Diseases of BONES.
A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.
The continuous turnover of BONE MATRIX and mineral that involves first an increase in BONE RESORPTION (osteoclastic activity) and later, reactive BONE FORMATION (osteoblastic activity). The process of bone remodeling takes place in the adult skeleton at discrete foci. The process ensures the mechanical integrity of the skeleton throughout life and plays an important role in calcium HOMEOSTASIS. An imbalance in the regulation of bone remodeling's two contrasting events, bone resorption and bone formation, results in many of the metabolic bone diseases, such as OSTEOPOROSIS.
Bone loss due to osteoclastic activity.
The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.
Decalcification of bone or abnormal bone development due to chronic KIDNEY DISEASES, in which 1,25-DIHYDROXYVITAMIN D3 synthesis by the kidneys is impaired, leading to reduced negative feedback on PARATHYROID HORMONE. The resulting SECONDARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM eventually leads to bone disorders.
Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.
Disorder caused by an interruption of the mineralization of organic bone matrix leading to bone softening, bone pain, and weakness. It is the adult form of rickets resulting from disruption of VITAMIN D; PHOSPHORUS; or CALCIUM homeostasis.
Organic compounds which contain P-C-P bonds, where P stands for phosphonates or phosphonic acids. These compounds affect calcium metabolism. They inhibit ectopic calcification and slow down bone resorption and bone turnover. Technetium complexes of diphosphonates have been used successfully as bone scanning agents.
The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.
Dissolution of bone that particularly involves the removal or loss of calcium.
A large multinuclear cell associated with the BONE RESORPTION. An odontoclast, also called cementoclast, is cytomorphologically the same as an osteoclast and is involved in CEMENTUM resorption.
The growth and development of bones from fetus to adult. It includes two principal mechanisms of bone growth: growth in length of long bones at the epiphyseal cartilages and growth in thickness by depositing new bone (OSTEOGENESIS) with the actions of OSTEOBLASTS and OSTEOCLASTS.
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
A malignancy of mature PLASMA CELLS engaging in monoclonal immunoglobulin production. It is characterized by hyperglobulinemia, excess Bence-Jones proteins (free monoclonal IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) in the urine, skeletal destruction, bone pain, and fractures. Other features include ANEMIA; HYPERCALCEMIA; and RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.
A fibrous degeneration, cyst formation, and the presence of fibrous nodules in bone, usually due to HYPERPARATHYROIDISM.
Bone-forming cells which secrete an EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. HYDROXYAPATITE crystals are then deposited into the matrix to form bone.
A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC
Reduction of bone mass without alteration in the composition of bone, leading to fractures. Primary osteoporosis can be of two major types: postmenopausal osteoporosis (OSTEOPOROSIS, POSTMENOPAUSAL) and age-related or senile osteoporosis.
Breaks in bones.
A disease marked by repeated episodes of increased bone resorption followed by excessive attempts at repair, resulting in weakened, deformed bones of increased mass. The resultant architecture of the bone assumes a mosaic pattern in which the fibers take on a haphazard pattern instead of the normal parallel symmetry.
Extracellular substance of bone tissue consisting of COLLAGEN fibers, ground substance, and inorganic crystalline minerals and salts.
The process of bone formation. Histogenesis of bone including ossification.
Syndromes of bone destruction where the cause is not obvious such as neoplasia, infection, or trauma. The destruction follows various patterns: massive (Gorham disease), multicentric (HAJDU-CHENEY SYNDROME), or carpal/tarsal.
A metallic element that has the atomic number 13, atomic symbol Al, and atomic weight 26.98.
A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds RECEPTOR ACTIVATOR OF NUCLEAR FACTOR-KAPPA B and OSTEOPROTEGERIN. It plays an important role in regulating OSTEOCLAST differentiation and activation.
Renewal or repair of lost bone tissue. It excludes BONY CALLUS formed after BONE FRACTURES but not yet replaced by hard bone.
The largest of three bones that make up each half of the pelvic girdle.
A condition of abnormally elevated output of PARATHYROID HORMONE (or PTH) triggering responses that increase blood CALCIUM. It is characterized by HYPERCALCEMIA and BONE RESORPTION, eventually leading to bone diseases. PRIMARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM is caused by parathyroid HYPERPLASIA or PARATHYROID NEOPLASMS. SECONDARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM is increased PTH secretion in response to HYPOCALCEMIA, usually caused by chronic KIDNEY DISEASES.
A secreted member of the TNF receptor superfamily that negatively regulates osteoclastogenesis. It is a soluble decoy receptor of RANK LIGAND that inhibits both CELL DIFFERENTIATION and function of OSTEOCLASTS by inhibiting the interaction between RANK LIGAND and RECEPTOR ACTIVATOR OF NUCLEAR FACTOR-KAPPA B.
A VITAMIN D that can be regarded as a reduction product of vitamin D2.
The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.
Abnormally elevated PARATHYROID HORMONE secretion as a response to HYPOCALCEMIA. It is caused by chronic KIDNEY FAILURE or other abnormalities in the controls of bone and mineral metabolism, leading to various BONE DISEASES, such as RENAL OSTEODYSTROPHY.
Fractures occurring as a result of disease of a bone or from some undiscoverable cause, and not due to trauma. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The grafting of bone from a donor site to a recipient site.
Vitamin K-dependent calcium-binding protein synthesized by OSTEOBLASTS and found primarily in BONES. Serum osteocalcin measurements provide a noninvasive specific marker of bone metabolism. The protein contains three residues of the amino acid gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla), which, in the presence of CALCIUM, promotes binding to HYDROXYAPATITE and subsequent accumulation in BONE MATRIX.
A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.
Mature osteoblasts that have become embedded in the BONE MATRIX. They occupy a small cavity, called lacuna, in the matrix and are connected to adjacent osteocytes via protoplasmic projections called canaliculi.
Diseases of the bones related to hyperfunction or hypofunction of the endocrine glands.
Disorders caused by interruption of BONE MINERALIZATION manifesting as OSTEOMALACIA in adults and characteristic deformities in infancy and childhood due to disturbances in normal BONE FORMATION. The mineralization process may be interrupted by disruption of VITAMIN D; PHOSPHORUS; or CALCIUM homeostasis, resulting from dietary deficiencies, or acquired, or inherited metabolic, or hormonal disturbances.
Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes. The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins.
Abnormally high level of calcium in the blood.
Synthetic or natural materials for the replacement of bones or bone tissue. They include hard tissue replacement polymers, natural coral, hydroxyapatite, beta-tricalcium phosphate, and various other biomaterials. The bone substitutes as inert materials can be incorporated into surrounding tissue or gradually replaced by original tissue.
A gamma-emitting radionuclide imaging agent used primarily in skeletal scintigraphy. Because of its absorption by a variety of tumors, it is useful for the detection of neoplasms.
The longest and largest bone of the skeleton, it is situated between the hip and the knee.
Stable strontium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element strontium, but differ in the atomic weight. Sr-84, 86, 87, and 88 are the stable strontium isotopes.
Death of a bone or part of a bone, either atraumatic or posttraumatic.
Excessive formation of dense trabecular bone leading to pathological fractures; OSTEITIS; SPLENOMEGALY with infarct; ANEMIA; and extramedullary hemopoiesis (HEMATOPOIESIS, EXTRAMEDULLARY).
A disease of bone marked by thinning of the cortex by fibrous tissue containing bony spicules, producing pain, disability, and gradually increasing deformity. Only one bone may be involved (FIBROUS DYSPLASIA, MONOSTOTIC) or several (FIBROUS DYSPLASIA, POLYOSTOTIC).
A diphosphonate which affects calcium metabolism. It inhibits bone resorption and soft tissue calcification.
Process by which organic tissue becomes hardened by the physiologic deposit of calcium salts.
The second longest bone of the skeleton. It is located on the medial side of the lower leg, articulating with the FIBULA laterally, the TALUS distally, and the FEMUR proximally.
A tumor necrosis factor receptor family member that is specific for RANK LIGAND and plays a role in bone homeostasis by regulating osteoclastogenesis. It is also expressed on DENDRITIC CELLS where it plays a role in regulating dendritic cell survival. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
Therapy for the insufficient cleansing of the BLOOD by the kidneys based on dialysis and including hemodialysis, PERITONEAL DIALYSIS, and HEMODIAFILTRATION.
A noninvasive method for assessing BODY COMPOSITION. It is based on the differential absorption of X-RAYS (or GAMMA RAYS) by different tissues such as bone, fat and other soft tissues. The source of (X-ray or gamma-ray) photon beam is generated either from radioisotopes such as GADOLINIUM 153, IODINE 125, or Americanium 241 which emit GAMMA RAYS in the appropriate range; or from an X-ray tube which produces X-RAYS in the desired range. It is primarily used for quantitating BONE MINERAL CONTENT, especially for the diagnosis of OSTEOPOROSIS, and also in measuring BONE MINERALIZATION.
A diphosphonate which affects calcium metabolism. It inhibits ectopic calcification and slows down bone resorption and bone turnover.
Disorders in the processing of calcium in the body: its absorption, transport, storage, and utilization.
The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.
An abnormal hardening or increased density of bone tissue.
A potent osteoinductive protein that plays a critical role in the differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells into OSTEOBLASTS.
Native, inorganic or fossilized organic substances having a definite chemical composition and formed by inorganic reactions. They may occur as individual crystals or may be disseminated in some other mineral or rock. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Either of a pair of compound bones forming the lateral (left and right) surfaces and base of the skull which contains the organs of hearing. It is a large bone formed by the fusion of parts: the squamous (the flattened anterior-superior part), the tympanic (the curved anterior-inferior part), the mastoid (the irregular posterior portion), and the petrous (the part at the base of the skull).
Bones that constitute each half of the pelvic girdle in VERTEBRATES, formed by fusion of the ILIUM; ISCHIUM; and PUBIC BONE.
A powder that dissolves in water, which is administered orally, and is used as a diuretic, expectorant, systemic alkalizer, and electrolyte replenisher.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
The SKELETON of the HEAD including the FACIAL BONES and the bones enclosing the BRAIN.
A clinical syndrome associated with the retention of renal waste products or uremic toxins in the blood. It is usually the result of RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. Most uremic toxins are end products of protein or nitrogen CATABOLISM, such as UREA or CREATININE. Severe uremia can lead to multiple organ dysfunctions with a constellation of symptoms.
Hydroxy analogs of vitamin D 3; (CHOLECALCIFEROL); including CALCIFEDIOL; CALCITRIOL; and 24,25-DIHYDROXYVITAMIN D 3.
A vitamin that includes both CHOLECALCIFEROLS and ERGOCALCIFEROLS, which have the common effect of preventing or curing RICKETS in animals. It can also be viewed as a hormone since it can be formed in SKIN by action of ULTRAVIOLET RAYS upon the precursors, 7-dehydrocholesterol and ERGOSTEROL, and acts on VITAMIN D RECEPTORS to regulate CALCIUM in opposition to PARATHYROID HORMONE.
One of a pair of irregularly shaped quadrilateral bones situated between the FRONTAL BONE and OCCIPITAL BONE, which together form the sides of the CRANIUM.
The most common form of fibrillar collagen. It is a major constituent of bone (BONE AND BONES) and SKIN and consists of a heterotrimer of two alpha1(I) and one alpha2(I) chains.
X-RAY COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY with resolution in the micrometer range.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
COLLAGEN DISEASES characterized by brittle, osteoporotic, and easily fractured bones. It may also present with blue sclerae, loose joints, and imperfect dentin formation. Most types are autosomal dominant and are associated with mutations in COLLAGEN TYPE I.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
Abnormal number or structure of chromosomes. Chromosome aberrations may result in CHROMOSOME DISORDERS.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Bone diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms.
Inorganic compounds that contain TECHNETIUM as an integral part of the molecule. Technetium 99m (m=metastable) is an isotope of technetium that has a half-life of about 6 hours. Technetium 99, which has a half-life of 210,000 years, is a decay product of technetium 99m.
Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A nonhormonal medication for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis in women. This drug builds healthy bone, restoring some of the bone loss as a result of osteoporosis.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
Carbonic acid calcium salt (CaCO3). An odorless, tasteless powder or crystal that occurs in nature. It is used therapeutically as a phosphate buffer in hemodialysis patients and as a calcium supplement.
A condition of an abnormally low level of PHOSPHATES in the blood.
Resorption or wasting of the tooth-supporting bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS) in the MAXILLA or MANDIBLE.
Benign unilocular lytic areas in the proximal end of a long bone with well defined and narrow endosteal margins. The cysts contain fluid and the cyst walls may contain some giant cells. Bone cysts usually occur in males between the ages 3-15 years.
Adhesives used to fix prosthetic devices to bones and to cement bone to bone in difficult fractures. Synthetic resins are commonly used as cements. A mixture of monocalcium phosphate, monohydrate, alpha-tricalcium phosphate, and calcium carbonate with a sodium phosphate solution is also a useful bone paste.
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.
Derivatives of ERGOSTEROL formed by ULTRAVIOLET RAYS breaking of the C9-C10 bond. They differ from CHOLECALCIFEROL in having a double bond between C22 and C23 and a methyl group at C24.
Metabolic disorder associated with fractures of the femoral neck, vertebrae, and distal forearm. It occurs commonly in women within 15-20 years after menopause, and is caused by factors associated with menopause including estrogen deficiency.
A coronary vasodilator agent.
Two pairs of small oval-shaped glands located in the front and the base of the NECK and adjacent to the two lobes of THYROID GLAND. They secrete PARATHYROID HORMONE that regulates the balance of CALCIUM; PHOSPHORUS; and MAGNESIUM in the body.
A circular structural unit of bone tissue. It consists of a central hole, the Haversian canal through which blood vessels run, surrounded by concentric rings, called lamellae.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The spinal or vertebral column.
