Central Nervous System Diseases: Diseases of any component of the brain (including the cerebral hemispheres, diencephalon, brain stem, and cerebellum) or the spinal cord.Peripheral Nervous System Diseases: Diseases of the peripheral nerves external to the brain and spinal cord, which includes diseases of the nerve roots, ganglia, plexi, autonomic nerves, sensory nerves, and motor nerves.Peripheral Nervous System: The nervous system outside of the brain and spinal cord. The peripheral nervous system has autonomic and somatic divisions. The autonomic nervous system includes the enteric, parasympathetic, and sympathetic subdivisions. The somatic nervous system includes the cranial and spinal nerves and their ganglia and the peripheral sensory receptors.Nervous System Diseases: Diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system. This includes disorders of the brain, spinal cord, cranial nerves, peripheral nerves, nerve roots, autonomic nervous system, neuromuscular junction, and muscle.Central Nervous System Viral Diseases: Viral infections of the brain, spinal cord, meninges, or perimeningeal spaces.Meningoencephalitis: An inflammatory process involving the brain (ENCEPHALITIS) and meninges (MENINGITIS), most often produced by pathogenic organisms which invade the central nervous system, and occasionally by toxins, autoimmune disorders, and other conditions.Central Nervous System Infections: Pathogenic infections of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges. DNA VIRUS INFECTIONS; RNA VIRUS INFECTIONS; BACTERIAL INFECTIONS; MYCOPLASMA INFECTIONS; SPIROCHAETALES INFECTIONS; fungal infections; PROTOZOAN INFECTIONS; HELMINTHIASIS; and PRION DISEASES may involve the central nervous system as a primary or secondary process.Central Nervous System: The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis: A rare, slowly progressive encephalitis caused by chronic infection with the MEASLES VIRUS. The condition occurs primarily in children and young adults, approximately 2-8 years after the initial infection. A gradual decline in intellectual abilities and behavioral alterations are followed by progressive MYOCLONUS; MUSCLE SPASTICITY; SEIZURES; DEMENTIA; autonomic dysfunction; and ATAXIA. DEATH usually occurs 1-3 years after disease onset. Pathologic features include perivascular cuffing, eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusions, neurophagia, and fibrous gliosis. It is caused by the SSPE virus, which is a defective variant of MEASLES VIRUS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp767-8)AIDS Dementia Complex: A neurologic condition associated with the ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and characterized by impaired concentration and memory, slowness of hand movements, ATAXIA, incontinence, apathy, and gait difficulties associated with HIV-1 viral infection of the central nervous system. Pathologic examination of the brain reveals white matter rarefaction, perivascular infiltrates of lymphocytes, foamy macrophages, and multinucleated giant cells. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp760-1; N Engl J Med, 1995 Apr 6;332(14):934-40)Brain Diseases: Pathologic conditions affecting the BRAIN, which is composed of the intracranial components of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. This includes (but is not limited to) the CEREBRAL CORTEX; intracranial white matter; BASAL GANGLIA; THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM.Demyelinating Diseases: Diseases characterized by loss or dysfunction of myelin in the central or peripheral nervous system.Maus Elberfeld virus: A strain of ENCEPHALOMYOCARDITIS VIRUS, a species of CARDIOVIRUS, usually causing an inapparent intestinal infection in mice. A small number of mice may show signs of flaccid paralysis.Peripheral Nerves: The nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord, including the autonomic, cranial, and spinal nerves. Peripheral nerves contain non-neuronal cells and connective tissue as well as axons. The connective tissue layers include, from the outside to the inside, the epineurium, the perineurium, and the endoneurium.Cerebrospinal Fluid: A watery fluid that is continuously produced in the CHOROID PLEXUS and circulates around the surface of the BRAIN; SPINAL CORD; and in the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES.Meninges: The three membranes that cover the BRAIN and the SPINAL CORD. They are the dura mater, the arachnoid, and the pia mater.Enterovirus InfectionsNervous System: The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses. (Stedman, 26th ed)Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Astrocytes: A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.Schwann Cells: Neuroglial cells of the peripheral nervous system which form the insulating myelin sheaths of peripheral axons.Sciatic Nerve: A nerve which originates in the lumbar and sacral spinal cord (L4 to S3) and supplies motor and sensory innervation to the lower extremity. The sciatic nerve, which is the main continuation of the sacral plexus, is the largest nerve in the body. It has two major branches, the TIBIAL NERVE and the PERONEAL NERVE.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Myelin Sheath: The lipid-rich sheath surrounding AXONS in both the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEMS and PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. The myelin sheath is an electrical insulator and allows faster and more energetically efficient conduction of impulses. The sheath is formed by the cell membranes of glial cells (SCHWANN CELLS in the peripheral and OLIGODENDROGLIA in the central nervous system). Deterioration of the sheath in DEMYELINATING DISEASES is a serious clinical problem.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Axons: Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.Peripheral Nervous System Neoplasms: Neoplasms which arise from peripheral nerve tissue. This includes NEUROFIBROMAS; SCHWANNOMAS; GRANULAR CELL TUMORS; and malignant peripheral NERVE SHEATH NEOPLASMS. