Jaundice: A clinical manifestation of HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA, characterized by the yellowish staining of the SKIN; MUCOUS MEMBRANE; and SCLERA. Clinical jaundice usually is a sign of LIVER dysfunction.Jaundice, Obstructive: Jaundice, the condition with yellowish staining of the skin and mucous membranes, that is due to impaired BILE flow in the BILIARY TRACT, such as INTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS, or EXTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS.Liver Function Tests: Blood tests that are used to evaluate how well a patient's liver is working and also to help diagnose liver conditions.Jaundice, Neonatal: Yellow discoloration of the SKIN; MUCOUS MEMBRANE; and SCLERA in the NEWBORN. It is a sign of NEONATAL HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA. Most cases are transient self-limiting (PHYSIOLOGICAL NEONATAL JAUNDICE) occurring in the first week of life, but some can be a sign of pathological disorders, particularly LIVER DISEASES.Liver Diseases: Pathological processes of the LIVER.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Bilirubin: A bile pigment that is a degradation product of HEME.Sleep Apnea, Obstructive: A disorder characterized by recurrent apneas during sleep despite persistent respiratory efforts. It is due to upper airway obstruction. The respiratory pauses may induce HYPERCAPNIA or HYPOXIA. Cardiac arrhythmias and elevation of systemic and pulmonary arterial pressures may occur. Frequent partial arousals occur throughout sleep, resulting in relative SLEEP DEPRIVATION and daytime tiredness. Associated conditions include OBESITY; ACROMEGALY; MYXEDEMA; micrognathia; MYOTONIC DYSTROPHY; adenotonsilar dystrophy; and NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p395)Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive: A disease of chronic diffuse irreversible airflow obstruction. Subcategories of COPD include CHRONIC BRONCHITIS and PULMONARY EMPHYSEMA.Alanine Transaminase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-alanine and 2-oxoglutarate to pyruvate and L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.6.1.2.Aspartate Aminotransferases: Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the conversion of L-aspartate and 2-ketoglutarate to oxaloacetate and L-glutamate. EC 2.6.1.1.Cholestasis: Impairment of bile flow due to obstruction in small bile ducts (INTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS) or obstruction in large bile ducts (EXTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS).Lung Diseases, Obstructive: Any disorder marked by obstruction of conducting airways of the lung. AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION may be acute, chronic, intermittent, or persistent.Choledocholithiasis: Presence or formation of GALLSTONES in the COMMON BILE DUCT.Liver Transplantation: The transference of a part of or an entire liver from one human or animal to another.Hobbies: Leisure activities engaged in for pleasure.Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.Hepatomegaly: Enlargement of the liver.Drug-Induced Liver Injury: A spectrum of clinical liver diseases ranging from mild biochemical abnormalities to ACUTE LIVER FAILURE, caused by drugs, drug metabolites, and chemicals from the environment.Liver Cirrhosis: Liver disease in which the normal microcirculation, the gross vascular anatomy, and the hepatic architecture have been variably destroyed and altered with fibrous septa surrounding regenerated or regenerating parenchymal nodules.Fatty Liver: Lipid infiltration of the hepatic parenchymal cells resulting in a yellow-colored liver. The abnormal lipid accumulation is usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES, either as a single large droplet or multiple small droplets. Fatty liver is caused by an imbalance in the metabolism of FATTY ACIDS.Steatitis: A disease of cats and mink characterized by a marked inflammation of adipose tissue and the deposition of "ceroid" pigment in the interstices of the adipose cells. It is believed to be caused by feeding diets containing too much unsaturated fatty acid and too little vitamin E. (Merck Veterinary Manual, 5th ed; Stedman, 25th ed)Hepatitis: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER.gamma-Glutamyltransferase: An enzyme, sometimes called GGT, with a key role in the synthesis and degradation of GLUTATHIONE; (GSH, a tripeptide that protects cells from many toxins). It catalyzes the transfer of the gamma-glutamyl moiety to an acceptor amino acid.Hepatitis, Autoimmune: A chronic self-perpetuating hepatocellular INFLAMMATION of unknown cause, usually with HYPERGAMMAGLOBULINEMIA and serum AUTOANTIBODIES.Cholestasis, Extrahepatic: Impairment of bile flow in the large BILE DUCTS by mechanical obstruction or stricture due to benign or malignant processes.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Alkaline Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.1.Liver Cirrhosis, Biliary: FIBROSIS of the hepatic parenchyma due to obstruction of BILE flow (CHOLESTASIS) in the intrahepatic or extrahepatic bile ducts (BILE DUCTS, INTRAHEPATIC; BILE DUCTS, EXTRAHEPATIC). Primary biliary cirrhosis involves the destruction of small intra-hepatic bile ducts and bile secretion. Secondary biliary cirrhosis is produced by prolonged obstruction of large intrahepatic or extrahepatic bile ducts from a variety of causes.Microsomes, Liver: Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.Liver Regeneration: Repair or renewal of hepatic tissue.Polysomnography: Simultaneous and continuous monitoring of several parameters during sleep to study normal and abnormal sleep. The study includes monitoring of brain waves, to assess sleep stages, and other physiological variables such as breathing, eye movements, and blood oxygen levels which exhibit a disrupted pattern with sleep disturbances.Hyperbilirubinemia: A condition characterized by an abnormal increase of BILIRUBIN in the blood, which may result in JAUNDICE. Bilirubin, a breakdown product of HEME, is normally excreted in the BILE or further catabolized before excretion in the urine.Common Bile Duct: The largest bile duct. It is formed by the junction of the CYSTIC DUCT and the COMMON HEPATIC DUCT.