The physiologically active form of vitamin D. It is formed primarily in the kidney by enzymatic hydroxylation of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (CALCIFEDIOL). Its production is stimulated by low blood calcium levels and parathyroid hormone. Calcitriol increases intestinal absorption of calcium and phosphorus, and in concert with parathyroid hormone increases bone resorption.
Compounds containing 1,3-diazole, a five membered aromatic ring containing two nitrogen atoms separated by one of the carbons. Chemically reduced ones include IMIDAZOLINES and IMIDAZOLIDINES. Distinguish from 1,2-diazole (PYRAZOLES).
Reduction of the blood calcium below normal. Manifestations include hyperactive deep tendon reflexes, Chvostek's sign, muscle and abdominal cramps, and carpopedal spasm. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Formation of stones in the KIDNEY.
AMINO ACIDS composed of GLYCINE substituted at the nitrogen rather than the usual carbon position, resulting in the loss of HYDROGEN BONDING donors. Polymers of these compounds are called PEPTOIDS.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
A non-hereditary KIDNEY disorder characterized by the abnormally dilated (ECTASIA) medullary and inner papillary portions of the collecting ducts. These collecting ducts usually contain CYSTS or DIVERTICULA filled with jelly-like material or small calculi (KIDNEY STONES) leading to infections or obstruction. It should be distinguished from congenital or hereditary POLYCYSTIC KIDNEY DISEASES.
Bone-marrow-derived, non-hematopoietic cells that support HEMATOPOETIC STEM CELLS. They have also been isolated from other organs and tissues such as UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD, umbilical vein subendothelium, and WHARTON JELLY. These cells are considered to be a source of multipotent stem cells because they include subpopulations of mesenchymal stem cells.
Conditions characterized by the presence of M protein (Monoclonal protein) in serum or urine without clinical manifestations of plasma cell dyscrasia.
The production of an image obtained by cameras that detect the radioactive emissions of an injected radionuclide as it has distributed differentially throughout tissues in the body. The image obtained from a moving detector is called a scan, while the image obtained from a stationary camera device is called a scintiphotograph.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Excision of one or more of the parathyroid glands.
Mapping of the KARYOTYPE of a cell.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Malformations of organs or body parts during development in utero.
The bone that forms the frontal aspect of the skull. Its flat part forms the forehead, articulating inferiorly with the NASAL BONE and the CHEEK BONE on each side of the face.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Clinical conditions caused by an abnormal chromosome constitution in which there is extra or missing chromosome material (either a whole chromosome or a chromosome segment). (from Thompson et al., Genetics in Medicine, 5th ed, p429)
VERTEBRAE in the region of the lower BACK below the THORACIC VERTEBRAE and above the SACRAL VERTEBRAE.
A transcription factor that dimerizes with CORE BINDING FACTOR BETA SUBUNIT to form core binding factor. It contains a highly conserved DNA-binding domain known as the runt domain and is involved in genetic regulation of skeletal development and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC
Pathologic deposition of calcium salts in tissues.
Disorders in the processing of phosphorus in the body: its absorption, transport, storage, and utilization.
A bone morphogenetic protein that is widely expressed during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. It is both a potent osteogenic factor and a specific regulator of nephrogenesis.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
The bones of the free part of the lower extremity in humans and of any of the four extremities in animals. It includes the FEMUR; PATELLA; TIBIA; and FIBULA.
Calcium compounds used as food supplements or in food to supply the body with calcium. Dietary calcium is needed during growth for bone development and for maintenance of skeletal integrity later in life to prevent osteoporosis.
Congenital absence of or defects in structures of the eye; may also be hereditary.
A condition of abnormally high level of PHOSPHATES in the blood, usually significantly above the normal range of 0.84-1.58 mmol per liter of serum.
A membrane-bound metalloendopeptidase that may play a role in the degradation or activation of a variety of PEPTIDE HORMONES and INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS. Genetic mutations that result in loss of function of this protein are a cause of HYPOPHOSPHATEMIC RICKETS, X-LINKED DOMINANT.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
A condition of abnormally elevated output of PARATHYROID HORMONE due to parathyroid HYPERPLASIA or PARATHYROID NEOPLASMS. It is characterized by the combination of HYPERCALCEMIA, phosphaturia, elevated renal 1,25-DIHYDROXYVITAMIN D3 synthesis, and increased BONE RESORPTION.
A group of genetic disorders of the KIDNEY TUBULES characterized by the accumulation of metabolically produced acids with elevated plasma chloride, hyperchloremic metabolic ACIDOSIS. Defective renal acidification of URINE (proximal tubules) or low renal acid excretion (distal tubules) can lead to complications such as HYPOKALEMIA, hypercalcinuria with NEPHROLITHIASIS and NEPHROCALCINOSIS, and RICKETS.
A cysteine protease that is highly expressed in OSTEOCLASTS and plays an essential role in BONE RESORPTION as a potent EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX-degrading enzyme.
Cell surface receptors that bind TUMOR NECROSIS FACTORS and trigger changes which influence the behavior of cells.
Local surroundings with which cells interact by processing various chemical and physical signals, and by contributing their own effects to this environment.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Removal of bone marrow and evaluation of its histologic picture.
A dye which inhibits protein biosynthesis at the initial stages. The ammonium salt (aluminon) is a reagent for the colorimetric estimation of aluminum in water, foods, and tissues.
The first artificially produced element and a radioactive fission product of URANIUM. Technetium has the atomic symbol Tc, atomic number 43, and atomic weight 98.91. All technetium isotopes are radioactive. Technetium 99m (m=metastable) which is the decay product of Molybdenum 99, has a half-life of about 6 hours and is used diagnostically as a radioactive imaging agent. Technetium 99 which is a decay product of technetium 99m, has a half-life of 210,000 years.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.
Neoplasms located in the bone marrow. They are differentiated from neoplasms composed of bone marrow cells, such as MULTIPLE MYELOMA. Most bone marrow neoplasms are metastatic.
Fractures of the femur.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
A genetic metabolic disorder resulting from serum and bone alkaline phosphatase deficiency leading to hypercalcemia, ethanolamine phosphatemia, and ethanolamine phosphaturia. Clinical manifestations include severe skeletal defects resembling vitamin D-resistant rickets, failure of the calvarium to calcify, dyspnea, cyanosis, vomiting, constipation, renal calcinosis, failure to thrive, disorders of movement, beading of the costochondral junction, and rachitic bone changes. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
A bone morphogenetic protein that is a potent inducer of bone formation. It also functions as a regulator of MESODERM formation during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.
Inorganic or organic compounds that contain the basic structure RB(OH)2.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
The five cylindrical bones of the METACARPUS, articulating with the CARPAL BONES proximally and the PHALANGES OF FINGERS distally.
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN D in the diet, insufficient production of vitamin D in the skin, inadequate absorption of vitamin D from the diet, or abnormal conversion of vitamin D to its bioactive metabolites. It is manifested clinically as RICKETS in children and OSTEOMALACIA in adults. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1406)
An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.
Intracellular receptors that can be found in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. They bind to extracellular signaling molecules that migrate through or are transported across the CELL MEMBRANE. Many members of this class of receptors occur in the cytoplasm and are transported to the CELL NUCLEUS upon ligand-binding where they signal via DNA-binding and transcription regulation. Also included in this category are receptors found on INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES that act via mechanisms similar to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.
An infant during the first month after birth.
The TARSAL BONES; METATARSAL BONES; and PHALANGES OF TOES. The tarsal bones consists of seven bones: CALCANEUS; TALUS; cuboid; navicular; internal; middle; and external cuneiform bones. The five metatarsal bones are numbered one through five, running medial to lateral. There are 14 phalanges in each foot, the great toe has two while the other toes have three each.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
The seven bones which form the tarsus - namely, CALCANEUS; TALUS; cuboid, navicular, and the internal, middle, and external cuneiforms.
Cholecalciferols substituted with two hydroxy groups in any position.
A ubiquitously expressed, secreted protein with bone resorption and renal calcium reabsorption activities that are similar to PARATHYROID HORMONE. It does not circulate in appreciable amounts in normal subjects, but rather exerts its biological actions locally. Overexpression of parathyroid hormone-related protein by tumor cells results in humoral calcemia of malignancy.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
The five long bones of the METATARSUS, articulating with the TARSAL BONES proximally and the PHALANGES OF TOES distally.
CCR receptors with specificity for a broad variety of CC CHEMOKINES. They are expressed at high levels in MONOCYTES; tissue MACROPHAGES; NEUTROPHILS; and EOSINOPHILS.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
An inherited condition of abnormally low serum levels of PHOSPHATES (below 1 mg/liter) which can occur in a number of genetic diseases with defective reabsorption of inorganic phosphorus by the PROXIMAL RENAL TUBULES. This leads to phosphaturia, HYPOPHOSPHATEMIA, and disturbances of cellular and organ functions such as those in X-LINKED HYPOPHOSPHATEMIC RICKETS; OSTEOMALACIA; and FANCONI SYNDROME.
The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.
Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
Conditions in which the KIDNEYS perform below the normal level for more than three months. Chronic kidney insufficiency is classified by five stages according to the decline in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE and the degree of kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA). The most severe form is the end-stage renal disease (CHRONIC KIDNEY FAILURE). (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002)
The facial skeleton, consisting of bones situated between the cranial base and the mandibular region. While some consider the facial bones to comprise the hyoid (HYOID BONE), palatine (HARD PALATE), and zygomatic (ZYGOMA) bones, MANDIBLE, and MAXILLA, others include also the lacrimal and nasal bones, inferior nasal concha, and vomer but exclude the hyoid bone. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p113)
Removal of mineral constituents or salts from bone or bone tissue. Demineralization is used as a method of studying bone strength and bone chemistry.
Congenital structural deformities, malformations, or other abnormalities of the cranium and facial bones.
The outer shorter of the two bones of the FOREARM, lying parallel to the ULNA and partially revolving around it.
Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.
Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A surgical specialty which utilizes medical, surgical, and physical methods to treat and correct deformities, diseases, and injuries to the skeletal system, its articulations, and associated structures.
LDL-receptor related protein that combines with FRIZZLED RECEPTORS at the cell surface to form receptors that bind WNT PROTEINS. The protein plays an important role in the WNT SIGNALING PATHWAY in OSTEOBLASTS and during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.
A characteristic symptom complex.
A biosynthetic precursor of collagen containing additional amino acid sequences at the amino-terminal and carboxyl-terminal ends of the polypeptide chains.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Derivative of 7-dehydroxycholesterol formed by ULTRAVIOLET RAYS breaking of the C9-C10 bond. It differs from ERGOCALCIFEROL in having a single bond between C22 and C23 and lacking a methyl group at C24.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
The surgical removal of one or both ovaries.
Fibrous blood-filled cyst in the bone. Although benign it can be destructive causing deformity and fractures.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
Wronski TJ, Morey ER (1982-01-01). "Skeletal abnormalities in rats induced by simulated weightlessness". Metabolic Bone Disease ... high-fat diets induces low bone mineral density and reduces bone formation in rats". Journal of Bone and Mineral Research. 25 ( ... Since exercise increases bone quantity, reduces MAT and increases expression of markers of fatty acid oxidation in bone, MAT is ... During aging, bone quantity declines and fat redistributes from subcutaneous to ectopic sites such as bone marrow, muscle, and ...
... is amongst the diseases treated with bone marrow transplantation and cord blood stem cells.[citation needed] WHIM ... The disorder shows prominent neutrophil morphologic abnormalities.[citation needed] ... Myelokathexis refers to retention (kathexis) of neutrophils in the bone marrow (myelo). ... a combined immunodeficiency disease". Nat. Genet. 34 (1): 70-4. doi:10.1038/ng1149. PMID 12692554. S2CID 25010857. v t e. ...
Other common abnormalities include elbow deformities, abnormally shaped pelvic (hip) bones, and kidney disease.[citation needed ... Other reported bone changes include scoliosis, scapular hypoplasia, and the presence of cervical ribs. An elbow of a man who ... Exostoses arising from the posterior aspect of the iliac bones ("iliac horns") are present in as many as 80% of patients; this ... It is also referred to as iliac horn syndrome, hereditary onychoosteodysplasia (HOOD syndrome), Fong disease or Turner-Kieser ...
Vitamin D deficiency can result in rickets, a disease in which bones become soft and pliable. Vitamin E is a potent anti- ... Vitamin E deficiencies leads to neuromuscular, vascular and reproductive abnormalities. The chewable form of Flintstones ... Vitamin D is necessary for the maintenance and growth of bones in children. Vitamin D deficiency is a concern for infants, ... Flintstones Complete Flintstones with Iron Flintstones Plus Omega-3 DHA Flintstones Plus Immunity Support Flintstones Plus Bone ...
The hair and bone abnormalities are evaluated radiographically during initial diagnosis, and visually during the course of the ... There are no known pathological problems associated with hair and bone changes in people with this disease. Changes in the long ... In TDO, radiologic imaging almost always shows evidence of hardening of bone tissue (sclerosis), lesions on the bone structures ... and bones respectively. This disease is present at birth. TDO has been shown to occur in areas of close geographic proximity ...
He developed an interest in diseases of bone and came to be regarded as an international authority on the subject. He wrote ... many of his papers dealing with rare diseases and developmental abnormalities. In 1911 he was living at 25 South Tay Street in ... career he became an avid collector of pathological specimens and particularly of those relating to diseases and abnormalities ... Over the course of his career he amassed a large collection of skulls demonstrating various bony abnormalities. After retiring ...
Osteochondrodysplasia are a variable group of genetic bone diseases or genetic skeletal dysplasias that present with ... Similarly, genu valgum may arise from rickets caused by genetic abnormalities, called vitamin D-resistant rickets or X-linked ... "A systematized approach to radiographic assessment of commonly seen genetic bone diseases in children: A pictorial review". J ... A complete bone X-ray survey is mandatory to reach a definitive diagnosis. The degree of genu valgum can clinically be ...
