Coronary Stenosis: Narrowing or constriction of a coronary artery.Coronary Vessels: The veins and arteries of the HEART.Coronary Angiography: Radiography of the vascular system of the heart muscle after injection of a contrast medium.Coronary Circulation: The circulation of blood through the CORONARY VESSELS of the HEART.Coronary Artery Disease: Pathological processes of CORONARY ARTERIES that may derive from a congenital abnormality, atherosclerotic, or non-atherosclerotic cause.Coronary Disease: An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.Angioplasty, Balloon, Coronary: Dilation of an occluded coronary artery (or arteries) by means of a balloon catheter to restore myocardial blood supply.Fractional Flow Reserve, Myocardial: The ratio of maximum blood flow to the MYOCARDIUM with CORONARY STENOSIS present, to the maximum equivalent blood flow without stenosis. The measurement is commonly used to verify borderline stenosis of CORONARY ARTERIES.Carotid Stenosis: Narrowing or stricture of any part of the CAROTID ARTERIES, most often due to atherosclerotic plaque formation. Ulcerations may form in atherosclerotic plaques and induce THROMBUS formation. Platelet or cholesterol emboli may arise from stenotic carotid lesions and induce a TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK; CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENT; or temporary blindness (AMAUROSIS FUGAX). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp 822-3)Aortic Valve Stenosis: A pathological constriction that can occur above (supravalvular stenosis), below (subvalvular stenosis), or at the AORTIC VALVE. It is characterized by restricted outflow from the LEFT VENTRICLE into the AORTA.Constriction, Pathologic: The condition of an anatomical structure's being constricted beyond normal dimensions.Coronary Artery Bypass: Surgical therapy of ischemic coronary artery disease achieved by grafting a section of saphenous vein, internal mammary artery, or other substitute between the aorta and the obstructed coronary artery distal to the obstructive lesion.Coronary Vasospasm: Spasm of the large- or medium-sized coronary arteries.Czechoslovakia: Created as a republic in 1918 by Czechs and Slovaks from territories formerly part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. The country split into the Czech Republic and Slovakia 1 January 1993.Spinal Stenosis: Narrowing of the spinal canal.Tracheal StenosisMyocardial Infarction: NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Myocardial Ischemia: A disorder of cardiac function caused by insufficient blood flow to the muscle tissue of the heart. The decreased blood flow may be due to narrowing of the coronary arteries (CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE), to obstruction by a thrombus (CORONARY THROMBOSIS), or less commonly, to diffuse narrowing of arterioles and other small vessels within the heart. Severe interruption of the blood supply to the myocardial tissue may result in necrosis of cardiac muscle (MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION).Ultrasonography, Interventional: The use of ultrasound to guide minimally invasive surgical procedures such as needle ASPIRATION BIOPSY; DRAINAGE; etc. Its widest application is intravascular ultrasound imaging but it is useful also in urology and intra-abdominal conditions.Blood Flow Velocity: A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Stents: Devices that provide support for tubular structures that are being anastomosed or for body cavities during skin grafting.Coronary Aneurysm: Abnormal balloon- or sac-like dilatation in the wall of CORONARY VESSELS. Most coronary aneurysms are due to CORONARY ATHEROSCLEROSIS, and the rest are due to inflammatory diseases, such as KAWASAKI DISEASE.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Coronary Restenosis: Recurrent narrowing or constriction of a coronary artery following surgical procedures performed to alleviate a prior obstruction.Hyperemia: The presence of an increased amount of blood in a body part or an organ leading to congestion or engorgement of blood vessels. Hyperemia can be due to increase of blood flow into the area (active or arterial), or due to obstruction of outflow of blood from the area (passive or venous).Pyloric Stenosis: Narrowing of the pyloric canal with varied etiology. A common form is due to muscle hypertrophy (PYLORIC STENOSIS, HYPERTROPHIC) seen in infants.USSRTomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Mitral Valve Stenosis: Narrowing of the passage through the MITRAL VALVE due to FIBROSIS, and CALCINOSIS in the leaflets and chordal areas. This elevates the left atrial pressure which, in turn, raises pulmonary venous and capillary pressure leading to bouts of DYSPNEA and TACHYCARDIA during physical exertion. RHEUMATIC FEVER is its primary cause.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Coronary Thrombosis: Coagulation of blood in any of the CORONARY VESSELS. The presence of a blood clot (THROMBUS) often leads to MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.Pulmonary Valve Stenosis: The pathologic narrowing of the orifice of the PULMONARY VALVE. This lesion restricts blood outflow from the RIGHT VENTRICLE to the PULMONARY ARTERY. When the trileaflet valve is fused into an imperforate membrane, the blockage is complete.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Cardiac Catheterization: Procedures in which placement of CARDIAC CATHETERS is performed for therapeutic or diagnostic procedures.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Echocardiography: Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues. The standard approach is transthoracic.Dobutamine: A catecholamine derivative with specificity for BETA-1 ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS. It is commonly used as a cardiotonic agent after CARDIAC SURGERY and during DOBUTAMINE STRESS ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY.Dipyridamole: A phosphodiesterase inhibitor that blocks uptake and metabolism of adenosine by erythrocytes and vascular endothelial cells. Dipyridamole also potentiates the antiaggregating action of prostacyclin. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p752)Calcinosis: Pathologic deposition of calcium salts in tissues.Electrocardiography: Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.Angina Pectoris, Variant: A clinical syndrome characterized by the development of CHEST PAIN at rest with concomitant transient ST segment elevation in the ELECTROCARDIOGRAM, but with preserved exercise capacity.Adenosine: A nucleoside that is composed of ADENINE and D-RIBOSE. Adenosine or adenosine derivatives play many important biological roles in addition to being components of DNA and RNA. Adenosine itself is a neurotransmitter.Thallium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of thallium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Tl atoms with atomic weights 198-202, 204, and 206-210 are thallium radioisotopes.Tomography, Spiral Computed: Computed tomography where there is continuous X-ray exposure to the patient while being transported in a spiral or helical pattern through the beam of irradiation. This provides improved three-dimensional contrast and spatial resolution compared to conventional computed tomography, where data is obtained and computed from individual sequential exposures.Exercise Test: Controlled physical activity which is performed in order to allow assessment of physiological functions, particularly cardiovascular and pulmonary, but also aerobic capacity. Maximal (most intense) exercise is usually required but submaximal exercise is also used.Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: A family of percutaneous techniques that are used to manage CORONARY OCCLUSION, including standard balloon angioplasty (PERCUTANEOUS TRANSLUMINAL CORONARY ANGIOPLASTY), the placement of intracoronary STENTS, and atheroablative technologies (e.g., ATHERECTOMY; ENDARTERECTOMY; THROMBECTOMY; PERCUTANEOUS TRANSLUMINAL LASER ANGIOPLASTY). PTCA was the dominant form of PCI, before the widespread use of stenting.Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon: A method of computed tomography that uses radionuclides which emit a single photon of a given energy. The camera is rotated 180 or 360 degrees around the patient to capture images at multiple positions along the arc. The computer is then used to reconstruct the transaxial, sagittal, and coronal images from the 3-dimensional distribution of radionuclides in the organ. The advantages of SPECT are that it can be used to observe biochemical and physiological processes as well as size and volume of the organ. The disadvantage is that, unlike positron-emission tomography where the positron-electron annihilation results in the emission of 2 photons at 180 degrees from each other, SPECT requires physical collimation to line up the photons, which results in the loss of many available photons and hence degrades the image.Collateral Circulation: Maintenance of blood flow to an organ despite obstruction of a principal vessel. Blood flow is maintained through small vessels.Angina Pectoris: The symptom of paroxysmal pain consequent to MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA usually of distinctive character, location and radiation. It is thought to be provoked by a transient stressful situation during which the oxygen requirements of the MYOCARDIUM exceed that supplied by the CORONARY CIRCULATION.Chest Pain: Pressure, burning, or numbness in the chest.Myocardial Revascularization: The restoration of blood supply to the myocardium. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Myocardial Perfusion Imaging: The creation and display of functional images showing where the blood is flowing into the MYOCARDIUM by following over time the distribution of tracers injected into the blood stream.Myocardial Stunning: Prolonged dysfunction of the myocardium after a brief episode of severe ischemia, with gradual return of contractile activity.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Vasodilator Agents: Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.Myocardial Contraction: Contractile activity of the MYOCARDIUM.Angina, Unstable: Precordial pain at rest, which may precede a MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.Magnetic Resonance Angiography: Non-invasive method of vascular imaging and determination of internal anatomy without injection of contrast media or radiation exposure. The technique is used especially in CEREBRAL ANGIOGRAPHY as well as for studies of other vascular structures.Echocardiography, Stress: A method of recording heart motion and internal structures by combining ultrasonic imaging with exercise testing (EXERCISE TEST) or pharmacologic stress.Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Coronary Occlusion: Complete blockage of blood flow through one of the CORONARY ARTERIES, usually from CORONARY ATHEROSCLEROSIS.Contrast Media: Substances used to allow enhanced visualization of tissues.Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome: An acute, febrile, mucocutaneous condition accompanied by swelling of cervical lymph nodes in infants and young children. The principal symptoms are fever, congestion of the ocular conjunctivae, reddening of the lips and oral cavity, protuberance of tongue papillae, and edema or erythema of the extremities.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Angiography: Radiography of blood vessels after injection of a contrast medium.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Nitroglycerin: A volatile vasodilator which relieves ANGINA PECTORIS by stimulating GUANYLATE CYCLASE and lowering cytosolic calcium. It is also sometimes used for TOCOLYSIS and explosives.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Endocardium: The innermost layer of the heart, comprised of endothelial cells.Observer Variation: The failure by the observer to measure or identify a phenomenon accurately, which results in an error. Sources for this may be due to the observer's missing an abnormality, or to faulty technique resulting in incorrect test measurement, or to misinterpretation of the data. Two varieties are inter-observer variation (the amount observers vary from one another when reporting on the same material) and intra-observer variation (the amount one observer varies between observations when reporting more than once on the same material).Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Multidetector Computed Tomography: Types of spiral computed tomography technology in which multiple slices of data are acquired simultaneously improving the resolution over single slice acquisition technology.Cineangiography: Motion pictures of the passage of contrast medium through blood vessels.Pericardium: A conical fibro-serous sac surrounding the HEART and the roots of the great vessels (AORTA; VENAE CAVAE; PULMONARY ARTERY). Pericardium consists of two sacs: the outer fibrous pericardium and the inner serous pericardium. The latter consists of an outer parietal layer facing the fibrous pericardium, and an inner visceral layer (epicardium) resting next to the heart, and a pericardial cavity between these two layers.Models, Cardiovascular: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the cardiovascular system, processes, or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers and other electronic equipment.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Renal Artery Obstruction: Narrowing or occlusion of the RENAL ARTERY or arteries. It is due usually to ATHEROSCLEROSIS; FIBROMUSCULAR DYSPLASIA; THROMBOSIS; EMBOLISM, or external pressure. The reduced renal perfusion can lead to renovascular hypertension (HYPERTENSION, RENOVASCULAR).ROC Curve: A graphic means for assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons; may also be used in other studies, e.g., distinguishing stimuli responses as to a faint stimuli or nonstimuli.Ventricular Function, Left: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the left HEART VENTRICLE. Its measurement is an important aspect of the clinical evaluation of patients with heart disease to determine the effects of the disease on cardiac performance.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Myocardial Reperfusion: Generally, restoration of blood supply to heart tissue which is ischemic due to decrease in normal blood supply. The decrease may result from any source including atherosclerotic obstruction, narrowing of the artery, or surgical clamping. Reperfusion can be induced to treat ischemia. Methods include chemical dissolution of an occluding thrombus, administration of vasodilator drugs, angioplasty, catheterization, and artery bypass graft surgery. However, it is thought that reperfusion can itself further damage the ischemic tissue, causing MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.Organotechnetium Compounds: Organic compounds that contain technetium as an integral part of the molecule. These compounds are often used as radionuclide imaging agents.Microcirculation: The circulation of the BLOOD through the MICROVASCULAR NETWORK.Plaque, Atherosclerotic: Lesions formed within the walls of ARTERIES.Vascular Resistance: The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.Feasibility Studies: Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.Vascular Calcification: Deposition of calcium into the blood vessel structures. Excessive calcification of the vessels are associated with ATHEROSCLEROTIC PLAQUES formation particularly after MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION (see MONCKEBERG MEDIAL CALCIFIC SCLEROSIS) and chronic kidney diseases which in turn increase VASCULAR STIFFNESS.Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors: Drugs or agents which antagonize or impair any mechanism leading to blood platelet aggregation, whether during the phases of activation and shape change or following the dense-granule release reaction and stimulation of the prostaglandin-thromboxane system.Angioplasty, Balloon: Use of a balloon catheter for dilation of an occluded artery. It is used in treatment of arterial occlusive diseases, including renal artery stenosis and arterial occlusions in the leg. For the specific technique of BALLOON DILATION in coronary arteries, ANGIOPLASTY, BALLOON, CORONARY is available.Coronary Care Units: The hospital unit in which patients with acute cardiac disorders receive intensive care.Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi: A technetium imaging agent used to reveal blood-starved cardiac tissue during a heart attack.Vasodilation: The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Regional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.Aortic Stenosis, Subvalvular: A pathological constriction occurring in the region below the AORTIC VALVE. It is characterized by restricted outflow from the LEFT VENTRICLE into the AORTA.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Thallium: A heavy, bluish white metal, atomic number 81, atomic weight [204.382; 204.385], symbol Tl.Aortic Stenosis, Supravalvular: A pathological constriction occurring in the region above the AORTIC VALVE. It is characterized by restricted outflow from the LEFT VENTRICLE into the AORTA.Stroke Volume: The amount of BLOOD pumped out of the HEART per beat, not to be confused with cardiac output (volume/time). It is calculated as the difference between the end-diastolic volume and the end-systolic volume.Aortic Diseases: Pathological processes involving any part of the AORTA.Aortic Valve: The valve between the left ventricle and the ascending aorta which prevents backflow into the left ventricle.Diastole: Post-systolic relaxation of the HEART, especially the HEART VENTRICLES.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Arteriosclerosis: Thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES of all sizes. There are many forms classified by the types of lesions and arteries involved, such as ATHEROSCLEROSIS with fatty lesions in the ARTERIAL INTIMA of medium and large muscular arteries.Echocardiography, Doppler: Measurement of intracardiac blood flow using an M-mode and/or two-dimensional (2-D) echocardiogram while simultaneously recording the spectrum of the audible Doppler signal (e.g., velocity, direction, amplitude, intensity, timing) reflected from the moving column of red blood cells.Cardiovascular Agents: Agents that affect the rate or intensity of cardiac contraction, blood vessel diameter, or blood volume.Cardiotonic Agents: Agents that have a strengthening effect on the heart or that can increase cardiac output. They may be CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES; SYMPATHOMIMETICS; or other drugs. They are used after MYOCARDIAL INFARCT; CARDIAC SURGICAL PROCEDURES; in SHOCK; or in congestive heart failure (HEART FAILURE).Endarterectomy, Carotid: The excision of the thickened, atheromatous tunica intima of a carotid artery.Carotid Artery, Internal: Branch of the common carotid artery which supplies the anterior part of the brain, the eye and its appendages, the forehead and nose.Methylergonovine: A homolog of ERGONOVINE containing one more CH2 group. (Merck Index, 11th ed)Microspheres: Small uniformly-sized spherical particles, of micrometer dimensions, frequently labeled with radioisotopes or various reagents acting as tags or markers.Graft Occlusion, Vascular: Obstruction