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Bile Duct Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the BILE DUCTS.Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Cholangitis: Inflammation of the biliary ductal system (BILE DUCTS); intrahepatic, extrahepatic, or both.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopic Retrograde: Fiberoptic endoscopy designed for duodenal observation and cannulation of VATER'S AMPULLA, in order to visualize the pancreatic and biliary duct system by retrograde injection of contrast media. Endoscopic (Vater) papillotomy (SPHINCTEROTOMY, ENDOSCOPIC) may be performed during this procedure.Hepatitis C: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS, a single-stranded RNA virus. Its incubation period is 30-90 days. Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily by contaminated blood parenterally, and is often associated with transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. However, in a significant number of cases, the source of hepatitis C infection is unknown.Bile Ducts: The channels that collect and transport the bile secretion from the BILE CANALICULI, the smallest branch of the BILIARY TRACT in the LIVER, through the bile ductules, the bile ducts out the liver, and to the GALLBLADDER for storage.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Cholestasis, Intrahepatic: Impairment of bile flow due to injury to the HEPATOCYTES; BILE CANALICULI; or the intrahepatic bile ducts (BILE DUCTS, INTRAHEPATIC).Phototherapy: Treatment of disease by exposure to light, especially by variously concentrated light rays or specific wavelengths.Drainage: The removal of fluids or discharges from the body, such as from a wound, sore, or cavity.Kernicterus: A term used pathologically to describe BILIRUBIN staining of the BASAL GANGLIA; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM and clinically to describe a syndrome associated with HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA. Clinical features include athetosis, MUSCLE SPASTICITY or hypotonia, impaired vertical gaze, and DEAFNESS. Nonconjugated bilirubin enters the brain and acts as a neurotoxin, often in association with conditions that impair the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER (e.g., SEPSIS). This condition occurs primarily in neonates (INFANT, NEWBORN), but may rarely occur in adults. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p613)Mitochondria, Liver: Mitochondria in hepatocytes. As in all mitochondria, there are an outer membrane and an inner membrane, together creating two separate mitochondrial compartments: the internal matrix space and a much narrower intermembrane space. In the liver mitochondrion, an estimated 67% of the total mitochondrial proteins is located in the matrix. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p343-4)Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Biliary Atresia: Progressive destruction or the absence of all or part of the extrahepatic BILE DUCTS, resulting in the complete obstruction of BILE flow. Usually, biliary atresia is found in infants and accounts for one third of the neonatal cholestatic JAUNDICE.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Common Bile Duct Diseases: Diseases of the COMMON BILE DUCT including the AMPULLA OF VATER and the SPHINCTER OF ODDI.Common Bile Duct Neoplasms: Tumor or cancer of the COMMON BILE DUCT including the AMPULLA OF VATER and the SPHINCTER OF ODDI.Cholangiography: An imaging test of the BILIARY TRACT in which a contrast dye (RADIOPAQUE MEDIA) is injected into the BILE DUCT and x-ray pictures are taken.Biliary Tract: The BILE DUCTS and the GALLBLADDER.Ampulla of Vater: A dilation of the duodenal papilla that is the opening of the juncture of the COMMON BILE DUCT and the MAIN PANCREATIC DUCT, also known as the hepatopancreatic ampulla.Sleep Apnea Syndromes: Disorders characterized by multiple cessations of respirations during sleep that induce partial arousals and interfere with the maintenance of sleep. Sleep apnea syndromes are divided into central (see SLEEP APNEA, CENTRAL), obstructive (see SLEEP APNEA, OBSTRUCTIVE), and mixed central-obstructive types.Hepatic Duct, Common: Predominantly extrahepatic bile duct which is formed by the junction of the right and left hepatic ducts, which are predominantly intrahepatic, and, in turn, joins the cystic duct to form the common bile duct.Forced Expiratory Volume: Measure of the maximum amount of air that can be expelled in a given number of seconds during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination . It is usually given as FEV followed by a subscript indicating the number of seconds over which the measurement is made, although it is sometimes given as a percentage of forced vital capacity.Biliary Tract Surgical Procedures: Any surgical procedure performed on the biliary tract.Liver Failure, Acute: A form of rapid-onset LIVER FAILURE, also known as fulminant hepatic failure, caused by severe liver injury or massive loss of HEPATOCYTES. It is characterized by sudden development of liver dysfunction and JAUNDICE. Acute liver failure may progress to exhibit cerebral dysfunction even HEPATIC COMA depending on the etiology that includes hepatic ISCHEMIA, drug toxicity, malignant infiltration, and viral hepatitis such as post-transfusion HEPATITIS B and HEPATITIS C.Continuous Positive Airway Pressure: A technique of respiratory therapy, in either spontaneously breathing or mechanically ventilated patients, in which airway pressure is maintained above atmospheric pressure throughout the respiratory cycle by pressurization of the ventilatory circuit. (On-Line Medical Dictionary [Internet]. Newcastle upon Tyne(UK): The University Dept. of Medical Oncology: The CancerWEB Project; c1997-2003 [cited 2003 Apr 17]. Available from: http://cancerweb.ncl.ac.uk/omd/)Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Spirometry: Measurement of volume of air inhaled or exhaled by the lung.Hyperbilirubinemia, Neonatal: Accumulation of BILIRUBIN, a breakdown product of HEME PROTEINS, in the BLOOD during the first weeks of life. This may lead to NEONATAL JAUNDICE. The excess bilirubin may exist in the unconjugated (indirect) or the conjugated (direct) form. The condition may be self-limiting (PHYSIOLOGICAL NEONATAL JAUNDICE) or pathological with toxic levels of bilirubin.Biliary Tract Diseases: Diseases in any part of the BILIARY TRACT including the BILE DUCTS and the GALLBLADDER.