Effects of increasing ruminally degraded nitrogen and abomasal casein infusion on net portal flux of nutrients in yearling heifers consuming a high-grain diet. (1/204)Seven Meat Animal Research Center (MARC) III heifers (410+/-25 kg) fitted with hepatic portal, mesenteric venous, carotid catheters, and an abomasal cannula were used in a 7 x 5 incomplete Latin square design experiment. The objective was to evaluate the effects of increasing levels of ruminally degradable N (RDN) with or without the addition of abomasally infused casein on portal-drained visceral (PDV) flux of nutrients. Treatments consisted of dietary CP percentage levels of 9.5 (control), control plus .72% dietary urea (11.5U), control plus 1.44% dietary urea (13.5U), control plus abomasally infused casein (250 g/d; 11.5C), or control plus .72% dietary urea and abomasally infused casein (250 g/d; 13.5UC). All diets contained (DM basis) 80% ground corn, 15% corn silage, and 5% dry supplement and were provided for ad libitum consumption. Nitrogen intake increased (linear, P < .001) as CP increased from 9.5 to 13.5%. Portal-drained visceral release of ammonia N increased (linear, P < .10) as RDN increased, and was greater (P < .05) when protein was fed compared with heifers fed control (P < .10). Urea N removal by PDV was not affected ( P > . 10) by level of RDN but was greatest when 11.5C was fed and least when 13.5UC was fed. Net alpha-amino N (AAN) release by PDV was greatest when 13.5UC was fed (309 mmol/h), least when 9.5% CP was fed (112 mmol/h), and intermediate for the other groups (205 to 252 mmol/h). These data suggest that removal of N by the PDV may promote microbial protein synthesis when dietary RDN is low. When RDN needs have been met and amino acids are deficient for the host, escape protein should be fed to increase amino acid absorption. (+info)
Vagotomy suppresses cephalic phase insulin release in sheep. (2/204)The effect of selective vagotomy of the abomasum, pylorus, duodenum and liver on insulin release during the cephalic phase of digestion was investigated in wethers and lactating ewes. Electrical stimulation of the cervical vagus nerves was carried out to test the completeness of the vagotomies performed. In experiment 1, using wethers, the abomasal, pyloric and duodenal branches (ADV; n = 7) or the hepatic, abomasal, pyloric and duodenal branches (HADV; n = 10) of the ventral and/or dorsal vagus nerves were cut; a third group of wethers underwent sham-operation (SO; n = 8). In experiment 2, vagotomy (ADV; n = 5) or sham-operations (SO; n = 5) were carried out in lactating ewes. Jugular blood was drawn before and after presentation of food for glucose and insulin determination (experiments 1 and 2) or before, during and after the electrical stimulation of the peripheral ends of the cut cervical vagus nerves in randomly selected lactating ewes (experiment 3: ADV = 3, SO = 3) and wethers (experiment 4: ADV = 4, HADV = 4, SO = 4), for determination of insulin only. Presentation of food caused an immediate and significant (P < 0.05) rise in plasma insulin levels in SO animals compared with ADV or HADV wethers (experiment 1) or ADV ewes (experiment 2) without any significant change in blood glucose concentrations. In comparison with the SO group the baseline-corrected areas under the insulin response curve were significantly (P < 0.05) smaller for the respective vagotomized groups for periods 1-2, 2-4 and 4-6 min (experiment 1) and 1-2 and 2-4 min (experiment 2) after presentation of food. Total area under the response curve for 10 min was significantly (P < 0.05) lower (experiment 1) and tended (P < 0.10) to be lower (experiment 2) for the vagotomized groups compared with that of the control groups. Direct electrical stimulation of the cervical vagus nerves raised plasma insulin concentrations to significantly (P < 0.05) higher levels in the SO ewes but not in the ADV ewes (experiment 3). It was also evident that in experiment 1, HADV did not have any additive effect over that achieved by ADV alone. These results indicate that the vagal innervation of the gut mediates insulin release during the cephalic phase of feeding in sheep. It is concluded that insulin secretion from the pancreatic -cells in response to either food-related reflex activation of the vagal nuclei in the hypothalamus or direct cervical vagus nerve stimulation is mediated through the vagal efferent fibres carried in the abomasal, pyloric and duodenal branches of the vagus nerves in sheep. (+info)