of flow in biological or prosthetic vascular grafts.Ventricular Dysfunction, Left: A condition in which the LEFT VENTRICLE of the heart was functionally impaired. This condition usually leads to HEART FAILURE; MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; and other cardiovascular complications. Diagnosis is made by measuring the diminished ejection fraction and a depressed level of motility of the left ventricular wall.Ultrasonography, Doppler, Duplex: Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect combined with real-time imaging. The real-time image is created by rapid movement of the ultrasound beam. A powerful advantage of this technique is the ability to estimate the velocity of flow from the Doppler shift frequency.Systole: Period of contraction of the HEART, especially of the HEART VENTRICLES.Rest: Freedom from activity.Chi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Laryngostenosis: Developmental or acquired stricture or narrowing of the LARYNX. Symptoms of respiratory difficulty depend on the degree of laryngeal narrowing.Arterial Occlusive Diseases: Pathological processes which result in the partial or complete obstruction of ARTERIES. They are characterized by greatly reduced or absence of blood flow through these vessels. They are also known as arterial insufficiency.Constriction: The act of constricting.Radiographic Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted: Computer systems or networks designed to provide radiographic interpretive information.Heart Ventricles: The lower right and left chambers of the heart. The right ventricle pumps venous BLOOD into the LUNGS and the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood into the systemic arterial circulation.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Catheterization: Use or insertion of a tubular device into a duct, blood vessel, hollow organ, or body cavity for injecting or withdrawing fluids for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It differs from INTUBATION in that the tube here is used to restore or maintain patency in obstructions.Heart Valve Prosthesis Implantation: Surgical insertion of synthetic material to repair injured or diseased heart valves.Tricuspid Valve Stenosis: The pathologic narrowing of the orifice of the TRICUSPID VALVE. This hinders the emptying of RIGHT ATRIUM leading to elevated right atrial pressure and systemic venous congestion. Tricuspid valve stenosis is almost always due to RHEUMATIC FEVER.Adrenergic beta-Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate beta-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of beta-adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic beta-antagonists are used for treatment of hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, angina pectoris, glaucoma, migraine headaches, and anxiety.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Coronary Artery Bypass, Off-Pump: Coronary artery bypass surgery on a beating HEART without a CARDIOPULMONARY BYPASS (diverting the flow of blood from the heart and lungs through an oxygenator).Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Sirolimus: A macrolide compound obtained from Streptomyces hygroscopicus that acts by selectively blocking the transcriptional activation of cytokines thereby inhibiting cytokine production. It is bioactive only when bound to IMMUNOPHILINS. Sirolimus is a potent immunosuppressant and possesses both antifungal and antineoplastic properties.Discrete Subaortic Stenosis: A type of constriction that is caused by the presence of a fibrous ring (discrete type) below the AORTIC VALVE, anywhere between the aortic valve and the MITRAL VALVE. It is characterized by restricted outflow from the LEFT VENTRICLE into the AORTA.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Vascular Patency: The degree to which BLOOD VESSELS are not blocked or obstructed.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Angioplasty: Reconstruction or repair of a blood vessel, which includes the widening of a pathological narrowing of an artery or vein by the removal of atheromatous plaque material and/or the endothelial lining as well, or by dilatation (BALLOON ANGIOPLASTY) to compress an ATHEROMA. Except for ENDARTERECTOMY, usually these procedures are performed via catheterization as minimally invasive ENDOVASCULAR PROCEDURES.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Cholesterol, LDL: Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to low density lipoproteins (LDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Pyloric Stenosis, Hypertrophic: Narrowing of the pyloric canal due to HYPERTROPHY of the surrounding circular muscle. It is usually seen in infants or young children.Angiography, Digital Subtraction: A method of delineating blood vessels by subtracting a tissue background image from an image of tissue plus intravascular contrast material that attenuates the X-ray photons. The background image is determined from a digitized image taken a few moments before injection of the contrast material. The resulting angiogram is a high-contrast image of the vessel. This subtraction technique allows extraction of a high-intensity signal from the superimposed background information. The image is thus the result of the differential absorption of X-rays by different tissues.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Cholesterol, HDL: Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to high-density lipoproteins (HDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine: A type of imaging technique used primarily in the field of cardiology. By coordinating the fast gradient-echo MRI sequence with retrospective ECG-gating, numerous short time frames evenly spaced in the cardiac cycle are produced. These images are laced together in a cinematic display so that wall motion of the ventricles, valve motion, and blood flow patterns in the heart and great vessels can be visualized.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Carotid Artery Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CAROTID ARTERIES, including the common, internal, and external carotid arteries. ATHEROSCLEROSIS and TRAUMA are relatively frequent causes of carotid artery pathology.Intracranial Arteriosclerosis: Vascular diseases characterized by thickening and hardening of the walls of ARTERIES inside the SKULL. There are three subtypes: (1) atherosclerosis with fatty deposits in the ARTERIAL INTIMA; (2) Monckeberg's sclerosis with calcium deposits in the media and (3) arteriolosclerosis involving the small caliber arteries. Clinical signs include HEADACHE; CONFUSION; transient blindness (AMAUROSIS FUGAX); speech impairment; and HEMIPARESIS.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.JapanCarotid Arteries: Either of the two principal arteries on both sides of the neck that supply blood to the head and neck; each divides into two branches, the internal carotid artery and the external carotid artery.Esophageal Stenosis: A stricture of the ESOPHAGUS. Most are acquired but can be congenital.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Stroke: A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)Organophosphorus Compounds: Organic compounds that contain phosphorus as an integral part of the molecule. Included under this heading is broad array of synthetic compounds that are used as PESTICIDES and DRUGS.Thrombolytic Therapy: Use of infusions of FIBRINOLYTIC AGENTS to destroy or dissolve thrombi in blood vessels or bypass grafts.Propanolamines: AMINO ALCOHOLS containing the propanolamine (NH2CH2CHOHCH2) group and its derivatives.Physical Exertion: Expenditure of energy during PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. Intensity of exertion may be measured by rate of OXYGEN CONSUMPTION; HEAT produced, or HEART RATE. Perceived exertion, a psychological measure of exertion, is included.Tachycardia: Abnormally rapid heartbeat, usually with a HEART RATE above 100 beats per minute for adults. Tachycardia accompanied by disturbance in the cardiac depolarization (cardiac arrhythmia) is called tachyarrhythmia.Heart Valve Prosthesis: A device that substitutes for a heart valve. It may be composed of biological material (BIOPROSTHESIS) and/or synthetic material.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Tomography, Emission-Computed: Tomography using radioactive emissions from injected RADIONUCLIDES and computer ALGORITHMS to reconstruct an image.Radiopharmaceuticals: Compounds that are used in medicine as sources of radiation for radiotherapy and for diagnostic purposes. They have numerous uses in research and industry. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1161)Vertebrobasilar Insufficiency: Localized or diffuse reduction in blood flow through the vertebrobasilar arterial system, which supplies the BRAIN STEM; CEREBELLUM; OCCIPITAL LOBE; medial TEMPORAL LOBE; and THALAMUS. Characteristic clinical features include SYNCOPE; lightheadedness; visual disturbances; and VERTIGO. BRAIN STEM INFARCTIONS or other BRAIN INFARCTION may be associated.Cerebrovascular Disorders: A spectrum of pathological conditions of impaired blood flow in the brain. They can involve vessels (ARTERIES or VEINS) in the CEREBRUM, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Major categories include INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS; BRAIN ISCHEMIA; CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE; and others.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Aspirin: The prototypical analgesic used in the treatment of mild to moderate pain. It has anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties and acts as an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase which results in the inhibition of the biosynthesis of prostaglandins. Aspirin also inhibits platelet aggregation and is used in the prevention of arterial and venous thrombosis. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p5)Saphenous Vein: The vein which drains the foot and leg.Drug-Eluting Stents: Stents that are covered with materials that are embedded with chemicals that are gradually released into the surrounding milieu.Cerebral Angiography: Radiography of the vascular system of the brain after injection of a contrast medium.Ergonovine: An ergot alkaloid (ERGOT ALKALOIDS) with uterine and VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE contractile properties.Ticlopidine: An effective inhibitor of platelet aggregation commonly used in the placement of STENTS in CORONARY ARTERIES.Tunica Intima: The innermost layer of an artery or vein, made up of one layer of endothelial cells and supported by an internal elastic lamina.Endarterectomy: Surgical excision, performed under general anesthesia, of the atheromatous tunica intima of an artery. When reconstruction of an artery is performed as an endovascular procedure through a catheter, it is called ATHERECTOMY.Arteries: The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.Thrombosis: Formation and development of a thrombus or blood clot in the blood vessel.Ischemic Attack, Transient: Brief reversible episodes of focal, nonconvulsive ischemic dysfunction of the brain having a duration of less than 24 hours, and usually less than one hour, caused by transient thrombotic or embolic blood vessel occlusion or stenosis. Events may be classified by arterial distribution, temporal pattern, or etiology (e.g., embolic vs. thrombotic). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp814-6)Reoperation: A repeat operation for the same condition in the same patient due to disease progression or recurrence, or as followup to failed previous surgery.Syndrome: A characteristic symptom complex.Hypertension, Renovascular: Hypertension due to RENAL ARTERY OBSTRUCTION or compression.Mammary Arteries: Arteries originating from the subclavian or axillary arteries and distributing to the anterior thoracic wall, mediastinal structures, diaphragm, pectoral muscles and mammary gland.Radial Artery: The direct continuation of the brachial trunk, originating at the bifurcation of the brachial artery opposite the neck of the radius. Its branches may be divided into three groups corresponding to the three regions in which the vessel is situated, the forearm, wrist, and hand.Proportional Hazards Models: Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.Renal Artery: A branch of the abdominal aorta which supplies the kidneys, adrenal glands and ureters.Atherosclerosis: A thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES that occurs with formation of ATHEROSCLEROTIC PLAQUES within the ARTERIAL INTIMA.Sinus of Valsalva: The dilatation of the aortic wall behind each of the cusps of the aortic valve.Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color: Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with the superposition of flow information as colors on a gray scale in a real-time image. This type of ultrasonography is well-suited to identifying the location of high-velocity flow (such as in a stenosis) or of mapping the extent of flow in a certain region.Kaplan-Meier Estimate: A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)SwedenArteriovenous Shunt, Surgical: Surgical shunt allowing direct passage of blood from an artery to a vein. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Prosthesis Design: The plan and delineation of prostheses in general or a specific prosthesis.Ultrasonography, Doppler: Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with frequency-shifted ultrasound reflections produced by moving targets (usually red blood cells) in the bloodstream along the ultrasound axis in direct proportion to the velocity of movement of the targets, to determine both direction and velocity of blood flow. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Meier M, Weng LP, Alexandrakis E, Ruschoff J, Goeckenjan G (2001). "Tracheobronchial stenosis in Keutel syndrome". European ... Conversely, over expression of extracellular MGP effectively abolishes calcification in chondrocytes, suggesting that MGP may ... while patients with oral anticoagulant use have significant aortic valve and coronary artery calcification. Although not ... Keutel J, Jorgensen G, Gabriel P (1972). "A new autosomal recessive syndrome: peripheral pulmonary stenoses, ...
"Remote Ischemic Conditioning in Percutaneous Coronary Intervention and Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting". Circulation Journal. ... The first-which included 68 Chinese patients under the age of 80 who had intracranial arterial stenosis of 50-99% and had ... Gerd Heusch's lab showed that propofol abolishes the phosphorylation of STAT5, a key survival molecule that is activated by RIC ... In the first prospectively designed trial to examine the effect of RIC on clinical outcomes in coronary artery bypass grafting ...
Sulfur dioxide blocks nerve signals from the pulmonary stretch receptors and abolishes the Hering-Breuer inflation reflex. It ... Dessy, C.; Ferron, O. (2004). "Pathophysiological Roles of Nitric Oxide: In the Heart and the Coronary Vasculature". Current ... Smooth muscle cell proliferation is one of important mechanisms of hypertensive remodeling of blood vessels and their stenosis ... Non-safety related ) "Reduction of Ischemia-Reperfusion Mediated Cardiac Injury in Subjects Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass ...
This sign can be used to differentiate HCM from aortic stenosis. In individuals with aortic stenosis, after a premature ... abolishing SAM. With this in mind, a modification of the Morrow myectomy termed extended myectomy, mobilization and partial ... due to reduced blood flow to the coronary arteries, uncomfortable awareness of the heart beat (palpitations), as well as ... In individuals with aortic stenosis or with HCM with an outflow tract gradient, there will be a pressure gradient (difference) ...
A sudden blockage of a coronary artery may result in a heart attack. A blockage of an artery supplying the brain can cause a ... If the development of the stenosis or occlusion is gradual, blood supply to the tissues and organs slowly diminishes until ... the effects of low-fat vs high-fat diets on total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels were abolished. Brown, Lisa; Rosner, ... Levels of LDL or non-HDL cholesterol both predict future coronary heart disease; which is the better predictor is disputed. ...
Presence of a Critical Coronary Artery Stenosis Does Not Abolish the Protective Effect of Ischemic Preconditioning. Shaival J. ... This study indicates that a critical coronary artery stenosis may limit but does not abolish the benefits of ischemic ... The stenosis and PC/S groups each had an 82% fixed coronary artery stenosis inserted into the mid-LAD as an initial ... Presence of a Critical Coronary Artery Stenosis Does Not Abolish the Protective Effect of Ischemic Preconditioning ...
... independent of risk factors for coronary artery disease. ... Coronary artery plaque is more prevalent and extensive in HIV- ... coronary artery stenosis (PR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.06 - 2.07; P = .020), but adjustment for CAD risk factors abolished this ... Other factors associated with greater than 50% coronary stenosis were longer duration of highly active antiretroviral therapy ( ... or stenosis on coronary CT angiography.. Participants in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study included 618 HIV-infected and 383 ...
... stenosis. A critical stenosis was defined as one in which resting flow was unchanged but flow reserve was abolished. ... Comparison between 201Tl and 99 mTc sestamibi uptake during adenosine-induced vasodilation as a function of coronary stenosis ... for the detection of coronary stenosis by imaging.. Methods. In Vitro Assessment of the Selectivity of ATL-193 and ATL-146e in ... on setting the LAD coronary stenosis, and during the peak CF response after a 1.0 μg/kg bolus injection of ATL-146e. Note that ...
Conclusions: In patients with obstructive coronary stenoses, cold air inhalation causes deleterious changes in MVR and CBF. ... These diminish or abolish the normal adaptations during exertion that ordinarily match myocardial blood supply to demand. ... coronary microvascular resistance; cold coronary; physiology; coronary flow; wave intensity analysis. Dates:. *Published: 17 ... Methods and Results: Forty‐two patients (62±9 years) undergoing cardiac catheterization, 32 with obstructive coronary stenoses ...
Aortic stenosis causes angina despite unobstructed arteries. Measurement of conventional coronary hemodynamic parameters in ... it is now possible to instantaneously abolish the valvular stenosis ... ... His coronary angiography revealed a thread like right coronary artery along its entire course and normal left coronary artery ... BACKGROUND: -Coronary CT angiography (CCTA) is an excellent tool for noninvasive assessment of coronary arteries in low-to- ...
Correspondingly, although atropine significantly increased heart rate, it did not completely abolish the effects of beta- ... 1974) Effects of coronary stenosis on coronary flow reserve and resistance. Am J Cardiol 34:48-55. ... In two of nine pigs with more severe coronary stenosis (coronary reserves of 1.07 and 1.27), esmolol did not prevent dobutamine ... regional coronary venous pH was similar before the creation of the stenosis and after LAD stenosis both with and without ...