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Respiratory Function Tests: Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.Liver Abscess: Solitary or multiple collections of PUS within the liver as a result of infection by bacteria, protozoa, or other agents.Liver Extracts: Extracts of liver tissue containing uncharacterized specific factors with specific activities; a soluble thermostable fraction of mammalian liver is used in the treatment of pernicious anemia.Liver Circulation: The circulation of BLOOD through the LIVER.Liver Diseases, Alcoholic: Liver diseases associated with ALCOHOLISM. It usually refers to the coexistence of two or more subentities, i.e., ALCOHOLIC FATTY LIVER; ALCOHOLIC HEPATITIS; and ALCOHOLIC CIRRHOSIS.Liver Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced tumors of the LIVER.Cholangiopancreatography, Magnetic Resonance: Non-invasive diagnostic technique for visualizing the PANCREATIC DUCTS and BILE DUCTS without the use of injected CONTRAST MEDIA or x-ray. MRI scans provide excellent sensitivity for duct dilatation, biliary stricture, and intraductal abnormalities.Hepatectomy: Excision of all or part of the liver. (Dorland, 28th ed)Bronchodilator Agents: Agents that cause an increase in the expansion of a bronchus or bronchial tubes.Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic: Passages within the liver for the conveyance of bile. Includes right and left hepatic ducts even though these may join outside the liver to form the common hepatic duct.Gilbert Disease: A benign familial disorder, transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait. It is characterized by low-grade chronic hyperbilirubinemia with considerable daily fluctuations of the bilirubin level.Choledochostomy: Surgical formation of an opening (stoma) into the COMMON BILE DUCT for drainage or for direct communication with a site in the small intestine, primarily the DUODENUM or JEJUNUM.Portoenterostomy, Hepatic: Operation for biliary atresia by anastomosis of the bile ducts into the jejunum or duodenum.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Cholelithiasis: Presence or formation of GALLSTONES in the BILIARY TRACT, usually in the gallbladder (CHOLECYSTOLITHIASIS) or the common bile duct (CHOLEDOCHOLITHIASIS).Vital Capacity: The volume of air that is exhaled by a maximal expiration following a maximal inspiration.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Snoring: Rough, noisy breathing during sleep, due to vibration of the uvula and soft palate.Cholangiocarcinoma: A malignant tumor arising from the epithelium of the BILE DUCTS.Hepatocytes: The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.Jaundice, Chronic Idiopathic: A benign, autosomally recessive inherited hyperbilirubinemia characterized by the presence of a dark pigment in the centrilobular region of the liver cells. There is a functional defect in biliary excretion of bilirubin, cholephilic dyes, and porphyrins. Affected persons may be asymptomatic or have vague constitutional or gastrointestinal symptoms. The liver may be slightly enlarged, and oral and intravenous cholangiography fails to visualize the biliary tract.Jejunostomy: Surgical formation of an opening through the ABDOMINAL WALL into the JEJUNUM, usually for enteral hyperalimentation.Gallbladder Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the gallbladder.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Gallstones: Solid crystalline precipitates in the BILIARY TRACT, usually formed in the GALLBLADDER, resulting in the condition of CHOLELITHIASIS. Gallstones, derived from the BILE, consist mainly of calcium, cholesterol, or bilirubin.Digestive System Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Bile Ducts, Extrahepatic: Passages external to the liver for the conveyance of bile. These include the COMMON BILE DUCT and the common hepatic duct (HEPATIC DUCT, COMMON).Carcinoma, Hepatocellular: A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.Dyspnea: Difficult or labored breathing.Bile: An emulsifying agent produced in the LIVER and secreted into the DUODENUM. Its composition includes BILE ACIDS AND SALTS; CHOLESTEROL; and ELECTROLYTES. It aids DIGESTION of fats in the duodenum.Pancreatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).Pancreatitis: INFLAMMATION of the PANCREAS. Pancreatitis is classified as acute unless there are computed tomographic or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatographic findings of CHRONIC PANCREATITIS (International Symposium on Acute Pancreatitis, Atlanta, 1992). The two most common forms of acute pancreatitis are ALCOHOLIC PANCREATITIS and gallstone pancreatitis.Cardiomyopathy, Hypertrophic: A form of CARDIAC MUSCLE disease, characterized by left and/or right ventricular hypertrophy (HYPERTROPHY, LEFT VENTRICULAR; HYPERTROPHY, RIGHT VENTRICULAR), frequent asymmetrical involvement of the HEART SEPTUM, and normal or reduced left ventricular volume. Risk factors include HYPERTENSION; AORTIC STENOSIS; and gene MUTATION; (FAMILIAL HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY).Biliary Fistula: Abnormal passage in any organ of the biliary tract or between biliary organs and other organs.Airway Obstruction: Any hindrance to the passage of air into and out of the lungs.Liver Cirrhosis, Experimental: Experimentally induced chronic injuries to the parenchymal cells in the liver to achieve a model for LIVER CIRRHOSIS.Uvula: A fleshy extension at the back of the soft palate that hangs above the opening of the throat.Palate, Soft: A movable fold suspended from the posterior border of the hard palate. The uvula hangs from the middle of the lower border.Cholecystostomy: Establishment of an opening into the gallbladder either for drainage or surgical communication with another part of the digestive tract, usually the duodenum or jejunum.Imino AcidsGlucosephosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency: A disease-producing enzyme deficiency subject to many variants, some of which cause a deficiency of GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATE DEHYDROGENASE activity in erythrocytes, leading to hemolytic anemia.Liver Cirrhosis, Alcoholic: FIBROSIS of the hepatic parenchyma due to chronic excess ALCOHOL DRINKING.