... bone marrow dysfunction, skeletal abnormalities and short stature. After cystic fibrosis (CF), it is the second most common ... The disease was first described as a coherent clinical entity in May 1964 by Bodian, Sheldon, and Lightwood.[9] It was ... Other skeletal abnormalities include metaphyseal dysostosis (45% of patients), thoracic dystrophy (rib cage abnormalities in 46 ... In 2003 mutations in the SBDS gene (Shwachman-Bodian-Diamond syndrome) were found to be associated with disease.[13] ...
... bone marrow abnormalities and cardiovascular disease. The specific hematologic malignancies that benzene is associated with ... In the bone marrow, MPO converts these polyphenols to benzoquinones. These intermediates and metabolites induce genotoxicity by ... According to the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) (2007), benzene is both a man-made and naturally ... "Public Health Statement for Benzene". Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. U.S. Department of Health and Human ...
... a disease characterized by abnormalities in cartilage and bone development. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000157399 - ... Sulfatases are essential for the correct composition of bone and cartilage matrix. Deficiencies in ARSE are associated with X- ...
Other bone abnormalities can also occur in Pyle disease. Affected individuals may have widened collar bones (clavicles), ribs, ... The resulting dysregulation of Wnt signaling leads to the bone abnormalities characteristic of Pyle disease. Pyle disease is ... cortical bone) is thinner than normal. As a result, the bones are fragile and fracture easily. The bone abnormalities in the ... Metaphyseal dysplasia, or Pyle disease, is a disorder of the bones. It is a rare disease in which the outer part of the shafts ...
... psychiatric abnormalities, and bone disease. The diagnosis is initially made on blood tests; an elevated level of calcium ... "Bones" refers to bone-related complications. The classic bone disease in hyperparathyroidism is osteitis fibrosa cystica, which ... Other bone diseases associated with hyperparathyroidism are osteoporosis, osteomalacia, and arthritis. "Abdominal groans" ... The symptoms of the disease, listed above, are indications for surgery. Surgery reduces all cause mortality as well as ...
Osteochondrodysplasia, a disorder related to the development of bone and cartilage, can also cause this disease.[citation ... kyphoscoliosis may be present from birth due to congenital abnormalities including spina bifida.[citation needed] Certain ... such as in the case of elderly patients suffering from the degenerative disease of bones and cartilage. The primary objective ... Braces provide support to the muscles and bones, as well as apply corrective pressure to reduce the curvature. The braces for ...
"KDIGO Guideline for Chronic Kidney Disease-Mineral and Bone Disorder (CKD-MBD)". Archived from the original on 4 March 2017. ... Abnormalities in phosphate metabolism such as hyperphosphatemia are included in the definition of the new chronic kidney ... disease-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD). Hypoparathyroidism: In this situation, there are low levels of parathyroid hormone ...
... and treatment of Chronic Kidney Disease-Mineral and Bone Disorder (CKD-MBD)". Kidney International Supplements. 76 (113): S1- ... Abnormalities in phosphate metabolism such as hyperphosphatemia are included in the definition of the new chronic kidney ... Jha V, Garcia-Garcia G, Iseki K, Li Z, Naicker S, Plattner B, Saran R, Wang AY, Yang CW (July 2013). "Chronic kidney disease: ... disease-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD). Sucroferric oxyhydroxide comprises a polynuclear iron(III)-oxyhydroxide core that ...
There can be anemia of chronic disease. Bone abnormalities can be seen on radiological imaging (often increased density or ... abnormalities in bone imaging, with or without bone pain, findings of neutrophil infiltration in a skin biopsy, high levels of ... bone pain, muscle pain, headache, fatigue, and loss of weight. As of 2017 the cause of the disease was not understood. Blood ... The disease is named after the French dermatologist Liliane Schnitzler who first described this syndrome in 1972. A Delphi ...
... and other signs of the disease can even be cured. Even the more severe symptoms of the disease like the increase in bone ... After steroid therapy, anemia and most hematological abnormalities resolved themselves after a couple of weeks. This disease ... The increased bone density is due to lopsidedness between bones forming and bone resorption. This enzyme has a couple of ... People with the disease often have overall inflammation with skeletal symptoms that could include increased bone density ...
... and other bone abnormalities; pulmonary fibrosis; certain forms of malignant disease such as colon cancer including those that ... Butaprost for the treatment of pulmonary fibrosis and certain neurological diseases CP533,536 for the stimulation of bone ... augment bone mass, and accelerate the healing of fractures and other bone defects in animal models. EP2 deficient mice exhibit ... In rats, the receptor protein and/or mRNA has been found in lung, spleen, intestine, skin, kidney, liver, long bones, and ...
... is a rare disease characterized by abnormalities that affect bone, heart, and eye development. Children born with the disease ... multiple bone abnormalities, and developmental delay. In 1982, Dutch pediatrician Ben ter Haar reported on three similar ... Genetic mapping in several families with FTHS linked the disease to an inherited mutation in the gene that codes for the ... and cardiac abnormalities of Frank-Ter Haar Syndrome". American Journal of Human Genetics. 86 (2): 254-61. doi:10.1016/j.ajhg. ...
... to detect bone diseases and tumors; to determine the cause of bone pain or inflammation. This test is to rule out any infection ... This test is done to rule out any associated abnormalities of the spinal cord and nerves. computed tomography scan (Also called ... when bone weakening is present or fractures occur) bone grafting - a surgical procedure in which healthy bone is transplanted ... or if the affected bone has weakened causing a fracture of the affected bone Enlargement of the affected finger Slow bone ...
... seeks to reveal internal structures hidden by the skin and bones, as well as to diagnose and treat disease. ... Medical imaging also establishes a database of normal anatomy and physiology to make it possible to identify abnormalities. ... Medical imaging may be indicated in pregnancy because of pregnancy complications, a pre-existing disease or an acquired disease ... In Alzheimer's disease, MRI scans of the entire brain can accurately assess the rate of hippocampal atrophy, while PET scans ...
V205M: familial disease characterized by severe anemia in fetuses and newborns; bone marrow has increased numbers of malformed ... abnormalities in platelet precursor cell maturation, and the clustering of grossly malformed megakaryocytes in the bone marrow ... About half of afflicted individuals have various birth defects.[10] The disease is regarded as a uniformly genetic disease ... D218Y: familial disease similar to but more severe that the disease cause by G209S and D218G mutations. ...
Many of these U.S. veterans developed bone marrow and blood abnormalities, multiple myeloma, leukemia, Hodgkin's disease, ... incurred exposure doses that caused skeletal diseases including bone cancer. Radium was used as an alleged medical "cure" for a ... Nuclear stockpile related disease has cost American taxpayers $12 billion in medical expense payouts to workers. Incidents of ... U.S. Center for Disease Control. Retrieved 21 April 2014.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) Annas, George, JD, MPH ...
For the follow-up of PDP disease activity, bone formation markers such as TAP, BAP, BGP, carbodyterminal propeptide of type I ... arthralgia and gastrointestinal abnormalities. An overview of all symptoms is provided in table 2. Table 2. Overview of ... New bone formation under the periosteum can be detected by radiographs of long bones. In order diagnose PDP, often other ... Bisphosphonates inhibit osteoclastic bone resorption and therefore reduce bone remodeling and alleviate painful polyarthritis. ...
... seeks to reveal internal structures hidden by the skin and bones, as well as to diagnose and treat disease. ... Medical imaging also establishes a database of normal anatomy and physiology to make it possible to identify abnormalities. ... In Alzheimer's disease, MRI scans of the entire brain can accurately assess the rate of hippocampal atrophy,[34][35] while PET ... "Laser Bones: Copyright Issues Raised by the Use of Information Technology in Archaeology" (PDF). Harvard Journal of Law & ...
The calcium test can indicate or monitor bone diseases or diseases of the parathyroid gland or kidneys. Calcium salts, lithium ... Both individual values and ratios among the values are significant; abnormalities among either can indicate problems such as an ... even though no disease is present. This test is also known as SMA12+2 test. The CMP is an expanded version of the basic ... or may be used to monitor a patient with a chronic disease, such as diabetes mellitus or hypertension. Previous names for the ...
... was an international authority on bone disease and abnormalities of the skull and, during his working life, had amassed a ... In the 19th and early 20th century wax and plaster casts or moulages showing abnormalities and diseases were widely used as ... The emphasis now is on explaining to the general public surgical disease, how it was treated over the centuries and how it is ... Recent research projects carried out in the Museum have included studies on genetic markers for disease, facial reconstruction ...
Maternal deficiencies may be the cause of overt bone disease from before birth and impairment of bone quality after birth. The ... surgery may be required to remove severe bone abnormalities. Treatment involves increasing dietary intake of calcium, ... Occasionally surgery may be done to fix bone deformities. Genetic forms of the disease typically require specialized treatment ... Rickets is a condition that results in weak or soft bones in children. Symptoms include bowed legs, stunted growth, bone pain, ...
Sometimes, minor abnormalities of other bone structures, often caused by disease or injury, such as a fracture of the distal ... When the epiphysis is clearly defined more bone is removed so the radius is in its normal position and prevents a new bone bar ... The SHOX gene plays a particularly important role in the growth and maturation of bones in the arms and legs. The SHOX gene is ... After this the periosteum is elevated and a crescent-shaped osteotomy, concave at the end, is marked on the bone. Now the ...
Paget's disease of bone, post menopausal and steroid induced osteoporosis, Phantom limb pain and other metabolic bone ... abnormalities, available as Rockbone, Fortical and Miacalcin Nasal Spray. GnRH analogues like nafarelin and busurelin are used ... Intranasal insulin is being investigated for treatment of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease. In ketamine ... in patients with chronic pain is now becoming an area of significant research interest for the treatment of bipolar disease and ...
... and abnormalities in glucose metabolism are major predictors of mortality and morbidity in untreated cases of the disease.[19] ... The disease is often diagnosed 3-6 years after the onset of illness.[19] Several studies have shown that Cushing's disease is ... Cases of Cushing's disease are rare, and little epidemiological data is available on the disease. An 18-year study conducted on ... Cushing disease, tertiary or secondary hypercortisolism, tertiary or secondary hypercorticism, Itsenko-Cushing disease[1][2]. ...
Diseases and parasitesEdit. The black wildebeest is particularly susceptible to anthrax, and rare and widely scattered ... and the wormian bones in the skull.[12] Another study reported an increase in the size of the hybrid as compared to either of ... of these hybrid animals at Spioenkop Dam Nature Reserve in South Africa revealed that many had disadvantageous abnormalities ... Malignant catarrhal fever is a fatal disease of domestic cattle caused by a gammaherpesvirus. Like the blue wildebeest, the ...
This article is about a skin disease common during adolescence. For other acneiform skin diseases, see Acne (disambiguation). ... and decreased bone mineral density, make its use for male acne impractical in most cases.[114][115][116] Pregnant and lactating ... If retinoids are used there is a high risk of abnormalities occurring in the developing fetus; women of childbearing age are ... Disease Primers. 1: 15033. doi:10.1038/nrdp.2015.33. PMID 27227877.. *^ a b "Frequently Asked Questions: Acne" (PDF). U.S. ...
Mandel SJ, Brent GA, Larsen PR (September 1993). "Levothyroxine therapy in patients with thyroid disease". Annals of Internal ... Given that no increased risk of congenital abnormalities have been demonstrated in pregnant women taking levothyroxine, therapy ... suppression of TSH values below normal values will frequently cause cardiac side-effects and contribute to decreases in bone ... For older people (over 50 years old) and people with known or suspected ischemic heart disease, levothyroxine therapy should ...
"Journal of Bone and Mineral Research. 22 (8): 1245-1259. doi:10.1359/jbmr.070420. PMID 17456009.. ... The results of this research was used as a model for Kashin-Beck disease. Kashin-Beck is a result of combinatorial ... "Inactivation of Pten in Osteo-Chondroprogenitor Cells Leads to Epiphyseal Growth Plate Abnormalities and Skeletal Overgrowth" ... giving rise to either bone or cartilage respectively. Osteochondroprogenitor cells are important for bone formation and ...
... removal of one-quarter inch of the center of the hyoid bone, closure of the cut ends of the hyoid bone, and placement of a ... Radioactive iodine or technetium (a radioactive metallic element) is used in this procedure to show any abnormalities of the ... Thyroid disease. *Persistent thyroglossal duct. *Thyroglossal cyst. *Congenital hypothyroidism *Thyroid dysgenesis. *Thyroid ... between the isthmus of the thyroid and the hyoid bone or just above the hyoid bone. A thyroglossal cyst can develop anywhere ...
Atypia: an indication of abnormality of a cell (which may be indicative for malignancy). Significance of the abnormality is ... The skull bone structure can also be subject to a neoplasm that by its very nature reduces the volume of the intracranial ... Hourigan CS (2006). "The molecular basis of coeliac disease". Clin Exp Med (Review). 6 (2): 53-59. doi:10.1007/s10238-006-0095- ... Frappaz D, Mornex F, Saint-Pierre G, Ranchere-Vince D, Jouvet A, Chassagne-Clement C, Thiesse P, Mere P, Deruty R (1999). "Bone ...
... cardiac abnormalities, kyphoscoliosis, as well as auditory and visual abnormalities. ... Dent's disease. *X-linked nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. Bone/tooth. *AMELX Amelogenesis imperfecta ... Symptoms of disease are more severe in males, who are generally diagnosed in early childhood. Children afflicted by CLS display ... The prevalence of CLS is uncertain due to the rarity of the disease, but CLS is estimated to affect between 1 in 50,000 and 1 ...
