Radiation Dosage: The amount of radiation energy that is deposited in a unit mass of material, such as tissues of plants or animal. In RADIOTHERAPY, radiation dosage is expressed in gray units (Gy). In RADIOLOGIC HEALTH, the dosage is expressed by the product of absorbed dose (Gy) and quality factor (a function of linear energy transfer), and is called radiation dose equivalent in sievert units (Sv).Radiation, Ionizing: ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION or particle radiation (high energy ELEMENTARY PARTICLES) capable of directly or indirectly producing IONS in its passage through matter. The wavelengths of ionizing electromagnetic radiation are equal to or smaller than those of short (far) ultraviolet radiation and include gamma and X-rays.Radiation Injuries: Harmful effects of non-experimental exposure to ionizing or non-ionizing radiation in VERTEBRATES.Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation: The relationship between the dose of administered radiation and the response of the organism or tissue to the radiation.Radiation Tolerance: The ability of some cells or tissues to survive lethal doses of IONIZING RADIATION. Tolerance depends on the species, cell type, and physical and chemical variables, including RADIATION-PROTECTIVE AGENTS and RADIATION-SENSITIZING AGENTS.Radiation: Emission or propagation of acoustic waves (SOUND), ELECTROMAGNETIC ENERGY waves (such as LIGHT; RADIO WAVES; GAMMA RAYS; or X-RAYS), or a stream of subatomic particles (such as ELECTRONS; NEUTRONS; PROTONS; or ALPHA PARTICLES).Radiation ProtectionRadiation Monitoring: The observation, either continuously or at intervals, of the levels of radiation in a given area, generally for the purpose of assuring that they have not exceeded prescribed amounts or, in case of radiation already present in the area, assuring that the levels have returned to those meeting acceptable safety standards.Radiation Oncology: A subspecialty of medical oncology and radiology concerned with the radiotherapy of cancer.Cosmic Radiation: High-energy radiation or particles from extraterrestrial space that strike the earth, its atmosphere, or spacecraft and may create secondary radiation as a result of collisions with the atmosphere or spacecraft.Radiation Injuries, Experimental: Experimentally produced harmful effects of ionizing or non-ionizing RADIATION in CHORDATA animals.Radiation Pneumonitis: Inflammation of the lung due to harmful effects of ionizing or non-ionizing radiation.Gamma Rays: Penetrating, high-energy electromagnetic radiation emitted from atomic nuclei during NUCLEAR DECAY. The range of wavelengths of emitted radiation is between 0.1 - 100 pm which overlaps the shorter, more energetic hard X-RAYS wavelengths. The distinction between gamma rays and X-rays is based on their radiation source.Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced: Tumors, cancer or other neoplasms produced by exposure to ionizing or non-ionizing radiation.Background Radiation: Radiation from sources other than the source of interest. It is due to cosmic rays and natural radioactivity in the environment.Radiotherapy: The use of IONIZING RADIATION to treat malignant NEOPLASMS and some benign conditions.Radiometry: The measurement of radiation by photography, as in x-ray film and film badge, by Geiger-Mueller tube, and by SCINTILLATION COUNTING.Radiotherapy Dosage: The total amount of radiation absorbed by tissues as a result of radiotherapy.Ultraviolet Rays: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.Radiation Effects: The effects of ionizing and nonionizing radiation upon living organisms, organs and tissues, and their constituents, and upon physiologic processes. It includes the effect of irradiation on food, drugs, and chemicals.Combined Modality Therapy: The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.Abnormalities, MultipleRadiation-Sensitizing Agents: Drugs used to potentiate the effectiveness of radiation therapy in destroying unwanted cells.Chromosome Aberrations: Abnormal number or structure of chromosomes. Chromosome aberrations may result in CHROMOSOME DISORDERS.Radiation-Protective Agents: Drugs used to protect against ionizing radiation. They are usually of interest for use in radiation therapy but have been considered for other, e.g. military, purposes.Acute Radiation Syndrome: A condition caused by a brief whole body exposure to more than one sievert dose equivalent of radiation. Acute radiation syndrome is initially characterized by ANOREXIA; NAUSEA; VOMITING; but can progress to hematological, gastrointestinal, neurological, pulmonary, and other major organ dysfunction.Radioactive Hazard Release: Uncontrolled release of radioactive material from its containment. This either threatens to, or does, cause exposure to a radioactive hazard. Such an incident may occur accidentally or deliberately.X-Rays: Penetrating electromagnetic radiation emitted when the inner orbital electrons of an atom are excited and release radiant energy. X-ray wavelengths range from 1 pm to 10 nm. Hard X-rays are the higher energy, shorter wavelength X-rays. Soft x-rays or Grenz rays are less energetic and longer in wavelength. The short wavelength end of the X-ray spectrum overlaps the GAMMA RAYS wavelength range. The distinction between gamma rays and X-rays is based on their radiation source.Cobalt Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of cobalt that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Co atoms with atomic weights of 54-64, except 59, are radioactive cobalt isotopes.Radiobiology: Study of the scientific principles, mechanisms, and effects of the interaction of ionizing radiation with living matter. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Radiotherapy, Conformal: Radiotherapy where there is improved dose homogeneity within the tumor and reduced dosage to uninvolved structures. The precise shaping of dose distribution is achieved via the use of computer-controlled multileaf collimators.Radiation Hybrid Mapping: A method for ordering genetic loci along CHROMOSOMES. The method involves fusing irradiated donor cells with host cells from another species. Following cell fusion, fragments of DNA from the irradiated cells become integrated into the chromosomes of the host cells. Molecular probing of DNA obtained from the fused cells is used to determine if two or more genetic loci are located within the same fragment of donor cell DNA.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Dose Fractionation: Administration of the total dose of radiation (RADIATION DOSAGE) in parts, at timed intervals.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.DNA Damage: Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated: CONFORMAL RADIOTHERAPY that combines several intensity-modulated beams to provide improved dose homogeneity and highly conformal dose distributions.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Brachytherapy: A collective term for interstitial, intracavity, and surface radiotherapy. It uses small sealed or partly-sealed sources that may be placed on or near the body surface or within a natural body cavity or implanted directly into the tissues.Congenital Abnormalities: Malformations of organs or body parts during development in utero.Linear Energy Transfer: Rate of energy dissipation along the path of charged particles. In radiobiology and health physics, exposure is measured in kiloelectron volts per micrometer of tissue (keV/micrometer T).Radiodermatitis: A cutaneous inflammatory reaction occurring as a result of exposure to ionizing radiation.Chromosome Disorders: Clinical conditions caused by an abnormal chromosome constitution in which there is extra or missing chromosome material (either a whole chromosome or a chromosome segment). (from Thompson et al., Genetics in Medicine, 5th ed, p429)Karyotyping: Mapping of the KARYOTYPE of a cell.Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted: Computer-assisted mathematical calculations of beam angles, intensities of radiation, and duration of irradiation in radiotherapy.Radiotherapy, Adjuvant: Radiotherapy given to augment some other form of treatment such as surgery or chemotherapy. Adjuvant radiotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.Radiation Genetics: A subdiscipline of genetics that studies RADIATION EFFECTS on the components and processes of biological inheritance.Leukemia, Radiation-Induced: Leukemia produced by exposure to IONIZING RADIATION or NON-IONIZING RADIATION.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Nuclear Warfare: Warfare involving the use of NUCLEAR WEAPONS.Abnormalities, Radiation-Induced: Congenital changes in the morphology of organs produced by exposure to ionizing or non-ionizing radiation.Eye Abnormalities: Congenital absence of or defects in structures of the eye; may also be hereditary.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Body Burden: The total amount of a chemical, metal or radioactive substance present at any time after absorption in the body of man or animal.Synchrotrons: Devices for accelerating protons or electrons in closed orbits where the accelerating voltage and magnetic field strength varies (the accelerating voltage is held constant for electrons) in order to keep the orbit radius constant.Radiation, Nonionizing: ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION or sonic radiation (SOUND WAVES) which does not produce IONS in matter through which it passes. The wavelengths of non-ionizing electromagentic radiation are generally longer than those of far ultraviolet radiation and range through the longest RADIO WAVES.Relative Biological Effectiveness: The ratio of radiation dosages required to produce identical change based on a formula comparing other types of radiation with that of gamma or roentgen rays.Fluoroscopy: Production of an image when x-rays strike a fluorescent screen.