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Fatal Outcome: Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.Pulmonary Emphysema: Enlargement of air spaces distal to the TERMINAL BRONCHIOLES where gas-exchange normally takes place. This is usually due to destruction of the alveolar wall. Pulmonary emphysema can be classified by the location and distribution of the lesions.Bile Duct Diseases: Diseases in any part of the ductal system of the BILIARY TRACT from the smallest BILE CANALICULI to the largest COMMON BILE DUCT.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Portal Vein: A short thick vein formed by union of the superior mesenteric vein and the splenic vein.Drug-Induced Liver Injury, Chronic: Liver disease lasting six months or more, caused by an adverse drug effect. The adverse effect may result from a direct toxic effect of a drug or metabolite, or an idiosyncratic response to a drug or metabolite.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Mandibular Advancement: Moving a retruded mandible forward to a normal position. It is commonly performed for malocclusion and retrognathia. (From Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Liver, Artificial: Devices for simulating the activities of the liver. They often consist of a hybrid between both biological and artificial materials.Liver Glycogen: Glycogen stored in the liver. (Dorland, 28th ed)Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Cholecystectomy: Surgical removal of the GALLBLADDER.Positive-Pressure Respiration: A method of mechanical ventilation in which pressure is maintained to increase the volume of gas remaining in the lungs at the end of expiration, thus reducing the shunting of blood through the lungs and improving gas exchange.Oxygen Inhalation Therapy: Inhalation of oxygen aimed at restoring toward normal any pathophysiologic alterations of gas exchange in the cardiopulmonary system, as by the use of a respirator, nasal catheter, tent, chamber, or mask. (From Dorland, 27th ed & Stedman, 25th ed)Ureteral Obstruction: Blockage in any part of the URETER causing obstruction of urine flow from the kidney to the URINARY BLADDER. The obstruction may be congenital, acquired, unilateral, bilateral, complete, partial, acute, or chronic. Depending on the degree and duration of the obstruction, clinical features vary greatly such as HYDRONEPHROSIS and obstructive nephropathy.Administration, Inhalation: The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.Pancreaticoduodenectomy: The excision of the head of the pancreas and the encircling loop of the duodenum to which it is connected.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Klatskin's Tumor: Adenocarcinoma of the common hepatic duct bifurcation. These tumors are generally small, sharply localized, and seldom metastasizing. G. Klatskin's original review of 13 cases was published in 1965. Once thought to be relatively uncommon, tumors of the bifurcation of the bile duct now appear to comprise more than one-half of all bile duct cancers. (From Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1457)Pharynx: A funnel-shaped fibromuscular tube that conducts food to the ESOPHAGUS, and air to the LARYNX and LUNGS. It is located posterior to the NASAL CAVITY; ORAL CAVITY; and LARYNX, and extends from the SKULL BASE to the inferior border of the CRICOID CARTILAGE anteriorly and to the inferior border of the C6 vertebra posteriorly. It is divided into the NASOPHARYNX; OROPHARYNX; and HYPOPHARYNX (laryngopharynx).End Stage Liver Disease: Final stage of a liver disease when the liver failure is irreversible and LIVER TRANSPLANTATION is needed.Hepatitis A: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the HEPATOVIRUS genus, HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS. It can be transmitted through fecal contamination of food or water.Adenoidectomy: Excision of the adenoids. (Dorland, 28th ed)Tonsillectomy: Surgical removal of a tonsil or tonsils. (Dorland, 28th ed)Cystic Duct: The duct that is connected to the GALLBLADDER and allows the emptying of bile into the COMMON BILE DUCT.Leptospirosis: Infections with bacteria of the genus LEPTOSPIRA.Scopolamine Derivatives: Analogs or derivatives of scopolamine.Hepatic Artery: A branch of the celiac artery that distributes to the stomach, pancreas, duodenum, liver, gallbladder, and greater omentum.Palliative Care: Care alleviating symptoms without curing the underlying disease. (Stedman, 25th ed)Bacterial Translocation: The passage of viable bacteria from the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT to extra-intestinal sites, such as the mesenteric lymph node complex, liver, spleen, kidney, and blood. Factors that promote bacterial translocation include overgrowth with gram-negative enteric bacilli, impaired host immune defenses, and injury to the INTESTINAL MUCOSA resulting in increased intestinal permeability. Bacterial translocation from the lung to the circulation is also possible and sometimes accompanies MECHANICAL VENTILATION.Biliary Tract Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer in the BILIARY TRACT including the BILE DUCTS and the GALLBLADDER.Sphincterotomy, Endoscopic: Incision of Oddi's sphincter or Vater's ampulla performed by inserting a sphincterotome through an endoscope (DUODENOSCOPE) often following retrograde cholangiography (CHOLANGIOPANCREATOGRAPHY, ENDOSCOPIC RETROGRADE). Endoscopic treatment by sphincterotomy is the preferred method of treatment for patients with retained or recurrent bile duct stones post-cholecystectomy, and for poor-surgical-risk patients that have the gallbladder still present.Sleep Stages: Periods of sleep manifested by changes in EEG activity and certain behavioral correlates; includes Stage 1: sleep onset, drowsy sleep; Stage 2: light sleep; Stages 3 and 4: delta sleep, light sleep, deep sleep, telencephalic sleep.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Exchange Transfusion, Whole Blood: Repetitive withdrawal of small amounts of blood and replacement with donor blood until a large proportion of the blood volume has been exchanged. Used in treatment of fetal erythroblastosis, hepatic coma, sickle cell anemia, disseminated intravascular coagulation, septicemia, burns, thrombotic thrombopenic purpura, and fulminant malaria.