Intentional removal of a fetus from the uterus by any of a number of techniques. (POPLINE, 1978)
Expulsion of the product of FERTILIZATION before completing the term of GESTATION and without deliberate interference.
Premature expulsion of the FETUS in animals.
Illegal termination of pregnancy.
Abortion induced to save the life or health of a pregnant woman. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Individuals requesting induced abortions.
The retention in the UTERUS of a dead FETUS two months or more after its DEATH.
Any type of abortion, induced or spontaneous, that is associated with infection of the UTERUS and its appendages. It is characterized by FEVER, uterine tenderness, and foul discharge.
Three or more consecutive spontaneous abortions.
UTERINE BLEEDING from a GESTATION of less than 20 weeks without any CERVICAL DILATATION. It is characterized by vaginal bleeding, lower back discomfort, or midline pelvic cramping and a risk factor for MISCARRIAGE.
Chemical substances that interrupt pregnancy after implantation.
Premature loss of PREGNANCY in which not all the products of CONCEPTION have been expelled.
A mammalian fetus expelled by INDUCED ABORTION or SPONTANEOUS ABORTION.
Steroidal compounds with abortifacient activity.
Abortion performed because of possible fetal defects.
A synthetic analog of natural prostaglandin E1. It produces a dose-related inhibition of gastric acid and pepsin secretion, and enhances mucosal resistance to injury. It is an effective anti-ulcer agent and also has oxytocic properties.
Non-steroidal chemical compounds with abortifacient activity.
Unintended accidental pregnancy, including pregnancy resulting from failed contraceptive measures.
Pregnancy, usually accidental, that is not desired by the parent or parents.
Aspiration of the contents of the uterus with a vacuum curette.
The beginning third of a human PREGNANCY, from the first day of the last normal menstrual period (MENSTRUATION) through the completion of 14 weeks (98 days) of gestation.
Human females who are pregnant, as cultural, psychological, or sociological entities.
Prevention of CONCEPTION by blocking fertility temporarily, or permanently (STERILIZATION, REPRODUCTIVE). Common means of reversible contraception include NATURAL FAMILY PLANNING METHODS; CONTRACEPTIVE AGENTS; or CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES.
Procedures to block or remove all or part of the genital tract for the purpose of rendering individuals sterile, incapable of reproduction. Surgical sterilization procedures are the most commonly used. There are also sterilization procedures involving chemical or physical means.
Laws and regulations, pertaining to the field of medicine, proposed for enactment or enacted by a legislative body.
A person who has not attained the age at which full civil rights are accorded.
Death of the developing young in utero. BIRTH of a dead FETUS is STILLBIRTH.
The rights of women to equal status pertaining to social, economic, and educational opportunities afforded by society.
Health care programs or services designed to assist individuals in the planning of family size. Various methods of CONTRACEPTION can be used to control the number and timing of childbirths.
The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.
The state or condition of being a human individual accorded moral and/or legal rights. Criteria to be used to determine this status are subject to debate, and range from the requirement of simply being a human organism to such requirements as that the individual be self-aware and capable of rational thought and moral agency.
A progestational and glucocorticoid hormone antagonist. Its inhibition of progesterone induces bleeding during the luteal phase and in early pregnancy by releasing endogenous prostaglandins from the endometrium or decidua. As a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist, the drug has been used to treat hypercortisolism in patients with nonpituitary CUSHING SYNDROME.
Behavior patterns of those practicing CONTRACEPTION.
Reproductive rights rest on the recognition of the basic right of all couples and individuals to decide freely and responsibly the number, spacing and timing of their children and to have the information and means to do so, and the right to attain the highest standard of sexual and reproductive health. They also include the right of all to make decisions concerning reproduction free of discrimination, coercion and violence.
The number of births in a given population per year or other unit of time.
Dilatation of the cervix uteri followed by a scraping of the endometrium with a curette.
Results of conception and ensuing pregnancy, including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; SPONTANEOUS ABORTION; INDUCED ABORTION. The outcome may follow natural or artificial insemination or any of the various ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, such as EMBRYO TRANSFER or FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.
The point at which religious ensoulment or PERSONHOOD is considered to begin.
The middle third of a human PREGNANCY, from the beginning of the 15th through the 28th completed week (99 to 196 days) of gestation.
A genus of protozoan parasites of the subclass COCCIDIA. Its species are parasitic in dogs, cattle, goats, and sheep, among others. N. caninum, a species that mainly infects dogs, is intracellular in neural and other cells of the body, multiplies by endodyogeny, has no parasitophorous vacuole, and has numerous rhoptries. It is known to cause lesions in many tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord as well as abortion in the expectant mother.
The three approximately equal periods of a normal human PREGNANCY. Each trimester is about three months or 13 to 14 weeks in duration depending on the designation of the first day of gestation.
Reporting to parents or guardians about care to be provided to a minor (MINORS).
Pregnancy in human adolescent females under the age of 19.
Devices that diminish the likelihood of or prevent conception. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Bleeding from blood vessels in the UTERUS, sometimes manifested as vaginal bleeding.
The state that distinguishes organisms from inorganic matter, manifested by growth, metabolism, reproduction, and adaptation. It includes the course of existence, the sum of experiences, the mode of existing, or the fact of being. Over the centuries inquiries into the nature of life have crossed the boundaries from philosophy to biology, forensic medicine, anthropology, etc., in creative as well as scientific literature. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed; Dr. James H. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)
Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.
Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.
The Christian faith, practice, or system of the Catholic Church, specifically the Roman Catholic, the Christian church that is characterized by a hierarchic structure of bishops and priests in which doctrinal and disciplinary authority are dependent upon apostolic succession, with the pope as head of the episcopal college. (From Webster, 3d ed; American Heritage Dictionary, 2d college ed)
The number of offspring a female has borne. It is contrasted with GRAVIDITY, which refers to the number of pregnancies, regardless of outcome.
The state of birth outside of wedlock. It may refer to the offspring or the parents.
The kind of action or activity proper to the judiciary, particularly its responsibility for decision making.
Protozoan infection found in animals and man. It is caused by several different genera of COCCIDIA.
A potentially life-threatening condition in which EMBRYO IMPLANTATION occurs outside the cavity of the UTERUS. Most ectopic pregnancies (>96%) occur in the FALLOPIAN TUBES, known as TUBAL PREGNANCY. They can be in other locations, such as UTERINE CERVIX; OVARY; and abdominal cavity (PREGNANCY, ABDOMINAL).
Diseases of domestic and mountain sheep of the genus Ovis.
The age of the mother in PREGNANCY.
Pathological processes or abnormal functions of the PLACENTA.
A medical-surgical specialty concerned with the physiology and disorders primarily of the female genital tract, as well as female endocrinology and reproductive physiology.
The co-occurrence of pregnancy and an INFECTION. The infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.
A demographic parameter indicating a person's status with respect to marriage, divorce, widowhood, singleness, etc.
The science or philosophy of law. Also, the application of the principles of law and justice to health and medicine.
Standards of conduct that distinguish right from wrong.
Organized services to provide health care to women. It excludes maternal care services for which MATERNAL HEALTH SERVICES is available.
A genus of the family CHLAMYDIACEAE comprising gram-negative non CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS-like species infecting vertebrates. Chlamydophila do not produce detectable quantities of glycogen. The type species is CHLAMYDOPHILA PSITTACI.
The enactment of laws and ordinances and their regulation by official organs of a nation, state, or other legislative organization. It refers also to health-related laws and regulations in general or for which there is no specific heading.
Malformations of organs or body parts during development in utero.
Maternal deaths resulting from complications of pregnancy and childbirth in a given population.
The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Decisions made by the United States Supreme Court.
The term "United States" in a medical context often refers to the country where a patient or study participant resides, and is not a medical term per se, but relevant for epidemiological studies, healthcare policies, and understanding differences in disease prevalence, treatment patterns, and health outcomes across various geographic locations.
Diseases of domestic and wild horses of the species Equus caballus.
A medical-surgical specialty concerned with management and care of women during pregnancy, parturition, and the puerperium.
A highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products. It includes a fetal portion (CHORIONIC VILLI) derived from TROPHOBLASTS and a maternal portion (DECIDUA) derived from the uterine ENDOMETRIUM. The placenta produces an array of steroid, protein and peptide hormones (PLACENTAL HORMONES).
Administration of a soluble dosage form by placement under the tongue.
The rights of the individual to cultural, social, economic, and educational opportunities as provided by society, e.g., right to work, right to education, and right to social security.
Contraceptive devices placed high in the uterine fundus.
Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.
Diseases of the domestic or wild goat of the genus Capra.
Exercise of governmental authority to control conduct.
The fundamental dispositions and traits of humans. (Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)
Means of postcoital intervention to avoid pregnancy, such as the administration of POSTCOITAL CONTRACEPTIVES to prevent FERTILIZATION of an egg or implantation of a fertilized egg (OVUM IMPLANTATION).
The cognitive and affective processes which constitute an internalized moral governor over an individual's moral conduct.
The intrinsic moral worth ascribed to a living being. (Bioethics Thesaurus)
Informed consent given by a parent on behalf of a minor or otherwise incompetent child.
A hole or break through the wall of the UTERUS, usually made by the placement of an instrument or INTRAUTERINE DEVICES.
Duties that are based in ETHICS, rather than in law.
The insertion of drugs into the vagina to treat local infections, neoplasms, or to induce labor. The dosage forms may include medicated pessaries, irrigation fluids, and suppositories.
The physical condition of human reproductive systems.
The disintegration and assimilation of the dead FETUS in the UTERUS at any stage after the completion of organogenesis which, in humans, is after the 9th week of GESTATION. It does not include embryo resorption (see EMBRYO LOSS).
The philosophy or code pertaining to what is ideal in human character and conduct. Also, the field of study dealing with the principles of morality.
Health care services related to human REPRODUCTION and diseases of the reproductive system. Services are provided to both sexes and usually by physicians in the medical or the surgical specialties such as REPRODUCTIVE MEDICINE; ANDROLOGY; GYNECOLOGY; OBSTETRICS; and PERINATOLOGY.
Trophoblastic hyperplasia associated with normal gestation, or molar pregnancy. It is characterized by the swelling of the CHORIONIC VILLI and elevated human CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN. Hydatidiform moles or molar pregnancy may be categorized as complete or partial based on their gross morphology, histopathology, and karyotype.
Congenital abnormalities caused by medicinal substances or drugs of abuse given to or taken by the mother, or to which she is inadvertently exposed during the manufacture of such substances. The concept excludes abnormalities resulting from exposure to non-medicinal chemicals in the environment.
A genus of CHLAMYDOPHILA infecting primarily birds. It contains eight known serovars, some of which infect more than one type of host, including humans.
Diminished or absent ability of a female to achieve conception.
The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.
The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.
The interrelationship of medicine and religion.
The care and treatment of a convalescent patient, especially that of a patient after surgery.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.

Pregnancy after atrial repair for transposition of the great arteries. (1/188)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the risk of pregnancy in patients with transposition of the great arteries (TGA) who have undergone atrial repair. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis (1962-94) of 342 TGA patients who underwent atrial repair. Of 231 known late survivors, 48 were women over 18 years old who were interviewed about possible reproductive plans and previous pregnancies. As a control, comparison was made with data of 57 500 women (mean age 26 years) obtained from the Swiss Statistical Bank in Bern. RESULTS: Mean follow up was 13.7 years; 66% remained asymptomatic, 29% had mild to moderate cardiac symptoms, and 5% suffered from severe cardiac symptoms (New York Heart Association grade III-IV). Thirty six of the 48 women wished to bear children and, to date, there have been 10 live births, two spontaneous first trimester abortions, and one induced abortion at 16 weeks. During pregnancy there was one case of cardiac deterioration and two cases of pneumonia. There was no evidence of congenital heart disease in the children. CONCLUSIONS: In this relatively small series the completion of pregnancy in women with TGA who had undergone atrial repair and who had normal functional cardiac status was uncomplicated  (+info)

Dystrophic calcification of the fetal myocardium. (2/188)

Intramural cardiac masses were detected antenatally in three fetuses by echocardiography. The masses were initially thought to be rhabdomyomas. All three pregnancies were terminated and histology showed dystrophic calcification in all, with no evidence of tumour. Therefore, dystrophic calcification of the fetal myocardium may have a similar appearance to single or multiple rhabdomyomas. This should be considered when counselling parents after detection of masses in the fetal heart, particularly when considering the risk of associated tuberous sclerosis.  (+info)

First-trimester ultrasound diagnosis of holoprosencephaly: three case reports. (3/188)

We present three cases of fetal holoprosencephaly diagnosed by transabdominal and transvaginal ultrasound examinations at 10 and 13 weeks' gestation. The diagnosis was based on two sonographic criteria: first, the intracranial finding of a single ventricle with a cerebral mantle and no visible midline structures but fusion of the thalami and corpus striatum; and, second, facial abnormalities, including hypotelorism. The ultrasound findings were confirmed by embryoscopy before abortion in one case and by pathological examination after abortion in two cases. Chromosome study of the three fetuses showed trisomy 18, triploidy and mosaic 18p deletion and duplication.  (+info)

Prenatal diagnosis of alobar holoprosencephaly at 10 weeks of gestation. (4/188)

Alobar holoprosencephaly is an intracranial abnormality characterized by failure of proper cleavage of the prosencephalon, accompanied by incomplete midfacial development. The prenatal sonographic diagnosis of alobar holoprosencephaly was first described in 1984; however, there have been only two reports of alobar holoprosencephaly diagnosed in the first trimester. We report a case of alobar holoprosencephaly diagnosed at 10 weeks of gestation.  (+info)

Sonographic features of fetal trisomy 18 at 13 and 14 weeks: four case reports. (5/188)

Fetal trisomy 18 is the second most common multiple malformation syndrome. We present four cases of trisomy 18 with multiple sonographic abnormalities at 13 and 14 weeks of gestation. These cases demonstrated that fetal hand deformities can be a tell-tale sign of trisomy 18 with or without increased nuchal translucency at this gestation.  (+info)

Immunoregulatory activity of decidua in spontaneous early pregnancy loss. (6/188)

The present study aimed to address whether the immunoregulatory properties of the molecules secreted within decidua were altered in women suffering spontaneous miscarriage, compared with apparently normal fertile women. Unfractionated decidual cells from 22 women undergoing therapeutic pregnancy terminations and 25 women experiencing a sporadic spontaneous early pregnancy loss were isolated, cultured for 24 h and 72 h, and supernatants were collected. The effect of decidual supernatants on phytohaemagglutinin (PHA)-induced peripheral blood lymphocyte proliferation was investigated. Immunosuppressive activity was detected in 24 h cell culture supernatants from 91% of therapeutic abortion cases compared with only 64% of spontaneous abortion samples; 72 h supernatants from all of therapeutic abortion samples and 90% of spontaneous abortion cases suppressed lymphoproliferation. The remaining spontaneous abortion samples (36% of 24 h supernatants; 10% of 72 h supernatants) enhanced or had no effect on lymphocyte proliferation. Enhancement of lymphocyte proliferation was not observed in therapeutic abortion samples, and the association between stimulation of cell proliferation and spontaneous abortion was significant for 24 h decidual cell supernatants at 50% concentration (P = 0.02). These findings suggest that in a subgroup of women experiencing spontaneous early pregnancy loss, soluble factors within decidua display altered immune responses that may be implicated in the complex process of fetal rejection.  (+info)

Evolution and long term outcome in cases with fetal diagnosis of congenital heart disease: Italian multicentre study. Fetal Cardiology Study Group of the Italian Society of Pediatric Cardiology. (7/188)

OBJECTIVES: To analyse the evolution and outcome in utero and after birth of infants with a fetal diagnosis of congenital heart disease. DESIGN: Inclusion criteria were the fetal diagnosis of congenital heart disease, confirmed postnatally or postmortem, and a complete follow up in utero and after birth. SETTING: 20 centres operating prenatal echocardiographic screening. PATIENTS: 847 cases were included in the study. Gestational age at diagnosis ranged from 15-39 weeks; in 370 cases (43.7%) the diagnosis was made before 24 weeks' gestation. RESULTS: 245/847 cases (28.9%) were terminated during pregnancy, 227 following early diagnosis; 128/245 cases (52. 2%) had associated anomalies and 117/245 (47.8%) had serious congenital heart disease. Of the remaining 602 cases that continued the pregnancy, 72 (11.9%) died in utero, 259 (43%) died postnatally (83 after surgery or invasive procedures), and 271 infants (45%) survived and presently range in age from 18 months to 13 years old. The mortality rate was higher in cases with associated extracardiac or chromosomal anomalies (68% and 74% of cases continuing pregnancy, respectively), and in cases with heart failure and complex cardiac defects. CONCLUSIONS: The data confirm a relevant fetal and postnatal loss in cases with complex congenital heart disease, and major clinical use of prenatal diagnosis in the management of ductus dependent anomalies. Negative prognostic factors for the outcome were associated anomalies and heart failure.  (+info)

Placental transfer of fentanyl in early human pregnancy and its detection in fetal brain. (8/188)

We have investigated the transfer of fentanyl across the early human placenta in 38 women (8-14 weeks' gestation) undergoing termination of pregnancy. After administration of a bolus dose of fentanyl 2 micrograms kg-1 at induction of anaesthesia, maternal blood n = 38), placenta (n = 38), amniotic fluid (n = 38) and fetal brain (n = 7) samples were collected and assayed for fentanyl by radioimmunoassay. Fentanyl was detected in all placental and fetal brain samples but not in amniotic fluid. There was a rapid decrease in fentanyl concentrations in maternal serum after the bolus but placental concentrations had not started to decline 30 min later. There was no difference in placental drug concentrations at different gestational ages. These data suggest that there is rapid transfer of fentanyl to the fetus in early pregnancy and that the drug remains in fetal tissue for some time after the initial dose is given to the mother.  (+info)

Induced abortion is a medical procedure that intentionally terminates a pregnancy before the fetus can survive outside the womb. It can be performed either surgically or medically through the use of medications. The timing of an induced abortion is typically based on the gestational age of the pregnancy, with different methods used at different stages.

The most common surgical procedure for induced abortion is vacuum aspiration, which is usually performed during the first trimester (up to 12-13 weeks of gestation). This procedure involves dilating the cervix and using a vacuum device to remove the pregnancy tissue from the uterus. Other surgical procedures, such as dilation and evacuation (D&E), may be used in later stages of pregnancy.

Medical abortion involves the use of medications to induce the termination of a pregnancy. The most common regimen involves the use of two drugs: mifepristone and misoprostol. Mifepristone works by blocking the action of progesterone, a hormone necessary for maintaining pregnancy. Misoprostol causes the uterus to contract and expel the pregnancy tissue. This method is typically used during the first 10 weeks of gestation.

Induced abortion is a safe and common medical procedure, with low rates of complications when performed by trained healthcare providers in appropriate settings. Access to induced abortion varies widely around the world, with some countries restricting or prohibiting the practice entirely.