Phylogenetic characterization of 'Candidatus Helicobacter bovis', a new gastric helicobacter in cattle. (3/204)Recently helicobacter-like organisms have been reported in the pyloric part of the abomasum of calves and adult cattle. Cultivation of these spiral bacteria has not been successful to date. In the present study, comparative 16S rDNA sequence analysis was used to determine the taxonomic position of these bacteria. Seven abomasal biopsies of adult cattle were sampled from different Belgian and Dutch farms. In all samples the presence of helicobacter-like organisms was demonstrated by biochemical, immunohistochemical and electron microscopical data. Bacterial 16S rDNA was amplified by PCR and sequences were determined either by direct or indirect sequence analysis. Pairwise comparisons revealed all sequences to be more than 99% homologous. Phylogenetic analysis placed the organism, corresponding to the reference sequence R2XA, within the genus Helicobacter. A diagnostic PCR assay was designed, differentiating all of the bovine 16S rDNA sequences from Helicobacter and Wolinella species. The low similarity level towards Helicobacter bilis (92.8%), its closest validly named neighbour, indicates that this novel taxon is indeed a novel Helicobacter species. An in situ hybridization procedure associated the bovine sequences to the helicobacter-like organisms in the abomasum. The name 'Candidatus Helicobacter bovis' is proposed for this new abomasal helicobacter from cattle. (+info)
Development of a selective medium for isolation of Helicobacter pylori from cattle and beef samples. (4/204)Helicobacter pylori has been isolated from the human stomach with media containing only minimal selective agents. However, current research on the transmission and sources of infection requires more selective media due to the higher numbers of contaminants in environmental, oral, and fecal samples. The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate detection techniques that are sufficiently selective to isolate H. pylori from potential animal and food sources. Since H. pylori survives in the acidic environment of the stomach, low pH with added urea was studied as a potential selective combination. H. pylori grew fairly well on H. pylori Special Peptone plating medium supplemented with 10 mM urea at pH 4. 5, but this pH did not sufficiently inhibit the growth of contaminants. Various antibiotic combinations were then compared, and a combination consisting of 10 mg of vancomycin per liter, 5 mg of amphotericin B per liter, 10 mg of cefsulodin per liter, 62,000 IU of polymyxin B sulfate per liter, 40 mg of trimethoprim per liter, and 20 mg of sulfamethoxazole per liter proved to be highly selective but still allowed robust colonies of H. pylori to grow. This medium was highly selective for recovering H. pylori from cattle and beef samples, and it is possible that it could be used to enhance the recovery of this bacterium from human and environmental samples, which may be contaminated with large numbers of competing microorganisms. (+info)
Cross-sectional study of the association of abomasal displacement or volvulus with serum electrolyte and mineral concentrations in dairy cows. (5/204)The objective of this study was to evaluate serum mineral and electrolyte concentrations at the time of on-farm diagnosis of left displaced abomasum, right displaced abomasum, or abomasal volvulus in dairy cows. Data were collected from 104 affected cows and 96 control cows matched with cases, based on herd, parity, and stage of lactation. Cows with abomasal displacement or volvulus had significantly lower calcium, phosphorous, magnesium, potassium, and chloride concentrations and increased anion gap at the time of diagnosis compared with control cows from the same herds. The percentages of cases and controls with total serum calcium concentrations below the lower limit of the laboratory reference range (2.08 mmol/L [8.3 mg/dL]) were 70% and 23%, respectively. Based on the large percentage of cases with hypocalcemia, administering calcium salts at the time of treatment of field cases of abomasal displacement or volvulus may be beneficial. (+info)
Influence of abomasal infusion of high levels of lysine or methionine, or both, on ruminal fermentation, eating behavior, and performance of lactating dairy cows. (6/204)Four multiparous late-lactation Holstein cows were fed a basal ration designed to be co-limiting in intestinally absorbable supplies of methionine and lysine. Cows were supplemented with no amino acids, lysine by abomasal infusion to 140% of the calculated intestinally absorbable requirement, methionine by abomasal infusion to 140% of requirement, or both amino acids in a 4 x 4 Latin square design with 28-d periods. Unsupplemented cows consumed 23.8 kg/d of dry matter and produced 36.9 kg/d of milk containing 3.70% fat, 3.22% protein, and 4.82% lactose. Cows ate less dry matter and produced less milk and milk lactose, and tended (P = .06 or .08) to produce less milk protein when abomasally infused with methionine alone or together with lysine. Infusion of lysine alone resulted in production values numerically between