Intentional removal of a fetus from the uterus by any of a number of techniques. (POPLINE, 1978)
Expulsion of the product of FERTILIZATION before completing the term of GESTATION and without deliberate interference.
Premature expulsion of the FETUS in animals.
Illegal termination of pregnancy.
Abortion induced to save the life or health of a pregnant woman. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Individuals requesting induced abortions.
The retention in the UTERUS of a dead FETUS two months or more after its DEATH.
Any type of abortion, induced or spontaneous, that is associated with infection of the UTERUS and its appendages. It is characterized by FEVER, uterine tenderness, and foul discharge.
Three or more consecutive spontaneous abortions.
UTERINE BLEEDING from a GESTATION of less than 20 weeks without any CERVICAL DILATATION. It is characterized by vaginal bleeding, lower back discomfort, or midline pelvic cramping and a risk factor for MISCARRIAGE.
Chemical substances that interrupt pregnancy after implantation.
Premature loss of PREGNANCY in which not all the products of CONCEPTION have been expelled.
A mammalian fetus expelled by INDUCED ABORTION or SPONTANEOUS ABORTION.
Steroidal compounds with abortifacient activity.
Abortion performed because of possible fetal defects.
A synthetic analog of natural prostaglandin E1. It produces a dose-related inhibition of gastric acid and pepsin secretion, and enhances mucosal resistance to injury. It is an effective anti-ulcer agent and also has oxytocic properties.
Non-steroidal chemical compounds with abortifacient activity.
Unintended accidental pregnancy, including pregnancy resulting from failed contraceptive measures.
Pregnancy, usually accidental, that is not desired by the parent or parents.
Aspiration of the contents of the uterus with a vacuum curette.
The beginning third of a human PREGNANCY, from the first day of the last normal menstrual period (MENSTRUATION) through the completion of 14 weeks (98 days) of gestation.
Human females who are pregnant, as cultural, psychological, or sociological entities.
Prevention of CONCEPTION by blocking fertility temporarily, or permanently (STERILIZATION, REPRODUCTIVE). Common means of reversible contraception include NATURAL FAMILY PLANNING METHODS; CONTRACEPTIVE AGENTS; or CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES.
Procedures to block or remove all or part of the genital tract for the purpose of rendering individuals sterile, incapable of reproduction. Surgical sterilization procedures are the most commonly used. There are also sterilization procedures involving chemical or physical means.
Laws and regulations, pertaining to the field of medicine, proposed for enactment or enacted by a legislative body.
A person who has not attained the age at which full civil rights are accorded.
Death of the developing young in utero. BIRTH of a dead FETUS is STILLBIRTH.
The rights of women to equal status pertaining to social, economic, and educational opportunities afforded by society.
Health care programs or services designed to assist individuals in the planning of family size. Various methods of CONTRACEPTION can be used to control the number and timing of childbirths.
The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.
The state or condition of being a human individual accorded moral and/or legal rights. Criteria to be used to determine this status are subject to debate, and range from the requirement of simply being a human organism to such requirements as that the individual be self-aware and capable of rational thought and moral agency.
A progestational and glucocorticoid hormone antagonist. Its inhibition of progesterone induces bleeding during the luteal phase and in early pregnancy by releasing endogenous prostaglandins from the endometrium or decidua. As a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist, the drug has been used to treat hypercortisolism in patients with nonpituitary CUSHING SYNDROME.
Behavior patterns of those practicing CONTRACEPTION.
Reproductive rights rest on the recognition of the basic right of all couples and individuals to decide freely and responsibly the number, spacing and timing of their children and to have the information and means to do so, and the right to attain the highest standard of sexual and reproductive health. They also include the right of all to make decisions concerning reproduction free of discrimination, coercion and violence.
The number of births in a given population per year or other unit of time.
Dilatation of the cervix uteri followed by a scraping of the endometrium with a curette.
Results of conception and ensuing pregnancy, including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; SPONTANEOUS ABORTION; INDUCED ABORTION. The outcome may follow natural or artificial insemination or any of the various ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, such as EMBRYO TRANSFER or FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.
The point at which religious ensoulment or PERSONHOOD is considered to begin.
The middle third of a human PREGNANCY, from the beginning of the 15th through the 28th completed week (99 to 196 days) of gestation.
A genus of protozoan parasites of the subclass COCCIDIA. Its species are parasitic in dogs, cattle, goats, and sheep, among others. N. caninum, a species that mainly infects dogs, is intracellular in neural and other cells of the body, multiplies by endodyogeny, has no parasitophorous vacuole, and has numerous rhoptries. It is known to cause lesions in many tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord as well as abortion in the expectant mother.
The three approximately equal periods of a normal human PREGNANCY. Each trimester is about three months or 13 to 14 weeks in duration depending on the designation of the first day of gestation.
Reporting to parents or guardians about care to be provided to a minor (MINORS).
Pregnancy in human adolescent females under the age of 19.
Devices that diminish the likelihood of or prevent conception. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Bleeding from blood vessels in the UTERUS, sometimes manifested as vaginal bleeding.
The state that distinguishes organisms from inorganic matter, manifested by growth, metabolism, reproduction, and adaptation. It includes the course of existence, the sum of experiences, the mode of existing, or the fact of being. Over the centuries inquiries into the nature of life have crossed the boundaries from philosophy to biology, forensic medicine, anthropology, etc., in creative as well as scientific literature. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed; Dr. James H. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)
Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.
Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.
The Christian faith, practice, or system of the Catholic Church, specifically the Roman Catholic, the Christian church that is characterized by a hierarchic structure of bishops and priests in which doctrinal and disciplinary authority are dependent upon apostolic succession, with the pope as head of the episcopal college. (From Webster, 3d ed; American Heritage Dictionary, 2d college ed)
The number of offspring a female has borne. It is contrasted with GRAVIDITY, which refers to the number of pregnancies, regardless of outcome.
The state of birth outside of wedlock. It may refer to the offspring or the parents.
The kind of action or activity proper to the judiciary, particularly its responsibility for decision making.
Protozoan infection found in animals and man. It is caused by several different genera of COCCIDIA.
A potentially life-threatening condition in which EMBRYO IMPLANTATION occurs outside the cavity of the UTERUS. Most ectopic pregnancies (>96%) occur in the FALLOPIAN TUBES, known as TUBAL PREGNANCY. They can be in other locations, such as UTERINE CERVIX; OVARY; and abdominal cavity (PREGNANCY, ABDOMINAL).
Diseases of domestic and mountain sheep of the genus Ovis.
The age of the mother in PREGNANCY.
Pathological processes or abnormal functions of the PLACENTA.
A medical-surgical specialty concerned with the physiology and disorders primarily of the female genital tract, as well as female endocrinology and reproductive physiology.
The co-occurrence of pregnancy and an INFECTION. The infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.
A demographic parameter indicating a person's status with respect to marriage, divorce, widowhood, singleness, etc.
The science or philosophy of law. Also, the application of the principles of law and justice to health and medicine.
Standards of conduct that distinguish right from wrong.
Organized services to provide health care to women. It excludes maternal care services for which MATERNAL HEALTH SERVICES is available.
A genus of the family CHLAMYDIACEAE comprising gram-negative non CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS-like species infecting vertebrates. Chlamydophila do not produce detectable quantities of glycogen. The type species is CHLAMYDOPHILA PSITTACI.
The enactment of laws and ordinances and their regulation by official organs of a nation, state, or other legislative organization. It refers also to health-related laws and regulations in general or for which there is no specific heading.
Malformations of organs or body parts during development in utero.
Maternal deaths resulting from complications of pregnancy and childbirth in a given population.
The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Decisions made by the United States Supreme Court.
Diseases of domestic and wild horses of the species Equus caballus.
A medical-surgical specialty concerned with management and care of women during pregnancy, parturition, and the puerperium.
A highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products. It includes a fetal portion (CHORIONIC VILLI) derived from TROPHOBLASTS and a maternal portion (DECIDUA) derived from the uterine ENDOMETRIUM. The placenta produces an array of steroid, protein and peptide hormones (PLACENTAL HORMONES).
Administration of a soluble dosage form by placement under the tongue.
The rights of the individual to cultural, social, economic, and educational opportunities as provided by society, e.g., right to work, right to education, and right to social security.
Contraceptive devices placed high in the uterine fundus.
Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.
Diseases of the domestic or wild goat of the genus Capra.
Exercise of governmental authority to control conduct.
The fundamental dispositions and traits of humans. (Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)
Means of postcoital intervention to avoid pregnancy, such as the administration of POSTCOITAL CONTRACEPTIVES to prevent FERTILIZATION of an egg or implantation of a fertilized egg (OVUM IMPLANTATION).
The cognitive and affective processes which constitute an internalized moral governor over an individual's moral conduct.
The intrinsic moral worth ascribed to a living being. (Bioethics Thesaurus)
Informed consent given by a parent on behalf of a minor or otherwise incompetent child.
A hole or break through the wall of the UTERUS, usually made by the placement of an instrument or INTRAUTERINE DEVICES.
Duties that are based in ETHICS, rather than in law.
The insertion of drugs into the vagina to treat local infections, neoplasms, or to induce labor. The dosage forms may include medicated pessaries, irrigation fluids, and suppositories.
The physical condition of human reproductive systems.
The disintegration and assimilation of the dead FETUS in the UTERUS at any stage after the completion of organogenesis which, in humans, is after the 9th week of GESTATION. It does not include embryo resorption (see EMBRYO LOSS).
The philosophy or code pertaining to what is ideal in human character and conduct. Also, the field of study dealing with the principles of morality.
Health care services related to human REPRODUCTION and diseases of the reproductive system. Services are provided to both sexes and usually by physicians in the medical or the surgical specialties such as REPRODUCTIVE MEDICINE; ANDROLOGY; GYNECOLOGY; OBSTETRICS; and PERINATOLOGY.
Trophoblastic hyperplasia associated with normal gestation, or molar pregnancy. It is characterized by the swelling of the CHORIONIC VILLI and elevated human CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN. Hydatidiform moles or molar pregnancy may be categorized as complete or partial based on their gross morphology, histopathology, and karyotype.
Congenital abnormalities caused by medicinal substances or drugs of abuse given to or taken by the mother, or to which she is inadvertently exposed during the manufacture of such substances. The concept excludes abnormalities resulting from exposure to non-medicinal chemicals in the environment.
A genus of CHLAMYDOPHILA infecting primarily birds. It contains eight known serovars, some of which infect more than one type of host, including humans.
Diminished or absent ability of a female to achieve conception.
The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.
The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.
The interrelationship of medicine and religion.
The care and treatment of a convalescent patient, especially that of a patient after surgery.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.