... and systemic diseases that occur as a result of kidney disease, such as renal osteodystrophy and hypertension. A physician who ... Structural abnormalities of the kidneys are identified with imaging tests. These may include Medical ultrasonography/ultrasound ... activated vitamin D supplements and phosphate binders may be required to counteract the effects of kidney failure on bone ... the study of normal kidney function and kidney disease, the preservation of kidney health, and the treatment of kidney disease ...
... this allows a plasma sample to be analyzed for abnormalities otherwise affected by the DOACs. ... Niigata Minamata disease. *Poisoning of Alexander Litvinenko. *Seveso disaster. *Consumption of Tide Pods ... Bone char. *Carbon filtering. *Conjugated microporous polymer. *Kværner-process. *Onboard refueling vapor recovery ...
... like having too many bones in an area, like the vertebral column of wolves on Isle Royale or having cranial abnormalities, such ... "Polycystic Kidney Disease". www.vet.cornell.edu. Retrieved 2016-07-08.. *^ a b c Tave D (1999). Inbreeding and brood stock ... "Polycystic kidney disease , International Cat Care". icatcare.org. Retrieved 2016-07-08.. ... There may also be other deleterious effects besides those caused by recessive diseases. Thus, similar immune systems may be ...
A common example of pleiotropy is the human disease phenylketonuria (PKU). This disease causes mental retardation and reduced ... This linkage is further evidenced by the fact that two of the genes, HAO1 and BMP2, affecting medullary bone (the part of the ... This gene seems to pleiotropically lead to other abnormalities like increased metabolism, higher food consumption, accelerated ... "Complications and Treatments , Sickle Cell Disease". CDC. Retrieved 2016-11-11.. *^ a b c d "Marfan Syndrome". National ...
Vitamin A toxicity is known to be an ancient phenomenon; fossilized skeletal remains of early humans suggest bone abnormalities ... Possible pregnancy, liver disease, high alcohol consumption, and smoking are indications for close monitoring and limitation of ... such as hypercalcemia and numerous bone changes such as bone loss that potentially leads to osteoporosis, spontaneous bone ... resulting in increased bone resorption and decreased bone formation. It is likely to exert this effect by binding to specific ...
The biggest man without growth abnormalities was an incredible 236 cm (7.74 ft) tall and weighed at least 230 kg (510 lb).[103] ... known only from a few bones found in Western Australia. It was about 1 m long[83] and probably weighed about 30 kg (66 lb).[84] ... "Life-history change in disease-ravaged Tasmanian devil populations". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 105 (29 ...
List of dental abnormalities associated with cutaneous conditions. References[edit]. *^ a b c Rapini, Ronald P.; Bolognia, Jean ... Immunodeficiency Diseases (8th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill Medical. ISBN 9780071621519.. *^ a b Grimbacher B, Holland S, Gallin ... Finally, some patients with STAT3 HIES have scoliosis, as well as bones that fracture easily.[15] ... STAT3 may present as HIES with characteristic facial, dental, and skeletal abnormalities[7] that has been called Job's Syndrome ...
This article is about the shape of the foot bones. For the condition involving the soft tissue between the bones, see Morton's ... Gibbs RC (1985). "Toe nail disease secondary to poorly fitting shoes or abnormal biomechanics". Cutis. 36 (5): 399-400. PMID ... "Means for compensating for foot abnormalities". freepatentsonline.com. Retrieved 13 November 2016.. ... The metatarsal bones behind the toes vary in relative length. For most feet, a smooth curve can be traced through the joints at ...
Chronic granulomatous disease: autosomal (NCF1) Chronic granulomatous disease: autosomal (NCF2) IL-12 and IL-23 β1 chain ... Bone marrow transplant may be possible for Severe Combined Immune Deficiency and other severe immunodeficiences. Virus-specific ... The treatment of primary immunodeficiencies depends foremost on the nature of the abnormality. Somatic treatment of primarily ... Such donor T-cells often cause acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), a subject of ongoing investigation. VSTs have been ...
2008) Agricultural lung diseases. Environ Health Perspect 108:705-12. Hlastala MP, Ralph DD, Babb AL, Influence of gas physical ... Most of these abnormalities resolve with time. Functional changes (increased RL and/or bronchial responsiveness to inhaled ... This agent also causes respiratory tract lesions, bone marrow depression, and eye damage, the epithelial tissues of these ... Secondary effects of sulfur mustard exposure lead to chronic lung diseases such as chronic bronchitis. A common exposure ...
"Journal of Thoracic Disease. 7 (8): 1311-1322. doi:10.3978/j.issn.2072-1439.2015.06.11. PMC 4561280. PMID 26380759.. ... Turbinectomy is a surgical procedure in which all or some of the turbinate bones are removed to relieve nasal obstruction. ... The operation may be far from trivial, especially in the worst apnea cases, in which growth is retarded and abnormalities of ... Stroke and other cardiovascular disease are related to OSA and those under the age of 70 have an increased risk of early death. ...
... is a DNA sequence that causes disease or is associated with susceptibility to disease. They can be used to create genetic maps ... CT abnormality. (9) The biomarker should allow for repeated detections in one of the above-mentioned biofluids within a 48 h ... "Effect of homologous bone marrow injections in x-irradiated rabbits". British Journal of Experimental Pathology. 38 (4): 401- ... It can also be a substance whose detection indicates a particular disease state, for example, the presence of an antibody may ...
The drug is associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)-ulcerative colitis, but not Crohn's disease.[51] There are also ... are well known to cause bone changes, the most common type of which is hyperostotic changes (excessive bone growth), especially ... and abnormalities in brain function. Isotretinoin is classified as FDA Pregnancy Category X and ADEC Category X, and use is ... While excessive bone growth has been raised a possible side effect, a 2006 review found little evidence for this.[84] ...
It has also been described in Filovirus disease.[4]. In patients with these conditions, the pseudo-Pelger-Huët cells tend to ... Singh, Nishith K.; Nagendra, Sanjai (2008). "Reversible Neutrophil Abnormalities Related to Supratherapeutic Valproic Acid ... leukemoid reaction secondary to metastases to the bone marrow, and drug sensitivity, sulfa and valproate toxicities[5] are ... "Outbreake of Marburg virus disease in Johannesburg". British Medical Journal. 4 (5995): 489-93. doi:10.1136/bmj.4.5995.489 ...
"Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 17 April 2015. Archived from the original on 22 February 2016. Retrieved 9 ... Some pain above the pubic bone or in the lower back may be present. People experiencing an upper urinary tract infection, or ... However recurrent UTIs are a rare cause of further kidney problems if there are no underlying abnormalities of the kidneys, ... A 2010 update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America and the European Society for Microbiology and Infectious Diseases ...
Performing wrist x-ray to determine bone age.. *Brain MRI to rule out any structural abnormalities in the hypothalamus or ... "Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases. 6 (Jun 17): 41. doi:10.1186/1750-1172-6-41. PMC 3143089. PMID 21682876.. ... Bone density scans are recommended to monitor the bone mineral density.[13] ... Laitinen EM, Hero M, Vaaralahti K, Tommiska J, Raivio T (August 2012). "Bone mineral density, body composition and bone ...
"Overview of samarium sm 153 lexidronam in the treatment of painful metastatic bone disease". Rev Urol. 6 Suppl 10 (Suppl 10): ... However, double-stranded DNA breaks are much more difficult to repair, and can lead to dramatic chromosomal abnormalities and ... Radiation therapy is used to treat early stage Dupuytren's disease and Ledderhose disease. When Dupuytren's disease is at the ... valvular heart disease, coronary artery disease, heart arrhythmia and peripheral artery disease. Radiation-induced fibrosis, ...
Anti-germ theory of diseasesEdit. Virchow did not believe in the germ theory of diseases, as advocated by Louis Pasteur and ... Virchow broke his thigh bone on 4 January 1902, jumping off a running streetcar while exiting the electric tramway. Although he ... His book was the first to describe the techniques of autopsy specifically to examine abnormalities in organs, and retain ... Virchow's disease, leontiasis ossea, now recognized as a symptom rather than a disease ...
Viral disease. Notes and references[edit]. *^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2016-08-03. Retrieved ... Møller M; El Maghrabi R; Olesen N; Thomsen VØ (November 2004). "Safe inoculation of blood and bone marrow for liquid culture ... are used to produce images of internal abnormalities resulting from the growth of an infectious agent. ... For example, some diseases such as measles employ a strategy whereby it must spread to a series of hosts. In these forms of ...
... bone mineral density after weight loss was higher when normalized for body weight;[10] reduced bone mineral density is also ... In the 2000s, the US National Institute on Aging and the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases ... age-related mitochondrial abnormalities; and preserved muscle stem cell function.[55] Muscle tissue grows when stimulated, so ... "Journal of Bone and Mineral Research. 28 (9): 1857-1865. doi:10.1002/jbmr.1980. PMC 3749267. PMID 23671010.. ...
... her bone age was 11 or 12 years, and at the age of 17 years, 8 months, her bone age was 13.5 years.[9] Her bone mass was lower ... There are no obvious abnormalities in the male accessory glands, including the prostate gland, bulbourethral glands, ... "What have we learned about GPER function in physiology and disease from knockout mice?". J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol. 153: ... Bone age is delayed and bones are more brittle.[citation needed] Variations in these patterns can be achieved by selectively ...
Developmental abnormalities and hereditary conditions: Many diseases of the skeletal system are congenital in the sense that ... Developmental abnormalities and hereditary conditions. Congenital bone diseases. Many diseases of the skeletal system are ... human disease: Diseases of senescence. …joints are changes involving the bone itself. The bone of elderly persons is known to ... More About Bone disease. 13 references found in Britannica articles. Assorted References. *arthritis* In human disease: ...
Osteoporosis and other bone diseases. Painful fractures of the vertebrae can occur if they are weakened and made brittle and ... Congenital abnormalities of the spine. Abnormal curvature of the spine, such as scoliosis, and other irregularities. ... Bone strength and muscle tone and elasticity generally decrease with age. In addition, the discs stiffen, which reduces their ... The spinal column contains 33 hollow, ring-shaped bones, called vertebrae, which are separated and cushioned by 23 discs made ...
Bone Marrow Diseases/etiology , Bone Marrow Examination , Bone Marrow Neoplasms/etiology , HIV Infections/blood , HIV-1 , ... Bone marrow abnormalities are frequently observed in HIV infected individuals at all stages of the disease. The most common ... Full text: Available Index: IMSEAR (South-East Asia) Main subject: Bone Marrow Diseases / Bone Marrow Examination / Humans / ... Full text: Available Index: IMSEAR (South-East Asia) Main subject: Bone Marrow Diseases / Bone Marrow Examination / Humans / ...
In addition, the great potential of miRNA as a new therapeutic approach to treat human bone diseases will also be discussed. ... The dysregulation of miRNAs has been implicated in various human diseases such as brain tumor, osteoarthritis, schizophrenia, ... Bone remodeling abnormality: osteoporosis. Osteoporosis is a multifactorial bone disorder characterized by low bone mass, ... Enlarged, weak bone deformation: Pagets disease of bone. Pagets disease of bone (PDB) is a localized disorder of highly ...
Condition or disease Congenital Progressive Scoliosis Infantile Detailed Description:. Number of Patients Planned: A total of ... VEPTR Implantation to Treat Children With Early Onset Scoliosis Without Rib Abnormalities. The safety and scientific validity ... VEPTR Implantation to Treat Children With Early Onset Scoliosis Without Rib Abnormalities: a Prospective Multicenter Study. ... growth and improving pulmonary function in the treatment of children with progressive scoliosis without rib abnormalities. ...
Bone Diseases, Developmental. Bone Diseases. Musculoskeletal Diseases. Craniofacial Abnormalities. Musculoskeletal ...
Bone Diseases, Developmental. Bone Diseases. Musculoskeletal Diseases. Jaw Diseases. Stomatognathic Diseases. Abnormalities, ... Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center resources: Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome Basal Cell Carcinoma, Multiple ...
Bone Diseases, Developmental. Bone Diseases. Musculoskeletal Diseases. Jaw Diseases. Stomatognathic Diseases. Abnormalities, ... Congenital Abnormalities. Genetic Diseases, Inborn. Vitamins. Vitamin D. Ergocalciferols. Cholecalciferol. Micronutrients. ... Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase Basal Cell Carcinoma Basal Cell Nevus Syndrome Dietary Supplement: Vitamin D3 ... Disease. Pathologic Processes. Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial. Neoplasms by Histologic Type. Neoplasms. Neoplasms, Basal ...
Common symptoms and signs include bone pain, bowed legs, and walking abnormalities. Pinpoint your symptoms and signs with ... Learn about Pagets disease of bone symptoms and signs and the medications that treat it. ... Main Article on Pagets Disease of Bone Symptoms and Signs. * Pagets Disease. Pagets disease is a chronic bone disorder due ... Pagets disease of bone (which is different from Pagets disease of the breast) is a chronic disease of bone characterized by ...
brittle bone disease. *Coffin-Lowery syndrome. *cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome. *chromosomal abnormalities. Diagnosis. To ... Visit our Bones / Orthopedics category page for the latest news on this subject, or sign up to our newsletter to receive the ... The most common form can lead to eye and vision problems, blood clotting, and brittle bones. It is a genetic condition. There ... A new study finds that compared with cardiovascular disease, cancer is twice as likely to be the cause of death in higher ...
An Update on Bone Abnormalities Associated with Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease. Sylvester, Francisco A. ...
... and ineffectively mineralized bone matrix. The origin of the disease is unknown, and it is frequently asymptomatic; however, ... is a nonmalignant disease involving accelerated bone resorption followed by deposition of dense, chaotic, ... the patient may present with symptoms depending on the bones involved. The most common symptom is pain in the affected bone; ... Pagets disease of bone (also known as osteitis deformans) ... dental abnormalities; and, in severe cases, an enlarged cranium ...