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Electromagnetic Radiation: Waves of oscillating electric and MAGNETIC FIELDS which move at right angles to each other and outward from the source.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Particle Accelerators: Devices which accelerate electrically charged atomic or subatomic particles, such as electrons, protons or ions, to high velocities so they have high kinetic energy.Cesium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of cesium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Cs atoms with atomic weights of 123, 125-132, and 134-145 are radioactive cesium isotopes.DNA Repair: The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.Radiography: Examination of any part of the body for diagnostic purposes by means of X-RAYS or GAMMA RAYS, recording the image on a sensitized surface (such as photographic film).Whole-Body Irradiation: Irradiation of the whole body with ionizing or non-ionizing radiation. It is applicable to humans or animals but not to microorganisms.Brain Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Sunlight: Irradiation directly from the sun.Thermoluminescent Dosimetry: The use of a device composed of thermoluminescent material for measuring exposure to IONIZING RADIATION. The thermoluminescent material emits light when heated. The amount of light emitted is proportional to the amount of ionizing radiation to which the material has been exposed.Technology, Radiologic: The application of scientific knowledge or technology to the field of radiology. The applications center mostly around x-ray or radioisotopes for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes but the technological applications of any radiation or radiologic procedure is within the scope of radiologic technology.Beta Particles: High energy POSITRONS or ELECTRONS ejected from a disintegrating atomic nucleus.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Nuclear Weapons: A weapon that derives its destructive force from nuclear fission and/or fusion.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Radioactive Fallout: The material that descends to the earth or water well beyond the site of a surface or subsurface nuclear explosion. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Chemical and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Solar Activity: Any type of variation in the appearance of energy output of the sun. (NASA Thesaurus, 1994)Radiosurgery: A radiological stereotactic technique developed for cutting or destroying tissue by high doses of radiation in place of surgical incisions. It was originally developed for neurosurgery on structures in the brain and its use gradually spread to radiation surgery on extracranial structures as well. The usual rigid needles or probes of stereotactic surgery are replaced with beams of ionizing radiation directed toward a target so as to achieve local tissue destruction.Chernobyl Nuclear Accident: April 25th -26th, 1986 nuclear power accident that occurred at Chernobyl in the former USSR (Ukraine) located 80 miles north of Kiev.Head and Neck Neoplasms: Soft tissue tumors or cancer arising from the mucosal surfaces of the LIP; oral cavity; PHARYNX; LARYNX; and cervical esophagus. Other sites included are the NOSE and PARANASAL SINUSES; SALIVARY GLANDS; THYROID GLAND and PARATHYROID GLANDS; and MELANOMA and non-melanoma skin cancers of the head and neck. (from Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 4th ed, p1651)Radiotherapy, High-Energy: Radiotherapy using high-energy (megavolt or higher) ionizing radiation. Types of radiation include gamma rays, produced by a radioisotope within a teletherapy unit; x-rays, electrons, protons, alpha particles (helium ions) and heavy charged ions, produced by particle acceleration; and neutrons and pi-mesons (pions), produced as secondary particles following bombardment of a target with a primary particle.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Syndrome: A characteristic symptom complex.Radioisotopes: Isotopes that exhibit radioactivity and undergo radioactive decay. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence: A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Cardiovascular Abnormalities: Congenital, inherited, or acquired anomalies of the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM, including the HEART and BLOOD VESSELS.Cranial Irradiation: The exposure of the head to roentgen rays or other forms of radioactivity for therapeutic or preventive purposes.Craniofacial Abnormalities: Congenital structural deformities, malformations, or other abnormalities of the cranium and facial bones.Infrared Rays: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum usually sensed as heat. Infrared wavelengths are longer than those of visible light, extending into the microwave frequencies. They are used therapeutically as heat, and also to warm food in restaurants.Radiography, Interventional: Diagnostic and therapeutic procedures that are invasive or surgical in nature, and require the expertise of a specially trained radiologist. In general, they are more invasive than diagnostic imaging but less invasive than major surgery. They often involve catheterization, fluoroscopy, or computed tomography. Some examples include percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography, percutaneous transthoracic biopsy, balloon angioplasty, and arterial embolization.Heavy Ions: Positively-charged atomic nuclei that have been stripped of their electrons. These particles have one or more units of electric charge and a mass exceeding that of the Helium-4 nucleus (alpha particle).Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Film Dosimetry: Use of a device (film badge) for measuring exposure of individuals to radiation. It is usually made of metal, plastic, or paper and loaded with one or more pieces of x-ray film.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Radiotherapy, Computer-Assisted: Computer systems or programs used in accurate computations for providing radiation dosage treatment to patients.Carcinoma, Squamous Cell: A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)UkraineMice, Inbred C57BLHealth Physics: The science concerned with problems of radiation protection relevant to reducing or preventing radiation exposure, and the effects of ionizing radiation on humans and their environment.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Neoplasm Recurrence, Local: The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.Chemoradiotherapy: Treatment that combines chemotherapy with radiotherapy.Skin Abnormalities: Congenital structural abnormalities of the skin.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Scattering, Radiation: The diversion of RADIATION (thermal, electromagnetic, or nuclear) from its original path as a result of interactions or collisions with atoms, molecules, or larger particles in the atmosphere or other media. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Phantoms, Imaging: Devices or objects in various imaging techniques used to visualize or enhance visualization by simulating conditions encountered in the procedure. Phantoms are used very often in procedures employing or measuring x-irradiation or radioactive material to evaluate performance. Phantoms often have properties similar to human tissue. Water demonstrates absorbing properties similar to normal tissue, hence water-filled phantoms are used to map radiation levels. Phantoms are used also as teaching aids to simulate real conditions with x-ray or ultrasonic machines. (From Iturralde, Dictionary and Handbook of Nuclear Medicine and Clinical Imaging, 1990)Nuclear Reactors: Devices containing fissionable material in sufficient quantity and so arranged as to be capable of maintaining a controlled, self-sustaining NUCLEAR FISSION chain reaction. They are also known as atomic piles, atomic reactors, fission reactors, and nuclear piles, although such names are deprecated. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Neoplasm Staging: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.Urogenital Abnormalities: Congenital structural abnormalities of the UROGENITAL SYSTEM in either the male or the female.Cobalt Isotopes: Stable cobalt atoms that have the same atomic number as the element cobalt, but differ in atomic weight. Co-59 is a stable cobalt isotope.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Trisomy: The possession of a third chromosome of any one type in an otherwise diploid cell.Radiopharmaceuticals: Compounds that are used in medicine as sources of radiation for radiotherapy and for diagnostic purposes. They have numerous uses in research and industry. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1161)Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Tooth Abnormalities: Congenital absence of or defects in structures of the teeth.Musculoskeletal Abnormalities: Congenital structural abnormalities and deformities of the musculoskeletal system.Translocation, Genetic: A type of chromosome aberration characterized by CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE and transfer of the broken-off portion to another location, often to a different chromosome.Radioactive Pollutants: Radioactive substances which act as pollutants. They include chemicals whose radiation is released via radioactive waste, nuclear accidents, fallout from nuclear explosions, and the like.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Whole-Body Counting: Measurement of radioactivity in the entire human body.Radiotherapy, Image-Guided: The use of pre-treatment imaging modalities to position the patient, delineate the target, and align the beam of radiation to achieve optimal accuracy and reduce radiation damage to surrounding non-target tissues.Tumor Suppressor Protein p53: Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.Organs at Risk: Organs which might be damaged during exposure to a toxin or to some form of therapy. It most frequently refers to healthy organs located in the radiation field during radiation therapy.Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols: The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Alpha Particles: Positively charged particles composed of two protons and two NEUTRONS, i.e. equivalent to HELIUM nuclei, which are emitted during disintegration of heavy ISOTOPES. Alpha rays have very strong ionizing power, but weak penetrability.Adenocarcinoma: A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Nuclear Medicine: A specialty field of radiology concerned with diagnostic, therapeutic, and investigative use of radioactive compounds in a pharmaceutical form.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Electrocardiography: Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.Radiation Chimera: An organism whose body contains cell populations of different genotypes as a result of the TRANSPLANTATION of donor cells after sufficient ionizing radiation to destroy the mature recipient's cells which would otherwise reject the donor cells.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Aneuploidy: The chromosomal constitution of cells which deviate from the normal by the addition or subtraction of CHROMOSOMES, chromosome pairs, or chromosome fragments. In a normally diploid cell (DIPLOIDY) the loss of a chromosome pair is termed nullisomy (symbol: 2N-2), the loss of a single chromosome is MONOSOMY (symbol: 2N-1), the addition of a chromosome pair is tetrasomy (symbol: 2N+2), the addition of a single chromosome is TRISOMY (symbol: 2N+1).Power Plants: Units that convert some other form of energy into electrical energy.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Iodine Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.Radiography, Thoracic: X-ray visualization of the chest and organs of the thoracic cavity. It is not restricted to visualization of the lungs.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Bystander Effect: The result of a positive or negative response (to drugs, for example) in one cell being passed onto other cells via the GAP JUNCTIONS or the intracellular milieu.Glioma: Benign and malignant central nervous system neoplasms derived from glial cells (i.e., astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and ependymocytes). Astrocytes may give rise to astrocytomas (ASTROCYTOMA) or glioblastoma multiforme (see GLIOBLASTOMA). Oligodendrocytes give rise to oligodendrogliomas (OLIGODENDROGLIOMA) and ependymocytes may undergo transformation to become EPENDYMOMA; CHOROID PLEXUS NEOPLASMS; or colloid cysts of the third ventricle. (From Escourolle et al., Manual of Basic Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p21)Glioblastoma: A malignant form of astrocytoma histologically characterized by pleomorphism of cells, nuclear atypia, microhemorrhage, and necrosis. They may arise in any region of the central nervous system, with a predilection for the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, and commissural pathways. Clinical presentation most frequently occurs in the fifth or sixth decade of life with focal neurologic signs or seizures.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Positron-Emission Tomography: An imaging technique using compounds labelled with short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides (such as carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15 and fluorine-18) to measure cell metabolism. It has been useful in study of soft tissues such as CANCER; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; and brain. SINGLE-PHOTON EMISSION-COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY is closely related to positron emission tomography, but uses isotopes with longer half-lives and resolution is lower.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated Proteins: A group of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES which activate critical signaling cascades in double strand breaks, APOPTOSIS, and GENOTOXIC STRESS such as ionizing ultraviolet A light, thereby acting as a DNA damage sensor. These proteins play a role in a wide range of signaling mechanisms in cell cycle control.Disease-Free Survival: Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.Proctitis: INFLAMMATION of the MUCOUS MEMBRANE of the RECTUM, the distal end of the large intestine (INTESTINE, LARGE).Imaging, Three-Dimensional: The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Yttrium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of yttrium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Y atoms with atomic weights 82-88 and 90-96 are radioactive yttrium isotopes.Radioimmunotherapy: Radiotherapy where cytotoxic radionuclides are linked to antibodies in order to deliver toxins directly to tumor targets. Therapy with targeted radiation rather than antibody-targeted toxins (IMMUNOTOXINS) has the advantage that adjacent tumor cells, which lack the appropriate antigenic determinants, can be destroyed by radiation cross-fire. Radioimmunotherapy is sometimes called targeted radiotherapy, but this latter term can also refer to radionuclides linked to non-immune molecules (see RADIOTHERAPY).Sex Chromosome Aberrations: Abnormal number or structure of the SEX CHROMOSOMES. Some sex chromosome aberrations are associated with SEX CHROMOSOME DISORDERS and SEX CHROMOSOME DISORDERS OF SEX DEVELOPMENT.Cytogenetic Analysis: Examination of CHROMOSOMES to diagnose, classify, screen for, or manage genetic diseases and abnormalities. Following preparation of the sample, KARYOTYPING is performed and/or the specific chromosomes are analyzed.Solar Energy: Energy transmitted from the sun in the form of electromagnetic radiation.Uterine Cervical Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the UTERINE CERVIX.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Food Irradiation: Treatment of food with RADIATION.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Amifostine: A phosphorothioate proposed as a radiation-protective agent. It causes splenic vasodilation and may block autonomic ganglia.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Skin Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.Neoplasms, Second Primary: Abnormal growths of tissue that follow a previous neoplasm but are not metastases of the latter. The second neoplasm may have the same or different histological type and can occur in the same or different organs as the previous neoplasm but in all cases arises from an independent oncogenic event. The development of the second neoplasm may or may not be related to the treatment for the previous neoplasm since genetic risk or predisposing factors may actually be the cause.Iridium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of iridium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Ir atoms with atomic weights 182-190, 192, and 194-198 are radioactive iridium isotopes.Microwaves: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum from the UHF (ultrahigh frequency) radio waves and extending into the INFRARED RAYS frequencies.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Cisplatin: An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.Brain Diseases: Pathologic conditions affecting the BRAIN, which is composed of the intracranial components of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. This includes (but is not limited to) the CEREBRAL CORTEX; intracranial white matter; BASAL GANGLIA; THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Cytogenetics: A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the cytological and molecular analysis of the CHROMOSOMES, and location of the GENES on chromosomes, and the movements of chromosomes during the CELL CYCLE.Genetic Speciation: The splitting of an ancestral species into daughter species that coexist in time (King, Dictionary of Genetics, 6th ed). Causal factors may include geographic isolation, HABITAT geometry, migration, REPRODUCTIVE ISOLATION, random GENETIC DRIFT and MUTATION.Pedigree: The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.Space Flight: Travel beyond the earth's atmosphere.Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Abnormalities, Drug-Induced: Congenital abnormalities caused by medicinal substances or drugs of abuse given to or taken by the mother, or to which she is inadvertently exposed during the manufacture of such substances. The concept excludes abnormalities resulting from exposure to non-medicinal chemicals in the environment.Pelvic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the pelvic region.Heterozygote: An individual having different alleles at one or more loci regarding a specific character.Hodgkin Disease: A malignant disease characterized by progressive enlargement of the lymph nodes, spleen, and general lymphoid tissue. In the classical variant, giant usually multinucleate Hodgkin's and REED-STERNBERG CELLS are present; in the nodular lymphocyte predominant variant, lymphocytic and histiocytic cells are seen.Mice, Inbred C3HRadiation Leukemia Virus: A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) isolated from radiation-induced lymphomas in C57BL mice. It is leukemogenic, thymotrophic, can be transmitted vertically, and replicates only in vivo.Chemotherapy, Adjuvant: Drug therapy given to augment or stimulate some other form of treatment such as surgery or radiation therapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.Fetal Diseases: Pathophysiological conditions of the FETUS in the UTERUS. Some fetal diseases may be treated with FETAL THERAPIES.
(1/64) Evaluation of the impact of Chernobyl on the prevalence of congenital anomalies in 16 regions of Europe. EUROCAT Working Group.

