Intentional removal of a fetus from the uterus by any of a number of techniques. (POPLINE, 1978)
Expulsion of the product of FERTILIZATION before completing the term of GESTATION and without deliberate interference.
Premature expulsion of the FETUS in animals.
Illegal termination of pregnancy.
Abortion induced to save the life or health of a pregnant woman. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Individuals requesting induced abortions.
The retention in the UTERUS of a dead FETUS two months or more after its DEATH.
Any type of abortion, induced or spontaneous, that is associated with infection of the UTERUS and its appendages. It is characterized by FEVER, uterine tenderness, and foul discharge.
Three or more consecutive spontaneous abortions.
UTERINE BLEEDING from a GESTATION of less than 20 weeks without any CERVICAL DILATATION. It is characterized by vaginal bleeding, lower back discomfort, or midline pelvic cramping and a risk factor for MISCARRIAGE.
Chemical substances that interrupt pregnancy after implantation.
Premature loss of PREGNANCY in which not all the products of CONCEPTION have been expelled.
A mammalian fetus expelled by INDUCED ABORTION or SPONTANEOUS ABORTION.
Steroidal compounds with abortifacient activity.
Abortion performed because of possible fetal defects.
A synthetic analog of natural prostaglandin E1. It produces a dose-related inhibition of gastric acid and pepsin secretion, and enhances mucosal resistance to injury. It is an effective anti-ulcer agent and also has oxytocic properties.
Non-steroidal chemical compounds with abortifacient activity.
Unintended accidental pregnancy, including pregnancy resulting from failed contraceptive measures.
Pregnancy, usually accidental, that is not desired by the parent or parents.
Aspiration of the contents of the uterus with a vacuum curette.
The beginning third of a human PREGNANCY, from the first day of the last normal menstrual period (MENSTRUATION) through the completion of 14 weeks (98 days) of gestation.
Human females who are pregnant, as cultural, psychological, or sociological entities.
Prevention of CONCEPTION by blocking fertility temporarily, or permanently (STERILIZATION, REPRODUCTIVE). Common means of reversible contraception include NATURAL FAMILY PLANNING METHODS; CONTRACEPTIVE AGENTS; or CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES.
Procedures to block or remove all or part of the genital tract for the purpose of rendering individuals sterile, incapable of reproduction. Surgical sterilization procedures are the most commonly used. There are also sterilization procedures involving chemical or physical means.
Laws and regulations, pertaining to the field of medicine, proposed for enactment or enacted by a legislative body.
A person who has not attained the age at which full civil rights are accorded.
Death of the developing young in utero. BIRTH of a dead FETUS is STILLBIRTH.
The rights of women to equal status pertaining to social, economic, and educational opportunities afforded by society.
Health care programs or services designed to assist individuals in the planning of family size. Various methods of CONTRACEPTION can be used to control the number and timing of childbirths.
The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.
The state or condition of being a human individual accorded moral and/or legal rights. Criteria to be used to determine this status are subject to debate, and range from the requirement of simply being a human organism to such requirements as that the individual be self-aware and capable of rational thought and moral agency.
A progestational and glucocorticoid hormone antagonist. Its inhibition of progesterone induces bleeding during the luteal phase and in early pregnancy by releasing endogenous prostaglandins from the endometrium or decidua. As a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist, the drug has been used to treat hypercortisolism in patients with nonpituitary CUSHING SYNDROME.
Behavior patterns of those practicing CONTRACEPTION.
Reproductive rights rest on the recognition of the basic right of all couples and individuals to decide freely and responsibly the number, spacing and timing of their children and to have the information and means to do so, and the right to attain the highest standard of sexual and reproductive health. They also include the right of all to make decisions concerning reproduction free of discrimination, coercion and violence.
The number of births in a given population per year or other unit of time.
Dilatation of the cervix uteri followed by a scraping of the endometrium with a curette.
Results of conception and ensuing pregnancy, including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; SPONTANEOUS ABORTION; INDUCED ABORTION. The outcome may follow natural or artificial insemination or any of the various ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, such as EMBRYO TRANSFER or FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.
The point at which religious ensoulment or PERSONHOOD is considered to begin.
The middle third of a human PREGNANCY, from the beginning of the 15th through the 28th completed week (99 to 196 days) of gestation.
A genus of protozoan parasites of the subclass COCCIDIA. Its species are parasitic in dogs, cattle, goats, and sheep, among others. N. caninum, a species that mainly infects dogs, is intracellular in neural and other cells of the body, multiplies by endodyogeny, has no parasitophorous vacuole, and has numerous rhoptries. It is known to cause lesions in many tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord as well as abortion in the expectant mother.
The three approximately equal periods of a normal human PREGNANCY. Each trimester is about three months or 13 to 14 weeks in duration depending on the designation of the first day of gestation.
Reporting to parents or guardians about care to be provided to a minor (MINORS).
Pregnancy in human adolescent females under the age of 19.
Devices that diminish the likelihood of or prevent conception. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Bleeding from blood vessels in the UTERUS, sometimes manifested as vaginal bleeding.
The state that distinguishes organisms from inorganic matter, manifested by growth, metabolism, reproduction, and adaptation. It includes the course of existence, the sum of experiences, the mode of existing, or the fact of being. Over the centuries inquiries into the nature of life have crossed the boundaries from philosophy to biology, forensic medicine, anthropology, etc., in creative as well as scientific literature. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed; Dr. James H. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)
Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.
Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.
The Christian faith, practice, or system of the Catholic Church, specifically the Roman Catholic, the Christian church that is characterized by a hierarchic structure of bishops and priests in which doctrinal and disciplinary authority are dependent upon apostolic succession, with the pope as head of the episcopal college. (From Webster, 3d ed; American Heritage Dictionary, 2d college ed)
The number of offspring a female has borne. It is contrasted with GRAVIDITY, which refers to the number of pregnancies, regardless of outcome.
The state of birth outside of wedlock. It may refer to the offspring or the parents.
The kind of action or activity proper to the judiciary, particularly its responsibility for decision making.
Protozoan infection found in animals and man. It is caused by several different genera of COCCIDIA.
A potentially life-threatening condition in which EMBRYO IMPLANTATION occurs outside the cavity of the UTERUS. Most ectopic pregnancies (>96%) occur in the FALLOPIAN TUBES, known as TUBAL PREGNANCY. They can be in other locations, such as UTERINE CERVIX; OVARY; and abdominal cavity (PREGNANCY, ABDOMINAL).
Diseases of domestic and mountain sheep of the genus Ovis.
The age of the mother in PREGNANCY.
Pathological processes or abnormal functions of the PLACENTA.
A medical-surgical specialty concerned with the physiology and disorders primarily of the female genital tract, as well as female endocrinology and reproductive physiology.
The co-occurrence of pregnancy and an INFECTION. The infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.
A demographic parameter indicating a person's status with respect to marriage, divorce, widowhood, singleness, etc.
The science or philosophy of law. Also, the application of the principles of law and justice to health and medicine.
Standards of conduct that distinguish right from wrong.
Organized services to provide health care to women. It excludes maternal care services for which MATERNAL HEALTH SERVICES is available.
A genus of the family CHLAMYDIACEAE comprising gram-negative non CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS-like species infecting vertebrates. Chlamydophila do not produce detectable quantities of glycogen. The type species is CHLAMYDOPHILA PSITTACI.
The enactment of laws and ordinances and their regulation by official organs of a nation, state, or other legislative organization. It refers also to health-related laws and regulations in general or for which there is no specific heading.
Malformations of organs or body parts during development in utero.
Maternal deaths resulting from complications of pregnancy and childbirth in a given population.
The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Decisions made by the United States Supreme Court.
The term "United States" in a medical context often refers to the country where a patient or study participant resides, and is not a medical term per se, but relevant for epidemiological studies, healthcare policies, and understanding differences in disease prevalence, treatment patterns, and health outcomes across various geographic locations.
Diseases of domestic and wild horses of the species Equus caballus.
A medical-surgical specialty concerned with management and care of women during pregnancy, parturition, and the puerperium.
A highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products. It includes a fetal portion (CHORIONIC VILLI) derived from TROPHOBLASTS and a maternal portion (DECIDUA) derived from the uterine ENDOMETRIUM. The placenta produces an array of steroid, protein and peptide hormones (PLACENTAL HORMONES).
Administration of a soluble dosage form by placement under the tongue.
The rights of the individual to cultural, social, economic, and educational opportunities as provided by society, e.g., right to work, right to education, and right to social security.
Contraceptive devices placed high in the uterine fundus.
Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.
Diseases of the domestic or wild goat of the genus Capra.
Exercise of governmental authority to control conduct.
The fundamental dispositions and traits of humans. (Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)
Means of postcoital intervention to avoid pregnancy, such as the administration of POSTCOITAL CONTRACEPTIVES to prevent FERTILIZATION of an egg or implantation of a fertilized egg (OVUM IMPLANTATION).
The cognitive and affective processes which constitute an internalized moral governor over an individual's moral conduct.
The intrinsic moral worth ascribed to a living being. (Bioethics Thesaurus)
Informed consent given by a parent on behalf of a minor or otherwise incompetent child.
A hole or break through the wall of the UTERUS, usually made by the placement of an instrument or INTRAUTERINE DEVICES.
Duties that are based in ETHICS, rather than in law.
The insertion of drugs into the vagina to treat local infections, neoplasms, or to induce labor. The dosage forms may include medicated pessaries, irrigation fluids, and suppositories.
The physical condition of human reproductive systems.
The disintegration and assimilation of the dead FETUS in the UTERUS at any stage after the completion of organogenesis which, in humans, is after the 9th week of GESTATION. It does not include embryo resorption (see EMBRYO LOSS).
The philosophy or code pertaining to what is ideal in human character and conduct. Also, the field of study dealing with the principles of morality.
Health care services related to human REPRODUCTION and diseases of the reproductive system. Services are provided to both sexes and usually by physicians in the medical or the surgical specialties such as REPRODUCTIVE MEDICINE; ANDROLOGY; GYNECOLOGY; OBSTETRICS; and PERINATOLOGY.
Trophoblastic hyperplasia associated with normal gestation, or molar pregnancy. It is characterized by the swelling of the CHORIONIC VILLI and elevated human CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN. Hydatidiform moles or molar pregnancy may be categorized as complete or partial based on their gross morphology, histopathology, and karyotype.
Congenital abnormalities caused by medicinal substances or drugs of abuse given to or taken by the mother, or to which she is inadvertently exposed during the manufacture of such substances. The concept excludes abnormalities resulting from exposure to non-medicinal chemicals in the environment.
A genus of CHLAMYDOPHILA infecting primarily birds. It contains eight known serovars, some of which infect more than one type of host, including humans.
Diminished or absent ability of a female to achieve conception.
The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.
The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.
The interrelationship of medicine and religion.
The care and treatment of a convalescent patient, especially that of a patient after surgery.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.

Incidence of repeated legal abortion.(1/322)


Life devoid of value.(2/322)


Reactions to medical abortion among providers of surgical abortion: an early snapshot.(3/322)


Complications of unsafe abortion in sub-Saharan Africa: a review. (4/322)

The Commonwealth Regional Health Community Secretariat undertook a study in 1994 to document the magnitude of abortion complications in Commonwealth member countries. The results of the literature review component of that study, and research gaps identified as a result of the review, are presented in this article. The literature review findings indicate a significant public health problem in the region, as measured by a high proportion of incomplete abortion patients among all hospital gynaecology admissions. The most common complications of unsafe abortion seen at health facilities were haemorrhage and sepsis. Studies on the use of manual vacuum aspiration for treating abortion complications found shorter lengths of hospital stay (and thus, lower resource costs) and a reduced need for a repeat evacuation. Very few articles focused exclusively on the cost of treating abortion complications, but authors agreed that it consumes a disproportionate amount of hospital resources. Studies on the role of men in supporting a woman's decision to abort or use contraception were similarly lacking. Articles on contraceptive behaviour and abortion reported that almost all patients suffering from abortion complications had not used an effective, or any, method of contraception prior to becoming pregnant, especially among the adolescent population; studies on post-abortion contraception are virtually nonexistent. Almost all articles on the legal aspect of abortion recommended law reform to reflect a public health, rather than a criminal, orientation. Research needs that were identified include: community-based epidemiological studies; operations research on decentralization of post-abortion care and integration of treatment with post-abortion family planning services; studies on system-wide resource use for treatment of incomplete abortion; qualitative research on the role of males in the decision to terminate pregnancy and use contraception; clinical studies on pain control medications and procedures; and case studies on the provision of safe abortion services where legally allowed.  (+info)

International developments in abortion law from 1988 to 1998. (5/322)

OBJECTIVES: In 2 successive decades since 1967, legal accommodation of abortion has grown in many countries. The objective of this study was to assess whether liberalizing trends have been maintained in the last decade and whether increased protection of women's human rights has influenced legal reform. METHODS: A worldwide review was conducted of legislation and judicial rulings affecting abortion, and legal reforms were measured against governmental commitments made under international human rights treaties and at United Nations conferences. RESULTS: Since 1987, 26 jurisdictions have extended grounds for lawful abortion, and 4 countries have restricted grounds. Additional limits on access to legal abortion services include restrictions on funding of services, mandatory counseling and reflection delay requirements, third-party authorizations, and blockades of abortion clinics. CONCLUSIONS: Progressive liberalization has moved abortion laws from a focus on punishment toward concern with women's health and welfare and with their human rights. However, widespread maternal mortality and morbidity show that reform must be accompanied by accessible abortion services and improved contraceptive care and information.  (+info)

Sexual health of teenagers in England and Wales: analysis of national data.(6/322)


German drug agency approves mifepristone.(7/322)


Ethical aspects of neural tissue transplantation. (8/322)

The method of neural grafting is considered to be a very promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of certain neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease or Huntington's disease. During the last 15 years, clinical transplantation studies have been carried out worldwide in several hundreds of patients with Parkinson's disease. In these studies, primarily fetal mesencephalic tissue derived from aborted human fetuses has been used for implantation. Neural tissue transplantation gives rise to ethical issues in two different areas that need careful examination: the first, ethical problems linked to the use of tissue from aborted human fetuses; and the second, ethical issues concerning the graft recipients in clinical trials, i.e., his or her well-being, personality, and personal identity.  (+info)

Induced abortion is a medical procedure that intentionally terminates a pregnancy before the fetus can survive outside the womb. It can be performed either surgically or medically through the use of medications. The timing of an induced abortion is typically based on the gestational age of the pregnancy, with different methods used at different stages.

The most common surgical procedure for induced abortion is vacuum aspiration, which is usually performed during the first trimester (up to 12-13 weeks of gestation). This procedure involves dilating the cervix and using a vacuum device to remove the pregnancy tissue from the uterus. Other surgical procedures, such as dilation and evacuation (D&E), may be used in later stages of pregnancy.

Medical abortion involves the use of medications to induce the termination of a pregnancy. The most common regimen involves the use of two drugs: mifepristone and misoprostol. Mifepristone works by blocking the action of progesterone, a hormone necessary for maintaining pregnancy. Misoprostol causes the uterus to contract and expel the pregnancy tissue. This method is typically used during the first 10 weeks of gestation.

Induced abortion is a safe and common medical procedure, with low rates of complications when performed by trained healthcare providers in appropriate settings. Access to induced abortion varies widely around the world, with some countries restricting or prohibiting the practice entirely.

Spontaneous abortion, also known as miscarriage, is the unintentional expulsion of a nonviable fetus from the uterus before the 20th week of gestation. It is a common complication of early pregnancy, with most miscarriages occurring during the first trimester. Spontaneous abortion can have various causes, including chromosomal abnormalities, maternal health conditions, infections, hormonal imbalances, and structural issues of the uterus or cervix. In many cases, the exact cause may remain unknown.

The symptoms of spontaneous abortion can vary but often include vaginal bleeding, which may range from light spotting to heavy bleeding; abdominal pain or cramping; and the passing of tissue or clots from the vagina. While some miscarriages occur suddenly and are immediately noticeable, others may progress slowly over several days or even weeks.

In medical practice, healthcare providers often use specific terminology to describe different stages and types of spontaneous abortion. For example:

* Threatened abortion: Vaginal bleeding during early pregnancy, but the cervix remains closed, and there is no evidence of fetal demise or passing of tissue.
* Inevitable abortion: Vaginal bleeding with an open cervix, indicating that a miscarriage is imminent or already in progress.
* Incomplete abortion: The expulsion of some but not all products of conception from the uterus, requiring medical intervention to remove any remaining tissue.
* Complete abortion: The successful passage of all products of conception from the uterus, often confirmed through an ultrasound or pelvic examination.
* Missed abortion: The death of a fetus in the uterus without any expulsion of the products of conception, which may be discovered during routine prenatal care.
* Septic abortion: A rare and life-threatening complication of spontaneous abortion characterized by infection of the products of conception and the surrounding tissues, requiring prompt medical attention and antibiotic treatment.

Healthcare providers typically monitor patients who experience a spontaneous abortion to ensure that all products of conception have been expelled and that there are no complications, such as infection or excessive bleeding. In some cases, medication or surgical intervention may be necessary to remove any remaining tissue or address other issues related to the miscarriage. Counseling and support services are often available for individuals and couples who experience a spontaneous abortion, as they may face emotional challenges and concerns about future pregnancies.

I. Definition:

An abortion in a veterinary context refers to the intentional or unintentional termination of pregnancy in a non-human animal before the fetus is capable of surviving outside of the uterus. This can occur spontaneously (known as a miscarriage) or be induced through medical intervention (induced abortion).

II. Common Causes:

Spontaneous abortions may result from genetic defects, hormonal imbalances, infections, exposure to toxins, trauma, or other maternal health issues. Induced abortions are typically performed for population control, humane reasons (such as preventing the birth of a severely deformed or non-viable fetus), or when the pregnancy poses a risk to the mother's health.

III. Methods:

Veterinarians may use various methods to induce abortion depending on the species, stage of gestation, and reason for the procedure. These can include administering drugs that stimulate uterine contractions (such as prostaglandins), physically removing the fetus through surgery (dilation and curettage or hysterectomy), or using techniques specific to certain animal species (e.g., intrauterine infusion of hypertonic saline in equids).

IV. Ethical Considerations:

The ethics surrounding veterinary abortions are complex and multifaceted, often involving considerations related to animal welfare, conservation, population management, and human-animal relationships. Veterinarians must weigh these factors carefully when deciding whether to perform an abortion and which method to use. In some cases, legal regulations may also influence the decision-making process.

V. Conclusion:

Abortion in veterinary medicine is a medical intervention that can be used to address various clinical scenarios, ranging from unintentional pregnancy loss to deliberate termination of pregnancy for humane or population control reasons. Ethical considerations play a significant role in the decision-making process surrounding veterinary abortions, and veterinarians must carefully evaluate each situation on a case-by-case basis.

A criminal abortion is an illegal abortion, which is a procedure performed with the intent to induce the termination of a pregnancy, carried out in violation of the law. In many jurisdictions, criminal abortions are defined as those performed outside of the legal parameters set forth by the relevant regulations, such as those that require the procedure to be performed by a licensed medical professional, within certain timeframes, and/or for specific reasons.

Criminal abortions may be motivated by various factors, including financial constraints, social stigma, or fear of repercussions. Engaging in criminal abortion practices can result in severe legal consequences, including fines, imprisonment, and in some cases, loss of medical license. It's important to note that the legality and accessibility of abortion vary significantly across different countries and regions, with varying restrictions and requirements.

If you require assistance or advice related to pregnancy termination, it is crucial to consult a licensed healthcare professional or a trusted reproductive health organization in your area to ensure that you receive accurate information and safe care within the legal framework of your jurisdiction.

A therapeutic abortion is the deliberate termination of a pregnancy before viability (the ability of the fetus to survive outside the womb), which is generally considered to be around 24 weeks of gestation. The term "therapeutic" is used to describe abortions that are performed for medical reasons, such as to protect the life or health of the pregnant individual, or in cases where the fetus has a severe abnormality and cannot survive outside the womb.

Therapeutic abortions may be recommended in situations where continuing the pregnancy poses a significant risk to the health or life of the pregnant individual. For example, if a pregnant person has a serious medical condition such as heart disease, cancer, or severe pre-eclampsia, continuing the pregnancy could worsen their condition and put them at risk of serious complications or even death. In these cases, a therapeutic abortion may be necessary to protect the health or life of the pregnant individual.

Therapeutic abortions may also be recommended in cases where the fetus has a severe abnormality that is not compatible with life outside the womb. For example, if the fetus has a condition such as anencephaly (a neural tube defect where the brain and skull do not form properly), or a chromosomal abnormality such as Trisomy 13 or 18, continuing the pregnancy may result in a stillbirth or a short, painful life for the infant after birth. In these cases, a therapeutic abortion may be considered a compassionate option to prevent unnecessary suffering.

It's important to note that the decision to undergo a therapeutic abortion is a deeply personal one, and should be made in consultation with medical professionals and trusted family members or support networks. Ultimately, the decision should be based on what is best for the physical and emotional health of the pregnant individual, taking into account their values, beliefs, and circumstances.

"Abortion applicants" is not a standard medical term. However, in general, it may refer to individuals who are seeking to have an abortion procedure performed. This could include people of any gender, although the vast majority of those seeking abortions are women or pregnant individuals. The term "abortion applicant" may be used in legal or administrative contexts to describe someone who is applying for a legal abortion, particularly in places where there are restrictions or requirements that must be met before an abortion can be performed. It is important to note that access to safe and legal abortion is a fundamental human right recognized by many international organizations and medical associations.