We infused dobutamine into the left main coronary artery of 24 patients with severe congestive heart failure (CHF) and 8 normal ... Ethanol decreased total body fat oxidation by 79% and protein oxidation by 39%, and almost completely abolished the 249% rise ... stenosis (reducing blood flow to 40 +/- 10% of baseline), and placing a thrombus in the segment immediately proximal to the ... Localized thrombosis was produced in the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery of open chest dogs by constricting a ...
Circumflex coronary artery stenosis was set up to suppress the increase in CBFv during a 10 min treadmill exercise. During ... All these beneficial effects were abolished when HR reduction during exercise was suppressed by atrial pacing. Interestingly, ... Seven dogs were chronically instrumented to measure left ventricular (LV) wall thickening (Wth), aortic pressure and coronary ...
Left coronary artery of patient 2 described in the text. In the left coronary artery, there is a 50% stenosis in the mid left ... PCI at the correct locations is directed at abolishing symptoms caused by myocardial ischaemia; improving prognosis and ... Coronary pressure measurement to assess the hemodynamic significance of serial stenoses within one coronary artery: validations ... Quantitative coronary angiography (QCA) is not even reliable in assessing the functional significance of a single stenosis, let ...
... up to a completely abolished coronary reserve for stenosis >90%. This experimental paradigm can be accurately reproduced ... where many variables can modulate the imperfect match between epicardial coronary artery stenosis and coronary flow reserve ( ... The coronary reserve (CFR) represents the capacity of the coronary circulation to dilate following an increase in myocardial ... the viable or necrotic state of the myocardium distal to the stenosis, the presence of coronary macrovascular or microvascular ...
Using a networks approach to compare coronary vascular gene expression between de novo atherosclerosis and in-stent stenosis ... Importantly, ROS1 inhibition with the ROS1 inhibitor crizotinib or deglutathiolation of SHP-2 abolished GPX1-mediated increases ... Limiting reductive stress for treating in-stent stenosis: the heart of the matter?. Judy B. de Haan Baker IDI Heart and ... Yildiz M, Yildiz B, Gursoy MO, Akin I. Recent developments in drug-eluting coronary stents. Cardiovasc Hematol Disord Drug ...
1988) Identifying and measuring severity of coronary artery stenosis: quantitative coronary arteriography and positron ... This difference was, however, abolished by a nonselective alpha-blockade with phentolamine (23). No evidence for an influence ... 1988) Assessment of coronary stenoses by myocardial perfusion imaging during pharmacologic coronary vasodilation: VII. ... One control patient had a ,70% stenosis, seven had 70% to 90% stenoses, and 2 had ,90% stenoses. Left ventricular ejection ...
Meier M, Weng LP, Alexandrakis E, Ruschoff J, Goeckenjan G (2001). "Tracheobronchial stenosis in Keutel syndrome". European ... Conversely, over expression of extracellular MGP effectively abolishes calcification in chondrocytes, suggesting that MGP may ... while patients with oral anticoagulant use have significant aortic valve and coronary artery calcification. Although not ... Keutel J, Jorgensen G, Gabriel P (1972). "A new autosomal recessive syndrome: peripheral pulmonary stenoses, ...
Hypertrophic Subaortic Stenosis In an uncontrolled series of 13 patients with New York Heart Association (NYHA) class 2 or 3 ... Since coronary artery disease may be unrecognized, it may be prudent to follow the above advice in patients considered at risk ... Beta-adrenergic blocking agents do not abolish the inotropic action of digitalis on heart muscle. ... Hypertrophic Subaortic Stenosis. The usual dosage is 80 to 160 mg Propranolol Hydrochloride Extended-Release Capsules, USP, ...
The proportion of small dense LDL was a strong univariate predictor of significant coronary artery stenosis evaluated by both ... a priori considered of low to intermediate risk for significant coronary stenosis (>50% lumen obstruction) who were referred ... and all patients were examined by coronary CT scanning before coronary angiography. ... Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and other lipid and lipoprotein variables are major risk factors for coronary artery ...
Phentolamine abolished increases in arterial pressure and coronary vascular resistance during the test in three patients with ... This 90% stenosis was virtually abolished by pretreatment with intravenously given phentolamine hydrochloride . ... Coronary vasoconstriction after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty is attenuated by antiadrenergic agents. ... Reflex increase in coronary vascular resistance in patients with ischemic heart disease. Mudge, G.H., Grossman, W., Mills, R.M ...
Since coronary artery disease may be unrecognized, it may be prudent to follow the above advice in patients considered at risk ... Hypertrophic Subaortic Stenosis. In an uncontrolled series of 13 patients with New York Heart Association (NYHA) class 2 or 3 ... Beta-adrenergic blocking agents do not abolish the inotropic action of digitalis on heart muscle. ... Hypertrophic Subaortic Stenosis. Inderal LA improves NYHA functional class in symptomatic patients with hypertrophic subaortic ...
... stenosis, 19%, and plaques with , 50% narrowing, 73%. In our experience, 61% of hearts from sudden coronary death victims have ... thereby greatly reducing or abolishing the potential for future ischaemic events. ... Farb A, Burke AP, Tang AL, et al. Coronary plaque erosion without rupture into a lipid core. A frequent cause of coronary ... Burke AP, Farb A, Malcom GT, et al. Coronary risk factors and plaque morphology in men with coronary disease who died suddenly ...
In patients with a competent deep venous system, reflux in perforating veins is often abolished after eradication of saphenous ... 7646187 - Acellular matrix: a biomaterials approach for coronary artery bypass and heart valve re.... 1212877 - Errors in data ... 16052387 - Vascular access in hemodialysis patients with central venous obstruction or stenosis: o.... 646237 - Use of allen ...
1996) A systematic review of the risks of stroke and death due to endarterectomy for symptomatic carotid stenosis. Stroke 27: ... 2000) [Scanning electron microscopic analysis of vessel wall reactions after coronary stenting]. Z Kardiol 89:21-27. ... the supposed benefits of TAVI in improving quality of life in these patients is abolished (4). The cost-effectiveness of TAVI ... 2010) Transcatheter aortic-valve implantation for aortic stenosis in patients who cannot undergo surgery. N Engl J Med 363:1597 ...
... is upregulated and p27 mRNA downregulated in coronary artery stenosis induced by IL-1beta and these effects could be abolished ... Coronary artery contrast showed that local coronary stenosis occurred in the 12 model swines to different extents (20% - 30%, ... Intracoronary serotonin or histamine repeatedly induced coronary artery spasm and coronary arterial stenosis was evidenced at ... Animals , Coronary Angiography , Coronary Vessels , Metabolism , Pathology , Disease Models, Animal , Interleukin-1beta , ...
Maron, B. J., Wolfson, J. K., Epstein, S. E., Roberts, W. C. Intramural (small vessel) coronary artery disease in ... Rosker, C., Salvarani, N., Schmutz, S., Grand, T., Rohr, S. Abolishing myofibroblast arrhythmogeneicity by pharmacological ... enzyme inhibition improves diastolic function in patients with left ventricular hypertrophy due to aortic stenosis. Circulation ... Youn, H. J., et al. Relation between flow reserve capacity of penetrating intramyocardial coronary arteries and myocardial ...
The HO-1 siRNA also abolished the basal expression of HO-1 whereas the NT siRNA had no effect on HO-1 expression, confirming ... Imamura M, Biro S, Kihara T. Repeated thermal therapy improves impaired vascular endothelial function in patients with coronary ... The histological features of vascular access stenosis comprise vascular inflammation, intimal hyperplasia, and excessive ... Furthermore, inhibition of HO-1 activity abolishes the antiadhesive action of FIR radiation. Similarly, the selective knockdown ...
Myocardial beta receptor blockade produced by injection of propranolol into the isolated coronary circulation abolished or ... Eight patients with severe stenosis received carotid endarterectomy.. antiviral agent virless tablet acyclovir ...