BACKGROUND: Surveillance data from population-based congenital anomaly registers in 16 regions of Europe (mainly Western Europe) were analysed to assess the impact of the Chernobyl accident on the prevalence of selected congenital anomalies. METHODS: Three cohorts of pregnancies were defined: those exposed during the first month following Chernobyl (External Exposure Cohort), the first year (Total Exposure Cohort) and the two subsequent years (Control Cohort). Expected numbers of congenital anomalies in these cohorts were calculated from 1980-1985 baseline rates. Registries were grouped into three exposure categories according to first-year exposure estimates. RESULTS: There was no overall or dose-related increase in prevalence in the two exposed cohorts for Down's Syndrome, neural tube defects, other central nervous system defects or eye defects. There was a statistically significant overall 22% (95% CI: 13-31%) excess of Down's Syndrome in the Control Cohort, with no dose-response relationship. CONCLUSIONS: Chernobyl had no detectable impact on the prevalence of congenital anomalies in Western Europe, suggesting that in retrospect the widespread fear in the population about the possible effects of exposure on the unborn fetus was not justified. An increasing prevalence of Down's Syndrome in the 1980s, probably unrelated to Chernobyl, merits further investigation.  (+info)

(2/64) Reduced inhibition in an animal model of cortical dysplasia.

Cortical dysplasia has a strong association with epilepsy in humans, but the underlying mechanisms for this are poorly understood. In utero irradiation of rats produces diffuse cortical dysplasia and neuronal heterotopia in the neocortex and hippocampus. Using in vitro neocortical slices, whole-cell patch-clamp recordings were obtained from pyramidal neurons in dysplastic cortex and control neocortex. Spontaneous IPSCs were reduced in amplitude (35%) and frequency (70%) in pyramidal cells from dysplastic cortex. Miniature IPSCs were reduced in frequency (66%) in dysplastic cortex. Two additional measures of cortical inhibition, monosynaptic evoked IPSCs and paired pulse depression of evoked EPSCs, were also impaired in dysplastic cortex. Spontaneous EPSCs were increased in amplitude (42%) and frequency (77%) in dysplastic cortex, but miniature EPSCs were not different between the two groups. These data demonstrate significant physiological impairment in inhibitory synaptic transmission in experimental cortical dysplasia. This supports previous immunohistochemical findings in this model and observations in humans of a reduction in the density of inhibitory interneurons in dysplastic cortex.  (+info)

(3/64) Maintaining a proper perspective of risk associated with radiation exposure.

OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this article are to provide the reader with (a) a brief discussion of actual, perceived, and acceptable risks associated with radiation exposure; (b) a basic review of radiation protection units and a discussion as to how these units are used to estimate risk associated with occupational radiation exposure; (c) a summary of radiation doses required for specific human biologic responses and a comparison of relative doses encountered in a variety of clinical situations; and (d) a practical approach to discussing relative risks associated with medical radiation exposures when patients inquire.  (+info)

(4/64) Dependence of malformation upon gestational age and exposed dose of gamma radiation.

In order to evaluate the importance of gestational age and the dose-incidence relationship by gamma radiation, pregnant ICR mice at gestational days from 2.5 to 15.5 days post-coitus (p.c.) were exposed to a single dose of 2.0 Gy and also at day 11.5 after conception, which was the most sensitive stage for the induction of major congenital malformations. The animals were sacrificed on day 18 of gestation and the fetuses were examined for mortality, growth retardation, changes in head size and other morphological abnormalities. The only demonstrable effect of irradiation during the pre-implantation period was an increase in prenatal mortality. Resorptions were maximal on exposure at day 2.5 after conception. The pre-implantation irradiated embryos which survived did not show any major fetal abnormalities. A small head, growth retardation, a cleft palate, dilatation of the cerebral ventricle, a renal pelvis, and abnormalities of the extremities and tail after exposure were prominent during the organogenesis period, especially on day 11.5 of gestation. As for the dose-incidence relationship, the incidence of a small head, growth-retarded fetuses, a cleft palate, dilatation of cerebral ventricle and abnormalities of the extremities in live fetuses rose as the radiation dose increased. The result indicated that the late period of organogenesis in the development of the brain, skull and extremities of a mouse was a particularly sensitive phase. The threshold doses of radiation that induced a cleft palate and dilatation of the cerebral ventricle, and abnormal extremities were between 1.0 and 2.0 Gy, and between 0.5 and 1.0 Gy, respectively.  (+info)

(5/64) The combined effects of MRI and X-rays on ICR mouse embryos during organogenesis.

The combined effects of X-rays and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) on mouse embryos at an early stage of organogenesis were investigated. Pregnant ICR mice were irradiated on day 8 of gestation with X-rays at a dose of 1 Gy and/or MRI at 0.5 T for 1 hour. The mortality rates of the embryos or fetuses, the incidence of external malformations, the fetal body weight and the sex ratio were observed at day 18 of gestation. A significant increase in embryonic mortality was observed after exposure to either 1 Gy of X-radiation or 0.5 T MRI. However, the combined X-rays and MRI did not show a statistically significant increase in embryonic mortality compared with the control. External malformations, such as exencephaly, a cleft palate and anophthalmia, were observed in mice irradiated with X-rays and/or MRI. The incidence of each malformation in all treated groups increased with statistical significance compared with the control mice. The incidence in mice irradiated with both X-rays and MRI was lower than in mice irradiated with only X-rays. The combined effects of the combination of radiation and MRI on the external malformations might be antagonistic. There were no statistically significant differences in fetal death, fetal body weight and sex ratio among all experimental groups.  (+info)

(6/64) Effects of a 4.7 T static magnetic field on fetal development in ICR mice.

In order to determine the effects of a 4.7 T static magnetic field (SMF) on fetal development in mice, we evaluated fetal teratogenesis and endochondral ossification following exposure in utero. Pregnant ICR mice were exposed to a 4.7 T SMF from day 7.5 to 9.5 of gestation in a whole-body dose, and sacrificed on day 18.5 of gestation. We examined the incidence of prenatal death, external malformations and fetal skeletal malformations. There were no significant differences observed in the incidence of prenatal death and/or malformations between SMF-exposed mice and control mice. Further, we evaluated the immunoreactivity for the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which is implicated in angiogenesis and osteogenesis, in the sternum of fetal mice following magnetic exposure. Our studies also indicated that on day 16.5 of gestation following SMF exposure, the immunoreactivity for VEGF was increased compared to unexposed controls. However, it was decreased in the exposed group compared to the control group on day 18.5 of gestation. DNA and proteoglycan (PG) synthesis were also measured in rabbit costal growth plate chondrocytes in vitro. No significant differences were observed in DNA synthesis between the SMF exposed chondrocytes and the control chondrocytes; however, PG synthesis in SMF exposed chondrocytes increased compared to the controls. Based on these results, we suggest that while SMF exposure promoted the endochondral ossification of chondrocytes, it did not induce any harmful effects on fetal development in ICR mice.  (+info)

(7/64) Model prediction of treatment planning for dose-fractionated radioimmunotherapy.

BACKGROUND: Clinical trials of radioimmunotherapy (RIT) often use dose fractionation to reduce marrow toxicity. The dosing scheme can be optimized if marrow and tumor cell kinetics following radiation exposure are known. METHODS: A mathematic model of tumor clonogenic cell kinetics was combined with a previously reported marrow cell kinetics model that included marrow stromal cells, progenitor cells, megakaryocytes, and platelets. Reported values for murine tumor and marrow cellular turnover rates and radiosensitivity were used in the model calculation. RESULTS: Given a tolerated level of thrombocytopenia, there is a fractionation scheme in which total radioactive dose administration can be maximized. Isoeffect doses that had different numbers of fractions and total radioactivity, but induced identical platelet nadirs of 20%, were determined. Assuming identical tumor uptake for all dose fractions, six tumor types were examined: early-responding tumors, late-responding tumors, and tumors that lacked a late-responding effect, with either constant or accelerated doubling time. For most tumor types, better tumor control (tumor growth delay and nadir of survival fraction) was predicted for a dosing scheme in which total radioactive dose was maximized. For late-responding tumors with accelerated doubling time, tumor growth delay increased, but the nadir of survival fraction became shallower as the number of fractions increased. CONCLUSIONS: A mathematic model has been developed that allows prediction of the nadir and duration of thrombocytopenia as well as tumor clonogenic cell response to various RIT doses and fractionation schemes. Given a maximum tolerated level of thrombocytopenia, the model can be used to determine a dosing scheme for optimal tumor response.  (+info)

(8/64) Elevated minisatellite mutation rate in the post-chernobyl families from ukraine.