A "missed abortion" is a medical term used to describe a pregnancy in which the fetus has died or failed to develop, but the products of conception (i.e., the placenta and gestational sac) remain in the uterus. This condition is also sometimes referred to as a "silent miscarriage" or "delayed miscarriage." In a missed abortion, there may be no symptoms or only very mild ones, such as vaginal bleeding or the passing of tissue. The diagnosis is typically made through an ultrasound exam that shows an empty gestational sac or a non-viable fetus. Treatment options include waiting for the body to expel the products of conception naturally, taking medication to induce expulsion, or undergoing a surgical procedure to remove the products of conception.

Septic abortion is a medical term used to describe a spontaneous abortion or miscarriage that is associated with infection. This occurs when the products of conception, such as the fetal tissue and placenta, are not completely expelled from the uterus, leading to an infection of the uterine lining and potentially the pelvic cavity.

The infection can cause fever, chills, severe abdominal pain, foul-smelling vaginal discharge, and heavy bleeding. If left untreated, septic abortion can lead to serious complications such as sepsis, infertility, and even death. It is important to seek medical attention immediately if you suspect a septic abortion. Treatment typically involves antibiotics to clear the infection and possibly surgical intervention to remove any remaining products of conception.

The medical definition of "Habitual Abortion" refers to a woman who has three or more consecutive pregnancies that end in spontaneous miscarriages before 20 weeks of gestation. The cause of habitual abortions can be difficult to determine and may involve genetic, anatomical, hormonal, or immune system factors. Treatment is often aimed at addressing any underlying issues that may be contributing to the recurrent miscarriages. It's important to note that the terminology has changed over time and the term "recurrent pregnancy loss" is now more commonly used in place of "habitual abortion".

A "threatened abortion" is a medical term used to describe a situation in which there are symptoms that suggest an impending miscarriage, such as vaginal bleeding and/or cramping during early pregnancy, but the cervix remains closed and the fetal heartbeat is still present. This condition is estimated to occur in up to 20-30% of all pregnancies, and while it can be a source of anxiety for pregnant individuals, it does not necessarily mean that a miscarriage will definitely occur.

It's important to note that if you are experiencing any symptoms of a threatened abortion, you should contact your healthcare provider right away for evaluation and guidance on how to manage the situation. They may recommend bed rest, pelvic rest, or other treatments to help support the pregnancy and reduce the risk of miscarriage.

An abortifacient agent is a substance or drug that causes abortion by inducing the uterus to contract and expel a fetus. These agents can be chemical or herbal substances, and they work by interfering with the implantation of the fertilized egg in the uterine lining or by stimulating uterine contractions to expel the developing embryo or fetus.

Examples of abortifacient agents include misoprostol, mifepristone, and certain herbs such as pennyroyal, tansy, and black cohosh. It is important to note that the use of abortifacient agents can have serious health consequences, including infection, bleeding, and damage to the reproductive system. Therefore, it is essential to consult with a healthcare provider before using any abortifacient agent.

An incomplete abortion is a medical term used to describe a situation where a pregnancy is expelled or terminated spontaneously or induced, but only partially. This means that some of the products of conception (i.e., the fetus, placenta, and associated membranes) are retained within the uterus.

Incomplete abortions can be caused by various factors, including complications during a medical or surgical abortion, miscarriage, ectopic pregnancy, or infection. Symptoms of an incomplete abortion may include vaginal bleeding, abdominal pain, cramping, and the passage of tissue or clots.

Incomplete abortions are considered a medical emergency because they can lead to complications such as infection, hemorrhage, and infertility if left untreated. Treatment typically involves a surgical procedure called dilatation and curettage (D&C) to remove any remaining products of conception from the uterus. In some cases, medication may also be used to help complete the abortion and prevent infection.

An aborted fetus refers to a developing human organism that is expelled or removed from the uterus before it is viable, typically as a result of an induced abortion. An abortion is a medical procedure that intentionally ends a pregnancy and can be performed through various methods, depending on the stage of the pregnancy.

It's important to note that the term "abortion" is often used in different contexts and may carry different connotations depending on one's perspective. In medical terminology, an abortion refers specifically to the intentional ending of a pregnancy before viability. However, in other contexts, the term may be used more broadly to refer to any spontaneous or induced loss of a pregnancy, including miscarriages and stillbirths.

The definition of "viable" can vary, but it generally refers to the point at which a fetus can survive outside the uterus with medical assistance, typically around 24 weeks of gestation. Fetal viability is a complex issue that depends on many factors, including the availability and accessibility of medical technology and resources.

In summary, an aborted fetus is a developing human organism that is intentionally expelled or removed from the uterus before it is viable, typically as a result of a medical procedure called an abortion.

Abortifacient agents, steroidal, refer to a type of medication or substance that is capable of inducing abortion or causing the termination of pregnancy by interfering with the implantation and maintenance of the fertilized ovum (embryo) or the development of the placenta. Steroidal abortifacient agents are synthetic derivatives of steroids, which have a similar structure to naturally occurring hormones in the human body.

The most commonly used steroidal abortifacient agent is mifepristone, also known as RU-486. Mifepristone works by blocking the action of progesterone, a hormone that is essential for maintaining pregnancy. By blocking the action of progesterone, mifepristone causes the shedding of the uterine lining and the expulsion of the embryo or fetus from the uterus.

Steroidal abortifacient agents are typically used in the early stages of pregnancy, up to 10 weeks after the last menstrual period. They may be used alone or in combination with other medications, such as misoprostol, which helps to stimulate uterine contractions and expel the embryo or fetus from the uterus.

It is important to note that steroidal abortifacient agents are not the same as emergency contraceptives, which are used to prevent pregnancy after unprotected sexual intercourse. Steroidal abortifacient agents are intended for use in cases where pregnancy has already occurred and is unwanted or poses a risk to the health of the mother or fetus.

An "eugenic abortion" is not a medical term, but rather a descriptive phrase that combines two concepts: eugenics and abortion.

Eugenics refers to the belief and practice of improving the human species by encouraging reproduction of individuals with desired traits and preventing reproduction of those with undesired traits. This concept has been widely criticized for its potential to be used as a tool for discrimination and oppression.

Abortion, on the other hand, is the medical procedure to end a pregnancy before the fetus can survive outside the womb.

A "eugenic abortion," therefore, generally refers to the practice of terminating a pregnancy based on the perceived genetic traits or characteristics of the fetus, such as disability, race, or sex. This phrase is often used in discussions about the ethics and morality of selective abortions, and it raises important questions about discrimination, reproductive rights, and medical ethics. It's worth noting that the vast majority of abortions are not performed for eugenic reasons, but rather due to a variety of personal, medical, and socioeconomic factors.

Misoprostol is a synthetic prostaglandin E1 analog used in obstetrics and gynecology to prevent and treat ulcers caused by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), reduce the risk of gastric ulcers in patients taking NSAIDs long term, induce labor, manage postpartum hemorrhage, and cause abortion. It is also used off-label for cervical ripening before gynecologic surgery and to treat miscarriage.

In addition, Misoprostol has been found to be effective in reducing the risk of gastric ulcers and NSAID-induced dyspepsia (upper abdominal pain or discomfort) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and other inflammatory conditions who require long-term NSAID therapy.

It is important to note that Misoprostol should not be used during pregnancy unless under the supervision of a healthcare provider for specific medical indications, such as preventing or treating stomach ulcers in pregnant women taking NSAIDs or inducing labor. It can cause miscarriage and birth defects if taken during early pregnancy.

Non-steroidal abortifacient agents are medications or substances that can cause abortion by interfering with the normal functioning of the hormones in the reproductive system. These agents do not contain steroids and work primarily by preventing the implantation of a fertilized egg in the uterus or by causing the shedding of the uterine lining, leading to the termination of an early pregnancy.

Examples of non-steroidal abortifacient agents include:

1. Mifepristone (RU-486): This medication works by blocking the action of progesterone, a hormone necessary for maintaining pregnancy. When used in combination with another medication called misoprostol, it can cause an abortion during the early stages of pregnancy.
2. Misoprostol: This medication is primarily used to prevent and treat stomach ulcers but can also be used as an abortifacient agent. It causes uterine contractions and cervical dilation, leading to the expulsion of the contents of the uterus.
3. High-dose estrogen and progestin: These hormones can interfere with the normal functioning of the reproductive system and cause an early abortion when taken in high doses.
4. Herbal remedies: Certain herbs, such as pennyroyal, tansy, and savin, have been used traditionally as abortifacient agents. However, their effectiveness and safety are not well-established, and they can cause serious side effects or even death when taken in large quantities.

It is important to note that the use of non-steroidal abortifacient agents for the purpose of inducing an abortion should only be done under the supervision of a licensed healthcare provider, as there are potential risks and complications associated with their use. Additionally, some of these agents may be restricted or illegal in certain jurisdictions, so it is essential to comply with local laws and regulations regarding their use.

Unplanned pregnancy is a pregnancy that is not intended or expected by the woman or couple. It is also sometimes referred to as an "unintended" or "unwanted" pregnancy. This can occur when contraceptive methods fail or are not used, or when there is a lack of knowledge about or access to effective family planning resources. Unplanned pregnancies can present various physical, emotional, and social challenges for the individuals involved, and may also have implications for public health and societal well-being. It's important to note that unplanned pregnancies can still result in wanted and loved children, but the circumstances surrounding their conception may bring additional stressors and considerations.

Unwanted pregnancy is a situation where a person becomes pregnant despite not planning or desiring to conceive at that time. This can occur due to various reasons such as lack of access to effective contraception, failure of contraceptive methods, sexual assault, or a change in circumstances that makes the pregnancy untimely or inconvenient. Unwanted pregnancies can have significant physical, emotional, and socioeconomic impacts on individuals and families. It is important to address unwanted pregnancies through comprehensive sexuality education, access to affordable and effective contraception, and supportive services for those who experience unintended pregnancies.

Vacuum curettage is a medical procedure that involves the use of suction to remove tissue from the uterus. It is often used as a method of first-trimester abortion, or to treat abnormal uterine conditions such as miscarriage or retained placental tissue after childbirth. The cervix is dilated and a vacuum aspirator is inserted into the uterus to remove the contents using suction. This procedure may also be referred to as vacuum aspiration or suction curettage.

The first trimester of pregnancy is defined as the period of gestational development that extends from conception (fertilization of the egg by sperm) to the end of the 13th week. This critical phase marks significant transformations in both the mother's body and the growing embryo/fetus.

During the first trimester, the fertilized egg implants into the uterine lining (implantation), initiating a series of complex interactions leading to the formation of the placenta - an organ essential for providing nutrients and oxygen to the developing fetus while removing waste products. Simultaneously, the embryo undergoes rapid cell division and differentiation, giving rise to various organs and systems. By the end of the first trimester, most major structures are present, although they continue to mature and grow throughout pregnancy.

The mother may experience several physiological changes during this time, including:
- Morning sickness (nausea and vomiting)
- Fatigue
- Breast tenderness
- Frequent urination
- Food aversions or cravings
- Mood swings

Additionally, hormonal shifts can cause various symptoms and prepare the body for potential changes in lactation, posture, and pelvic alignment as pregnancy progresses. Regular prenatal care is crucial during this period to monitor both maternal and fetal wellbeing, identify any potential complications early on, and provide appropriate guidance and support throughout the pregnancy.

'Pregnant women' refers to female individuals who have conceived and are in the process of carrying a developing fetus inside their womb (uterus) until childbirth. This state is typically marked by various physiological changes, including hormonal fluctuations, weight gain, and growth of the uterus and breasts, among others. Pregnancy usually lasts for about 40 weeks, starting from the first day of the woman's last menstrual period (LMP) and is divided into three trimesters. Each trimester is characterized by different developmental milestones in the fetus. Regular prenatal care is essential to monitor the health and wellbeing of both the mother and the developing fetus, and to address any potential complications that may arise during pregnancy.

Contraception is the use of various devices, methods, or medications to prevent pregnancy. The term is derived from the Latin words "contra" meaning "against" and "conceptio" meaning "conception." Contraceptive methods can be broadly categorized into temporary and permanent methods. Temporary methods include barriers such as condoms, diaphragms, cervical caps, and sponges; hormonal methods like the pill, patch, ring, injection, and emergency contraception; and fertility awareness-based methods that involve tracking ovulation and avoiding intercourse during fertile periods. Permanent methods include surgical procedures such as tubal ligation for women and vasectomy for men.

The primary goal of contraception is to prevent the sperm from reaching and fertilizing the egg, thereby preventing pregnancy. However, some contraceptive methods also offer additional benefits such as reducing the risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and regulating menstrual cycles. It's important to note that while contraception can prevent pregnancy, it does not protect against STIs, so using condoms is still recommended for individuals who are at risk of contracting STIs.

When choosing a contraceptive method, it's essential to consider factors such as effectiveness, safety, ease of use, cost, and personal preferences. It's also important to consult with a healthcare provider to determine the most appropriate method based on individual health history and needs.

Reproductive sterilization is a surgical procedure that aims to prevent reproduction by making an individual unable to produce viable reproductive cells or preventing the union of sperm and egg. In males, this is often achieved through a vasectomy, which involves cutting and sealing the vas deferens, the tubes that carry sperm from the testicles to the urethra. In females, sterilization is typically performed via a procedure called tubal ligation, where the fallopian tubes are cut, tied, or sealed, preventing the egg from traveling from the ovaries to the uterus and blocking sperm from reaching the egg. These methods are considered permanent forms of contraception; however, in rare cases, reversals may be attempted with varying degrees of success.

Medical legislation refers to laws and regulations that govern the practice of medicine and related healthcare fields. These laws are established by federal, state, or local governments to ensure that medical professionals provide safe, ethical, and effective care to their patients. They cover a wide range of issues including:

1. Licensing and certification of healthcare providers
2. Standards of care and professional conduct
3. Patient rights and privacy (e.g., HIPAA)
4. Prescription medication use and abuse
5. Medical malpractice and liability
6. Healthcare facility accreditation and safety
7. Public health and prevention measures
8. Research involving human subjects
9. Reimbursement for medical services (e.g., Medicare, Medicaid)
10. Telemedicine and telehealth practices

Medical legislation aims to protect both patients and healthcare providers while maintaining a high standard of care and promoting the overall health of the population.

In medical and legal contexts, a minor is a person who has not yet reached the age of majority. The age of majority varies depending on the jurisdiction but is generally 18 or 21 years old. Minors are considered to be legally incompetent to make certain decisions for themselves, such as consenting to medical treatment or signing a contract. Therefore, in healthcare settings, minors typically require the consent of a parent or guardian before receiving medical care, except in specific circumstances where the minor is deemed mature enough to make their own decisions (e.g., emancipated minors).

Fetal death, also known as stillbirth or intrauterine fetal demise, is defined as the death of a fetus at 20 weeks of gestation or later. The criteria for defining fetal death may vary slightly by country and jurisdiction, but in general, it refers to the loss of a pregnancy after the point at which the fetus is considered viable outside the womb.

Fetal death can occur for a variety of reasons, including chromosomal abnormalities, placental problems, maternal health conditions, infections, and umbilical cord accidents. In some cases, the cause of fetal death may remain unknown.

The diagnosis of fetal death is typically made through ultrasound or other imaging tests, which can confirm the absence of a heartbeat or movement in the fetus. Once fetal death has been diagnosed, medical professionals will work with the parents to determine the best course of action for managing the pregnancy and delivering the fetus. This may involve waiting for labor to begin naturally, inducing labor, or performing a cesarean delivery.

Experiencing a fetal death can be a very difficult and emotional experience for parents, and it is important for them to receive supportive care from their healthcare providers, family members, and friends. Grief counseling and support groups may also be helpful in coping with the loss.

Women's rights, in a medical context, refer to the legal, social, and political rights and entitlements of women, specifically in relation to health, reproductive justice, and access to quality healthcare services. These rights encompass:

1. Autonomy over one's own body and medical decisions, including the right to informed consent and refusal of treatment.
2. Equitable access to comprehensive healthcare services, including sexual and reproductive healthcare, without discrimination based on gender, race, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, or other factors.
3. Protection from coerced sterilization, forced pregnancy, and other forms of reproductive oppression.
4. Access to safe and legal abortion services, as well as emergency contraception and other family planning methods.
5. The right to high-quality maternal healthcare, including prenatal care, skilled birth attendance, and postpartum care.
6. Protection from gender-based violence, including sexual assault, domestic violence, and female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C).
7. The right to accurate and comprehensive health education, including information about sexual and reproductive health.
8. Representation and participation in healthcare decision-making processes at all levels, from individual patient care to policy development.
9. Access to culturally competent and respectful healthcare services that recognize and address the unique needs and experiences of women.
10. The right to privacy and confidentiality in healthcare settings, including protection of medical records and personal health information.

Family planning services refer to comprehensive healthcare programs and interventions that aim to help individuals and couples prevent or achieve pregnancies, according to their desired number and spacing of children. These services typically include:

1. Counseling and education: Providing information about various contraceptive methods, their effectiveness, side effects, and appropriate use. This may also include counseling on reproductive health, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and preconception care.
2. Contraceptive services: Making a wide range of contraceptive options available to clients, including barrier methods (condoms, diaphragms), hormonal methods (pills, patches, injectables, implants), intrauterine devices (IUDs), and permanent methods (tubal ligation, vasectomy).
3. Screening and testing: Offering STI screening and testing, as well as cervical cancer screening for eligible clients.
4. Preconception care: Providing counseling and interventions to help women achieve optimal health before becoming pregnant, including folic acid supplementation, management of chronic conditions, and avoidance of harmful substances (tobacco, alcohol, drugs).
5. Fertility services: Addressing infertility issues through diagnostic testing, counseling, and medical or surgical treatments when appropriate.
6. Menstrual regulation: Providing manual vacuum aspiration or medication to safely and effectively manage incomplete miscarriages or unwanted pregnancies within the first trimester.
7. Pregnancy options counseling: Offering unbiased information and support to help individuals make informed decisions about their pregnancy, including parenting, adoption, or abortion.
8. Community outreach and education: Engaging in community-based initiatives to increase awareness of family planning services and promote reproductive health.
9. Advocacy: Working to remove barriers to accessing family planning services, such as policy changes, reducing stigma, and increasing funding for programs.

Family planning services are an essential component of sexual and reproductive healthcare and contribute significantly to improving maternal and child health outcomes, reducing unintended pregnancies, and empowering individuals to make informed choices about their reproductive lives.

Gestational age is the length of time that has passed since the first day of the last menstrual period (LMP) in pregnant women. It is the standard unit used to estimate the age of a pregnancy and is typically expressed in weeks. This measure is used because the exact date of conception is often not known, but the start of the last menstrual period is usually easier to recall.

It's important to note that since ovulation typically occurs around two weeks after the start of the LMP, gestational age is approximately two weeks longer than fetal age, which is the actual time elapsed since conception. Medical professionals use both gestational and fetal age to track the development and growth of the fetus during pregnancy.

In medical and legal terms, "personhood" refers to the status of being a person, which is typically associated with certain legal rights, protections, and privileges. The concept of personhood is often discussed in the context of bioethics, particularly in relation to questions about the moral and legal status of entities such as fetuses, embryos, and individuals with severe cognitive impairments or in vegetative states.

The criteria for personhood are a subject of debate and vary depending on cultural, religious, philosophical, and legal perspectives. However, some common factors that are often considered include consciousness, the ability to feel pain, the capacity for self-awareness and self-reflection, the ability to communicate, and the presence of a distinct genetic identity.

In medical contexts, personhood may be relevant to issues such as end-of-life care, organ donation, and reproductive rights. For example, some argue that personhood should be granted to fetuses at the moment of conception, while others believe that personhood is only achieved when a fetus becomes viable outside the womb or when a child is born alive.

Overall, the concept of personhood is complex and multifaceted, and it continues to be debated and refined in various fields and disciplines.

Mifepristone is a synthetic steroid that is used in the medical termination of pregnancy (also known as medication abortion or RU-486). It works by blocking the action of progesterone, a hormone necessary for maintaining pregnancy. Mifepristone is often used in combination with misoprostol to cause uterine contractions and expel the products of conception from the uterus.

It's also known as an antiprogestin or progesterone receptor modulator, which means it can bind to progesterone receptors in the body and block their activity. In addition to its use in pregnancy termination, mifepristone has been studied for its potential therapeutic uses in conditions such as Cushing's syndrome, endometriosis, uterine fibroids, and hormone-dependent cancers.

It is important to note that Mifepristone should be administered under the supervision of a licensed healthcare professional and it is not available over the counter. Also, it has some contraindications and potential side effects, so it's essential to have a consultation with a doctor before taking this medication.

Contraception behavior refers to the actions and decisions made by individuals or couples to prevent pregnancy. This can include the use of various contraceptive methods, such as hormonal birth control (e.g., pills, patches, rings), barrier methods (e.g., condoms, diaphragms), intrauterine devices (IUDs), and natural family planning techniques (e.g., fertility awareness-based methods).

Contraception behavior can be influenced by various factors, including personal beliefs, cultural norms, relationship dynamics, access to healthcare services, and knowledge about contraceptive options. It is an important aspect of sexual and reproductive health, as it allows individuals and couples to plan their families and make informed choices about whether and when to have children.

It's worth noting that while the term "contraception behavior" typically refers to actions taken specifically to prevent pregnancy, some contraceptive methods may also provide protection against sexually transmitted infections (STIs). For example, condoms are effective at preventing both pregnancy and STIs when used consistently and correctly.

Reproductive rights are a subset of human rights that include the right to plan a family, have children, or not have children, and the right to access information and services needed to do so. This can encompass issues such as access to contraception, safe abortion, reproductive health care, and education about sexual and reproductive health. Reproductive rights also include freedom from coercion, discrimination, and violence in relation to one's reproductive choices. These rights are recognized and protected under international law, including the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and various treaties and conventions on women's and human rights.

