- The defense claimed that she wanted to punish him, and on several occasions had threatened to commit suicide. (nih.gov)
- However, existing data shows that supplemental coverage for abortion is unworkable and does not provide a genuine option for coverage. (nwlc.org)
- Major companies including JPMorgan Chase & Co, Amazon .com Inc and Walt Disney Co have said they would pay travel costs for employees seeking abortions out of state and provide reimbursement through company-sponsored healthcare plans, but Republican leaders have threatened retribution. (ibtimes.com)
- An individual who needs financial assistance in order to afford insurance coverage will be forced to forgo abortion coverage in order to receive the financial help she needs to purchase health insurance. (nwlc.org)
- Today, Senate Bill 1 takes effect, making abortion essentially banned in the state of Indiana. (indianahousedemocrats.org)
- With the help of out-of-state donors and outside groups, opponents of the pro-life amendment raised millions to fund lies and expand Midwestern abortion operations. (thefederalist.com)
- The federal Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (ERISA) covers most health insurance and other company benefit plans and generally preempts state laws on abortion-related coverage. (ibtimes.com)
- It was just eight months ago that your clinic, which is the closest abortion clinic in Louisiana to the Texas border, saw this huge influx of patients after Texas passed SB 8. (usf.edu)
- The ACA Repeal Bill denies individuals the bill's already significantly limited tax credits simply for purchasing a health insurance plan in the individual market that includes coverage of abortion. (nwlc.org)
- In an effort to coerce small businesses into excluding abortion coverage, the ACA Repeal Bill denies small businesses the tax credit they receive to help pay for employee coverage if the plan includes abortion. (nwlc.org)
- As a result, the repeal bill could lead to the entire private insurance market dropping abortion coverage entirely. (nwlc.org)
- The ACA Repeal Bill allows insurance companies to offer separate coverage for abortion. (nwlc.org)
- If states receive federal funds from HHS and other agencies, they cannot discriminate against health plans that decline to cover or pay for abortions - period, full stop. (npr.org)
- He has repeatedly lambasted its prominent politicians - with tweets targeting House Speaker Nancy Pelosi and Gov. Gavin Newsom , among others - and repeatedly threatened to cut off its federal relief funds for fighting wildfires. (npr.org)
- The bill's imposition of civil and criminal liability also conflicts with a federal law that protects online intermediaries' ability to host user-generated speech, 47 U.S.C. § 230 ("Section 230"), including speech about abortion medication. (eff.org)
- 19. Management of threatened abortion. (nih.gov)