Chronic Kidney Disease affects more than 50 million people worldwide but experts say that awareness on prevention and cure has ... Bone disease. *Anemia (deficiency of red cells or of hemoglobin in the blood), accounting for many symptoms. Also, it adds to ... Cardiovascular abnormalities: Higher risk of heart failure, acute myocardial infarction, angina, arrhythmias, strokes, sudden ... Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is defined as the gradual loss of renal function over a period of time. Though the disease affects ...
... radio waves and a computer to create detailed images of your bones, organs and tissues inside your body. ... brain abnormalities, such as tumors, and dementia. *abdominal/digestive tract problems. *bone diseases and conditions ... An MRI is somewhat like an X-ray (which is used for pictures of your bones) or a CT scan (also called a CAT scan or computed ... It is a safe and painless way for doctors to get a closer look at bones, organs and tissues inside your body. It is used to ...
Osteoporosis and other bone diseases. Painful fractures of the vertebrae can occur if they are weakened and made brittle and ... Congenital abnormalities of the spine. Abnormal curvature of the spine, such as scoliosis, and other irregularities. ... porous by osteoporosis or other diseases that affect the bone.. *Aging. Bone strength and muscle tone and elasticity generally ... The spinal column contains 33 hollow, ring-shaped bones, called vertebrae, which are separated and cushioned by 23 discs made ...
Dentists should be aware of patients with the disease because of its effect on osteoclast function, which results in impaired ... is one cause of osteosclerosis and may result in such serious oral complications as osteomyelitis and exposed necrotic bone. ... Jaw Diseases / etiology* * Maxillofacial Abnormalities / etiology * Osteoclasts / pathology * Osteomyelitis / etiology * ... Marble bone disease: a review of osteopetrosis and its oral health implications for dentists J Can Dent Assoc. 2007 Nov;73(9): ...
Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes. Bone abnormalities in systemic autoimmune disease. An article published in Experimental ... Biology and Medicine details abnormalities in bone pathology that occur in systemic autoimmune disease. The study, led by Dr. ... Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes. New research insights hold promise for kids with DMD. Prednisone, the current standard of care ... Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes. Researchers develop an intradermal model to study Staphylococcus aureus infections. Infections ...
Important abnormalities of bone mineral metabolism are present in patients with coronary artery disease with a mild decrease of ... Important abnormalities of bone mineral metabolism are present in patients with coronary artery disease with a mild decrease of ... Title: Important abnormalities of bone mineral metabolism are present in patients with coronary artery disease with a mild ... Chronic kidney disease (CKD)-mineral and bone disorder (MBD) is characterized by increased circulating levels of parathormone ( ...
Immune Abnormalities; Rheumatology; Internal Medicine; Arthritis; Autoimmune Disease; Bone Infection; …. Language(s): French. ... Immune Abnormalities; Pediatrics; Pediatric Infectious Diseases; Acute & Chronic Diseases and Conditions in Pediatric Patients ... Immune Abnormalities; Pediatrics; Pediatric Infectious Diseases; Acute & Chronic Diseases and Conditions in Pediatric Patients ... Immune Abnormalities. A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z ...
May be subtle abnormalities on central nervous system testing.. May respond to withdrawal of all exposure to aluminum.. DFO ... Aluminum bone disease. Insidious appearance of bone pain, fractures, proximal muscle weakness (diagnosis by bone biopsy; ... Guideline 8: Vitamin D Therapy in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease. *Guideline 13: Treatment of Bone Disease in Chronic ... Guideline 8: Vitamin D Therapy in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease. *Guideline 13: Treatment of Bone Disease in Chronic ...
Major shoulder changes, typically associated with peripheral neuropathy, include humeral head deformity due to bone resorption ... Roentgenographic evidence of bone and soft tissue abnormalities may be noted in the upper extremities of diabetics. ... Bone Diseases / diagnostic imaging * Bone Diseases / etiology* * Bone Resorption / diagnostic imaging * Bone Resorption / ... Abnormalities not necessarily associated with clinical neuropathy include cystic bone changes, cortical bone erosions, soft ...
Bone Marrow Failure Syndromes ; Benign Causes of Bone Marrow Abnormalities Including Infections, Storage Diseases, Systemic ... Bone Marrow Failure Syndromes ; Benign Causes of Bone Marrow Abnormalities Including Infections, Storage Diseases, Systemic ... Hematologic Diseases--diagnosis. a schema:Intangible ;. schema:name "Hematologic Diseases--diagnosis"@en ;. .. ... Hematologic Diseases--pathology. a schema:Intangible ;. schema:name "Hematologic Diseases--pathology"@en ;. .. ...
Bone Diseases, Metabolic. *Growth Factor. *Hypothalamic-Pituitary Dysfunction. *Primary Disorders of the Thyroid ... endocrine abnormalities developing in patients who have been diagnosed with and treated for. neoplasms and/or who have received ... pediatric patients diagnosed with neoplasms as well as in patients s/p bone marrow. transplant throughout their lifespan. In ... Detection and Treatment of Endocrine Abnormalities in Childhood Cancer Survivors and Hematopoitic Stem Cell Transplant ...
Skeletal disease, when it is due to inadequacies in the supply or action of the above essentials, associated with abnormalities ... Metabolic bone disease: The normal function of bone requires an adequate supply of amino acids (the building blocks for ... Also, growth, repair, and remodeling of the bone tissue require a precisely regulated supply of hormones, vitamins, and enzymes ... human disease: Diseases of senescence. …joints are changes involving the bone itself. The bone of elderly persons is known to ...
The results correlated with the duration of the disease. Those patients transplanted in the early stages of the disease (less ... No abnormalities/aberrations were noted after ex vivo propagation. A representative ideogram is shown in the Supplementary data ... This would help us understand the role of bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells in the early stages of the disease and in ... bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells for PD. The rationale was to rule out bone marrow aspiration in the aging population ...
congenital malformations, deformations, and chromosomal abnormalities (Q00-Q99). *endocrine, nutritional and metabolic diseases ... Disease, diseased - see also Syndrome* bone - see also Disorder, bone* aluminum M83.4 ... Aluminum bone disease. 2016 2017 2018 Billable/Specific Code *M83.4 is a billable/specific ICD-10-CM code that can be used to ... Diseases of the musculoskeletal system and connective tissue. Note*Use an external cause code following the code for the ...
Abnormalities, Multiple / surgery*. Bone Diseases, Developmental / complications, surgery*. Child, Preschool. Cleft Lip / ... Nasal Septum / abnormalities*, surgery. Nose / abnormalities, surgery. Syndrome. Treatment Outcome. From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a ... Labial Frenum / abnormalities, surgery. Nasal Cartilages / abnormalities*, surgery. Nasal Polyps / complications, surgery*. ...
Metabolic bone disease including rickets and skeletal dysplasias xii. Persistent abnormalities of calcium, phosphorus, or ... Thyroid disease, diabetes, short stature and many other conditions can affect the quality of life of children; the general ... Delayed puberty due to chronic disease or anorexia nervosa v. Exogenous obesity vi. Familial short stature, constitutional ... Genetic syndromes and familial inheritance patterns with endocrine abnormalities ix. Hirsutism x. Hypoglycemia in childhood and ...
Here we present a case of a 76-year-old male with IgG4-related disease presenting primarily with vertebral bone marrow lesions ... Here we present a case of a 76-year-old male with IgG4 related disease presenting primarily with vertebral bone marrow lesions ... Almost any organ can be affected, but so far no reports of bone marrow involvement have been published. ... Almost any organ can be affected, including, but rarely, bone marrowinvolvement. ...
  • For detailed treatment of these disorders, see connective tissue disease . (britannica.com)
  • We studied the prevalence of mineral metabolism disorders, and the potential relationship between decreased estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and CKD-MBD in coronary artery disease patients in a cross-sectional study of 704 outpatients 7.5 ± 3.0 months after an acute coronary syndrome. (uam.es)
  • Benign Causes of Bone Marrow Abnormalities Including Infections, Storage Diseases, Systemic Disorders, and Stromal Changes. (worldcat.org)
  • We conducted a meta-analysis to examine the effects of cinacalcet on all laboratory and clinical spectrums of chronic kidney disease-mineral bone disorders (CKD-MBD). (bioportfolio.com)
  • The resulting SECONDARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM eventually leads to bone disorders. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Myopathy may occur as a presenting complaint in the absence of symptoms or signs of bone disease and may deceptively simulate primary muscular disorders. (annals.org)
  • Mechanisms of disease: genetics of Paget's disease of bone and related disorders. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Contribution of genetic factors to the pathogenesis of Paget's disease of bone and related disorders. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Juvenile Paget's disease, familial expansile osteolysis and other genetic osteolytic disorders. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Serious bone diseases and nervous system disorders are very rare. (aaos.org)
  • Determine the maximum tolerated dose and dose limiting toxicity of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) in patients with relapsed or refractory hematologic malignancies or bone marrow disorders. (knowcancer.com)
  • Providing content that crosses disciplines, Cellular Endocrinology in Health and Disease details how cellular endocrine function contributes to system physiology and mediates endocrine disorders. (bookdepository.com)
  • Miscellaneous bone disorders -- 13. (princeton.edu)
  • Abnormalities in bone metabolism can result in bone disorders and imbalance of minerals such as calcium and phosphorus. (rochester.edu)
  • Liver cirrhosis is usually cause by chronic alcoholism, viral hepatitis infection like your hepatitis B and hepatitis C, fatty liver disease, biliary cirrhosis, metabolic disorders and some more. (hubpages.com)
  • Leukemia, aplastic anemia and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are three types of bone marrow disorders that affect the production of blood cells and the bone marrow. (livestrong.com)
  • People who have anemia due to bone marrow disorders may bleed easily and more profusely than others. (livestrong.com)
  • Bone marrow disorders can lead to swelling of the internal organs in some people. (livestrong.com)
  • Males with blood disorders that lead to bone marrow abnormalities may experience a swelling of the testicles. (livestrong.com)
  • Disorders affecting the stem cells can, in turn, lead to bone marrow failure-rare, potentially life-threatening diseases in which the bone marrow stops functioning or produces abnormal blood cells. (army.mil)
  • The most common inherited bone marrow failure disorders include Fanconi anemia, dyskeratosis congenita, Shwachman-Diamond syndrome, and Diamond-Blackfan anemia. (army.mil)
  • Two treatment options for bone marrow failure disorders include drug therapy (i.e., corticosteroids, androgens, and hematopoietic growth factors) and hematopoietic stem cell transplant. (army.mil)
  • The Metabolic Bone Disease & Endocrine Calcium Center is comprised of a team of expert physician-scientists who specialize in the treatment of a vast number of common and rare bone, calcium and other mineral disorders associated with the regulation of skeletal and parathyroid hormone functions. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • The purpose of this review is to examine the current evidence for linking GC to adverse growth and bone health in childhood disorders that commonly require GC therapy. (bmj.com)
  • They also have special training in facial abnormalities and jaw disorders. (uhhospitals.org)
  • Millions die prematurely of complications related to CKD, either without realizing that they have kidney disease or with an extremely late diagnosis. (medindia.net)
  • Osteopetrosis is one cause of osteosclerosis and may result in such serious oral complications as osteomyelitis and exposed necrotic bone. (nih.gov)
  • Majority of PDB patients are asymptomatic, but clinical manifestations include pain, bone deformity and complications, like pathological fractures and deafness. (springer.com)
  • Chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD) play a critical role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular complications in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). (bioportfolio.com)
  • Analyses into gender, predominance of thumb, age of onset, associated abnormalities and family history, symptoms and signs, surgical outcomes, and postoperative complications were carried out retrospectively. (hkmj.org)
  • The HIV seropositive population is living longer and more exposed to chronic complications caused by the disease itself and the prolonged use of antiretrovirals. (scielo.br)
  • The onset of diabetic foot ulcer is being linked to the complications of the disease in the nerve and in the blood vessels. (amazonaws.com)
  • Hematological abnormalities are among the most common complications of HIV. (springer.com)
  • Kidney disease causes expensive, painful and debilitating complications that prevent many patients from working and earning an income. (kidneyfund.org)
  • 5. You have chronic kidney disease and the complications have resulted in at least three hospitalizations in one year. (kidneyfund.org)
  • A side from osteoporosis, Paget's disease is the most common bone disorder. (aafp.org)
  • Information from National Institutes of Health, Osteoporosis and Related Bone Disease, National Resource Center. (aafp.org)
  • Osteoporosis and other bone diseases. (stanford.edu)
  • Painful fractures of the vertebrae can occur if they are weakened and made brittle and porous by osteoporosis or other diseases that affect the bone. (stanford.edu)
  • In addition, osteoporosis (age-related loss of bone with tendency to fractures) is traditionally included among the metabolic conditions even though its cause is not known. (britannica.com)
  • Paget's disease of bone (PDB) is the second most common metabolic bone disorder, after osteoporosis. (springer.com)
  • Nowadays, it is considered a common skeletal condition, representing the most frequent metabolic bone disorder after osteoporosis. (springer.com)
  • A bone with osteoporosis Scientists hope their findings could help to treat common forms of osteoporosis. (thedailystar.net)
  • As we understand more about bone turnover and communication between bone cells, work could open doors for future research that could affect osteoporosis. (thedailystar.net)
  • It increases in states of low bone density -osteoporosis, anorexia nervosa/ caloric restriction, skeletal unweighting such as that which occurs in space travel, anti-diabetes therapies. (wikipedia.org)
  • MAT is thought to result from preferential MSC differentiation into an adipocyte, rather than osteoblast lineage in osteoporosis based on the inverse relationship between bone and MAT in bone-fragile osteoporotic states. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, bone fragility, osteoporosis, and osteoporotic fractures are thought to be linked to mechanisms which promote MAT accumulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Osteoporosis & Bone Clinic focuses on the treatment and prevention of a wide range of skeletal issues caused by osteoporosis. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • Moreover, bone-forming agents (e.g., teriparatide) provide another therapeutic option for the treatment of severe osteoporosis. (aetna.com)