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Cysts: Any fluid-filled closed cavity or sac that is lined by an EPITHELIUM. Cysts can be of normal, abnormal, non-neoplastic, or neoplastic tissues.Hepatitis, Viral, Human: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans due to infection by VIRUSES. There are several significant types of human viral hepatitis with infection caused by enteric-transmission (HEPATITIS A; HEPATITIS E) or blood transfusion (HEPATITIS B; HEPATITIS C; and HEPATITIS D).Cholagogues and Choleretics: Gastrointestinal agents that stimulate the flow of bile into the duodenum (cholagogues) or stimulate the production of bile by the liver (choleretic).Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Adrenal Cortex HormonesOxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Respiratory Muscles: These include the muscles of the DIAPHRAGM and the INTERCOSTAL MUSCLES.Favism: Hemolytic anemia due to the ingestion of fava beans or after inhalation of pollen from the Vicia fava plant by persons with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficient erythrocytes.Ursodeoxycholic Acid: An epimer of chenodeoxycholic acid. It is a mammalian bile acid found first in the bear and is apparently either a precursor or a product of chenodeoxycholate. Its administration changes the composition of bile and may dissolve gallstones. It is used as a cholagogue and choleretic.Hepatic Insufficiency: Conditions in which the LIVER functions fall below the normal ranges. Severe hepatic insufficiency may cause LIVER FAILURE or DEATH. Treatment may include LIVER TRANSPLANTATION.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Exercise Tolerance: The exercise capacity of an individual as measured by endurance (maximal exercise duration and/or maximal attained work load) during an EXERCISE TEST.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Ligation: Application of a ligature to tie a vessel or strangulate a part.Technetium Tc 99m Disofenin: A radiopharmaceutical used extensively in cholescintigraphy for the evaluation of hepatobiliary diseases. (From Int Jrnl Rad Appl Inst 1992;43(9):1061-4)Sleep: A readily reversible suspension of sensorimotor interaction with the environment, usually associated with recumbency and immobility.Hyperbilirubinemia, Hereditary: Inborn errors of bilirubin metabolism resulting in excessive amounts of bilirubin in the circulating blood, either because of increased bilirubin production or because of delayed clearance of bilirubin from the blood.
... obstructive jaundice and less commonly, hepatomegaly and abnormal liver chemistry. Chronic biliary obstruction may cause ... jaundice, pruritus, liver abscess, and liver atrophy, mostly affecting the left lobe and the left lateral segment of the liver ... Suppurative cholangitis, liver abscess, empyema of the gallbladder, acute pancreatitis, thrombophlebitis of hepatic or portal ... Hepatolithiasis is associated with Clonorchis sinensis and Ascaris lumbricoides infestation of the liver. This theory is based ...
Shortness of breath Wheezing Cyanosis Ascites Jaundice Enlargement of the liver Raised jugular venous pressure (JVP) Third ... Ischemia Inflammation Oxidative damage Epigenetics Abnormal cardiac energetics Investigations available to determine the cause ... pulmonary hypertension Blood clots in lungs Kyphoscoliosis Interstitial lung disease Cystic fibrosis Sarcoidosis Obstructive ... heart sound Intercostal recession Presence of abnormal heart sounds The causes of pulmonary heart disease (cor pulmonale) are ...
Seidel D, Alaupovic P, Furman RH (July 1969). "A lipoprotein characterizing obstructive jaundice. I. Method for quantitative ... Lipoprotein-X (Lp-X) is an abnormal low density lipoprotein found in cholestasis. Lipoprotein-X is a lamellar particle of 30 to ... Lipoprotein-X is mainly removed by the reticuloendothelial system of the liver and the spleen, as shown by studies using ... Seidel D, Alaupovic P, Furman RH, McConathy WJ (December 1970). "A lipoprotein characterizing obstructive jaundice. II. ...
Prominent signs and symptoms of cholangiocarcinoma include abnormal liver function tests, abdominal pain, jaundice, and weight ... Ultrasound of the liver and biliary tree is often used as the initial imaging modality in patients with suspected obstructive ... outside the liver) are more likely to have jaundice, while those with tumors of the bile ducts within the liver more often have ... The most common physical indications of cholangiocarcinoma are abnormal liver function tests, jaundice (yellowing of the eyes ...
Significant liver congestion may result in impaired liver function (congestive hepatopathy), and jaundice and even coagulopathy ... Obstructive sleep apnea (a condition of sleep wherein disordered breathing overlaps with obesity, hypertension, and/or diabetes ... This most commonly results from an intercurrent illness (such as myocardial infarction (a heart attack), pneumonia), abnormal ... "Living Well With Chronic Heart Failure" (PDF). Heart Foundation. p. 18. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 December 2014. ...
Jaundice Liver function tests Lipoprotein-X - an abnormal low density lipoprotein found in cholestasis Intrahepatic cholestasis ... Jaundice. Jaundice is an uncommon occurrence in intrahepatic (metabolic) cholestasis, but is common in obstructive cholestasis ... Cholestasis is a condition where bile cannot flow from the liver to the duodenum. The two basic distinctions are an obstructive ... and statins can cause cholestasis and may result in damage to the liver. Bile is secreted by the liver to aid in the digestion ...
The Shah's appearance was stunningly worse ... Clearly he had obstructive jaundice. The odds favored gallstones, since his ... The liver was speckled with white. Malignancy. The cancer had hit the liver. The Shah would soon die ... The tragedy is that a ... The Shah later met with French physicians in 1976 in Zurich who were disturbed by the Shah's abnormal blood count. They ... He later lived in Marrakesh, Morocco as a guest of King Hassan II. Mohammad Reza loved to support royalty during his time as ...