Spontaneous abortion, also known as miscarriage, is the unintentional expulsion of a nonviable fetus from the uterus before the 20th week of gestation. It is a common complication of early pregnancy, with most miscarriages occurring during the first trimester. Spontaneous abortion can have various causes, including chromosomal abnormalities, maternal health conditions, infections, hormonal imbalances, and structural issues of the uterus or cervix. In many cases, the exact cause may remain unknown.

The symptoms of spontaneous abortion can vary but often include vaginal bleeding, which may range from light spotting to heavy bleeding; abdominal pain or cramping; and the passing of tissue or clots from the vagina. While some miscarriages occur suddenly and are immediately noticeable, others may progress slowly over several days or even weeks.

In medical practice, healthcare providers often use specific terminology to describe different stages and types of spontaneous abortion. For example:

* Threatened abortion: Vaginal bleeding during early pregnancy, but the cervix remains closed, and there is no evidence of fetal demise or passing of tissue.
* Inevitable abortion: Vaginal bleeding with an open cervix, indicating that a miscarriage is imminent or already in progress.
* Incomplete abortion: The expulsion of some but not all products of conception from the uterus, requiring medical intervention to remove any remaining tissue.
* Complete abortion: The successful passage of all products of conception from the uterus, often confirmed through an ultrasound or pelvic examination.
* Missed abortion: The death of a fetus in the uterus without any expulsion of the products of conception, which may be discovered during routine prenatal care.
* Septic abortion: A rare and life-threatening complication of spontaneous abortion characterized by infection of the products of conception and the surrounding tissues, requiring prompt medical attention and antibiotic treatment.

Healthcare providers typically monitor patients who experience a spontaneous abortion to ensure that all products of conception have been expelled and that there are no complications, such as infection or excessive bleeding. In some cases, medication or surgical intervention may be necessary to remove any remaining tissue or address other issues related to the miscarriage. Counseling and support services are often available for individuals and couples who experience a spontaneous abortion, as they may face emotional challenges and concerns about future pregnancies.

I. Definition:

An abortion in a veterinary context refers to the intentional or unintentional termination of pregnancy in a non-human animal before the fetus is capable of surviving outside of the uterus. This can occur spontaneously (known as a miscarriage) or be induced through medical intervention (induced abortion).

II. Common Causes:

Spontaneous abortions may result from genetic defects, hormonal imbalances, infections, exposure to toxins, trauma, or other maternal health issues. Induced abortions are typically performed for population control, humane reasons (such as preventing the birth of a severely deformed or non-viable fetus), or when the pregnancy poses a risk to the mother's health.

III. Methods:

Veterinarians may use various methods to induce abortion depending on the species, stage of gestation, and reason for the procedure. These can include administering drugs that stimulate uterine contractions (such as prostaglandins), physically removing the fetus through surgery (dilation and curettage or hysterectomy), or using techniques specific to certain animal species (e.g., intrauterine infusion of hypertonic saline in equids).

IV. Ethical Considerations:

The ethics surrounding veterinary abortions are complex and multifaceted, often involving considerations related to animal welfare, conservation, population management, and human-animal relationships. Veterinarians must weigh these factors carefully when deciding whether to perform an abortion and which method to use. In some cases, legal regulations may also influence the decision-making process.

V. Conclusion:

Abortion in veterinary medicine is a medical intervention that can be used to address various clinical scenarios, ranging from unintentional pregnancy loss to deliberate termination of pregnancy for humane or population control reasons. Ethical considerations play a significant role in the decision-making process surrounding veterinary abortions, and veterinarians must carefully evaluate each situation on a case-by-case basis.

A criminal abortion is an illegal abortion, which is a procedure performed with the intent to induce the termination of a pregnancy, carried out in violation of the law. In many jurisdictions, criminal abortions are defined as those performed outside of the legal parameters set forth by the relevant regulations, such as those that require the procedure to be performed by a licensed medical professional, within certain timeframes, and/or for specific reasons.

Criminal abortions may be motivated by various factors, including financial constraints, social stigma, or fear of repercussions. Engaging in criminal abortion practices can result in severe legal consequences, including fines, imprisonment, and in some cases, loss of medical license. It's important to note that the legality and accessibility of abortion vary significantly across different countries and regions, with varying restrictions and requirements.

If you require assistance or advice related to pregnancy termination, it is crucial to consult a licensed healthcare professional or a trusted reproductive health organization in your area to ensure that you receive accurate information and safe care within the legal framework of your jurisdiction.

A therapeutic abortion is the deliberate termination of a pregnancy before viability (the ability of the fetus to survive outside the womb), which is generally considered to be around 24 weeks of gestation. The term "therapeutic" is used to describe abortions that are performed for medical reasons, such as to protect the life or health of the pregnant individual, or in cases where the fetus has a severe abnormality and cannot survive outside the womb.

Therapeutic abortions may be recommended in situations where continuing the pregnancy poses a significant risk to the health or life of the pregnant individual. For example, if a pregnant person has a serious medical condition such as heart disease, cancer, or severe pre-eclampsia, continuing the pregnancy could worsen their condition and put them at risk of serious complications or even death. In these cases, a therapeutic abortion may be necessary to protect the health or life of the pregnant individual.

Therapeutic abortions may also be recommended in cases where the fetus has a severe abnormality that is not compatible with life outside the womb. For example, if the fetus has a condition such as anencephaly (a neural tube defect where the brain and skull do not form properly), or a chromosomal abnormality such as Trisomy 13 or 18, continuing the pregnancy may result in a stillbirth or a short, painful life for the infant after birth. In these cases, a therapeutic abortion may be considered a compassionate option to prevent unnecessary suffering.

It's important to note that the decision to undergo a therapeutic abortion is a deeply personal one, and should be made in consultation with medical professionals and trusted family members or support networks. Ultimately, the decision should be based on what is best for the physical and emotional health of the pregnant individual, taking into account their values, beliefs, and circumstances.

"Abortion applicants" is not a standard medical term. However, in general, it may refer to individuals who are seeking to have an abortion procedure performed. This could include people of any gender, although the vast majority of those seeking abortions are women or pregnant individuals. The term "abortion applicant" may be used in legal or administrative contexts to describe someone who is applying for a legal abortion, particularly in places where there are restrictions or requirements that must be met before an abortion can be performed. It is important to note that access to safe and legal abortion is a fundamental human right recognized by many international organizations and medical associations.

A "missed abortion" is a medical term used to describe a pregnancy in which the fetus has died or failed to develop, but the products of conception (i.e., the placenta and gestational sac) remain in the uterus. This condition is also sometimes referred to as a "silent miscarriage" or "delayed miscarriage." In a missed abortion, there may be no symptoms or only very mild ones, such as vaginal bleeding or the passing of tissue. The diagnosis is typically made through an ultrasound exam that shows an empty gestational sac or a non-viable fetus. Treatment options include waiting for the body to expel the products of conception naturally, taking medication to induce expulsion, or undergoing a surgical procedure to remove the products of conception.

Septic abortion is a medical term used to describe a spontaneous abortion or miscarriage that is associated with infection. This occurs when the products of conception, such as the fetal tissue and placenta, are not completely expelled from the uterus, leading to an infection of the uterine lining and potentially the pelvic cavity.

The infection can cause fever, chills, severe abdominal pain, foul-smelling vaginal discharge, and heavy bleeding. If left untreated, septic abortion can lead to serious complications such as sepsis, infertility, and even death. It is important to seek medical attention immediately if you suspect a septic abortion. Treatment typically involves antibiotics to clear the infection and possibly surgical intervention to remove any remaining products of conception.

The medical definition of "Habitual Abortion" refers to a woman who has three or more consecutive pregnancies that end in spontaneous miscarriages before 20 weeks of gestation. The cause of habitual abortions can be difficult to determine and may involve genetic, anatomical, hormonal, or immune system factors. Treatment is often aimed at addressing any underlying issues that may be contributing to the recurrent miscarriages. It's important to note that the terminology has changed over time and the term "recurrent pregnancy loss" is now more commonly used in place of "habitual abortion".

A "threatened abortion" is a medical term used to describe a situation in which there are symptoms that suggest an impending miscarriage, such as vaginal bleeding and/or cramping during early pregnancy, but the cervix remains closed and the fetal heartbeat is still present. This condition is estimated to occur in up to 20-30% of all pregnancies, and while it can be a source of anxiety for pregnant individuals, it does not necessarily mean that a miscarriage will definitely occur.

It's important to note that if you are experiencing any symptoms of a threatened abortion, you should contact your healthcare provider right away for evaluation and guidance on how to manage the situation. They may recommend bed rest, pelvic rest, or other treatments to help support the pregnancy and reduce the risk of miscarriage.

An abortifacient agent is a substance or drug that causes abortion by inducing the uterus to contract and expel a fetus. These agents can be chemical or herbal substances, and they work by interfering with the implantation of the fertilized egg in the uterine lining or by stimulating uterine contractions to expel the developing embryo or fetus.

Examples of abortifacient agents include misoprostol, mifepristone, and certain herbs such as pennyroyal, tansy, and black cohosh. It is important to note that the use of abortifacient agents can have serious health consequences, including infection, bleeding, and damage to the reproductive system. Therefore, it is essential to consult with a healthcare provider before using any abortifacient agent.

An incomplete abortion is a medical term used to describe a situation where a pregnancy is expelled or terminated spontaneously or induced, but only partially. This means that some of the products of conception (i.e., the fetus, placenta, and associated membranes) are retained within the uterus.

Incomplete abortions can be caused by various factors, including complications during a medical or surgical abortion, miscarriage, ectopic pregnancy, or infection. Symptoms of an incomplete abortion may include vaginal bleeding, abdominal pain, cramping, and the passage of tissue or clots.

Incomplete abortions are considered a medical emergency because they can lead to complications such as infection, hemorrhage, and infertility if left untreated. Treatment typically involves a surgical procedure called dilatation and curettage (D&C) to remove any remaining products of conception from the uterus. In some cases, medication may also be used to help complete the abortion and prevent infection.

An aborted fetus refers to a developing human organism that is expelled or removed from the uterus before it is viable, typically as a result of an induced abortion. An abortion is a medical procedure that intentionally ends a pregnancy and can be performed through various methods, depending on the stage of the pregnancy.

It's important to note that the term "abortion" is often used in different contexts and may carry different connotations depending on one's perspective. In medical terminology, an abortion refers specifically to the intentional ending of a pregnancy before viability. However, in other contexts, the term may be used more broadly to refer to any spontaneous or induced loss of a pregnancy, including miscarriages and stillbirths.

The definition of "viable" can vary, but it generally refers to the point at which a fetus can survive outside the uterus with medical assistance, typically around 24 weeks of gestation. Fetal viability is a complex issue that depends on many factors, including the availability and accessibility of medical technology and resources.

In summary, an aborted fetus is a developing human organism that is intentionally expelled or removed from the uterus before it is viable, typically as a result of a medical procedure called an abortion.

Abortifacient agents, steroidal, refer to a type of medication or substance that is capable of inducing abortion or causing the termination of pregnancy by interfering with the implantation and maintenance of the fertilized ovum (embryo) or the development of the placenta. Steroidal abortifacient agents are synthetic derivatives of steroids, which have a similar structure to naturally occurring hormones in the human body.

The most commonly used steroidal abortifacient agent is mifepristone, also known as RU-486. Mifepristone works by blocking the action of progesterone, a hormone that is essential for maintaining pregnancy. By blocking the action of progesterone, mifepristone causes the shedding of the uterine lining and the expulsion of the embryo or fetus from the uterus.

Steroidal abortifacient agents are typically used in the early stages of pregnancy, up to 10 weeks after the last menstrual period. They may be used alone or in combination with other medications, such as misoprostol, which helps to stimulate uterine contractions and expel the embryo or fetus from the uterus.

It is important to note that steroidal abortifacient agents are not the same as emergency contraceptives, which are used to prevent pregnancy after unprotected sexual intercourse. Steroidal abortifacient agents are intended for use in cases where pregnancy has already occurred and is unwanted or poses a risk to the health of the mother or fetus.

An "eugenic abortion" is not a medical term, but rather a descriptive phrase that combines two concepts: eugenics and abortion.

Eugenics refers to the belief and practice of improving the human species by encouraging reproduction of individuals with desired traits and preventing reproduction of those with undesired traits. This concept has been widely criticized for its potential to be used as a tool for discrimination and oppression.

Abortion, on the other hand, is the medical procedure to end a pregnancy before the fetus can survive outside the womb.

A "eugenic abortion," therefore, generally refers to the practice of terminating a pregnancy based on the perceived genetic traits or characteristics of the fetus, such as disability, race, or sex. This phrase is often used in discussions about the ethics and morality of selective abortions, and it raises important questions about discrimination, reproductive rights, and medical ethics. It's worth noting that the vast majority of abortions are not performed for eugenic reasons, but rather due to a variety of personal, medical, and socioeconomic factors.

Misoprostol is a synthetic prostaglandin E1 analog used in obstetrics and gynecology to prevent and treat ulcers caused by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), reduce the risk of gastric ulcers in patients taking NSAIDs long term, induce labor, manage postpartum hemorrhage, and cause abortion. It is also used off-label for cervical ripening before gynecologic surgery and to treat miscarriage.

In addition, Misoprostol has been found to be effective in reducing the risk of gastric ulcers and NSAID-induced dyspepsia (upper abdominal pain or discomfort) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and other inflammatory conditions who require long-term NSAID therapy.

It is important to note that Misoprostol should not be used during pregnancy unless under the supervision of a healthcare provider for specific medical indications, such as preventing or treating stomach ulcers in pregnant women taking NSAIDs or inducing labor. It can cause miscarriage and birth defects if taken during early pregnancy.

Non-steroidal abortifacient agents are medications or substances that can cause abortion by interfering with the normal functioning of the hormones in the reproductive system. These agents do not contain steroids and work primarily by preventing the implantation of a fertilized egg in the uterus or by causing the shedding of the uterine lining, leading to the termination of an early pregnancy.

Examples of non-steroidal abortifacient agents include:

1. Mifepristone (RU-486): This medication works by blocking the action of progesterone, a hormone necessary for maintaining pregnancy. When used in combination with another medication called misoprostol, it can cause an abortion during the early stages of pregnancy.
2. Misoprostol: This medication is primarily used to prevent and treat stomach ulcers but can also be used as an abortifacient agent. It causes uterine contractions and cervical dilation, leading to the expulsion of the contents of the uterus.
3. High-dose estrogen and progestin: These hormones can interfere with the normal functioning of the reproductive system and cause an early abortion when taken in high doses.
4. Herbal remedies: Certain herbs, such as pennyroyal, tansy, and savin, have been used traditionally as abortifacient agents. However, their effectiveness and safety are not well-established, and they can cause serious side effects or even death when taken in large quantities.

It is important to note that the use of non-steroidal abortifacient agents for the purpose of inducing an abortion should only be done under the supervision of a licensed healthcare provider, as there are potential risks and complications associated with their use. Additionally, some of these agents may be restricted or illegal in certain jurisdictions, so it is essential to comply with local laws and regulations regarding their use.

Unplanned pregnancy is a pregnancy that is not intended or expected by the woman or couple. It is also sometimes referred to as an "unintended" or "unwanted" pregnancy. This can occur when contraceptive methods fail or are not used, or when there is a lack of knowledge about or access to effective family planning resources. Unplanned pregnancies can present various physical, emotional, and social challenges for the individuals involved, and may also have implications for public health and societal well-being. It's important to note that unplanned pregnancies can still result in wanted and loved children, but the circumstances surrounding their conception may bring additional stressors and considerations.

Unwanted pregnancy is a situation where a person becomes pregnant despite not planning or desiring to conceive at that time. This can occur due to various reasons such as lack of access to effective contraception, failure of contraceptive methods, sexual assault, or a change in circumstances that makes the pregnancy untimely or inconvenient. Unwanted pregnancies can have significant physical, emotional, and socioeconomic impacts on individuals and families. It is important to address unwanted pregnancies through comprehensive sexuality education, access to affordable and effective contraception, and supportive services for those who experience unintended pregnancies.

Vacuum curettage is a medical procedure that involves the use of suction to remove tissue from the uterus. It is often used as a method of first-trimester abortion, or to treat abnormal uterine conditions such as miscarriage or retained placental tissue after childbirth. The cervix is dilated and a vacuum aspirator is inserted into the uterus to remove the contents using suction. This procedure may also be referred to as vacuum aspiration or suction curettage.

The first trimester of pregnancy is defined as the period of gestational development that extends from conception (fertilization of the egg by sperm) to the end of the 13th week. This critical phase marks significant transformations in both the mother's body and the growing embryo/fetus.

During the first trimester, the fertilized egg implants into the uterine lining (implantation), initiating a series of complex interactions leading to the formation of the placenta - an organ essential for providing nutrients and oxygen to the developing fetus while removing waste products. Simultaneously, the embryo undergoes rapid cell division and differentiation, giving rise to various organs and systems. By the end of the first trimester, most major structures are present, although they continue to mature and grow throughout pregnancy.

The mother may experience several physiological changes during this time, including:
- Morning sickness (nausea and vomiting)
- Fatigue
- Breast tenderness
- Frequent urination
- Food aversions or cravings
- Mood swings

Additionally, hormonal shifts can cause various symptoms and prepare the body for potential changes in lactation, posture, and pelvic alignment as pregnancy progresses. Regular prenatal care is crucial during this period to monitor both maternal and fetal wellbeing, identify any potential complications early on, and provide appropriate guidance and support throughout the pregnancy.

'Pregnant women' refers to female individuals who have conceived and are in the process of carrying a developing fetus inside their womb (uterus) until childbirth. This state is typically marked by various physiological changes, including hormonal fluctuations, weight gain, and growth of the uterus and breasts, among others. Pregnancy usually lasts for about 40 weeks, starting from the first day of the woman's last menstrual period (LMP) and is divided into three trimesters. Each trimester is characterized by different developmental milestones in the fetus. Regular prenatal care is essential to monitor the health and wellbeing of both the mother and the developing fetus, and to address any potential complications that may arise during pregnancy.

Contraception is the use of various devices, methods, or medications to prevent pregnancy. The term is derived from the Latin words "contra" meaning "against" and "conceptio" meaning "conception." Contraceptive methods can be broadly categorized into temporary and permanent methods. Temporary methods include barriers such as condoms, diaphragms, cervical caps, and sponges; hormonal methods like the pill, patch, ring, injection, and emergency contraception; and fertility awareness-based methods that involve tracking ovulation and avoiding intercourse during fertile periods. Permanent methods include surgical procedures such as tubal ligation for women and vasectomy for men.

The primary goal of contraception is to prevent the sperm from reaching and fertilizing the egg, thereby preventing pregnancy. However, some contraceptive methods also offer additional benefits such as reducing the risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and regulating menstrual cycles. It's important to note that while contraception can prevent pregnancy, it does not protect against STIs, so using condoms is still recommended for individuals who are at risk of contracting STIs.

When choosing a contraceptive method, it's essential to consider factors such as effectiveness, safety, ease of use, cost, and personal preferences. It's also important to consult with a healthcare provider to determine the most appropriate method based on individual health history and needs.