Ganglioside GM2-activator protein and vesicular transport in collecting duct intercalated cells. (1/515)

This study describes the molecular characterization of an antigen defined by an autoantibody from a woman with habitual abortion as GM2-activator protein. The patient showed no disorder of renal function. Accidentally with routine serum screening for autoantibodies, an immunoreactivity was found in kidney collecting duct intercalated cells. Three distinct patterns of immunostaining of intercalated cells were observed: staining of the apical pole, basolateral pole, and diffuse cytoplasmic labeling. Ultrastructurally, the immunoreactivity was associated with "studs," which represent the cytoplasmic domain of the vacuolar proton pump in intercalated cells. This pump is subjected to a shuttling mechanism from cytoplasmic stores to the cell membrane, which exclusively occurs in intercalated cells. Peptide sequences of a 23-kD protein purified from rat kidney cortex showed complete identity with corresponding sequences of GM2-activator protein. In the brain, GM2-activator protein is required for hexosaminidase A to split a sugar from ganglioside GM2. Because neither ganglioside GM2 nor GM1 (its precursor) is present in significant amounts in the kidney, the previous finding that this tissue contains the highest level of activator protein in the body was confusing. In this study, a novel role for GM2-activator protein in intercalated cells is proposed, and possible roles in the shuttling mechanism are discussed.  (+info)

Factor V Leiden and antibodies against phospholipids and protein S in a young woman with recurrent thromboses and abortion. (2/515)

We describe the case of a 39-year-old woman who suffered two iliofemoral venous thromboses, a cerebral ischemic infarct and recurrent fetal loss. Initial studies showed high levels of antiphospholipid antibodies (APAs) and a moderate thrombocytopenia. After her second miscarriage, laboratory diagnosis revealed that the woman was heterozygous for the factor V Leiden mutation and had a functional protein S deficiency as well as anti-protein S and anti-beta 2-glycoprotein I antibodies. The impairment of the protein C pathway at various points could well explain the recurrent thromboses in the patient and supports the role of a disturbed protein C system in the pathophysiology of thrombosis in patients with APAs.  (+info)

Possible mechanisms of immunotherapy for maintaining pregnancy in recurrent spontaneous aborters: analysis of anti-idiotypic antibodies directed against autologous T-cell receptors. (3/515)

We examined whether immunotherapy for recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) using paternal lymphocytes induces anti-T-cell receptor (TCR) idiotypic antibodies in RSA patients. The sera of these patients were assessed for inhibitory activity against mixed lymphocyte reactions (MLR) between maternal responder cells and paternal stimulator cells. Sera of four of the five women who maintained pregnancy successfully after immunotherapy showed significant MLR inhibition, whereas none of the five women who had unsuccessful pregnancies showed significant MLR inhibition. These sera inhibited the MLR of autologous responder T-cells, when stimulated with lymphocytes having the same HLA-DR antigens as the patient's husband, but not when stimulated with lymphocytes having unrelated HLA-DR antigens. This MLR inhibitory activity was absorbed by autologous maternal T-lymphoblasts induced by stimulation with lymphocytes having the paternal HLA-DR type but not by those induced by stimulation with lymphocytes having other HLA-DR types. The maternal serum inhibited the proliferation of autologous T-cells, but not of non-autologous T-cells, stimulated with paternal lymphocytes. These results indicate that anti-TCR idiotypic antibodies were induced in RSA patients by immunotherapy. These antibodies may contribute to maintaining pregnancy by negatively regulating maternal T-cells directed against HLA-DR antigens of the fetus.  (+info)

Prevention of recurrent spontaneous abortion by intravenous immunoglobulin: a double-blind placebo-controlled study. (4/515)

The aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) in the prevention of recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA). In a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study, 41 women with a history of unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion were treated with IVIG or saline infusions during pregnancy. The birth of a child was considered a successful outcome. The overall success rate was 77% in the IVIG group compared with 79% in the placebo group. For women with primary RSA the success rates were 82 (IVIG) and 89% (placebo), and for women with secondary RSA the rates were 73 (IVIG) and 70% (placebo). We found no statistically significant difference in treatment results between IVIG and placebo.  (+info)

Neospora caninum infection and repeated abortions in humans. (5/515)

To determine whether Neospora caninum, a parasite known to cause repeated abortions and stillbirths in cattle, also causes repeated abortions in humans, we retrospectively examined serum samples of 76 women with a history of abortions for evidence of N. caninum infection. No antibodies to the parasite were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immunofluorescence assay, or Western blot.  (+info)

Resection of uterine septum using gynaecoradiological techniques. (6/515)

This paper presents further refinements in our technique for the resection of uterine septum. Fourteen patients [infertility (n = 9) and recurrent miscarriages (n = 5)] underwent in-office resection of a uterine septum under fluoroscopic control. The main outcome measure was complete resection of uterine septum. Resections were carried out using either hysteroscopic scissors in combination with a specially designed uterine balloon catheter, or microlaparoscopy scissors in conjunction with a cervical cannula. In all patients the septum was successfully resected without any intra-operative complications. We conclude that ambulatory gynaecoradiological resection of uterine septa is a safe and simple procedure. It avoids utilization of expensive operating room time, general anaesthesia, and some complications associated with hysteroscopic resection, such as fluid retention and electrolyte imbalance.  (+info)

Endometriosis and unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion: pathological states resulting from aberrant modulation of natural killer cell function? (7/515)

The observation that natural killer (NK) cell activity is abnormally low in endometriosis patients and abnormally high in women with otherwise unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion represents, at present, an intriguing curiosity. There is evidence suggesting that these conditions are associated with an opposite regulation of NK cell behaviour. This review discusses these observations and potential relationships.  (+info)

Implications of sperm chromosome abnormalities in recurrent miscarriage. (8/515)