those of unsupplemented cows and those cows supplemented with methionine alone or together with lysine. Evaluation of the results with two metabolic models of dairy cows indicated that performance of unsupplemented cows may have been limited by delivery of metabolizable or digestible protein, or intestinally absorbable lysine, isoleucine, or histidine, depending on the metabolic model used to evaluate animal performance. Regardless, results are consistent with those using nonruminant species, which have shown that imbalanced profiles of intestinally absorbable amino acids are associated with reduced dry matter intake and animal performance. Results also show that negative effects on performance of lactating dairy cows can occur if methionine is supplied at levels substantially in excess of calculated intestinally absorbable requirements, either alone or together with lysine. (+info)
Isolation and characterization of a novel inducible mammalian galectin. (7/204)A novel mammalian galectin cDNA (ovgal11) was isolated by representational difference analysis from sheep stomach (abomasal) tissue infected with the nematode parasite, Haemonchus contortus. The mRNA is greatly up-regulated in helminth larval infected gastrointestinal tissue subject to inflammation and eosinophil infiltration. Immunohistological analysis indicates that the protein is localized in the cytoplasm and nucleus of upper epithelial cells of the gastrointestinal tract. The protein is also detected in mucus samples collected from infected abomasum but not from uninfected tissue. The restricted and inducible expression of ovgal11 mRNA and limited secretion of the protein support the hypothesis that OVGAL11 may be involved in gastrointestinal immune/inflammatory responses and possibly protection against infection. (+info)
The effect of the plasma glucose level on the abomasal function in dairy cows. (8/204)We have studied the effect of plasma glucose level on the abomasal outflow rate of fluid using a hyperinsulinemic glucose clamp technique in dairy cows. Four nonpregnant, nonlactating cows were subjected to one of the following treatments: hyperinsulinemic normoglycemic clamp; hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemic clamp; hyperinsulinemic hyperglycemic clamp; or, as a control, an intravenous infusion of .9% sodium chloride in a Latin square design. The cows were previously fitted with a permanent fistula in the abomasum and the outflow rate of abomasal fluid was determined using Co-EDTA as a marker assuming that the outflow followed first-order kinetics. The abomasal pH was also registered. Insulin was infused continuously through a jugular catheter at a rate of 4.8 mU. kg(-1)min(-1) for 2.5 h in the three clamp treatments. A glucose solution was infused through the catheter at a variable rate to achieve a circulating concentration, near the preinfusion glucose level (approximately 4.1 mmol/L), 2 mmol/L below the preinfusion level, and 2 mmol/L above the preinfusion level for the three hyperinsulinemic treatments, respectively. There was a significant effect of treatment on the rate of abomasal outflow (P < .001). The rate of abomasal outflow was highest for the control treatment (7.8%/min). The slowest outflow was observed in the hyperglycemic cows (3.40%/min). The hypoglycemic and normoglycemic cows showed intermediate rates (6.0%/min and 5.2%/min, respectively). The rate of outflow for the hyperglycemic cows was significantly lower than for all the other treatments (P < .01). Abomasal pH was affected by treatment (P < .05). The highest pH was observed in the hyperglycemic cows (pH 2.3). The values for the other three treatments ranged from pH 1.9 to 2.0. These results show that hyperglycemia reduced the rate of outflow and increased the pH of abomasal fluid in dairy cows. An elevated plasma glucose level thus can be considered as a potential risk factor in the pathogenesis of left-displaced abomasum. (+info)
The word "haemon" comes from the Greek word for blood, and "chiasis" means a change or alteration in the normal condition of the body. So, haemonchosis literally means a change or alteration in the body caused by bleeding.
There are many different types of stomach diseases, some of which include:
1. Gastritis: This is inflammation of the stomach lining, which can be caused by infection, autoimmune disorders, or excessive alcohol consumption.
2. Peptic ulcer: This is a sore on the lining of the stomach or duodenum (the first part of the small intestine). Peptic ulcers are often caused by infection with the bacterium Helicobacter pylori, but they can also be caused by excessive acid production.
3. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD): This is a condition in which stomach acid flows back up into the esophagus, causing symptoms such as heartburn and difficulty swallowing.