Urapidil, a selective alpha 1 blocker, completely abolished the occurrence of coronary vasospasm in the last 16 cases. A no ... In three cases the procedure was unsuccessful but uncomplicated: In one the stenosis could not be crossed, in a second case a ... No emergency or elective coronary artery bypass surgery was necessary. Coronary spasm occurred in 6 cases (9%). In two of them ... angled and long coronary lesions by means of percutaneous transluminal coronary rotational ablation (PTCRA, Rotablator Heart ...
Aortic stenosisArteriesAngiographyAtherosclerosis in patientsPerfusionLeft coronaSignificant coronaryEpicardial coronary arteryVascularCalcificationMorbidity and mortaMicrovascularVenousPercutaneous transluminaMyocardial blood flowDecrease in coronary blood flowDescending coronary arteryAnginaVesselHuman coronaryTHROMBOSISPulmonaryBypass surgeryFlow-limitingAtheroscleroticSymptomaticBeneficial effects were abolishedAcute coronaryObstructiveIschemiaRevascularizationModel of coronaryBlood flowClinicalCarotidStentsCircumflexArtery calciumAdenosine
- Aortic stenosis causes angina despite unobstructed arteries. (biomedsearch.com)
- Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has been used increasingly to treat symptomatic patients with severe aortic stenosis, who are deemed to be high-risk patients for conventional surgery. (onlinejacc.org)
- A competing accelerated junctional rhythm may range from broad to limited resources, community organizations, such as zic4 (heterotaxy), notch1 (aortic stenosis and atresia. (umd.edu)
- Annulus diameters in 2D-TEE (long-axis view) and in 3D-TEE (long-axis view in multiple-plane-reconstruction) were compared in consecutive cialis generico online patients with aortic stenosis screened for TAVI. (pressworry.icu)
- Cribier A, Savin T, Saoudi N, Rocha P, Berland J, Letac B. Percutaneous transluminal valvuloplasty of acquired aortic stenosis in elderly patients: an alternative to valve replacement? (medscape.com)
- Retrospective analysis of co-occurrence of congenital aortic stenosis and pulmonary artery stenosis in dogs. (statescale.tk)
- The study aimed to evaluate the role of alpha-adrenergic mechanisms during dynamic exercise in both normal and stenotic coronary arteries. (onlinejacc.org)
- Paradoxical vasoconstriction of stenotic coronary arteries has been reported during dynamic exercise and may be due to several factors such as alpha-adrenergic drive, a decreased release of nitric oxide, platelet aggregation with release of serotonin, or a passive collapse of the vessel wall. (onlinejacc.org)
- Exercise-induced vasoconstriction of stenotic coronary arteries is prevented by intracoronary administration of phentolamine. (onlinejacc.org)
- An increase in vasomotor tone of stenotic arteries may result in a decrease in coronary blood flow and, thus, may precipitate myocardial ischemia. (onlinejacc.org)
- Stenotic coronary arteries have shown paradoxical vasoconstriction during isometric (4) but also dynamic exercise (5) . (onlinejacc.org)
- Thus, the purpose of the present study was to assess the influence of alpha-adrenergic mechanisms on coronary vasomotion in normal and stenotic coronary arteries during dynamic exercise. (onlinejacc.org)
- Whereas X-ray angiography demonstrates the patency of the coronary arteries, perfusion imaging detects the downstream microvascular blood flow within the myocardium. (biomedcentral.com)
- Intravascular assessment of coronary arteries in patients with cyanotic congenital heart disease. (nih.gov)
- We recently found higher serum phosphorus concentrations to be strongly and linearly associated with calcification of the coronary arteries, descending thoracic aorta, and mitral annulus, independent of traditional CVD risk factors and other measures of mineral metabolism among Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) participants with moderate chronic kidney disease (CKD) ( 6 ). (asnjournals.org)
- Coronary venous imaging with electron beam computed tomographic angiography: three-dimensional mapping and relationship with coronary arteries. (medscape.com)
- Percutaneous mitral annuloplasty: an anatomic study of human coronary sinus and its relation with mitral valve annulus and coronary arteries. (medscape.com)
- A silvery-white, alkaline, metallic element that occurs when only the poor sensitivity of large epicardial coronary arteries and veins is very extensive or is capable of causing symptoms like epigastric pain, nausea, hypoxia and some aerosols or, less commonly, the halogenated hydrocarbons in petrol or gasoline, glue, paint, and some. (dsaj.org)
- Conduits for Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting The internal thoracic arteries (ITAs) (left andor right) are the preferred conduits since their patency rates exceed 90 at 10 years. (301forex99.com)
- Abstract -Intravenous infusion of recombinant tissue factor pathway inhibitor (rTFPI) for 24 hours decreases neointimal thickening and luminal stenosis 1 month after balloon-induced injury to the carotid arteries in minipigs. (ahajournals.org)
- or stenosis on coronary CT angiography . (medscape.com)
- All of the participants underwent noncontrast CT, and 759 also underwent coronary CT angiography. (medscape.com)
- Coronary angiography is the current standard method to evaluate coronary atherosclerosis in patients with suspected angina pectoris, but non-invasive CT scanning of the coronaries are increasingly used for the same purpose. (biomedcentral.com)
- 50% lumen obstruction) who were referred for elective coronary angiography. (biomedcentral.com)
- Plasma lipids and lipoproteins were measured including the subtype pattern of LDL particles, and all patients were examined by coronary CT scanning before coronary angiography. (biomedcentral.com)
- After adjustment for age, gender, smoking, and waist circumference only results obtained by traditional coronary angiography remained statistically significant. (biomedcentral.com)
- The diagnosis of coronary atherosclerosis is usually made by invasive coronary angiography (CAG) during which percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) procedures can be applied simultaneously. (biomedcentral.com)
- Among the currently available non-invasive alternatives, CT-based coronary angiography (CT CAG) provides a view of the vessel lumen as well as the architecture of the vessel wall. (biomedcentral.com)
- The traditional procedure for predicting a heart attack is made up of a combination of invasive coronary angiography (ICA) and a stress test conducted with a single photo emission tomography or SPECT myocardial imaging. (counselheal.com)
- We examined the association of HDL-C with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in the Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health study comprising 3307 patients undergoing coronary angiography. (asnjournals.org)
- Coronary angiography reveals 70% stenosis of right coronary artery (RCA) in segment III with an appearance of unstable plaque and thrombus, primary angioplasty with stent placement is performed at this level with good fi nal result, without any peri-procedural complications. (romanianjournalcardiology.ro)
- positive troponin (2.5 ng/ml), NTproBNP 7500 pg/ml In the catheterisation lab the patient develops grade III atrioventricular block with HR (heart rate)=35/min and BP= 80/40 mmHg, requiring a temporary pacing to be performed before the start of coronary angiography. (romanianjournalcardiology.ro)
- The coronary angiography reveals acute thrombotic occlusion of the right coronary artery (RCA) ( Figure 3 ), thromboaspiration with primary angioplasty with stent at the level of RCA is performed with a good final angiographic result ( Figure 4 ), without peri-procedural complications. (romanianjournalcardiology.ro)
- The analysis, which was funded by an educational research grant from St. Jude Medical, found that within each of the country's respective health care systems, the FFR-guided approach is cost-saving, meaning that use of FFR improves health outcomes for patients with multivessel coronary artery disease at lower costs when compared to using angiography alone. (cathlabdigest.com)
- N = 412 patients underwent coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) to assess the presence and characteristics of coronary atherosclerosis. (biomedcentral.com)
- Coronary angiography did not show any significant stenosis. (springeropen.com)
- A complete cardiac workup, including angiography, is not necessary in every transplant candidate, but patients with a significant history, symptoms, type 1 diabetes, or hypertensive renal disease should undergo a thorough evaluation to rule out significant coronary artery disease (CAD). (medscape.com)
- The high prevalence of myocardial infarction without significant coronary stenosis or atherosclerosis in patients with MPN suggests that vascular function is altered. (jci.org)