The birth rate is the number of live births that occur in a population during a specific period, usually calculated as the number of live births per 1,000 people per year. It is an important demographic indicator used to measure the growth or decline of a population over time. A higher birth rate indicates a younger population and faster population growth, while a lower birth rate suggests an older population and slower growth.

The birth rate can be affected by various factors, including socioeconomic conditions, cultural attitudes towards childbearing, access to healthcare services, and government policies related to family planning and reproductive health. It is also influenced by the age structure of the population, as women in their reproductive years (typically ages 15-49) are more likely to give birth.

It's worth noting that while the birth rate is an important indicator of population growth, it does not provide a complete picture of fertility rates or demographic trends. Other measures, such as the total fertility rate (TFR), which estimates the average number of children a woman would have during her reproductive years, are also used to analyze fertility patterns and population dynamics.

Dilatation and Curettage (D&C) is a medical procedure commonly performed on the uterus. The term "dilatation" refers to the widening or opening of the cervix, which is the lower part of the uterus that opens into the vagina. This is achieved using dilators, which are gradually inserted into the cervical canal to stretch it open.

The term "curettage" refers to the scraping or suctioning out of tissue from the lining of the uterus (endometrium). A curette, a long, loop-shaped surgical instrument, is used to scrape the lining, or suction equipment may be used to remove the tissue.

A D&C procedure is typically performed to diagnose and treat various conditions affecting the uterus, such as abnormal uterine bleeding, heavy menstrual periods, endometrial hyperplasia, or to remove residual tissue after a miscarriage or abortion. It's usually a minor surgical procedure that can be done in a hospital, clinic, or doctor's office, and is often performed under local anesthesia, conscious sedation, or general anesthesia depending on the situation and patient preference.

Pregnancy outcome refers to the final result or status of a pregnancy, including both the health of the mother and the newborn baby. It can be categorized into various types such as:

1. Live birth: The delivery of one or more babies who show signs of life after separation from their mother.
2. Stillbirth: The delivery of a baby who has died in the womb after 20 weeks of pregnancy.
3. Miscarriage: The spontaneous loss of a pregnancy before the 20th week.
4. Abortion: The intentional termination of a pregnancy before the fetus can survive outside the uterus.
5. Ectopic pregnancy: A pregnancy that develops outside the uterus, usually in the fallopian tube, which is not viable and requires medical attention.
6. Preterm birth: The delivery of a baby before 37 weeks of gestation, which can lead to various health issues for the newborn.
7. Full-term birth: The delivery of a baby between 37 and 42 weeks of gestation.
8. Post-term pregnancy: The delivery of a baby after 42 weeks of gestation, which may increase the risk of complications for both mother and baby.

The pregnancy outcome is influenced by various factors such as maternal age, health status, lifestyle habits, genetic factors, and access to quality prenatal care.

The "beginning of human life" is a term that is often used in the context of medical ethics, particularly in discussions about issues such as abortion and stem cell research. However, there is no universally accepted medical definition of this term, as it is also influenced by philosophical, religious, and legal considerations.

From a biological perspective, human life begins at fertilization, when a sperm cell successfully penetrates and fuses with an egg cell to form a zygote. This single cell contains the complete genetic makeup of the future individual and has the potential to develop into a fully formed human being, given the right conditions.

However, some people argue that personhood or moral status does not begin until later stages of development, such as at implantation, when the zygote attaches to the uterine wall and begins to receive nutrients from the mother's body, or at viability, when the fetus can survive outside the womb with medical assistance.

Ultimately, the definition of "beginning of human life" is a complex and controversial issue that depends on one's values and beliefs. It is important to recognize and respect the diversity of opinions on this matter and engage in thoughtful and respectful dialogue about its implications for medical practice and policy.

The second trimester of pregnancy is the period between the completion of 12 weeks (the end of the first trimester) and 26 weeks (the beginning of the third trimester) of gestational age. It is often considered the most comfortable period for many pregnant women as the risk of miscarriage decreases significantly, and the symptoms experienced during the first trimester, such as nausea and fatigue, typically improve.

During this time, the uterus expands above the pubic bone, allowing more space for the growing fetus. The fetal development in the second trimester includes significant growth in size and weight, formation of all major organs, and the beginning of movement sensations that the mother can feel. Additionally, the fetus starts to hear, swallow and kick, and the skin is covered with a protective coating called vernix.

Prenatal care during this period typically includes regular prenatal appointments to monitor the mother's health and the baby's growth and development. These appointments may include measurements of the uterus, fetal heart rate monitoring, and screening tests for genetic disorders or other potential issues.

Neospora is a genus of intracellular parasites that belong to the phylum Apicomplexa. The most common species that affects animals is Neospora caninum, which is known to cause serious disease in cattle and dogs. It can also infect other warm-blooded animals, including sheep, goats, horses, and deer.

Neosporosis, the infection caused by Neospora, primarily affects the nervous system and muscles of the host animal. In cattle, it is a major cause of abortion, stillbirths, and neurological disorders. The parasite can be transmitted through the placenta from an infected mother to her offspring (congenital transmission), or through the ingestion of contaminated feed or water (horizontal transmission).

Neospora is a significant economic concern for the livestock industry, particularly in dairy and beef cattle operations. There is no effective vaccine or treatment available for neosporosis in animals, so prevention efforts focus on identifying and isolating infected animals to reduce the spread of the parasite.

Pregnancy trimesters are a way to divide the duration of pregnancy into three 3-month (or approximately 13-week) segments. This division can help healthcare providers monitor and discuss specific developmental stages, symptoms, and care needs during each phase of the pregnancy. Here's a brief overview of what typically occurs in each trimester:

1. First Trimester (Week 1 - Week 12): During this period, major organs and structures begin to form in the developing fetus. Common symptoms experienced by the pregnant individual may include morning sickness, fatigue, breast tenderness, and frequent urination. Regular prenatal care should start during these early weeks to monitor both the mother's and baby's health.

2. Second Trimester (Week 13 - Week 26): This phase is often considered more comfortable for many pregnant individuals as some symptoms from the first trimester improve. The fetus continues to grow, and movement can be felt. Organs and systems continue to develop, and the fetus becomes more active. Common symptoms during this time include back pain, stretch marks, and swelling of the ankles and feet.

3. Third Trimester (Week 27 - Birth): The final trimester is marked by significant growth and weight gain for both the mother and baby. The fetus will turn into a head-down position in preparation for birth. Common symptoms during this time include shortness of breath, heartburn, difficulty sleeping, and contractions (which can indicate early labor). Regular prenatal care remains crucial to monitor the health of both the mother and baby as delivery approaches.

Parental notification is a term used in the context of medical care, particularly in situations involving minors (individuals who are under the age of majority, which is 18 years old in most states in the US). It refers to the practice of informing or notifying a parent, legal guardian, or other responsible adult relative of a minor's decision to seek certain medical services, treatments, or procedures.

In some cases, parental notification may be required by law before a minor can receive specific medical interventions, such as abortion, mental health treatment, or certain surgical procedures. The specific requirements for parental notification vary depending on the jurisdiction and the type of medical service being sought.

The purpose of parental notification is to ensure that parents or guardians are involved in important medical decisions affecting their minor children, and to provide an opportunity for them to offer guidance, support, and consent. However, there may be exceptions to parental notification requirements in cases where the minor is mature enough to make informed decisions about their own health care, or when notifying a parent could put the minor at risk of harm or abuse.

Pregnancy in adolescence, also known as teenage pregnancy, refers to a pregnancy that occurs in females under the age of 20. This can be further categorized into early adolescent pregnancy (occurring between ages 10-14), middle adolescent pregnancy (occurring between ages 15-17), and late adolescent pregnancy (occurring between ages 18-19). Teenage pregnancy is associated with higher risks of complications for both the mother and the baby, including preterm birth, low birth weight, and increased risk of neonatal mortality. Additionally, teenage mothers are more likely to drop out of school and face socioeconomic challenges.

Contraceptive devices are medical products or tools specifically designed to prevent pregnancy by blocking or interfering with the fertilization of an egg by sperm, or the implantation of a fertilized egg in the uterus. There are various types of contraceptive devices available, each with its own mechanism of action and efficacy rate. Here are some common examples:

1. Intrauterine Devices (IUDs): These are small, T-shaped devices made of plastic or copper that are inserted into the uterus by a healthcare professional. IUDs can prevent pregnancy for several years and work by affecting the movement of sperm and changing the lining of the uterus to make it less receptive to implantation.
2. Contraceptive Implants: These are small, flexible rods that are inserted under the skin of the upper arm by a healthcare professional. The implant releases hormones that prevent ovulation and thicken cervical mucus to block sperm from reaching the egg.
3. Diaphragms and Cervical Caps: These are flexible, dome-shaped devices made of silicone or rubber that are inserted into the vagina before sex. They cover the cervix and prevent sperm from entering the uterus.
4. Male and Female Condoms: These are thin sheaths made of latex, polyurethane, or other materials that are placed over the penis (male condom) or inside the vagina (female condom) during sex to prevent sperm from entering the body.
5. Spermicides: These are chemicals that kill or disable sperm and can be used alone or in combination with other contraceptive methods such as condoms, diaphragms, or cervical caps. They come in various forms, including foams, creams, gels, films, and suppositories.

It's important to note that while contraceptive devices are effective at preventing pregnancy, they do not protect against sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Using condoms is the best way to reduce the risk of STIs during sexual activity.

Uterine hemorrhage, also known as uterine bleeding or gynecological bleeding, is an abnormal loss of blood from the uterus. It can occur in various clinical settings such as menstruation (known as menorrhagia), postpartum period (postpartum hemorrhage), or in non-pregnant women (dysfunctional uterine bleeding). The bleeding may be light to heavy, intermittent or continuous, and can be accompanied by symptoms such as pain, dizziness, or fainting. Uterine hemorrhage is a common gynecological problem that can have various underlying causes, including hormonal imbalances, structural abnormalities, coagulopathies, and malignancies. It is important to seek medical attention if experiencing heavy or prolonged uterine bleeding to determine the cause and receive appropriate treatment.

Defining "life" is a complex question that has been debated by philosophers, scientists, and theologians for centuries. From a biological or medical perspective, life can be defined as a characteristic that distinguishes physical entities that do have biological processes, such as growth, reproduction, and response to stimuli, from those that do not, either because such functions have ceased (death), or because they never had such functions and are classified as inanimate.

The National Institutes of Health (NIH) defines life as "the condition that distinguishes animals and plants from inorganic matter, including the capacity for growth, reproduction, functional activity, and continual change preceding death."

It's important to note that there is no one universally accepted definition of life, and different fields and disciplines may have slightly different definitions or criteria.

Pregnancy complications refer to any health problems that arise during pregnancy which can put both the mother and the baby at risk. These complications may occur at any point during the pregnancy, from conception until childbirth. Some common pregnancy complications include:

1. Gestational diabetes: a type of diabetes that develops during pregnancy in women who did not have diabetes before becoming pregnant.
2. Preeclampsia: a pregnancy complication characterized by high blood pressure and damage to organs such as the liver or kidneys.
3. Placenta previa: a condition where the placenta covers the cervix, which can cause bleeding and may require delivery via cesarean section.
4. Preterm labor: when labor begins before 37 weeks of gestation, which can lead to premature birth and other complications.
5. Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR): a condition where the fetus does not grow at a normal rate inside the womb.
6. Multiple pregnancies: carrying more than one baby, such as twins or triplets, which can increase the risk of premature labor and other complications.
7. Rh incompatibility: a condition where the mother's blood type is different from the baby's, which can cause anemia and jaundice in the newborn.
8. Pregnancy loss: including miscarriage, stillbirth, or ectopic pregnancy, which can be emotionally devastating for the parents.

It is important to monitor pregnancy closely and seek medical attention promptly if any concerning symptoms arise. With proper care and management, many pregnancy complications can be treated effectively, reducing the risk of harm to both the mother and the baby.

Cattle diseases are a range of health conditions that affect cattle, which include but are not limited to:

1. Bovine Respiratory Disease (BRD): Also known as "shipping fever," BRD is a common respiratory illness in feedlot cattle that can be caused by several viruses and bacteria.
2. Bovine Viral Diarrhea (BVD): A viral disease that can cause a variety of symptoms, including diarrhea, fever, and reproductive issues.
3. Johne's Disease: A chronic wasting disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis. It primarily affects the intestines and can cause severe diarrhea and weight loss.
4. Digital Dermatitis: Also known as "hairy heel warts," this is a highly contagious skin disease that affects the feet of cattle, causing lameness and decreased productivity.
5. Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis (IBK): Also known as "pinkeye," IBK is a common and contagious eye infection in cattle that can cause blindness if left untreated.
6. Salmonella: A group of bacteria that can cause severe gastrointestinal illness in cattle, including diarrhea, dehydration, and septicemia.
7. Leptospirosis: A bacterial disease that can cause a wide range of symptoms in cattle, including abortion, stillbirths, and kidney damage.
8. Blackleg: A highly fatal bacterial disease that causes rapid death in young cattle. It is caused by Clostridium chauvoei and vaccination is recommended for prevention.
9. Anthrax: A serious infectious disease caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis. Cattle can become infected by ingesting spores found in contaminated soil, feed or water.
10. Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD): A highly contagious viral disease that affects cloven-hooved animals, including cattle. It is characterized by fever and blisters on the feet, mouth, and teats. FMD is not a threat to human health but can have serious economic consequences for the livestock industry.

It's important to note that many of these diseases can be prevented or controlled through good management practices, such as vaccination, biosecurity measures, and proper nutrition. Regular veterinary care and monitoring are also crucial for early detection and treatment of any potential health issues in your herd.

Catholicism is a branch of Christianity that recognizes the authority of the Pope and follows the teachings and traditions of the Roman Catholic Church. It is the largest Christian denomination in the world, with over a billion members worldwide. The beliefs and practices of Catholicism include the sacraments, prayer, and various forms of worship, as well as social justice initiatives and charitable works. The Catholic Church has a hierarchical structure, with the Pope at the top, followed by bishops, priests, and deacons. It places a strong emphasis on the teachings of Jesus Christ, the Virgin Mary, and the saints.

In medical terms, parity refers to the number of times a woman has given birth to a viable fetus, usually defined as a pregnancy that reaches at least 20 weeks' gestation. It is often used in obstetrics and gynecology to describe a woman's childbearing history and to assess potential risks associated with childbirth.

Parity is typically categorized as follows:

* Nulliparous: A woman who has never given birth to a viable fetus.
* Primiparous: A woman who has given birth to one viable fetus.
* Multiparous: A woman who has given birth to more than one viable fetus.

In some cases, parity may also consider the number of pregnancies that resulted in stillbirths or miscarriages, although this is not always the case. It's important to note that parity does not necessarily reflect the total number of pregnancies a woman has had, only those that resulted in viable births.

In medical or legal terms, "illegitimacy" refers to the status of a child who is born to parents who are not married to each other. This concept is more commonly used in sociology and law rather than medicine. In some societies and historical periods, illegitimate children may have faced social stigma and discrimination, but this is less common in modern times. It's important to note that the concept of illegitimacy has been largely abandoned in many legal systems, and children are now recognized as having equal rights and status regardless of their parents' marital status.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Judicial Role" is not a term that is typically used in medical definitions. It is a legal term that refers to the role and responsibilities of a judge in the administration of justice. This includes presiding over trials, interpreting and applying laws, and ensuring fair and impartial proceedings.

Coccidiosis is a parasitic infection caused by protozoa of the Eimeria genus, which typically affects the intestinal tract of animals, including humans. The infection occurs when a person or animal ingests oocysts (the infective stage of the parasite) through contaminated food, water, or direct contact with infected feces.

In humans, coccidiosis is most commonly found in children living in poor sanitary conditions and in individuals with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS or organ transplant recipients on immunosuppressive therapy. The infection can cause watery diarrhea, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and fever. In severe cases, it may lead to dehydration, weight loss, and even death in individuals with compromised immune systems.

In animals, particularly in poultry, swine, and ruminants, coccidiosis can cause significant economic losses due to decreased growth rates, poor feed conversion, and increased mortality. Preventive measures include improving sanitation, reducing overcrowding, and administering anticoccidial drugs or vaccines.

Ectopic pregnancy is a type of abnormal pregnancy that occurs outside the uterine cavity. The most common site for an ectopic pregnancy is the fallopian tube, accounting for about 95% of cases. This condition is also known as tubal pregnancy. Other less common sites include the ovary, cervix, and abdominal cavity.

In a normal pregnancy, the fertilized egg travels down the fallopian tube and implants itself in the lining of the uterus. However, in an ectopic pregnancy, the fertilized egg implants and starts to develop somewhere other than the uterus. The growing embryo cannot survive outside the uterus, and if left untreated, an ectopic pregnancy can cause life-threatening bleeding due to the rupture of the fallopian tube or other organs.

Symptoms of ectopic pregnancy may include abdominal pain, vaginal bleeding, shoulder pain, lightheadedness, fainting, and in severe cases, shock. Diagnosis is usually made through a combination of medical history, physical examination, ultrasound, and blood tests to measure the levels of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), a hormone produced during pregnancy.

Treatment for ectopic pregnancy depends on several factors, including the location, size, and growth rate of the ectopic mass, as well as the patient's overall health and desire for future pregnancies. Treatment options may include medication to stop the growth of the embryo or surgery to remove the ectopic tissue. In some cases, both methods may be used together. Early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent serious complications and improve the chances of preserving fertility in future pregnancies.

I'm happy to help, but I want to clarify that the term "sheep diseases" refers to a wide range of health issues that can affect sheep populations. It's not a single medical condition with a specific definition. Here are some examples of common diseases that can affect sheep:

1. Ovine Johne's Disease (OJD): A chronic, infectious disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis. It affects the intestines and can cause weight loss, diarrhea, and death.
2. Footrot: A highly contagious bacterial infection that affects the feet of sheep, causing lameness, swelling, and pain. It's caused by the bacteria Dichelobacter nodosus.
3. Caseous Lymphadenitis (CL): A chronic infectious disease caused by the bacterium Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis. It affects the lymph nodes and can cause abscesses, weight loss, and death.
4. Contagious Ecthyma (Orf): A highly contagious viral infection that affects the skin and mucous membranes of sheep, causing sores and lesions.
5. Mastitis: An inflammation of the mammary gland in sheep, usually caused by a bacterial infection. It can cause decreased milk production, fever, and loss of appetite.
6. Pneumonia: A respiratory infection that can affect sheep, causing coughing, difficulty breathing, and fever. It can be caused by various bacteria or viruses.
7. Enterotoxemia: A potentially fatal disease caused by the overproduction of toxins in the intestines of sheep, usually due to a bacterial infection with Clostridium perfringens.
8. Polioencephalomalacia (PEM): A neurological disorder that affects the brain of sheep, causing symptoms such as blindness, circling, and seizures. It's often caused by a thiamine deficiency or excessive sulfur intake.
9. Toxoplasmosis: A parasitic infection that can affect sheep, causing abortion, stillbirth, and neurological symptoms.
10. Blue tongue: A viral disease that affects sheep, causing fever, respiratory distress, and mouth ulcers. It's transmitted by insect vectors and is often associated with climate change.

Maternal age is a term used to describe the age of a woman at the time she becomes pregnant or gives birth. It is often used in medical and epidemiological contexts to discuss the potential risks, complications, and outcomes associated with pregnancy and childbirth at different stages of a woman's reproductive years.

Advanced maternal age typically refers to women who become pregnant or give birth at 35 years of age or older. This group faces an increased risk for certain chromosomal abnormalities, such as Down syndrome, and other pregnancy-related complications, including gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, and cesarean delivery.

On the other end of the spectrum, adolescent pregnancies (those that occur in women under 20 years old) also come with their own set of potential risks and complications, such as preterm birth, low birth weight, and anemia.

It's important to note that while maternal age can influence pregnancy outcomes, many other factors – including genetics, lifestyle choices, and access to quality healthcare – can also play a significant role in determining the health of both mother and baby during pregnancy and childbirth.

Placental diseases, also known as placental pathologies, refer to a group of conditions that affect the development and function of the placenta during pregnancy. The placenta is an organ that develops in the uterus during pregnancy and provides oxygen and nutrients to the developing fetus while removing waste products.

Placental diseases can have serious consequences for both the mother and the fetus, including preterm labor, growth restriction, stillbirth, and long-term health problems for the child. Some common placental diseases include:

1. Placental abruption: This occurs when the placenta separates from the uterine wall before delivery, causing bleeding and potentially harming the fetus.
2. Placental previa: This is a condition where the placenta implants in the lower part of the uterus, covering the cervix. It can cause bleeding and may require cesarean delivery.
3. Preeclampsia: This is a pregnancy-related disorder characterized by high blood pressure and damage to organs such as the liver and kidneys. Placental dysfunction is thought to play a role in its development.
4. Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR): This occurs when the fetus does not grow properly due to poor placental function, leading to low birth weight and potential health problems.
5. Chorioamnionitis: This is an infection of the membranes surrounding the fetus, which can lead to preterm labor and other complications.
6. Placental infarction: This occurs when a portion of the placenta dies due to a lack of blood flow, which can lead to growth restriction or stillbirth.

Prompt diagnosis and treatment of placental diseases are essential for ensuring the best possible outcomes for both the mother and the fetus.

Gynecology is a branch of medicine that deals with the health of the female reproductive system. It includes the diagnosis, treatment, and management of conditions related to the female reproductive organs such as the vagina, cervix, uterus, ovaries, and fallopian tubes.

Gynecologists provide routine care for women, including Pap tests, breast exams, and family planning advice. They also treat a wide range of gynecological issues, from menstrual disorders and sexually transmitted infections to reproductive system cancers and hormonal imbalances. In addition, many gynecologists also provide obstetric care, making them both ob-gyns.