4. Stomach cancer: This is a type of cancer that affects the stomach lining, and it can be caused by a variety of factors including age, diet, and family history.
5. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD): This is a chronic condition that causes inflammation in the digestive tract, including the stomach. Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are examples of IBD.
6. Gastrointestinal motility disorders: These are conditions that affect the muscles and nerves of the digestive system, causing problems with movement and contraction of the stomach and intestines.
7. Stomach polyps: These are growths on the lining of the stomach that can be benign or cancerous.
8. Hiatal hernia: This is a condition in which part of the stomach bulges up into the chest through a hole in the diaphragm, which can cause symptoms such as heartburn and difficulty swallowing.
9. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD): This is a chronic form of acid reflux that can cause symptoms such as heartburn and difficulty swallowing.
10. Zollinger-Ellison syndrome: This is a rare condition that causes the stomach to produce too much acid, leading to symptoms such as heartburn, nausea, and vomiting.
These are just some of the many possible causes of stomach pain. It's important to see a doctor if you experience persistent or severe stomach pain, especially if it is accompanied by other symptoms such as fever, bleeding, or difficulty swallowing. Your doctor can perform tests and examinations to determine the cause of your stomach pain and recommend appropriate treatment.
Cattle diseases refer to any health issues that affect cattle, including bacterial, viral, and parasitic infections, as well as genetic disorders and environmental factors. These diseases can have a significant impact on the health and productivity of cattle, as well as the livelihoods of farmers and ranchers who rely on them for their livelihood.
Types of Cattle Diseases
There are many different types of cattle diseases, including:
1. Bacterial diseases, such as brucellosis, anthrax, and botulism.
2. Viral diseases, such as bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) and bluetongue.
3. Parasitic diseases, such as heartwater and gapeworm.
4. Genetic disorders, such as polledness and cleft palate.
5. Environmental factors, such as heat stress and nutritional deficiencies.
Symptoms of Cattle Diseases
The symptoms of cattle diseases can vary depending on the specific disease, but may include:
1. Fever and respiratory problems
2. Diarrhea and vomiting
3. Weight loss and depression
4. Swelling and pain in joints or limbs
5. Discharge from the eyes or nose
6. Coughing or difficulty breathing
7. Lameness or reluctance to move
8. Changes in behavior, such as aggression or lethargy
Diagnosis and Treatment of Cattle Diseases
Diagnosing cattle diseases can be challenging, as the symptoms may be similar for different conditions. However, veterinarians use a combination of physical examination, laboratory tests, and medical history to make a diagnosis. Treatment options vary depending on the specific disease and may include antibiotics, vaccines, anti-inflammatory drugs, and supportive care such as fluids and nutritional supplements.
Prevention of Cattle Diseases
Preventing cattle diseases is essential for maintaining the health and productivity of your herd. Some preventative measures include:
1. Proper nutrition and hydration
2. Regular vaccinations and parasite control
3. Sanitary living conditions and frequent cleaning
4. Monitoring for signs of illness and seeking prompt veterinary care if symptoms arise
5. Implementing biosecurity measures such as isolating sick animals and quarantining new animals before introduction to the herd.
It is important to work closely with a veterinarian to develop a comprehensive health plan for your cattle herd, as they can provide guidance on vaccination schedules, parasite control methods, and disease prevention strategies tailored to your specific needs.
Cattle diseases can have a significant impact on the productivity and profitability of your herd, as well as the overall health of your animals. It is essential to be aware of the common cattle diseases, their symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention methods to ensure the health and well-being of your herd.
By working closely with a veterinarian and implementing preventative measures such as proper nutrition and sanitary living conditions, you can help protect your cattle from disease and maintain a productive and profitable herd. Remember, prevention is key when it comes to managing cattle diseases.
There are several types of ketosis, including:
1. Nutritional ketosis: This is the most common type of ketosis and is achieved through a low-carb diet.
2. Therapeutic ketosis: This type of ketosis is used to treat medical conditions such as epilepsy, type 2 diabetes, and Alzheimer's disease.
3. Exogenous ketosis: This type of ketosis is achieved through the use of supplements that stimulate ketone production, such as ketone esters or medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs).
4. Endogenous ketosis: This type of ketosis is achieved through fasting or a very low-carb diet and is characterized by the body's natural production of ketones.