Germline mutation at eight human minisatellite loci has been studied among families from rural areas of the Kiev and Zhitomir regions of Ukraine, which were heavily contaminated by radionuclides after the Chernobyl accident. The control and exposed groups were composed of families containing children conceived before and after the Chernobyl accident, respectively. The groups were matched by ethnicity, maternal age, parental occupation, and smoking habits, and they differed only slightly by paternal age. A statistically significant 1.6-fold increase in mutation rate was found in the germline of exposed fathers, whereas the maternal germline mutation rate in the exposed families was not elevated. These data, together with the results of our previous analysis of the exposed families from Belarus, suggest that the elevated minisatellite mutation rate can be attributed to post-Chernobyl radioactive exposure. The mechanisms of mutation induction at human minisatellite loci are discussed.  (+info)

*  Dicentric chromosome
Irradiation Radiation is known to induce abnormalities in the nuclei of cells. Dicentric chromosomes were first detected in ... Tailed nuclei are signatures of radiation exposure in human tissue, microbiota, and aquatic invertebrates from the wake of ... Pseudodicentric chromosomes alone do not define these syndromes, because the contribution of other chromosomal abnormalities ... Chromosomal inversion Telomeres Cytogenetics Nuclear radiation Intellectual disorders Nussbaum, Robert; McInnes, Roderick; ...
*  Radiation-induced cancer
Cellular mechanisms will repair some of this damage, but some repairs will be incorrect and some chromosome abnormalities will ... Radiation can cause cancer in most parts of the body, in all animals, and at any age, although radiation-induced solid tumors ... Children and adolescents are twice as likely to develop radiation-induced leukemia as adults; radiation exposure before birth ... Up to 10% of invasive cancers are related to radiation exposure, including both ionizing radiation and non-ionizing radiation. ...
*  Karl Sax
In 1938 Sax published a paper entitled "Chromosome Aberrations Induced by X-rays," which demonstrated that radiation could ... a chromosome abnormality. The paper is thought to mark the beginning of the field of radiation cytology, and led him to be ... noted for his research in cytogenetics and the effect of radiation on chromosomes. Sax was born in Spokane, Washington in 1892 ... called the "father of radiation cytology." Sax bred new varieties of ornamental trees and shrubs including Malus species (both ...
*  Ataxia
... can be induced as a result of severe acute radiation poisoning with an absorbed dose of more than 30 Grays. Vitamin B12 ... Friedreich's ataxia has gait abnormality as the most commonly presented symptom. The word is from Greek α- [a negative prefix ... To obtain better results, possible coexisting motor deficits need to be addressed in addition to those induced by ataxia. For ... Ataxia is a neurological sign consisting of lack of voluntary coordination of muscle movements that includes gait abnormality. ...
*  Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster casualties
... including cognitive impairment attributable to within the womb radiation exposure. As no radiation induced inherited effects/ ... No increase is expected in the incidence of congenital or developmental abnormalities, ... 12 April 2011 'Now radiation in Japan is as bad as radiation level is raised to 7 for only the second time in history' Daily ... indicated that the residents of the area who were evacuated were exposed to so little radiation that radiation induced health ...
*  List of MeSH codes (C21)
... abnormalities, radiation-induced MeSH C21.866.733.345 --- leukemia, radiation-induced MeSH C21.866.733.476 --- neoplasms, ... radiation-induced MeSH C21.866.733.579 --- osteoradionecrosis MeSH C21.866.733.720 --- radiation injuries, experimental MeSH ... drug-induced MeSH C21.613.705.150 --- alcohol-induced disorders, nervous system MeSH C21.613.705.150.100 --- alcohol amnestic ... alcohol-induced disorders MeSH C21.739.100.087.193 --- alcohol-induced disorders, nervous system MeSH C21.739. ...
*  List of diseases (R)
... choanal atresia Radiation induced angiosarcoma of the breast Radiation induced meningioma Radiation leukemia Radiation related ... syndrome Radiophobia Radioulnar synostosis mental retardation hypotonia Radioulnar synostosis retinal pigment abnormalities ... cancer Radiation syndromes Radiation-induced brachial plexopathy Radiculomegaly of canine teeth congenital cataract Radio ... Retinohepatoendocrinologic syndrome Retinopathy anemia CNS anomalies Retinopathy aplastic anemia neurological abnormalities ...
*  Chromosomal translocation
"Chromosome Aberrations Induced by X-rays," which demonstrated that radiation could induce major genetic changes by affecting ... "the father of radiation cytology". Accipitridae Aneuploidy Chromosome abnormalities DbCRID Fusion gene Takifugu rubripes " ... Radiation Effects Research Foundation. Retrieved June 30, 2014. Li JY, Gaillard F, Moreau A, et al. (May 1999). "Detection of ... The paper is thought to mark the beginning of the field of radiation cytology, and led him to be called " ...
*  Bioremediation of radioactive waste
Radiation tests in model organisms that determine the effects of high radiation on animals and plants are: Chromosomal ... These compounds mutate DNA strands and produce genetic damage, inducing newly lysis and subsequent cell death. Its action on ... Reproductive deficiencies: sterility, reduction in fecundity, and occurrence of developmental abnormalities or reduction in ... Lowy, R.J (2005). "Ionizing Radiation Inactivation of Medically Relevant Viruses". In Gazsó, L.G; Ponta, C.C. Radiation ...
*  Pulmonary toxicity
Radiation-induced and chemotherapy-induced pulmonary injury. Curr Opin Oncol. 2001 Jul;13(4):242-8. Review. Camus P, Martin WJ ... An 82-year-old man with dyspnea and pulmonary abnormalities. N Engl J Med. 2003 Apr 17;348(16):1574-85. Meadors M, Floyd J, ... Pulmonary radiation injury. Chest. 1997 Apr;111(4):1061-76. Review. Tsoutsou PG, Koukourakis MI. Radiation pneumonitis and ... Radiation (radiotherapy) is frequently used for the treatment of many cancer types, and can be highly effective. Unfortunately ...
*  3D reconstruction from multiple images
... they can induce high radiation doses which is a risk for patients with certain diseases. Methods based on MRI are not accurate ... The 2-D imaging has problems of anatomy overlapping with each other and don't disclose the abnormalities. The 3-D imaging can ... This method uses X-ray images for 3D Reconstruction and to develop 3D models with low dose radiations in weight bearing ... So, we discuss the following methods which can be performed while standing and require low radiation dose. Though these ...
*  Albert J. Fornace Jr.
Mammalian genes induced by radiation; activation of genes associated with growth control. Annual Rev. Genetics 26: 507-526, ... DNA single-strand breaks during repair of UV damage in human fibroblasts and abnormalities of repair in xeroderma pigmentosum. ... Exposure to heavy ion radiation induces persistent oxidative stress in mouse intestine. PLoS One 7: e42224, 2012. Mironova, N. ... In the radiation field he has received multiple awards including the Radiation Research Society Excellence in Mentoring Award ...
*  Lower gastrointestinal bleeding
A clotting abnormality and low platelet concentration in the blood should be immediately corrected if possible. Platelets ... and radiation proctitis; nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use is a risk factor for diverticular bleeding and NSAID- ... induced colonic ulcer; and recent colonoscopy with polypectomy suggests postpolypectomy bleeding. Patients should be asked ... may be required to completely reverse clotting abnormalities, depending on the initial prothrombin time. Recombinant activated ...
*  Developmental toxicity
The severity and frequency of the congenital abnormalities seen increased with dose of radiation which depended on the ... One of the first environmentally induced congenital malformations in humans were recognized as a result of maternal irradiation ... There are a number of chemicals, biological agents (such as bacteria and viruses), and physical agents (such as radiation) used ... This term has widely replaced the early term for the study of primarily structural congenital abnormalities, teratology, to ...
*  Guo Mei
2005 Treatment of Jining serious radiation accidents and extremely severe bone marrow and intestinal radiation 2006 Developed ... "CM-DiI labeled mesenchymal stem cells homed to thymus inducing immune recovery of mice after haploidentical bone marrow ... Establishment and identification of a h-2 completely mismatched microtransplantation model of leukemia mouse 2013 Abnormality ... She is a pre-eminent expert in the use of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for treating radiation injuries and blood ...
*  Cataract