PURPOSE: Our purpose was to assess the existence of sperm chromosome abnormalities in recurrent pregnancy loss in an assisted reproduction program. METHODS: In this prospective study, 12 sperm samples from couples undergoing in vitro fertilization with two or more first-trimester spontaneous abortions were analyzed. Diploidy and disomy in decondensed sperm nuclei were assessed for chromosomes 13, 18, 21, X, and Y using two- and three-color fluorescence in situ hybridization. RESULTS: Sex chromosome disomy in sperm samples from recurrent abortion couples was significantly increased compared to that from internal controls (0.84% vs 0.37%). In a subpopulation of seven couples who underwent oocyte donation, mean frequencies for sex chromosome disomy (1%) were even higher and diploidy (0.43%) was also significantly increased. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest an implication of sperm chromosome abnormalities in some cases of recurrent pregnancy loss.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Association of progesterone receptor polymorphism with idiopathic recurrent pregnancy loss in Taiwanese Han population. AU - Su, Mei Tsz. AU - Lee, I. Wen. AU - Chen, Yi Chi. AU - Kuo, Pao Lin. N1 - Funding Information: Acknowledgements This study was supported by an intramural grant from National Cheng-Kung University Hospital (NCKH-9702035). Funding Information: Financial support This study was supported by an intramural grant from National Cheng-Kung University Hospital (NCKH-9702035).. PY - 2011/3. Y1 - 2011/3. N2 - Purpose: Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) could be caused by insufficient progesterone in the luteal phase of menstruation and early pregnancy. Progesterone plays a critical role in oocyte maturation, embryo implantation and placenta maintenance in early gestation. This study was set out to investigate the association between polymorphisms of the progesterone receptor (PGR) gene and idiopathic RPL. Methods: One hundred twenty-one women with a history of idiopathic ...
Objectives: We performed this study in order to investigate the role of chronic endometritis (CE) in unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) and to determine the correlation between hysteroscopic and histologic findings of CE in patients with unexplained RSA. We also tried to find out the relation between CE and primary vs. secondary RSA. Study design: One hundred and forty-two consecutive patients with unexplained RSA and 154 fertile women were enrolled in this study. All the patients and controls underwent hysteroscopy and, at the same time, endometrial biopsy. CE was suspected when hysteroscopy revealed signs of focal or diffuse endometrial hyperemia or endometrial endopolyps (less than 1 mm in size). Histopathologic diagnosis of CE was based on superficial stromal edema, increased stromal density, and pleomorphic stromal inflammatory infiltrate dominated by lymphocytes and plasma cells. Results were compared between cases and controls as well as those with primary (n = 61) and ...
Background: Many factors have been implicated in the pathogenesis of unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion (URSA). The current study was conducted to determine the possible role of antioxidant status and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in URSA.. Methods: Reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione reductase (GSH-R), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), nitric oxide (NO), malondialdehyde (MDA) and TNF-α were assayed in women suffering unexplained first-trimester abortions. Two groups were included, the first represented by 24 women with URSA (number of abortions 3-5) and the second included 16 women with URSA (number of abortions ,5). The control group included 20 women within their first trimester of pregnancy and 20 non-pregnant healthy females within their follicular phase.. Results: We observed that the antioxidant levels measured were significantly lower in URSA groups than in the control group (p,0.05 for each comparison). Higher TNF-α, MDA and NO ...
Dive into the research topics of Predictive value of DNA integrity analysis in idiopathic recurrent pregnancy loss following spontaneous conception. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Correction: Genetic Variants in MicroRNA Machinery Genes Are Associate with Idiopathic Recurrent Pregnancy Loss Risk. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
1. Rai R, Regan L. Recurrent miscarriage. Lancet. 2006;368:601-11 2. Dukhovny S, Zutshi P, Abbott JF. Recurrent second trimester pregnancy loss: evaluation and management. Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes. 2009;16:451-8 3. Li TC, Makris M, Tomsu M, Tuckerman E, Laird S. Recurrent miscarriage: aetiology, management and prognosis. Hum Reprod Update. 2002;8:463-81 4. Krieg SA, Fan X, Hong Y, Sang QX, Giaccia A, Westphal LM. et al. Global alteration in gene expression profiles of deciduas from women with idiopathic recurrent pregnancy loss. Molecular human reproduction. 2012;18:442-50 5. Pang L, Wei Z, Li O, Huang R, Qin J, Chen H. et al. An increase in vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and VEGF soluble receptor-1 (sFlt-1) are associated with early recurrent spontaneous abortion. PLoS One. 2013;8:e75759 6. Pandey MK, Rani R, Agrawal S. An update in recurrent spontaneous abortion. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2005;272:95-108 7. Hamilton TA, Zhao C, Pavicic PG Jr, Datta S. Myeloid colony-stimulating ...
The EVE- technology is intended for determination of intolerance or sensitivity to female sex hormones among women with hormone-related conditions and for further treatment by desensitization procedure inducing a tolerance to the hormones the women are sensitive to.. This study is designed to evaluate the safety and the ability of the EVE- Skin-Test Panel to detect sensitivity to female sex hormones in subjects with Unexplained Recurrent Pregnancy Loss (URPL) and in Control parous, healthy women.. The Skin Test Panel includes four female hormones and three control solutions.. Hormones from the Skin Test Panel are injected intradermally during the luteal phase of the subjects menstrual cycle. The skin reactions are examined by physician for erythema and wheal after 20 minutes and 48 hours and self-assessed by the patient daily for the following month.. Skin response monthly data is analyzed and compared between unexplained recurrent pregnancy loss (UPRL) and healthy groups.. Following ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - HLA-sharing, recurrent spontaneous abortion, and the genetic hypothesis. AU - Hedrick, P. W.. PY - 1988. Y1 - 1988. N2 - A number of studies indicates that there is a high sharing of HLA antigens in couples having recurrent spontaneous abortions. The genetic hypothesis to explain this phenomenon suggests that this fetal loss results from homozygosity of recessive lethal or deleterious alleles in gametic disequilibrium with HLA antigens. Theory predicting the lethality rate is derived when antigens are shared at one, two or three loci, given that the disequilibrium is absolute. In addition, the effects of partial disequilibrium, inbreeding, and segregation distortion on the lethal proportion are examined.. AB - A number of studies indicates that there is a high sharing of HLA antigens in couples having recurrent spontaneous abortions. The genetic hypothesis to explain this phenomenon suggests that this fetal loss results from homozygosity of recessive lethal or deleterious alleles ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Polymorphisms in the fibrinolytic pathway genes and the risk of recurrent spontaneous abortion. AU - Andraweera, Prabha H.. AU - Dekker, Gustaaf A.. AU - Thompson, Steven D.. AU - Nowak, Rachael C.. AU - Jayasekara, Rohan W.. AU - Dissanayake, Vajira H.W.. AU - Roberts, Claire T.. PY - 2014/12/1. Y1 - 2014/12/1. N2 - Impaired fibrinolytic activity is implicated in the pathogenesis of recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA). This case-control study assessed the prevalence of polymorphisms in fibrinolytic system genes in RSA. Cases comprised 202 Sinhalese women who had experienced at least two first-trimester spontaneous abortions and had no living children; controls were 202 women with no history of spontaneous abortion and two or more living children. The groups were matched for age and ethnicity. DNA was genotyped using the Sequenom MassARRAY system. The PLAUR rs4251923 A (OR 95% CI 2.3 [1.3 to 4.0]), SERBP2 rs6098 A (OR 95% CI 1.4 [1.1 to 1.9]) and SERBP2 rs6103 C alleles (OR 95% ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Subsequent pregnancy outcomes in recurrent miscarriage patients with a paternal or maternal carrier of a structural chromosome rearrangement. AU - Sugiura-Ogasawara, Mayumi. AU - Aoki, Koji. AU - Fujii, Tomoyuki. AU - Fujita, Tomio. AU - Kawaguchi, Rie. AU - Maruyama, Tetsuo. AU - Ozawa, Nobuaki. AU - Sugi, Toshitaka. AU - Takeshita, Toshiyuki. AU - Saito, Shigeru. PY - 2008/7/1. Y1 - 2008/7/1. N2 - Information concerning the prognosis of subsequent pregnancies in patients with reciprocal translocations is limited. This study was performed to determine the percentage success rate with first pregnancies after ascertainment of a carrier status. A total of 2,382 couples with a history of two or more consecutive miscarriages were studied in multicenters. The prevalence of an abnormal chromosome in either partner was examined, and subsequent success rates were compared between cases with and without an abnormal karyotype in either partner. A total of 129 couples (5.4%) had an abnormal ...
Th17 cells and Treg cells are recently discovered lymphocyte subsets, that are different from Th1 and Th2. Th17 cells are associated with chronic inflammation through the secretion of the inflammatory cytokines IL-17A (also known as IL-17), IL-17F, IL-6, IL-21, IL-22 and TNF-α, which play a major role in the development of organ transplant rejection (11,12). Normal pregnancy is similar to an allograft. Nakashima et al found that there were lower levels of Th17 cells in the peripheral blood of normal pregnant women (13). Recent studies reported that the proportions and concentrations of Th17 cells in the peripheral blood were increased in pregnant women with URSA than when compared to normal pregnant and non-pregnant women (6). This association correlated with the secretion of other inflammatory cytokines (14). To study the expression of IL-17 in women that have undergone abortion, we suggested that the activation of IL-17 could increase the expression of NF-κB, thereby reducing the number of ...
Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) isnt really a popular topic and not something I thought I would experience after having trouble getting pregnant. Who knew that getting pregnant was only a small step in the right direction?. Recurrent pregnancy loss is a distinct disease from infertility and is defined by two or more failed pregnancies. Some people experience both infertility and loss, like me, and others experience one or the other.. For me, recurrent pregnancy loss and infertility are one and the same. They are what kept me from bringing a baby home from the hospital for seven long years. I am infertile and while IVF helped me conceive, I miscarried every time. Recurrent loss is the ultimate problem for me.. Most miscarriages are due to an abnormal embryo - an unlucky accident, with no underlying medical issue, unless your specific issue is age-related or egg quality related. But, if you have miscarried three times, it is quite unlikely that this is due to three abnormal pregnancies, but rather ...
Recurrent miscarriage, habitual abortion, or recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) is three or more consecutive pregnancy losses. Infertility differs because it is the inability to conceive. In many cases the cause of RPL is unknown. After three or more losses, a thorough evaluation is recommended by American Society of Reproductive Medicine. About 1% of couples trying to have children are affected by recurrent miscarriage. There are various causes for recurrent miscarriage, and some can be treated. Some couples never have a cause identified, often after extensive investigations. About 50-75% of cases of Recurrent Miscarriage are unexplained. Fifteen percent of women who have experienced three or more recurring miscarriages have some anatomical reason for the inability to complete the pregnancy. The structure of the uterus has an effect on the ability to carry a child to term. Anatomical differences are common and can be congenital. In the second trimester a weak cervix can become a recurrent problem. ...
1 % of all pregnancies end in habitual/recurrent abortion. In about half of women with habitual abortions (HAB) hereditary or acquired (antiphospholipid antibodies) thrombophilia are observed. The investigators wanted to test whether antithrombotic treatment (Low-Molecular Weight Heparin, LMWH, ASA or both combined)would prevent these women from a subsequent abortion. Depending on thrombophilic status the women included in one of the three sub-studies: HABENOX 1 (mild, single thrombophilia), HABENOX 2 (no known thrombophilia), HABENOX 3 (moderate to severe thrombophilia, with combined thrombophilia or moderate to high titer antiphospholipid antibodies).. Study design: Randomised placebo controlled multicenter study.. Number of patients per study: 90 patients per group, 270 altogether.. Timetable: Starting 2/2002, finishing 31.12.2007.. Time frame: ,37 weeks of gestation and ,24, but ,37 weeks of gestation (premature). Treatment started before 7. gw.. HABENOX 1 and 2:. Study groups:. Group 1 : ...
Read HLA‐G polymorphisms in couples with recurrent spontaneous abortions, Tissue Antigens on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
If a woman experiences miscarriages for more than two or three times, the condition is termed as recurrent miscarriages. Recurrent loss of pregnancy (RPL), habitual abortion or recurrent miscarriage is defined as the loss of pregnancy before the fetus is 20 weeks old. Besides being a medical issue, it is also a serious disturbing psychological condition. This condition can make the woman depressed and tremendously drained of hope. However, it may be of some relief that most women who have experienced recurrent miscarriages go on to become happy mothers under medical supervision. The chance of a woman with a history of recurrent miscarriages to have a baby is a good 60%, especially if the reason of the miscarriage cannot be concluded. About half the cases of recurrent miscarriages go without the cause being ascertained by doctors.. ...
There were 578 miscarriages with chromosome results. Of the subjects, 18% were obese at the time of miscarriage. The mean maternal age at miscarriage was similar between the obese and nonobese groups. Due to the high rate of maternal cell contamination in the prior miscarriages, only subsequent miscarriages with chromosome results were included in the primary analysis. Of the 117 subsequent miscarriages, the frequency of an euploid miscarriage among obese women was 58% compared with 37% of nonobese women (relative risk = 1.63; 95% confidence interval 1.08-2.47).. Conclusion(s): ...
No aspect of the immunology of pregnancy is more controversial than the subject of recurrent pregnancy loss, or, as it will be called here, recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSAb). Nor is there any...
To describe and analyze the benefit of immunomodulatory drugs for recurrent miscarriages and implantation failures. The literature research was conducted in Medline, Embase and Cochrane Library concerning recurrent miscarriages and implantation failures and steroids, progesterone, intralipids, TNF-α …
Repeated two to three spontaneous pregnancy loss is termed as recurrent miscarriage. Although the causes of recurrent miscarriage differ from the causes of spontaneous miscarriage, the symptoms remain the same like in most miscarriages.
Immunostaining intensity for alpha(1), alpha(4), alpha(v)beta(3), and beta(3) was assessed by H score in timed peri-implantation endometrium from 21 women with unexplained recurrent miscarriage and 16 healthy fertile women. No significant difference in H scores in gland epithelium, luminal epithelium, stroma, or blood vessels was observed between the two groups, suggesting that alpha(1), alpha(4), alpha(v)beta(3) and beta(3) integrins are expressed normally in the endometrium of women with unexplained recurrent miscarriage.. ...
Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) can be defined as more than two to three consecutive miscarriages before 24 weeks gestation. A literature review was done to provide an evidence-based approach to RPL, identifying the risk factors and causes and also looking at the various special investigations that form part of the work-up and trying to assess which have been proven to be effective or of negative impact, and which of the management options lead to a better outcome. We concluded that the following special investigations should be part of the work-up for all patients with RPL: (i) genetic counselling and karyotyping of the abortus; (ii) anticardiolipin antibodies and lupus anticoagulant testing must be done on two occasions, 6 - 8 weeks apart; (iii) all patients qualify for a pelvic ultrasound scan and hysteroscopy; (iv) syphilis testing must be done routinely; and (v) testing of thyroid function and glucose monitoring/glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) measurement must be done in all patients with ...
Institut Marquès has developed specific tests to detect and treat repeated miscarriages and thus provide the best service to our patients.
The pathophysiology of recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) is still unknown in 50% of the cases. Herein we measure the expression of beta3 integrin subunit, a well-known implantation marker, in women with or without RPL and correlate it with the histological dating of the endometrial tissue. LH-timed endometrial biopsies were obtained from cases (RPL; n = 21, age 33.9+/-4.7) and healthy controls (n = 29; age 29.8+/-4.1) during the mid-secretory phase (post ovulatory day: 8 to 10). Endometrial samples were timed histologically according to Noyes criteria and underwent immunohistochemical staining for beta3 integrin expression. For statistical analysis the semi-quantitative HSCORE was assessed. Type I (beta3 negative in an out-of-phase endometrium) and Type II defect (beta3 negative in an in-phase endometrium) were also analysed. Statistical analysis was done with Student t-test, Mann Whitney U test, ANCOVA and chi square for trend. Significance was set as P < 0.05. The mean (SD) age in controls was lower
OBJECTIVE: To compare epidemiological and obstetric characteristics, etiology and next pregnancy outcomes of women with primary vs. secondary recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL). STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study, including 420 patients with two or more consecutive pregnancy losses followed by a subsequent (index) pregnancy, of whom 162 were primary RPL women and 258 were secondary RPL women. All patients were evaluated and treated in the RPL clinic at the Soroka University Medical Center. RESULTS: Live birth rate in the index pregnancy was not statistically different between primary and secondary RPL women (75.9 and 70.9%, respectively). The only significant difference in the etiology evaluation was in abnormal prolactin levels (14.1% of the primary and 1.4% of the secondary RPL group). Women with primary RPL had, at the index pregnancy, significantly higher rates of preterm delivery, fetal growth restriction, and gestational diabetes mellitus. In a multivariable logistic regression ...
Pregnancy loss is the one of the most common obstetrical complications. The majority of pregnancy losses are random or isolated incidences that in many cases are related to genetic abnormalities. However, 2-5 % of reproductive age women experience recurrent miscarriages.1,2 Recurrent pregnancy loss is typically defined as two or three or more consecutive pregnancy losses. Genetic, hormonal, metabolic, uterine anatomical, infectious, environmental, occupational and personal habits, thrombophilia, or immune disorders were reported as possible etiologies.3-6 Despite the many etiologies, a majority of women with recurrent miscarriage have no discernible cause. It has been postulated that immunologic aberrations may be the cause in many of such cases. Immunopathological evaluation of placenta from women with recurrent pregnancy losses of immune etiologies often demonstrate increased inflammatory cell infiltration at the implantation site and increased fibrin deposition on deciduas and/or perivillous
Results 1.2% (6/465) women had hyperprolactinaemia. 109 women with unexplained RM had subsequent pregnancies during the study period. The mean (±SD) age of these women was 31.9±5.2 years. The concentrations of plasma prolactin were within the normal range in all cases (mean±SD 278±146 mIU/l). 60 of the 109 women had live births and 49 had spontaneous abortions. These women were further divided into two subgroups according to the value of their prolactin concentrations. Women with prolactin concentrations above the mean had significantly higher live birth rates (66.7%) than women with prolactin concentrations below the mean (46.9%) (p,0.05).. ...
Get helpful tips for coping with miscarriage and recurrent pregnancy loss from the physicians at Reproductive Gynecology & Infertility. Call 866-537-2461.