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp1750-1)Ganglia, Spinal: Sensory ganglia located on the dorsal spinal roots within the vertebral column. The spinal ganglion cells are pseudounipolar. The single primary branch bifurcates sending a peripheral process to carry sensory information from the periphery and a central branch which relays that information to the spinal cord or brain.Autonomic Nervous System Diseases: Diseases of the parasympathetic or sympathetic divisions of the AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; which has components located in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM and PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Autonomic dysfunction may be associated with HYPOTHALAMIC DISEASES; BRAIN STEM disorders; SPINAL CORD DISEASES; and PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES. Manifestations include impairments of vegetative functions including the maintenance of BLOOD PRESSURE; HEART RATE; pupil function; SWEATING; REPRODUCTIVE AND URINARY PHYSIOLOGY; and DIGESTION.Lamin Type A: A subclass of developmentally regulated lamins having a neutral isoelectric point. They are found to disassociate from nuclear membranes during mitosis.Enteric Nervous System: Two ganglionated neural plexuses in the gut wall which form one of the three major divisions of the autonomic nervous system. The enteric nervous system innervates the gastrointestinal tract, the pancreas, and the gallbladder. It contains sensory neurons, interneurons, and motor neurons. Thus the circuitry can autonomously sense the tension and the chemical environment in the gut and regulate blood vessel tone, motility, secretions, and fluid transport. The system is itself governed by the central nervous system and receives both parasympathetic and sympathetic innervation. (From Kandel, Schwartz, and Jessel, Principles of Neural Science, 3d ed, p766)Neural Crest: The two longitudinal ridges along the PRIMITIVE STREAK appearing near the end of GASTRULATION during development of nervous system (NEURULATION). The ridges are formed by folding of NEURAL PLATE. Between the ridges is a neural groove which deepens as the fold become elevated. When the folds meet at midline, the groove becomes a closed tube, the NEURAL TUBE.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Spinal Cord: A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.Nerve Regeneration: Renewal or physiological repair of damaged nerve tissue.Digestive System Diseases: Diseases in any part of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT or the accessory organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).Nerve Tissue ProteinsNeuroglia: The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.Nervous System Physiological Phenomena: Characteristic properties and processes of the NERVOUS SYSTEM as a whole or with reference to the peripheral or the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Myelin P0 Protein: A protein that accounts for more than half of the peripheral nervous system myelin protein. The extracellular domain of this protein is believed to engage in adhesive interactions and thus hold the myelin membrane compact. It can behave as a homophilic adhesion molecule through interactions with its extracellular domains. (From J Cell Biol 1994;126(4):1089-97)Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Peripheral Nerve Injuries: Injuries to the PERIPHERAL NERVES.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Neural Conduction: The propagation of the NERVE IMPULSE along the nerve away from the site of an excitation stimulus.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease: A hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy transmitted most often as an autosomal dominant trait and characterized by progressive distal wasting and loss of reflexes in the muscles of the legs (and occasionally involving the arms). Onset is usually in the second to fourth decade of life. This condition has been divided into two subtypes, hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (HMSN) types I and II. HMSN I is associated with abnormal nerve conduction velocities and nerve hypertrophy, features not seen in HMSN II. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1343)Myelin Proteins: MYELIN-specific proteins that play a structural or regulatory role in the genesis and maintenance of the lamellar MYELIN SHEATH structure.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Cause of Death: Factors which produce cessation of all vital bodily functions. They can be analyzed from an epidemiologic viewpoint.Wallerian Degeneration: Degeneration of distal aspects of a nerve axon following injury to the cell body or proximal portion of the axon. The process is characterized by fragmentation of the axon and its MYELIN SHEATH.Neuritis, Autoimmune, Experimental: An experimental animal model for the demyelinating disease of GUILLAINE-BARRE SYNDROME. In the most frequently used protocol, animals are injected with a peripheral nerve tissue protein homogenate. After approximately 2 weeks the animals develop a neuropathy secondary to a T cell-mediated autoimmune response directed towards the MYELIN P2 PROTEIN in peripheral nerves. Pathologic findings include a perivascular accumulation of macrophages and T lymphocytes in the peripheral nervous system, similar to that seen in the Guillaine-Barre syndrome. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1314; J Neuroimmunol 1998 Apr 1;84(1):40-52)Autonomic Nervous System: The ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; PARASYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; and SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM taken together. Generally speaking, the autonomic nervous system regulates the internal environment during both peaceful activity and physical or emotional stress. Autonomic activity is controlled and integrated by the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, especially the HYPOTHALAMUS and the SOLITARY NUCLEUS, which receive information relayed from VISCERAL AFFERENTS.Ranvier's Nodes: Regularly spaced gaps in the myelin sheaths of peripheral axons. Ranvier's nodes allow saltatory conduction, that is, jumping of impulses from node to node, which is faster and more energetically favorable than continuous conduction.Autopsy: Postmortem examination of the body.Central Nervous System Neoplasms: Benign and malignant neoplastic processes that arise from or secondarily involve the brain, spinal cord, or meninges.SOXE Transcription Factors: A subclass of closely-related SOX transcription factors. Members of this subfamily have been implicated in regulating the differentiation of OLIGODENDROCYTES during neural crest formation and in CHONDROGENESIS.Sympathetic Nervous System: The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.Trauma, Nervous System: Traumatic injuries to the brain, cranial nerves, spinal cord, autonomic nervous system, or neuromuscular system, including iatrogenic injuries induced by surgical procedures.Heart Conduction System: An impulse-conducting system composed of modified cardiac muscle, having the power of spontaneous rhythmicity and conduction more highly developed than the rest of the heart.Nervous System Neoplasms: Benign and malignant neoplastic processes arising from or involving components of the central, peripheral, and autonomic nervous systems, cranial nerves, and meninges. Included in this category are primary and metastatic nervous system neoplasms.Neurons, Afferent: Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Sense Organs: Specialized organs adapted for the reception of stimuli by the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Polyneuropathies: Diseases of multiple peripheral nerves simultaneously. Polyneuropathies usually are characterized by symmetrical, bilateral distal motor and sensory impairment with a graded increase in severity distally. The pathological processes affecting peripheral nerves include degeneration of the axon, myelin or both. The various forms of polyneuropathy are categorized by the type of nerve affected (e.g., sensory, motor, or autonomic), by the distribution