The most common physical indications of cholangiocarcinoma are abnormal liver function tests, jaundice (yellowing of the eyes ... of the liver and biliary tree is often used as the initial imaging modality in people with suspected obstructive jaundice.[48][ ... outside the liver) are more likely to have jaundice, while those with tumors of the bile ducts within the liver more often have ... Blood tests of liver function in people with cholangiocarcinoma often reveal a so-called "obstructive picture", with elevated ...
... jaundice and pruritus. Liver enzyme elevations are common, and the pattern usually reflects hepatocellular damage, resembling ... While some side effects are less severe (e.g. abnormal dreams), others are more serious (e.g. hallucinations, tremor, ... In the setting of chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder (COPD), a disease characterized by chronic inflammation of the lungs, ... Cirrhosis of the liver can result in an increase in the maximum plasma concentration and the total area under the curve (a ...
Obstructive lung disease in adults; liver cirrhosis during childhood; when a newborn or infant has jaundice that lasts for an ... If abnormal results are obtained, it does not necessarily mean the child has the disorder. Diagnostic tests must follow the ... In the past, the main genetic tests searched for abnormal chromosome numbers and mutations that lead to rare, inherited ... Over-absorption of iron; accumulation of iron in vital organs (heart, liver, pancreas); organ damage; heart disease; cancer; ...
Hepatosplenomegaly (enlarged liver and spleen). *Icterus ("jaundice"). *Lymphadenopathy (swollen lymph nodes). *Palmar erythema ... For convenience, signs are commonly distinguished from symptoms as follows: Both are something abnormal, relevant to a ... and obstructive diseases (in which the lung volume is normal but the air flow rate is impeded; e.g., emphysema).) ...
Sepsis can cause liver, kidney and heart damage. Respiratory failure: CAP patients often have dyspnea, which may require ... However, X-rays may remain abnormal for at least a month. Hospitalized patients have an average mortality rate of 12 percent, ... such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), senior citizens, alcoholics and others with compromised immune systems are more ... jaundice) Difficulty feeding Over 100 microorganisms can cause CAP, with most cases caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae. Certain ...
Significant liver congestion may result in impaired liver function (congestive hepatopathy), and jaundice and even coagulopathy ... Obstructive sleep apnea (a condition of sleep wherein disordered breathing overlaps with obesity, hypertension, and/or diabetes ... Heart attack, high blood pressure, abnormal heart rhythm, excessive alcohol use, infection, heart damage[2][3]. ... "Living Well With Chronic Heart Failure" (PDF). Heart Foundation. p. 18. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 December 2014. ...
... urine for both bilirubin and urobilinogen can help differentiate obstructive liver disease from other causes of jaundice.[12] ... abnormal reflexes and eye movements. This type of neurological injury is known as kernicterus. The spectrum of clinical effect ... JaundiceEdit. Jaundice may be noticeable in the sclera of the eyes at levels of about 2 to 3 mg/dl (34 to 51 μmol/l),[27] and ... To further elucidate the causes of jaundice or increased bilirubin, it is usually simpler to look at other liver function tests ...
Rare side effects include abnormal liver function, jaundice, peliosis hepatis, liver tumors, oily skin, greasy hair, rash, ... "Should androgenic anabolic steroids be considered in the treatment regime of selected chronic obstructive pulmonary disease ... The metabolism of nandrolone occurs in the liver and is very similar to that of testosterone, including reduction by 5α- ... liver, and brain, nandrolone is instead inactivated by 5α-reductase into the low-affinity AR ligand 5α-dihydronandrolone in ...
... abnormal liver function tests and/or ultrasound suggesting liver disease are required, and ideally liver biopsy.[3][6] The ... Encephalopathy often occurs together with other symptoms and signs of liver failure. These may include jaundice (yellow ... In a small proportion of cases, the encephalopathy is caused directly by liver failure; this is more likely in acute liver ... If encephalopathy develops in acute liver failure (type A), even in a mild form (grade 1-2), it indicates that a liver ...
Infants may feed poorly, vomit, sleep more, or show signs of jaundice. In older children, new onset urinary incontinence (loss ... an abnormal movement of urine from the bladder into ureters or kidneys) and constipation.[20] ... having an infection at some point in their lives.[6][4] Recurrences are common, with nearly half of people getting a second ... Obstructive uropathy. *Urinary tract infection. *Retroperitoneal fibrosis. *Urolithiasis *Bladder stone. *Kidney stone ...
... nodular liver and anomalies in the liver function tests.[32] Less frequently symptoms associated with the administration of ... Pulmonary edema: the loss of proteins from blood plasma and the consequent fall in oncotic pressure causes an abnormal ... Other accompanying symptoms include jaundice, dilated veins over umbilicus (caput medusae), scratch marks (due to widespread ... A hypoalbuminemia of less than 2.5 g/dL,[10] that exceeds the hepatic clearance level, that is, protein synthesis in the liver ...
Liver function tests were abnormal: alanine aminotransferase 783 U/L (reference range 3-35), bilirubin 76 μmol/L (3-17; 1 μmol/ ... Obstructive jaundice and pancreatic disease. BMJ 2012; 345 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.e6701 (Published 15 October 2012) ... He drank alcohol occasionally and was a smoker with a history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and cystectomy for ...
The patient succumbed to metastatic disease 1 year later of the diagnostic without jaundice or abnormal liver function tests. ... 4-6 Widespread liver metastases that compress or infiltrate the bile ducts can sometimes cause obstructive jaundice, whilst a ... 4-6 Metastatic breast cancer can cause obstructive jaundice when multiple liver lesions are present, the bile duct is ... Few cases of obstructive jaundice due to metastatic breast cancer have been described in the literature and they mostly ...