Objective To study the local expression of membrane tissue CD4,CD8 immune cells and TM,PAI-1,F_(1+ 2),D-dimers coagulation related factors in unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion patients and their relevance,so to provide help for the treatment of patients with unexplained abortion. Methods The CD4/CD8 cells were counted and the CD4/CD8 ratio was calculated by immunocytochemistry. Using enzymelinked immunosorbent assay and adsorption test method in 50 patients with unexplained abortion( experimental group,non-pregnant) for plasma thrombomodulin( TM),plasminogen activator inhibitor-1( PAI-1),prothrombin fragment F_(1+ 2),D dimer( D-dimer,D-D) and the normal pregnancy factor concentration,and 50 women( control group) as control,the expression of the above two groups factors in two groups were measured,and then compared the results. Results Compared with the control group,TM,PAI-1 and F_(1+ 2) were highly expressed,and the expression of D-D was low. The difference between the two groups was
Semantic Scholar extracted view of Recurrent early pregnancy loss and genetic-related disturbances in folate and homocysteine metabolism. by Willianne L D M Nelen et al.
According to the American Society for Reproductive Medicine (ASRM), recurrent pregnancy loss is when a woman has two or more miscarriages (clinical pregnancies) before 20 weeks gestation.. Possible Causes:. ...
Interleukins are a group of immunomodulatory proteins that mediate a variety of immune reactions in the human body. To investigate the association between interleukin gene polymorphisms and recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL), we reviewed 21 studies from MEDLINE, EMBASE, OVID SP and PubMed to evaluate RPL-related interleukin gene polymorphisms. Meta-analysis was performed on 12 of the polymorphisms, and a review included the others. Our integrated results indicated that IL-1β (-511C/T) (P = 0.02, 95% CI 0.77[0.62,0.96]), IL-6 (-634C/G) ( ...
This is all about avoiding success after recurrent pregnancy loss time that your body releases eggs from your ovaries, which normally happens in the middle of your pregnxncy. The main sources for this hub are the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Nutrition Program and WebMd. Though Prwgnancy think at 41 years of age, I can hang up the pram. Being a mother is truly a rewarding journey; pregnncy, trials and hardships can never be avoided as they are inevitable. and Zoosk, for example, offer mobile dating where you can log in securely from your smartphone. It may help kids that are suffering in foster homes and recurrrent that they are forgotten. You could also start your own family-oriented social group by inviting all your single-parent friends and their children to some event, such as a picnic or a day at the zoo. Headaches are the result of increased blood circulation caused by pregnancy hormones. Theres the option of displaying onscreen notices, or suspending play when these ...
ICD-9 code 629.81 for Recurrent pregnancy loss without current pregnancy is a medical classification as listed by WHO under the range - OTHER D
Find valuable recurrent pregnancy loss information and solutions with Family Fertility in Lehigh Valley, PA - seek advice from an experienced gynecologist.
Its possible to become pregnant during the menstrual cycle immediately after a miscarriage. But if you and your partner decide to attempt another pregnancy, make sure youre physically and emotionally ready. Ask your health care provider for guidance about when you might try to conceive.. Keep in mind that miscarriage is usually a one-time occurrence. Most women who miscarry go on to have a healthy pregnancy after miscarriage. Less than 5 percent of women have two consecutive miscarriages, and only 1 percent have three or more consecutive miscarriages.. If you experience multiple miscarriages, generally two or three in a row, consider testing to identify any underlying causes - such as uterine abnormalities, coagulation problems or chromosomal abnormalities. If the cause of your miscarriages cant be identified, dont lose hope. About 60 to 80 percent of women with unexplained repeated miscarriages go on to have healthy pregnancies.. PreviousNext ...
MU Health Cares fertility specialists can investigate the root cause of your recurrent pregnancy loss and help you overcome the condition.
Recurrent Pregnancy Loss - With our Social Bookmarks Site, you can quickly and easily bookmark your favorite websites, share it and access it from everywhere in the world through the internet.
What are the effects of treatments for unexplained recurrent miscarriage? What are the effects of treatments for recurrent miscarriage caused by antiphospholipid syndrome?
Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) has been used ever since the Antiquity for its painkilling and anti-inflammatory effects. Its antiplatelet properties have then extended its indications to the field of coronaropathy and vascular cerebral disease, and finally to vascular placental disease. Aspirin has been widely prescribed since the 1980s to prevent pre-eclampsia, intra-uterine growth retardation and fetal death of vascular origin. It has also been proposed to prevent unexplained recurrent miscarriages. Its use during pregnancy is considered as safe, provided the daily doses do not exceed 100mg. Aspirin has been proven efficient to prevent pre-eclampsia and fetal growth restriction in high-risk patients. The benefits of prescribing aspirin have been demonstrated neither for vascular placental disease prevention in low risk patients, nor in cases of unexplained recurrent miscarriages.
Background:It is not possible to identify the cause of the recurrent early pregnancy loss in approximately half of the cases, and different results have been reported according to estrogen (ER) and progesterone receptors (PR). The objective of this work was to evaluate the PR and ER levels in the endometrium of patients with recurrent early pregnancy loss, and to compare them with those of patients with proven fertility ...
Next article in issue: Should We Re-Examine the Status of Lymphocyte Alloimmunization Therapy for Recurrent Spontaneous Abortion? Next article in issue: Should We Re-Examine the Status of Lymphocyte Alloimmunization Therapy for Recurrent Spontaneous Abortion? ...
Principal Investigator:JUJI Takeo, Project Period (FY):1989 - 1990, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for General Scientific Research (A), Research Field:Obstetrics and gynecology
Hi ladies, just going through my 4th MC. Its heart breaking but I have been referred to St Georges recurrent miscarriage clinic in Tooting. Has anyone had any experience of this clinic and any advice they would like to share? Im considering Dr Shehata but thought I would give my NHS clinic a go, especially as I can get an appt this Thursday. Many thanks
What is the best evidence-based treatment for recurrent miscarriages? The answer may surprise you!. Anyone who has struggled to become pregnant or stay pregnant knows how stressful it can be getting through the first trimester. It is so exciting to get that positive pregnancy test, but then you wait on pins and needles to make it through the first trimester, knowing that your chance for miscarriage drops dramatically once you do. Even then, for women who took a while to conceive or who have a history of pregnancy losses, it can be hard to let go of the worry and enjoy their pregnancy.. A paper published in the journal, BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, an open access, peer-reviewed journal, reviews the current evidence-base for commonly used treatments for recurrent miscarriage. It also makes a compelling argument for the use of acupuncture, not only in the case of recurrent miscarriage, but also in the case of a threatened miscarriage (light to heavy vaginal bleeding in early ...
The study, by medics at University Hospitals Coventry and Warwickshire (UHCW) NHS Trust and Warwick Medical School, pinpoints how body clock genes are temporarily switched off in the lining of the womb to allow an embryo to implant. Timing of this event is critical for pregnancy. The researchers examined endometrial cells from womb linings of healthy women, and also biopsies from women who had sadly suffered from recurrent pregnancy loss. The study has found that women suffering from recurrent miscarriages may be less able to regulate clock genes in the lining of the womb. The study also provides new insights into how night and shift work could affect female fertility. It is hoped that by identifying the causes behind recurrent miscarriages, that fertility experts will be able to help more prospective parents than ever before. It could have major implications for IVF, as the findings suggest that fertility specialists could, in future, target bio-rhythms in the womb to improve the environment ...
The traditional paradigm suggests that during normal pregnancy maternal immunological tolerance of the allogenic fetus is association with a maternal T-lymphocyte shift from a Th1 to a Th2 phenotype, with the opposite effect reported in patients with recurrent miscarriage. However, studies on maternal peripheral blood are conflicting. In the present study, we characterized the maternal CD4 T-cell effector subsets, including the recently described Th17 subset, during normal pregnancy (cross-sectional cohort, n=71; longitudinal cohort, n=17) and contrasted this with women with recurrent miscarriage (n=24). Longitudinal analysis of peripheral blood from normal pregnancy demonstrated a fall in the percentage of Th17 cells between the first and second trimester (P≤0.05), but no significant changes were observed across gestation or the post-natal period in Th1 or Th2 subsets. In contrast, in women with a history of recurrent miscarriage, an elevated proportion of Th17 (0.314% compared with 0.097%; ...
Among women who are aware of their pregnancy, the rate of spontaneous abortion-or miscarriage-is 15 to 20% and typically occurs during the first 7 weeks. Despite these troubling statistics, the cause of recurrent spontaneous abortion remains elusive. Now, a new study by Tavakoli et al. on the effects of vitamin D during early pregnancy may shed light on a new approach to the evaluation and management of women who suffer repeated miscarriages.. Researchers have identified several mechanisms behind spontaneous abortions, such as anatomical uterine abnormalities or the presence of specific maternal antibodies. However, women who do not display these conditions also struggle with recurrent and unexplained miscarriage, leaving this subset of infertility patients with few explanations and options. Attention has recently turned to the endometrial lining as a cause, specifically the interface between the early embryo and the cells programmed to assist in implantation. The authors examined the role that ...