of nerve injury (e.g., distal vs. proximal), by nerve component primarily affected (e.g., demyelinating vs. axonal), by etiology, or by pattern of inheritance.Neurofilament Proteins: Type III intermediate filament proteins that assemble into neurofilaments, the major cytoskeletal element in nerve axons and dendrites. They consist of three distinct polypeptides, the neurofilament triplet. Types I, II, and IV intermediate filament proteins form other cytoskeletal elements such as keratins and lamins. It appears that the metabolism of neurofilaments is disturbed in Alzheimer's disease, as indicated by the presence of neurofilament epitopes in the neurofibrillary tangles, as well as by the severe reduction of the expression of the gene for the light neurofilament subunit of the neurofilament triplet in brains of Alzheimer's patients. (Can J Neurol Sci 1990 Aug;17(3):302)RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Ganglia, Sympathetic: Ganglia of the sympathetic nervous system including the paravertebral and the prevertebral ganglia. Among these are the sympathetic chain ganglia, the superior, middle, and inferior cervical ganglia, and the aorticorenal, celiac, and stellate ganglia.Nerve Growth Factors: Factors which enhance the growth potentialities of sensory and sympathetic nerve cells.Immune System Diseases: Disorders caused by abnormal or absent immunologic mechanisms, whether humoral, cell-mediated, or both.Cranial Nerves: Twelve pairs of nerves that carry general afferent, visceral afferent, special afferent, somatic efferent, and autonomic efferent fibers.Sensory Receptor Cells: Specialized afferent neurons capable of transducing sensory stimuli into NERVE IMPULSES to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Sometimes sensory receptors for external stimuli are called exteroceptors; for internal stimuli are called interoceptors and proprioceptors.Sural Nerve: A branch of the tibial nerve which supplies sensory innervation to parts of the lower leg and foot.Mice, Inbred C57BLAmino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Endocrine System Diseases: Pathological processes of the ENDOCRINE GLANDS, and diseases resulting from abnormal level of available HORMONES.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Motor Neurons: Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Embryo, Nonmammalian: The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.Peripheral Nervous System Agents: Drugs that act principally at one or more sites within the peripheral neuroeffector systems, the autonomic system, and motor nerve-skeletal system. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p75)Peripheral Vascular Diseases: Pathological processes involving any one of the BLOOD VESSELS in the vasculature outside the HEART.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Ganglia: Clusters of multipolar neurons surrounded by a capsule of loosely organized CONNECTIVE TISSUE located outside the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Oligodendroglia: A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system. Oligodendroglia may be called interfascicular, perivascular, or perineuronal (not the same as SATELLITE CELLS, PERINEURONAL of GANGLIA) according to their location. They form the insulating MYELIN SHEATH of axons in the central nervous system.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Early Growth Response Protein 2: An early growth response transcription factor that controls the formation of the MYELIN SHEATH around peripheral AXONS by SCHWANN CELLS. Mutations in EGR2 transcription factor have been associated with HEREDITARY MOTOR AND SENSORY NEUROPATHIES such as CHARCOT-MARIE-TOOTH DISEASE.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Neuropeptides: Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Mice, Neurologic Mutants: Mice which carry mutant genes for neurologic defects or abnormalities.Neurites: In tissue culture, hairlike projections of neurons stimulated by growth factors and other molecules. These projections may go on to form a branched tree of dendrites or a single axon or they may be reabsorbed at a later stage of development. "Neurite" may refer to any filamentous or pointed outgrowth of an embryonal or tissue-culture neural cell.Ganglia, Sensory: Clusters of neurons in the somatic peripheral nervous system which contain the cell bodies of sensory nerve axons. Sensory ganglia may also have intrinsic interneurons and non-neuronal supporting cells.Neurofibromatoses: A group of disorders characterized by an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance with high rates of spontaneous mutation and multiple neurofibromas or neurilemmomas. NEUROFIBROMATOSIS 1 (generalized neurofibromatosis) accounts for approximately 95% of cases, although multiple additional subtypes (e.g., NEUROFIBROMATOSIS 2, neurofibromatosis 3, etc.) have been described. (From Neurochirurgie 1998 Nov;44(4):267-72)Cell Adhesion Molecules, Neuronal: Surface ligands that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion and function in the assembly and interconnection of the vertebrate nervous system. These molecules promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism. These are not to be confused with NEURAL CELL ADHESION MOLECULES, now known to be expressed in a variety of tissues and cell types in addition to nervous tissue.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Ganglioside Galactosyltransferase: Catalyzes the final step in the galactocerebroside biosynthesis pathway.Nerve Degeneration: Loss of functional activity and trophic degeneration of nerve axons and their terminal arborizations following the destruction of their cells of origin or interruption of their continuity with these cells. The pathology is characteristic of neurodegenerative diseases. Often the process of nerve degeneration is studied in research on neuroanatomical localization and correlation of the neurophysiology of neural pathways.Brain Chemistry: Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Leukocytes, Mononuclear: Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.Sciatic Neuropathy: Disease or damage involving the SCIATIC NERVE, which divides into the PERONEAL NERVE and TIBIAL NERVE (see also PERONEAL NEUROPATHIES and TIBIAL NEUROPATHY). Clinical manifestations may include SCIATICA or pain localized to the hip, PARESIS or PARALYSIS of posterior thigh muscles and muscles innervated by the peroneal and tibial nerves, and sensory loss involving the lateral and posterior thigh, posterior and lateral leg, and sole of the foot. The sciatic nerve may be affected by trauma; ISCHEMIA; COLLAGEN DISEASES; and other conditions. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1363)Myelin Basic Protein: An abundant cytosolic protein that plays a critical role in the structure of multilamellar myelin. Myelin basic protein binds to the cytosolic sides of myelin cell membranes and causes a tight adhesion between opposing cell membranes.