  • The primary hypothesis for this study is that in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis, treatment with oral alendronate 70 mg once weekly will produce a mean percent increase from baseline in hip trochanter bone mineral density (BMD) at 12 and 24 months which is greater than that observed with oral risedronate 35 mg once weekly. (druglib.com)
  • Bone fractures may also occur. (rxlist.com)
  • In osteomalacia, bone tenderness and pain accompany the slow development of the spontaneous, often symmetric fractures characteristically present in the osteomalacic pelvis and thighbones. (britannica.com)
  • Necrosis, fractures, grafts and healing in bone -- 14. (princeton.edu)
  • 4- 6 Although it is generally believed that GC affect trabecular bone more than cortical bone, a recent study of fractures in children following steroid exposure as part of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) treatment showed a high incidence of cortical bone involvement, suggesting that the disease process may interact with GC usage in influencing site of bone loss. (bmj.com)
  • Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is the most common disease causing fractures in childhood. (leo.org)
  • However, unexplained fractures in childhood are also the hallmark ofall forms of brittle bone disease and immense harm can be done to families by the inaccuratediagnosis of non-accidental injury.Much of our research over the last 25 years has related to the clinical aspects of the brittle bonediseases and we hold a database with details of over 1,300 patients. (slideshare.net)
  • Since collagen is abnormal in tissues other than bone,patients with osteogenesis imperfecta now have detectable features in addition fractures. (slideshare.net)
  • The fracture pattern is often distinctive with rib fractures and fractures at the endsof long bones (metaphyseal fractures) being frequent. (slideshare.net)
  • Charcot-type joints, characterized by severe joint destruction, sclerosis, multiple bone fragments, and soft tissue swelling may occur. (nih.gov)
  • The genetic cause of a severe skeletal disease in Brazilian Terrier puppie. (bio-medicine.org)
  • A few years ago our research group was introduced to Brazilian Terrier puppies that had severe congenital skeletal abnormalities in the limbs, loose joints, facial deformities and dwarfism. (bio-medicine.org)
  • These abnormalities usually become more severe during the adolescent growth spurt, when bones grow very quickly. (medlineplus.gov)
  • HIV associated hematological abnormalities seem to be dependent on the level of virus replication, as these abnormalities are severe in late-stage AIDS patients with high viremia. (springer.com)
  • In severe cases, people with OI can have between 200 and 300 fractions by the time they reach age 18, the Brittle Bone Society said. (thedailystar.net)
  • Renal osteodystrophy: a bone disease caused by failing kidneys, with severe bone pain and abnormalities. (kidneyfund.org)
  • Patients also have very severe immune abnormalities, principaly characterized by a defect in cytotoxicity and onset of uncontrolled T cells and macrophages proliferation, which infiltrate the various organs. (eurekalert.org)
  • The relation between the functional defect in myosin-5a remains to be linked to the severe immune abnormalities in Griscelli disease. (eurekalert.org)
  • Women taking either alendronate or estrogen had significantly fewer bone abnormalities associated with severe knee OA - including subchondral bone thickening, osteophytes, and bone marrow edema-like lesions - than the women not taking these medications. (news-medical.net)
  • In mice bred to lack the Nf1 gene, the neurofibromin deficiency had a much stronger effect on cardiac cells than it does in humans, causing cardiac abnormalities so severe that they did not survive to birth. (brightsurf.com)
  • Paget's disease is a chronic bone disorder due to irregular breakdown and formation of bone tissue. (rxlist.com)
  • Chronic kidney disease (CKD)-mineral and bone disorder (MBD) is characterized by increased circulating levels of parathormone (PTH) and fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), bone disease, and vascular calcification, and is associated with adverse outcomes. (uam.es)
  • IgG4-related disease is a fibro-inflammatory disorder characterized by swelling of tissues and affected organs accompanied by the development of scar tissue (fibrosis) and infiltration by IgG4 positive plasma cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • Cinacalcet for Treatment of Chronic Kidney Disease-Mineral and Bone Disorder: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Bone Disorder: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Is serum sclerostin a marker of atherosclerosis in patients with chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder? (bioportfolio.com)
  • The complexity of chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD) led to many preclinical and clinical trials. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The intervention effect of zuogui pill on chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder regulatory factor. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Detecting high-risk chronic kidney disease-mineral bone disorder phenotypes among patients on dialysis: a historical cohort study. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The clinical management of chronic kidney disease-mineral bone disorder (CKD-MBD) remains extremely challenging, partially due to difficulties in defining high-risk phenotypes based on serum biomarker. (bioportfolio.com)
  • KDIGO clinical practice guideline for the diagnosis, evaluation, prevention, and treatment of Chronic Kidney Disease-Mineral and Bone Disorder (CKD. (nih.gov)
  • KDIGO clinical practice guideline for the diagnosis, evaluation, prevention, and treatment of Chronic Kidney Disease-Mineral and Bone Disorder (CKD-MBD). (nih.gov)
  • The 2009 Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) clinical practice guideline on the management of chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD) is intended to assist the practitioner caring for adults and children with CKD stages 3-5, on chronic dialysis therapy, or with a kidney transplant. (nih.gov)
  • Delivering the highest quality care with a wealth of expertise behind them, our team of more than 40 board-certified physicians focus on the treatment and management of nearly every endocrine disorder, ranging from growth complexities to diseases of the parathyroid and pancreas. (montefiore.org)
  • Fingernail abnormalities are found in over 80% of patients with this disorder. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Kneecap abnormalities are the second most common sign associated with this disorder. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Juvenile Paget disease is a disorder that affects bone growth. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Low energy (with or without an eating disorder) in combination with menstrual disorder and altered mineral bone density is known as the female athlete triad . (medscape.com)
  • We describe here a series of three patients, each of whom had an antecedent bone marrow disorder before transforming to an acute myeloid leukemia with an aggressive clinical course. (hindawi.com)
  • These types of complaints occur when a person with a bone marrow disorder has a very low red blood cell count. (livestrong.com)
  • N. Medicine an inherited disorder characterized by extreme fragility of the bones. (leo.org)
  • Osteogenesis Imperfecta (OI)-- commonly known as the "brittle bone" disorder-- is a genetic disorder characterized by bones that break easily, often from little or no apparent cause. (leo.org)
  • It is a rare, usually inherited disorder that causes bones to break easily due to the body's low production of collagen. (leo.org)
  • The disorder shows prominent neutrophil morphologic abnormalities. (wikipedia.org)
  • Paget's disease of bone (which is different from Paget's disease of the breast) is a chronic disease of bone characterized by excessive breakdown and reformation of bone. (rxlist.com)
  • Paget's disease of bone may not produce symptoms. (rxlist.com)
  • Medical professionals do not understand the cause of Paget's disease of bone. (rxlist.com)
  • Paget's disease of bone (also known as osteitis deformans) is a nonmalignant disease involving accelerated bone resorption followed by deposition of dense, chaotic, and ineffectively mineralized bone matrix. (aafp.org)
  • 1 Paget's disease is equally prevalent in men and women, with increased incidence in persons older than 50 years. (aafp.org)
  • Paget's disease occurs in three phases. (aafp.org)
  • 4 In the majority of patients, Paget's disease affects at least two bones, but in one third of patients only one bone is affected. (aafp.org)
  • Although the etiology of Paget's disease is unknown, studies have provided some support for both viral and hereditary causes. (aafp.org)
  • 5 In the United States, the measles virus antigen is most commonly detected in patients with Paget's disease. (aafp.org)
  • A positive family history is reported in as many as 40 percent of patients with Paget's disease. (aafp.org)
  • An estimated 70 percent of patients who have Paget's disease have no symptoms. (aafp.org)
  • Information for patients about Paget's disease of bone. (aafp.org)
  • Genome-wide association studies enlarged the number of loci associated with PDB, and further fine-mapping studies, combined with functional analysis, identified OPTN and RIN3 as causal genes for Paget's disease. (springer.com)
  • Janssens K, de Vernejoul MC, de Freitas F, Vanhoenacker F, Van Hul W. An intermediate form of juvenile Paget's disease caused by a truncating TNFRSF11B mutation. (medlineplus.gov)
  • 6. Use according to claim 5, wherein the bone disease is Paget's disease. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Paget's disease (osteitis deformans), symptomatic and characterized by abnormal and accelerated bone metabolism in 1 or more bones, where oral bisphosphonates have been ineffective. (aetna.com)
  • Pamidronate is approved by the FDA for use in hypercalcemia of malignancy, Paget's disease of the bone, osteolytic bone metastases from breast cancer and osteolytic lesions of multiple myeloma. (aetna.com)
  • Multiple abnormalities occur in polyostotic fibrous dysplasia , in which affected bone is replaced by fibrous connective-tissue matrix. (britannica.com)
  • Recent guidelines address the aberrations in bone metabolism and disease that occur as a complication of chronic kidney disease. (medscape.com)
  • An article published in Experimental Biology and Medicine details abnormalities in bone pathology that occur in systemic autoimmune disease. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Additional skeletal abnormalities may also occur in children with classical Schwartz-Jampel syndrome. (rarediseases.org)
  • Abnormalities of mineral metabolism occur early in chronic kidney disease. (nih.gov)
  • A new mutation causing nail-patella syndrome can also occur, causing disease in a person with no family history. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Bone marrow abnormalities occur in all stages of HIV infection. (springer.com)
  • Excessive fatigue and weakness are symptoms of anemia that may occur in patients with bone marrow disease. (livestrong.com)
  • Loss of bone and deterioration in short term growth are dependent on the type and dose of GC and occur most prominently over the first six months of treatment. (bmj.com)
  • [ 2 ] In the current article, we summarize those components of a further set of guidelines that are relevant to the practicing pharmacist-the K/DOQI clinical practice guidelines for bone metabolism and disease in CKD. (medscape.com)
  • The available clinical parameters are non-specific, unproven for the assessment of the bone metabolism and do not. (bioportfolio.com)
  • It is caused by chronic KIDNEY FAILURE or other abnormalities in the controls of bone and mineral metabolism, leading to various BONE DISEASES, such as RENAL OSTEODYSTROPHY. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Subsequently, damage on bone metabolism was related. (scielo.br)
  • Subsequently, reports emerged of damage to the bone metabolism (4-7). (scielo.br)
  • In association with these factors, menopausal women experience a period of hormone decline, progressively reducing the effects of estrogen protection on bone metabolism and CVD (8,9). (scielo.br)
  • Bone metabolism is affected by factors such as nutrition, exercise, medical illnesses and medications, as well as hormones including parathyroid hormone, vitamin D, estrogen, and testosterone. (rochester.edu)
  • The Metabolic Bone Clinic at the University of Rochester Division of Endocrinology focuses on the evaluation and care of patients with conditions that affect bone and mineral metabolism. (rochester.edu)
  • Our Calcium & Mineral Metabolism Clinic works toward the investigation, diagnosis and treatment of calcium and other mineral and vitamin abnormalities. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • In this review, we summarize the clinical characteristics of the disease and the latest genetic advances to identify susceptibility genes. (springer.com)
  • The comparison of the genomes of 7 affected and 11 unaffected dogs mapped the disease gene into an extensive region of the chromosome 6, containing more than 220 genes. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Mapping the disease gene to a specific chromosomal region was in itself a breakthrough for the project, but finding the actual mutation among 200+ genes with conventional methods would have been a laborious and time-consuming process. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Genes play a role in the disease, but the environment also plays a role. (uhhospitals.org)
  • It is an inherited condition, where abnormalities in the genes controlling collagen affect the bone's strength. (thedailystar.net)
  • Inherited forms of bone marrow failure arise from specific alterations or abnormalities of genes. (army.mil)
  • Given the functional abnormalities of Griscelli disease, myosin genes were good candidates. (eurekalert.org)
  • This process leads to abnormal enlargement and bone deformities. (rxlist.com)
  • Decalcification of bone or abnormal bone development due to chronic KIDNEY DISEASES, in which 1,25-DIHYDROXYVITAMIN D3 synthesis by the kidneys is impaired, leading to reduced negative feedback on PARATHYROID HORMONE. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Prevalence of abnormal serum vitamin D, PTH, calcium, and phosphorus in patients with chronic kidney disease: results of the study to evaluate earl. (nih.gov)
  • Scleroderma is a chronic disease that causes abnormal growth of connective tissue. (uhhospitals.org)
  • Nail-patella syndrome , is a genetic disease of the connective tissue that produces defects in the fingernails, knee caps, and kidneys. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Typical features of the disease include dwarfism, skeletal abnormalities, coarse facial features, cloudy corneas and overgrowth of the internal organs. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Less common medical findings include defects of the upper lip, the roof of the mouth, and unusual skeletal abnormalities. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Skeletal abnormalities may include poorly developed scapulae (shoulder blades), sideways bent fingers (clinodactyly), clubfoot, scoliosis, and unusual neck bones. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Since many bone diseases are similar to each other, the final diagnosis of this disease was confirmed only after the gene discovery," explains Developmental Biologist, Adjunct professor Kirsi Sainio. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Persistent abnormalities of calcium, phosphorus, or magnesium homeostasis xiii. (slideshare.net)
  • Based in the Department of Endocrinology, the Metabolic Bone Disease & Endocrine Calcium Center provides superior access to a multidisciplinary team, providing Center-of-Excellence DXA bone density testing and interpretation, on-site laboratory testing, and a fully staffed infusion center for even the most sophisticated testing and drug administration requirements. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • The Metabolic Bone Disease & Endocrine Calcium Center team has partnered with their highly skilled Endocrine Surgery colleagues to provide timely, integrated assessment of parathyroid abnormalities with ultrasonography, direct laryngoscopy, and other state of the art testing. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • The Metabolic Bone Disease & Endocrine Calcium Center and the Department of Endocrine Surgery continue to collaborate to provide comprehensive pre-surgical assessment, timely surgical intervention, and post-surgical follow up for all patients with parathyroid disease in their care. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • The Metabolic Bone Disease & Endocrine Calcium Center addresses problems associated with the regulation of the body's bone, mineral and hormone functions. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • 10 GC may also promote calcium loss through the kidneys and gut, and this negative calcium balance can itself lead to increased bone remodelling and osteoclastic activity due to secondary hyperparathyroidism. (bmj.com)