- Vasodilator stress with adenosine or dipyridamole is an alternative to exercise stress with myocardial perfusion imaging for the detection of coronary artery disease. (ahajournals.org)
- During cold and exercise, dual‐sensor intracoronary wires measured coronary microvascular resistance (MVR) and blood flow velocity (CBF), and cardiac magnetic resonance measured subendocardial perfusion. (whiterose.ac.uk)
- BACKGROUND: Attenuation correction (AC) has been shown to improve the accuracy of myocardial perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) for the detection and evaluation of patients with coronary artery disease. (biomedsearch.com)
- Purpose: To determine the feasibility of computed tomography (CT)-based dynamic myocardial perfusion imaging for the detection of hemodynamically significant coronary artery stenosis, as defined with fractional flow reserve (FFR). (biomedsearch.com)
- Topochemical methods of analyzing metals on clothing for forensic medical purposes Normal myocardial perfusion scan portends a benign prognosis independent from the pretest probability of coronary artery disease. (termsreign.ga)
- Ace inhibitorsthese abolish the compensatory vasoconstrictor ii-mediatedvasoconstriction of the capillary vessel corticifugal arteriole thatoccurs to hold glomerular perfusion insistency distalto a excretory organ thoroughfare stenosis and in renal hypoperfusion (seefig. (performancecarstats.co.uk)
- Whereas adenosine-induced coronary vasodilatation is mediated primarily by stimulation of the A 2A receptor subtype on vascular smooth muscle, the side effects described above are believed to be caused by stimulation of 1 or more of the other 3 adenosine receptor subtypes, A 1 , A 2B , and A 3 . (ahajournals.org)
- Unfortunately, stent-mediated intimal hyperplasia, a consequence of vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation, remains a cause of restenosis after BAS and often presents with acute coronary syndrome. (jci.org)
- 1 Nearly 85% of vascular access failures arise from thromboses, more than 80% of which are associated with stenoses, 2 which usually presents with inadequate blood flow. (ahajournals.org)
- 3,4 The causative factors of vascular access stenosis include small diameter of artery and vein, surgical technique, previous venipunctures, hemodynamic stress, and the presence of accessory veins. (ahajournals.org)
- The histological features of vascular access stenosis comprise vascular inflammation, intimal hyperplasia, and excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix. (ahajournals.org)
- NEP inhibition with sacubitril blunted the ability of GLP-1 to increase cAMP levels in coronary vascular cells in vitro. (jci.org)
- Keutel syndrome (KS) is a rare autosomal recessive genetic disorder characterized by abnormal diffuse cartilage calcification, hypoplasia of the mid-face, peripheral pulmonary stenosis, hearing loss, short distal phalanges (tips) of the fingers and mild mental retardation. (wikipedia.org)
- Multiple forms of chondrodysplasia punctata share symptoms consistent with KS including abnormal cartilage calcification, forceful respiration, brachytelephalangism, hypotonia, psychomotor delay, and conductive deafness, yet peripheral pulmonary stenosis remains unique to KS. (wikipedia.org)
- Commonly, diffuse cartilage calcification and brachytelephalangism are identified by X-radiation (X-ray), while peripheral pulmonary arterial stenosis, hearing loss, dysmorphic facies, and mental retardation are confirmed with confidence by the aforementioned diagnostic techniques. (wikipedia.org)
- Such calcification is concomitant with various diseases including diabetes, atherosclerosis, and renal dysfunction, while patients with oral anticoagulant use have significant aortic valve and coronary artery calcification. (wikipedia.org)
- What is the value of measuring coronary artery calcification? (stanford.edu)
- Case of pulmonary valve stenosis due to tuberculous pericardio-pleural calcification The properties and polyisoprenyl phosphate specificity of the soluble form of GPT were identical to the activity associated with the membrane preparations obtained from spheroplasts. (termsreign.ga)
- In this review, we will critically analyse the pathology of plaque rupture with emphasis on its relation to TCFAs and healed plaque ruptures to gain a better understanding of the lesion most responsible for coronary morbidity and mortality. (bmj.com)
- Unresolved inflammation resulting in capillary leakage with endothelial barrier dysfunction is a major contributor to postoperative morbidity and mortality after coronary artery bypass graft (CABG). (biomedcentral.com)
- rather, ischaemia is a result of complex pathophysiological mechanisms that include obstructive epicardial CAD, inflammation, microvascular coronary dysfunction, endothelial dysfunction, thrombosis and angiogenesis (see Figure 1) . (icrjournal.com)
- 1 , 2 Myocardial microvascular dysfunction is an important modulator of coronary resistance and myocardial blood flow, 3 and often associated with changes in microvascular architecture like rarefaction or thickening. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Regional lactate production and coronary venous pH were monitored from an adjacent cardiac vein. (onlinejacc.org)
- In patients with a competent deep venous system, reflux in perforating veins is often abolished after eradication of saphenous reflux. (biomedsearch.com)
- Although coronary microembolization causes the release of coronary venous adenosine, 5,11 it neither induces acute preconditioning against acute infarction 11 nor interferes with a classic ischemic preconditioning protocol. (ahajournals.org)
- Evaluation of the coronary venous system using electron beam computed tomography. (medscape.com)
- Methods and Results Farm pigs (n=23) assigned to one of four groups-(1) control, (2) stenosis, (3) preconditioned (PC), or (4) preconditioned plus stenosis (PC/S)-underwent percutaneous instrumentation with a percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty catheter advanced to the mid-left anterior descending coronary artery. (ahajournals.org)
- 2 Ischemic preconditioning may also be an important adaptive response in humans in the setting of percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty with repeated inflations, 3 4 myocardial protection during coronary artery bypass graft surgery, 5 and preinfarction angina. (ahajournals.org)
- Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty is a medical procedure whose purpose is to increase blood flow through an artery. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
- Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty is the predominant treatment for coronary vessel stenosis. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
- A limitation associated with percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty is the abrupt closure of the vessel, which may occur immediately after the procedure and restenosis, which occurs gradually following the procedure. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
- Restenosis after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty occurs in ≈1/3 of treated patients 1 2 and thus remains a major stigma of interventional cardiology. (ahajournals.org)
- n=9 critical left anterior descending coronary artery stenosis), and hemodynamic responses were compared with those of Ado. (ahajournals.org)
- Methods In nine pigs, a left anterior descending coronary artery stenosis was created to reduce flow reserve (maximal/rest flow) to 1.1 to 1.9 without baseline regional wall motion abnormalities. (onlinejacc.org)
- Coronary vasomotor tone plays an important role in the pathophysiology of angina pectoris. (onlinejacc.org)
- Patients with acute coronary syndromes classically present with unstable angina, acute myocardial infarction, or sudden coronary death. (bmj.com)
- The clinical characteristics of patients treated medically for angina pectoris have also evolved with the relatively widespread availability of coronary surgery/stenting. (scirp.org)
- The cross-sectional areas of a normal and a stenotic coronary vessel were determined by biplane quantitative coronary arteriography. (onlinejacc.org)
- In the normal vessel segments, coronary cross-sectional area did not change after phentolamine injection, but increased in all patient groups similarly during exercise. (onlinejacc.org)
- Although coronary vasoconstriction existed in stenotic vessel segments in control patients, phentolamine-treated patients showed exercise-induced vasodilation without difference in patients with and without chronic beta-blockade. (onlinejacc.org)
- The exact mechanism that is responsible for the reported stenosis vasoconstriction is not clear but may involve several factors such as an enhanced sympathetic stimulation during exercise, endothelial dysfunction with reduced nitric oxide (NO) release or production, increased platelet aggregation with release of serotonin and thromboxane A2, or a passive collapse of the stenotic vessel segment within the stenosis due to the increase in flow velocity during exercise (Venturi effect). (onlinejacc.org)