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Neuritis: A general term indicating inflammation of a peripheral or cranial nerve. Clinical manifestation may include PAIN; PARESTHESIAS; PARESIS; or HYPESTHESIA.Trigeminal Ganglion: The semilunar-shaped ganglion containing the cells of origin of most of the sensory fibers of the trigeminal nerve. It is situated within the dural cleft on the cerebral surface of the petrous portion of the temporal bone and gives off the ophthalmic, maxillary, and part of the mandibular nerves.Genes, Insect: The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.Central Nervous System Helminthiasis: Infections of the BRAIN; SPINAL CORD; or MENINGES caused by HELMINTHS (parasitic worms).Tibial Nerve: The medial terminal branch of the sciatic nerve. The tibial nerve fibers originate in lumbar and sacral spinal segments (L4 to S2). They supply motor and sensory innervation to parts of the calf and foot.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Zebrafish: An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Nerve Crush: Treatment of muscles and nerves under pressure as a result of crush injuries.Brain Stem: The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.Leukodystrophy, Globoid Cell: An autosomal recessive metabolic disorder caused by a deficiency of GALACTOSYLCERAMIDASE leading to intralysosomal accumulation of galactolipids such as GALACTOSYLCERAMIDES and PSYCHOSINE. It is characterized by demyelination associated with large multinucleated globoid cells, predominantly involving the white matter of the central nervous system. The loss of MYELIN disrupts normal conduction of nerve impulses.Nerve Tissue: Differentiated tissue of the central nervous system composed of NERVE CELLS, fibers, DENDRITES, and specialized supporting cells.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Diabetic Neuropathies: Peripheral, autonomic, and cranial nerve disorders that are associated with DIABETES MELLITUS. These conditions usually result from diabetic microvascular injury involving small blood vessels that supply nerves (VASA NERVORUM). Relatively common conditions which may be associated with diabetic neuropathy include third nerve palsy (see OCULOMOTOR NERVE DISEASES); MONONEUROPATHY; mononeuropathy multiplex; diabetic amyotrophy; a painful POLYNEUROPATHY; autonomic neuropathy; and thoracoabdominal neuropathy. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1325)Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors: A family of DNA-binding transcription factors that contain a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
The neurological complications per central nervous system lesions are increasingly reported. The neurological complications ... In the acute phase of the disease, changes in the peripheral extremities can include erythema of the palms and soles, which is ... and abnormal serum lipid profile. Gastrointestinal complications in Kawasaki disease are similar to those observed in Henoch- ... Children with Kawasaki disease should be hospitalized and cared for by a physician who has experience with this disease. When ...
... the disease had relatively little impact on the central nervous system. How the initial molecular defect, affecting all cells ... central and peripheral neurodegeneration, hydrocephalus, abnormal tremor and gait, and eventually juvenile lethality, hence the ... suggesting an important role of genetic background in the individual course of disease. In two siblings, with severe peripheral ... Phosphoinositide phosphatases and disease. J Lipid Res. 2009 Apr;50 Suppl:S249-54. Epub 2008 Nov 11.PMID 19001665 Sasaki T, ...
... liver damage and disease; affect how the nerves carry information through the bodies peripheral nervous system which weakens ... cause blood diseases or abnormal heartbeat; weaken the endocrine system leading to diabetes, hormone imbalances, reproductive ... cause liver damage and disease; weaken the immune system which can lead to disease or cancer; cause kidney disease which can ... cause liver damage and disease; weaken the immune system which can lead to disease or cancer; cause kidney disease which can ...
... an inherited demyelinating disease of the peripheral nervous system Neuropathic arthropathy, progressive degeneration of a ... weight bearing joint, also known as Charcot joint disease or Charcot arthropathy Spinal osteoarthropathy, a rare abnormal bone ... a degenerative muscle disease also known as Charcot disease or Lou Gehrig's disease Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, ... Charcot disease can refer to several diseases named for Jean-Martin Charcot, such as: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, ...
... that is most commonly found in the central nervous system (CNS), but is capable of spreading to the peripheral nervous system ( ... CWD (like other TSEs, such as scrapie and bovine spongiform encephalopathy) is caused by a prion, an abnormal form of a normal ... On microscopic examination, lesions of CWD in the central nervous system resemble those of other TSEs. In addition, scientists ... Chronic Wasting Disease Alliance "Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) of Deer and Elk". Canadian Food Inspection Agency. 2006-10-03. ...
... s are one of three classes of nerve fiber in the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system ... Neuropathic pain syndromes are caused by lesions or diseases of the parts of the nervous system that normally signal pain.[12] ... This abnormal central sensitization cycle results in increased pain (hyperalgesia) and pain responses from previously non- ... Fagan, Tom (2003). "Glial Cells Critical for Peripheral Nervous System Health". News from Harvard Medical, Dental and Public ...
Disorders of the autonomic nervous system (337.0) Idiopathic peripheral autonomic neuropathy (337.00) Idiopathic peripheral ... Other extrapyramidal disease and abnormal movement disorders (333.0) Other degenerative diseases of the basal ganglia ... Other demyelinating diseases of central nervous system (341.0) Neuromyelitis optica (341.1) Schilder's disease (341.2) Acute ... Other extrapyramidal diseases and abnormal movement disorders Restless legs Serotonin syndrome (334) Spinocerebellar disease ( ...
... disease, abnormality in the central nervous system, or as the result of systemic illnesses. Peripheral neuropathy can affect ... Blood or urine tests can detect thyroid malfunction, other metabolic causes, and abnormal levels of certain chemicals that can ... Symptoms and signs: nervous and musculoskeletal systems (R25-R29, 781.0, 781.2-9) ... chronic kidney disease and a number of neurodegenerative diseases that damage or destroy parts of the brainstem or the ...
Peripheral Nervous System is composed of the afferent and efferent neurons. Damage to the peripheral nervous system is ... A common disease to the central nervous system is Multiple sclerosis. In this disease, the immune system attacks the myelin ... Another factor of concern, is when a patient does not perceive vibration when the tuning fork is changed from the abnormal area ... Damage to the Peripheral nervous system and Central nervous system can result in a diminished or loss of pallestheisa. A ...