Reproductive sterilization is a surgical procedure that aims to prevent reproduction by making an individual unable to produce viable reproductive cells or preventing the union of sperm and egg. In males, this is often achieved through a vasectomy, which involves cutting and sealing the vas deferens, the tubes that carry sperm from the testicles to the urethra. In females, sterilization is typically performed via a procedure called tubal ligation, where the fallopian tubes are cut, tied, or sealed, preventing the egg from traveling from the ovaries to the uterus and blocking sperm from reaching the egg. These methods are considered permanent forms of contraception; however, in rare cases, reversals may be attempted with varying degrees of success.

Medical legislation refers to laws and regulations that govern the practice of medicine and related healthcare fields. These laws are established by federal, state, or local governments to ensure that medical professionals provide safe, ethical, and effective care to their patients. They cover a wide range of issues including:

1. Licensing and certification of healthcare providers
2. Standards of care and professional conduct
3. Patient rights and privacy (e.g., HIPAA)
4. Prescription medication use and abuse
5. Medical malpractice and liability
6. Healthcare facility accreditation and safety
7. Public health and prevention measures
8. Research involving human subjects
9. Reimbursement for medical services (e.g., Medicare, Medicaid)
10. Telemedicine and telehealth practices

Medical legislation aims to protect both patients and healthcare providers while maintaining a high standard of care and promoting the overall health of the population.

In medical and legal contexts, a minor is a person who has not yet reached the age of majority. The age of majority varies depending on the jurisdiction but is generally 18 or 21 years old. Minors are considered to be legally incompetent to make certain decisions for themselves, such as consenting to medical treatment or signing a contract. Therefore, in healthcare settings, minors typically require the consent of a parent or guardian before receiving medical care, except in specific circumstances where the minor is deemed mature enough to make their own decisions (e.g., emancipated minors).

Fetal death, also known as stillbirth or intrauterine fetal demise, is defined as the death of a fetus at 20 weeks of gestation or later. The criteria for defining fetal death may vary slightly by country and jurisdiction, but in general, it refers to the loss of a pregnancy after the point at which the fetus is considered viable outside the womb.

Fetal death can occur for a variety of reasons, including chromosomal abnormalities, placental problems, maternal health conditions, infections, and umbilical cord accidents. In some cases, the cause of fetal death may remain unknown.

The diagnosis of fetal death is typically made through ultrasound or other imaging tests, which can confirm the absence of a heartbeat or movement in the fetus. Once fetal death has been diagnosed, medical professionals will work with the parents to determine the best course of action for managing the pregnancy and delivering the fetus. This may involve waiting for labor to begin naturally, inducing labor, or performing a cesarean delivery.

Experiencing a fetal death can be a very difficult and emotional experience for parents, and it is important for them to receive supportive care from their healthcare providers, family members, and friends. Grief counseling and support groups may also be helpful in coping with the loss.

Women's rights, in a medical context, refer to the legal, social, and political rights and entitlements of women, specifically in relation to health, reproductive justice, and access to quality healthcare services. These rights encompass:

1. Autonomy over one's own body and medical decisions, including the right to informed consent and refusal of treatment.
2. Equitable access to comprehensive healthcare services, including sexual and reproductive healthcare, without discrimination based on gender, race, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, or other factors.
3. Protection from coerced sterilization, forced pregnancy, and other forms of reproductive oppression.
4. Access to safe and legal abortion services, as well as emergency contraception and other family planning methods.
5. The right to high-quality maternal healthcare, including prenatal care, skilled birth attendance, and postpartum care.
6. Protection from gender-based violence, including sexual assault, domestic violence, and female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C).
7. The right to accurate and comprehensive health education, including information about sexual and reproductive health.
8. Representation and participation in healthcare decision-making processes at all levels, from individual patient care to policy development.
9. Access to culturally competent and respectful healthcare services that recognize and address the unique needs and experiences of women.
10. The right to privacy and confidentiality in healthcare settings, including protection of medical records and personal health information.

Family planning services refer to comprehensive healthcare programs and interventions that aim to help individuals and couples prevent or achieve pregnancies, according to their desired number and spacing of children. These services typically include:

1. Counseling and education: Providing information about various contraceptive methods, their effectiveness, side effects, and appropriate use. This may also include counseling on reproductive health, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and preconception care.
2. Contraceptive services: Making a wide range of contraceptive options available to clients, including barrier methods (condoms, diaphragms), hormonal methods (pills, patches, injectables, implants), intrauterine devices (IUDs), and permanent methods (tubal ligation, vasectomy).
3. Screening and testing: Offering STI screening and testing, as well as cervical cancer screening for eligible clients.
4. Preconception care: Providing counseling and interventions to help women achieve optimal health before becoming pregnant, including folic acid supplementation, management of chronic conditions, and avoidance of harmful substances (tobacco, alcohol, drugs).
5. Fertility services: Addressing infertility issues through diagnostic testing, counseling, and medical or surgical treatments when appropriate.
6. Menstrual regulation: Providing manual vacuum aspiration or medication to safely and effectively manage incomplete miscarriages or unwanted pregnancies within the first trimester.
7. Pregnancy options counseling: Offering unbiased information and support to help individuals make informed decisions about their pregnancy, including parenting, adoption, or abortion.
8. Community outreach and education: Engaging in community-based initiatives to increase awareness of family planning services and promote reproductive health.
9. Advocacy: Working to remove barriers to accessing family planning services, such as policy changes, reducing stigma, and increasing funding for programs.

Family planning services are an essential component of sexual and reproductive healthcare and contribute significantly to improving maternal and child health outcomes, reducing unintended pregnancies, and empowering individuals to make informed choices about their reproductive lives.

Gestational age is the length of time that has passed since the first day of the last menstrual period (LMP) in pregnant women. It is the standard unit used to estimate the age of a pregnancy and is typically expressed in weeks. This measure is used because the exact date of conception is often not known, but the start of the last menstrual period is usually easier to recall.

It's important to note that since ovulation typically occurs around two weeks after the start of the LMP, gestational age is approximately two weeks longer than fetal age, which is the actual time elapsed since conception. Medical professionals use both gestational and fetal age to track the development and growth of the fetus during pregnancy.

In medical and legal terms, "personhood" refers to the status of being a person, which is typically associated with certain legal rights, protections, and privileges. The concept of personhood is often discussed in the context of bioethics, particularly in relation to questions about the moral and legal status of entities such as fetuses, embryos, and individuals with severe cognitive impairments or in vegetative states.

The criteria for personhood are a subject of debate and vary depending on cultural, religious, philosophical, and legal perspectives. However, some common factors that are often considered include consciousness, the ability to feel pain, the capacity for self-awareness and self-reflection, the ability to communicate, and the presence of a distinct genetic identity.

In medical contexts, personhood may be relevant to issues such as end-of-life care, organ donation, and reproductive rights. For example, some argue that personhood should be granted to fetuses at the moment of conception, while others believe that personhood is only achieved when a fetus becomes viable outside the womb or when a child is born alive.

Overall, the concept of personhood is complex and multifaceted, and it continues to be debated and refined in various fields and disciplines.

Mifepristone is a synthetic steroid that is used in the medical termination of pregnancy (also known as medication abortion or RU-486). It works by blocking the action of progesterone, a hormone necessary for maintaining pregnancy. Mifepristone is often used in combination with misoprostol to cause uterine contractions and expel the products of conception from the uterus.

It's also known as an antiprogestin or progesterone receptor modulator, which means it can bind to progesterone receptors in the body and block their activity. In addition to its use in pregnancy termination, mifepristone has been studied for its potential therapeutic uses in conditions such as Cushing's syndrome, endometriosis, uterine fibroids, and hormone-dependent cancers.

It is important to note that Mifepristone should be administered under the supervision of a licensed healthcare professional and it is not available over the counter. Also, it has some contraindications and potential side effects, so it's essential to have a consultation with a doctor before taking this medication.

Contraception behavior refers to the actions and decisions made by individuals or couples to prevent pregnancy. This can include the use of various contraceptive methods, such as hormonal birth control (e.g., pills, patches, rings), barrier methods (e.g., condoms, diaphragms), intrauterine devices (IUDs), and natural family planning techniques (e.g., fertility awareness-based methods).

Contraception behavior can be influenced by various factors, including personal beliefs, cultural norms, relationship dynamics, access to healthcare services, and knowledge about contraceptive options. It is an important aspect of sexual and reproductive health, as it allows individuals and couples to plan their families and make informed choices about whether and when to have children.

It's worth noting that while the term "contraception behavior" typically refers to actions taken specifically to prevent pregnancy, some contraceptive methods may also provide protection against sexually transmitted infections (STIs). For example, condoms are effective at preventing both pregnancy and STIs when used consistently and correctly.

Reproductive rights are a subset of human rights that include the right to plan a family, have children, or not have children, and the right to access information and services needed to do so. This can encompass issues such as access to contraception, safe abortion, reproductive health care, and education about sexual and reproductive health. Reproductive rights also include freedom from coercion, discrimination, and violence in relation to one's reproductive choices. These rights are recognized and protected under international law, including the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and various treaties and conventions on women's and human rights.

The birth rate is the number of live births that occur in a population during a specific period, usually calculated as the number of live births per 1,000 people per year. It is an important demographic indicator used to measure the growth or decline of a population over time. A higher birth rate indicates a younger population and faster population growth, while a lower birth rate suggests an older population and slower growth.

The birth rate can be affected by various factors, including socioeconomic conditions, cultural attitudes towards childbearing, access to healthcare services, and government policies related to family planning and reproductive health. It is also influenced by the age structure of the population, as women in their reproductive years (typically ages 15-49) are more likely to give birth.

It's worth noting that while the birth rate is an important indicator of population growth, it does not provide a complete picture of fertility rates or demographic trends. Other measures, such as the total fertility rate (TFR), which estimates the average number of children a woman would have during her reproductive years, are also used to analyze fertility patterns and population dynamics.

Dilatation and Curettage (D&C) is a medical procedure commonly performed on the uterus. The term "dilatation" refers to the widening or opening of the cervix, which is the lower part of the uterus that opens into the vagina. This is achieved using dilators, which are gradually inserted into the cervical canal to stretch it open.

The term "curettage" refers to the scraping or suctioning out of tissue from the lining of the uterus (endometrium). A curette, a long, loop-shaped surgical instrument, is used to scrape the lining, or suction equipment may be used to remove the tissue.

A D&C procedure is typically performed to diagnose and treat various conditions affecting the uterus, such as abnormal uterine bleeding, heavy menstrual periods, endometrial hyperplasia, or to remove residual tissue after a miscarriage or abortion. It's usually a minor surgical procedure that can be done in a hospital, clinic, or doctor's office, and is often performed under local anesthesia, conscious sedation, or general anesthesia depending on the situation and patient preference.

Pregnancy outcome refers to the final result or status of a pregnancy, including both the health of the mother and the newborn baby. It can be categorized into various types such as:

1. Live birth: The delivery of one or more babies who show signs of life after separation from their mother.
2. Stillbirth: The delivery of a baby who has died in the womb after 20 weeks of pregnancy.
3. Miscarriage: The spontaneous loss of a pregnancy before the 20th week.
4. Abortion: The intentional termination of a pregnancy before the fetus can survive outside the uterus.
5. Ectopic pregnancy: A pregnancy that develops outside the uterus, usually in the fallopian tube, which is not viable and requires medical attention.
6. Preterm birth: The delivery of a baby before 37 weeks of gestation, which can lead to various health issues for the newborn.
7. Full-term birth: The delivery of a baby between 37 and 42 weeks of gestation.
8. Post-term pregnancy: The delivery of a baby after 42 weeks of gestation, which may increase the risk of complications for both mother and baby.

The pregnancy outcome is influenced by various factors such as maternal age, health status, lifestyle habits, genetic factors, and access to quality prenatal care.

The "beginning of human life" is a term that is often used in the context of medical ethics, particularly in discussions about issues such as abortion and stem cell research. However, there is no universally accepted medical definition of this term, as it is also influenced by philosophical, religious, and legal considerations.

From a biological perspective, human life begins at fertilization, when a sperm cell successfully penetrates and fuses with an egg cell to form a zygote. This single cell contains the complete genetic makeup of the future individual and has the potential to develop into a fully formed human being, given the right conditions.

However, some people argue that personhood or moral status does not begin until later stages of development, such as at implantation, when the zygote attaches to the uterine wall and begins to receive nutrients from the mother's body, or at viability, when the fetus can survive outside the womb with medical assistance.

Ultimately, the definition of "beginning of human life" is a complex and controversial issue that depends on one's values and beliefs. It is important to recognize and respect the diversity of opinions on this matter and engage in thoughtful and respectful dialogue about its implications for medical practice and policy.

The second trimester of pregnancy is the period between the completion of 12 weeks (the end of the first trimester) and 26 weeks (the beginning of the third trimester) of gestational age. It is often considered the most comfortable period for many pregnant women as the risk of miscarriage decreases significantly, and the symptoms experienced during the first trimester, such as nausea and fatigue, typically improve.

During this time, the uterus expands above the pubic bone, allowing more space for the growing fetus. The fetal development in the second trimester includes significant growth in size and weight, formation of all major organs, and the beginning of movement sensations that the mother can feel. Additionally, the fetus starts to hear, swallow and kick, and the skin is covered with a protective coating called vernix.

Prenatal care during this period typically includes regular prenatal appointments to monitor the mother's health and the baby's growth and development. These appointments may include measurements of the uterus, fetal heart rate monitoring, and screening tests for genetic disorders or other potential issues.

Neospora is a genus of intracellular parasites that belong to the phylum Apicomplexa. The most common species that affects animals is Neospora caninum, which is known to cause serious disease in cattle and dogs. It can also infect other warm-blooded animals, including sheep, goats, horses, and deer.

Neosporosis, the infection caused by Neospora, primarily affects the nervous system and muscles of the host animal. In cattle, it is a major cause of abortion, stillbirths, and neurological disorders. The parasite can be transmitted through the placenta from an infected mother to her offspring (congenital transmission), or through the ingestion of contaminated feed or water (horizontal transmission).

Neospora is a significant economic concern for the livestock industry, particularly in dairy and beef cattle operations. There is no effective vaccine or treatment available for neosporosis in animals, so prevention efforts focus on identifying and isolating infected animals to reduce the spread of the parasite.

Pregnancy trimesters are a way to divide the duration of pregnancy into three 3-month (or approximately 13-week) segments. This division can help healthcare providers monitor and discuss specific developmental stages, symptoms, and care needs during each phase of the pregnancy. Here's a brief overview of what typically occurs in each trimester:

1. First Trimester (Week 1 - Week 12): During this period, major organs and structures begin to form in the developing fetus. Common symptoms experienced by the pregnant individual may include morning sickness, fatigue, breast tenderness, and frequent urination. Regular prenatal care should start during these early weeks to monitor both the mother's and baby's health.

2. Second Trimester (Week 13 - Week 26): This phase is often considered more comfortable for many pregnant individuals as some symptoms from the first trimester improve. The fetus continues to grow, and movement can be felt. Organs and systems continue to develop, and the fetus becomes more active. Common symptoms during this time include back pain, stretch marks, and swelling of the ankles and feet.

3. Third Trimester (Week 27 - Birth): The final trimester is marked by significant growth and weight gain for both the mother and baby. The fetus will turn into a head-down position in preparation for birth. Common symptoms during this time include shortness of breath, heartburn, difficulty sleeping, and contractions (which can indicate early labor). Regular prenatal care remains crucial to monitor the health of both the mother and baby as delivery approaches.

Parental notification is a term used in the context of medical care, particularly in situations involving minors (individuals who are under the age of majority, which is 18 years old in most states in the US). It refers to the practice of informing or notifying a parent, legal guardian, or other responsible adult relative of a minor's decision to seek certain medical services, treatments, or procedures.

In some cases, parental notification may be required by law before a minor can receive specific medical interventions, such as abortion, mental health treatment, or certain surgical procedures. The specific requirements for parental notification vary depending on the jurisdiction and the type of medical service being sought.

The purpose of parental notification is to ensure that parents or guardians are involved in important medical decisions affecting their minor children, and to provide an opportunity for them to offer guidance, support, and consent. However, there may be exceptions to parental notification requirements in cases where the minor is mature enough to make informed decisions about their own health care, or when notifying a parent could put the minor at risk of harm or abuse.

Pregnancy in adolescence, also known as teenage pregnancy, refers to a pregnancy that occurs in females under the age of 20. This can be further categorized into early adolescent pregnancy (occurring between ages 10-14), middle adolescent pregnancy (occurring between ages 15-17), and late adolescent pregnancy (occurring between ages 18-19). Teenage pregnancy is associated with higher risks of complications for both the mother and the baby, including preterm birth, low birth weight, and increased risk of neonatal mortality. Additionally, teenage mothers are more likely to drop out of school and face socioeconomic challenges.

Contraceptive devices are medical products or tools specifically designed to prevent pregnancy by blocking or interfering with the fertilization of an egg by sperm, or the implantation of a fertilized egg in the uterus. There are various types of contraceptive devices available, each with its own mechanism of action and efficacy rate. Here are some common examples:

1. Intrauterine Devices (IUDs): These are small, T-shaped devices made of plastic or copper that are inserted into the uterus by a healthcare professional. IUDs can prevent pregnancy for several years and work by affecting the movement of sperm and changing the lining of the uterus to make it less receptive to implantation.
2. Contraceptive Implants: These are small, flexible rods that are inserted under the skin of the upper arm by a healthcare professional. The implant releases hormones that prevent ovulation and thicken cervical mucus to block sperm from reaching the egg.
3. Diaphragms and Cervical Caps: These are flexible, dome-shaped devices made of silicone or rubber that are inserted into the vagina before sex. They cover the cervix and prevent sperm from entering the uterus.
4. Male and Female Condoms: These are thin sheaths made of latex, polyurethane, or other materials that are placed over the penis (male condom) or inside the vagina (female condom) during sex to prevent sperm from entering the body.
5. Spermicides: These are chemicals that kill or disable sperm and can be used alone or in combination with other contraceptive methods such as condoms, diaphragms, or cervical caps. They come in various forms, including foams, creams, gels, films, and suppositories.

It's important to note that while contraceptive devices are effective at preventing pregnancy, they do not protect against sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Using condoms is the best way to reduce the risk of STIs during sexual activity.

Uterine hemorrhage, also known as uterine bleeding or gynecological bleeding, is an abnormal loss of blood from the uterus. It can occur in various clinical settings such as menstruation (known as menorrhagia), postpartum period (postpartum hemorrhage), or in non-pregnant women (dysfunctional uterine bleeding). The bleeding may be light to heavy, intermittent or continuous, and can be accompanied by symptoms such as pain, dizziness, or fainting. Uterine hemorrhage is a common gynecological problem that can have various underlying causes, including hormonal imbalances, structural abnormalities, coagulopathies, and malignancies. It is important to seek medical attention if experiencing heavy or prolonged uterine bleeding to determine the cause and receive appropriate treatment.