Obstructive jaundice. Intermittent elevation of liver chemistries if choledocho-lithiasis. Leukocytosis, abnormal liver ... 4. Obstructive jaundice. Elevation of liver tests in a cholestatic pattern along with imaging to evaluate for biliary ductal ... Fever, right subcostal tenderness on inspiration (Murphys sign),mild jaundice. Abdominal tenderness, abnormal liver ... obstructive jaundice (scleral icterus, dark urine, acholic stools), cholangitis (abdominal pain, fever, jaundice), and ...
Liver damage. *Metastasis. *Obstructive jaundice. *Poisoning from organophosphates (chemicals found in some pesticides) ... To diagnose liver disease. *Before you receive anesthesia with succinylcholine, which may be given before certain procedures or ...
... obstructive jaundice and less commonly, hepatomegaly and abnormal liver chemistry. Chronic biliary obstruction may cause ... jaundice, pruritus, liver abscess, and liver atrophy, mostly affecting the left lobe and the left lateral segment of the liver ... Suppurative cholangitis, liver abscess, empyema of the gallbladder, acute pancreatitis, thrombophlebitis of hepatic or portal ... Hepatolithiasis is associated with Clonorchis sinensis and Ascaris lumbricoides infestation of the liver. This theory is based ...
... and it also occurs in adults with liver-related health problems. However, jaundice in children is more rare. Its important to ... obstructive jaundice, which results from blockage in the bile duct between the pancreas and the liver ... which appears if there is liver disease or damage. *hemolytic jaundice, which develops when there is an abnormal breakdown of ... Home remedies for jaundice in children. If liver disease, hepatitis, or another serious medical problem is causing jaundice, ...
20.86 ± 4.69 nmol/gr liver, p , 0.01; Table 2). This result is also in agreement with other studies on obstructive jaundice ... liver fibrosis is a common consequence of chronic liver injury.32 Liver fibrosis is defined as the abnormal accumulation of ... In our study, we found that 21 days of obstructive jaundice resulted in a significant elevation of the concentration of liver ... Changes of lipid peroxide levels in blood and liver tissue of patients with obstructive jaundice. Clin Chim Acta. 1993; 215:41- ...
regurgitation jaundice. Obstructive jaundice.. retention jaundice. Jaundice resulting from the inability of liver cells to ... jaundice of newborn. Neonatal jaundice.. nonhemolytic jaundice. Jaundice due to abnormal metabolism of bilirubin or to biliary ... hemorrhagic jaundice. Leptospiral jaundice.. hepatocellular jaundice. Jaundice resulting from disease of liver cells, e.g., in ... physiologic jaundice. Neonatal jaundice.. postobstructive jaundice. Obstructive jaundice.. ...
What is regurgitation jaundice? Meaning of regurgitation jaundice medical term. What does regurgitation jaundice mean? ... Looking for online definition of regurgitation jaundice in the Medical Dictionary? regurgitation jaundice explanation free. ... regurgitation jaundice. Obstructive jaundice.. retention jaundice. Jaundice resulting from the inability of liver cells to ... jaundice of newborn. Neonatal jaundice.. nonhemolytic jaundice. Jaundice due to abnormal metabolism of bilirubin or to biliary ...
The test is also done to check for abnormal forms of AAT. ... obstructive jaundice). *High blood pressure in the large vein ... Most people with a lower-than-normal level of AAT have one normal gene for AAT, and one abnormal gene. People with two abnormal ... The condition causes the liver to make too little of AAT, a protein that protects the lungs and liver from damage. ... This test is helpful in identifying a rare form of emphysema in adults and a rare form of liver disease (cirrhosis) in children ...
GGT is greatly increased in obstructive jaundice, alcoholic liver disease, and hepatic cancer. When the increase in GGT is two ... Serum protein electrophoresis patterns will be abnormal in both necrotic and obstructive liver diseases. In the acute stages of ... The liver is responsible for production of the vitamin K clotting factors. In obstructive liver diseases a deficiency of ... Alkaline phosphatase is increased in obstructive liver diseases, but it is not specific for the liver. Increases of a similar ...
My results showed abnormal liver tests. The results were - Alkaline Phosphatase - H 188; AST/SGOT - H56; and ALT/SGPT - H 155 ... I have no idea what these results mean but the doctor told me they were abnormal. I have yet to visit my regular doctor about ... is it a problem with my liver? I am only 26 years old and female. ... obstructive jaundice), gallstones, cirrhosis, liver cancer, or ... 8) Other causes of fatty liver include diabetes mellitus and obesity. 9) Rarely, abnormal liver enzymes can be a sign of liver ...
Alanine transaminase level of greater than three times the upper limit of normal, active liver disease, jaundice or any ... Any clinically important abnormal finding, other than chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, as determined by medical history, ... Has used melatonin, or other drugs or supplements known to affect sleep-wake function, within one week (or five half-lives of ... Participated in any other investigational study and/or taken any investigational drug within 30 days or five half-lives prior ...
Shortness of breath Wheezing Cyanosis Ascites Jaundice Enlargement of the liver Raised jugular venous pressure (JVP) Third ... Ischemia Inflammation Oxidative damage Epigenetics Abnormal cardiac energetics Investigations available to determine the cause ... pulmonary hypertension Blood clots in lungs Kyphoscoliosis Interstitial lung disease Cystic fibrosis Sarcoidosis Obstructive ... heart sound Intercostal recession Presence of abnormal heart sounds The causes of pulmonary heart disease (cor pulmonale) are ...