In addition to kidneys, AL amyloidosis may affect the heart, peripheral nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, blood, lungs ... The disease is caused when a person's antibody-producing cells do not function properly and produce abnormal protein fibers ... Abnormal light chains in urine are sometimes referred to as "Bence Jones protein". AL amyloidosis can affect a wide range of ... Light chain deposition disease Gertz MA (June 2004). "The classification and typing of amyloid deposits". Am. J. Clin. Pathol. ...
BDNF influences the survival and development of neurons in the central nervous system as well as the peripheral nervous system ... REST/NSRF and Huntington's disease[edit]. See also: Huntingtin. Huntington's disease (HD) is an inherited neurodegenerative ... Thus, an abnormal induction of the ANP gene can lead to ventricular hypertrophy and severe cardiac consequences. In order to ... Specialized cells called the notochord (A) induces ectoderm above it to become the primitive nervous system. (B) Neural tube ...
... and pathological pain which is a disease state caused by damage to the nervous system or by its abnormal function (e.g. ... the somatosensory system). Peripheral neuropathic pain is often described as "burning", "tingling", "electrical", "stabbing", ... Neuropathic pain is caused by damage or disease affecting any part of the nervous system involved in bodily feelings ( ... A much smaller number of people are insensitive to pain due to an inborn abnormality of the nervous system, known as " ...
... and Pathological pain which is a disease state caused by damage to the nervous system or by its abnormal function (e.g. ... fibromyalgia, peripheral neuropathy, tension type headache). "Medical Definition of Pain". Retrieved 15 August 2017. Health, ... System in which dysfunction may be causing the pain (e.g., nervous, gastrointestinal), Duration and pattern of occurrence, ... metabolic/neurologic diseases, palliative care, and sickle cell disease. The indications that treatment is needed are not ...
... of any suspected disease of the somatosensory system is included in a neurological examination of the peripheral nervous system ... This sensation may progress along a limb or to adjacent cutaneous body areas, reflecting abnormal neuronal firing in the ... Certain types of seizures are associated with the somatosensory system. Cortical injury may lead to loss of thermal sensation ... A somatosensory disorder is an impairment of the somatosensory system. Patients may experience numbness, prickling or tingling ...
Microglia are recognized as the innate immune cells of the central nervous system. Microglia actively survey their environment ... During this period, there is no peripheral immune response. Over time, however, chronic inflammation causes the degradation of ... causing abnormal function and morphology of mitochondria and eventually cell death Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations have ... Dopamine is a neurotransmitter which activates motor neurons in the central nervous system. The activated motor neurons then ...
... "nervous system" and -pathy, "disease of")[8] without modifier usually means peripheral neuropathy. ... abnormal blood pressure or heart rate, and reduced ability to sweat normally.[4][5][6] ... non-sensory nervous system (i.e., the autonomic nervous system), affecting mostly the internal organs such as the bladder ... Neuritis is a general term for inflammation of a nerve[22] or the general inflammation of the peripheral nervous system. ...
Diseases of the nervous system Mental disorder Neuroplasticity Peripheral nervous system Hypokalemic sensory overstimulation ... Moveover, the definition of disorder in medicine or psychology is sometimes contested in terms of what is considered abnormal, ... The broadest division is between central nervous system disorders and peripheral nervous system disorders. The Merck Manual ... and other Peripheral nervous system disorders Cranial nerve disorder such as Trigeminal neuralgia Autonomic nervous system ...
... that affects the central and peripheral nervous systems. The condition in newborns caused by the same mutations is called ... which leads to the production of abnormal glycogen molecules. These abnormal glycogen molecules, called polyglucosan bodies, ... Adult polyglucosan body disease is a condition that affects the nervous system. People with this condition have problems ... Adult polyglucosan body disease (APBD) is an orphan disease and a glycogen storage disorder that is caused by an inborn error ...
... giving peripheral antibodies access to the central nervous system and leading to the development of autoimmunity. Multiple ... Certain non-viral infections, such as Lyme disease have also been considered possible causes. In some diseases, an infection ... Lymphocytic pleocytosis is an abnormal increase in the amount of lymphocytes in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). It is usually ... considered to be a sign of infection or inflammation within the nervous system, and is encountered in a number of neurological ...
Dry beriberi specially affects the peripheral nervous system.. *Wet beriberi specially affects the cardiovascular system and ... All these causes mainly affect the central nervous system, and provoke the development of what is known as Wernicke's disease ... abnormal stance and gait, and markedly deranged mental function.[15] ... Gastrointestinal beriberi affects the digestive system and other bodily systems.. Dry beriberi[edit]. Dry beriberi causes ...
... is an acquired immune-mediated inflammatory disorder of the peripheral nervous system. The disorder is sometimes called chronic ... and abnormal sensations. The likelihood of progression of the disease is high. CIDP is under-recognized and under-treated due ... The Lewis-Sumner form of this condition is considered a rare disease with only 50 cases reported up to 2004. A total of 90 ... Autonomic system dysfunction can occur; in such a case, the patient would complain of orthostatic dizziness, problems breathing ...
Braak and colleagues further state that the disease begins in the enteric nervous system and gains entry to the CNS through the ... The presence of Lewy bodies in the enteric and peripheral nervous systems supports their claim. This Lewy body pathology ... This system is divided into six different stages, with each stage being attributed to abnormal pathology in particular ... The disease begins in structures of the lower brainstem and the olfactory system. In particular, the dorsal motor nucleus of ...
... "nervous system" and -pathy, "disease of") without modifier usually means peripheral neuropathy. Neuropathy affecting just one ... abnormal blood pressure or heart rate, and reduced ability to sweat normally. Peripheral neuropathy may be classified according ... non-sensory nervous system (i.e., the autonomic nervous system), affecting mostly the internal organs such as the bladder ... Testing for small-fiber peripheral neuropathies often relates to the autonomic nervous system function of small thinly- and ...