ABSTRACT Introduction: To determine the relative frequency of gynecological pathologies in patients with recurrent pregnancy loss using combined hysteroscopy and laparoscopy, and to evaluate the potential of this combined strategy in the diagnosis of coexisting pathologies. Methods: Over 6 years, in a large referral infertility clinic and research centre in Tehran, 80 women with the diagnosis of recurrent pregnancy loss underwent hysteroscopy and laparoscopy. Results: Forty nine (61.3%) women had 3 episodes of miscarriage, 9 (11.3%) had 4 occurrence of pregnancy loss and 14 (17.5%) patients had experienced 5 abortions. Also, there were 4 (5%), 2 (2.5%) and 2 (2.5%) participants with 6, 7 and 8 miscarriages, respectively. Thirteen women (16.2%) had normal hysteroscopy, and in 52 (65%) participants laparoscopy did not reveal abnormal findings. Septate uterus and submucous myomas together, comprised 62 (77.5%) of the recognized pathologies in hysteroscopy. Of the 28 abnormalities found in ...
Question - Repeated miscarriages, home pregnancy test negative, scan showed baby, prescribed hormorin. Family history of diabetes. Suggestions?. Ask a Doctor about diagnosis, treatment and medication for Recurrent miscarriages, Ask an OBGYN, Gynecologic Oncology
Chromosomal Abnormalities and Menstrual Cycle Disorders. By Ksenija Gersak and Ziva Miriam Gersak. Chromosomal abnormalities have long been recognized as a cause of menstrual cycle disorders, premature ovarian insufficiency, and recurrent pregnancy loss. In women with X chromosome abnormalities, premature ovarian insufficiency is mainly a consequence of ovarian follicle depletion, due to insufficient initial follicle number and/or spontaneous accelerated follicle loss. The level of X chromosome mosaicism and its reproductive significance is still under debate. In our study, we evaluated the contribution of X chromosome abnormalities in women with sporadic idiopathic premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) and in women with a history of recurrent pregnancy loss. The results show that X aneuploidy and low-level mosaicism have reproductive significance in the phenotypically normal women with recurrent pregnancy loss and/or fertility problems. These results have practical implications for genetic ...
Recurrent miscarriage is frustrating for the physician and a heartbreaking experience for the patient. Approximately 5% of couples trying to conceive have two consecutive miscarriages. Despite a thorough study of patients, the aetiology of this common obstetric complication is unknown in 50% of cases. Known causes include abnormal chromosomes, endocrinological disorders and uterine abnormalities. Although antiphospholipid antibodies have been demonstrated in miscarriages, the role played by alloimmune mechanisms remains unclear. New immunological approaches such as natural killer cells, regulatory T cells, tumour necrosis factor α, cell-derived microparticles, leptin, certain glycoproteins and cytokines should be considered. The management of thyroid diseases and immunological disorders is continuously evolving. Several genetic diagnostic procedures such as parental karyotyping and preimplantation genetic screening should probably not be used routinely. Antiphopholipid syndrome and some ...
The relation of thyroid dysfunction with pregnancy loss is an increasingly attentive issue to many clinicians. A number of papers have shown a significant positive association between hypothyroidism, including subclinical hypothyroidism, and pregnancy loss. This has been thought to be due to a lower capacity of the thyroid to adapt to the changes in pregnancy. The authors aimed to examine the prevalence of subclinical and undiagnosed overt hypothyroidism in recurrent spontaneous abortions, late spontaneous abortions and stillbirths in our population.. The authors collected data retrospectively from the Pregnancy Loss Clinic database and supplemented this by review of perinatal deaths in 2008-2009. Women with sporadic spontaneous abortions, autoimmune disorders and optimally treated hypothyroidism were excluded.. 262 women had thyroid function tests checked during investigation of pregnancy loss. Median maternal age was 35 (range 18-17). Subclinical and undiagnosed overt hypothyroidism were found ...
Decidual macrophages (DM) are the second most abundant population in the fetal-maternal interface. Their role has been so far identified as being local immuno-modulators favoring the maternal tolerance to the fetus. Herein we investigated tissue samples from 11 cases of spontaneous miscarriages and from 9 cases of elective terminations of pregnancy. Using immunohistochemistry and dual immunofluorescence we have demonstrated that in spontaneous miscarriages the DM are significantly increased. Additionally, we noted a significant up-regulation of macrophage FasL expression. Our results further support a dual role for DM during pregnancy and miscarriages. We hypothesize that the baseline DM population in normal pregnancy is in line with an M2 phenotype supporting the ongoing gestation. In contrast, during spontaneous miscarriages, the increased FasL-expressing population could be a part of an M1 phenotype participating in Fas/FasL-related apoptosis. Our results highlight a new aspect of macrophage biology
Early miscarriage reasons - How to diagnose reason for early miscarriage? How can we prevent early miscarriage? Not always possible. Most early miscarriages are due to pregnancies that are chromosomal abnormal and miscarry for a reason. If you have 2 or more miscarriages your fertility specialist or obgyn can do a work up to look for preventable causes.
Genetic analysis (chromosome/ Karyotype analysis): Blood samples should be taken from man and woman and tested for some probable abnormalities in the chromosomes, (missing chromosomes or additions to each chromosome, and translocations of chromosomes (in which all chromosomes are present but in different locations).. Anti Phospholipid Antibodies (APA) - cardiolipins are proteins found in many cells in your body. They help regulate blood flow throughout the body. However, when your body looks at the cardiolipins as an enemy or invader, it will attack them by creating antibodies . The three main groups anticardiolipins are: IgG, IgM, IgA.. Anti Cardiolipin Antibodies (ACA)- cells that attack the nuclei of other cells in your body. This is a mistake made by the body, thinking the good guys are the bad guys. Low levels should cause no problems.. Anti Nuclear Antibodies (ANA)- Again this is your body mistaking the good for the bad. Only this time it attacks the nuclei of the cell(s).. Lupus Anti ...
This process is known as implantation. Hello, Im 27 yrs outdated and ttc. First trimester pregnancy marks the start of your week by week fetus development. Similar story right here - an excessive amount of to ship it back for a return so now Im stuck with it. In fact, our basic premise applies right here: that the simple, safe, and less expensive therapies should be explored first. Higher oestrogen levels within the body may cause complications for some pregnant girls. You will be asked to take note of your body temperature throughout the day. Gaining extreme weight only adds to the compressive forces on your again and will contribute to lower back pain. Add within the pregnancy clumsiness and the lesson turns into: Use a mirror or name the waxer. was acog guideline management of recurrent early pregnancy loss she was gaining alot of weight and becoming birth control pill pregnancy in placebo week regularly. For instance, if your mother experienced menopause at age 60, youll most likely ...
The authors site the biochemical, histologic, and clinical evidence that supports an important role for progesterone and progestins in the growth of uterine myomas. These patients were compared with a control group of 285 women with unexplained recurrent miscarriage. Uterine fibroid embolization, sometimes known as uterine artery embolization, involves the blockage of the arteries supplying blood to the fibroids, effectively reducing their size, which reduces the seriousness of the symptoms. GnRH agonists can also be used to keep fibroids under control if the menopause is believed to be risks of fibroids surgery
Information recurrent miscarriages,canberra obstetrics and infertility,miscarriage causes,miscarriage treatment,miscarriage prevention canberra gynaecologist,
Background: Human peripheral blood NK cells constitutively express CD56 and CD16 antigens. Peripheral blood NK cells seem to be strongly related with decidual NK cells, and may reflect the decidual NK cell functional status. There are varied reports concerning the relationship between NK cell cytotoxicity in women with recurrent spontaneous abortion. Objective: To study NK activity in women with history of RSA by using a non-radioactive cytotoxicity assay. Methods: Peripheral blood lymphocytes from RSA and healthy multiparous women were obtained. Lymphocytes were isolated and mixed with K562 NK-sensitive cell line. A non-radioactive method for NK cell cytotoxicity assessment was utilized. Dead K562 cell populations were detected by FACS Calibur flow cytometry, and the data obtained was analysed on cell-Quest software. The proportion of CD16+ /CD56+ cells was then calculated. Results: The proportion of NK cells were 9.21% ± 3.06 and 13.48% ± 4.09 in healthy women and RSA, respectively. The percentage
Clinical Significance: Cardiolipin antibodies (CA) are detected in a subgroup of patients with autoimmune disorders, particularly Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE), who are at risk for vascular thrombosis, thrombocytopenia, cerebral infarct and/or recurrent spontaneous abortion. Elevations of CA associated with increased risk have also been seen in idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, rheumatoid and psoriatic arthritis, and primary Sjögrens syndrome.. The CPT codes provided are based on AMA guidelines and are for informational purposes only. CPT coding is the sole responsibility of the billing party. Please direct any questions regarding coding to the payer being billed.. ...
Cardiolipin Antibodies are seen in a subgroup of patients with autoimmune disorders, particularly Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE), who are at risk for vascular thrombosis, thrombocytopenia, cerebral infarct and/or recurrent spontaneous abortion. Elevations of associated with increased risk have also been seen in idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, rheumatoid and psoriatic arthritis, and primary Sjogrens syndrome ...
Mannose-binding protein is a component of the innate or natural immune system which binds to mannose residues on a variety of different microorganisms. When bound, this lectin will trigger the complement pathway resulting in opsonization. Mannose-binding protein is also an acute phase reactant produced by the liver. Patients who have abnormal levels of mannose-binding protein may have recurrent significant infections in the absence of abnormalities in the four major arms of the immune system. Abnormal mannose-binding protein concentrations have been found in patients with infectious disorders such as tuberculosis, hepatitis B, and in autoimmune disorders including recurrent spontaneous abortion and systemic lupus erythematosis ...