The benefits of ketosis include weight loss, improved blood sugar control, increased energy levels, and reduced inflammation. However, it can also have some drawbacks such as constipation, bad breath, and muscle cramps. It is important to consult a healthcare professional before starting any type of ketosis plan, especially if you have any underlying medical conditions.
The exact cause of parturient paresis is not well understood, but it is believed to be related to changes in hormone levels and the physical demands of pregnancy on the body. Some factors that may contribute to the development of the condition include:
* Hormonal changes: Fluctuating levels of estrogen and progesterone during pregnancy can affect the nervous system and cause muscle weakness or paralysis.
* Physical strain: The growing uterus and weight gain during pregnancy can put strain on the muscles and joints, leading to fatigue and muscle weakness.
* Sleep disturbances: Poor sleep quality and quantity during pregnancy can contribute to muscle weakness and paralysis.
The symptoms of parturient paresis typically occur suddenly and may include:
* Weakness or paralysis of one side of the body, including the arm, leg, or facial muscles.
* Sudden head movement or strain, such as bending over or lifting.
* Difficulty speaking or swallowing.
* Numbness or tingling sensations in the affected limbs.
* Weakness or paralysis of the muscles used for breathing.
Parturient paresis is typically diagnosed based on a physical examination and medical history. Imaging studies such as MRI or CT scans may be ordered to rule out other conditions that may be causing the symptoms. Electromyography (EMG) and nerve conduction studies may also be performed to assess muscle function and nerve damage.
The treatment of parturient paresis is primarily focused on managing the symptoms and supporting the woman during childbirth. Treatment options may include:
* Physical therapy to maintain muscle strength and mobility.
* Pain management strategies, such as breathing exercises or medication.
* Supportive devices such as braces or slings to assist with movement and lifting.
* Home modifications to enhance safety and accessibility.
* In some cases, corticosteroid injections or other treatments may be recommended to reduce inflammation and promote healing.
Parturient paresis can lead to several complications during pregnancy and childbirth, including:
* Preterm labor and delivery.
* Gestational diabetes.
* Respiratory problems.
There is no guaranteed way to prevent parturient paresis, but there are several strategies that may help reduce the risk of developing this condition during pregnancy and childbirth. These include:
* Maintaining a healthy weight before pregnancy and gaining appropriate weight during pregnancy.
* Engaging in regular physical activity during pregnancy, as approved by your healthcare provider.
* Avoiding heavy lifting and bending during pregnancy.
* Getting regular prenatal care to monitor for any potential complications.
* Practicing good posture and body mechanics during pregnancy and childbirth.
It is important to discuss any concerns or questions about parturient paresis with your healthcare provider before, during, and after pregnancy and childbirth. They can help determine the best course of action for your individual situation and provide guidance on how to manage and prevent this condition.
The infection occurs when a person or animal ingests food or water contaminated with the parasitic eggs or larvae. Once inside the body, the worms migrate to the intestines where they feed on the host's nutrients and cause inflammation and other symptoms.
Symptoms of trichostrongyloidiasis can include abdominal pain, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, and weight loss. In severe cases, the infection can lead to intestinal blockages, anemia, and other complications.
Diagnosis of trichostrongyloidiasis typically involves a physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests such as fecal analysis or blood tests to detect the presence of the parasite or its antigens. Treatment usually involves administering an anthelmintic drug to kill the worms, and symptomatic treatment to manage any inflammation or complications.
Prevention of trichostrongyloidiasis primarily involves improving sanitation and hygiene practices, such as properly storing and cooking food, and avoiding consumption of raw or undercooked meat. In areas where the infection is common, it may also be necessary to treat water sources to eliminate any parasitic eggs or larvae that may be present.
Sheep diseases can be caused by a variety of factors, including bacteria, viruses, parasites, and environmental factors. Here are some common sheep diseases and their meanings:
1. Scrapie: A fatal neurological disorder that affects sheep and goats, caused by a prion.
2. Ovine Progressive Pneumonia (OPP): A contagious respiratory disease caused by Mycobacterium ovipneumoniae.
3. Maedi-Visna: A slow-progressing pneumonia caused by a retrovirus, which can lead to OPP.
4. Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD): A highly contagious viral disease that affects cloven-hoofed animals, including sheep and goats.