BDNF influences the survival and development of neurons in the central nervous system as well as the peripheral nervous system ... This abnormal repression occurs when the RE1/NRSE region within the BDNF promoter region is activated by the binding of REST/ ... In humans, a deficiency in the REST/NSRF silencer element has been correlated to Huntington's disease due to the decrease in ... REST/NRSF in conjunction with RE1/NRSE also acts outside the nervous system as regulators and repressors. Current research has ...
The peripheral nervous system is rarely involved.[8] To be specific, MS involves the loss of oligodendrocytes, the cells ... After that, a whole spectrum of diseases named NMOSD (NMO spectrum diseases) or anti-AQP4 diseases has been accepted.[137] ... Another process involved in the creation of lesions is an abnormal increase in the number of astrocytes due to the destruction ... is a part of the capillary system that prevents the entry of T cells into the central nervous system. It may become permeable ...
Diseases of the endocrine system (ICD-10 Chapter IV: Endocrine, nutritional and metabolic diseases - Endocrine diseases, E00- ... and inappropriate regulation of metabolism by the central nervous system.[10] However, not all people with insulin resistance ... "Draft Recommendation Statement Screening for Abnormal Glucose and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus". U.S. Preventive Services Task ... peripheral neuropathy, recurrent vaginal infections, and fatigue.[13] Other symptoms may include loss of taste.[24] Many people ...
... resulting in demyelination of the central and peripheral nervous systems. If left without treatment, Krabbe disease results in ... Other prevalent symptoms included axial hypotonia, abnormal deep tendon reflexes, constipation, abnormal pupillary response, ... This is the largest prospective natural history study of Krabbe disease. It provides a comprehensive description of the disease ... enhancing our understanding of disease progression in early onset Krabbe disease will be critical for developing treatments, ...
... protects axons and synapses in the central and peripheral nervous systems following a wide variety of traumatic and disease- ... Sudha T, Tsuji H, Sameshima M, Matsuda Y, Kaneda S, Nagai Y, Yamao F, Seno T: Abnormal integrity of the nucleolus associated ... including Alzheimers disease, multiple sclerosis, prion disease, Huntingtons disease, and motor neuron diseases [1-4]. ... Altered neuronal vulnerability underlies many diseases of the human nervous system, resulting in degeneration and loss of ...
PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; SPINAL CORD DISEASES; and BRAIN DISEASES may be associated with impaired or abnormal ... The recorded electrical responses from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following ... Two-hybrid System Techniques. Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. ... The somatosensory system conveys neural impulses which pertain to proprioception, tactile sensation, thermal sensation, ...
... and the peripheral nervous system, all the nerves leading to and from the central nervous system. ... Explains how HIV can cause damage to both the central nervous system, the brain and spinal cord, ... Immunotherapy involves injecting a specific protein into the blood to stop the abnormal immune response that is causing the ... Peripheral Nervous System Disorders. Neuropathy. Neuropathy, also known as peripheral neuropathy, is disease in the peripheral ...
... along with information on symptoms at each stage of the disease, the diagnostic testing used, common treatments, and essential ... WebMDs Lyme Disease Slideshow provides up-close pictures of Lyme disease rashes and the ticks that can carry the disease, ... The nervous system can develop abnormal sensation because of disease of peripheral nerves (peripheral neuropathy), and ... What Is Lyme Disease?. Lyme disease is an infection that is transmitted through the bite of a tick infected with a bacterium ...
Neuropathic pain, which is caused by a lesion or disease affecting ... ... Neuropathic pain is a common symptom in many diseases of the peripheral nervous system. Objectives: To assess the analgesic ... Peripheral neuropathic pain often includes symptoms such as burning or shooting sensations, abnormal sensitivity to normally ... Neuropathic pain, which is caused by a lesion or disease affecting the somatosensory system, may be central or peripheral in ...
neurogenic bladder: abnormal function of the bladder due to disease of the central nervous system or peripheral nerves ... A childs genitourinary system (reproductive system and urinary tract) is still growing and developing. Our pediatric ... Pediatric urological conditions can affect more than one part of the urinary system, but can be divided into kidney (renal) and ... vesicoureteral reflux (VUR): the abnormal flow of urine from the bladder back into the ureter ...
... spinal cord and peripheral nerves in health and disease. ... spinal cord and peripheral nervous system in health and disease ... how the brain generates normal and abnormal behaviour; how the brain, spinal cord and peripheral nerves respond to damage or ... disease; and how the nervous system ages. We are committed to translation of this fundamental knowledge into clinical practice ... Our members study the nervous system from the molecular and cellular level, up to the level of the whole behaving organism. ...
Localization of neurological disease: The nature and pattern of the symptoms and physical signs of neurological disease allow ... One symptom indicating muscular disease is weakness, usually symmetrical (that is, affecting both sides of the body) and mainly ... In the peripheral nervous system, axons that have been severed or have degenerated because of disease can grow again. If the ... Although certain abnormal movements occasionally have their origin in spinal cord disease, epilepsy is uniquely a brain disease ...
neurogenic bladder (abnormal function of the bladder due to disease of the central nervous system or peripheral nerves) ... academic affiliations with Sidney Kimmel Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University (TJU) and Christiana Care Health System ... At Nemours, were actively researching new approaches for childhood disease prevention, diagnosis and treatment. ...
Sometimes after a disease or injury occurs, the central and peripheral nervous systems undergo abnormal changes in their ... in the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system (outside of the central nervous system). One example of ... These dysfunctional changes in the central nervous system are known as central sensitization. Once the central nervous system ... Other types of chronic pain with no apparent cause may result from changes in the central nervous system. ...