The liver secretes bile, a digestive fluid; metabolizes proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; stores glycogen, vitamins, and other ... Liver, the largest gland in the body, a spongy mass of wedge-shaped lobes that has many metabolic and secretory functions. ... hepatocellular jaundice), or a blockage in the bile duct system (obstructive jaundice). Failure of hepatic cells to function ... Blood tests can reveal abnormal levels of bilirubin, cholesterol, serum proteins, urea, ammonia, and various enzymes. A ...
... including obstructive jaundice {01} {04} {05} or biliary fistula; {01} {02} {04} {05} in malabsorption syndromes {01} {02} {04} ... Hemolytic anemia {01} {02} {04} (difficulty in breathing; enlarged liver; general body swelling; paleness)-in children or ... 01} {02} {04} Vitamin K does not return abnormal platelet function to normal. Vitamin K does not counteract the anticoagulant ... Hypoprothrombinemia secondary to obstructive jaundice and biliary fistulas {09}. Oral, 5 mg per day.. Hypoprothrombinemia ...
Liver function tests are usually normal or slightly abnormal and jaundice is unusual. Liver abscesses will occasionally rupture ... Obstructive symptoms or hemorrhages may also be associated with an ameboma. Amebomas are infrequent and can be confused with ... The liver is the most commonly affected organ and this is probably due to the direct transport of trophozoites from the large ... Amebic liver abscesses are the most common form of extraintestinal amebiasis. The onset of hepatic symptoms can be rapid or ...
Liver dysfunction with jaundice may be severe and in rare cases leads to fatal hepatic failure secondary to fibrosis. However, ... Transient abnormal myelopoiesis. TAM, also called transient myeloproliferative disorder and transient leukaemia, is a ... Obstructive jaundice. Haematological. *. Leucocytosis (but white blood cell count may be normal) ... Severe liver disease, with fibrosis due to the production of megakaryocyte‐derived growth factor from blast cells, has a poor ...
Supplementary Table 11: Relationship between abnormal preoperative 25-(OH)D level and liver functions in BA patients. ... Supplementary Table 1: Overall FSV deficiencies in pediatric patients with obstructive jaundice. Supplementary Table 2: ... Supplementary Table 18: Comparison of vitamin levels between the jaundice-cleared group and the jaundice-non-resolved group 3 ... Supplementary Table 19: Comparison of vitamin levels between the jaundice-cleared group and the jaundice-non-resolved group 6 ...
Obstructive jaundice is not a disease in itself but a symptom of an underlying condition involving the liver, the gallbladder ... All these types of jaundice lead to an abnormal increase of bilirubin, causing the yellowing of the skin. ... Home , Patient Care , Conditions and Treatment , Obstructive Jaundice. Obstructive Jaundice Obstructive Jaundice: What is it, ... Two types of jaundice (surgical and medical jaundice). Obstructive jaundice is one of two types of jaundice (surgical or ...
... of the Pi Z patients were found to have abnormal liver function tests but none of these patients had clinical evidence of liver ... 20 Fourteen children had prolonged obstructive jaundice, eight had minimal biochemical abnormalities as neonates, and two of ... LIVER DISEASE. Only a small subpopulation of Pi Z patients develop liver injury that affects health and this may be due to ... Chronic liver disease and fibrosis. AAT deficiency accounts for a high proportion of liver transplants in children with chronic ...
PET CT scan again showed a large anterior mediastinal mass with diffuse liver involvement and abnormal activity in axial bones. ... MeSH-major] Jaundice, Obstructive / diagnosis. Precursor T-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / diagnosis ... Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / drug therapy. *Genetic Alliance. consumer health - Primary ... BACKGROUND: Cholestatic jaundice as a presenting symptom of Precursor T-lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL)/lymphoma (T-LBL) has ...
But if you are actually seeking to consult a specialist about a liver, pancreas or biliary problem, then listed below are some ... Biliary cysts and liver cysts. *Investigations for abnormal liver function. *Obstructive jaundice ... But if you are actually seeking to consult a specialist about a liver, pancreas or biliary problem, then listed below are some ...
Liver disease. *Abnormal alpha-1-antitrypsin protein accumulates within the liver cells (hepatocytes) and can cause hepatitis. ... Asthma, bronchiectasis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are also more prevalent.. *Lung disease is much more severe in ... Hepatitis can present with a swollen abdomen, leg oedema or jaundice.. *Liver disease is accelerated by drinking alcohol. ... Organ transplantation (lungs/liver) for patients with advanced disease What is the outcome for alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency ...
Hepatic jaundice occurs due to direct damage to liver cells as seen in liver cirrhosis, systemic infections, and in chemical ... In sheep, jaundice may have been caused by phytogenic chronic copper poisoning. Obstructive jaundice occurs when the drainage ... Jaundice:. Herenda et al. (2000) stated that icterus is the result of an abnormal accumulation of bile pigment, bilirubin, or ... Woube (2008) observed icteric liver at a rate of 0.9% in young sheep and jaundice in whole carcass was observed at a rate of ...
  • Yarqaan (Jaundice) is a term used to describe the yellowing discoloration of the skin, mucous membrane and the whites of the eyes, caused by inadequate clearing and increased amount of serum bilirubin in the blood. (nhp.gov.in)
  • According to the philosophy of Unani system of medicine, Yarqaan (jaundice) is visible yellowish or blackish discoloration of skin and conjunctiva due to diffusion of yellow or black bile (khilt-e- safra ya sauda respectively) in blood vessel toward skin with or without infection. (nhp.gov.in)