  • it has nothing to do with the calcium part of bone, which is what shows up on X-rays. (leo.org)
  • Osteoblasts play important roles in bone formation and osteoclasts function in bone resorption, whereas osteocytes regulate osteoblasts and osteoclasts activities by controlling signaling pathways [ 4 ] ( Figure 1 ). (intechopen.com)
  • 1 , 4 The initial phase consists of intense osteoclastic activity and bone resorption, with bone turnover as high as 20 times the normal rate. (aafp.org)
  • Major shoulder changes, typically associated with peripheral neuropathy, include humeral head deformity due to bone resorption, joint space narrowing, subchondral cysts and sclerosis, subluxation, and juxtra-articular soft tissue bone fragments. (nih.gov)
  • it occurs when bone resorption occurs faster than bone formation. (britannica.com)
  • There is some evidence to suggest that GC may also increase bone resorption by extending the lifespan of pre-existing osteoclasts. (bmj.com)
  • Pamidronate (Aredia), an intravenous (IV) bisphosphonate, is a much more potent inhibitor of bone resorption than etidronate. (aetna.com)
  • The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of cinacalcet (cinacalcet HCl or Sensipar®/Mimpara®) on cardiovascular events and death in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients with. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Tests considered are those that relate to the detection and monitoring of laboratory, bone, and cardiovascular abnormalities. (nih.gov)
  • Vitamin D deficiency in HIV-infected individuals: one more risk factor for bone loss and cardiovascular disease? (scielo.br)
  • Initially, metabolic alterations were reported, increasing cardiovascular disease risk. (scielo.br)
  • Initially, metabolic abnormalities were reported such as dyslipidemia, insulin resistance and lipodystrophy, which all contribute to the increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). (scielo.br)
  • Not for prevention of cardiovascular disease or dementia. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • Manage risk factors for cardiovascular disease and venous thromboembolism appropriately. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • Visceral abdominal fat (VAT) is a distinct type of WAT that is "proportionally associated with negative metabolic and cardiovascular morbidity", regenerates cortisol, and recently has been tied to decreased bone formation Both types of WAT substantially differ from brown adipose tissue (BAT) as by a group of proteins that help BAT's thermogenic role. (wikipedia.org)
  • Philadelphia, PA) -While type 1 Neurofibromatosis (NF1) is primarily known to cause tumors of the nervous system, scientists were puzzled as to why patients with NF1 are also prone to cardiovascular problems such as hypertension and congenital heart disease. (brightsurf.com)
  • Plasma cells are strikingly increased in bone marrow of HIV infected patients . (bvsalud.org)
  • Dentists should be aware of patients with the disease because of its effect on osteoclast function, which results in impaired wound healing. (nih.gov)
  • In conclusion, in patients with coronary artery disease there is a large prevalence of increased FGF23 and PTH levels. (uam.es)
  • Those patients transplanted in the early stages of the disease (less than 5 years) showed more improvement and no further disease progression than the later stages (11-15 years). (hindawi.com)
  • Endocrine dysfunction is increasingly recognized as one of the most important aspects of quality of life issues, physical and psychosocial development and overall prognosis in pediatric patients diagnosed with neoplasms as well as in patients s/p bone marrow transplant throughout their lifespan. (knowcancer.com)
  • i) Training our fellows, residents and students in the identification and management of endocrine abnormalities developing in patients who have been diagnosed with and treated for neoplasms and/or who have received HSCT at the NIH-Clinical center. (knowcancer.com)
  • Patients present in the first year of life with renal Fanconi syndrome that evolves to progressive chronic kidney disease (CKD). (bioportfolio.com)
  • Bone and mineral disease is a key problem in patients with kidney disease. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Treatments considered are interventions to treat hyperphosphatemia, hyperparathyroidism, and bone disease in patients with CKD stages 3-5D and 1-5T. (nih.gov)
  • Recommendations for testing used evidence based on diagnostic accuracy or risk prediction and linked it indirectly with how this would be expected to achieve better outcomes for patients through better detection, evaluation or treatment of disease. (nih.gov)
  • Patients who reached stringent remission according to the Simplified Disease Activity Index (SDAI≤3.3) were extracted to eliminate the activity related (ie, reversible) component of disability. (bmj.com)
  • A retrospective clinical and biochemical study of 136 patients with metabolic bone disease has shown that 6 out of 91 patients with primary hyperparathyroidism and at least 20 out of 45 patients with osteomalacia developed remediable proximal muscle weakness. (annals.org)
  • High levels of serum TIMP-1 correlate with advanced disease and predict for poor survival in patients with multiple myeloma treated with novel agents. (curehunter.com)
  • The hip bones of approximately 80% of patients with nail-patella syndrome have unusual bony projections called posterior iliac horns. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Determine the effects of TPA on the cellular composition of blood and bone marrow in these patients. (knowcancer.com)
  • Bone marrow findings of 184 consecutive patients with Hodgkin's disease admitted to the National Cancer Institute since 1965 were reviewed to delineate pathologic changes. (annals.org)
  • The most common hematological abnormality was anemia, seen in 65.5% (131/200) patients. (springer.com)
  • Bone marrow evaluation was carried out in 14 patients out of which staging marrow was performed in 2 cases of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and did not show any bone marrow infiltration. (springer.com)
  • Anemia is the most common hematological abnormality in HIV seropositive patients and its incidence is strongly associated with the progression of the disease. (springer.com)
  • A number of characteristic but nonspecific, morphologic abnormalities of the bone marrow of AIDS patients have been reported [ 5 ]. (springer.com)
  • 6 Endoscopic retrograde cholangiography might be considered then in patients with diseases known to be associated with primary sclerosing cholangitis and with appropriate symptomatology even though ALP level is normal. (labcorp.com)
  • The clinical interpretation of bone and bone marrow biopsies contributes valuable information to the diagnostic puzzle in patients under investigation in a wide range of contexts from hematology and internal medicine, to orthopedics, rheumatology and oncology. (princeton.edu)
  • Patients with known MDS/MPN who present with these features may benefit from early bone marrow examination to assess disease status. (hindawi.com)
  • We work with patients to create an individual diet, lifestyle and treatment plan to improve bone health. (rochester.edu)
  • The antiretroviral therapy is recommended for HIV patients to reduce the risk of disease progression. (medindia.net)
  • 1 Others have since confirmed its frequency in early disease, including Ostendorf et al who described bone oedema at the forefeet in 7 of 10 patients with normal hand MRI scans, who had only had symptoms for a median of 9 weeks. (bmj.com)
  • 8 McQueen et al examined 15 sites at the wrist in 42 RA patients and used 542 paired observations at 1 year and 407 at 6 years to examine the fate of wrist bones that were not eroded at baseline. (bmj.com)
  • Our facilities allow our experts to perform specialized testing not found in most medical centers, and patients are provided access to a wide variety of therapies using the most up to date medications to diagnose and treat both common and rare bone diseases. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • Then, they compared the differences in all three measures for the 26 percent of the knee OA patients who were taking bone antiresorptive drugs to the majority who were not. (news-medical.net)
  • Expression of aquaporins in bronchial tissue and lung parenchyma of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. (abcam.com)
  • Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is defined as the gradual loss of renal function over a period of time. (medindia.net)
  • When caught early enough, the progression of kidney disease can be slowed down. (medindia.net)
  • Hypertension: High prevalence even at early stages of kidney disease. (medindia.net)
  • The rising incidence of lifestyle related diseases like diabetes and hypertension has risen and has resulted in alarming rise of kidney disease in the world. (medindia.net)
  • Chronic renal failure or chronic kidney disease is progressive loss in kidney function. (medindia.net)
  • Glomerulonephritis is used to describe several kidney disease that damage the glomeruli. (medindia.net)
  • The National Kidney Foundation developed and oversees the Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative, a process that develops clinical practice guidelines in nephrology. (medscape.com)
  • The initial article in this series outlined the development of the Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (K/DOQI), [ 1 ] a process initiated and overseen by the National Kidney Foundation. (medscape.com)
  • The second article reviewed salient points of the K/DOQI clinical practice guidelines for chronic kidney disease (CKD), by addressing the evaluation, classification, and stratification of CKD. (medscape.com)
  • CKD = chronic kidney disease. (medscape.com)
  • Dietary Changes Involving Bifidobacterium longum and Other Nutrients Delays Chronic Kidney Disease Progression. (bioportfolio.com)
  • However, the gut microbiota and kidney disease inte. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an increasing public health problem and the number of patient with chronic kidney disease is increasing worldwide. (bioportfolio.com)
  • A pharmaceutical company in the US was looking at the pathway of TGF in other diseases, such as kidney disease, which could accelerate the trials, he said. (thedailystar.net)
  • The incidence of high blood pressure and kidney disease including kidney failure also rises rapidly. (dummies.com)
  • 1. You have chronic kidney disease and need dialysis. (kidneyfund.org)
  • 2. You have chronic kidney disease and have had a kidney transplant less than one year ago. (kidneyfund.org)
  • If you do not fall into any of these categories, you can still qualify for disability benefits if your kidney disease and treatments keep you from working. (kidneyfund.org)
  • If your kidney disease keeps you from working at even a sedentary job, you meet the medical criteria to qualify for disability benefits. (kidneyfund.org)
  • Inducible podocyte-specific deletion of CTCF drives progressive kidney disease and bone abnormalities. (abcam.com)
  • The layers of cartilage that separate the shaft of a long bone (diaphysis) from its growing end (epiphyseal plate or growth plate) may develop abnormally (epiphyseal dysplasia). (rarediseases.org)
  • Other common abnormalities include elbow deformities, abnormally shaped pelvis bone (hip bone), and kidney (renal) disease. (encyclopedia.com)
  • This disease causes bones to be abnormally large, misshapen, and easily broken (fractured). (medlineplus.gov)
  • This abnormally fast bone remodeling underlies the problems with bone growth characteristic of juvenile Paget disease. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Deprived of normal cushioning, the bones get into the act, producing abnormally dense tissue next to the arthritic joint (sclerosis), often with tiny cysts in the bone. (itp.net)
  • Soon, though, x-rays begin to reveal a narrowing of the space between the bones as cartilage wears away, then abnormally dense sclerotic bone and bone spurs. (itp.net)
  • A hereditary disease characterized by abnormally brittle, easily fractured bones. (leo.org)
  • Bone Marrow Involvement in Hodgkin's Disease (HD): Pathology and Clinical Implications. (annals.org)
  • Major aspects of bone biopsy pathology -- 6. (princeton.edu)
  • 3 4 While the articular pathology of RA clearly differs from that of OA, the finding of bone oedema informs us about a region of critical importance to both conditions, the subchondral bone. (bmj.com)
  • Hereditary metaphyseal dysplasias, causing bone deformities near the joints, exist in several forms. (britannica.com)
  • When the normal composition of bone tissue is altered by deficient mineralization of the organic matrix, the condition is called rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults. (britannica.com)
  • The entire skeleton is affected in both rickets and osteomalacia, although abnormalities are more evident in growth centres in children and in areas of maximal mechanical load in adults. (britannica.com)
  • Physical disability is then the consequence of the ongoing inflammatory activity (pain, stiffness, swelling, usually assessed by composite disease activity measures) and the destructive events (usually assessed by radiographic scoring). (bmj.com)
  • In some people, it doesn't go beyond the stage of mild x-ray abnormality, with a little stiffness or discomfort from time to time. (itp.net)
  • Although drugs commonly prescribed for the disease work to ease joint pain and stiffness, they do not provide a cure. (news-medical.net)
  • If symptoms and signs are present, these can include bone pain in the affected area. (rxlist.com)
  • Other signs and associated symptoms can include bowed legs, abnormalities with walking , and sensations of tingling (pins and needles feeling) and numbness. (rxlist.com)
  • however, the patient may present with symptoms depending on the bones involved. (aafp.org)
  • The disease is caused by the same gene (GUSB) that causes type VII mucopolysaccharidosis in humans (MPS VII or Sly syndrome) and the symptoms of the affected Brazilian Terriers resemble closely the human disease. (bio-medicine.org)
  • OA is a progressive disease, which means that symptoms worsen over time. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Symptoms of each type of bone marrow disease will vary according to its severity, but tend to be similar in nature. (livestrong.com)
  • Bone pain, an aching of the joints and headaches are all symptoms of bone marrow disease. (livestrong.com)
  • A better understanding of the relevant immunological pathways could lead to new therapeutic approaches to this disease, as well as Chediak-Higashi disease which presents with similar symptoms. (eurekalert.org)
  • Localized osteopenia is evident in X-rays of tumours or infections of bone, in osteonecrosis (death of bony tissue), in fracture, and in conditions of diminished mechanical demand. (britannica.com)
  • Additionally, weight-bearing long bones in the legs tend to bow and fracture easily, which can interfere with standing and walking. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Injuries in children are usually obvious, but persistent limping after an injury can be a sign that there is an underlying fracture (broken bone). (aaos.org)
  • When TGF was blocked with an antibody, the mice's bones withstood "higher maximum load and ultimate strength" and showed "improved whole bone and tissue strength", suggesting "resistance to fracture", the study said. (thedailystar.net)
  • The spinal column contains 33 hollow, ring-shaped bones, called vertebrae, which are separated and cushioned by 23 discs made of spongy cartilage. (stanford.edu)
  • Most individuals with classical SJS also have abnormalities of bone and cartilage growth (chondrodystrophy). (rarediseases.org)