B quintana has been associated with central nervous system pathology.14. Abnormal neurologic findings in the absence of ... 1997) Central nervous system infection associated with Bartonella quintana: a report of two cases. Pediatrics. 100:403-408. ... Cat Scratch Disease Presenting With Peripheral Facial Nerve Paralysis Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from ... Cat Scratch Disease Presenting With Peripheral Facial Nerve Paralysis. Robert S. Walter, Stephen C. Eppes ...
A collection of disease information resources and questions answered by our Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Specialists ... Abnormal temporal bone morphology. 0009911 Abnormality of peripheral nervous system electrophysiology. 0030177 ... The peripheral nervous system carries signals from the brain and spinal cord (. central nervous system. ) to the muscles and ... Diseases expand submenu for Diseases * Browse A-Z * Find Diseases By Category expand submenu for Find Diseases By Category * ...
Get exceptional Neuromuscular disease diagnosis and management services from highly experienced & loving pet care professionals ... EMG helps to confirm the of the existence of the disease of the peripheral nervous system and helps to distinguish between ... In abnormal muscle there is spontaneous activity and based on the characteristics of this activity, may tell us the kind of ... Veterinary Neurology is the branch of medicine that treats diseases of the nervous system: the brain, spinal cord, nerves, and ...
... direct cellular damage in diseases of the peripheral and central nervous systems (17). In addition, MMP activity contributes to ... MMPs are a gene family of neutral proteases important in normal and abnormal brain function (9-12). They have been implicated ... Metalloproteinases in biology and pathology of the nervous system. Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 2001. 2:502-511. View this article via: ... Matrix metalloproteinases and diseases of the CNS. Trends Neurosci. 1998. 21:75-80. View this article via: PubMed CrossRef ...
Peripheral Nervous System Diseases • abnormalities* • complications* • surgery}, Abstract = {Macrodystrophia lipomatosa (MDL) ... This abnormal signal could be misinterpreted as a tear because of its contact with the articular surface; this signal is seen ... Bone Diseases • Bone Marrow Diseases • Bone Neoplasms • Humans • Lymphoma, AIDS-Related • Muscle Neoplasms • Muscular Diseases ... Loss or interruption of the supra-acetabular line may thus be a subtle pain film indicator of a disease process involving the ...
LD is unique because of the rapid neurological deterioration of the patients and the appearance in brain and peripheral tissues ... Lafora disease (LD, OMIM254780) is a rare and fatal form of progressive myoclonus epilepsy (PME). Among PMEs, ... Fryer, K.L.; Brown, A.M. Pluralistic roles for glycogen in the central and peripheral nervous systems. Metab. Brain Dis. 2015, ... Abnormal metabolism of glycogen phosphate as a cause for Lafora disease. J. Biol. Chem. 2008, 283, 33816-33825. [Google Scholar ...
Active disease should be excluded before initiating treatment. The newest treatment option of 12 weekly doses of isoniazid and ... Risk factors for progression to active disease include immunodeficiency, recent exposure to tuberculosis, and chronic kidney ... disease requiring dialysis. Tuberculin skin testing has several limitations, including the need for multiple office visits and ... lifetime risk of progressing to active disease. One-half of this risk occurs within the first two years after infection. High- ...
To investigate how abnormal GM2 catabolism affects the peripheral nervous system in a mouse model of Sandhoff disease (Hexb ... or compositional abnormalities in the peripheral nervous system of the murine model for Sandhoff disease, but do show the ... and lipid composition of the peripheral nervous system. Results: We detected no significant difference in signal impulse ... Background: Sandhoff disease is an inherited lysosomal storage disease caused by a mutation in the gene for the β-subunit (Hexb ...
... setting out how the peripheral autonomic and central nervous system interact in different brain diseases. The objective also ... Abnormal autonomic function is reported across neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders, from neurodegenerative disease ( ... regulated neurally through actions of the autonomic nervous system (ANS). However there remains a paucity of research regarding ... Psychiatric and neurological conditions are recognized to be fundamentally linked to dysfunction of the central nervous system ...
Some Basic Background Information Regarding Ticks and Lymes Disease . Slideshow 1857714 by arnold ... Investigating Lymes Disease S ymptoms and Current V accines and Possible F uture I deas to Develop a New Vaccine. . By: Nina M ... The nervous system can develop abnormal sensation because of disease of peripheral nerves (peripheral neuropathy), and ... Mid-Stage Onset Symptoms of Lymes Disease *If the disease is not detected and treated in its early stages, it can extend to ...
... but the manifestation of many conditions that damage the peripheral nerves (nervous tissue other than the brain and spinal cord ... Peripheral Neuropathy is not a distinct disease, but the manifestation of many conditions that damage the peripheral nerves ( ... If the sensory nerves are damaged, sensation may be diminished, lacking or abnormal. Damaged motor nerves impair movement or ... Peripheral neuropathy may be caused by direct or indirect injury, or by a systemic cause such as a metabolic disorder. ...
These findings suggest that Kanzaki disease may develop neurologic complications in the CNS and peripheral nervous system. ... Urinary analysis showed abnormal excretion of sialyloligosaccharides. The patients were clinically similar to the patient ... 2004) concluded that Kanzaki disease involves both the central and peripheral nervous systems. ... peripheral nervous system). Clusters of enlarged blood vessels that form small, dark red spots on the skin (angiokeratomas) are ...
List of causes of Abnormal femoral nerve sensation and Calcaneal bone numb, alternative diagnoses, rare causes, misdiagnoses, ... Peripheral neuropathy is the term for damage to nerves of the peripheral nervous system, which may be caused either by diseases ... Abnormal *Abnormal pain (6 causes) *Femoral *Nerve *Nerve symptoms (9132 causes) *Nerve disease *Nerve disorder *Nerve problem ... Abnormal femoral nerve sensation:*Causes: Abnormal femoral nerve sensation *Introduction: Abnormal femoral nerve sensation * ...