It's important for women to establish a relationship with a trusted gynecologist to ensure they receive regular checkups and are able to address any concerns or issues related to their reproductive health.

Infectious pregnancy complications refer to infections that occur during pregnancy and can affect the mother, fetus, or both. These infections can lead to serious consequences such as preterm labor, low birth weight, birth defects, stillbirth, or even death. Some common infectious agents that can cause pregnancy complications include:

1. Bacteria: Examples include group B streptococcus, Escherichia coli, and Listeria monocytogenes, which can cause sepsis, meningitis, or pneumonia in the mother and lead to preterm labor or stillbirth.
2. Viruses: Examples include cytomegalovirus, rubella, varicella-zoster, and HIV, which can cause congenital anomalies, developmental delays, or transmission of the virus to the fetus.
3. Parasites: Examples include Toxoplasma gondii, which can cause severe neurological damage in the fetus if transmitted during pregnancy.
4. Fungi: Examples include Candida albicans, which can cause fungal infections in the mother and lead to preterm labor or stillbirth.

Preventive measures such as vaccination, good hygiene practices, and avoiding high-risk behaviors can help reduce the risk of infectious pregnancy complications. Prompt diagnosis and treatment of infections during pregnancy are also crucial to prevent adverse outcomes.

"Marital status" is not a medical term, but it is often used in medical records and forms to indicate whether a person is single, married, divorced, widowed, or in a civil union. It is a social determinant of health that can have an impact on a person's access to healthcare, health behaviors, and health outcomes. For example, research has shown that people who are unmarried, divorced, or widowed may have worse health outcomes than those who are married. However, it is important to note that this relationship is complex and influenced by many other factors, including socioeconomic status, age, and overall health.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Jurisprudence" is not a term typically used in medical definitions. Jurisprudence refers to the theory and philosophy of law, or the study of legal systems, principles, and practices. It is a subject that falls under the purview of lawyers, judges, and scholars of law. If you have any questions about medical terminology, I'd be happy to help with those!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "morals" is not a term that has a medical definition. Morals refer to personal or societal beliefs about right and wrong behavior. It is a concept that falls under the realm of ethics, philosophy, and sociology rather than medicine. If you have any questions related to medical terminologies or concepts, I would be happy to help clarify those for you.

Women's health services refer to medical services that are specifically designed, focused on, or tailored to the unique physiological and psychological needs of women, throughout various stages of their lives. These services encompass a wide range of healthcare areas including:

1. Gynecology and obstetrics - covering routine preventive care, family planning, prenatal and postnatal care, as well as management of gynecological conditions like menstrual disorders, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and reproductive system cancers (e.g., cervical, ovarian, and endometrial cancer).
2. Breast health - including breast cancer screening, diagnostics, treatment, and survivorship care, as well as education on breast self-examination and risk reduction strategies.
3. Mental health - addressing women's mental health concerns such as depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), eating disorders, and perinatal mood disorders, while also considering the impact of hormonal changes, life events, and societal expectations on emotional wellbeing.
4. Sexual health - providing care for sexual concerns, dysfunctions, and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), as well as offering education on safe sexual practices and promoting healthy relationships.
5. Cardiovascular health - addressing women's specific cardiovascular risks, such as pregnancy-related complications, and managing conditions like hypertension and high cholesterol to prevent heart disease, the leading cause of death for women in many countries.
6. Bone health - focusing on prevention, diagnosis, and management of osteoporosis and other bone diseases that disproportionately affect women, particularly after menopause.
7. Menopause care - providing support and treatment for symptoms related to menopause, such as hot flashes, sleep disturbances, and mood changes, while also addressing long-term health concerns like bone density loss and heart disease risk.
8. Preventive care - offering routine screenings and vaccinations specific to women's health needs, including cervical cancer screening (Pap test), breast cancer screening (mammography), human papillomavirus (HPV) testing, and osteoporosis screening.
9. Education and counseling - empowering women with knowledge about their bodies, sexual and reproductive health, and overall wellbeing through evidence-based resources and support.
10. Integrative care - addressing the whole person, including mental, emotional, and spiritual wellbeing, by incorporating complementary therapies like acupuncture, mindfulness, and yoga into treatment plans as appropriate.

"Chlamydophila" is a genus of bacteria that includes several species that can cause human diseases. The most well-known species in this genus is "Chlamydophila trachomatis," which is the leading cause of preventable blindness worldwide and can also cause sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Other species in the genus include "Chlamydophila pneumoniae," which can cause respiratory infections, and "Chlamydophila psittaci," which can cause psittacosis, a type of pneumonia that is often associated with exposure to birds.

It's worth noting that the taxonomy of these bacteria has been subject to some debate and revision in recent years. Some experts have proposed reclassifying the genus "Chlamydophila" as a subgroup within the genus "Chlamydia," which would make the species "Chlamydophila trachomatis" become "Chlamydia trachomatis," and so on. However, this proposal has not been universally accepted, and both classifications continue to be used in the scientific literature.

"Legislation as Topic" is a legal term that refers to laws, regulations, or statutes related to medicine, healthcare, and the medical field. This can include legislation regarding the practice of medicine, patient rights, healthcare financing, medical research, pharmaceuticals, and public health, among other things. Essentially, "Legislation as Topic" covers any law or regulation that impacts the medical community, healthcare system, or individual patients. It is a broad category that can encompass many different areas of law and policy.

Congenital abnormalities, also known as birth defects, are structural or functional anomalies that are present at birth. These abnormalities can develop at any point during fetal development, and they can affect any part of the body. They can be caused by genetic factors, environmental influences, or a combination of both.

Congenital abnormalities can range from mild to severe and may include structural defects such as heart defects, neural tube defects, and cleft lip and palate, as well as functional defects such as intellectual disabilities and sensory impairments. Some congenital abnormalities may be visible at birth, while others may not become apparent until later in life.

In some cases, congenital abnormalities may be detected through prenatal testing, such as ultrasound or amniocentesis. In other cases, they may not be diagnosed until after the baby is born. Treatment for congenital abnormalities varies depending on the type and severity of the defect, and may include surgery, therapy, medication, or a combination of these approaches.

Maternal mortality is defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as "the death of a woman while pregnant or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy, irrespective of the duration and site of the pregnancy, from any cause related to or aggravated by the pregnancy or its management but not from accidental or incidental causes."

This definition highlights that maternal mortality is a preventable death that occurs during pregnancy, childbirth, or in the postpartum period, and it can be caused by various factors related to or worsened by the pregnancy or its management. The WHO also collects data on maternal deaths due to direct obstetric causes (such as hemorrhage, hypertensive disorders, sepsis, and unsafe abortion) and indirect causes (such as malaria, anemia, and HIV/AIDS).

Maternal mortality is a significant public health issue worldwide, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. Reducing maternal mortality is one of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) set by the United Nations, with a target to reduce the global maternal mortality ratio to less than 70 per 100,000 live births by 2030.

A fetus is the developing offspring in a mammal, from the end of the embryonic period (approximately 8 weeks after fertilization in humans) until birth. In humans, the fetal stage of development starts from the eleventh week of pregnancy and continues until childbirth, which is termed as full-term pregnancy at around 37 to 40 weeks of gestation. During this time, the organ systems become fully developed and the body grows in size. The fetus is surrounded by the amniotic fluid within the amniotic sac and is connected to the placenta via the umbilical cord, through which it receives nutrients and oxygen from the mother. Regular prenatal care is essential during this period to monitor the growth and development of the fetus and ensure a healthy pregnancy and delivery.

'Supreme Court Decisions' refer to the legal rulings made by the Supreme Court of the United States, which is the highest court in the federal judiciary of the US. These decisions are the final word on matters of federal law, including constitutional interpretation, and they establish precedents that guide future decision-making in federal and state courts. They can have significant impacts on various aspects of American society, politics, and law.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "United States" is a geopolitical entity, specifically the name of the country consisting of 50 states, and it is not a medical term or concept. Therefore, I can't provide a medical definition for it. If you have any questions related to health, medicine, or biology, I would be happy to try to help answer those!

I understand you are asking for a medical definition of "Horse Diseases." However, it's important to note that there isn't a specific medical field dedicated to horse diseases as we typically categorize medical fields by human diseases and conditions. Veterinary medicine is the field responsible for studying, diagnosing, and treating diseases in animals, including horses.

Here's a general definition of 'Horse Diseases':

Horse diseases are health issues or medical conditions that affect equine species, particularly horses. These diseases can be caused by various factors such as bacterial, viral, fungal, or parasitic infections; genetic predispositions; environmental factors; and metabolic disorders. Examples of horse diseases include Strangles (Streptococcus equi), Equine Influenza, Equine Herpesvirus, West Nile Virus, Rabies, Potomac Horse Fever, Lyme Disease, and internal or external parasites like worms and ticks. Additionally, horses can suffer from musculoskeletal disorders such as arthritis, laminitis, and various injuries. Regular veterinary care, preventative measures, and proper management are crucial for maintaining horse health and preventing diseases.

Obstetrics is a branch of medicine and surgery concerned with the care of women during pregnancy, childbirth, and the postnatal period. It involves managing potential complications that may arise during any stage of pregnancy or delivery, as well as providing advice and guidance on prenatal care, labor and delivery, and postpartum care. Obstetricians are medical doctors who specialize in obstetrics and can provide a range of services including routine check-ups, ultrasounds, genetic testing, and other diagnostic procedures to monitor the health and development of the fetus. They also perform surgical procedures such as cesarean sections when necessary.

The placenta is an organ that develops in the uterus during pregnancy and provides oxygen and nutrients to the growing baby through the umbilical cord. It also removes waste products from the baby's blood. The placenta attaches to the wall of the uterus, and the baby's side of the placenta contains many tiny blood vessels that connect to the baby's circulatory system. This allows for the exchange of oxygen, nutrients, and waste between the mother's and baby's blood. After the baby is born, the placenta is usually expelled from the uterus in a process called afterbirth.

Sublingual administration refers to a route of delivering medication or other substances through placement under the tongue, allowing for rapid absorption into the bloodstream through the mucous membranes located there. This method can allow for quick onset of action and avoids first-pass metabolism in the liver that may occur with oral administration. Common examples of sublingual medications include nitroglycerin for angina pectoris and certain forms of hormone replacement therapy.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Human Rights" is a social, political, and legal concept, rather than a medical one. Human rights are basic rights and freedoms to which all individuals are entitled, regardless of nationality, sex, ethnicity, religion, language, or any other status. They include civil and political rights, such as the right to life, liberty, and freedom of expression; as well as social, cultural and economic rights, like the right to participate in culture, the right to food, and the right to work and receive an education.

However, in the context of healthcare, human rights are crucial. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights recognizes the right to medical care and the right to enjoy the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health. Healthcare providers have a responsibility to respect and protect their patients' human rights, ensuring that they receive care without discrimination, that their privacy is protected, and that they are involved in decisions regarding their healthcare.

Violations of human rights can significantly impact an individual's health and well-being, making the promotion and protection of human rights a critical public health issue.

An Intrauterine Device (IUD) is a long-acting, reversible contraceptive device that is inserted into the uterus to prevent pregnancy. It is a small T-shaped piece of flexible plastic with strings attached to it for removal. There are two types of IUDs available: hormonal and copper. Hormonal IUDs release progestin, which thickens cervical mucus and thins the lining of the uterus, preventing sperm from reaching and fertilizing an egg. Copper IUDs, on the other hand, produce an inflammatory reaction in the uterus that is toxic to sperm and eggs, preventing fertilization.

IUDs are more than 99% effective at preventing pregnancy and can remain in place for several years, depending on the type. They are easily removable by a healthcare provider if a woman wants to become pregnant or choose another form of contraception. IUDs do not protect against sexually transmitted infections (STIs), so it is important to use condoms in addition to an IUD for protection against STIs.

In summary, Intrauterine Devices are small, T-shaped plastic devices that are inserted into the uterus to prevent pregnancy. They come in two types: hormonal and copper, both of which work by preventing fertilization. IUDs are highly effective, long-acting, and reversible forms of contraception.

Population surveillance in a public health and medical context refers to the ongoing, systematic collection, analysis, interpretation, and dissemination of health-related data for a defined population over time. It aims to monitor the health status, identify emerging health threats or trends, and evaluate the impact of interventions within that population. This information is used to inform public health policy, prioritize healthcare resources, and guide disease prevention and control efforts. Population surveillance can involve various data sources, such as vital records, disease registries, surveys, and electronic health records.

I believe there may be a misunderstanding in your question. "Goat diseases" refers to illnesses that affect goats specifically. It does not mean diseases that are caused by goats or related to them in some way. Here are some examples of goat diseases:

1. Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis (CAE): A viral disease that affects goats, causing arthritis, pneumonia, and sometimes encephalitis.
2. Caseous Lymphadenitis (CL): A bacterial disease that causes abscesses in the lymph nodes of goats.
3. Contagious Caprine Pleuropneumonia (CCPP): A contagious respiratory disease caused by mycoplasma bacteria.
4. Johne's Disease: A chronic wasting disease caused by a type of bacterium called Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis.
5. Pasteurellosis: A bacterial disease that can cause pneumonia, septicemia, and other infections in goats.
6. Salmonellosis: A bacterial disease caused by Salmonella bacteria, which can cause diarrhea, fever, and septicemia in goats.
7. Soremouth (Orf): A viral disease that causes sores and scabs around the mouth and nose of goats.

These are just a few examples of diseases that can affect goats. If you have any specific questions about goat health or diseases, I would recommend consulting with a veterinarian who specializes in small ruminants.

Government regulation in the context of medicine refers to the rules, guidelines, and laws established by government agencies to control, monitor, and standardize various aspects of healthcare. These regulations are designed to protect patients, promote public health, ensure quality of care, and regulate the healthcare industry. Examples of government regulation in medicine include:

1. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulations for drug approval, medical device clearance, and food safety.
2. Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) regulations for healthcare reimbursement, quality measures, and program eligibility.
3. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) regulations for workplace safety in healthcare settings.
4. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations to minimize environmental impacts from healthcare facilities and pharmaceutical manufacturing.
5. State medical boards' regulations for licensing, disciplining, and monitoring physicians and other healthcare professionals.
6. Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) regulations for patient privacy and data security.
7. Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA) regulations for laboratory testing quality and standards.
8. Federal Trade Commission (FTC) regulations to prevent deceptive or unfair trade practices in healthcare marketing and advertising.
9. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) guidelines for evidence-based practice and patient safety.
10. Public Health Service Act (PHSA) regulations related to infectious diseases, bioterrorism preparedness, and substance abuse treatment.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "human characteristics" is not a medical term or concept. It refers to the typical traits, attributes, and features that define humans as a species, both physically and behaviorally. Physical human characteristics include bipedal locomotion, large brains, and fine motor skills, while behavioral characteristics can include complex language use, self-awareness, and sociality.

However, if you have any specific medical or health-related questions, I would be happy to help answer them to the best of my ability!

Postcoital contraception, also known as emergency contraception, refers to methods used to prevent pregnancy after sexual intercourse has already occurred. These methods are typically used in situations where regular contraception has failed or was not used, such as in cases of condom breakage or forgotten birth control pills.

There are two main types of postcoital contraception:

1. Emergency contraceptive pill (ECP): Also known as the "morning-after pill," this is a hormonal medication that can be taken up to 5 days after unprotected sex, but it is most effective when taken within 72 hours. There are two types of ECPs available: progestin-only and combined estrogen-progestin. The progestin-only pill is preferred because it has fewer side effects and is just as effective as the combined pill.
2. Copper intrauterine device (IUD): This is a small, T-shaped device made of flexible plastic and copper that is inserted into the uterus by a healthcare provider. The IUD can be inserted up to 5 days after unprotected sex to prevent pregnancy. It is the most effective form of emergency contraception available, and it also provides ongoing protection against pregnancy for up to 10 years, depending on the type of IUD.

It's important to note that postcoital contraception should not be used as a regular method of contraception, but rather as a backup in case of emergencies. It is also not effective in preventing sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Regular contraceptive methods, such as condoms and hormonal birth control, are the best ways to prevent unintended pregnancies and STIs.

Conscience is not a medical term, but it is a concept that is often discussed in the context of ethics, psychology, and philosophy. In general, conscience refers to an individual's sense of right and wrong, which guides their behavior and decision-making. It is sometimes described as an inner voice or a moral compass that helps people distinguish between right and wrong actions.

While conscience is not a medical term, there are medical conditions that can affect a person's ability to distinguish between right and wrong or to make ethical decisions. For example, certain neurological conditions, such as frontotemporal dementia, can impair a person's moral judgment and decision-making abilities. Similarly, some mental health disorders, such as psychopathy, may be associated with reduced moral reasoning and empathy, which can affect a person's conscience.

It is worth noting that the concept of conscience is complex and multifaceted, and there is ongoing debate among philosophers, psychologists, and neuroscientists about its nature and origins. Some theories suggest that conscience is a product of socialization and cultural influences, while others propose that it has a more fundamental basis in human biology and evolution.

There is no universally accepted medical definition for "Value of Life" as it is a concept that encompasses both medical, ethical, and philosophical considerations. However, in the context of healthcare, the value of life may refer to the benefits, outcomes, or improvements in quality of life that are gained through medical interventions or treatments. This can include extending lifespan, improving functional ability, relieving symptoms, and enhancing overall well-being.

Ultimately, the value of life is subjective and depends on individual and societal values, beliefs, and preferences. Healthcare providers must consider these factors when making treatment decisions and engaging in end-of-life care discussions with patients and their families. It's important to note that the medical community does not assign a monetary value to human life.

Parental consent refers to the legal right and obligation of parents or guardians to make decisions on behalf of a minor child, including providing authorization for medical treatment. The specific requirements for parental consent may vary depending on jurisdiction, but generally, it involves providing written permission for a medical procedure or treatment after being fully informed about the nature, risks, benefits, and alternatives of the proposed care.

In some cases, parental consent may be required for routine medical procedures, while in other situations, it may only be necessary for more invasive or higher-risk treatments. Healthcare providers must obtain appropriate parental consent before performing medical procedures on minors to ensure that they are acting within the bounds of the law and protecting the best interests of their patients.

It's important to note that in some circumstances, such as when a minor is mature enough to make their own healthcare decisions or if seeking treatment for certain sensitive issues (such as reproductive health), parental consent may not be required, and the minor may be able to provide informed consent themselves.

Uterine perforation is a medical condition that refers to the piercing or puncturing of the uterine wall. This can occur during various medical procedures such as dilatation and curettage (D&C), insertion of an intrauterine device (IUD), or during childbirth. It can also be caused by trauma or infection. Uterine perforation can lead to serious complications, such as bleeding, infection, and damage to surrounding organs. If left untreated, it can be life-threatening. Symptoms of uterine perforation may include severe abdominal pain, heavy vaginal bleeding, fever, and signs of shock. Immediate medical attention is required for proper diagnosis and treatment.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Moral Obligations" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. The term "moral obligations" is more related to ethics and philosophy, referring to the duties or actions that are considered right or wrong based on a set of moral principles or values.

However, in a broader sense, healthcare professionals may use the term "moral obligations" to refer to their professional responsibility and commitment to providing compassionate, respectful, and high-quality care to all patients, regardless of their background, beliefs, or circumstances. This concept is closely related to medical ethics and professionalism, which provide guidelines for ethical decision-making in clinical practice.

Intravaginal administration refers to the delivery of medications or other substances directly into the vagina. This route of administration can be used for local treatment of vaginal infections or inflammation, or to deliver systemic medication that is absorbed through the vaginal mucosa.

Medications can be administered intravaginally using a variety of dosage forms, including creams, gels, foams, suppositories, and films. The choice of dosage form depends on several factors, such as the drug's physicochemical properties, the desired duration of action, and patient preference.

Intravaginal administration offers several advantages over other routes of administration. It allows for direct delivery of medication to the site of action, which can result in higher local concentrations and fewer systemic side effects. Additionally, some medications may be more effective when administered intravaginally due to their ability to bypass first-pass metabolism in the liver.

However, there are also potential disadvantages to intravaginal administration. Some women may find it uncomfortable or inconvenient to use this route of administration, and there is a risk of leakage or expulsion of the medication. Additionally, certain medications may cause local irritation or allergic reactions when administered intravaginally.

Overall, intravaginal administration can be a useful route of administration for certain medications and conditions, but it is important to consider the potential benefits and risks when choosing this method.

Reproductive health, as defined by the World Health Organization (WHO), is "a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being in all matters relating to the reproductive system and its functions and processes. It implies that people are able to have a satisfying and safe sex life, the capability to reproduce, and the freedom to decide if, when, and how often to do so. It also includes their right to access information and services that enable them to do this."

This definition emphasizes not only the biological aspects of reproduction but also the social and personal dimensions of sexuality and reproductive health. It recognizes that individuals have the right to make informed choices about their reproductive lives, and it highlights the importance of access to information and services in realizing these rights.

Fetal resorption, also known as fetal demise or intrauterine fetal death, is a medical term that refers to the absorption of a nonviable fetus by the mother's body after its death in utero. This process typically occurs before the 20th week of gestation and may go unnoticed if it happens early in pregnancy.

During fetal resorption, the fetal tissue is broken down and absorbed by the mother's body, leaving no visible remains of the fetus. The placenta and other surrounding tissues may still be present, but they often undergo changes as well. In some cases, a small amount of fetal tissue may be expelled from the uterus during the resorption process.

The causes of fetal resorption can vary, including chromosomal abnormalities, maternal health conditions, infections, and environmental factors. It is essential to seek medical attention if a woman suspects fetal resorption or experiences any unusual symptoms during pregnancy, such as vaginal bleeding or decreased fetal movement, to ensure proper diagnosis and management.