Defining "life" is a complex question that has been debated by philosophers, scientists, and theologians for centuries. From a biological or medical perspective, life can be defined as a characteristic that distinguishes physical entities that do have biological processes, such as growth, reproduction, and response to stimuli, from those that do not, either because such functions have ceased (death), or because they never had such functions and are classified as inanimate.

The National Institutes of Health (NIH) defines life as "the condition that distinguishes animals and plants from inorganic matter, including the capacity for growth, reproduction, functional activity, and continual change preceding death."

It's important to note that there is no one universally accepted definition of life, and different fields and disciplines may have slightly different definitions or criteria.

Pregnancy complications refer to any health problems that arise during pregnancy which can put both the mother and the baby at risk. These complications may occur at any point during the pregnancy, from conception until childbirth. Some common pregnancy complications include:

1. Gestational diabetes: a type of diabetes that develops during pregnancy in women who did not have diabetes before becoming pregnant.
2. Preeclampsia: a pregnancy complication characterized by high blood pressure and damage to organs such as the liver or kidneys.
3. Placenta previa: a condition where the placenta covers the cervix, which can cause bleeding and may require delivery via cesarean section.
4. Preterm labor: when labor begins before 37 weeks of gestation, which can lead to premature birth and other complications.
5. Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR): a condition where the fetus does not grow at a normal rate inside the womb.
6. Multiple pregnancies: carrying more than one baby, such as twins or triplets, which can increase the risk of premature labor and other complications.
7. Rh incompatibility: a condition where the mother's blood type is different from the baby's, which can cause anemia and jaundice in the newborn.
8. Pregnancy loss: including miscarriage, stillbirth, or ectopic pregnancy, which can be emotionally devastating for the parents.

It is important to monitor pregnancy closely and seek medical attention promptly if any concerning symptoms arise. With proper care and management, many pregnancy complications can be treated effectively, reducing the risk of harm to both the mother and the baby.

Cattle diseases are a range of health conditions that affect cattle, which include but are not limited to:

1. Bovine Respiratory Disease (BRD): Also known as "shipping fever," BRD is a common respiratory illness in feedlot cattle that can be caused by several viruses and bacteria.
2. Bovine Viral Diarrhea (BVD): A viral disease that can cause a variety of symptoms, including diarrhea, fever, and reproductive issues.
3. Johne's Disease: A chronic wasting disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis. It primarily affects the intestines and can cause severe diarrhea and weight loss.
4. Digital Dermatitis: Also known as "hairy heel warts," this is a highly contagious skin disease that affects the feet of cattle, causing lameness and decreased productivity.
5. Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis (IBK): Also known as "pinkeye," IBK is a common and contagious eye infection in cattle that can cause blindness if left untreated.
6. Salmonella: A group of bacteria that can cause severe gastrointestinal illness in cattle, including diarrhea, dehydration, and septicemia.
7. Leptospirosis: A bacterial disease that can cause a wide range of symptoms in cattle, including abortion, stillbirths, and kidney damage.
8. Blackleg: A highly fatal bacterial disease that causes rapid death in young cattle. It is caused by Clostridium chauvoei and vaccination is recommended for prevention.
9. Anthrax: A serious infectious disease caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis. Cattle can become infected by ingesting spores found in contaminated soil, feed or water.
10. Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD): A highly contagious viral disease that affects cloven-hooved animals, including cattle. It is characterized by fever and blisters on the feet, mouth, and teats. FMD is not a threat to human health but can have serious economic consequences for the livestock industry.

It's important to note that many of these diseases can be prevented or controlled through good management practices, such as vaccination, biosecurity measures, and proper nutrition. Regular veterinary care and monitoring are also crucial for early detection and treatment of any potential health issues in your herd.

Catholicism is a branch of Christianity that recognizes the authority of the Pope and follows the teachings and traditions of the Roman Catholic Church. It is the largest Christian denomination in the world, with over a billion members worldwide. The beliefs and practices of Catholicism include the sacraments, prayer, and various forms of worship, as well as social justice initiatives and charitable works. The Catholic Church has a hierarchical structure, with the Pope at the top, followed by bishops, priests, and deacons. It places a strong emphasis on the teachings of Jesus Christ, the Virgin Mary, and the saints.

In medical terms, parity refers to the number of times a woman has given birth to a viable fetus, usually defined as a pregnancy that reaches at least 20 weeks' gestation. It is often used in obstetrics and gynecology to describe a woman's childbearing history and to assess potential risks associated with childbirth.

Parity is typically categorized as follows:

* Nulliparous: A woman who has never given birth to a viable fetus.
* Primiparous: A woman who has given birth to one viable fetus.
* Multiparous: A woman who has given birth to more than one viable fetus.

In some cases, parity may also consider the number of pregnancies that resulted in stillbirths or miscarriages, although this is not always the case. It's important to note that parity does not necessarily reflect the total number of pregnancies a woman has had, only those that resulted in viable births.

In medical or legal terms, "illegitimacy" refers to the status of a child who is born to parents who are not married to each other. This concept is more commonly used in sociology and law rather than medicine. In some societies and historical periods, illegitimate children may have faced social stigma and discrimination, but this is less common in modern times. It's important to note that the concept of illegitimacy has been largely abandoned in many legal systems, and children are now recognized as having equal rights and status regardless of their parents' marital status.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Judicial Role" is not a term that is typically used in medical definitions. It is a legal term that refers to the role and responsibilities of a judge in the administration of justice. This includes presiding over trials, interpreting and applying laws, and ensuring fair and impartial proceedings.

Coccidiosis is a parasitic infection caused by protozoa of the Eimeria genus, which typically affects the intestinal tract of animals, including humans. The infection occurs when a person or animal ingests oocysts (the infective stage of the parasite) through contaminated food, water, or direct contact with infected feces.

In humans, coccidiosis is most commonly found in children living in poor sanitary conditions and in individuals with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS or organ transplant recipients on immunosuppressive therapy. The infection can cause watery diarrhea, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and fever. In severe cases, it may lead to dehydration, weight loss, and even death in individuals with compromised immune systems.

In animals, particularly in poultry, swine, and ruminants, coccidiosis can cause significant economic losses due to decreased growth rates, poor feed conversion, and increased mortality. Preventive measures include improving sanitation, reducing overcrowding, and administering anticoccidial drugs or vaccines.

Ectopic pregnancy is a type of abnormal pregnancy that occurs outside the uterine cavity. The most common site for an ectopic pregnancy is the fallopian tube, accounting for about 95% of cases. This condition is also known as tubal pregnancy. Other less common sites include the ovary, cervix, and abdominal cavity.

In a normal pregnancy, the fertilized egg travels down the fallopian tube and implants itself in the lining of the uterus. However, in an ectopic pregnancy, the fertilized egg implants and starts to develop somewhere other than the uterus. The growing embryo cannot survive outside the uterus, and if left untreated, an ectopic pregnancy can cause life-threatening bleeding due to the rupture of the fallopian tube or other organs.

Symptoms of ectopic pregnancy may include abdominal pain, vaginal bleeding, shoulder pain, lightheadedness, fainting, and in severe cases, shock. Diagnosis is usually made through a combination of medical history, physical examination, ultrasound, and blood tests to measure the levels of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), a hormone produced during pregnancy.

Treatment for ectopic pregnancy depends on several factors, including the location, size, and growth rate of the ectopic mass, as well as the patient's overall health and desire for future pregnancies. Treatment options may include medication to stop the growth of the embryo or surgery to remove the ectopic tissue. In some cases, both methods may be used together. Early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent serious complications and improve the chances of preserving fertility in future pregnancies.

I'm happy to help, but I want to clarify that the term "sheep diseases" refers to a wide range of health issues that can affect sheep populations. It's not a single medical condition with a specific definition. Here are some examples of common diseases that can affect sheep:

1. Ovine Johne's Disease (OJD): A chronic, infectious disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis. It affects the intestines and can cause weight loss, diarrhea, and death.
2. Footrot: A highly contagious bacterial infection that affects the feet of sheep, causing lameness, swelling, and pain. It's caused by the bacteria Dichelobacter nodosus.
3. Caseous Lymphadenitis (CL): A chronic infectious disease caused by the bacterium Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis. It affects the lymph nodes and can cause abscesses, weight loss, and death.
4. Contagious Ecthyma (Orf): A highly contagious viral infection that affects the skin and mucous membranes of sheep, causing sores and lesions.
5. Mastitis: An inflammation of the mammary gland in sheep, usually caused by a bacterial infection. It can cause decreased milk production, fever, and loss of appetite.
6. Pneumonia: A respiratory infection that can affect sheep, causing coughing, difficulty breathing, and fever. It can be caused by various bacteria or viruses.
7. Enterotoxemia: A potentially fatal disease caused by the overproduction of toxins in the intestines of sheep, usually due to a bacterial infection with Clostridium perfringens.
8. Polioencephalomalacia (PEM): A neurological disorder that affects the brain of sheep, causing symptoms such as blindness, circling, and seizures. It's often caused by a thiamine deficiency or excessive sulfur intake.
9. Toxoplasmosis: A parasitic infection that can affect sheep, causing abortion, stillbirth, and neurological symptoms.
10. Blue tongue: A viral disease that affects sheep, causing fever, respiratory distress, and mouth ulcers. It's transmitted by insect vectors and is often associated with climate change.

Maternal age is a term used to describe the age of a woman at the time she becomes pregnant or gives birth. It is often used in medical and epidemiological contexts to discuss the potential risks, complications, and outcomes associated with pregnancy and childbirth at different stages of a woman's reproductive years.

Advanced maternal age typically refers to women who become pregnant or give birth at 35 years of age or older. This group faces an increased risk for certain chromosomal abnormalities, such as Down syndrome, and other pregnancy-related complications, including gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, and cesarean delivery.

On the other end of the spectrum, adolescent pregnancies (those that occur in women under 20 years old) also come with their own set of potential risks and complications, such as preterm birth, low birth weight, and anemia.

It's important to note that while maternal age can influence pregnancy outcomes, many other factors – including genetics, lifestyle choices, and access to quality healthcare – can also play a significant role in determining the health of both mother and baby during pregnancy and childbirth.

Placental diseases, also known as placental pathologies, refer to a group of conditions that affect the development and function of the placenta during pregnancy. The placenta is an organ that develops in the uterus during pregnancy and provides oxygen and nutrients to the developing fetus while removing waste products.

Placental diseases can have serious consequences for both the mother and the fetus, including preterm labor, growth restriction, stillbirth, and long-term health problems for the child. Some common placental diseases include:

1. Placental abruption: This occurs when the placenta separates from the uterine wall before delivery, causing bleeding and potentially harming the fetus.
2. Placental previa: This is a condition where the placenta implants in the lower part of the uterus, covering the cervix. It can cause bleeding and may require cesarean delivery.
3. Preeclampsia: This is a pregnancy-related disorder characterized by high blood pressure and damage to organs such as the liver and kidneys. Placental dysfunction is thought to play a role in its development.
4. Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR): This occurs when the fetus does not grow properly due to poor placental function, leading to low birth weight and potential health problems.
5. Chorioamnionitis: This is an infection of the membranes surrounding the fetus, which can lead to preterm labor and other complications.
6. Placental infarction: This occurs when a portion of the placenta dies due to a lack of blood flow, which can lead to growth restriction or stillbirth.

Prompt diagnosis and treatment of placental diseases are essential for ensuring the best possible outcomes for both the mother and the fetus.

Gynecology is a branch of medicine that deals with the health of the female reproductive system. It includes the diagnosis, treatment, and management of conditions related to the female reproductive organs such as the vagina, cervix, uterus, ovaries, and fallopian tubes.

Gynecologists provide routine care for women, including Pap tests, breast exams, and family planning advice. They also treat a wide range of gynecological issues, from menstrual disorders and sexually transmitted infections to reproductive system cancers and hormonal imbalances. In addition, many gynecologists also provide obstetric care, making them both ob-gyns.

It's important for women to establish a relationship with a trusted gynecologist to ensure they receive regular checkups and are able to address any concerns or issues related to their reproductive health.

Infectious pregnancy complications refer to infections that occur during pregnancy and can affect the mother, fetus, or both. These infections can lead to serious consequences such as preterm labor, low birth weight, birth defects, stillbirth, or even death. Some common infectious agents that can cause pregnancy complications include:

1. Bacteria: Examples include group B streptococcus, Escherichia coli, and Listeria monocytogenes, which can cause sepsis, meningitis, or pneumonia in the mother and lead to preterm labor or stillbirth.
2. Viruses: Examples include cytomegalovirus, rubella, varicella-zoster, and HIV, which can cause congenital anomalies, developmental delays, or transmission of the virus to the fetus.
3. Parasites: Examples include Toxoplasma gondii, which can cause severe neurological damage in the fetus if transmitted during pregnancy.
4. Fungi: Examples include Candida albicans, which can cause fungal infections in the mother and lead to preterm labor or stillbirth.

Preventive measures such as vaccination, good hygiene practices, and avoiding high-risk behaviors can help reduce the risk of infectious pregnancy complications. Prompt diagnosis and treatment of infections during pregnancy are also crucial to prevent adverse outcomes.

"Marital status" is not a medical term, but it is often used in medical records and forms to indicate whether a person is single, married, divorced, widowed, or in a civil union. It is a social determinant of health that can have an impact on a person's access to healthcare, health behaviors, and health outcomes. For example, research has shown that people who are unmarried, divorced, or widowed may have worse health outcomes than those who are married. However, it is important to note that this relationship is complex and influenced by many other factors, including socioeconomic status, age, and overall health.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Jurisprudence" is not a term typically used in medical definitions. Jurisprudence refers to the theory and philosophy of law, or the study of legal systems, principles, and practices. It is a subject that falls under the purview of lawyers, judges, and scholars of law. If you have any questions about medical terminology, I'd be happy to help with those!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "morals" is not a term that has a medical definition. Morals refer to personal or societal beliefs about right and wrong behavior. It is a concept that falls under the realm of ethics, philosophy, and sociology rather than medicine. If you have any questions related to medical terminologies or concepts, I would be happy to help clarify those for you.

Women's health services refer to medical services that are specifically designed, focused on, or tailored to the unique physiological and psychological needs of women, throughout various stages of their lives. These services encompass a wide range of healthcare areas including:

1. Gynecology and obstetrics - covering routine preventive care, family planning, prenatal and postnatal care, as well as management of gynecological conditions like menstrual disorders, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and reproductive system cancers (e.g., cervical, ovarian, and endometrial cancer).
2. Breast health - including breast cancer screening, diagnostics, treatment, and survivorship care, as well as education on breast self-examination and risk reduction strategies.
3. Mental health - addressing women's mental health concerns such as depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), eating disorders, and perinatal mood disorders, while also considering the impact of hormonal changes, life events, and societal expectations on emotional wellbeing.
4. Sexual health - providing care for sexual concerns, dysfunctions, and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), as well as offering education on safe sexual practices and promoting healthy relationships.
5. Cardiovascular health - addressing women's specific cardiovascular risks, such as pregnancy-related complications, and managing conditions like hypertension and high cholesterol to prevent heart disease, the leading cause of death for women in many countries.
6. Bone health - focusing on prevention, diagnosis, and management of osteoporosis and other bone diseases that disproportionately affect women, particularly after menopause.
7. Menopause care - providing support and treatment for symptoms related to menopause, such as hot flashes, sleep disturbances, and mood changes, while also addressing long-term health concerns like bone density loss and heart disease risk.
8. Preventive care - offering routine screenings and vaccinations specific to women's health needs, including cervical cancer screening (Pap test), breast cancer screening (mammography), human papillomavirus (HPV) testing, and osteoporosis screening.
9. Education and counseling - empowering women with knowledge about their bodies, sexual and reproductive health, and overall wellbeing through evidence-based resources and support.
10. Integrative care - addressing the whole person, including mental, emotional, and spiritual wellbeing, by incorporating complementary therapies like acupuncture, mindfulness, and yoga into treatment plans as appropriate.

"Chlamydophila" is a genus of bacteria that includes several species that can cause human diseases. The most well-known species in this genus is "Chlamydophila trachomatis," which is the leading cause of preventable blindness worldwide and can also cause sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Other species in the genus include "Chlamydophila pneumoniae," which can cause respiratory infections, and "Chlamydophila psittaci," which can cause psittacosis, a type of pneumonia that is often associated with exposure to birds.

It's worth noting that the taxonomy of these bacteria has been subject to some debate and revision in recent years. Some experts have proposed reclassifying the genus "Chlamydophila" as a subgroup within the genus "Chlamydia," which would make the species "Chlamydophila trachomatis" become "Chlamydia trachomatis," and so on. However, this proposal has not been universally accepted, and both classifications continue to be used in the scientific literature.

"Legislation as Topic" is a legal term that refers to laws, regulations, or statutes related to medicine, healthcare, and the medical field. This can include legislation regarding the practice of medicine, patient rights, healthcare financing, medical research, pharmaceuticals, and public health, among other things. Essentially, "Legislation as Topic" covers any law or regulation that impacts the medical community, healthcare system, or individual patients. It is a broad category that can encompass many different areas of law and policy.

Congenital abnormalities, also known as birth defects, are structural or functional anomalies that are present at birth. These abnormalities can develop at any point during fetal development, and they can affect any part of the body. They can be caused by genetic factors, environmental influences, or a combination of both.

Congenital abnormalities can range from mild to severe and may include structural defects such as heart defects, neural tube defects, and cleft lip and palate, as well as functional defects such as intellectual disabilities and sensory impairments. Some congenital abnormalities may be visible at birth, while others may not become apparent until later in life.

In some cases, congenital abnormalities may be detected through prenatal testing, such as ultrasound or amniocentesis. In other cases, they may not be diagnosed until after the baby is born. Treatment for congenital abnormalities varies depending on the type and severity of the defect, and may include surgery, therapy, medication, or a combination of these approaches.

Maternal mortality is defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as "the death of a woman while pregnant or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy, irrespective of the duration and site of the pregnancy, from any cause related to or aggravated by the pregnancy or its management but not from accidental or incidental causes."

This definition highlights that maternal mortality is a preventable death that occurs during pregnancy, childbirth, or in the postpartum period, and it can be caused by various factors related to or worsened by the pregnancy or its management. The WHO also collects data on maternal deaths due to direct obstetric causes (such as hemorrhage, hypertensive disorders, sepsis, and unsafe abortion) and indirect causes (such as malaria, anemia, and HIV/AIDS).

Maternal mortality is a significant public health issue worldwide, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. Reducing maternal mortality is one of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) set by the United Nations, with a target to reduce the global maternal mortality ratio to less than 70 per 100,000 live births by 2030.

A fetus is the developing offspring in a mammal, from the end of the embryonic period (approximately 8 weeks after fertilization in humans) until birth. In humans, the fetal stage of development starts from the eleventh week of pregnancy and continues until childbirth, which is termed as full-term pregnancy at around 37 to 40 weeks of gestation. During this time, the organ systems become fully developed and the body grows in size. The fetus is surrounded by the amniotic fluid within the amniotic sac and is connected to the placenta via the umbilical cord, through which it receives nutrients and oxygen from the mother. Regular prenatal care is essential during this period to monitor the growth and development of the fetus and ensure a healthy pregnancy and delivery.