Basis of Electromyography aims to help the clinician involved in the study of diseases of the peripheral nervous system and ... 8. Needle Electromyographic Abnormalities in Neurogenic and Muscle Diseases. 9. Normal and Abnormal Spontaneous Activity in ... chapters on the physiological consequences of the main patterns of injury and repair affecting the peripheral nervous system; ... 2. Conduction in Abnormal Nerve. 3. The Recording of Conducted Electrical Potentials in Nerve Trunks and Conduction in Human ...
  • With recent inclusion of state mandated newborn screening programs and promising therapeutic interventions, enhancing our understanding of disease progression in early onset Krabbe disease will be critical for developing treatments, designing clinical trials, and evaluating outcomes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Among PMEs, LD is unique because of the rapid neurological deterioration of the patients and the appearance in brain and peripheral tissues of insoluble glycogen-like (polyglucosan) inclusions, named Lafora bodies (LBs). LD is caused by mutations in the EPM2A gene, encoding the dual phosphatase laforin, or the EPM2B gene, encoding the E3-ubiquitin ligase malin. (mdpi.com)
  • Kanzaki disease is caused by mutations in the gene for alpha-N-galactosaminidase (NAGA). (lymphedemapeople.com)
  • The team also seeks to investigate why some children with TBCK mutations can have much milder presentations than others, and whether this provides a clue to understanding differences in the underlying mechanisms of the disease. (eurekalert.org)
  • Mutations in SEC63 cause polycystic liver disease in humans. (biologists.org)
  • Mutations in this gene are associated with nephronophthisis type 4, a renal disease, and with Senior-Loken syndrome type 4, a combination of nephronophthisis and retinitis pigmentosa. (nih.gov)
  • Lastly, we will attempt to discuss some of the diseases that may be associated with the mutations or disruptions of different connexin genes and recent research with regard to gap junctions. (edu.au)
  • Over the past decade, the ubiquitin signaling system has become a well-established regulator of neuronal biology [ 1 - 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Below, we will provide a general overview of ubiquitin system biology and its impact on neuronal function, followed by a more focused analysis of the known roles of deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs) in controlling synaptic activity. (hindawi.com)
  • Autoantibodies against various neuronal cell antigens may arise independently or in association with cancer and cause autoimmune damage to the limbic system. (ajnr.org)
  • Differences between groups and correlation between CSF lactate, disease severity and CSF biomarkers of neuronal damage were explored. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this paper, we summarize and discuss the current understanding of the roles of calcineurin/NFAT signaling in physiology and pathologies of the adult and developing nervous system, with an emphasis on recent reports and cutting-edge findings. (hindawi.com)
  • Our findings reveal the nature of the inclusions in Nefl N98S/+ mice, provide useful information to understand mechanisms of CMT2E disease, and identify DRG from Nefl N98S/+ mice as a useful cell line model for therapeutic discoveries. (plos.org)
  • Our findings do not rule out the possibility that diseases associated with alpha-synuclein may originate in the gut. (eurekalert.org)
  • The findings are discussed regarding the relevance of cost-effective balance-based screening system as strategy to meet the needs of broader and earlier screening for parkinsonism in communities with limited access to healthcare. (frontiersin.org)
  • A definitive diagnosis of hypomyelination can be made on the basis of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings if the abnormal white matter signal intensity is unchanged over a period of at least 6 months, with at least one MRI evaluation carried out after age 1. (umin.ac.jp)
  • 2, 3) The imaging findings for the various diseases classified as cerebral hypomyelination are described below (Table 1). (umin.ac.jp)
  • Babies with Schindler disease type I appear healthy at birth, but by the age of 8 to 15 months they stop developing new skills and begin losing skills they had already acquired (developmental regression). (lymphedemapeople.com)
  • This course provides an overview of microscopic, gross, and developmental anatomy of the human nervous system with emphasis on neurological process, structural and functional relationships. (cuny.edu)
  • More specifically, Onpattro encases the siRNA into a lipid nanoparticle to deliver the drug directly into the liver, in an infusion treatment, to alter or halt the production of disease-causing proteins. (news-medical.net)
  • The diagnosis of MLD can be established during life by the demonstration of reduced activity of arylsulfatase A in peripheral blood leukocytes or by the finding of metachromatic lipid material in centrifuged urine or peripheral nervous tissue. (alzheimer-europe.org)
  • Lyme disease is an infection that is transmitted through the bite of a tick infected with a bacterium called Borrelia burgdorferi . (webmd.com)
  • Most Lyme disease is curable with antibiotics, particularly when the infection is diagnosed and treated early. (webmd.com)
  • Latent tuberculosis infection refers to an asymptomatic, nontransmissible infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis , carrying a 5% to 10% lifetime risk of progressing to active disease. (aafp.org)
  • 1 After the primary infection, tuberculosis (TB) can progress to active pulmonary disease (most common) or extra-pulmonary disease, or it can remain latent for part or all of the patient's life. (aafp.org)
  • Naturally occurring transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) diseases such as bovine spongiform encephalopathy in cattle are probably transmitted by oral or other peripheral routes of infection. (asm.org)
  • In addition, after natural infection at oral or other peripheral sites, PrP may play an essential role in the transport of infectivity to the brain. (asm.org)
  • For example, in experiments with SCID mice, after i.p. infection with high doses of ME7 mouse scrapie agent, replication in the spleen was not required for CNS infection and disease, whereas after i.p. infection with low doses of ME7, normal lymphoreticular tissues were needed for replication of agent prior to neuroinvasion ( 17 , 31 ). (asm.org)
  • Both diseases are usually caused by hematogenous spread of bacterial or fungal infection. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • One symptom indicating muscular disease is weakness, usually symmetrical (that is, affecting both sides of the body) and mainly affecting the proximal or girdle muscles . (britannica.com)