- ADA- atheromatous infiltrated vessel in the proximal and the medium segments with excentric plaques without significant stenosis. (romanianjournalcardiology.ro)
- Elevated blood glucose levels at the time of heart attack causes a severe block in the coronary artery by causing the blood vessel to contract and lead to high-risk complication. (medindia.net)
- GLP-1(28-36) enters human coronary artery endothelial cells (caECs) through macropinocytosis and acts directly on mouse and human coronary artery smooth muscle cells (caSMCs) and caECs, resulting in soluble adenylyl cyclase Adcy10-dependent (sAC-dependent) increases in cAMP, activation of protein kinase A, and cytoprotection from oxidative injury. (jci.org)
- Insights into the mechanisms of coronary thrombosis extend from detailed analyses of underlying plaque morphologies in necropsy specimens from sudden death victims. (bmj.com)
- 4 The major cause of acute coronary thrombosis is plaque rupture, and the precursor lesion has been termed vulnerable plaque (fig 1) or, as defined by our laboratory, the thin cap fibroatheroma (TCFA). (bmj.com)
- Activation of platelets by haemodynamic factors appeared to be more important than plaque rupture and arterial endothelial factors in the process of arterial thrombosis within arterial stenoses. (symbiosisonlinepublishing.com)
- An experimental model of coronary arterial thrombosis in the anaesthetize dog developed by Folts demonstrated inhibition of such thrombosis by aspirin [6, (symbiosisonlinepublishing.com)
- Folts' laboratory confirmed powerful inhibition of coronary thrombosis growth by the ritanserin . (symbiosisonlinepublishing.com)
- Abnormal diffuse cartilaginous ossification is typically most pronounced in the auricles and cartilage of the trachea and larynx, while peripheral pulmonary stenosis is frequently common in KS. (wikipedia.org)
- Interestingly, in consanguineous parents of children with KS, one is often phenotypically normal, while the other is positive for pulmonary stenosis. (wikipedia.org)
- Percutaneous balloon valvuloplasty: a new method for treating congenital pulmonary-valve stenosis. (medscape.com)
- Heart ailments can be addressed through a bypass surgery or stent placement, most especially for patients who experience arterial narrowing or stenosis. (counselheal.com)
- The increasing use of this procedure is attributable to its relatively high success rate and its minimal invasiveness compared with coronary bypass surgery. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
- MACE were defined as death, myocardial infarction, and target lesion revascularization (repeat PCI or coronary artery bypass surgery) and were considered as combined primary end point. (onlinejacc.org)
- Conclusions A moderate flow-limiting stenosis did not prevent preconditioning but may have attenuated the effect. (ahajournals.org)
- Two aspects of a persistent, flow-limiting stenosis have not been studied experimentally: the effect of the stenosis as a preconditioning agent and the effect of the continuous, flow-limiting stenosis on a demonstrated preconditioning intervention. (ahajournals.org)
- In open-chest, anesthetized canine preparation a fixed, flow limiting stenosis was applied to the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery and heart rate was increased by atrial pacing. (elsevier.com)
- 1,2 Milder forms of plaque rupture may result in subsequent embolization of atherosclerotic and thrombotic debris into the coronary microcirculation. (ahajournals.org)
- Medium-term results of undersized angioplasty and stenting for symptomatic high-grade intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis with Enterprise. (medworm.com)
- Aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship of plasma PCSK9 with metabolic and inflammatory profile and coronary atherosclerotic burden in patients with suspected CAD enrolled in the EVINCI study. (biomedcentral.com)
- All these beneficial effects were abolished when HR reduction during exercise was suppressed by atrial pacing. (aspetjournals.org)
- In vitro, oxygen-glucose deprivation and reperfusion (OGD/R) significantly enhanced the expression of immunoproteasome LMP2 and proteasome activities in primary culture astrocytes, but these beneficial effects were abolished by knockdown of LMP2 with siRNA transfection. (medworm.com)
- Only patients with obstructive stenoses performed this protocol (n=12). (whiterose.ac.uk)
- Conclusions: In patients with obstructive coronary stenoses, cold air inhalation causes deleterious changes in MVR and CBF. (whiterose.ac.uk)
- Coronary CTA documented normal vessels in 30% and obstructive CAD in 35% of cases without differences among PCSK9 quartiles. (biomedcentral.com)
- Compared with patients with the highest levels, patients with the lowest PCSK9 levels had a higher CTA score mainly due to higher number of mixed non-obstructive coronary plaques. (biomedcentral.com)
- In patients with stable CAD, low PCSK9 plasma levels are associated with a particular metabolic phenotype (low HDL cholesterol, the metabolic syndrome, obesity, insulin resistance and diabetes) and diffuse non-obstructive coronary atherosclerosis. (biomedcentral.com)
- Adding atropine in conventional doses enhanced the ability of dobutamine stress to induce myocardial ischemia but did not completely abolish the effects of beta-blockade on either the severity of dobutamine-induced wall thickening abnormalities or regional metabolic disturbances. (onlinejacc.org)
- Because changes in coronary vasomotor tone underlie neurogenic mechanisms, particular interest has focused on the link between myocardial ischemia and alpha-adrenergic tone during exercise. (onlinejacc.org)
- Subendocardial vulnerability to ischemia is well known and is associated with a coronary flow reserve that is lower in the subendocardium than in the subepicardium. (ahajournals.org)
- 17 Therefore, for the present report, we used our established model of coronary microembolization in pigs 11,12 to investigate whether 6 hours after coronary microembolization-at a time when TNF-α tissue levels are increased and contractile dysfunction has developed 11 -the myocardium is protected against infarction. (ahajournals.org)
- Seven dogs were chronically instrumented to measure left ventricular (LV) wall thickening (Wth), aortic pressure and coronary blood flow (CBFv) (Doppler). (aspetjournals.org)
- Normally coronary blood flow can increase approximately four-to-six fold to meet increasing myocardial oxygen demands. (oalib.com)
- Then blood flow can be abolished if the spontaneous type 1 diabetes: A randomised trial, if this physiology continues post- natally. (umd.edu)
- However, unlike coronary pressure, measurement of coronary blood flow in the catheter laboratory is not technically straightforward. (icrjournal.com)
- 9 10 A common clinical condition relevant to this phenomenon is the presence of a persistent coronary stenosis. (ahajournals.org)
- Flow restriction continued in the reperfusion phases once a stenosis was placed, a condition similar to the clinical scenario and unlike previous studies. (ahajournals.org)
- Small dense LDL particles may be of particular importance, but clinical studies evaluating their predictive value for coronary atherosclerosis are few. (biomedcentral.com)
- However, the relationships between plasma apoCIII, hs-CRP and TNF-α in patients with CHD and their roles in coronary artery narrowing as well as the clinical features of CHD remain to be elucidated. (biomedcentral.com)
- 3 However, although brief administration of high doses of direct inhibitors of thrombin, such as recombinant hirudin, at the time of balloon-induced arterial injury have been shown to reduce neointimal thickening and stenosis in experimental animals, 6 7 8 lower dosages employed in patients to avoid bleeding complications have decreased the rate of early clinical events but not the incidence of restenosis. (ahajournals.org)
- Two patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy and coronary by-pass surgery were included in the study. (signavitae.com)
- Recently, we have reported a marked reduction in neointimal thickening and stenosis 1 month after balloon-induced injury to the carotid artery in minipigs given a 24-hour, but not a 3-hour, constant intravenous infusion of recombinant tissue factor pathway inhibitor (rTFPI), the full-length, recombinant mimic of the physiological inhibitor of the complex of tissue factor and factor VIIa. (ahajournals.org)
- Circumflex coronary artery stenosis was set up to suppress the increase in CBFv during a 10 min treadmill exercise. (aspetjournals.org)
- A detailed postoperative examination of the airways revealed oropharyngeal soft tissue outgrowth, narrowing of the upper airway, subglottic stenosis, and displacement/circumflex of the airway axis. (springeropen.com)