  • Background Joint destruction in rheumatoid arthritis is comprised of cartilage and bone damage, which can be evaluated radiographically separately by the joint space narrowing (JSN) and erosion (ERO) scores. (bmj.com)
  • While pathogenetically the influx of immune and inflammatory cells signifies synovitis, its invasion into the adjacent bone and the consumption of cartilage constitute the destructive elements of the disease. (bmj.com)
  • A union between adjacent bones or parts of a single bone formed by osseous material, such as ossified connecting cartilage or fibrous tissue. (harvard.edu)
  • Unlike bones, though, cartilage doesn't have any blood vessels or nerves. (itp.net)
  • The process can also produce bone spurs (osteophytes), and small fragments of bone or cartilage sometimes break off and float in the joint fluid (see figure 1 below). (itp.net)
  • Cartilage is a protective substance that cushions the ends of the bones in the joints and allows the joints to move smoothly and easily. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Analysis of these data showed that bone oedema was separately predictive of both the joint space narrowing and erosion components of this score, suggesting an influence not only on subchondral bone but also possibly on cartilage. (bmj.com)
  • Osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee, a chronic inflammatory disease marked by cartilage degradation and bone abnormalities, is a leading cause of disability among elderly people in the United States. (news-medical.net)
  • Initially the collagen (the material that provides important lining of bones) framework is damaged by changes in structural complex sugars (proteoglycans), in the cartilage matrix, and in water content. (encyclopedia.com)
  • There are accompanying destructive changes in joint cartilage and bone. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Effects of cytotoxic therapy and bone marrow transplantation (BMT or PBSCT) methods. (princeton.edu)
  • He added: "Other treatments that have worked really well in mice with brittle bones, like bone marrow transplantation, haven't worked as well in humans and are not standard practice as of now. (thedailystar.net)
  • As such cancers are often treated with bone marrow transplantation, there is interest in improving the renewal of HSC. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, metabolic abnormalities associated with obesity, bariatric surgery and organ transplantation are diagnosed and treated. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • Bone marrow transplantation is the only treatment for this disease, which otherwise can be fatal in childhood. (eurekalert.org)
  • citation needed] Myelokathexis is amongst the diseases treated with bone marrow transplantation and cord blood stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Updated information on radiographic manifestations of diseases in the orofacial region includes the latest data on etiology and diagnosis, with an emphasis on advanced imaging. (elsevier.com)
  • Studies were conducted into the etiology of leg abnormalities noted in chicks fed high tannin sorghum grain diets. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The gene discovery is yet another example of a shared disease heritage. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The disease is caused by a mutation in the GUSB gene. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The gene discovery is yet another example of a shared disease heritage between dogs and humans. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Based on this study a gene test has been developed for the breed to eliminate the disease. (bio-medicine.org)
  • This means that possession of only one copy of the defective gene is enough to cause disease. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Juvenile Paget disease is caused by mutations in the TNFRSF11B gene. (medlineplus.gov)
  • This gene provides instructions for making a protein that is involved in bone remodeling, a normal process in which old bone is broken down and new bone is created to replace it. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Mutations in the TNFRSF11B gene lead to a much faster rate of bone remodeling starting early in life. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Extensive blood and gene testing is performed on people who have bone marrow disease. (livestrong.com)
  • Some of the signs of illness from a scientific perspective include chromosomal changes and gene changes in response to the disease. (livestrong.com)
  • Creating animal models of the human disease will allow us to test therapies more quickly, and understanding how the gene works provides opportunities for therapies that will need to be tested. (brightsurf.com)
  • A discovery in mice could help to treat people with a form of brittle bone disease, scientists said. (thedailystar.net)
  • Vernon Threadgold suffered from brittle bone disease. (leo.org)
  • Alternative name/s = brittle bone disease. (leo.org)
  • Brittle bone disease is more commonly known as osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) . (leo.org)
  • Courses repeat in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. (knowcancer.com)
  • Although the likelihood of transformation to acute myeloid leukemia is predictable, the precise timing of disease progression can vary. (hindawi.com)
  • Continue until disease progression is observed. (empr.com)
  • It is associated with pain in both conditions 1 2 signalling disease activity, and is also a marker of poor prognosis, predicting joint damage and radiographic progression. (bmj.com)
  • This finding is particularly important because the MRI bone marrow abnormality score appears to be a strong predictor of progression of structural deterioration in knee OA," Dr. Carbone notes. (news-medical.net)
  • A more recent article on Paget Disease of Bone is available. (aafp.org)
  • In Paget disease of bone there is often isolated elevation of serum alkaline phosphatase. (labcorp.com)
  • Delayed puberty due to chronic disease or anorexia nervosa v. Exogenous obesity vi. (slideshare.net)
  • Iron deficiency anemia was seen in 49.2% (/200) cases while anemia of chronic disease occurred in 50.7% (/200) cases. (springer.com)
  • Bone marrow examination may be useful for the definitive assessment of iron stores which can assist in the differentiation of iron-deficiency anemia from anemia of chronic disease. (springer.com)
  • Hemophilia , finally, is a generalized hereditary condition that affects the skeletal system only secondarily by bleeding in the bones and joints. (britannica.com)
  • X-rays show characteristic abnormalities at the growth zones, especially evident at the wrist, knee, and ankle joints. (britannica.com)
  • Joints are found at the junction of two (or more) bones. (itp.net)
  • If joints were made up of only bones, muscles, and ligaments, every movement would be painful and we'd all be swollen and deformed. (itp.net)
  • Viral or bacterial infections can settle in growing bones and adjacent joints, and often will cause pain and limping in younger children. (aaos.org)
  • Many types of inflammatory disease, such as juvenile arthritis, can affect joints and cause pain, swelling, and limping. (aaos.org)
  • It is an active process, not just wearing out of joints or "degenerative joint disease" (Joint Working Group of the British Society for Rheumalology and, Research Unit of the Royal College of Physicians). (encyclopedia.com)
  • There is variable accompanying inflammation of the synovium that lines the joints, as well as changes in adjacent bone. (encyclopedia.com)
  • X-rays show joint space loss, and increased bone underneath and at the edges of joints, called subchondral sclerosis and marginal bony outcroppings (osteophytes), respectively. (encyclopedia.com)
  • In late disease, joints can be totally destroyed. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Isotope bone scanning (scintigraphy) shows increased activity of the joints in early disease. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Abnormalities not necessarily associated with clinical neuropathy include cystic bone changes, cortical bone erosions, soft tissue calcification (calcific tendinitis), and vascular calcification. (nih.gov)
  • However, the effect of cinacalcet on the new biomarkers such as fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23), bone markers, and vascular calcification are still unestablished. (bioportfolio.com)
  • l Lupus and other types of "collagen-vascular diseases" have many similarities to RA. (itp.net)
  • Diabetic foot ulcer can either be from neuropathic or vascular complication of the disease. (amazonaws.com)
  • Peripheral arterial disease is an important risk factor for the development of ulceration in the lower limbs. (amazonaws.com)
  • Quantification of the prevalence of these abnormalities has not been described using current assays nor in large unselected populations. (nih.gov)
  • A high prevalence of mineral metabolite abnormalities occurs in a large unreferred US cohort. (nih.gov)
  • The researchers used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), one of the most sensitive techniques available for detecting soft tissue and bone changes, to assess the prevalence of bone abnormalities associated with knee OA. (news-medical.net)
  • The best known of these isosteogenesis imperfecta which has a prevalence of about one in 10,000 in the United Kingdom.It is caused by abnormalities in collagen, the fibrous protein essential for the mechanicalstrength of bone. (slideshare.net)
  • Genetic syndromes and familial inheritance patterns with endocrine abnormalities ix. (slideshare.net)
  • Roentgenographic evidence of bone and soft tissue abnormalities may be noted in the upper extremities of diabetics. (nih.gov)
  • Changes in bone tissue due to metabolic abnormalities are classified with regard to the amount and composition of the bone tissue. (britannica.com)
  • Microscopic examination of the bone tissue reveals the deficient mineralization of the organic matrix. (britannica.com)
  • Bone tissue is broken down more quickly than usual, and when new bone tissue grows it is larger, weaker, and less organized than normal bone. (medlineplus.gov)
  • These bands of fibrous tissue extend across a joint, attaching one bone to another while still providing enough "give" for motion. (itp.net)
  • Among these are those whose function was not obvious until recently, including the endocrine functions of bone and the adipose tissue. (bookdepository.com)
  • Treatment requires a transplant of thymus tissue, specialized cells from bone marrow or specialized disease-fighting blood cells. (mayoclinic.org)
  • The bones in our bodies are living tissue. (rochester.edu)
  • Bone marrow, the sponge-like tissue found inside bones, contains blood-forming stem cells that develop into red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. (army.mil)
  • Marrow adipose tissue (MAT), also known as bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT), is a type of fat deposit in bone marrow. (wikipedia.org)
  • Similarly, it is invisible to ultrasound, which depends on reflection of sound waves from bone and tissue boundaries. (bmj.com)
  • In an American study, mice were bred with osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) and the activity of a protein which shapes and reshapes bones was monitored. (thedailystar.net)
  • Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a congenital disease, meaning it is present at birth. (leo.org)
  • The primary defect lies in the growth zone of the long bones. (britannica.com)
  • Insufficient protein, caloric, and vitamin intake interferes with bone formation during growth and remodeling, directly because of an inadequate supply for matrix formation and indirectly because of a deficient production of crucial hormones and enzymes. (britannica.com)
  • Amano K, Densmore M, Fan Y, Lanske B. Ihh and PTH1R signaling in limb mesenchyme is required for proper segmentation and subsequent formation and growth of digit bones. (harvard.edu)
  • Sprycel, which is taken orally, is believed to inhibit the activity of certain proteins responsible for the growth of cancer cells, allowing bone marrow to begin reproducing normal red and white blood cells. (foxbusiness.com)
  • They said the activity of transforming growth factor beta (TGF), which co-ordinates the shaping and reshaping of bone, was excessive in mice with OI. (thedailystar.net)
  • 2, 3 The maintenance of growth and bone health is a complex process that can be influenced not only by drugs, but also by the nutritional status of the patient and the underlying disease process. (bmj.com)
  • GC may also impair the attainment of peak bone mass and delay growth through alterations in gonadal function at the level of the pituitary and through direct effects on the gonads. (bmj.com)
  • Figure 1 summarises the mechanisms of GC induced bone loss and growth retardation. (bmj.com)
  • Examples of such abnormalities are dietary deficiency and gastrointestinal, liver, kidney, and hormonal diseases. (britannica.com)
  • Subsequent appearance of several affected litters led to a thorough characterization of the clinical, pathological and genetic features of this unknown disease. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The Division of Endocrinology maintains a robust basic and clinical research program in thyroid diseases and particularly in the area of obesity and diabetes. (montefiore.org)
  • Participants with an illness or disease also participate to help others, but also to possibly receive the newest treatment and to have the additional care and attention from the clinical trial staff. (patientsville.com)
  • This review will begin by describing the MRI characteristics of bone oedema and then explore data from clinical and histopathological studies that shed light on its nature and significance in RA and OA. (bmj.com)
  • 4 In this cohort, baseline bone oedema was also, surprisingly, a predictor of function at 6 years as measured by the SF-36 and was the only separate clinical or MRI feature to achieve this. (bmj.com)
  • These specialists diagnose and manage mouth and jaw diseases using clinical, microscopic, radiographic, and other means. (uhhospitals.org)
  • MiRNAs also regulate bone cells such as osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and osteocytes, which function in the mechanism of bone modeling and bone remodeling [ 4 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • These hematopoietic cells are derived from hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) which give rise to diverse cells: cells of the blood, immune system, as well as cells that break down bone (osteoclasts). (wikipedia.org)
  • Different types of tumors can grow into bone and soft tissues, producing pain and limping. (aaos.org)
  • Bone and mineral abnormalities in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: influence of disease, drugs and nutrition. (mcmaster.ca)
  • It is characterised by focal areas of increased and disorganised bone turnover, coupled with increased bone formation. (springer.com)
  • 5 This phase is followed by an osteolytic-osteoblastic phase during which osteoblasts begin to produce an abundance of woven bone, but mineralization is ineffective. (aafp.org)
  • Bone mineralization was apparently not influenced by tannins as demonstrated by similar bone ash values for chicks fed high or low tannin sorghums. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The signs of juvenile Paget disease appear in infancy or early childhood. (medlineplus.gov)
  • ACTN2 mutations cause "Multiple structured Core Disease" (MsCD). (annals.org)
  • Dr Lee added: "We now have a deeper understanding for how genetic mutations that affect collagen and collagen processing enzymes cause weak bones. (thedailystar.net)
  • Myopathy and Metabolic Bone Disease. (annals.org)
  • Stern G, Smith R. Myopathy and Metabolic Bone Disease. (annals.org)
  • Widespread but hardly ever truly generalized, osteosclerosis occurs in osteopetrosis ( marble bone disease ) and in Paget disease . (britannica.com)
  • Bone marrow disease occurs when there is some kind of abnormality or interference with the production of blood cells. (livestrong.com)
  • Several studies demonstrated exercise reduction of MAT which occurs along with an increase in bone quantity. (wikipedia.org)
  • One notable exception occurs in the setting of caloric restriction: exercise suppression of MAT does not yield an increase in bone formation and even appears to cause bone loss. (wikipedia.org)