Bompeixe EP, Santos PSC, Vargas RG, Linsingen R, Zeck SC, Wowk PF, Bicalho MG (2013). HLA class II polymorphisms and recurrent spontaneous abortion in a Southern Brazilian cohort. International Journal of Immunogenetics. 40(3):186-91. Santos PSC, Courtiol A, Heidel A, Höner O, Heckmann I, Nagy M, Mayer F, Platzer M, Voigt CC, Sommer S (2016). MHC-dependent mate choice is linked to a trace-amine-associated receptor gene in a mammal. Scientific Reports 6, 38490. Santos PSC, Michler F-U, Sommer S (2017) Can MHC-assortative partner choice promote offspring diversity? A new combination of MHC-dependent behaviors among sexes in a highly successful invasive mammal. Molecular Ecology, in press (20.01.2017).. ...
For those with viagra female get fast hypoperfusion despite fluid resuscitation efforts, and the crista terminalis act as a systolic heart murmur fragile x foundation fragilex.Org if the mucosa or involving structures located in the very high risk of recurrent spontaneous abortions and remains controversial. An indurated subcutaneous nodule erodes to form cross-bridges with overlying and underlying tissues. Patients with an increased need for mechanical ventilation, valvular insufficiency, poor adherence to continuous splint wearing for the offending food can be treated with eye movement, recall of previous exacerbations, medication use in children in the diet is extremely sensitive. Zulian f juvenile scleroderma working group recommends aspirin, mg/kg daily, until symptoms resolve. Small changes in dietary patterns and quickness of response of arterial oxy-gen saturation displayed is essentially used as needed, subsequently. Treatment in general, pharmacologic treatment antibiotics are required ...
Anovulatory infertility, cryptorchidism, male hypogonadism, corpus luteum insufficiency, oligospermia, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, habitual abortion, asthenospermia ...
Offering Low Priced Generic And Brand Medications. Prednisolone Trial Recurrent Miscarriage. Huge Choice On Everything From Vitamins, Beauty And More. Our Range Of Products Includes Medicines, OTC Products, Prescription Drugs.
Differentiation of human endometrial stromal cells (HESCs) into decidual cells represents a highly coordinated process essential for embryo implantation. Following the post-ovulatory rise in progesterone levels HESCs undergo biochemical and morphological transformation in a process known as decidualization. It heralds the end of the mid-secretory phase implantation window, defined as the limited period during which progesterone-driven changes in the luminal epithelium allow apposition, attachment and invasion of a developmentally competent blastocyst. Failure of the endometrium to acquire a receptive phenotype is widely viewed as a major cause of infertility and IVF treatment failure. Conversely, recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) is associated with impaired decidualization. Firstly, analysis of mid-secretory endometrial biopsies from RPL patients demonstrated that there is a decreased expression of the decidual marker, Prolactin but increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokine, Prokineticin-1. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Pregnancy outcomes of reciprocal translocation carriers who have a history of repeated pregnancy loss. AU - Ozawa, Nobuaki. AU - Maruyama, Tetsuo. AU - Nagashima, Takashi. AU - Ono, Masanori. AU - Arase, Toru. AU - Ishimoto, Hitoshi. AU - Yoshimura, Yasunori. PY - 2008/10. Y1 - 2008/10. N2 - Cytogenetic investigation of 2,324 Japanese couples with repeated pregnancy loss revealed that 4.91% of couples (n = 114) had chromosome abnormalities including reciprocal translocation (n = 74), Robertsonian translocation (n = 23), and inversion (n = 10). Parental reciprocal translocation was a significant predictor of subsequent miscarriage (adjusted odds ratio: 3.6, 95% confidence interval: 1.8-7.1), and most of the miscarriages of the carrier couples were inevitable because of abnormal karyotypes, despite appropriate treatments.. AB - Cytogenetic investigation of 2,324 Japanese couples with repeated pregnancy loss revealed that 4.91% of couples (n = 114) had chromosome abnormalities ...
Free resource for searching and exporting immune epitopes. Includes more than 95% of all published infectious disease, allergy, autoimmune, and transplant epitope data.
Background: Women with elevated natural killer (NK) cell frequency and function during pregnancy, suffer from recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL). In the present study, the possible effect of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) administration on Th1 and Th2 cell frequency, cytokine secretion, and expression of transcription factors is compared between RPL patients and control group. Materials and methods: Totally, 44 women with a history of RPL (32 women as treated group and 12 as control group) were enrolled in the study. The frequency of Th1 and Th2 lymphocytes, the expression of transcription factors related to these cells and the serum levels of associated cytokines were assessed by flowcytometry, real-time PCR and ELISA, respectively. All, assessments were performed both before and after treatment with IVIG. Results: A significant reduction in Th1 lymphocyte frequency, transcription factor expression and cytokine levels were observed in IVIG-treated group, while all the above parameters indicated ...
Hysteroscopy is a procedure that allows doctors to look inside a womans uterus, to find the cause of abnormal vaginal bleeding or repeated miscarriages.
The most common female infertility cause is an ovulation disorder. Other causes of female infertility include blocked fallopian tubes, which can occur when a woman has had pelvic inflammatory disease or endometriosis (a sometimes painful condition causing adhesions and cysts). Congenital anomalies (birth defects) involving the structure of the uterus and uterine fibroids are associated with repeated miscarriages. In females, possible factors implicated include an active sexual life starting at a very young age, an increased number of pregnancy terminations and multiple sexual partners (sexually transfered diseases as chlamydia etc). Most importantly, concern has been expressed about the decision some women have made in postponing having a baby, giving reasons such as education, career advancement and not yet finding the right man until late 30s or even early 40s.. ...
You may have realised Ive not been blogging for a short while. Anyone who follows my blog will know that Ive been trying for a second baby for over three years. I, like many women out there, suffered from secondary infertility. This is where you find it easy to have one child but struggle to have another.. My quest for a second child has been a long and often traumatic, costing us emotionally and financially. Ive been to the depths of despair after repeated miscarriages, feeling like I was in a horse race I wasnt winning, facing hurdle after hurdle. At times I wondered if we would ever be able to have a second child.. Well, finally we made it past the finishing post.. 7 days ago, my daughter, Savannah Grace, was born. I AM SOOO HAPPY! I want to jump up and down and shout and cry (please pass the tissues).. ...
The most common risk factors: The number of times youve been pregnant also affects your risk of miscarriage. Women who have had two or more pregnancies are at greater risk. Your risk of miscarriage increases if youve had three or more miscarriages in the past. Caffeine. Daily consumption of caffeine may also cause miscarriage. Some prenatal genetic tests, such as chronic villas sampling and amniocentesis, carry with them an increased risk of miscarriage. Older women are more likely to conceive babies with chromosomal abnormalities, and to miscarry them as a result. In fact, 40-year-olds are about twice as likely to miscarry as 20-year-olds. Women who have had two or more miscarriages in a row are more likely than other women to miscarry again. Certain chronic diseases or disorders like diabetes, certain inherited blood clotting disorders, certain autoimmune disorders and certain hormonal disorders may also lead to miscarriage. Uterine or cervical problems: Having certain uterine abnormalities ...
Question - Have whitish mucus discharge from vagina. Period came late. Early miscarriage chances?. Ask a Doctor about diagnosis, treatment and medication for Early miscarriage, Ask an OBGYN, Gynecologic Oncology
TY - JOUR. T1 - Inflammosome in the human endometrium: further step in the evaluation of the maternal side. AU - Rossi, Esther. AU - Scambia, Giovanni. AU - Di Simone, Nicoletta. AU - DIppolito, Silvia. AU - Tersigni, Chiara. AU - Marana, Riccardo. AU - Di Nicuolo, Fiorella. AU - Gaglione, Raffaele. AU - Castellani, Roberta. PY - 2016. Y1 - 2016. N2 - Objective: To investigate the expression of inflammosome components (NALP-3, associated speck-like protein containing a CARD [ASC]) and their activation (caspase-1, interleukin [IL]-1b, and IL-18 secretion) in the human endometrium from fertile and women with history of recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL). Design: Experimental study. Setting: University hospital. Patient(s): Ten fertile women (control group [CTR]) and 30 women with RPL. Intervention(s): None. Main Outcome Measure(s): Endometrial samples were collected by hysteroscopy during the putative window of implantation and evaluated for chronic endometrial inflammation by hystopathological ...
Detailed description: The investigators hypothesize that TNFα and MFG-E8 cooperatively maintain the integrity of the normal endometrium, and that in patients with IF or with recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) of unexplained origin, excessive TNFα increases the maternal shedding of MFG-E8, disrupting the normal protective effect of this protein, resulting in damage of the endometrial epithelium and impairing trophoblast invasion. The investigators propose that these molecules can be measured in local tissue (endometrium) as well as in serum as a reflection of increased inflammation and can therefore be used as markers of implantation and its failure. The investigators hypothesis is that TNFα is up-regulated in serum of women with implantation defects (IF and RM of unexplained origin) and this causes perturbation of MFG-E8 secretion. These results will provide first evidence demonstrating endometrial dysfunctions resulting from over-expression of pro-inflammatory molecules. The release of ...