Ethics is a branch of philosophy that involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong conduct. In the medical field, ethics refers to the principles that guide doctors, nurses, and other healthcare professionals in making decisions about patient care. These principles often include respect for autonomy (the right of patients to make their own decisions), non-maleficence (doing no harm), beneficence (acting in the best interests of the patient), and justice (fairness in the distribution of resources). Medical ethics may also involve considerations of confidentiality, informed consent, and end-of-life decision making.

Reproductive health services refer to the provision of health care services that aim to enhance reproductive health and well-being. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), reproductive health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being in all matters relating to the reproductive system and its functions and processes.

Reproductive health services may include:

1. Family planning: This includes counseling, education, and provision of contraceptives to prevent unintended pregnancies and promote planned pregnancies.
2. Maternal and newborn health: This includes antenatal care, delivery services, postnatal care, and newborn care to ensure safe pregnancy and childbirth.
3. Sexual health: This includes counseling, testing, and treatment for sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV/AIDS, and education on sexual health and responsible sexual behavior.
4. Infertility services: This includes diagnosis and treatment of infertility, including assisted reproductive technologies such as in vitro fertilization (IVF).
5. Abortion services: This includes safe abortion services, post-abortion care, and counseling to prevent unsafe abortions and reduce maternal mortality and morbidity.
6. Menstrual health: This includes providing access to menstrual hygiene products, education on menstrual health, and treatment of menstrual disorders.
7. Adolescent reproductive health: This includes providing age-appropriate sexual and reproductive health education, counseling, and services to adolescents.

Reproductive health services aim to promote sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR), which include the right to access information, education, and services; the right to make informed choices about one's own body and reproduction; and the right to be free from discrimination, coercion, and violence in relation to one's sexuality and reproduction.

A hydatidiform mole, also known as a molar pregnancy, is a type of gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD), which is a group of rare disorders that involve abnormal growth of the placental tissue.

In a hydatidiform mole, there is an abnormal fertilization event leading to the growth of a mass of grapelike cysts in the uterus instead of a normal pregnancy. The chromosomes from the sperm and egg do not combine properly, resulting in an extra set of chromosomes, which leads to the development of the mole.

Hydatidiform moles can be complete or partial:

* Complete hydatidiform mole (CHM): This type arises when an egg without a nucleus is fertilized by one or two sperm, leading to the growth of abnormal placental tissue with no embryo. The chromosomes come from the father only, and there are typically 46 chromosomes, all of paternal origin.
* Partial hydatidiform mole (PHM): This type occurs when an egg is fertilized by two sperm or a single sperm that duplicates itself, resulting in an abnormal placenta with some fetal tissue. The chromosomes are of both maternal and paternal origin, and the placental tissue has a mix of normal and abnormal cells.

Hydatidiform moles can cause vaginal bleeding, rapid uterine enlargement, and high levels of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) hormone in the blood. They are usually detected during an ultrasound exam and require medical treatment to prevent complications such as gestational trophoblastic neoplasia, a malignant form of GTD that can spread to other organs.

"Drug-induced abnormalities" refer to physical or physiological changes that occur as a result of taking medication or drugs. These abnormalities can affect various organs and systems in the body and can range from minor symptoms, such as nausea or dizziness, to more serious conditions, such as liver damage or heart rhythm disturbances.

Drug-induced abnormalities can occur for several reasons, including:

1. Direct toxicity: Some drugs can directly damage cells and tissues in the body, leading to abnormalities.
2. Altered metabolism: Drugs can interfere with normal metabolic processes in the body, leading to the accumulation of harmful substances or the depletion of essential nutrients.
3. Hormonal imbalances: Some drugs can affect hormone levels in the body, leading to abnormalities.
4. Allergic reactions: Some people may have allergic reactions to certain drugs, which can cause a range of symptoms, including rashes, swelling, and difficulty breathing.
5. Interactions with other drugs: Taking multiple medications or drugs at the same time can increase the risk of drug-induced abnormalities.

It is important for healthcare providers to monitor patients closely for signs of drug-induced abnormalities and to adjust medication dosages or switch to alternative treatments as necessary. Patients should also inform their healthcare providers of any symptoms they experience while taking medication, as these may be related to drug-induced abnormalities.

'Chlamydophila psittaci' is a gram-negative, obligate intracellular bacterium that causes psittacosis, also known as parrot fever. It is commonly found in birds, particularly parrots and psittacines, but can also infect other bird species, mammals, and humans. In humans, it can cause a wide range of symptoms, including fever, headache, cough, and pneumonia. Human-to-human transmission is rare, and the disease is typically acquired through inhalation of dried secretions or feces from infected birds.

Female infertility is a condition characterized by the inability to conceive after 12 months or more of regular, unprotected sexual intercourse or the inability to carry a pregnancy to a live birth. The causes of female infertility can be multifactorial and may include issues with ovulation, damage to the fallopian tubes or uterus, endometriosis, hormonal imbalances, age-related factors, and other medical conditions.

Some common causes of female infertility include:

1. Ovulation disorders: Conditions such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), thyroid disorders, premature ovarian failure, and hyperprolactinemia can affect ovulation and lead to infertility.
2. Damage to the fallopian tubes: Pelvic inflammatory disease, endometriosis, or previous surgeries can cause scarring and blockages in the fallopian tubes, preventing the egg and sperm from meeting.
3. Uterine abnormalities: Structural issues with the uterus, such as fibroids, polyps, or congenital defects, can interfere with implantation and pregnancy.
4. Age-related factors: As women age, their fertility declines due to a decrease in the number and quality of eggs.
5. Other medical conditions: Certain medical conditions, such as diabetes, celiac disease, and autoimmune disorders, can contribute to infertility.

In some cases, female infertility can be treated with medications, surgery, or assisted reproductive technologies (ART) like in vitro fertilization (IVF). A thorough evaluation by a healthcare professional is necessary to determine the underlying cause and develop an appropriate treatment plan.

Health services accessibility refers to the degree to which individuals and populations are able to obtain needed health services in a timely manner. It includes factors such as physical access (e.g., distance, transportation), affordability (e.g., cost of services, insurance coverage), availability (e.g., supply of providers, hours of operation), and acceptability (e.g., cultural competence, language concordance).

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), accessibility is one of the key components of health system performance, along with responsiveness and fair financing. Improving accessibility to health services is essential for achieving universal health coverage and ensuring that everyone has access to quality healthcare without facing financial hardship. Factors that affect health services accessibility can vary widely between and within countries, and addressing these disparities requires a multifaceted approach that includes policy interventions, infrastructure development, and community engagement.

Fertility is the natural ability to conceive or to cause conception of offspring. In humans, it is the capacity of a woman and a man to reproduce through sexual reproduction. For women, fertility usually takes place during their reproductive years, which is from adolescence until menopause. A woman's fertility depends on various factors including her age, overall health, and the health of her reproductive system.

For men, fertility can be affected by a variety of factors such as age, genetics, general health, sexual function, and environmental factors that may affect sperm production or quality. Factors that can negatively impact male fertility include exposure to certain chemicals, radiation, smoking, alcohol consumption, drug use, and sexually transmitted infections (STIs).

Infertility is a common medical condition affecting about 10-15% of couples trying to conceive. Infertility can be primary or secondary. Primary infertility refers to the inability to conceive after one year of unprotected sexual intercourse, while secondary infertility refers to the inability to conceive following a previous pregnancy.

Infertility can be treated with various medical and surgical interventions depending on the underlying cause. These may include medications to stimulate ovulation, intrauterine insemination (IUI), in vitro fertilization (IVF), or surgery to correct anatomical abnormalities.

Religion and medicine are two distinct fields that can intersect in various ways. While religion can be defined as a set of beliefs, practices, and rituals related to the divine or supernatural, medicine is concerned with the maintenance of health and the prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and cure of disease, illness, and other physical and mental impairments in humans.

A medical definition of "Religion and Medicine" might refer to the study of the relationship between religious beliefs, practices, and experiences, and health outcomes, healthcare delivery, and medical decision-making. This can include exploring how religious beliefs and practices influence health behaviors, coping mechanisms, social support networks, and access to care, as well as how they shape attitudes towards medical interventions, end-of-life decisions, and bioethical issues.

Religion can also play a role in the provision of healthcare services, such as through faith-based organizations that operate hospitals, clinics, and other health facilities. Additionally, religious leaders and communities may provide spiritual care and support to patients and their families, complementing the medical care provided by healthcare professionals.

Overall, the intersection of religion and medicine is a complex and multifaceted area of study that requires an interdisciplinary approach, drawing on insights from fields such as anthropology, sociology, psychology, theology, and public health.

Aftercare, in a medical context, refers to the ongoing care and support provided to a patient following a medical treatment, procedure, or hospitalization. The goal of aftercare is to promote recovery, prevent complications, manage symptoms, and ensure the overall well-being of the patient. Aftercare may include follow-up appointments with healthcare providers, medication management, physical therapy, wound care, lifestyle modifications, and psychological support. It is an essential part of the treatment process that helps patients transition back to their normal lives and maintain their health and wellness in the long term.

A questionnaire in the medical context is a standardized, systematic, and structured tool used to gather information from individuals regarding their symptoms, medical history, lifestyle, or other health-related factors. It typically consists of a series of written questions that can be either self-administered or administered by an interviewer. Questionnaires are widely used in various areas of healthcare, including clinical research, epidemiological studies, patient care, and health services evaluation to collect data that can inform diagnosis, treatment planning, and population health management. They provide a consistent and organized method for obtaining information from large groups or individual patients, helping to ensure accurate and comprehensive data collection while minimizing bias and variability in the information gathered.