'Supreme Court Decisions' refer to the legal rulings made by the Supreme Court of the United States, which is the highest court in the federal judiciary of the US. These decisions are the final word on matters of federal law, including constitutional interpretation, and they establish precedents that guide future decision-making in federal and state courts. They can have significant impacts on various aspects of American society, politics, and law.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "United States" is a geopolitical entity, specifically the name of the country consisting of 50 states, and it is not a medical term or concept. Therefore, I can't provide a medical definition for it. If you have any questions related to health, medicine, or biology, I would be happy to try to help answer those!

I understand you are asking for a medical definition of "Horse Diseases." However, it's important to note that there isn't a specific medical field dedicated to horse diseases as we typically categorize medical fields by human diseases and conditions. Veterinary medicine is the field responsible for studying, diagnosing, and treating diseases in animals, including horses.

Here's a general definition of 'Horse Diseases':

Horse diseases are health issues or medical conditions that affect equine species, particularly horses. These diseases can be caused by various factors such as bacterial, viral, fungal, or parasitic infections; genetic predispositions; environmental factors; and metabolic disorders. Examples of horse diseases include Strangles (Streptococcus equi), Equine Influenza, Equine Herpesvirus, West Nile Virus, Rabies, Potomac Horse Fever, Lyme Disease, and internal or external parasites like worms and ticks. Additionally, horses can suffer from musculoskeletal disorders such as arthritis, laminitis, and various injuries. Regular veterinary care, preventative measures, and proper management are crucial for maintaining horse health and preventing diseases.

Obstetrics is a branch of medicine and surgery concerned with the care of women during pregnancy, childbirth, and the postnatal period. It involves managing potential complications that may arise during any stage of pregnancy or delivery, as well as providing advice and guidance on prenatal care, labor and delivery, and postpartum care. Obstetricians are medical doctors who specialize in obstetrics and can provide a range of services including routine check-ups, ultrasounds, genetic testing, and other diagnostic procedures to monitor the health and development of the fetus. They also perform surgical procedures such as cesarean sections when necessary.

The placenta is an organ that develops in the uterus during pregnancy and provides oxygen and nutrients to the growing baby through the umbilical cord. It also removes waste products from the baby's blood. The placenta attaches to the wall of the uterus, and the baby's side of the placenta contains many tiny blood vessels that connect to the baby's circulatory system. This allows for the exchange of oxygen, nutrients, and waste between the mother's and baby's blood. After the baby is born, the placenta is usually expelled from the uterus in a process called afterbirth.

Sublingual administration refers to a route of delivering medication or other substances through placement under the tongue, allowing for rapid absorption into the bloodstream through the mucous membranes located there. This method can allow for quick onset of action and avoids first-pass metabolism in the liver that may occur with oral administration. Common examples of sublingual medications include nitroglycerin for angina pectoris and certain forms of hormone replacement therapy.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Human Rights" is a social, political, and legal concept, rather than a medical one. Human rights are basic rights and freedoms to which all individuals are entitled, regardless of nationality, sex, ethnicity, religion, language, or any other status. They include civil and political rights, such as the right to life, liberty, and freedom of expression; as well as social, cultural and economic rights, like the right to participate in culture, the right to food, and the right to work and receive an education.

However, in the context of healthcare, human rights are crucial. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights recognizes the right to medical care and the right to enjoy the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health. Healthcare providers have a responsibility to respect and protect their patients' human rights, ensuring that they receive care without discrimination, that their privacy is protected, and that they are involved in decisions regarding their healthcare.

Violations of human rights can significantly impact an individual's health and well-being, making the promotion and protection of human rights a critical public health issue.

An Intrauterine Device (IUD) is a long-acting, reversible contraceptive device that is inserted into the uterus to prevent pregnancy. It is a small T-shaped piece of flexible plastic with strings attached to it for removal. There are two types of IUDs available: hormonal and copper. Hormonal IUDs release progestin, which thickens cervical mucus and thins the lining of the uterus, preventing sperm from reaching and fertilizing an egg. Copper IUDs, on the other hand, produce an inflammatory reaction in the uterus that is toxic to sperm and eggs, preventing fertilization.

IUDs are more than 99% effective at preventing pregnancy and can remain in place for several years, depending on the type. They are easily removable by a healthcare provider if a woman wants to become pregnant or choose another form of contraception. IUDs do not protect against sexually transmitted infections (STIs), so it is important to use condoms in addition to an IUD for protection against STIs.

In summary, Intrauterine Devices are small, T-shaped plastic devices that are inserted into the uterus to prevent pregnancy. They come in two types: hormonal and copper, both of which work by preventing fertilization. IUDs are highly effective, long-acting, and reversible forms of contraception.

Population surveillance in a public health and medical context refers to the ongoing, systematic collection, analysis, interpretation, and dissemination of health-related data for a defined population over time. It aims to monitor the health status, identify emerging health threats or trends, and evaluate the impact of interventions within that population. This information is used to inform public health policy, prioritize healthcare resources, and guide disease prevention and control efforts. Population surveillance can involve various data sources, such as vital records, disease registries, surveys, and electronic health records.

I believe there may be a misunderstanding in your question. "Goat diseases" refers to illnesses that affect goats specifically. It does not mean diseases that are caused by goats or related to them in some way. Here are some examples of goat diseases:

1. Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis (CAE): A viral disease that affects goats, causing arthritis, pneumonia, and sometimes encephalitis.
2. Caseous Lymphadenitis (CL): A bacterial disease that causes abscesses in the lymph nodes of goats.
3. Contagious Caprine Pleuropneumonia (CCPP): A contagious respiratory disease caused by mycoplasma bacteria.
4. Johne's Disease: A chronic wasting disease caused by a type of bacterium called Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis.
5. Pasteurellosis: A bacterial disease that can cause pneumonia, septicemia, and other infections in goats.
6. Salmonellosis: A bacterial disease caused by Salmonella bacteria, which can cause diarrhea, fever, and septicemia in goats.
7. Soremouth (Orf): A viral disease that causes sores and scabs around the mouth and nose of goats.

These are just a few examples of diseases that can affect goats. If you have any specific questions about goat health or diseases, I would recommend consulting with a veterinarian who specializes in small ruminants.

Government regulation in the context of medicine refers to the rules, guidelines, and laws established by government agencies to control, monitor, and standardize various aspects of healthcare. These regulations are designed to protect patients, promote public health, ensure quality of care, and regulate the healthcare industry. Examples of government regulation in medicine include:

1. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulations for drug approval, medical device clearance, and food safety.
2. Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) regulations for healthcare reimbursement, quality measures, and program eligibility.
3. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) regulations for workplace safety in healthcare settings.
4. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations to minimize environmental impacts from healthcare facilities and pharmaceutical manufacturing.
5. State medical boards' regulations for licensing, disciplining, and monitoring physicians and other healthcare professionals.
6. Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) regulations for patient privacy and data security.
7. Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA) regulations for laboratory testing quality and standards.
8. Federal Trade Commission (FTC) regulations to prevent deceptive or unfair trade practices in healthcare marketing and advertising.
9. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) guidelines for evidence-based practice and patient safety.
10. Public Health Service Act (PHSA) regulations related to infectious diseases, bioterrorism preparedness, and substance abuse treatment.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "human characteristics" is not a medical term or concept. It refers to the typical traits, attributes, and features that define humans as a species, both physically and behaviorally. Physical human characteristics include bipedal locomotion, large brains, and fine motor skills, while behavioral characteristics can include complex language use, self-awareness, and sociality.

However, if you have any specific medical or health-related questions, I would be happy to help answer them to the best of my ability!

Postcoital contraception, also known as emergency contraception, refers to methods used to prevent pregnancy after sexual intercourse has already occurred. These methods are typically used in situations where regular contraception has failed or was not used, such as in cases of condom breakage or forgotten birth control pills.

There are two main types of postcoital contraception:

1. Emergency contraceptive pill (ECP): Also known as the "morning-after pill," this is a hormonal medication that can be taken up to 5 days after unprotected sex, but it is most effective when taken within 72 hours. There are two types of ECPs available: progestin-only and combined estrogen-progestin. The progestin-only pill is preferred because it has fewer side effects and is just as effective as the combined pill.
2. Copper intrauterine device (IUD): This is a small, T-shaped device made of flexible plastic and copper that is inserted into the uterus by a healthcare provider. The IUD can be inserted up to 5 days after unprotected sex to prevent pregnancy. It is the most effective form of emergency contraception available, and it also provides ongoing protection against pregnancy for up to 10 years, depending on the type of IUD.

It's important to note that postcoital contraception should not be used as a regular method of contraception, but rather as a backup in case of emergencies. It is also not effective in preventing sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Regular contraceptive methods, such as condoms and hormonal birth control, are the best ways to prevent unintended pregnancies and STIs.

Conscience is not a medical term, but it is a concept that is often discussed in the context of ethics, psychology, and philosophy. In general, conscience refers to an individual's sense of right and wrong, which guides their behavior and decision-making. It is sometimes described as an inner voice or a moral compass that helps people distinguish between right and wrong actions.

While conscience is not a medical term, there are medical conditions that can affect a person's ability to distinguish between right and wrong or to make ethical decisions. For example, certain neurological conditions, such as frontotemporal dementia, can impair a person's moral judgment and decision-making abilities. Similarly, some mental health disorders, such as psychopathy, may be associated with reduced moral reasoning and empathy, which can affect a person's conscience.

It is worth noting that the concept of conscience is complex and multifaceted, and there is ongoing debate among philosophers, psychologists, and neuroscientists about its nature and origins. Some theories suggest that conscience is a product of socialization and cultural influences, while others propose that it has a more fundamental basis in human biology and evolution.

There is no universally accepted medical definition for "Value of Life" as it is a concept that encompasses both medical, ethical, and philosophical considerations. However, in the context of healthcare, the value of life may refer to the benefits, outcomes, or improvements in quality of life that are gained through medical interventions or treatments. This can include extending lifespan, improving functional ability, relieving symptoms, and enhancing overall well-being.

Ultimately, the value of life is subjective and depends on individual and societal values, beliefs, and preferences. Healthcare providers must consider these factors when making treatment decisions and engaging in end-of-life care discussions with patients and their families. It's important to note that the medical community does not assign a monetary value to human life.

Parental consent refers to the legal right and obligation of parents or guardians to make decisions on behalf of a minor child, including providing authorization for medical treatment. The specific requirements for parental consent may vary depending on jurisdiction, but generally, it involves providing written permission for a medical procedure or treatment after being fully informed about the nature, risks, benefits, and alternatives of the proposed care.

In some cases, parental consent may be required for routine medical procedures, while in other situations, it may only be necessary for more invasive or higher-risk treatments. Healthcare providers must obtain appropriate parental consent before performing medical procedures on minors to ensure that they are acting within the bounds of the law and protecting the best interests of their patients.

It's important to note that in some circumstances, such as when a minor is mature enough to make their own healthcare decisions or if seeking treatment for certain sensitive issues (such as reproductive health), parental consent may not be required, and the minor may be able to provide informed consent themselves.

Uterine perforation is a medical condition that refers to the piercing or puncturing of the uterine wall. This can occur during various medical procedures such as dilatation and curettage (D&C), insertion of an intrauterine device (IUD), or during childbirth. It can also be caused by trauma or infection. Uterine perforation can lead to serious complications, such as bleeding, infection, and damage to surrounding organs. If left untreated, it can be life-threatening. Symptoms of uterine perforation may include severe abdominal pain, heavy vaginal bleeding, fever, and signs of shock. Immediate medical attention is required for proper diagnosis and treatment.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Moral Obligations" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. The term "moral obligations" is more related to ethics and philosophy, referring to the duties or actions that are considered right or wrong based on a set of moral principles or values.

However, in a broader sense, healthcare professionals may use the term "moral obligations" to refer to their professional responsibility and commitment to providing compassionate, respectful, and high-quality care to all patients, regardless of their background, beliefs, or circumstances. This concept is closely related to medical ethics and professionalism, which provide guidelines for ethical decision-making in clinical practice.

Intravaginal administration refers to the delivery of medications or other substances directly into the vagina. This route of administration can be used for local treatment of vaginal infections or inflammation, or to deliver systemic medication that is absorbed through the vaginal mucosa.

Medications can be administered intravaginally using a variety of dosage forms, including creams, gels, foams, suppositories, and films. The choice of dosage form depends on several factors, such as the drug's physicochemical properties, the desired duration of action, and patient preference.

Intravaginal administration offers several advantages over other routes of administration. It allows for direct delivery of medication to the site of action, which can result in higher local concentrations and fewer systemic side effects. Additionally, some medications may be more effective when administered intravaginally due to their ability to bypass first-pass metabolism in the liver.

However, there are also potential disadvantages to intravaginal administration. Some women may find it uncomfortable or inconvenient to use this route of administration, and there is a risk of leakage or expulsion of the medication. Additionally, certain medications may cause local irritation or allergic reactions when administered intravaginally.

Overall, intravaginal administration can be a useful route of administration for certain medications and conditions, but it is important to consider the potential benefits and risks when choosing this method.

Reproductive health, as defined by the World Health Organization (WHO), is "a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being in all matters relating to the reproductive system and its functions and processes. It implies that people are able to have a satisfying and safe sex life, the capability to reproduce, and the freedom to decide if, when, and how often to do so. It also includes their right to access information and services that enable them to do this."

This definition emphasizes not only the biological aspects of reproduction but also the social and personal dimensions of sexuality and reproductive health. It recognizes that individuals have the right to make informed choices about their reproductive lives, and it highlights the importance of access to information and services in realizing these rights.

Fetal resorption, also known as fetal demise or intrauterine fetal death, is a medical term that refers to the absorption of a nonviable fetus by the mother's body after its death in utero. This process typically occurs before the 20th week of gestation and may go unnoticed if it happens early in pregnancy.

During fetal resorption, the fetal tissue is broken down and absorbed by the mother's body, leaving no visible remains of the fetus. The placenta and other surrounding tissues may still be present, but they often undergo changes as well. In some cases, a small amount of fetal tissue may be expelled from the uterus during the resorption process.

The causes of fetal resorption can vary, including chromosomal abnormalities, maternal health conditions, infections, and environmental factors. It is essential to seek medical attention if a woman suspects fetal resorption or experiences any unusual symptoms during pregnancy, such as vaginal bleeding or decreased fetal movement, to ensure proper diagnosis and management.

Ethics is a branch of philosophy that involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong conduct. In the medical field, ethics refers to the principles that guide doctors, nurses, and other healthcare professionals in making decisions about patient care. These principles often include respect for autonomy (the right of patients to make their own decisions), non-maleficence (doing no harm), beneficence (acting in the best interests of the patient), and justice (fairness in the distribution of resources). Medical ethics may also involve considerations of confidentiality, informed consent, and end-of-life decision making.

Reproductive health services refer to the provision of health care services that aim to enhance reproductive health and well-being. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), reproductive health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being in all matters relating to the reproductive system and its functions and processes.

Reproductive health services may include:

1. Family planning: This includes counseling, education, and provision of contraceptives to prevent unintended pregnancies and promote planned pregnancies.
2. Maternal and newborn health: This includes antenatal care, delivery services, postnatal care, and newborn care to ensure safe pregnancy and childbirth.
3. Sexual health: This includes counseling, testing, and treatment for sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV/AIDS, and education on sexual health and responsible sexual behavior.
4. Infertility services: This includes diagnosis and treatment of infertility, including assisted reproductive technologies such as in vitro fertilization (IVF).
5. Abortion services: This includes safe abortion services, post-abortion care, and counseling to prevent unsafe abortions and reduce maternal mortality and morbidity.
6. Menstrual health: This includes providing access to menstrual hygiene products, education on menstrual health, and treatment of menstrual disorders.
7. Adolescent reproductive health: This includes providing age-appropriate sexual and reproductive health education, counseling, and services to adolescents.

Reproductive health services aim to promote sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR), which include the right to access information, education, and services; the right to make informed choices about one's own body and reproduction; and the right to be free from discrimination, coercion, and violence in relation to one's sexuality and reproduction.

A hydatidiform mole, also known as a molar pregnancy, is a type of gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD), which is a group of rare disorders that involve abnormal growth of the placental tissue.

In a hydatidiform mole, there is an abnormal fertilization event leading to the growth of a mass of grapelike cysts in the uterus instead of a normal pregnancy. The chromosomes from the sperm and egg do not combine properly, resulting in an extra set of chromosomes, which leads to the development of the mole.

Hydatidiform moles can be complete or partial:

* Complete hydatidiform mole (CHM): This type arises when an egg without a nucleus is fertilized by one or two sperm, leading to the growth of abnormal placental tissue with no embryo. The chromosomes come from the father only, and there are typically 46 chromosomes, all of paternal origin.
* Partial hydatidiform mole (PHM): This type occurs when an egg is fertilized by two sperm or a single sperm that duplicates itself, resulting in an abnormal placenta with some fetal tissue. The chromosomes are of both maternal and paternal origin, and the placental tissue has a mix of normal and abnormal cells.

Hydatidiform moles can cause vaginal bleeding, rapid uterine enlargement, and high levels of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) hormone in the blood. They are usually detected during an ultrasound exam and require medical treatment to prevent complications such as gestational trophoblastic neoplasia, a malignant form of GTD that can spread to other organs.

"Drug-induced abnormalities" refer to physical or physiological changes that occur as a result of taking medication or drugs. These abnormalities can affect various organs and systems in the body and can range from minor symptoms, such as nausea or dizziness, to more serious conditions, such as liver damage or heart rhythm disturbances.

Drug-induced abnormalities can occur for several reasons, including:

1. Direct toxicity: Some drugs can directly damage cells and tissues in the body, leading to abnormalities.
2. Altered metabolism: Drugs can interfere with normal metabolic processes in the body, leading to the accumulation of harmful substances or the depletion of essential nutrients.
3. Hormonal imbalances: Some drugs can affect hormone levels in the body, leading to abnormalities.
4. Allergic reactions: Some people may have allergic reactions to certain drugs, which can cause a range of symptoms, including rashes, swelling, and difficulty breathing.
5. Interactions with other drugs: Taking multiple medications or drugs at the same time can increase the risk of drug-induced abnormalities.

It is important for healthcare providers to monitor patients closely for signs of drug-induced abnormalities and to adjust medication dosages or switch to alternative treatments as necessary. Patients should also inform their healthcare providers of any symptoms they experience while taking medication, as these may be related to drug-induced abnormalities.

'Chlamydophila psittaci' is a gram-negative, obligate intracellular bacterium that causes psittacosis, also known as parrot fever. It is commonly found in birds, particularly parrots and psittacines, but can also infect other bird species, mammals, and humans. In humans, it can cause a wide range of symptoms, including fever, headache, cough, and pneumonia. Human-to-human transmission is rare, and the disease is typically acquired through inhalation of dried secretions or feces from infected birds.