Lipman RM, Tripathi BJ, Tripathi RC (1988). "Cataracts induced by microwave and ionizing radiation". Surv. Ophthalmol. 33 (3): ... Examples of chromosome abnormalities associated with cataracts include 1q21.1 deletion syndrome, cri-du-chat syndrome, Down ... Microwave radiation has also been found to cause cataracts. The mechanism is unclear, but it may include changes in heat- ... Cataracts have been associated with ionizing radiation such as X-rays. The addition of damage to the DNA of the lens cells has ...
*  Causes of cancer
Medical use of ionizing radiation is a growing source of radiation-induced cancers. Ionizing radiation may be used to treat ... or cause other types of chromosome abnormalities. Major damage normally results in the cell dying, but smaller damage may leave ... Radiation can cause cancer in most parts of the body, in all animals, and at any age, although radiation-induced solid tumors ... Children and adolescents are twice as likely to develop radiation-induced leukemia as adults; radiation exposure before birth ...
*  Claire Van Ummersen
... of Microwave Radiation with Particular Reference to the Eyes Experimental Radiation Cataracts Induced by Microwave Radiation ... "An experimental study of developing abnormalities induced in the chick embryo by exposure to radio frequency waves." She also ... Experimental radiation cataracts induced by microwave radiation. In American Journal of Ophthalmology (Vol. 47, No. 1, pp. 94- ... Carpenter, R. L., & Van Ummersen, C. A. (1968). THE ACTION OF MICROWAVE RADIATION ON THE EYEt. Van Ummersen, C. A., & Cogan, F ...
*  Adult development
Radiation, chemotherapy, and in some cases, surgery, is used to treat the cancer. Arthritis Osteoarthritis is one of the most ... Physiological abnormalities associated with AD include neurofibrillary plaques and tangles. Neuritic plaques, that target the ... Cardiovascular diseases include a variety of heart conditions that may induce a heart attack or other heart-related problems. ... perhaps due to the stress induced by these conditions. In older adults, depression presents as impairments already associated ...
*  Acute lymphoblastic leukemia
... physicians commonly utilized radiation in the form of whole-brain radiation for central nervous system prophylaxis, to prevent ... By engaging the CD3 T-cell with the CD19 receptor on B cells, it triggers a response to induce the release of inflammatory ... For example, the most common specific abnormality in childhood B-ALL is the t(12;21) ETV6-RUNX1 translocation, in which the ... Radiation therapy (or radiotherapy) is used on painful bony areas, in high disease burdens, or as part of the preparations for ...
*  Breast cancer
... the risks of more frequent mammograms include a small but significant increase in breast cancer induced by radiation. The ... A clinical or self breast exam involves feeling the breast for lumps or other abnormalities. Clinical breast exams are ... Radiation can also be given at the time of operation on the breast cancer. Radiation can reduce the risk of recurrence by 50-66 ... Radiation therapy can be delivered as external beam radiotherapy or as brachytherapy (internal radiotherapy). Conventionally ...
*  Ataxia-telangiectasia
"Requirement for Atm in ionizing radiation-induced cell death in the developing central nervous system". Science. 280 (5366): ... Not all abnormalities are seen in all patients. These abnormalities include: Elevated and slowly increasing alpha-fetoprotein ... About two-thirds of people with A-T have abnormalities of the immune system. The most common abnormalities are low levels of ... treatment should avoid the use of radiation therapy and chemotherapy drugs that work in a way that is similar to radiation ...
*  Leukemia
Non-Ionizing Radiation, Part 1: Static and Extremely Low-Frequency (ELF) Electric and Magnetic Fields (IARC Monographs on the ... Children born to mothers who use fertility drugs to induce ovulation are more than twice as likely to develop leukemia during ... In addition to these genetic issues, people with chromosomal abnormalities or certain other genetic conditions have a greater ... Some are also treated with radiation therapy. In some cases, a bone marrow transplant is effective. Management of ALL is ...
*  SOAP note
In a pharmacist's SOAP note, the assessment will identify what the drug related/induced problem is likely to be and the ... Alleviating/Aggravating factors Radiation Temporal pattern (every morning, all day, etc.) Severity Variants on this mnemonic ( ... pertinent normal findings and abnormalities. Results from laboratory and other diagnostic tests already completed. A medical ...
*  John Gofman
1985 Radiation-Induced Cancer From Low-Dose Exposure: An Independent Analysis 480 pages, 1990 Chernobyl Accident: Radiation ... where he was on the cutting edge of research into the connection between chromosomal abnormalities and cancer. Later in life, ... Radiation-Induced Cancer from Low-Dose Exposure: An Independent Analysis. San Francisco: Committee for Nuclear Responsibility. ... M. I. Balonov criticized the methodology of the book's estimation of Chernobyl's excess deaths and radiation-induced health ...
*  Cervical cancer
"Regulatory effects of COL1A1 on apoptosis induced by radiation in cervical ...: EBSCOhost". web.b.ebscohost.com. Retrieved 2017 ... was developed to place emphasis on the spectrum of abnormality in these lesions, and to help standardise treatment. It ... Radiation therapy is given as external beam radiotherapy to the pelvis and brachytherapy (internal radiation). Women treated ... Smoking can increase the risk in women a few different ways, which can be by direct and indirect methods of inducing cervical ...
topic:Abnormalities, Radiation-Induced - epidemiology found 59 records • Arctic Health  topic:"Abnormalities, Radiation-Induced - epidemiology" found 59 records • Arctic Health
Abnormalities, Radiation-Induced - epidemiology Accidents, Radiation Autopsy Central Nervous System - abnormalities Croatia - ... Abnormalities, Radiation-Induced - epidemiology Accidents, Radiation Germany - epidemiology Humans Infant, Newborn Odds Ratio ... Abnormalities, Radiation-Induced - epidemiology Accidents, Radiation Cleft Lip - epidemiology Cleft Palate - epidemiology Cross ... Abnormalities, Radiation-Induced - epidemiology - genetics Accidents, Radiation Down Syndrome - epidemiology - genetics Humans ...
more infohttps://arctichealth.org/en/list?q=topic%3A%22Abnormalities%2C+Radiation-Induced+-+epidemiology%22&p=1&ps=&sort=title_sort+asc
Radiation-induced myocardial perfusion abnormalities in breast cancer patients following external beam radiation therapy  Radiation-induced myocardial perfusion abnormalities in breast cancer patients following external beam radiation therapy
Conclusion: The risk of radiation induced myocardial perfusion abnormality in patients treated with CRT on the left hemi thorax ... A prospective cohort was conducted to study the prevalence of myocardial perfusion abnormalities following radiation therapy of ... It is reasonable to minimize the volume of the heart being in the field of radiation employing didactic radiation planning ... Six months after radiation therapy, all patients underwent cardiac SPECT for the evaluation of myocardial perfusion. Results: A ...
more infohttp://aojnmb.mums.ac.ir/article_3132.html
Radiation induced myocardial perfusion abnormalities in patients with left breast cancer: A prospective study with short and...  Radiation induced myocardial perfusion abnormalities in patients with left breast cancer: A prospective study with short and...
Conclusion: The radiation induced myocardial perfusion abnormalities in patients with left breast cancer could cause permanent ... 0.3±1.0; p=0.03). The indices of perfusion abnormality normalized in control subjects from baseline to follow up scans (p= 0.05 ... We intended to study the change of these abnormalities at short and long term post radiotherapy follow up. Methods: Twenty ... They underwent myocardial perfusion scans (MPS) 3 years after the external beam radiation therapy at the bed of modified ...
more infohttp://irjnm.tums.ac.ir/article_23656.html
Mouth symptoms - RightDiagnosis.com  Mouth symptoms - RightDiagnosis.com
Aberrant subclavian artery abnormality ... difficulty swallowing, hoarseness*Abnormalities, Radiation-Induced ... swallowing ... Alcohol-Induced Disorders ... vomiting*Alcohol-induced hypertension ... shortness of breath, vomiting*Alcohol-induced pseudo- ... Orofacial Cleft ... dental abnormalities*Orofacial Cleft 1 ... dental abnormalities*Orofacial Cleft 10 ... dental abnormalities ... Auricular abnormalities -- cleft lip with or without cleft palate -- ocular abnormalities ... cleft palate, cleft lip*Auriculo- ...
more infohttps://www.rightdiagnosis.com/sym/mouth_symptoms.htm
Eating symptoms - RightDiagnosis.com  Eating symptoms - RightDiagnosis.com
Aberrant subclavian artery abnormality ... difficulty swallowing*Abnormalities, Radiation-Induced ... swallowing pain, ... Al Murrah-induced lead poisoning ... loss of appetite*Alarcon-induced lead poisoning ... loss of appetite*Albayaidle-induced ... Drug-induced liver damage -- Iodide ion ... loss of appetite*Drug-induced liver damage -- Isoniazid ... loss of appetite*Drug- ... Drug-induced liver damage -- Sulfonamide ... loss of appetite*Drug-induced liver damage -- Sulfones ... loss of appetite ...