Governments sometimes take measures designed to afford legal protection of access to abortion. Such legislation often seeks to ... around abortion clinics on the basis that patients have a medical right to privacy when receiving confidential legal medical ... and 160-metre fixed buffer zone around an abortion provider or clinic worker's home. The Access to Abortion Services Act, ... "Abortion clinic 'safe access zones' become law in NSW". 7 June 2018. Archived from the original on 20 July 2020. Retrieved 8 ...
... is legal and available on-request up to 20 weeks of pregnancy. Abortion has been legal up to at least 12 ... The legal status of abortion in Thailand is governed by the Thai Criminal Code. Until February 2021 abortion was illegal except ... Section 305 of the anti-abortion law, allowing for legal abortion when the pregnancy involves rape or endangers a mother's ... Parental consent is an obstacle to both general services such as birth control counseling as well as legal abortion services. ...
Sheldon, Sally; Davis, Gayle; O'Neill, Jane; Parker, Clare (2019). "The Abortion Act (1967): A Biography". Legal Studies. ... The Abortion Act 1967 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that legalised abortion in the UK on certain grounds by ... "Abortion Rights". Abortion Rights. Retrieved 16 March 2018. "Stand up for the Pro-Choice Majority!". ... decriminalising abortion in Northern Ireland. Abortion in the United Kingdom The citation of this Act by this short title is ...
... is only legal if the abortion will save the mother's life or preserve her physical or mental health and only ... on the sixth periodic report of Samoa Abortion law Abortion debate Religion and abortion Societal attitudes towards abortion " ... In Samoa, if an abortion is performed on a woman for any other reason, or if a woman performs a self-induced abortion, the ... "PM on Abortion and Same Sex Marriage". Facebook. 2017-08-31. Retrieved 2019-08-14. "Abortion is "murder" and "license to kill ...
... a man promoted a protection against the legal abortion of his wife. The judge Pura Book prohibited that abortion. Men who have ... The paternal rights and abortion issue is an extension of both the abortion debate and the fathers' rights movement. Abortion ... The entire legal process took 36 hours, as the Health Authority refused to allow an abortion before a decision was reached, ... Whether a male has a legal right to advance his personal interest, whether it be toward abortion, fatherhood, or adoption, over ...
SIA Legal team. "Making abortion a crime (again): how extreme prosecutors attempt to punish people for abortions in the U.S." ( ... A self-induced abortion (also called a self-managed abortion, or sometimes a self-induced miscarriage) is an abortion performed ... Although the term includes abortions induced outside of a clinical setting with legal, sometimes over-the-counter medication, ... Abortion pills, which were first used by Brazilian women in the 1980s, can prevent many of these deaths from unsafe abortion. ...
Zeldin, Wendy (27 September 2011). "Liechtenstein: No to Legalized Abortion". Global Legal Monitor. Retrieved 7 July 2013. " ... In a double referendum on abortion in November 2005, 81% of voters rejected a For Life proposal to prohibit all abortion - "The ... Abortion in Liechtenstein, All stub articles, Liechtenstein stubs, Abortion stubs). ... Abortion in Liechtenstein is illegal in most circumstances with limited exceptions in cases where the life of the pregnant ...
A 2021 Goucher College Poll found that 88% of Maryland respondents support legal abortion. 44% support legal abortion in all ... "Views about abortion". "Data and Statistics". "Abortion surveillance annual summary 1979-1980". "Abortion Surveillance - United ... of abortion seekers. In 2007, 59% of adults in Maryland said in a poll by the Pew Research Center that abortion should be legal ... abortion remains legal in Maryland, and the Maryland General Assembly passed the Abortion Care Access Act, expanding the types ...
Abortion in China is generally legal and accessible. Abortions are widely accepted socially and are available to all women ... Debates surrounding abortion started around 1929 in Poland. By 1932, abortion was considered legal if the pregnancy was a ... Laos has the strictest limitations on legal abortions among current Marxist-Leninist countries. At this time, abortion is only ... "Abolition of Legal Abortion". 18 June 2015. Retrieved 22 August 2018. Field, Mark G. (30 August 1956). " ...
... is illegal by legislation, but legal by judicial ruling and legal review. A law passed ... Women had few options to where they could get a legal abortion including Hawaii or Japan. Abortion in the Commonwealth of the ... "Legal opinion backs abortion". Saipan Tribune. May 12, 2000. Retrieved May 15, 2022. "Lang: Abortion is illegal in CNMI". ... During the 1990s, women who wanted abortions often traveled to the Philippines to get an abortion as there were no legal ...
... is legal, but there are no abortion providers currently based in the territory. Abortion, also known as pokká ... As legal abortion is no longer readily available in Guam, the current rate of abortion is not known. The Catholic Church in ... During the 1990s, women who needed abortions often traveled to the Philippines to get an abortion as there were no legal ... women were left with few options for legal abortion services. Women seeking abortion may pay out-of-pocket to travel to Hawaii ...
Anna North (May 16, 2019). "Abortion is still legal in America". Vox. Retrieved May 23, 2019. Because that's before many people ... An abortion clinic is a medical facility that provides abortions. Abortion clinics may be private or public medical practices ... Abortion in the United States Abortion in the United States by state Hyde Amendment Minors and abortion Partial-Birth Abortion ... A six-week abortion ban, also called a "fetal heartbeat bill" by proponents, is a law in the United States which makes abortion ...
"Abortion Law Reform Act 2008 (No. 58 of 2008) - Sect 9". Australasian Legal Information Institute. Retrieved 31 March 2009. " ... The Abortion Law Reform Act 2008 is an abortion law reform passed by the Victorian Parliament in the Australian state of ... 1] [2] [3] Late termination of pregnancy "Abortion Law Reform Bill 2008: Explanatory memorandum". Australasian Legal ... "Law of Abortion: final report". Victorian Law Reform Commission. Retrieved 13 July 2014. Bullimore, Kim. "Victoria's abortion ...
... is legal nationwide. There are no federal abortion laws, and full decriminalisation of the practice has ... "Tas abortion reform removes stigma: govt". NewsComAu. 21 November 2013. "Is abortion legal in Australia? It's complicated - ABC ... Abortion in New Zealand Abortion law Penovic, Tania (15 June 2018). "Explainer: what are abortion clinic safe-access zones and ... decriminalised abortions up to a gestational limit of 24 weeks. In Western Australia, from May 1998, abortions became legal on ...
"Liberal Swedes Call for Legal Abortion For Men - Observer". Observer. "Should men be given 'legal abortion' rights?". The New ... Paper abortion, also known as a financial abortion, male abortion or a statutory abort, is the proposed ability of the ... Ectogenesis does not provide men the right to a "paper abortion", a legal right to renounce parental rights (such as they are) ... "Skyl 'juridisk abort' ud med badevandet" [Rinse 'legal abortion' out with the bathwater]. (in Danish). 14 February ...
Tanzania's abortion laws originated with legal codes imposed during British colonial rule. In mainland Tanzania, Articles 150 ... Tanzania has one of the most restrictive abortion laws in the world, with abortion only allowed to save the life of the mother ... People convicted of performing abortions can be imprisoned for up to 14 years, while women convicted of procuring an abortion ... Despite the illegality of abortion in Tanzania, clandestine abortion services are often accessible to those who can afford them ...
... is legal. The number of abortion clinics in Montana has fluctuated over the years, with twenty in 1982, ... there were 180 abortions, 0 abortions for black women aged 15-19, 10 abortions for Hispanic women aged 15-19, and 0 abortions ... there were no major legal restrictions on abortions. As of May 14, 2019, the Montana Legislature prohibited abortions after the ... There were 1,690 legal abortions in 2014, and 1,611 in 2015. In 1997, the Montana Legislature passed a law that said only ...
... is legal. Laws about abortion dated to the early 1800s in Illinois; the first criminal penalties related ... believed that abortion should be legal in all or most cases. That same year, 38,472 abortion procedures took place in the state ... In 2014, 56% of adults said in a poll by the Pew Research Center that abortion should be legal vs. 41% that believe it should ... Publicly funded abortions for poor women came from a mix of state and federal resources. Abortion rights activism has been ...
... is legal if the abortion will save the woman's life or if the pregnancy gravely endangers the woman's physical ... Abortion Policies: Oman to Zimbabwe. United Nations Publications. 2001. "When abortion is legal". The Fiji Times Online. Fiji ... v t e (Healthcare in Fiji, Abortion by country, Abortion in Oceania, All stub articles, Abortion stubs). ... since Fiji is a stronghold of Christianity with other religious beliefs that prohibit abortion. Abortion in Fiji is a taboo; ...
"Tonga Consolidated Legislation, Laws of Tonga, Criminal Offences". Pacific Islands Legal Research Institute. Retrieved 30 ... Abortion in Tonga is severely restricted by criminal law, as nearly all abortions are illegal. Abortions are illegal in Tonga, ... v t e (Health in Tonga, Abortion by country, Abortion in Oceania, All stub articles, Abortion stubs). ... Abortion in Tonga is restricted by sections 103 to 105 of the Criminal Offences Act. Section 103 makes administering a drug or ...
Dunsmuir, Mollie (August 18, 1998). "Abortion: Constitutional and Legal Developments". Parliament of Canada. Retrieved April 13 ... The Abortion Caravan paved the way for future abortion activism as well as helped initiate a revocation of abortion laws in ... Countering opponents and destigmatizing abortion in Canada. Abortion in Canada Nigra, Pat (6 May 1970). "Abortion Issues Stir ... New Brunswick must fully fund abortion: #SaveClinic554. International solidarity and abortion access. Abortion care includes ...
... is legal through 22 weeks of pregnancy. Since 2021, abortions in the city of Lebanon, Ohio have been outlawed ... However, abortions up to 22 weeks are currently legal in Ohio, and will remain legal indefinitely as litigation continues. This ... There were 21,186 legal abortions in 2014 and 20,976 in 2015. Women from the state participated in marches supporting abortion ... of adults said in a poll by the Pew Research Center that abortion should be legal in all or most cases. The number of abortion ...
... said abortion should be legal in most cases, 32% said abortion should be illegal in most cases, and 14% said abortion should be ... Abortion in Kansas is legal. Kansas law allows for an abortion up to 20 weeks postfertilization (22 weeks after the last ... In 2013, among white women aged 15-19, there were 270 total abortions, 50 abortions for black women aged 15-19, 60 abortions ... There were 7,219 legal abortions in 2014, and 6,931 in 2015. Almost half were obtained by out-of-state residents. The state has ...
... is legal. 66% of adults in Hawaii said in a poll by the Pew Research Center that abortion should be legal in ... In 1970, the first year that abortion was legal in the state, abortions were performed at fifteen hospitals. Between 1982 and ... In 2013, among white women aged 15-19, there were abortions 60, 10 abortions for black women aged 15-19, 50 abortions for ... In 2014, 66% of adults said in a poll by the Pew Research Center that abortion should be legal in all or most cases. In 2017, ...
In some countries abortion is legal and women have the right to make the choice about abortion. In some areas, abortion is ... abortion laws have higher rates of unsafe abortion and similar overall abortion rates compared to those where abortion is legal ... Others favor legal and accessible abortion as a public health measure. Abortion laws and cultural or religious views of ... A major factor in whether abortions are performed safely or not is the legal standing of abortion. Countries with restrictive ...
... approximately 300 to 500 abortions were kept after pre-abortion counselling. In 2017 there were 6815 legal abortions carried ... Singapore portal Feminism portal Abortion law Abortion debate History of abortion Demographics of Singapore Population planning ... reaching its peak in 1985 with 23,512 legal abortions. This number influenced the introduction of mandatory pre-abortion ... Abortion in Singapore is legal and widely accessible. It was formally legalised in 1974, being one of the first countries in ...
The National Abortion Campaign, led by feminists, increased the ability for women to come together, lobbying for legal abortion ... women had to request an abortion and pay a fee to an abortion committee. There was an increasing rate of abortions and a ... When abortion became legal in 1956 in Hungary the population struggled to replace itself, which meant that a lot of incentives ... The major push for legal abortion in the USSR was majorly driven by medical experts who explained the issue to the public. When ...
... is legal as an elective medical procedure during the first 14 weeks from conception. The abortion law was ... In 2005, the National Campaign for Legal, Safe, and Free Abortion, an organisation that leads the cause for abortion ... 002/07: Discrimination in the provision of healthcare for cases of legal abortion and post-abortion treatment" (PDF) (in ... "Argentina lower house passes legal abortion bill in tight vote". Reuters. June 14, 2018. Retrieved July 10, 2018. "Legal ...
In some situations, abortions are legal. The laws of Ghana allow abortions where (1) the pregnancy was as a result of rape, ... Because so few women know that abortions are legal on many grounds in Ghana, they do not seek, or demand post abortion care, ... at 21 abortions per 1,000 women versus 10 abortions per 1,000 women. The reasons that Ghanaian women give for seeking abortions ... In Ghana, the age of minority is below eighteen years, although the legal age for consent is 16 years of age. Abortion is a ...
Additionally, around 78% believe that abortion should be legal in cases of rape or incest, and 62% say abortion should be legal ... of Hoosiers believe an abortion ban should have at least some exceptions, and more than 50% say abortion should be legal in ... abortion in Indiana remained legal despite Indiana lawmakers voting in favor of a near-total abortion ban on August 5, 2022. ... of Republicans polled stated that abortion should be legal. Contrarily, 44% of Republicans polled said that abortion should not ...
Governments sometimes take measures designed to afford legal protection of access to abortion. Such legislation often seeks to ... around abortion clinics on the basis that patients have a medical right to privacy when receiving confidential legal medical ... and 160-metre fixed buffer zone around an abortion provider or clinic workers home. The Access to Abortion Services Act, ... "Abortion clinic safe access zones become law in NSW". 7 June 2018. Archived from the original on 20 July 2020. Retrieved 8 ...
States have passed 16 abortion bans in last five months. WASHINGTON - Today, Congress moved to protect access to safe, legal ... Congress Moves to Protect Access to Safe, Legal Abortion. For Immediate Release: May 23, 2019 ... legal abortion. As a doctor, I am focused on ensuring the health and well-being of women and families. The Womens Health ... Nearly half of those restrictions are abortion bans, including those in Kentucky, Ohio, and Georgia. In the past five months ...
As of Tuesday it is again legal for women in Ireland to seek to terminate their pregnancies following last years referendum. ... Ireland introduces legal abortion services. As of Tuesday it is again legal for women in Ireland to seek to terminate their ... However Ms Murphy warned that the requirement of a three-day "cooling off" period for women requesting abortions was there to ... She added that women seeking abortions after 12 weeks faced uncertainty, saying: "We expect there will be a significant cohort ...
Findings show most residents support legal abortion when the mothers life is in serious danger and in cases of rape, but ... A similar share (54%) said a woman should not be able to obtain a legal abortion if the reason she is seeking one is that she ... Fifty-two percent (52%) of respondents said a woman should not be able to obtain a legal abortion if the reason she is seeking ... Fifty-two percent (52%) of respondents said abortion should be legal in all or most cases, and 44% said it should be illegal in ...
NEPAL: Only Half of Women Know Abortion is Legal. By Marty Logan Reprint , , Print , ... "Such a practice has deprived clients of their rights to safe and legal abortion up to 12 weeks of gestation from any government ... The research also revealed that only 50 percent of CAC clients were aware that abortion is now legal. The number was even lower ... "Many people dont know that abortion services are legal," confirmed Kasturi Malla, director of Kathmandus Maternity Hospital, ...
MPs have voted to extend abortion rights and same sex marriage to Northern Ireland, but will it go through? ... We will only be happy when there are free, safe, legal, local abortions and buffer zones for those entering. Thats all we ... As things stand, because the 1967 Abortion Act does not extend to Northern Ireland, our abortion laws are harsher than ... They didnt want to touch it despite the fact that the UN had deemed our abortion law a violation of womens human rights. ...
AP) - Emails and phone calls from same-sex couples, worried about the legal status of their marriages and keeping their ... Same-sex couples updating legal status after abortion ruling by: JAY REEVES, Associated Press ... In a sign of what could come, the state of Alabama already has cited the abortion ruling in asking a federal appeals court to ... "That way, if they blast us back to the Dark Ages again, we have legal protections for our relationship," said Betts-Green, who ...
A guide explaining which countries allow abortion and which countries strictly restrict or outlaw abortion. ... Where is abortion legal and where is abortion illegal? ... Abortion laws worldwide: In what countries is abortion legal?. ... Abortion is a crime in El Salvador, which has some of the worlds most restrictive laws. They prohibit abortion even when ... Abortion is prohibited altogether in 24 countries. When people face barriers to obtaining safe abortions, they often resort to ...
The pro-abortion Womens Legal Centre challenged the demand in the Cape High Court and claimed closing down the abortion ... South Africa Abortion Centers Reach Legal Settlement With Health Department. International , Steven Ertelt , Jun 9, 2008 , 9: ... Now, SABC News reports the Western Cape Department of Health and the Marie Stopes abortion centers have reached a legal ... The pro-abortion attorneys told the news service that health officials have agreed to relax the standards for the abortion ...
Reported Legal Abortions by Age Group Within the…. Reported Legal Abortions by Age Group Within the State of Occurrence. ...
Abortion Robots will deliver abortion pills in Belfast, Northern Ireland For Immediate release: Abortion robots will deliver ... Like the other Women on Waves campaigns, the abortion robot is using the different legal realities in the Netherlands and NI. ... Abortion pills. The medicines used for a medical abortion, mifepristone and misoprostol, have been on the list of essential ... The UKs Abortion Act 1967 does not extend to Northern Ireland and the norths abortion laws are still governed by sections 58 ...
Irish voters supported repealing some of the most restrictive abortion laws in the European Union about 68 to 32, according to ... Where is Abortion Legal? Ireland Votes to Repeal Eighth Amendment in Landslide Margin, Exit Poll Suggests. By Tom OConnor On 5 ... A graphic shows time limits for abortion on request in European countries. World Health Organization/Reuters ... Related: Bishop Says Abortion Can Be Far Worse Than Rape. Overall, 68 percent of voters voted "Yes" versus 32 percent who ...
As more states outlaw abortion, some define human life as starting at fertilization. Some patients and health care workers ... Could IVF treatment be in legal jeopardy in states with abortion bans? : Shots - Health News As more states outlaw abortion, ... In states that outlaw abortion, some patients and health care workers worry that in vitro fertilization could be in legal ... Melissas fear is that a Michigan law banning abortion (which is currently in legal limbo) could potentially put fertility ...
Keep Abortion Legal button.Courtesy of the National Organization for Women. ... "Keep Abortion Legal Button." (Viewed on November 29, 2023) ,,. ...
Texas Goes After Out-of-State Abortions, Forces Prosecutions of Abortions Texas is doubling down on its draconian abortion laws ... Legal Brief From Mississippi AG Calls for Supreme Court to Undo Abortion Rights. The upcoming court battle will demonstrate ... The state of Mississippi, in an upcoming legal battle over a restrictive abortion law it passed just a few years ago, is ... Texas Gov Signs Ban Allowing Private Citizens to Sue Abortion Providers for $10K The bill bans abortion at a very early stage ...
... the conservative legal movement will fare if its own appointees on the bench stop short of dismantling the landmark abortion ... Amid the wave of excitement among conservative organizers over the prospect of reversing access to abortion for the first time ... Should the court decline to end the legal right to abortion and permit legal challenges to a restrictive Texas law banning the ... The mounting concerns among social conservative stakeholders and anti-abortion activists - which come as two abortion-related ...
Pro-choice companies are taking stands to support workers who cannot get abortions in their home states. ... Google tells U.S. workers they can move to states where abortion is legal: report. By Megan Cerullo ... Technology giant Google says workers who live in parts of the country where abortion is no longer legal after the Supreme Court ... New York City launches nations first telehealth abortion care services What it might mean for patients if 75,000 Kaiser ...
Abortion-rights supporters say it is an example of an abortion desert that could result if ,em,Roe ,/em,is overturned. ... Legal Battle Over Missouri Clinic Could Foretell Abortion Fights In Other States ... Anti-abortion-rights leaders in Columbia are feeling galvanized by the latest legal ruling, after working for years for this ... And that means continued legal battles and on-the-ground activism for advocates on both sides of the abortion debate. ...
The reality is that it is legal to have an abortion through all nine months of pregnancy, even though not all abortion clinics ... Yet abortion advocates obfuscate the legal reality of abortions late-term availability with five unresponsive rebuttals. ... limits on permissible abortion legislation so severe that no abortion law in the United States remained valid." Legal historian ... Donald Trump Was Right, Abortion Is Legal Through All 9 Months of Pregnancy. Opinion , Clarke D. Forsythe, J.D. , Oct 28, 2016 ...
Home Arkansas Blog Legal fees nearing $100,000 for Arkansass unconstitutional 12-week abortion ban ... Plaintiffs in the lawsuit challenging Arkansass unconstitutional 12-week abortion ban were awarded $27,060 in attorney fees ...
... and community advocates gathered at the steps of Queens Borough Hall to fight for abortion rights. ... This means establishing an abortion access fund in New York State, creating a state public fund for abortion care… and a public ... Joan Hirsch of Rise Up 4 Abortion Rights took donations from attendees that would go to funds for safe abortions. ... "I had my abortion when I was 32 years old - I was married, I had all the support I needed. I just didnt want to be a mother at ...
How has Dobbs affected abortion access? And is Roe ever coming back? ... People with legal questions about self-managed abortion can contact the If/When/How legal helpline or the Abortion Defense ... 4) Where is abortion legal?. Broadly, the legal landscape around abortion in America now breaks down into a few categories: ... 9 questions about abortion in America, answered. Where is abortion legal? How has Dobbs affected abortion access? And is Roe ...
A poor woman in India has many bad choices when it comes to abortion: a do-it-yourself home treatment, an unqualified midwife, ... And yet, abortion has been legal in India since 1971. "Thats the irony of the situation," says Vinoj Manning, the director of ... Besides, Horo had no idea that abortion is legal and that she should only undergo the procedure at a facility certified by the ... "What theyre trying to do is move abortion from informal backstreet culture to a mainstream one, and to bring abortion closer ...
LGBTQ legal advocates have turned their focus towards defending abortion rights with no LGBTQ rights cases before the U.S. ... For many LGBTQ legal advocates, the abortion cases are important because they say the outcome could directly impact legal ... But legal advocates for the LGBTQ community arent limiting the relationship between abortion and LGBTQ rights to legal ... The abortion cases arent the only litigation on the radar for LGBTQ legal advocates. Also on the list are cases that will ...
A majority of Americans support preserving both abortion generally and Roe vs. Wade specifically, according to a new poll ... Wade, Legal Abortion: Poll Even as the Supreme Court is poised to strike down Roe vs. Wade and leave the question of abortions ... Some 57% of people believe Roe should stand, and 64% believe abortion should be unreservedly legal or legal with some ... Wade, as well as the concept of legal abortion itself, according to a new poll released Wednesday. ...
A Christian doctor is to ask the High Court to reverse a ban preventing him from providing abortion pill reversal treatment. ... Christian doctor banned from providing abortion reversal treatment takes legal challenge to High Court. Staff writer 08 ... Abortion providers are putting women on a conveyer belt which means once they start the abortion process, they have to go ... in demand for APR after the government changed abortion rules to allow the two pills needed for an abortion to be sent to women ...
... quality and legal abortion as well as respectful treatment of women accessing abortion by providers. Recognition of the right ... along with legal provisions, their implementation towards safe, quality abortion services, and post abortion care is critical ... However, even in countries where abortion is broadly legal, the limited provision of affordable services is a barrier to the ... Statement on access to safe, quality and legal abortion Peoples Health Movement (PHM) Following on the fourth Peoples Health ...
Campaigners say abortion is harder than ever for women in Italy, exactly 40 years since it was legalised. ... Why is getting an abortion tougher?. Italy legalised abortion on May 22, 1978 - exactly forty years ago today - allowing women ... "It is not true that legislation of abortion leads to a reduction in the number of abortions," Fiore told Euronews. ... Agatone said the increasing number of conscientious objectors and the prominence of anti-abortion groups means abortion rights ...
... ... Legal expert says Supreme Court abortion ruling will cause "increased schism between states". ... According to the AP, abortion clinics in Alabama, Kentucky, Missouri, Wisconsin, and West Virginia stopped performing abortions ... Schiff Berman said, "I think we will see an increased schism between states that want to clamp down on all abortion rights and ...
Right-wingers are thought to want more restrictive abortion laws, or its legal prohibition, and fewer legal limits on weaponry. ... In My Words - Abortion and Guns: These Terrible Twins Need More Legal Help. By Elon University News Bureau, staff ... Supposedly, liberals want abortion to be legal and very accessible and firearms control to be much more restrictive. ... Abortion and guns: the terrible twins. Lets give them the legal attention they so obviously need. ...
  • The report also found that some government centres were refusing to provide abortions if patients were nine weeks pregnant or more, despite the law permitting abortion on demand up to 12 weeks. (
  • Emily Wales, the general counsel at Planned Parenthood Great Plains, says her team has ongoing litigation against the federal court's ruling in addition to several other laws that make it harder for Planned Parenthood to provide abortions in the state - and is awaiting the court's response. (
  • The environment around you is very negative because if you provide abortions you are treated like a criminal. (
  • Immediately rescind the Global Gag Rule , which prohibits international non-governmental organizations (NGOs) that receive U.S. government funds from using their own private funds to provide abortions, lobbying their own government for a change in abortion laws, or even providing medically accurate counseling about abortion to their clients. (
  • Even in states with no legal limits on abortion, clinics are unlikely to provide abortions much past 30 weeks of pregnancy. (
  • Most colleges don't provide abortions on campus - rather, they connect students to reproductive health services that are available in the surrounding community. (
  • Symbolically, the day Stella Creasy secured funding for travel and NHS abortion procedures for Northern Irish women in 2017 was the same day a case at Britain's Supreme Court was rejected on a technical issue even though the majority of judges agreed that our laws were a breach of human rights . (
  • Tensions and emotions are running high in the U.S. after the leaked Supreme Court draft opinion published by Politico suggested that Roe v. Wade, the landmark 1973 ruling that established abortion rights nationwide, could be overturned this summer. (
  • Mexico's Supreme Court unanimously ruled in September to decriminalize abortion. (
  • If the law in the U.S. changes with a Supreme Court ruling this summer, some states will likely change their restrictions on abortion. (
  • The annual marches in New York, San Francisco, Chicago and elsewhere take place just two days after one conservative justice on the Supreme Court signaled, in a ruling on abortion, that the court should reconsider the right to same-sex marriage recognized in 2015. (
  • Overturning a nearly 50-year-old precedent, the Supreme Court ruled in a Mississippi case that abortion wasn't protected by the Constitution, a decision likely to lead to bans in about half the states. (