Female infertility is a condition characterized by the inability to conceive after 12 months or more of regular, unprotected sexual intercourse or the inability to carry a pregnancy to a live birth. The causes of female infertility can be multifactorial and may include issues with ovulation, damage to the fallopian tubes or uterus, endometriosis, hormonal imbalances, age-related factors, and other medical conditions.

Some common causes of female infertility include:

1. Ovulation disorders: Conditions such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), thyroid disorders, premature ovarian failure, and hyperprolactinemia can affect ovulation and lead to infertility.
2. Damage to the fallopian tubes: Pelvic inflammatory disease, endometriosis, or previous surgeries can cause scarring and blockages in the fallopian tubes, preventing the egg and sperm from meeting.
3. Uterine abnormalities: Structural issues with the uterus, such as fibroids, polyps, or congenital defects, can interfere with implantation and pregnancy.
4. Age-related factors: As women age, their fertility declines due to a decrease in the number and quality of eggs.
5. Other medical conditions: Certain medical conditions, such as diabetes, celiac disease, and autoimmune disorders, can contribute to infertility.

In some cases, female infertility can be treated with medications, surgery, or assisted reproductive technologies (ART) like in vitro fertilization (IVF). A thorough evaluation by a healthcare professional is necessary to determine the underlying cause and develop an appropriate treatment plan.

Health services accessibility refers to the degree to which individuals and populations are able to obtain needed health services in a timely manner. It includes factors such as physical access (e.g., distance, transportation), affordability (e.g., cost of services, insurance coverage), availability (e.g., supply of providers, hours of operation), and acceptability (e.g., cultural competence, language concordance).

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), accessibility is one of the key components of health system performance, along with responsiveness and fair financing. Improving accessibility to health services is essential for achieving universal health coverage and ensuring that everyone has access to quality healthcare without facing financial hardship. Factors that affect health services accessibility can vary widely between and within countries, and addressing these disparities requires a multifaceted approach that includes policy interventions, infrastructure development, and community engagement.

Fertility is the natural ability to conceive or to cause conception of offspring. In humans, it is the capacity of a woman and a man to reproduce through sexual reproduction. For women, fertility usually takes place during their reproductive years, which is from adolescence until menopause. A woman's fertility depends on various factors including her age, overall health, and the health of her reproductive system.

For men, fertility can be affected by a variety of factors such as age, genetics, general health, sexual function, and environmental factors that may affect sperm production or quality. Factors that can negatively impact male fertility include exposure to certain chemicals, radiation, smoking, alcohol consumption, drug use, and sexually transmitted infections (STIs).

Infertility is a common medical condition affecting about 10-15% of couples trying to conceive. Infertility can be primary or secondary. Primary infertility refers to the inability to conceive after one year of unprotected sexual intercourse, while secondary infertility refers to the inability to conceive following a previous pregnancy.

Infertility can be treated with various medical and surgical interventions depending on the underlying cause. These may include medications to stimulate ovulation, intrauterine insemination (IUI), in vitro fertilization (IVF), or surgery to correct anatomical abnormalities.

Religion and medicine are two distinct fields that can intersect in various ways. While religion can be defined as a set of beliefs, practices, and rituals related to the divine or supernatural, medicine is concerned with the maintenance of health and the prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and cure of disease, illness, and other physical and mental impairments in humans.

A medical definition of "Religion and Medicine" might refer to the study of the relationship between religious beliefs, practices, and experiences, and health outcomes, healthcare delivery, and medical decision-making. This can include exploring how religious beliefs and practices influence health behaviors, coping mechanisms, social support networks, and access to care, as well as how they shape attitudes towards medical interventions, end-of-life decisions, and bioethical issues.

Religion can also play a role in the provision of healthcare services, such as through faith-based organizations that operate hospitals, clinics, and other health facilities. Additionally, religious leaders and communities may provide spiritual care and support to patients and their families, complementing the medical care provided by healthcare professionals.

Overall, the intersection of religion and medicine is a complex and multifaceted area of study that requires an interdisciplinary approach, drawing on insights from fields such as anthropology, sociology, psychology, theology, and public health.

Aftercare, in a medical context, refers to the ongoing care and support provided to a patient following a medical treatment, procedure, or hospitalization. The goal of aftercare is to promote recovery, prevent complications, manage symptoms, and ensure the overall well-being of the patient. Aftercare may include follow-up appointments with healthcare providers, medication management, physical therapy, wound care, lifestyle modifications, and psychological support. It is an essential part of the treatment process that helps patients transition back to their normal lives and maintain their health and wellness in the long term.

A questionnaire in the medical context is a standardized, systematic, and structured tool used to gather information from individuals regarding their symptoms, medical history, lifestyle, or other health-related factors. It typically consists of a series of written questions that can be either self-administered or administered by an interviewer. Questionnaires are widely used in various areas of healthcare, including clinical research, epidemiological studies, patient care, and health services evaluation to collect data that can inform diagnosis, treatment planning, and population health management. They provide a consistent and organized method for obtaining information from large groups or individual patients, helping to ensure accurate and comprehensive data collection while minimizing bias and variability in the information gathered.