more infohttp://www.rightdiagnosis.com/sym/eating_symptoms.htm
Question and answer  Question and answer
Click here to know more about the Symptoms, Causes, Treatment, Risks, and Complications on abnormalities, radiation-induced. ... Click here to know more about the Symptoms, Causes, Treatment, Risks, and Complications on abnormalities, radiation-induced ...
more infohttp://webhealthnetwork.com/q/3-70-misdiagnosis/what-are-the-misdiagnosis-of-abnormalities-radiationinduced
Crack synchronization of chaotic circuits under field coupling | SpringerLink  Crack synchronization of chaotic circuits under field coupling | SpringerLink
Ma, J., Wu, F.Q., Hayat, T., et al.: Electromagnetic induction and radiation-induced abnormality of wave propagation in ... Wu, J., Xu, Y., Ma, J.: Levy noise improves the electrical activity in a neuron under electromagnetic radiation. PLoS One 12, ... Majhi, S., Perc, M., Ghosh, D.: Chimera states in uncoupled neurons induced by a multilayer structure. Sci. Rep. 6, 39033 (2016 ... Ma, J., Wu, F.Q., Wang, C.N.: Synchronization behaviors of coupled neurons under electromagnetic radiation. Int. J. Mod. Phys. ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11071-018-4307-x
Loss of surface LEC by death and by abnormal migration  | Open-i  Loss of surface LEC by death and by abnormal migration | Open-i
Abnormalities, Radiation-Induced/pathology*. *Cataract/pathology*. *Radiation Injuries, Experimental/pathology*. Minor. * ... Radiation cataracts: mechanisms involved in their long delayed occurrence but then rapid progression. ... Radiation cataracts: mechanisms involved in their long delayed occurrence but then rapid progression. ...
more infohttps://openi.nlm.nih.gov/detailedresult.php?img=PMC2254966_mv-v14-274-f7&req=4
Dr. Andrew Moffat, DO - West Jordan, UT - Undersea & Hyperbaric Medicine | Healthgrades.com  Dr. Andrew Moffat, DO - West Jordan, UT - Undersea & Hyperbaric Medicine | Healthgrades.com
Radiation Colitis. *Radiation Proctitis. *Radiation Tissue Damage. *Radiation-Induced Abnormalities. *Retinal Artery Occlusion ...
more infohttps://www.healthgrades.com/physician/dr-andrew-moffat-g8thq?facilityid=a22112
What is a 17aa steroid?  What is a 17aa steroid?
Liv.52 protection against radiation-induced abnormalities on mammalian prenatal development (pdf). Saini, M.R., Kumar, S., ... In the prevention and treatment of radiation and chemotherapy-induced liver damage. *Hepatoprotective effect of Liv.52 and ... A case of radiation and drug-induced alopecia and premature greying cured with Liv.52 (pdf). Kamlakar Tripathi, Department of ... Role of Liv.52 in alopecia-induced by radiation and chemotherapy (pdf). Harbans Lal Kapoor, Rajeev K. Seam and Sanjeev Sharma, ...
more infohttp://forums.rxmuscle.com/showthread.php?11212-What-is-a-17aa-steroid&s=aa53571383e3d4b87d02b0c7cf373d60&p=319878&viewfull=1
What is a 17aa steroid?  What is a 17aa steroid?
Liv.52 protection against radiation-induced abnormalities on mammalian prenatal development (pdf). Saini, M.R., Kumar, S., ... In the prevention and treatment of radiation and chemotherapy-induced liver damage. *Hepatoprotective effect of Liv.52 and ... A case of radiation and drug-induced alopecia and premature greying cured with Liv.52 (pdf). Kamlakar Tripathi, Department of ... Role of Liv.52 in alopecia-induced by radiation and chemotherapy (pdf). Harbans Lal Kapoor, Rajeev K. Seam and Sanjeev Sharma, ...
more infohttp://forums.rxmuscle.com/showthread.php?11212-What-is-a-17aa-steroid&s=dfb1d18bbab30672e4e4b0e448b4bdd4&p=319878&viewfull=1
Chordoma Presenting as a Cold Lesion on Bone Scintigraphy  Chordoma Presenting as a "Cold" Lesion on Bone Scintigraphy
Characterization of radiation induced photopenic abnormalities on bone scans. Radiol 1982; 145:161-163.. 5) Jones DC and Cady ... There were no other abnormalities.. Radiation therapy was started, but because of progressive worsening of leg weakness and ... Avascular necrosis, acute osteomyelitis, radiation therapy, frostbite, electrical burns, Gaucher's or sickle cell disease (with ...
more infohttp://www.med.harvard.edu/JPNM/BoneTF/Case19/WriteUp19.html
Burning symptoms and Throat symptoms - Symptom Checker - check medical symptoms at RightDiagnosis  Burning symptoms and Throat symptoms - Symptom Checker - check medical symptoms at RightDiagnosis
8. Aberrant subclavian artery abnormality. 9. Abnormalities, Radiation-Induced. 10. Abruzzo Erickson syndrome. More causes » , ...
more infohttp://symptoms.rightdiagnosis.com/cosymptoms/burning-symptoms/throat-symptoms.htm
Sperma: Effect of Mobile Phones on Sperm Quality; Review Papers  Sperma: Effect of Mobile Phones on Sperm Quality; Review Papers
Morinda Officinalis How improves cellphone radiation-induced abnormality of LH and LHR in male rats. Article in Chinese. ... Protective effect of Liuweidihuang Pills against cellphone electromagnetic radiation-induced histomorphological abnormality, ... Liu Q, Si T, Xu X, Liang F, Wang L, Pan S. Electromagnetic radiation at 900 MHz induces sperm apoptosis through bcl-2, bax and ... Pandey N, Giri S, Das S, Upadhaya P. Radiofrequency radiation (900 MHz)-induced DNA damage and cell cycle arrest in testicular ...
more infohttps://stopumts.nl/doc.php/Onderzoeken/11765/sperma_effect_of_mobile_phones_on_sperm_quality%3B_review_papers
Sperma: Effect of Mobile Phones on Sperm Quality; Review Papers  Sperma: Effect of Mobile Phones on Sperm Quality; Review Papers
Morinda Officinalis How improves cellphone radiation-induced abnormality of LH and LHR in male rats. Article in Chinese. ... Protective effect of Liuweidihuang Pills against cellphone electromagnetic radiation-induced histomorphological abnormality, ... Liu Q, Si T, Xu X, Liang F, Wang L, Pan S. Electromagnetic radiation at 900 MHz induces sperm apoptosis through bcl-2, bax and ... Pandey N, Giri S, Das S, Upadhaya P. Radiofrequency radiation (900 MHz)-induced DNA damage and cell cycle arrest in testicular ...
more infohttps://stopumts.nl/doc.php/Onderzoeken/11765/Sperma:%20Effect%20of%20Mobile
Role of the Primary Care Physician in Hodgkin Lymphoma - American Family Physician  Role of the Primary Care Physician in Hodgkin Lymphoma - American Family Physician
... shorter-duration radiation therapy. ABVD (a chemotherapy regimen consisting of doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and ... A wide spectrum of radiation-induced cardiovascular abnormalities may occur in patients who survive Hodgkin lymphoma. These ... and those who received a high dose of radiation.20 Mammography has been shown to be useful in these patients. Both radiation ... Lung compromise is a function of the radiation dose and volume of lung exposed, as well as the use of bleomycin (Blenoxane).26 ...
more infohttps://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0901/p615.html
Rapid and reliable diagnosis of murine myeloid leukemia (ML) by FISH of peripheral blood smear using probe of PU. 1, a...  Rapid and reliable diagnosis of murine myeloid leukemia (ML) by FISH of peripheral blood smear using probe of PU. 1, a...
... provides a good animal model to study the mechanisms of radiation-induced leukemia in humans. This disease has been ... Frequency of PU.1 abnormalities in radiation-induced ML mice. Interphase FISH analyses using PU.1 were performed using spleen ... Hayata I: Partial deletion of chromosome 2 in radiation-induced myeloid leukemia in mice. In Radiation-induced Chromosome ... S Breckton G, Silver A, Cox R: Radiation-induced chromosome 2 breakage and the initiation of murine radiation acute myeloid ...
more infohttps://molecularcytogenetics.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1755-8166-1-22
  • A significant increase in preterm births occurred among children who were exposed to radiation during the first trimester whose mothers lived in zones 2 and 3, where the external dose rate and estimated surface activity of caesium-137 were highest. (arctichealth.org)
  • The most widely accepted model posits that the incidence of cancers due to ionizing radiation increases linearly with effective radiation dose at a rate of 5.5% per sievert. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is often the single largest contributor to an individual's background radiation dose, and is the most variable from location to location. (wikipedia.org)
  • In industrialized countries, Medical imaging contributes almost as much radiation dose to the public as natural background radiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • In accordance with ICRP recommendations, most regulators permit nuclear energy workers to receive up to 20 times more radiation dose than is permitted for the general public. (wikipedia.org)
  • Given the uncertain health effects of low-dose radiation, cancer deaths cannot be ruled out. (wikipedia.org)