  • Michigan's 1931 law banning abortion is paused as the courts consider a lawsuit that Gov. Gretchen Whitmer filed in the Michigan Supreme Court challenging the law's constitutionality. (
  • The state of Mississippi, in an upcoming legal battle over a restrictive abortion law it passed just a few years ago, is formally asking the United States Supreme Court to overturn its ruling in Roe v. Wade , the 1973 decision that protected the right to access abortion services across the entirety of the country. (
  • Mississippi has stunningly asked the Supreme Court to overturn Roe and every other abortion rights decision in the last five decades," said Nancy Northup, president and CEO of the Center for Reproductive Rights, in a statement responding to the legal filing made on Thursday. (
  • The Supreme Court doesn't necessarily need to rule on Mississippi's direct challenge to the 1973 decision - it can decide, for instance, to simply rule on the merits of the 15-week abortion ban that prompted the legal brief in the first place. (
  • They can no longer be the sole imprimatur of the Supreme Court if the conservative legal movement has led us to produce judges who cannot overturn what the conservative legal movement regards as blatantly unconstitutional," Bovard said. (
  • While many court observers expect the Supreme Court to curtail abortion rights in some form via Dobbs v. Jackson Women's Health Organization , prominent conservative figures from former Vice President Mike Pence to Judicial Crisis Network President Carrie Severino have begun setting expectations for an outcome that fails to completely overhaul Roe. (
  • In a speech on Tuesday hosted by his own policy organization Advancing American Freedom and the anti-abortion group Susan B. Anthony List, Pence said the Supreme Court should send Roe "to the ash heap of history," while acknowledging that how the justices will rule is far from certain. (
  • The former vice president's remarks could exacerbate concerns among conservatives who already fear the court will sidestep its first opportunity in decades to completely dismantle abortion rights in the United States - triggering major upheaval inside the conservative legal movement and depressing donor enthusiasm for anti-abortion groups that have long promised a new horizon in their battle against reproductive rights if the Supreme Court gained a conservative majority. (
  • Technology giant Google says workers who live in parts of the country where abortion is no longer legal after the Supreme Court overturned Roe v. Wade may relocate to states where their rights are protected, no questions asked, according to reports. (
  • Protesters on both sides of the abortion debate demonstrated in front of the U.S. Supreme Court in July concerning Justice Brett Kavanaugh's confirmation. (
  • most people don't know what happened to the law when the Supreme Court legalized abortion in Roe v. Wade and Doe v. Bolton in 1973 for any reason, at any time of pregnancy, in all 50 states, throwing out all abortion laws on the books with the stroke of a pen. (
  • For example, in 1996 , a federal appeals court struck down Ohio's law that limited abortion after fetal viability, and the Supreme Court justices refused to hear Ohio's appeal. (
  • Legal scholars know that the Supreme Court legalized abortion for any reason, at any time of pregnancy, and the federal courts actively enforce that policy on the states. (
  • Outrage sparked nationwide in response to a leaked Supreme Court draft to overturn Roe v. Wade, which set the precedent to protect a woman's right to an abortion in the '70s. (
  • It's been one year since the Supreme Court ruled in Dobbs v. Jackson Women's Health Organization that there was no constitutional right to an abortion in the US - a decision that overturned Roe v. Wade and 49 years of precedent. (
  • With the new term for the U.S. Supreme Court underway, justices for the first time in years won't have to consider a major case specifically impacting LGBTQ rights, which legal advocates say will lead to them to focus their attention on high-profile cases that challenge a woman's right to access abortion. (
  • The Texas law banning any abortion after six weeks, which the Supreme Court allowed to take effect as litigation against it proceeds, is still pending in lower courts, but will likely reach the high court soon. (
  • For many LGBTQ legal advocates, the abortion cases are important because they say the outcome could directly impact legal precedent underpinning major Supreme Court decisions in favor, including the 2003 decision of Lawrence v. Texas, which struck down state bans on sodomy, and the 2015 decision of Obergefell v. Hodges in favor of same-sex marriage nationwide. (
  • Key among the arguments is the denial of abortion access is a form of sex discrimination, just as the Supreme Court determined last year in Bostock v. Clayton County that anti-LGBTQ discrimination is a form of sex discrimination, this illegal under the Civil Rights Act of 1964. (
  • WASHINGTON (Gray DC) - The U.S. Supreme Court ruled that there is no longer a federal constitutional right to an abortion. (
  • Campbell said it is not Network Lobby's mission to be "in the fight for Roe v. Wade ," the Supreme Court decision that mandated legal abortion nationwide. (
  • The legal actions filed this week are similar to a lawsuit being appealed to the Texas Supreme Court now, and the same organization, the Center for Reproductive Rights, is bringing the cases . (
  • In South Carolina the procedure is currently legal up to 22 weeks of pregnancy while the state Supreme Court debates the constitutionality of a newly passed six-week ban. (
  • When the Supreme Court overturned nearly five decades of federal protection for abortion, Maria Bartini was, in a word, furious. (
  • National polls have found that a majority of Americans disagree with the decision issued by the Supreme Court last month overturning the constitutional right to an abortion. (
  • In Massachusetts, Supreme Court decisions on abortion, guns, and the environment are taking more of an emotional toll than day-to-day worries about inflation and the economy, Russia's invasion of Ukraine, and the lingering presence of COVID-19 variants, the Suffolk/Globe poll found. (
  • Still, the Supreme Court ruling, which has already triggered total abortion bans in nine states and six-week restrictions in four , has boosted optimism among abortion opponents, even in Massachusetts, she said. (
  • As more states move to ban abortions following the U.S. Supreme Court overturning Roe v. Wade, critics fear the consequences this will have on women. (
  • Now that the U.S. Supreme Court has ruled to overturn the landmark Roe v. Wade decision that has for decades affirmed the right to abortion , only some states across the country will still protect access. (
  • Let me be clear: You cannot ban abortion, you can only ban safe abortions - and this disgraceful Supreme Court decision will undoubtedly put many people's lives at risk, in addition to stripping away a constitutional right that disproportionately affects women and has been settled law for most of our lifetimes," Brown added. (
  • The Supreme Court has made it clear - they want to strip women of their liberty and let Republican states replace it with mandated birth because the right to choose an abortion is not 'deeply rooted in history,'" said California Governor Gavin Newsom. (
  • A group of Brazilian lawyers, scientists and activists will petition the country's Supreme Court to allow abortions if a baby would be born with microcephaly, as detailed in the Newsy video above. (
  • In the two days since Politico published a draft U.S. Supreme Court opinion that seems to strike down Roe v. Wade , several legal experts have expressed concerns that the same reasoning that eliminates the right to abortion could also put other constitutional rights at risk. (
  • Other legal experts say it is unlikely that the Supreme Court will seek to terminate other constitutional rights. (
  • COLUMBUS, Ohio (AP) - Ohio Supreme Court justices vigorously questioned the state's lawyer Wednesday about a legal strategy that Ohio is attempting in hopes of reviving its law banning most abortions except in the earliest weeks of pregnancy. (
  • The Ohio abortion law had been blocked as part of a different legal challenge until the U.S. Supreme Court overturned its landmark Roe v. Wade decision last summer that had legalized abortion nationwide. (
  • Yost had also requested in his Supreme Court appeal that justices rule on the main premise of the case - that the Ohio Constitution protect the right to an abortion - but the court left that question to the lower courts. (
  • PLUTA: Well, she has a formal request into the Michigan Supreme Court asking it to step over lower courts, take over this case and declare abortion rights are protected under the Michigan constitution, regardless of the fate of a ballot question. (
  • The South Carolina Supreme Court in August reversed a temporary block on a "heartbeat bill" - which would ban abortion at the time when a fetus' heartbeat can be detected, usually as early as six weeks into a pregnancy. (
  • Georgia's six-week abortion ban was stopped last November by a state court, but days later, the state's Supreme Court allowed the ban to go into effect while an appeal plays out. (
  • An anti-abortion activist rallies outside the Supreme Court on Nov. 1, as arguments about Texas' abortion law begin. (
  • The U.S. Supreme Court on Friday refused for a second time to block a Texas law that has virtually brought abortions to a halt for anyone more than six weeks pregnant, a time so early that many women don't know they are pregnant. (
  • Roe vs. Wade is a well-publicized decision of the US Supreme Court in January 1973 in which the court ruled 7-2 that the US constitution protects the liberty of a pregnant woman to choose to have an abortion without excessive government restriction1. (
  • Clare Murphy, a spokesperson for the British Pregnancy Advisory Service (BPAS), which helped roughly 3,000 women travel from Ireland to Britain annually to obtain abortions, told The Guardian: "That number will definitely drop, without a doubt. (
  • Eighty-five percent (85%) said that a woman should be able to obtain a legal abortion if her life is seriously endangered due to pregnancy, and 77% said a woman should be able to obtain a legal abortion if she became pregnant because of rape. (
  • Today, abortion is available on demand up to 12 weeks, until 18 weeks if the pregnancy resulted from rape or incest and any time, with a doctor's consent, if the women's health is in danger or the foetus is severely deformed. (
  • protest after 30-year-old Iza died of septic shock in week 22 of her pregnancy after being denied an abortion despite a dying fetus, in Krakow, Poland on Nov. 7, 2021. (
  • They prohibit abortion even when pregnancy endangers a woman's life or health or in cases of rape. (
  • Abortion is now permitted up to the 12th week of pregnancy, when the health or life of the mother is at risk, or when the fetus has a congenital defect. (
  • Argentinian lawmakers in late 2020 passed a bill legalizing abortion until the 14th week of pregnancy and after that in certain circumstances. (
  • In South Africa and Mozambique, abortion is permitted but limited to the first 12 weeks of pregnancy. (
  • The Dutch abortion law does not apply because no treatment intended to end a pregnancy is provided in the Netherlands. (
  • The Arkansas law would only allow abortions for people who had health risks during their pregnancy. (
  • More recently, Justices Amy Coney Barrett and Brett Kavanaugh alarmed conservative court watchers with their lines of questioning during oral arguments in United States v. Texas, a case involving the Texas law known as S.B. 8, which prohibits most abortions after about six weeks of pregnancy. (
  • It is always legal, by federal law, to have an abortion through all nine months of pregnancy. (
  • Donald Trump, in the third presidential debate, stated that a woman can get an abortion in the U.S. through all nine months of pregnancy . (
  • In 2013 , the U.S. Court of Appeals for the 9th Circuit struck down the limit on abortions at five months of pregnancy passed by Arizona, and the justices refused to hear Arizona's appeal in January 2014. (
  • In 2013, in Indiana, a woman got drugs over the Internet and did a late-term abortion on herself, delivering a baby alive at six to seven months of pregnancy. (
  • The latest figures show that about 1.3% of 1 million annual abortions , or about 13,000 a year, were done in the 21st week of pregnancy of later. (
  • Second, they contend that abortion providers in some states have voluntarily adopted abortion limits late in pregnancy, which does not rebut the legality of the procedure under Roe v. Wade and Doe v. Bolton in other locations. (
  • Fourth, they say some states have abortion limits after about five months of pregnancy , which ignores the fact that many states have no such limits. (
  • The reality is that it is legal to have an abortion through all nine months of pregnancy, even though not all abortion clinics do such gruesome procedures. (
  • Abortion occurs when a pregnancy ends before the birth of a baby. (
  • Medication abortion, which is the most common, can be done at home any time within the first 10 weeks of pregnancy. (
  • Women who immediately regret taking the first abortion pill and who urgently need support to try and save the pregnancy are being denied access to care due to this ban. (
  • Italy legalised abortion on May 22, 1978 - exactly forty years ago today - allowing women to terminate in the first three months of pregnancy or after if the mother's life is at risk or there is an abnormal foetus. (
  • She needed financial support from family and friends, as well as from two abortion funds, in order to make the trip to end her pregnancy. (
  • Staffing issues, resources and potential harassment mean people who seek an abortion later in pregnancy have far fewer options, even when they're legally allowed to do so. (
  • The 19th examined how accessible abortion really is across the country, looking at how far into pregnancy clinics provide care and how the available methods of abortion can vary by state. (
  • In states that appear to allow abortion for most of pregnancy, access can still be quite limited. (
  • In Delaware, for instance, clinic-based abortion is only available up to 15 weeks of pregnancy, despite state laws allowing abortion up to 25 weeks. (
  • Alaska has no legal limit on abortion, but there is no clinic that provides the procedure after 17 weeks of pregnancy. (
  • Abortions later in pregnancy can require more medical expertise, taking more time and resources that are difficult to allocate, especially for abortion providers seeing a dramatic increase in out-of-state patients. (
  • People who do seek an abortion later in pregnancy have far fewer options for care. (
  • The surgery used for an abortion remains quick and fairly simple up until around 17 weeks of pregnancy. (
  • Abortion is legal in Massachusetts until 24 weeks of pregnancy. (
  • Other states like Illinois, New York and Maine have protective policies but abortion is banned at fetal viability, which is generally between 24 and 26 weeks of pregnancy. (
  • The Zika emergency is forcing pro-life South American countries to confront their pregnancy and abortion policies, sometimes in bizarre ways. (
  • The law, signed by Republican Gov. Mike DeWine in April 2019, prohibits most abortions once cardiac activity can be detected, which can be as early as six weeks into pregnancy, before many women know they're pregnant. (
  • This decision overrides a "heartbeat bill" banning abortion at about six weeks of pregnancy that has so far been blocked by an injunction while litigation continues. (
  • In July, Iowa banned most abortions at about six weeks of pregnancy , before most people know they are pregnant. (
  • It's a gentler way of saying having an abortion without invoking what actually has to happen to end your pregnancy. (
  • In 1969, CDC began abortion surveillance to document the number and characteristics of women obtaining legal induced abortions, to monitor unintended pregnancy, and to assist efforts to identify and reduce preventable causes of morbidity and mortality associated with abortions. (
  • 24 years) were more likely to obtain abortions later in pregnancy than were older women. (
  • The number and characteristics of women who obtain abortions in the United States should continue to be monitored so that trends in induced abortion can be assessed and efforts to prevent unintended pregnancy can be evaluated. (
  • Legal induced abortion was defined as a procedure, performed by a licensed physician or someone acting under the supervision of a licensed physician, that was intended to terminate a suspected or known intrauterine pregnancy and to produce a nonviable fetus at any gestational age ( 1,2 ). (
  • This study intends to draw sociodemographic profile and characterize the experience of women who performed the interruption of pregnancy in cases of sexual violence relating them to the quality of care in a reference maternity in legal abortion in the north of Santa Catarina. (
  • Denominators for calculating ectopic pregnancy rates were the total number of reported pregnancies, which includes live births, legal induced abortions, and ectopic pregnancies. (
  • Abortion is ending a pregnancy using medicine or surgery. (
  • Abortion with medicine (pills) is usually only done in the first 9 to 11 weeks or so of pregnancy. (
  • Later in pregnancy, abortions are more complicated and usually have to be done surgically. (
  • However, you should keep in mind that using birth control to prevent pregnancy is safer than having an abortion. (
  • What the change in the law therefore means is that women requiring pregnancy termination would have to travel to other States in the US or possibly outside the country to seek safe abortion care, resulting in untold hardships. (
  • Quebec: 50-metre fixed buffer zone around any clinic, hospital or drugstore that perform abortions. (
  • Punishment for doctors who perform abortions has been made more stringent and provision of abortion services has been labeled as an 'immoral medical practice' by the Ministry of Health. (
  • But the legislation contained a clause allowing doctors, nurses, anaesthetists and others to declare themselves conscientious objectors and refuse to perform abortions. (
  • Kevin Theriot says no one should be forced to perform abortions. (
  • BIRMINGHAM, Ala. (AP) - Emails and phone calls from same-sex couples, worried about the legal status of their marriages and keeping their children, flooded attorney Sydney Duncan's office within hours of the Supreme Court's decision eliminating the constitutional right to abortion. (
  • Rights protected by the U.S. Constitution, including the right to abortion, are not meant to become subjected to a democratic vote. (
  • At the top of the watch list for court, which now has 6-3 conservative majority as a result of appointments under former President Trump, is Dobbs v. Jackson Women's Health Organization, which will determine the constitutionality of the Mississippi law banning abortion after 15 weeks and is widely considered a direct challenge to long-standing precedent established by Roe v. Wade guaranteeing a right to abortion. (
  • Other key differences between the right to abortion and same-sex marriage, Carpenter said, are an arguable state interest in protecting fetal life and reliance interests in the case of marriage rights given thousands of same-sex couples have wed in the wake of the Obergefell decision. (
  • The PHM stands in solidarity with the struggles in countries around the world where the right to abortion is banned, restricted or access to safe and quality abortion care, inaccessible. (
  • Conservative Justice Samuel Alito wrote in the 98-page draft opinion that the U.S. Constitution doesn't reference abortion, and the right to abortion is also not implicitly protected by any of its provisions, including the due process clause of the 14th Amendment. (
  • The right to abortion does not fall within this category. (
  • Laurence H. Tribe, a constitutional law professor emeritus of at Harvard University, argued in an opinion article in the Boston Globe on Tuesday that not many people will forget where they were when they heard about the draft opinion overturning Roe , a landmark decision from 1973 that established a woman's constitutional right to abortion. (
  • The appeal plays out against the backdrop of a November election in which Ohio residents will vote on an amendment to enshrine a right to abortion in their state constitution, passage of which would likely impact both the suit and the law. (
  • Following the Supreme Court's June 2022 decision in Dobbs v. Jackson Women's Health Organization, which eliminated a constitutional right to abortion nationwide, nearly two dozen US states have banned or limited access to the procedure. (
  • On Nov. 7, Ohio voters decided to establish a constitutional right to abortion . (
  • Michigan is one of several states with long-standing abortion laws that weren't enforced while Roe guaranteed the constitutional right to abortion. (
  • Seventy-three percent of Americans - including a majority of Democrats, Independents, and Republicans - support access to abortion and do not want to see Roe v. Wade overturned. (
  • Amid the wave of excitement among conservative organizers over the prospect of reversing access to abortion for the first time in nearly 50 years - since Roe v. Wade affirmed a constitutional right to the procedure in 1973 - there are growing fears about how the conservative legal movement will fare if its own appointees on the bench stop short of dismantling the landmark abortion ruling. (
  • As Harvard law professor Laurence Tribe wrote in 1973: "In Roe v. Wade and Doe v. Bolton (the court) impos(ed) limits on permissible abortion legislation so severe that no abortion law in the United States remained valid. (
  • He emphasized that overturning Roe v. Wade would simply be a ban on safe abortions, and that women would continue to seek them in other ways - many of which are unsafe. (
  • Despite signs it is about to be reversed , strong majorities of Americans support preserving Roe vs. Wade, as well as the concept of legal abortion itself, according to a new poll released Wednesday. (
  • A majority of every single demographic in the poll - by gender, age, family status, race, college education, income, and red state/blue state split - said they supported preserving both abortion generally and Roe vs. Wade specifically. (
  • Abortion Rights in New York: What's the Law If Roe v. Wade Is Overturned? (
  • Abortion Rights in NJ: If Roe v. Wade Is Overturned, Will Procedure Become Illegal? (
  • In all three states, patients say that the abortion laws in effect since Roe v. Wade was overturned last year interfered with their care during dangerous pregnancies. (
  • The landscape of legal abortion has shifted sharply in the first year since Roe v. Wade was overturned, with some states banning the procedure almost entirely and others passing new, stricter limits. (
  • Safe haven states: Where is abortion still legal now that Roe v. Wade is overturned? (
  • As NPR reports , a 1960's rubella outbreak brought abortion to national attention in the U.S., and paved the way to Roe v. Wade. (
  • Flowers challenged the notion, pointing out that the most celebrated abortion lawsuit in U.S. history, Roe v. Wade, was brought in the name of an individual patient. (
  • Yet I still believe with every fiber of my being that Roe v. Wade should remain legal. (
  • This JAMA Forum discusses state -level abortion restrictions and protections, emergency care , abortion medication, and abortion counseling 1 year after the Dobbs decision that overturned Roe v Wade. (
  • WASHINGTON - Today, Congress moved to protect access to safe, legal abortion across the country, with the introduction of the Women's Health Protection Act (WHPA). (
  • They didn't want to touch it despite the fact that the UN had deemed our abortion law a violation of women's human rights . (
  • The pro-abortion Women's Legal Centre challenged the demand in the Cape High Court and claimed closing down the abortion businesses for not following the health statutes would compromise a woman's so-called legal right to an abortion. (
  • Furthermore the restrictive abortion law is a violation of women's right to access essential medicines as recognized by the United Nations Human Rights Commission. (
  • Hoffman founded Choices Women's Medical Center in 1971 as one of the country's first abortion centers. (
  • Members of local gender justice groups South Queens Women's March and Jahajee Sisters encouraged New Yorkers to continue to fight for safe abortion and support clinics that offer the service. (
  • Statement on access to safe, quality and legal abortion Peoples Health Movement (PHM) Following on the fourth People's Health Assembly (PHA) of the global People's Health Movement (PHM) concluded in Savar, Bangladesh on 19 November 2019, the PHM reiterates girls' and women's rights to health and life, to equality, and sexual and reproductive autonomy. (
  • Thus, along with legal provisions, their implementation towards safe, quality abortion services, and post abortion care is critical to girls and women's health and lives. (
  • Full implementation of the law towards comprehensive access to safe, quality abortion care, regardless of girls and women's ability to pay is necessary. (
  • Women's abortion rights in Italy are the worst they have been since the 1970s as a civil war rages on the issue, campaigners claim. (
  • Anti-abortion groups say they hope the number of conscientious objectors increases and that women's choice should end when another life is involved. (
  • We look forward to working with the Obama Administration to protect women's access to safe, legal abortion care. (
  • Today's ruling is another stunning assault on women's reproductive rights and on the doctors who provide abortion care," Toti said in the statement. (
  • In truth, restrictive abortion laws have never been known to reduce women's desire to seek induced abortion, anywhere. (
  • Postabortion care services provide lifesaving treatment for abortion-related complications and addresses women's needs by offering family planning (FP) counseling and voluntary access to contraception. (
  • The 2022 Dobbs decision and subsequent court cases have also generated enormous confusion across the country about abortion and the legal status of abortion access. (
  • As of 2022, more than half of all abortions in the US - about 54 percent - were medication abortions. (
  • As of Tuesday it is again legal for women in Ireland to seek to terminate their pregnancies following last year's referendum. (
  • Ireland has introduced its first abortion services today following a 2018 referendum decision to liberalise the country's ban on terminating pregnancies. (
  • The law changed in 2021 to make it illegal to terminate pregnancies with fetal defects, and it is now only possible to get an abortion to save the life of a woman, to preserve her health or in cases of rape or incest. (
  • In Africa, while unintended pregnancies have decreased by 15 percent over the last 30 years, abortions have increased by 13 percent, according to the Guttmacher Institute . (
  • While abortions, and the right to choose them, are closely associated with unwanted pregnancies, not all abortions happen for that reason. (
  • Last year, Uber and Lyft pledged support for drivers who could be sued as "accomplices" to women seeking termination of their pregnancies under the then-new Texas anti-abortion regulations. (
  • Also, having an abortion doesn't raise your chance of problems with future pregnancies. (
  • Abortion has been legal in Britain since 1968 for pregnancies up to 24 weeks but the volume and ferocity of anti-abortion protests have been increasing, campaigners said. (
  • Medical abortion care encompasses the management of various clinical conditions including spontaneous and induced abortion (both viable and non-viable pregnancies), incomplete abortion and intrauterine fetal demise, as well as post-abortion contraception. (
  • The U.S. is not alone in having a heated debate about abortion, and laws on the procedure differ in countries around the world. (
  • Regardless of the laws surrounding abortion, rates are similar in countries where abortion is restricted and those where the procedure is largely legal, according to the Guttmacher Institute , which supports abortion rights. (
  • It is the only European Union member state that prohibits the procedure, and women who have an abortion face up to three years in jail. (
  • Many African countries have restrictive laws on abortion, allowing the procedure only if a mother's life is threatened, like in Nigeria, or in the cases of rape, incest or fetal defects, as in Botswana and Zimbabwe. (
  • Justice Samuel Alito said the ruling involved only the medical procedure, writing: "Nothing in this opinion should be understood to cast doubt on precedents that do not concern abortion. (
  • Since another Missouri law requires a 72-hour waiting period between counseling about abortion and having the actual procedure, Huntington needed to call every patient on the day's schedule. (
  • Wales says neither the admitting privileges requirement nor the ambulatory surgical center requirements are necessary, since abortion is widely considered a safe procedure . (
  • First, they argue that most abortions are actually done in the first trimester, which does not rebut the legality of the procedure in later months. (
  • Guttmacher reports that "16% of all abortion providers perform the procedure at 24 weeks. (
  • US telehealth providers are subject to some of the same restrictions that brick-and-mortar providers are: Online pharmacies won't mail pills to addresses in states where the procedure is not legal. (
  • In-clinic abortions usually involve a procedure that's done in a medical facility. (
  • Besides, Horo had no idea that abortion is legal and that she should only undergo the procedure at a facility certified by the government. (
  • But in other cases, the limits on clinical availability will mean they must travel out of state to find an abortion, even though the procedure remains technically legal where they live. (
  • Abortion after 28 weeks is also far more expensive - the procedure can be thousands of dollars, even before the cost of travel. (
  • As these legal challenges make their way through the courts, patients seeking access to the procedure must navigate a complicated patchwork of legislation, often requiring them to travel hundreds of miles . (