The bill introduced the concept of Therapeutic Abortion Committees, which could approve abortions for medical reasons. The ... Hospitals had Therapeutic Abortion Committees only if they opted to provide abortions, and there was and is no requirement that ... Therapeutic Abortion Committees (commonly known as TACs) were committees established under the Canadian Criminal Code. Each ... 4) Subsections (1) and (2) do not apply to (a) a qualified medical practitioner, other than a member of a therapeutic abortion ...
An abortion is medically referred to as a therapeutic abortion when it is performed to save the life of the pregnant woman; to ... In some countries abortion is legal and women have the right to make the choice about abortion. In some areas, abortion is ... Countries that permit abortions have different limits on how late in pregnancy abortion is allowed. Abortion rates are similar ... Countries with restrictive abortion laws have higher rates of unsafe abortion and similar overall abortion rates compared to ...
2006). Therapeutic Abortion. Retrieved February 24, 2009. UIHC Medical Museum. (2006) The Facts of Life: Examining Reproductive ... Goldstein P, Stewart G (May 1972). "Trends in therapeutic abortion in San Francisco". Am J Public Health. 62 (5): 695-9. doi: ... Instillation abortion is a rarely used method of late-term abortion, performed by injecting a solution into the uterus. ... Elective Abortion at eMedicine Ferris LE, McMain-Klein M, Colodny N, Fellows GF, Lamont J (June 1996). "Factors associated with ...
California amended its abortion law in 1967 to address the disconnect between legal and medical justifications for therapeutic ... to do first-trimester aspiration abortions, and to prescribe drugs for medical abortions. There have been a number of abortion- ... Abortion in California is legal up to the point of fetal viability. An abortion ban was in place by 1900, and by 1950, it was a ... Results of California propositions by county There were 5,030 therapeutic abortions in 1968 and 15,339 in 1969, and more than ...
Chris encouraged a therapeutic abortion. Anne refused. She was not going to lose another child. The Martin's greatest fear was ...
1955 : Therapeutic Abortion is legalized. Focus on the contraceptive pill in the United States. 1956 : The foundation of " ... Abortion law Abortion debate Abortion-rights movements Birth control in France Catholic Church and abortion Feminism in France ... 2022 : The legal delay of abortion changes from 12 weeks to 14 weeks. As of 2009[update], the abortion rate was 17.4 abortions ... The abortion law was liberalized by the Veil Law (fr) in 1975. The First French Republic saw the act of abortion being changed ...
"WMA Declaration on Therapeutic Abortion". WMA. Archived from the original on 28 October 2015. Retrieved 28 October 2015. " ... Abortion law, Alcohol and health, Family law, Abortion debate, Anti-abortion movements, Human rights by issue, Personhood, ... The World Medical Association Declaration on Therapeutic Abortion notes that "circumstances bringing the interests of a mother ... It is a crime in all these jurisdictions to procure an abortion for the purposes of sex selection. Anti-abortion movements ...
In 1895, the Church specifically condemned therapeutic abortions. Apart from indicating in its canon law that automatic ... Abortion debate Abortion-rights movements National Abortion Rights Action League Anti-abortion movements Religion and abortion ... Thus, Protestant views on abortion vary considerably with Protestants to be found in both the "anti-abortion" and "abortion- ... and therefore early abortion was not murder, though later abortion was. Aquinas held that abortion was still wrong, even when ...
Among the information the new law required abortion providers to collect was whether the abortion was elective or therapeutic, ... The next year, there were 12,644 abortions. In 2010, there were fourteen publicly funded abortions in the state. Abortion and ... Finkbine strongly wanted an abortion; however, the abortion laws of Arizona limited her decision. In Arizona, an abortion could ... The abortion took place and the mother survived. Afterwards, the abortion came to the attention of Bishop Thomas J. Olmsted, ...
Bill C-150 made it legal for women to get an abortion if a therapeutic abortion committee of three doctors felt the pregnancy ... Bill C-150 legalized therapeutic abortion under certain conditions. Abortion was previously a criminal offence in Canada, which ... Abortion rights: significant moments in Canadian history, CBC news (accessed 2011-08-29) Criminal Code, SC 1953-54, c 51, s 15( ... The bill partially decriminalised homosexual acts and allowed abortion under certain conditions. A related bill, introduced and ...
In some cases a therapeutic abortion may be recommended. Radiation therapy is out of the question, and chemotherapy always ... High-energy therapeutic ultrasound could increase higher-density anti-cancer drug load and nanomedicines to target tumor sites ... Cancer immunotherapy refers to a diverse set of therapeutic strategies designed to induce the patient's own immune system to ... In general, doctors have the therapeutic skills to reduce pain including, chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, diarrhea, ...
Diggory PL (January 1971). "Induction of therapeutic abortion by intra-amniotic injection of urea". British Medical Journal. 1 ... Like saline, urea has been injected into the uterus to induce abortion, although this method is no longer in widespread use. ...
The Ministry of Public Health provides guidelines on therapeutic abortion. In Ecuador, there is strong political opposition to ... Abortion Abortion by country Abortion law "Ecuador: Abortion Law". Women on Waves. Retrieved 2021-11-05. "Ecuador's top court ... "Illegal abortion in Ecuador". Women on Waves. Retrieved 1 May 2023. (Abortion in South America, Abortion by country, Law of ... In 2015, Ecuador was urged by CEDAW to decriminalize abortion in cases of rape and incest (under law abortion at the time it ...
There was a therapeutic exceptions in the state's legislative ban on abortions by 1900. Informed consent laws were on the books ... Abortion statistics in the United States Abortion by country Abortion and religion Abortion debate Heartbeat bill Types of ... "Abortion in Florida". Abortion Finder. August 20, 2023. "Florida Gov. DeSantis signs 6-week abortion ban , CNN Politics". CNN. ... "Abortion in New Jersey". Retrieved February 12, 2023. "Abortion in New Mexico". Retrieved February 11, 2023. "Abortion in New ...
Abortion remains prohibited by the Penal Code (Articles 118 and 119), with the exception of therapeutic abortion under Article ... "Costa Rica's president says therapeutic abortions will be allowed". Reuters. "Argentina and Costa Rica open door to abortion ... Therapeutic abortion refers to the termination of a pregnancy for medical reasons aimed at protecting the health or life of the ... The poll also show that half of Costa Ricans have no knowledge of what therapeutic abortion is, and almost all opposed it. ...
1935 - Iceland becomes the first Western country to legalize therapeutic abortion. 1938 - The World Land Speed Record on a ... 1988 - In R v Morgentaler the Supreme Court of Canada strikes down all anti-abortion laws. 2002 - TAME Flight 120, a Boeing 727 ...
She soon became the vice president and principal organizer of the California Committee on Therapeutic Abortion. Roemer and her ... "Finding Aid for the California Committee on Therapeutic Abortion Records, 1966-1974." Online Archive of California (website) ... "Finding Aid for the California Committee on Therapeutic Abortion Records, 1966-1974." Online Archive of California. [2] ... "Ruth Roemer, 89; Pioneer in Public Health Law Was Active in Tobacco, Abortion Issues." Los Angeles Times, August 5, 2005 "Ruth ...
Therapeutic abortion is illegal in Benin, so incidence is difficult to measure. It is used for the purpose of child spacing and ...
Human intervention intentionally causing abortion of the fetus is called "therapeutic abortion". Women have hormonal cycles ... "Involuntary fetal mortality" involves natural abortion, miscarriages and stillbirth (a fetus born dead). ... for example a population where there are no induced abortions would have a Ca of 1, but a country where everybody used ... the index of induced abortion (Ca) and the index of postpartum infecundability (Ci). These indices range from 0 to 1. The ...
... therapeutic abortion'; in Catholic doctrine, therapeutic abortion simply does not exist, since abortion is never a cure for ... indirect abortion is not the same as a therapeutic abortion. Eguren asserts that indirect abortion is an extraordinary moral ... He condemned all forms of abortion, even those considered to be therapeutic. The Holy See Press Office subsequently reiterated ... Edwin F. Healy makes a distinction between "direct abortions" that is, abortion which is either an end or a means, and " ...
Doctors could perform therapeutic abortions up to ten weeks after conception. The staff counseled the women before and after ... In 1969, she joined the LA Chapter of NOW's Abortion Committee to learn about abortion and its history from Lana Phelan. This ... Due to the extreme legal vulnerability of abortion access, the staff were careful to follow the letter of the law. Abortion ... After going through her experience with the painful abortion, in the early 1970s Downer began her quest to making abortions ...
Abortion under these circumstances had been legal in Nicaragua since 1891. Abortion other than therapeutic is punishable by ... The Catholic Church organised a march on the National Assembly on 6 October to demand that therapeutic abortion be criminalized ... The National Assembly passed the law banning therapeutic abortions on 26 October 2006. It is widely expected that the president ... candidate Edmundo Jarquín stated that he supported therapeutic abortion when the life of the mother is at risk. ...
... tied on whether to allow non-therapeutic abortions, an abortion that is not performed as a result of threat to the mother's ... Bill Muller broke the tie by voting to allow non-therapeutic abortions. Brown stated that Sullivan was against a constitutional ... "Definition of Nontherapeutic abortion Share Cite Open Split View". Archived from the original on July 21, 2020. "Abortion ... "Abortion vote divided; another ballot today". Casper Star-Tribune. November 23, 1977. p. 1. Archived from the original on May ...
For her 1974 PhD thesis titled "Reactions of Women to Therapeutic Abortion: A Social Psychological Analysis" Adler interviewed ... Adler, Nancy E. (1974). Reactions of Women to Therapeutic Abortion: A Social Psychological Analysis (Doctoral dissertation, ... women before and after having an abortion. She found that women's reactions were generally positive and reflective of healthy ...
Abortion related legislation existed in North Carolina by 1900, which included a therapeutic exception. National research ... Abortions after 20 weeks are also required to be provided in a licensed hospital, rather than an abortion clinic. Abortion ... Abortions in North Carolina represent 3.4% of all abortions in the United States Jatlaoui, Tara C. (2017). "Abortion ... 1380 abortions for black women aged 15-19, 310 abortions for Hispanic women aged 15-19, and 160 abortions for women of all ...
... and abortion itself became illegal in 1867. As hospitals set up barriers in the 1950s, the number of therapeutic abortions ... As a result, the number of therapeutic abortions in 1957 was 3, down from 15 the previous year. The Jane Collective, an ... Abortion in Illinois is legal. Laws about abortion dated to the early 1800s in Illinois; the first criminal penalties related ... Publicly funded abortions for poor women came from a mix of state and federal resources. Abortion rights activism has been ...
In Morocco, therapeutic abortion is only permitted if the mother's health is at risk. The doctor who performs it is not ... Morocco has specific abortion laws that permit abortion under certain circumstances. Abortion in Morocco is governed by Article ... "Abortion Law in Australia". Belhouss, A.; Ait Boughima, F.; Benyaich, H.; Boufettal, H.; Samouh, N. (December 2011). "Les ... Therefore, during the first forty days of pregnancy, abortion is only permitted for valid reasons. After the forty-day period, ...
In the standard code of Jewish law, the Shulchan Aruch, therapeutic abortion is permitted; Maimonides's language, speaking of ... A few Jewish groups concentrate on abortion issues, both anti-abortion and pro-abortion rights. In the United States, ... Conversely, Tosafot suggests that perhaps, since Jews are permitted therapeutic abortions for the sake of maternal life, ... Some authorities permitted abortion in cases of 'great need.' Most Rabbinic interpretations even insist on abortion in order to ...
Among the information the law required abortion providers to collect was whether the abortion was elective or therapeutic, the ... 940.15", enacted in 1985, made abortion a crime only after viability, and allowed abortion after viability "if the abortion is ... of abortion to women getting abortions. The law also meant doctors no longer had to collect data about women getting abortions ... Reforming Abortion Law in Ireland (2018) "Irish abortion referendum: Ireland overturns abortion ban - BBC News". BBC.com. 2018 ...
Colombia: 1936 penal legislation authorized therapeutic abortion while banning all other forms of abortion, regardless of ... Sweden: Abortion in Sweden was first legislated by the Abortion Act of 1938. This stated that an abortion could be legally ... allowing abortion on demand. The Abortion and Sterilization Act, 1975, which only allowed abortions in very limited ... "Irish abortion referendum: Ireland overturns abortion ban - BBC News". Bbc.com. 2018. Retrieved 2018-05-26. Abortion Policies: ...
The bill introduced the concept of Therapeutic Abortion Committees, which could approve abortions for medical reasons. The ... Hospitals had Therapeutic Abortion Committees only if they opted to provide abortions, and there was and is no requirement that ... Therapeutic Abortion Committees (commonly known as TACs) were committees established under the Canadian Criminal Code. Each ... 4) Subsections (1) and (2) do not apply to (a) a qualified medical practitioner, other than a member of a therapeutic abortion ...
... ticotimes.net/2018/01/25/therapeutic-abortion-a-costa-rican-right-ensnared-in-doubts-and-fears,Therapeutic abortion: a Costa ... Therapeutic abortion: a Costa Rican right ensnared in doubts and fears Part I in a three-part series on obstacles to ... Therapeutic abortion: a Costa Rican right ensnared in doubts and fears” — The Tico Times , Costa Rica News , Travel ... ticotimes.net/2018/01/25/therapeutic-abortion-a-costa-rican-right-ensnared-in-doubts-and-fears/embed#?secret=1sd26zaEEc width ...
Executing a murderer of seven is somehow more immoral that dismembering a baby according to National Public Radio.
Costa Rica on Tuesday sent the text of a technical norm that will allow for therapeutic abortions in some instances to the ... Despite what the law stipulates, though, many doctors fear performing a therapeutic abortion because of the lack of a protocol ... Costa Rica takes final step in establishing when, how therapeutic abortions can be performed. ... "The technical norm is not an opening for free abortion nor does it extend the law," said Alejandra Acuña, Deputy Minister of ...
Accurate statistics have been kept since the enactment of the 1973 US Supreme Court decisions legalizing abortions. ... Therapeutic abortion. The ability to define therapeutic abortion performed for maternal indications is difficult because of the ... and guidelines were set to define the indications for therapeutic abortion. The guidelines allowed therapeutic abortion if (1) ... Each year, 1.7% of U.S. women aged 15-44 have an abortion. Half have had at least one prior abortion. 89% of abortions occur ...
Refers to termination of a pregnancy due to a fetal abnormality or to protect a females health.
Therapeutic abortions, 1995. Ottawa: Minister of Industry, 1997; cat. no. 82-219-XPB. ... The abortion ratio was 314 legal induced abortions per 1,000 live births, and as in 1995, the abortion rate was 20 per 1,000 ... In contrast to abortion ratios, abortion rates were highest for women aged 20-24 years (38 abortions per 1,000 women) and ... In 1992, the case-fatality rate of legal induced abortion was 0.7 abortion-related deaths per 100,000 legal induced abortions. ...
Surgical abortion is a procedure that ends an undesired pregnancy by removing the fetus and placenta from the mothers womb ( ... Your pregnancy is harmful to your health (therapeutic abortion).. *The pregnancy resulted after a traumatic event such as rape ... Surgical abortion is not the same as miscarriage. Miscarriage is when a pregnancy ends on its own before the 20th week of ... Katzir L. Induced abortion. In: Mularz A, Dalati S, Pedigo R, eds. Ob/Gyn Secrets. 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017: ...
Abortion, Legal Abortion, Therapeutic Attitude Of Health Personnel Community Health Services Costs And Cost Analysis Decision ... Williams, S J (1972). A methodology for the planning of therapeutic abortion services.. 87(10). Williams, S J "A methodology ... Williams, S J "A methodology for the planning of therapeutic abortion services." vol. 87, no. 10, 1972. Export RIS Citation ... Abortion surveillance -- United States, 2001 Cite CITE. Title : Abortion surveillance -- United States, 2001 Personal Author(s ...
Act of dedication after a therapeutic abortion. A ritual for grief and healing after ending a wanted pregnancy ...
Therapeutic abortions = Avortements thérapeutiques. by Statistics Canada.. Material type: Text; Format: print Language: engfre ... Abortion, doctors, and the law : some aspects of the legal regulation of abortion in England from 1803 to 1982 / John Keown. by ... Abortion regimes / Kerry A. Petersen. by Petersen, Kerry Anne.. Series: Medico-legal seriesMaterial type: Text; Format: print ...
Pro-life group saves Peruvian baby from therapeutic abortion protocol One of the dirtiest tricks in the pro-abortion arsenal ...
"Induced abortion could be therapeutic when there is a medical reason for such". ... "Induced abortion could be therapeutic when there is a medical reason for such". ... Induced abortion Id widespread in Nigeria despite the restrictive abortion law policy with an estimate of 760,000 occurring ... Several reports have shown that induced abortion is most common among unmarried adolescents who seek abortion to stay or avoid ...
Specialists in Therapeutic Termination of Pregnancy Procedures for Fetal Anomaly and Maternal Health. Our focus provides safe ... Therapeutic abortion procedures end pregnancies that were originally wanted, but cannot be continued due to problems with the ... Women in need of a therapeutic abortion have few choices of where to have the procedure performed. Hospitals or medical centers ... We specialize, and limit our practice to, helping patients in need of therapeutic abortions. Our private environment provides ...
Therapeutic abortion in California. Effects of septic abortion and maternal mortality. Obstet Gynecol1971;37:510-4. ...
Pro-lifers say therapeutic abortion on minor in Peru exploited to push legal abortion. ...
Abortion, Therapeutic * Boston / epidemiology * Congenital Abnormalities / diagnostic imaging * Congenital Abnormalities / ...
Pro-Lifers Say Therapeutic Abortion on Minor in Peru Exploited to Push Legal Abortion. Carlos Polo, director of the Latin ... Will New Federal Abortion Policies Violate Anti-Abortion Hyde Amendment? Experts Weigh In. The rules have generated significant ... believes that abortion organizations are using situations like these to push for legalized abortion in Peru. ... A proposed federal spending bill is the most extreme pro-abortion funding bill in the history of the United States, said the U. ...
Rho(D) Immune Globulin / therapeutic use* * Uterine Hemorrhage / prevention & control Substances * Rho(D) Immune Globulin ... Is Rh immune globulin needed in early first-trimester abortion? A review Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2003 Mar;188(3):623-7. doi: ... induced abortion, or ectopic pregnancy. The evidence to support the use of Rh immune globulin in the first trimester is sparse ... abortions, and ectopic pregnancies. In this article we review the existing medical literature to assess the risks of ...
When informed by modern therapeutic understanding they become a wonderful means to deal with the side effects of modern life. I ...
Copyright © 2023 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd. All rights reserved.. ...
foetal death and spontaneous abortion. *suspected adverse events in the neonate that are classified as serious ... Access to unapproved therapeutic goods - Clinical trials in Australia. *Note for guidance on clinical safety data management: ... When an application for inclusion of a biological in the ARTG is withdrawn or lapses, section 32DR of the Therapeutic Goods Act ... The objective of a PSUR is to present a comprehensive and critical analysis of the benefit-risk balance of a therapeutic good ...
The consideration of pregnancy termination or therapeutic abortion is not clearly justified. The decision must rest with the ... Drug therapy (dacarbazine), therapeutic radiation, and immunotherapy are used in the treatment of cutaneous melanoma, but they ... Because of the rarity of the lesions, assembling a cohort study group to evaluate the different therapeutic regimens is ... may have therapeutic value. Ipilimumab, a human monoclonal antibody, has shown encouraging results in therapy for metastatic ...
Abortion on demand does emotional harm: Strongly Opposes topic 1. As CA governor, reluctantly signed Therapeutic Abortion bill ... Abortion is a womans unrestricted right (-3 points on Social scale) 1984 Mexico City Policy: no abortion funding abroad: ... Opposed abortion, on fundamentalist grounds: Opposes topic 1. Allowed abortion as CA Gov.; didn t push pro-life as Pres.: ... Abortion Budget/Economy Civil Rights Corporations Crime Drugs Education Energy/Oil Environment Families Foreign Policy Free ...
Abortion is not health care; its not therapeutic in any way.". McQuade spoke of the effects of years of misinformation, often ... of abortion). Nothing necessitates abortion, even for extreme health cases. The doctor is always responsible for the care and ... or that there should be limits on abortion (38 percent). These limits include making abortion legal only when the mothers life ... Polls Show Majority Oppose Unrestricted Abortion. Published February 8, 2007 Recent polls point to an emerging pro-life ...
... is often used to help pass a pregnancy following a missed miscarriage or spontaneous abortion. Heres what to expect. ... What Is an Elective Abortion?. "Elective abortion" and "therapeutic abortion" describe why an abortion is done. The medical ... www.plannedparenthood.org/learn/abortion/the-abortion-pill/how-safe-is-the-abortion-pill. ... How much an abortion costs depends on a variety of factors, including how far along the pregnancy is, the type of abortion ...
... its important to be aware of your rights and your options for obtaining safe abortion care. ... What Is an Elective Abortion?. "Elective abortion" and "therapeutic abortion" describe why an abortion is done. The medical ... After Abortion Care: What To Expect After Your Abortion. *Do Abortions Hurt? What to Expect When Taking the Pill or Undergoing ... Least safe abortions fill neither of the above criteria.. People often use the terms "safe abortion" and "legal abortion" ...
Indeed, the very nature of abortion and contraception is contested: some consider them to be essential health care, whereas ... Keywords: Essential, elective, therapeutic, moral, health care, reproductive health, first amendment, constitutional law, ... Courts continue to struggle with the scope of the constitutional right to abortion. Employers seek exemptions from generally ... and therapeutic rather than merely the elective product of a moral choice. ...
The consideration of pregnancy termination or therapeutic abortion is not clearly justified. The decision must rest with the ... Drug therapy (dacarbazine), therapeutic radiation, and immunotherapy are used in the treatment of cutaneous melanoma, but they ... Because of the rarity of the lesions, assembling a cohort study group to evaluate the different therapeutic regimens is ... may have therapeutic value. Ipilimumab, a human monoclonal antibody, has shown encouraging results in therapy for metastatic ...
  • The Criminal Code only permitted lawful abortion if continuation of a pregnancy would cause a woman medical harm, as certified by a TAC. (wikipedia.org)
  • This made abortion partially accessible (albeit with at best limited access and some rather unacceptable delays) in some communities as women could claim to be suicidal and on this basis insist that continuation of the unwanted pregnancy represented an imminent danger to mental health. (wikipedia.org)
  • More than 40% of all women will end a pregnancy by abortion at some time in their reproductive lives. (medscape.com)
  • In 1969, CDC began abortion surveillance to document the number and characteristics of women obtaining legal induced abortions, to monitor unintended pregnancy, and to assist efforts to identify and reduce preventable causes of morbidity and mortality associated with abortions. (cdc.gov)
  • Younger women (i.e., women aged less than or equal to 24 years) were more likely to obtain abortions later in pregnancy than were older women. (cdc.gov)
  • The number and characteristics of women who obtain abortions in the United States should continue to be monitored so that trends in induced abortion can be assessed, efforts to prevent unintended pregnancy can be evaluated, and the preventable causes of morbidity and mortality associated with abortions can be identified and reduced. (cdc.gov)
  • Legal induced abortion was defined as a procedure, performed by a licensed physician or someone acting under the supervision of a licensed physician, that was intended to terminate a suspected or known intrauterine pregnancy and to produce a nonviable fetus at any gestational age (1,2). (cdc.gov)
  • Surgical abortion is a procedure that ends an undesired pregnancy by removing the fetus and placenta from the mother's womb (uterus). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Your pregnancy is harmful to your health (therapeutic abortion). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Induced abortion stems from having an unwanted pregnancy. (emobileclinic.com)
  • Grace Medical Care was established to provide safe, compassionate, therapeutic termination of pregnancy procedures in a considerate and respectful manner. (gracemedicalcare.com)
  • Grace Medical Care is a private medical practice that performs late second and third trimester therapeutic termination of pregnancy procedures when fetal anomalies and/or genetic defects are found or to protect the health of the woman. (gracemedicalcare.com)
  • Alternatively, a woman may choose to have her procedure performed at one of the very few abortion clinics that offers therapeutic termination of pregnancy as an ancillary service, in addition to their regular abortion services. (gracemedicalcare.com)
  • In this article we review the existing medical literature to assess the risks of fetomaternal hemorrhage and Rh isoimmunization after complications of a first-trimester pregnancy, induced abortion, or ectopic pregnancy. (nih.gov)
  • McQuade explained, "They say 'up to three months of pregnancy,' which forms in a person's mind that Roe is only about legal abortions to three months," when, in fact, the Roe decision made abortion legal throughout a woman's pregnancy. (georgiabulletin.org)
  • Legal restrictions can include making abortion altogether illegal, making abortion illegal past a certain point in pregnancy, or requiring parental involvement . (healthline.com)
  • 13% of deaths from pregnancy-related causes are due to unsafe, usually illegal abortion. (arcc-cdac.ca)
  • In 2007, Poland lost a case at the same court for denying a medically-approved abortion for a woman who went blind after carrying her pregnancy to term. (arcc-cdac.ca)
  • Providers are reluctant to provide medical abortion so early mainly because of the fear of a missed diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy. (fiapac.org)
  • The second argument is the possibility of a reduced efficacy of medical abortion in the early period of pregnancy which was suggested in one study. (fiapac.org)
  • Despite the criminalization of abortion nationwide, abortion continued, and despite the efforts of Dr. Horatio Storer and his antiabortion allies, the thinking of ordinary Americans about early pregnancy had not been transformed. (cdlib.org)
  • In questioning each woman about her pregnancy and abortion, the prosecutor emphasized that these abortions had not been performed for any physical reason. (cdlib.org)
  • Earlier that day, the Minnesota physician had performed an abortion on a 24-year-old mother of three who had contracted rubella, a disease associated with miscarriage, infant death, and severe health problems for infants that survived pregnancy. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • As in many other states, Minnesota law only allowed "therapeutic abortions," procedures that terminated pregnancy only if a mother's life was threatened. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • This maternal data element captures the pregnancy outcomes such as livebirth, , premature birth, still birth, fetal loss, perinatal death and therapeutic abortion. (cdc.gov)
  • Based on estimated lifetime risk, each American woman is expected to have 3.2 pregnancies, of which 2 will be a live birth, 0.7 will be an induced abortion, and 0.5 will be a miscarriage. (medscape.com)
  • Grace Medical Care is unique because therapeutic termination of pregnancies is our exclusive service. (gracemedicalcare.com)
  • Therapeutic abortion procedures end pregnancies that were originally wanted, but cannot be continued due to problems with the fetus or to protect the health of the woman. (gracemedicalcare.com)
  • Thus, it is not surprising that Rh(D) immunoprophylaxis has been extended from women with term pregnancies to all women with miscarriages, abortions, and ectopic pregnancies. (nih.gov)