5. Bloat: A condition caused by gas accumulation in the rumen, which can lead to abdominal pain and death if not treated promptly.
6. Pneumonia: An inflammation of the lungs, often caused by bacteria or viruses.
7. Cryptosporidiosis: A diarrheal disease caused by Cryptosporidium parvum, which can be fatal in young lambs.
8. Babesiosis: A blood parasitic disease caused by Babesia oviparasites, which can lead to anemia and death if left untreated.
9. Fascioliasis: A liver fluke infection that can cause anemia, jaundice, and liver damage.
10. Anthrax: A serious bacterial disease caused by Bacillus anthracis, which can be fatal if left untreated.
Sheep diseases can have a significant impact on the health and productivity of flocks, as well as the economy of sheep farming. It is important for sheep farmers to be aware of these diseases and take appropriate measures to prevent and control them.
Nematode infections are parasitic infections caused by nematodes, a type of worm. Nematodes are helminths, which are parasites that infect the body and feed on its tissues and fluids. There are several types of nematode infections, including:
1. Ascariasis: This is an infection caused by the roundworm Ascaris lumbricoides. It is one of the most common intestinal parasitic infections in the world and can cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, and weight loss.
2. Trichinellosis: This is an infection caused by the parasite Trichinella. It can be transmitted through the consumption of undercooked meat, particularly pork or wild game. Symptoms include fever, muscle pain, and diarrhea.
3. Strongyloidiasis: This is an infection caused by the roundworm Strongyloides. It can affect people with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS or cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. Symptoms include diarrhea, abdominal pain, and fatigue.
4. Hookworm infection: This is an infection caused by the hookworm Ancylostoma duodenale. It can be transmitted through contact with contaminated feces or soil. Symptoms include abdominal pain, diarrhea, and anemia.
5. Trichuriasis: This is an infection caused by the whipworm Trichuris trichiura. It can affect people of all ages and can cause symptoms such as diarrhea, abdominal pain, and weight loss.
Nematode infections can be diagnosed through a variety of tests, including stool samples, blood tests, and imaging studies. Treatment depends on the type of infection and may involve medication to kill the parasites, as well as supportive care to manage symptoms. Prevention includes avoiding exposure to contaminated food and water, practicing good hygiene, and using insecticides to control the spread of hookworms.
Overall, nematode infections can have a significant impact on human health, especially in areas with poor sanitation and hygiene. It is important to be aware of these infections and seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time.
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Left displaced abomasum4
- On necropsy, there was a left displaced abomasum (LDA) with fluid sequestration (40-50 gallons) within the rumen. (vin.com)
- 2. Shaver RD. Nutritional risk factors in the etiology of left displaced abomasum in dairy cows: a review. (vin.com)
- Feed intake, milk yield, and metabolic parameters prior to left displaced abomasum in dairy cows. (vin.com)
- For non-surgical percutaneous fixation of the left displaced abomasum (LDA). (pbsanimalhealth.com)
Displaced abomasum in dairy1
- 5. Metabolic predictors of displaced abomasum in dairy cattle. (nih.gov)
- Some Gram+ rumen bacteria showed resistance to abomasum lysozyme. (nih.gov)
- Cows only have one stomach, however, that stomach is divided into 4 compartments: rumen, reticulum, omasum and abomasum. (animalwised.com)
- rumen, reticulum, omasum and abomasum. (animalwised.com)
- Clinical pathological findings included mild focal erosions to severe, diffuse, coagulative necrosis of the mucosa in the rumen, reticulum and omasum and congestion and hemorrhages in the abomasums. (who.int)
- This study describes the results of computed tomography (CT) of the liver, spleen, abomasum, small intestine and large intestine in 30 healthy Saanen goats. (gstsvs.ch)
- After subjective evaluation of the CT images, various variables including the length/size, volume and density of the liver, spleen and gallbladder, the wall thickness of the abomasum, small intestine and large intestine and the diameter of the intestine were measured. (gstsvs.ch)
- The liver, spleen, abomasum, small intestine and large intestine could be accurately visualised using CT. (gstsvs.ch)
- She scheduled a time to go back and talk with the employees about the transition period and issues such as ketosis, displaced abomasum, milk fever, and metritis. (msu.edu)
- Submit the entire abomasum (compartment four) and contents. (tamu.edu)