  • Conversely, expanding access to safe, legal abortion-a common medical procedure that carries very little risk when performed by a trained provider in an appropriate environment-is associated with improved maternal health outcomes. (
  • In November 2015, Victoria became the second state to pass legislation to limit protests outside abortion clinics and 150 metre buffer zones are now enforced. (
  • But like most public hospitals and health clinics in rural India, this one did not have a doctor trained to perform an abortion. (
  • According to the AP, abortion clinics in Alabama, Kentucky, Missouri, Wisconsin, and West Virginia stopped performing abortions after Friday's ruling because of each state's laws. (
  • In some cases, pregnant patients will be able to access abortion in hospitals, even if clinics nearby do not offer them. (
  • Only two states, Colorado and Maryland, plus Washington, D.C., have clinics that offer abortions at this point. (
  • She said wealthy women can arrange abortions in private clinics, or hire an attorney to make a case for abortion to a local legal tribunal, whereas poor women can do neither. (
  • Flowers was representing Republican Attorney General Dave Yost, whose appeal also asserts Preterm Cleveland and the other Ohio clinics that filed the lawsuit lack the necessary legal standing to sue. (
  • But when he suggested that abortion clinics also could not prove the necessary "close relationship" to the category of people covered under the suit, and that their business interests in conducting abortions represent a conflict of interest, Justice Jennifer Brunner pushed back. (
  • The council is actively exploring all possible options to prevent protesters from intimidating and harassing women outside abortion clinics," said a spokesman for Manchester City Council in the north of England who declined to be named. (
  • Led by reproductive health champions Sen. Richard Blumenthal (D-CT) and 43 co-sponsors in the Senate, and Rep. Judy Chu (CA-27) and 174 co-sponsors in the House of Representatives, this critical piece of legislation would block medically unnecessary abortion restrictions being pushed forward by state politicians. (
  • Nearly half of those restrictions are abortion bans, including those in Kentucky, Ohio, and Georgia. (
  • In much of Europe, Canada and Australia, laws around abortion are somewhat similar to the U.S. in that there are few restrictions other than gestational limits. (
  • Today's brief reveals the extreme and regressive strategy, not just of this law, but of the avalanche of abortion bans and restrictions that are being passed across the country. (
  • Providing abortion care in Missouri really is complex and it involves so many different restrictions," Wales says. (
  • That uncertainty isn't surprising, since abortion laws vary widely and are still changing as bans and other restrictions work their way through state and federal courts. (
  • With Friday's ruling states will now decide abortion bans and restrictions. (
  • Biden, a Catholic, has distanced himself from past support for some restrictions on abortion. (
  • Abortion opponents said that while they are working to build support for restrictions, the poll results were predictable in Massachusetts. (
  • Restrictions to legal, safe abortions are known to have serious repercussions for maternal and infant health. (
  • Plaintiffs in the lawsuit challenging Arkansas's unconstitutional 12-week abortion ban were awarded $27,060 in attorney fees and $1,375 in costs for work to date on the state's unsuccessful appeal of the district court decision striking down the law. (
  • A New York state law passed this week would allow the state's abortion providers to prescribe and mail the pills to people in states with abortion bans. (
  • At issue in the case is S.B. 8, a law enacted by the Texas legislature to make constitutional challenges to the state's newest anti-abortion law impossible. (
  • On Tuesday, May 21, hundreds of thousands of activists marched at more than 500 events all across the nation to protest abortion bans. (
  • However Ms Murphy warned that the requirement of a three-day "cooling off" period for women requesting abortions was there to placate pro-life activists and not based on medical evidence. (
  • The government decriminalised abortion in 2002 after years of a sustained campaign by activists and researchers. (
  • This year, health care providers and abortion activists have continued to file legal challenges to stop bans in several states from being enforced. (
  • In Ealing, pro-choice Sister Supporter activists form a picket line to stop anti-abortion Good Counsel Network campaigners approaching women on their way into the clinic, brandishing graphic images of aborted fetuses. (
  • The implications of restrictive abortion law in 26 American States would not be difficult to contemplate. (
  • CREHPA's study found that of 1,560 cases treated at the post-abortion care unit at Maternity Hospital from April 2004 to April 2005, 138 were for complications caused by induced abortion. (
  • The goal of the assessment was to evaluate the continuity of essential SRHR services with focus on safe abortion, post-abortion care and Family Planning (FP). (
  • Clinical guidance and training has been provided and circulated to healthcare teams nationwide to assist practitioners in the clinical decision making involved in providing abortion care. (
  • Current law forbids military hospitals from providing abortion care except in cases of rape, incest, or life endangerment. (
  • Pretoria, South Africa ( - The British abortion business Marie Stopes International, which also operates abortion centers in South Africa, has reached a settlement with a provincial health department regarding licensing requirements. (
  • The settlement may result in relaxing the health and safety standards for the abortion centers. (
  • Now, SABC News reports the Western Cape Department of Health and the Marie Stopes abortion centers have reached a legal settlement in the lawsuit. (
  • The pro-abortion attorneys told the news service that health officials have agreed to relax the standards for the abortion centers. (
  • In 2007, Noluthando Ntlokwana, a lawyer for the abortion centers, told SABC News that they would continue to do unlicensed abortions until the legal matter was resolved. (
  • Now, as abortion-banning state laws take effect , university health centers across the U.S. are trying to figure out their rights and responsibilities when counseling students. (
  • This is because abortion is not restricted based on gestational age. (
  • New Mexico, Vermont and New Jersey also do not restrict abortion based on gestational age. (
  • Frequency of complications depends on gestational age (GA) at the time of miscarriage or abortion and method of abortion (see the Gestational Age from Estimated Date of Delivery calculator). (
  • Mortality and morbidity depend on gestational age at the time of miscarriage or abortion. (
  • Ireland voted in 2018 to remove an abortion ban from its constitution. (
  • Her death rekindled the movement in Ireland and in 2018, Ireland changed its abortion law, becoming part of the group of about 28 countries that have changed their abortion law since 2000, most of them expanding legal grounds to access abortions more widely. (
  • a Planned Parenthood site that recently had to halt its abortion services in the midst of a highly publicized legal fight in the state. (
  • Together, these rules have forced all but one Planned Parenthood health center in the state - the one in St. Louis - to stop offering both medical and surgical abortions, according to Emily Miller, a spokesperson for the organization. (
  • And while abortion advocates claim that generally these are done when an infant has some kind of health issue, a former Planned Parenthood director reports that no such requirement existed. (
  • Planned Parenthood of Wisconsin announced on Sept. 18 that it would resume abortion care services , after a judge ruled that a law from 1849 widely interpreted as an abortion ban did not apply to abortion procedures. (
  • She says some students who need reproductive health care, including an abortion, wind up driving nearly two hours to reach a Planned Parenthood facility in one of the closest large cities: Flagstaff or Phoenix. (
  • Findings show most residents support legal abortion when the mother's life is in serious danger and in cases of rape, but opinion divides on other cases. (
  • Polling stations are open across Ireland where voters will decide whether or not to abolish the eighth amendment which makes abortions illegal in the country, except for circumstances where the mother's life is at risk. (
  • Ireland and Malta are currently the only two European Union countries that outright restrict access to abortion on request except for in the case of a mother's life being at risk. (
  • Just 8% of respondents said abortion should always be illegal, even in cases of rape, incest or where the mother's life was in danger. (
  • Abortion is illegal in Brazil except when the mother's life is in danger or in cases of rape. (
  • As more states outlaw abortion, some define human life as starting at fertilization. (
  • In states that outlaw abortion, some patients and health care workers worry that in vitro fertilization could be in legal jeopardy too. (
  • Several states have already passed trigger laws that would outlaw abortion if Roe were overturned," Adams continued. (
  • During a 2016 interview with Democracy Now, Campbell said more directly that "From my perspective, I don't think it's a good policy to outlaw abortion. (
  • If you live in Northern Ireland you know someone who has been forced to travel or illegally buy abortion pills online. (
  • In November, there is a mother who is being brought to court for having given her then 15-year-old daughter abortion pills. (
  • The robot is operated from the Netherlands and is transporting the abortion pills to the woman. (
  • With the robot the abortion pills can be supplied to women in Northern Ireland without breaking the law because the robot is operated from the Netherlands. (
  • Abortion pills can also be shipped through the mail through a range of telehealth services. (
  • The CLC said there had been a 'spike' in demand for APR after the government changed abortion rules to allow the two pills needed for an abortion to be sent to women in the post. (
  • Also in July, a Wisconsin judge blocked a first-of-its-kind ban on abortion pills a week before it was intended to take effect in the state. (
  • Moreover, evidence points to the abysmal access to information and knowledge about the legal provisions amongst girls and women, as well as among health care providers, often compromising access to abortion care (Nadimpally et al 2017). (
  • This Administration must address the need for health care reform that guarantees equal access to comprehensive, high quality health care, including access to abortion care for women. (
  • Improve access to abortion care for women in the military. (
  • Since then, states have moved to restrict abortion rights. (
  • Although the act of abortion is illegal in Northern Ireland except for in very limited circumstances, the medication itself is not. (
  • New battlegrounds have emerged over medication abortion, the most common form of abortion in the United States. (
  • The drugs used to perform medication abortions also treat uterine fibroids and stomach bleeding, for example, and there's a lot of overlap between in-clinic abortion procedures and the treatment of uterine bleeding and certain uterine cancers. (
  • There are two types of abortion: medication abortion and in-clinic abortion (which is also called " surgical " abortion, although it doesn't typically involve cutting tissue or getting stitches). (
  • Plan C and Mayday Health provide additional information on how people in the US access medication abortion online. (
  • That is because medication abortions aren't approved for patients past that point - meaning any clinic seeing patients must also have staff equipped to provide surgical abortions. (
  • The abortion complication rate for all healthcare sources came to 2.1% (n = 1156) for medication abortion, 1.3% (n = 438) for first-trimester aspiration abortion, and 1.5% (n = 130) for second-trimester or later abortions. (
  • At least three of the country's provinces and territories have passed laws intended to protect medical facilities that provide induced abortion: British Columbia: 10-metre fixed buffer zone around a doctor's office, 50 metre fixed buffer zone around a hospital or clinic, and 160-metre fixed buffer zone around an abortion provider or clinic worker's home. (
  • As things stand, because the 1967 Abortion Act does not extend to Northern Ireland, our abortion laws are harsher than Alabama's . (
  • Abortion laws worldwide: In what countries is abortion legal? (
  • Here are some key facts on abortion laws in other countries, based on information from the Center for Reproductive Rights, the Guttmacher Institute, the World Health Organization and Reuters. (
  • When people face barriers to obtaining safe abortions, they often resort to unsafe procedures, according to the WHO, and unsafe abortions are more common in countries with restrictive laws. (
  • Abortion is a crime in El Salvador, which has some of the world's most restrictive laws. (
  • That means some areas of the U.S. could wind up with more restrictive laws on abortion than other developed countries, including neighboring Canada and Mexico. (
  • Health department representative Faiza Steyn said at the time it wasn't trying to prevent MSI from doing abortions but wanted it to follow the laws and requirements. (
  • The UK's Abortion Act 1967 does not extend to Northern Ireland and the north's abortion laws are still governed by sections 58 and 59 of the Offences Against the Person Act 1861 as well as sections 25 of the Criminal Justice Act (Northern Ireland) 1945. (
  • The Belfast High Court ruled that laws governing abortion in Northern Ireland are in breach of Article 8 of the European Convention on Human Rights, on the right to privacy. (
  • And it will be up to state legislatures to determine how abortion laws affect fertility treatments. (
  • If an early embryo is deemed a person for purposes of legal rights and protections, any action short of transfer to the uterus could be seen as violating its right to life under these new laws," Daar says. (
  • The battle over abortion rights in Missouri has drawn national attention in recent weeks, after a federal court ruled that two state laws limiting abortion access should stand. (
  • Similar laws - which abortion-rights advocates call "targeted regulation of abortion providers," or TRAP laws - are in place in 24 states . (
  • If Roe is overturned, Metcalf-Wilson says, they are likely to proliferate, since Roe is the legal precedent that many judges turn to when invalidating the TRAP laws. (
  • During 2010-2017, the proportion of unsafe abortions was significantly higher in developing countries at 49·5% compared to 12·5% in developed countries, with the higher proportion of unsafe abortions coinciding with countries having highly restrictive abortion laws than in those with less restrictive laws (Ganatra, B et al 2017). (
  • States will get to decide their own laws surrounding abortion. (
  • Schiff Berman questions whether the 14th Amendment's right to travel between states will prevent laws that criminalize traveling for an abortion. (
  • This country's laws governing abortion and those governing the ownership and use of guns have often been posed as ideological mirror images. (
  • Right-wingers are thought to want more restrictive abortion laws, or its legal prohibition, and fewer legal limits on weaponry. (
  • It strikes me that the laws that make abortion easily available and the laws I wish we had on the books to ratchet back gun use might be productively presented simply as ways to contain human frailty and mitigate suffering. (
  • To work around the Second Amendment dispute, could we consider that more restrictive gun laws and the diligent enforcement of those already in place as a means of protecting ourselves and others from our own wrong-headed actions, just like abortion accessibility? (
  • Blackmon and other plaintiffs told dramatic stories, describing how abortion laws interfered with their care. (
  • But in many states without near-total bans, abortion is far less available than the laws may suggest. (
  • Lyft employees will also have their travel costs covered by the firm should they be subject to the state laws that require them to travel long distances for an in-network abortion provider. (
  • Latin America has extremely restrictive abortion laws and and 95% of abortions performed there are unsafe. (
  • If the Brazilian petition succeeds, it wouldn't be the first time a disease as sparked a change in abortion laws. (
  • While some states have laws that specifically make aiding and abetting an abortion illegal, it may still be illegal to do so in other states even if they don't have that language in their abortion statute," says Kimberley Harris, who teaches constitutional law and reproductive rights at Texas Tech University School of Law. (
  • Such a practice has deprived clients of their rights to safe and legal abortion up to 12 weeks of gestation from any government approved facility of her choice," says the 'National Facility-based Abortion Baseline Study' by the Centre for Research on Environment Health and Population Activities (CREHPA). (
  • From 1992 through 1997, increases have occurred in the percentage of abortions performed at the very early weeks of gestation. (
  • He has said he will back legal abortion and funding for abortion providers, as well as regulations requiring Catholic employers like the Little Sisters of the Poor to pay for contraception in employee health plans. (
  • Recent trends in abortion and contraception in 12 countries / Charles F. Westoff. (
  • Women and girls with disabilities can be subjected to involuntary contraception, abortion, and sterilization. (
  • Nearly one in four women will have an abortion in this country. (
  • She added that women seeking abortions after 12 weeks faced uncertainty, saying: "We expect there will be a significant cohort of women who won't be catered for. (
  • Fifty-one percent (51%) oppose employers or insurance companies paying for women in Louisiana to travel out of state for an abortion. (
  • Fifty-seven percent (57%) oppose making it illegal for women in Louisiana to cross state lines to obtain an abortion, and 59% oppose making it illegal to provide assistance for a woman to get an abortion, such as providing money or transportation. (
  • KATHMANDU, Sep 9 2006 (IPS) - As the 21st century began, more women were dying during childbirth in Nepal than in almost any other country and it was estimated that half of maternal deaths in hospitals were caused by unsafe abortions. (
  • Today, 59,000 Nepali women have had safe abortions, performed by 260 trained doctors at 133 approved centres, and if plans hold, trained nurses will soon be providing the service. (
  • Well over 50,000 women have received safe abortion services through this suction (MVA or manual vacuum aspiration) method," says Cherry Bird, director of the Support to the Safe Motherhood Programme. (
  • For example, 13 percent of women who sought abortions at 22 facilities from January to March this year were rejected because they were more than 12 weeks pregnant, according to a study released at Thursday's meeting. (
  • A big challenge is educating women (and men) of their rights to safe abortion and what is safe abortion (when they had to do it clandestinely for years)," says Wendy Darby of Ipas, a US-based NGO that has given considerable financial and technical support to Nepal's programme. (
  • Despite those rights, obstacles to abortion mean women are still resorting to unsafe methods. (
  • Such infrequent service is one way in which rural women are being deprived of their abortion rights, according to Lokhari Bashyal of the Forum for Women Law and Development (FWLD). (
  • We have been telling our abortion stories for too long already - why should women have to go door to door, retelling those stories in order to get rights that women elsewhere in the UK can take for granted? (
  • They mean that women who have abortions can, in theory, face life in prison . (
  • More than 180 women who experienced obstetric emergencies were prosecuted for abortion or aggravated homicide in the last 20 years. (
  • Women accused of having had abortions have been convicted of homicide , sometimes with prison terms of up to 40 years, according to Human Rights Watch. (
  • Women in Malta are denied access to abortion entirely, even if their lives are at risk. (
  • Like the other Women on Waves campaigns, the abortion robot is using the different legal realities in the Netherlands and NI. (
  • She said that over the years, she's been invaded, harassed and received death threats for performing abortions - and that the one thing that kept her going was the women and patients she was able to assist. (
  • The Indian public health system has failed to provide any abortion services to poor women in rural areas, he says. (
  • And women prefer to go to a daai knowing she will keep the abortion confidential. (
  • We have seen many women immediately regret taking the first abortion pill,' she said. (
  • Abortion providers are putting women on a conveyer belt which means once they start the abortion process, they have to go through with it and are pressured to do so or left with no alternatives. (
  • Overall, only 37% of the world's 1.64 billion women of reproductive age live in countries where abortion is permitted without restriction. (
  • An estimated 30 women die from every 100 000 unsafe abortions. (
  • The World Health Organisation (WHO) estimates that 7 million women are hospitalised each year in developing countries as a result of unsafe abortions, and between 4% and 13% of maternal deaths in the world stem from abortions performed under precarious conditions, concentrated in poor countries. (
  • Further, the imposition of the Global Gag Rule affects access sexual and reproductive rights globally and also threatens access to safe abortion services, pushing women to seek unsafe abortions that places their health and lives at great risk (The Guardian 2017). (
  • 5] This, despite the recognition of the right to safe abortion by the international Human Rights Instruments such as the International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights (ICESCR), the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) Committee the Committee on the Rights of the Child (CRC). (
  • Abortion is legal in Italy - so why are women being refused? (
  • Campaigners say abortion is harder than ever for women in Italy, exactly 40 years since it was legalised. (
  • They say increasing numbers of gynaecologists are refusing to carry out terminations, forcing women into unsafe, illegal abortions. (
  • It comes amid a publicity drive from anti-abortion organisations that are attempting to demonise women who terminate, according to Silvana Agatone, president of LAIGA, an association of gynaecologists that supports abortion rights. (
  • Agatone said the increasing number of conscientious objectors and the prominence of anti-abortion groups means abortion rights for women are at the worst level since terminations were legalised 40 years ago. (
  • Schiff Berman said, "There will be increasing tensions as women try to go from one state to another to have an abortion. (
  • Episodes of the television series "Call the Midwife" about pregnant women in London's poor East End in the 1950s and 1960s remind us what forbidden abortion used to mean. (
  • Nearly 70,000 women in developing countries die each year from unsafe abortions. (
  • Address barriers low-income women face when obtaining abortion care. (
  • Bans on public funding for abortion services have severely restricted access to safe abortion care for women, disproportionately affecting low-income and minority women. (
  • Ensure comprehensive health care coverage for women, which includes abortion care. (
  • As we enter this new era of American politics, we look forward to working with the Obama Administration, Congress, and the Department of Justice to ensure that abortion is safe, legal, and accessible to promote health and justice for women. (
  • 1 in 3 women will have an abortion by age 45. (
  • Green said the company is currently working on a variety of measures for both women in need and ride-share drivers, including arranging a "safe state program" to cover the costs of rides for pregnant women seeking out-of-state abortion care. (
  • Women with rubella had a 50% chance of giving birth to babies with congenital rubella syndrome , a fact that increased public sympathy for illicit abortions. (
  • The abortion ratio was 306 legal induced abortions per 1,000 live births, and since 1995, the abortion rate has remained at 20 per 1,000 women aged 15--44 years. (
  • The availability of information about characteristics of women who obtained an abortion in 1997 varied by state and by the number of states reporting each characteristic. (
  • characteristics of women obtaining abortions in 1997 are reported by state of occurrence. (
  • however, not all of these areas collected information regarding some or all of the characteristics of women who obtained abortions. (
  • It's possible to realize how much care interferes with the emotional state of women and that the choice of legal abortion does not take place without ambiguity and suffering. (
  • More women have complications from delivering a baby than from having an abortion. (
  • According to the World Health Organization, about 68,000 women die each year due to complications from unsafe abortions, with sepsis as the main cause of death. (
  • [ 7 ] In the United States in 2010 (the most recent year for which data were available), 10 women reportedly died from complications of legal induced abortion. (
  • Women, children and adolescents with autism, or intellectual or psychosocial disabilities, can be denied their rights to legal capacity, freedom from torture, violence exploitation and abuse. (
  • It would re-enact the case of another developed country like Romania that witnessed severe hardships and increased mortality of women after abortion became legally restricted in 1967 under President Nicolae Ceausescu4. (
  • Data for live births were obtained from NCHS natality statistics and data for legal induced abortions from CDC's Division of Reproductive Health. (
  • Is ideology and the vested interests of abortion providers in the UK getting in the way of the woman's right to choose? (
  • How has Dobbs affected abortion access? (
  • If you read the win for abortion providers here as some kind of positive sign in the Dobbs case, I think you're deluding yourself," she warns. (
  • One Year After Dobbs-Vast Changes to the Abortion Legal Landscape. (
  • But "it's going to take 20 years to end unsafe abortions", she added in an interview Thursday after a meeting to review the work of the growing number of facilities providing comprehensive abortion care (CAC). (
  • Sure I can understand that in the districts, where they are alone and have to treat everything from broken legs to internal injuries, but not in the cities," added the former manager of the Ministry of Health's Technical Committee for the Implementation of Comprehensive Abortion Care (TCIC). (
  • A Forest Hills resident holds up a sign with a photo of his grandmother, who died as a result of an unsafe abortion. (
  • The reason: an unsafe abortion performed by a village midwife. (
  • Federal funding is only available for abortions needed in cases of life endangerment. (
  • And that means continued legal battles and on-the-ground activism for advocates on both sides of the abortion debate. (
  • Since then, numerous abortion advocates denied that reality with rebuttals that ignore the law. (
  • Yet abortion advocates obfuscate the legal reality of abortion's late-term availability with five unresponsive rebuttals. (
  • Local elected officials, gender justice groups, and other community advocates followed the lead of other protesters across the country when they gathered at the steps of Queens Borough Hall to fight for abortion rights. (
  • It is the latest in a back-and-forth legal argument that abortion rights advocates and opponents say is not over yet. (
  • PLUTA: Well, as you'd expect, abortion rights advocates are very pleased. (
  • In a surgical abortion, the fetus is removed from your uterus through your vagina. (
  • A surgical abortion is often called a dilation and evacuation (D & E) or a dilation and curettage (D & C) with suction. (
  • Also, for a surgical abortion, you may need treatment for a day or two to open up your cervix. (
  • What happens during a surgical abortion? (
  • A surgical abortion is usually done in an office or clinic. (
  • Fifty-two percent (52%) of respondents said abortion should be legal in all or most cases, and 44% said it should be illegal in all or most cases. (
  • Fifty-two percent (52%) of respondents said a woman should not be able to obtain a legal abortion if the reason she is seeking one is that she or her family has a very low income and cannot afford any more children. (
  • But respondents were split on the question of what comes next if the high court does strike down Roe -- 44% said Congress should legalize abortion nationwide, while 43% said the choice should be left to the states. (
  • In a new Suffolk University/Boston Globe poll, 78 percent of respondents said abortion should be legal in all or most cases, a decisive majority that substantially exceeds the national trend. (
  • Still, only 34 percent of respondents said the abortion ruling makes them more likely to vote in November, compared to 63 percent who said it would not. (
  • Forty-eight percent of respondents to the Suffolk/Globe poll said abortion should be legal in all cases. (
  • In Massachusetts, fewer than 5 percent of respondents said abortion should be illegal in allcases, and 11 percent said it should be illegal in most cases. (
  • This means supporting abortion funds from our local independent clincics that will bear the brunt of this work. (
  • She was appointed by Governor Whitmer, and she says the ruling will lay to rest some immediate concerns about the status of abortion rights under a law that's not been invoked in Michigan in roughly 50 years. (
  • Abortion, doctors, and the law : some aspects of the legal regulation of abortion in England from 1803 to 1982 / John Keown. (
  • States where abortion is most limited report higher rates of maternal and infant mortality , as well as greater economic insecurity . (
  • The impact of legal abortion: redefining the maternal mortality rate. (
  • Septic abortion remains a primary cause of maternal mortality in the developing world, mostly as a result of illegal abortions. (
  • it only makes abortion less safe and more likely to lead to preventable complications, including maternal death. (