  • Many experts have raised concerns about people relying on unsafe abortion methods in order to terminate pregnancies. (healthline.com)
  • About 29% of all pregnancies end in an induced abortion. (healthline.com)
  • Three Irish women who were forced to travel to Britain to end pregnancies that were threatening their health are currently challenging the Irish abortion ban in the European Court of Human Rights. (arcc-cdac.ca)
  • Early medical abortion will be defined in this presentation by termination of pregnancies with Mifepristone/Misoprostol when no visible gestational sac is visible on ultrasound. (fiapac.org)
  • Very early medical abortion will be defined by termination of pregnancies before the date of expected menstruation. (fiapac.org)
  • The World Health Organization (WHO) shows an increase in rates of unwanted pregnancies, unsafe abortions, sexually transmitted diseases and neonatal repercussions in women who are sexually abused 1 . (bvsalud.org)
  • Unsafe abortion appears as an alternative to unwanted pregnancies 1,6,7 , mainly in cases related to physical violence, sexual violence, usually caused by an intimate or known partner. (bvsalud.org)
  • Three pregnancies with therapeutic abortion were excluded from further analysis. (bvsalud.org)
  • Illegal abortions are unsafe and account for 13% of all maternal mortality and serious complications. (medscape.com)
  • In 1992, 10 women died as a result of complications from legal induced abortion, and no deaths were reported associated with illegal abortion. (cdc.gov)
  • Hemorrhage and sepsis are the most common immediate complications of induced abortion, accounting for majority of maternal mortalities from unsafe abortion in Africa. (emobileclinic.com)
  • Many studies in Nigeria have shown a high incidence of infection as an abortion related complications and the organism commonly found are vaginal comnensals and sexually transmitted organisms such as Neisseria gonorrhea and Chlamydia tranchomatis. (emobileclinic.com)
  • While safe abortions seldom cause complications, Doctors Without Borders notes that unsafe abortions are a leading cause of death in pregnant people - and it's almost entirely preventable. (healthline.com)
  • Without exception, every country that has legalized abortion has seen dramatic decreases in deaths and serious complications due to unsafe abortion. (arcc-cdac.ca)
  • Misoprostol reduces the rate of complications after surgical abortion when administered as a medical priming agent prior to vacuum aspiration, both in nulliparous and parous women. (fiapac.org)
  • This essay also attempts to sketch a defense of the view that reproductive health care is essential, necessary, and therapeutic rather than merely the elective product of a moral choice. (ssrn.com)
  • Will New Federal Abortion Policies Violate Anti-Abortion Hyde Amendment? (ncregister.com)
  • Anti-choice groups ( here and here ), news sites ( here and here ), and even elected government officials in Canada have been making the bizarre claims that legalizing abortion does not improve maternal health and may even harm it, and that countries with strict anti-abortion laws have better maternal health records. (arcc-cdac.ca)
  • By: The University of Wisconsin-Oshkosh newspaper has rejected an anti-abortion advertisement as too controversial. (editorandpublisher.com)
  • The U.S.-based pro-life Catholic group says it has trained thousands of African seminarians in its anti-abortion programs over the last. (catholicnewsagency.com)
  • An anti-abortion supporter takes part in a rally at the U.S. Supreme Court on January 22, 2022-the 49th anniversary of Roe v. Wade . (nationalgeographic.com)
  • Pro-choice and anti-abortion supporters gather for competing rallies at the U.S. Supreme Court on January 22, 2022. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • Pro-choice and anti-abortion activists both rally at the May 14 Bans Off Our Bodies march in New York City. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • A new favorite pastime of the anti-choice movement is to try and cast doubt on the overwhelming evidence that legal abortion saves women's lives and health. (arcc-cdac.ca)
  • women's right to abortion. (radgeek.com)
  • In our disgust with the extreme oppression women experience under the present abortion laws, many of us are understandably tempted to accept insulting token changes that we would angrily shout down if they were offered to us in any other field of the struggle for women's liberation. (radgeek.com)
  • [ 3 ] Early-twentieth-century women's use of abortion was part of a long tradition among women to control and limit their childbearing. (cdlib.org)
  • In 2001, we released a report, Persecuted: Political Process and Abortion Legislation in El Salvador, which examines the impact on women's lives-and the human rights violations occurring-in El Salvador as a result of the total ban in place there. (reproductiverights.org)
  • In addition, this abortion ban goes against global and regional trends, which are moving towards recognition that complete denial of abortion access violates women's rights. (reproductiverights.org)
  • Gamble counseling strategy includes: Therapeutic connection between midwife and woman,accept and work with women's perceptions,support the expression of feelings, filling in the missing pieces,connect the event with emotions and behaviors,review the abortion management,enhance social support,Reinforce positive approaches to coping and explore solutions. (who.int)
  • Approximately half of all abortions are performed with this method. (medscape.com)
  • More than one half of all abortions (55%) were performed at less than or equal to 8 weeks of gestation, and approximately 88% were performed before 13 weeks. (cdc.gov)
  • Abortion is a preventable cause of maternal morbidity and mortality. (emobileclinic.com)
  • The WHO also estimates that 45% of all abortions are unsafe, and about 97% of unsafe abortions take place in developing countries. (healthline.com)
  • With that said, restrictive abortion laws can make it harder to access safe abortion care, which is why unsafe abortions are more prevalent in countries where abortion is illegal. (healthline.com)
  • Surgical abortion is not the same as miscarriage . (medlineplus.gov)
  • Surgical abortion involves dilating the opening to the uterus (cervix) and placing a small suction tube into the uterus. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Surgical abortion is very safe. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Shortages of providers of surgical abortion methods are a significant barrier to safe abortion care across diverse settings where abortion is legal. (fiapac.org)
  • According to Zogby International, which has tracked public opinion on many topics in many countries since 1984, a total of 56 percent of 1,209 respondents from across the nation agreed that either abortion should be illegal (18 percent) or that there should be limits on abortion (38 percent). (georgiabulletin.org)
  • In an area where abortion is illegal, it's still possible to have a safe abortion as long as the procedure adheres to a recommended method and is conducted by a trained professional. (healthline.com)
  • In developed countries, healthcare systems are advanced enough to prevent most maternal mortality and morbidity, but if abortion is illegal, women still die. (arcc-cdac.ca)
  • During the first half of the 20th century, maternal deaths in western countries dropped sharply because of antibiotics and modern medicine, despite abortion still being widely illegal. (arcc-cdac.ca)
  • Anti-choicers are fond of citing Ireland and Poland as examples of countries with low maternal mortality and illegal abortion. (arcc-cdac.ca)
  • Polish women have an estimated 80,000 to 200,000 illegal abortions every year. (arcc-cdac.ca)
  • Illegal self-abortions have become much safer in the last few years for women able to access the Internet, which has played a major role in overcoming restrictions to information and access to abortion. (arcc-cdac.ca)
  • The NARAL president essentially conflated "women" with "abortion rights activists," though the Pew Research Center reported last year that 40 percent of women think abortion should be illegal in "most" or "all" circumstances (the same percentage as among men), a view also held by 42 percent of Catholic voters, 49 percent of Hispanics and 37 percent of voters under 30. (americamagazine.org)
  • Almost 40 percent of U.S. adults believe that abortion should be illegal in all or most cases. (americamagazine.org)
  • The Timanus and Keemer cases centered on the definition of a legal, "therapeutic" abortion versus an illegal, "criminal" abortion. (cdlib.org)
  • The distinction between legal and illegal abortions had always been gray. (cdlib.org)
  • Hodgson had seen patients beg for illegal abortions-and suffer, even die, when they obtained them from other, unqualified providers. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • This movement backwards comes at a time when Nicaragua already has an extremely high rate of maternal mortality, largely due to illegal and unsafe abortion. (reproductiverights.org)
  • Each committee consisted of three medical doctors who would decide whether a request for an abortion fit within the exception to the criminal offence of procuring a miscarriage, i.e. performing an abortion. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is known as a missed miscarriage or spontaneous abortion. (healthline.com)
  • Death from abortion is almost unknown in the United States or in other countries where abortion is legally available. (medscape.com)
  • They travel all over Europe, particularly to nearby countries where abortion is cheaper, such as Ukraine. (arcc-cdac.ca)
  • Using 1996 data, this translates into 3.89 million live births, 1.37 million abortions, and 0.98 million miscarriages. (medscape.com)
  • In the 1960s, support for abortion mounted as two public health crises caused miscarriages and severe health problems among newborn children-setting the stage for the historic U.S. Supreme Court case. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • The abortion ratio was 314 legal induced abortions per 1,000 live births, and as in 1995, the abortion rate was 20 per 1,000 women aged 15-44 years. (cdc.gov)
  • however, not all of these areas collected information regarding the characteristics of women who obtained abortions. (cdc.gov)
  • The availability of information about characteristics of women who obtained an abortion in 1996 varied by state. (cdc.gov)
  • It accounts for 40% of maternal death in Nigeria but globally, 68,000 women die each year as a consequence if unsafe abortion and 5.3 million suffer temporary or permanent disability. (emobileclinic.com)
  • It has been shown that educated and gainfully employed Nigerian women are better able to access safe abortion than their uneducated and poor counterparts. (emobileclinic.com)
  • Women in need of a therapeutic abortion have few choices of where to have the procedure performed. (gracemedicalcare.com)
  • McQuade also explained the results of a question in a 2006 Guttmacher Institute poll that sought to find the reasons why most women choose to have an abortion. (georgiabulletin.org)
  • Legalizing abortion has improved the overall health and survival of women, and that of their children and families. (arcc-cdac.ca)
  • 47,000 women die every year from unsafe abortion and 8.5 million are injured, mostly in heavily poverty-stricken regions in Africa, Latin America, and Asia. (arcc-cdac.ca)
  • In Canada alone, 4,000 to 6,000 women died from unsafe abortion between 1926 and 1947. (arcc-cdac.ca)
  • Irish women travel mostly to the UK to have safe legal abortions, but also to other European countries. (arcc-cdac.ca)
  • Polish and Irish women are frequently denied abortions even when they have medical reasons that would qualify them for a legal abortion in their own countries. (arcc-cdac.ca)
  • In spite of the abortion bans that violate their right to life and health, both Polish and Irish women are assured of free, high-quality, post-abortion care in their own countries (unlike women in Africa), which helps contribute to the low maternal mortality rates in both nations. (arcc-cdac.ca)
  • Characteristics of women undergoing repeat therapeutic abortion. (uwo.ca)
  • A protocol for follow up of early medical abortion will be presented based on correct information given to the women (especially symptoms that must induce a visit to the emergency service) and serum HCG testing seven days after the medical abortion. (fiapac.org)
  • Early medical abortion using mifepristone and misoprostol requires less provider involvement, is highly effective and can largely be managed by women themselves. (fiapac.org)
  • That nominee is Heath Mello, a 37-year-old Catholic who had, as a state senator, supported a bill requiring that women be informed of their right to request a fetal ultrasound before getting an abortion. (americamagazine.org)
  • Abortion Law Repeal (Sort Of): A Warning to Women. (radgeek.com)
  • But the new reform legislation now being proposed all over the country is not in our interest either: it looks pretty good, and the improvements it seems to promise (at least for middle-class women) are almost irresistible to those who haven't informed themselves about the complexities of the abortion situation or developed a feminist critique of abortion that goes beyond it's our right. (radgeek.com)
  • Radical women in Chicago poured their energy into Jane, an abortion referral service initiated by Heather Booth, who had been a one-woman grapevine for her college classmates. (radgeek.com)
  • In 1971, after Booth's departure, some of the women took matters into their own hands and secretly began to perform the abortions themselves. (radgeek.com)
  • In order to obtain a legal abortion, women were forced to face an intimidating process of going before a hospital committee to petition for care. (prowomanprolife.org)
  • Generations have come of age assuming the legal right to birth control and abortion, and the related rights to self-determination, while attacks on access have targeted vulnerable and disenfranchised women, who are less likely voters. (nwhn.org)
  • Abortion continued to be an important method of birth control, particularly for working-class, married women like Collins. (cdlib.org)
  • In the late 1960s, an important tactic of the movement to legalize abortion was getting women to tell of their abortions at "speak-outs" and thus discover their shared experiences and shared oppression. (cdlib.org)
  • Instead of visualizing women as gagged and silenced, it is more helpful to envision them talking about abortion as a "secret. (cdlib.org)
  • Though women regularly sought-and got-abortions, they were a felony in nearly every state by the late 1960s, and these laws offered few, and sometimes no, exceptions related to the mother's health or cases of incest and rape. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • Though many doctors, like Hodgson, supported abortions for pregnant women who had contracted rubella, laws outlawing abortion in most cases put them in danger of arrest, loss of licensure and other penalties. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • Salvadoran law criminalizes all forms of abortion, including therapeutic abortion, and punishes both the women and the doctors who perform them. (mercopress.com)
  • Since December 2021, the Salvadoran government has commuted the sentences of nine women who suffered obstetric emergencies and were prosecuted for abortion. (mercopress.com)
  • This abortion ban blatantly violates the most essential human rights of women recognized in international treaties ratified by Nicaragua. (reproductiverights.org)
  • The rights to life and health are threatened when women cannot undergo therapeutic abortions or are forced to resort to unsafe procedures. (reproductiverights.org)
  • We know what happens when abortion is banned: women suffer. (reproductiverights.org)
  • Abortion, even when provided by law in cases of sexual violence, continues to be practiced in an insecure way, since women who suffer violence are not reported or guarded by social, institutional or age vulnerability, as in adolescence. (bvsalud.org)
  • The mortality rate related to induced abortion was 0.6 deaths per 100,000 abortions. (medscape.com)
  • In 1992, the case-fatality rate of legal induced abortion was 0.7 abortion-related deaths per 100,000 legal induced abortions. (cdc.gov)
  • As in previous years, deaths related to legal induced abortions occurred rarely (i.e., approximately one death per 100,000 legal induced abortions). (cdc.gov)
  • If a doctor performed an abortion on compassionate or medical grounds, the doctor ran the risk of being prosecuted under the Criminal Code. (wikipedia.org)
  • We are America's only physician group that limits its private medical practice solely to providing compassionate, safe therapeutic abortions. (gracemedicalcare.com)
  • The end result was a very limited access to lawful abortion which varied widely from one town or province to another. (wikipedia.org)
  • The use of abortion to preserve the life of the mother has been widely accepted. (medscape.com)
  • The ancient Romans did not consider a fetus a person until after birth, and abortion was practiced widely. (medscape.com)
  • Abortion was widely tolerated. (cdlib.org)
  • These limits include making abortion legal only when the mother's life is in danger (15 percent) or legal when the mother's life is in danger or in cases of rape and incest (23 percent). (georgiabulletin.org)
  • [ 3 ] Access to abortion was particularly limited in rural communities and in the South and Midwest. (medscape.com)
  • Absent an affirmative strategy, attacks on abortion from strident opponents like the U.S. Conference of Catholic Bishops have achieved incremental erosions in access to abortion. (nwhn.org)
  • The doctor who proposed to perform an abortion could not be a member of the committee which considered the request. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] As well, the requirement for three doctors to sit on a committee, in addition to the doctor who proposed to perform an abortion, meant that abortions were only available in hospitals where there were four doctors familiar with the procedure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Her friend understood her situation and helped her by naming a doctor who might perform an abortion. (cdlib.org)
  • For example, India has liberal abortion laws, but two out of every five abortions performed are still unsafe because of poverty and inadequate healthcare systems in rural areas. (arcc-cdac.ca)
  • Later that month, thousands of people took part in the Bans Off Our Bodies abortion rights rally in New York City, marching across the Brooklyn Bridge to Foley Square in Manhattan on May 14, 2022. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • By passing this outrageous ban Nicaragua has joined the ranks of Chile and El Salvador, the only countries in the world to have imposed total abortion bans in the last 20 years. (reproductiverights.org)
  • Many doctors who used to perform abortions continue to provide safe (but clandestine and costly) procedures in their clinics. (arcc-cdac.ca)
  • Pro-lifers in the country are praying near abortion clinics in about 20 cities as part of the 40 Days for. (catholicnewsagency.com)
  • Induced abortion I'd widespread in Nigeria despite the restrictive abortion law policy with an estimate of 760,000 occurring annually. (emobileclinic.com)
  • But a wide variety of medical and social factors impact maternal health - unsafe abortion is only one cause of maternal mortality, although it's a major one that is entirely preventable. (arcc-cdac.ca)
  • The timeframes for reporting serious threats to public health and adverse events related to biologicals are specified in section 16AB of the Therapeutic Goods Regulations 1990 and can be summarised in the table below. (tga.gov.au)
  • Hospitals or medical centers may not perform the therapeutic procedure at all, and if they do, they may not offer the patient the anonymity she wants or the support she needs. (gracemedicalcare.com)
  • Though abortion was not particularly controversial in the nation's early years, opposition grew in the late 19th century and the procedure became increasingly taboo. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • Worldwide, some 20-30 million legal abortions are performed annually, with another 10-20 million abortions performed illegally (see The Alan Guttmacher Institute ). (medscape.com)
  • This report summarizes and reviews information reported to CDC regarding legal induced abortions obtained in the United States in 1996. (cdc.gov)
  • In 1996, a total of 1,221,585 legal abortions were reported to CDC, representing a 0.9% increase from the number reported for 1995. (cdc.gov)
  • Abortion, doctors, and the law : some aspects of the legal regulation of abortion in England from 1803 to 1982 / John Keown. (who.int)
  • People often use the terms "safe abortion" and "legal abortion" interchangeably, but safe abortions are not always legal and vice versa. (healthline.com)
  • In order to support the opposite contention, anti-choice writers commit a serious logical error by equating a country's overall maternal mortality rate with the legal status of abortion. (arcc-cdac.ca)
  • Cambodia, Zambia, and South Africa are other countries with legal abortion but insufficient access to safe services. (arcc-cdac.ca)
  • Safe underground abortion services are also well-developed in Poland, because abortion was legal up until 1993. (arcc-cdac.ca)
  • As for Mr. Mello, he reaffirmed his support for the U.S. Supreme Court's Roe v. Wade decision guaranteeing legal abortion. (americamagazine.org)
  • ing to commit abortion by arguing that the abortions were legal. (cdlib.org)
  • In the Keemer and Timanus cases, the lawyers for the state and defense each constructed their case to present competing definitions of legal abortion. (cdlib.org)
  • The defense argued that Dr. Timanus performed legal abortions. (cdlib.org)
  • Among other things, it permitted California's government-run Medicaid program to pay for abortions. (politifact.com)
  • In contrast to the state's construction of therapeutic abortion, the defense referred to the growing acceptance of psychiatric indications for therapeutic abortion. (cdlib.org)
  • In the Center's case KL v. Peru in 2005, the U.N. Human Rights Committee ruled that the rights of a 17-year old Peruvian woman had been violated when health officials denied her a therapeutic abortion although her fetus carried a fatal abnormality. (reproductiverights.org)
  • There are many reasons why a woman might seek a late abortion, and she should be able to find one legally if she wants it. (radgeek.com)
  • in the end, the definition of a therapeutic abortion narrowed to conform to hospital policy and the space in which physicians could legally perform abortions shrank. (cdlib.org)
  • State laws on abortion provided exceptions for abortions performed for medical reasons, but when a therapeutic abortion was "indicated" was unclear. (cdlib.org)
  • El Salvador is one of four Latin American countries that ban abortion without exceptions, along with Nicaragua, Honduras, and the Dominican Republic. (mercopress.com)
  • Intervention 1: Intervention group: Self-efficacy and coping strategies questionnaires will be administered to patients within 72 hours after first abortion and then they will undergo midwifery counseling by Gamble's method. (who.int)
  • Intervention group undergo counseling in two 45-75 minutes sessions.The first session is done in person during the first 72 hours and the second session is done by phone 4-6 weeks after the abortion. (who.int)
  • But when you start asking questions about when abortion should be permitted, and break it down, it doesn't map out the same as what Roe v. Wade has ushered in. (georgiabulletin.org)
  • To-day is the 40th anniversary of Roe v. Wade, repealing abortion laws in the United States. (radgeek.com)
  • The technical norm is not an opening for free abortion nor does it extend the law," said Alejandra Acuña, Deputy Minister of the Health Ministry. (ticotimes.net)
  • This report is based on abortion data for 1996 provided to CDC's National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Reproductive Health. (cdc.gov)
  • One of the dirtiest tricks in the pro-abortion arsenal is their penchant for exploiting the urgent need to protect the health of mothers by using this to justify aborting their unborn children. (lifesitenews.com)
  • Nothing necessitates abortion, even for extreme health cases. (georgiabulletin.org)
  • According to the World Health Organization (WHO), about 73 million abortions take place worldwide every year. (healthline.com)
  • Indeed, the very nature of abortion and contraception is contested: some consider them to be essential health care, whereas others consider them controversial moral choices. (ssrn.com)
  • We support protecting the lives of vulnerable persons by opposing health care rationing and denial of health care and government funding of abortion. (politifact.com)
  • He practiced only in consultation with other physicians and induced abortions for reasons of mental health, an acceptable indication. (cdlib.org)
  • During that decade, though, two public health crises brought debate about abortion into the open. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • Admitted to the health service with diagnosis of acute abdomen and induced abortion using antibiotic therapy. (bvsalud.org)
  • The history of violence portrayed in this study reveals an attempt of abortion with self harm, revealing negative clinical repercussions and the health problems of the adolescent. (bvsalud.org)
  • It also revealed the need for further discussion on the topic, highlighting health promotion practices against unsafe abortion. (bvsalud.org)
  • Part I in a three-part series on obstacles to therapeutic abortion in Costa Rica. (ticotimes.net)
  • Costa Rica on Tuesday sent the text of a technical norm that will allow for therapeutic abortions in some instances to the Social Security System (CCSS) for review. (ticotimes.net)
  • This report also includes recently reported abortion-related deaths that occurred in 1992. (cdc.gov)
  • in 1996, the number of abortions in the United States stabilized. (cdc.gov)
  • Support for abortion mounted in the mid-1960s with an epidemic of the rubella virus, also known as German measles. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • This area of research was spurred by the major tragedies resulting from the therapeutic use of thalidomide and the environmental exposure of mercury in Minamata Bay, Japan. (cdc.gov)
  • A lot of people are being seriously misled because the legislation and the court decisions that incorporate these insidious limitations are being called abortion law repeal by the media. (radgeek.com)
  • Human rights organizations have demanded that the Salvadoran government repeal the law prohibiting abortion but to no avail. (mercopress.com)
  • citation needed] These restrictions on abortion were struck down as unconstitutional by the Supreme Court of Canada in its decision in R v Morgentaler in 1988. (wikipedia.org)
  • What Is a Safe Abortion? (healthline.com)
  • What's the difference between a safe and unsafe abortion? (healthline.com)
  • Safe abortions fill both of the above criteria. (healthline.com)
  • Less safe abortions fill one, but not both, of the above criteria. (healthline.com)
  • Least safe abortions fill neither of the above criteria. (healthline.com)
  • What are the characteristics of safe abortion care? (healthline.com)
  • Least safe" abortion care fits neither of the above-mentioned criteria for safe abortions. (healthline.com)
  • What factors contribute to less safe and least safe abortion care? (healthline.com)
  • People who get "less safe" or "least safe" abortion care may do so because it's difficult to access safe abortion care. (healthline.com)
  • If someone is unable to afford abortion care or the costs associated with abortion (such as transport to or from a clinic or child care), they may resort to less safe options. (healthline.com)
  • The bill introduced the concept of Therapeutic Abortion Committees, which could approve abortions for medical reasons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Abortion is one of the most common medical procedures performed in the United States each year. (medscape.com)
  • It may be therapeutic when there is a medical reasons for such intervention as it is permitted in spite of the laws of the country against such termination. (emobileclinic.com)
  • Some medical professionals may also refuse to provide abortion care. (healthline.com)
  • Arguments will be presented to reassure providers about the possibility to provide early medical abortion safely. (fiapac.org)
  • Finally very early medical abortion will also be considered in this presentation on the basis of recent studies. (fiapac.org)
  • citation needed] In 1968, the federal Minister of Justice, Pierre Trudeau, introduced the Criminal Law Amendment Act, 1968-69 to amend the Criminal Code in many respects, including in relation to abortion. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] In other TAC's the law was interpreted much more closely, making it difficult to get an abortion in the hospital even if they did have a TAC. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] These were the cases which the TAC's were originally intended to address, but many hospitals were unwilling to perform abortions at all. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Hospitals had Therapeutic Abortion Committees only if they opted to provide abortions, and there was and is no requirement that they do so. (wikipedia.org)
  • In March 2006, as a result of another case brought by the Center, the government of Mexico admitted that it violated the rights of a 13-year-old girl who became pregnant as a result of rape and was denied an abortion. (reproductiverights.org)
  • Early Christians had varying practices regarding abortion. (medscape.com)
  • Ultrasound was used to confirm the presence of pelvic collection and also to rule out possibility of incomplete abortion that will require uterine evacuation. (emobileclinic.com)
  • She had asked for anonymity, but after the story broke, her hospital refused to provide an abortion-and neither would any other facility. (nationalgeographic.com)