  • The classification of radioactive waste established by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) distinguishes six levels according to equivalent dose, specific activity, heat released and half-life of the radionuclides: Exempt waste (EW): Waste that meets the criteria for exclusion from regulatory control for radiation protection purposes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two important points observed during this study was: The severity and frequency of the congenital abnormalities seen increased with dose of radiation which depended on the closeness to the source or explosion. (wikipedia.org)
  • To spare normal tissues (such as skin or organs which radiation must pass through to treat the tumor), shaped radiation beams are aimed from several angles of exposure to intersect at the tumor, providing a much larger absorbed dose there than in the surrounding, healthy tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • The majority of epithelial cancers are only moderately radiosensitive, and require a significantly higher dose of radiation (60-70 Gy) to achieve a radical cure. (wikipedia.org)
  • The full range of birth defects caused by infection during pregnancy is not known, but they appear to be common, with large scale abnormalities seen in up to 42% of live births. (wikipedia.org)
  • Six months after radiation therapy, all patients underwent cardiac SPECT for the evaluation of myocardial perfusion. (ac.ir)
  • Findings from physical examinations, including basic systems of cardiac and respiratory, the affected systems, possible involvement of other systems, pertinent normal findings and abnormalities. (wikipedia.org)
  • This can actually trigger a heart attack for persons with cardiac structural abnormalities i.e. coronary bridge, missing coronary, and atherosclerosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is complemented by gastro-coronary reflexes whereby the coronary arteries constrict with "functional cardiovascular symptoms" similar to chest-pain on the left side and radiation to the left shoulder, dyspnea, sweating, up to angina pectoris -like attacks with extrasystoles, drop of blood pressure, and tachycardia (high heart beat) or sinus bradycardia (heart beat below 60). (wikipedia.org)
  • If you have an ultrasound or sleep study, ensure that you know how to reproduce the symptoms, as it is difficult to detect any abnormalities when symptoms have subsided. (wikipedia.org)
  • The change of the perfusion abnormalities by both visual assessment and quantifications (Autoquant) at the baseline and 3 years follow up time are compared between exposed and control patients. (ac.ir)
  • These studies also have practical implications for health risks of radiation, assessment of radiation injury, as well as cancer treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a pharmacist's SOAP note, the assessment will identify what the drug related/induced problem is likely to be and the reasoning/evidence behind it. (wikipedia.org)
  • Epidemiological evidence shows a clear link between lung cancer and high concentrations of radon, with 21,000 radon-induced U.S. lung cancer deaths per year-second only to cigarette smoking-according to the United States Environmental Protection Agency. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, if a person who uses tobacco heavily develops lung cancer, then it was probably caused by the tobacco use, but since everyone has a small chance of developing lung cancer as a result of air pollution or radiation, there is a small chance that the cancer developed because of air pollution or radiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Non-ionizing radio frequency radiation from mobile phones, electric power transmission, and other similar sources have been described as a possible carcinogen by the World Health Organization's International Agency for Research on Cancer, but the link remains unproven. (wikipedia.org)
  • Later, she received her Master's (1960) and Doctorate (1963) in biology from Tufts University, with a dissertation titled "An experimental study of developing abnormalities induced in the chick embryo by exposure to radio frequency waves. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is reasonable to minimize the volume of the heart being in the field of radiation employing didactic radiation planning techniques. (ac.ir)
  • The paper is thought to mark the beginning of the field of radiation cytology, and led him to be called the "father of radiation cytology. (wikipedia.org)
  • She has co-authored five monographs, including "Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation clinical and basic," "Modern leukemia study," "Clinical and basic research of radiation sickness," and two more books. (wikipedia.org)
  • All patients were initially treated by modified radical mastectomy and then were managed by postoperative 3D Conformal Radiation Therapy (CRT) to the surgical bed with an additional 1-cm margin, delivered by 46-50 Gy (in 2 Gy daily fractions) over a 5-week course. (ac.ir)
  • A 20% increase in microcephaly frequency was seen in children with in-utero radiation exposure during the first trimester of the pregnancy (Miller 1956, 1968). (wikipedia.org)
  • The most common observed associations have been abnormalities with brain and eye development such as microcephaly and chorioretinal scarring. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed][clarification needed] Furthermore, at least six workers have exceeded lifetime legal limits for radiation and more than 175 (0.7%) have received significant radiation doses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Evidence also suggests bisphosphonates induce apoptosis of osteoclasts, resulting in resorption of bones. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is important to distinguish the radiosensitivity of a particular tumor, which to some extent is a laboratory measure, from the radiation "curability" of a cancer in actual clinical practice. (wikipedia.org)
  • Environmental factors, including toxins, radiation, and ultraviolet light, have cumulative effects, which are worsened by the loss of protective and restorative mechanisms due to alterations in gene expression and chemical processes within the eye. (wikipedia.org)
  • These radioactive particles are by-products generated as a result of activities related to nuclear energy and constitute a pollution and a radiotoxicity problem (with serious health and ecological consequences) due to its unstable nature of ionizing radiation emissions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Common environmental factors that contribute to cancer death include tobacco (according to one estimate, accounting for 25-30% of deaths), obesity (30-35%), infections (15-20%), radiation (both ionizing and non-ionizing, up to 10%), lack of physical activity, and environmental pollutants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gofman was instrumental in inducing the health physics scientific community both to acknowledge the cancer risks of ionizing radiation and to adopt the Linear No-Threshold (LNT) model as a means of estimating actual cancer risks from low-level radiation and as the foundation of the international guidelines for radiation protection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Radiation increases the probability that dicentric chromosomes form after every mitotic event, creating physical bridges between them in anaphase and telophase. (wikipedia.org)
  • This estimate is criticized by the American College of Radiology (ACR), which maintains that the life expectancy of CT scanned patients is not that of the general population and that the model of calculating cancer is based on total-body radiation exposure and thus faulty. (wikipedia.org)
  • If the linear model is correct, then natural background radiation is the most hazardous source of radiation to general public health, followed by medical imaging as a close second. (wikipedia.org)
  • Environmental causes involving exposure to PCBs (ex.dioxin), radiation, anticancer chemotherapeutic agents, allergy and toxic epidermal necrolysis after drug. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ultraviolet's position on the electromagnetic spectrum is on the boundary between ionizing and non-ionizing radiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tailed nuclei are signatures of radiation exposure in human tissue, microbiota, and aquatic invertebrates from the wake of recent nuclear disasters. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some occupations are exposed to radiation without being classed as nuclear energy workers. (wikipedia.org)
  • The State of Utah had set up its own network of monitoring facilities to test milk for radioiodine, since "data pertaining to the safety of the citizens of Utah was not forthcoming from the AEC", and the levels of radioactivity were found to be close to the limits prescribed by the Federal Radiation Council. (wikipedia.org)
  • BCR/ABL induce cell adhesive and migratory abnormalities because the mutation will lead an abnormal response to chemokine SDF-1 MLL gene encode Histone-lysine N-methyltransferase (HRX), which is a histone methyltransferase. (wikipedia.org)