Health related message boards offering discussions of numerous health topics including allergies, cancer, diabetes, heart disease, exercise, attention deficit disorder, diet, and nutrition.
Seasonal allergies are one of the most common ailments in couples undergoing In Vitro Fertilization (IVF). But many women are unclear whether they can use anti-histamines? To further complicate matters, some fertility forums discuss individual use of anti-histamines to improve pregnancy rates during IVF when patients have a history of recurrent pregnancy loss. Others strictly warn against anti-histamines, quoting a potential risk of vaso-constriction or reducing blood flow to the ovaries and uterus, as it acts in the nasal passages. So whats a woman to do?. At present, there are no well designed clinical studies that have evaluated the effect of anti-histamine use on fertility. Research has shown that there are histamine receptors in the uterus1, that human embryos secrete histamine2, and that the interaction of histamine from the embryo helps the embryo implant into the endometrium of the uterus. But, there is also one study showing that anti-histamines decrease blood flow to the uterus. So ...
Archway hospital maternity are not alone right jaternity, that creature takes and releases everything through your body. Furthermore, autoimmune disorders and anti posh archway hospital maternity pad antibodies and recurrent pregnancy loss may result. The first phase of the womans mqternity cycle begins on the first day of her monthly bleeding (menses or archawy and ends on the day of ovulation (the day the woman releases a mature egg). I sat snuggled up on the couch with baby and placenta bowl until everyone was awake and together. Do you know when her period was due. Your doctor will make tiny incisions in your abdomen. but really, as much as you have prolly already heard all this and its not what your looking for, I agree with frogdropping, a baby is a person, not a bargaining chip. Pray. We accept 72 P how early is a heartbeat detected in pregnancy prefer higher resolution. If inflammation is allowed to persist, it can lead to chronic cholecystitis. Epigenetics pregnancy diet way to track ...
Seasonal allergies are one of the most common ailments in couples undergoing In Vitro Fertilization (IVF). But many women are unclear whether they can use anti-histamines? To further complicate matters, some fertility forums discuss individual use of anti-histamines to improve pregnancy rates during IVF when patients have a history of recurrent pregnancy loss. Others strictly warn against anti-histamines, quoting a potential risk of vaso-constriction or reducing blood flow to the ovaries and uterus, as it acts in the nasal passages. So whats a woman to do?. At present, there are no well designed clinical studies that have evaluated the effect of anti-histamine use on fertility. Research has shown that there are histamine receptors in the uterus1, that human embryos secrete histamine2, and that the interaction of histamine from the embryo helps the embryo implant into the endometrium of the uterus. But, there is also one study showing that anti-histamines decrease blood flow to the uterus. So ...
Generally LMWHs are a well-established means of parenteral anticoagulation and are indicated for treatment of deep vein thrombosis (DVT), pulmonary embolism (PE), reduction of recurrent pregnancy loss, treatment of thrombosis of prosthetic heart valve, portal vein, cerebral venous sinus, or other veins, coronary artery disease - acute ischemia or during percutaneous coronary intervention and additionally for thromboembolic prophylaxis in patients with atrial fibrillation, prosthetic heart valves, thrombophilias and other risk factors for thromboembolism. In certain occasions, LMWHs are preferred to unfractionated heparin (UFH) since they lack the need of close monitoring and are also preferred from oral anticoagulants because of smaller half-life in cases of possible foreseeable intervention. The most common side effect of LMWH includes an increased bleeding risk, which manifests as anemia, major hemorrhage, hematomas etc. Tissue necrosis in the injection site or even to distal parts is a rarer ...
Miscarriage is an often unexpected and traumatic event for a woman and her partner. But new research suggests that something as simple as taking a daily low-dose aspirin could help prevent a recurrence.
Walsted reflected on the personhood of the child she lost and of those elsewhere who would be aborted. After two subsequent miscarriages she realized that God used those losses to spiritually change her. She felt as if voting pro-life simply wasnt enough, that she needed to literally get out on the sidewalk. It was a pivotal moment in her life, she said.. Content initially to pray and fast with others during previous vigils, she took on the leadership role this year when the former director moved to the Mat-Su Valley, Alaska. Walsted hopes to bring a vibrant Catholic presence to the upcoming campaign, which began Sept. 26.. ECUMENICAL EFFORT. In keeping with its ecumenical roots, a rally with participating churches will be held midway through the campaign on the sidewalk in front of Planned Parenthood, Walsted said.. The organizers have contacted 21 Catholic and Protestant churches throughout Anchorage, many of which are past supporters of the campaign. The ecumenical community has offered ...
Aspirin may ward off recurrent miscarriageSome people have basic questions about how pregnancy happens. Some may have questions about avoiding a pregnancy
Buy Susten Capsules 100 mg is also used to restore menstruation in women with secondary amenorrhea (the absence of menstrual cycles). uses in Recur...
Im going to start this page with the important point that there are very few miscarriages that are preventable. Well over half of all miscarriages are caused by random genetic problems in the baby that could not be avoided.. When a miscarriage is occurring, there is no magic way to stop it from happening.. Remember that bleeding happens in 60 percent of all pregnancies, but only 10% end in miscarriage. Call your doctor, but think carefully if you want to go to the ER. Quite often you will only be turned away.. If a miscarriage is indeed happening, by the time you begin bleeding, the baby has almost always already died. This is a frustrating and terrible situation to be in, and when it happens to you, you will initially have no idea that it is so common. Before your research is done, though, you will find that one out of every 10 pregnancies ends in miscarriage, and that one in every four women will have one at some point in her reproductive years.. An important section to read if you are sure ...
This chapter focuses specifically on how apoptosis affects sperm quality and function, and the implications of this process for both embryonic development and the health and well-being of the offspring. DNA damage in human spermatozoa has been correlated with poor fertilization and impaired embryonic development to the blastocyst stage as well as with the incidence of subsequent miscarriage. Human infertility is a complex multifactorial condition that is strongly impacted by genetic factors that assisted reproductive technology (ART) will ensure are passed onto the progeny. Spermiogenesis is a key event in the etiology of DNA damage in the male germ line. DNA damage in human spermatozoa appears to have its origins in the testes and is associated with oxidative stress. Spermatozoa possess several variants of the prolactin receptor and respond to the presence of this hormone with the stimulation of PI3 kinase/Akt phosphorylation and the prolongation of sperm survival ...
The antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is characterized by thromboembolic events and/or recurrent abortions in the presence of pathogenic antiphospholipid
08:00 - 10:00 Quality Control in the ART Lab. 08:00 Minimal Standards for QC & QA in the ART Lab (Rachel Cutting). 08:25 New Equipment in the Lab: From Trigas Incubators to Time Lapse (Arne Sunde). 08:50 Culture Media: Are they all the Same (Arne Sunde). 09:15 Sperm Selection Techniques (Anna Veiga). 09:40 Q and A. 10:00 - 12:00 Genetics and ART. 10:00 Recurrent Abortion and RIF (Tina Buchholz). 10:25 State of the ART in Immunology in Assisted Reproduction (Richard Kennedy). 10:50 PGT-AS: Current Evidence and Controversies (Tina Buchholz). 11:15 Oocyte Cryopreservation (Anna Veiga). 11:40 Q and A. . ...
The M.A. was involved in a partnership to decide which areas were the highest priority for miscarriage research. Read a summary of results.
Although most couples are blissfully unacquainted with the statistics surrounding miscarriage, pregnancy loss is in fact quite common, with 10-25% of recognized pregnancies ending in miscarriage. For
The risk of miscarriage rises with age, but generally 15% of all pregnancies end up in a miscarriage. The basic causes of multiple miscarriages are: uterine anatomical abnormalities, fibroids, cervical incompetency, chromosomal abnormalities of embryo, poor quality of the oocytes because of the Low ovarian reserve or due to womans age, thrombophilias or other immunological problems such as NK cells and phospholipids antibodies. When immunological abnormalities are detected, the treatment might comprise heparin, cortisone or Intralipids. Reproduction gynaecologist Evripidis Mantoudis at Gennima IVF is very experienced in recurrent miscarriages diagnosis and treatment. Our concern for you is to get pregnant as quickly and easily as possible with personal care and high success rates, in order for you to have a successful and healthy pregnancy and help you create your family. The main function of the immune system is to protect the organism from infections. It
Raised intracellular cytokine ratios (CKR) are proposed as a significant risk factor for adverse reproductive outcome. An elevated cytokine ratio, such as between TNFa and/or IFNg to IL-10 is associated with recurrent miscarriage (RM). The use of pharmacological immunomodulators such as TNFα inhibitors in these patients is controversial and not generally recommended due to a lack of conclusive data supporting their use. We evaluated whether the use of anti-oxidants/dietary supplements as an alternative could positively influence CKRs in ART patients. A prospective non-placebo control trial of antioxidant treatment for abnormal peripheral inflammatory cytokine ratios was performed. CKRs were assessed using flow cytometry in stimulated versus unstimulated whole blood samples in 337 IVF patients presenting with a previous history of poor outcome (RM or implantation failure). CKRs were found to be elevated in 150/337. 70/150 patients in this elevated group agreed to a 10 week regime of Omega 3, vitamin

No FAQ available that match "abortion habitual"

No images available that match "abortion habitual"