Almond-shaped group of basal nuclei anterior to the INFERIOR HORN OF THE LATERAL VENTRICLE of the TEMPORAL LOBE. The amygdala is part of the limbic system.
Those affective states which can be experienced and have arousing and motivational properties.
Observable changes of expression in the face in response to emotional stimuli.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
The affective response to an actual current external danger which subsides with the elimination of the threatening condition.
A set of forebrain structures common to all mammals that is defined functionally and anatomically. It is implicated in the higher integration of visceral, olfactory, and somatic information as well as homeostatic responses including fundamental survival behaviors (feeding, mating, emotion). For most authors, it includes the AMYGDALA; EPITHALAMUS; GYRUS CINGULI; hippocampal formation (see HIPPOCAMPUS); HYPOTHALAMUS; PARAHIPPOCAMPAL GYRUS; SEPTAL NUCLEI; anterior nuclear group of thalamus, and portions of the basal ganglia. (Parent, Carpenter's Human Neuroanatomy, 9th ed, p744; NeuroNames, (September 2, 1998)).
Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.
Dominance of one cerebral hemisphere over the other in cerebral functions.
Methods for visualizing REGIONAL BLOOD FLOW, metabolic, electrical, or other physiological activities in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM using various imaging modalities.
Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.
The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.
One of the convolutions on the medial surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES. It surrounds the rostral part of the brain and CORPUS CALLOSUM and forms part of the LIMBIC SYSTEM.
Cortical vigilance or readiness of tone, presumed to be in response to sensory stimulation via the reticular activating system.
Mental process to visually perceive a critical number of facts (the pattern), such as characters, shapes, displays, or designs.
Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.
A major affective disorder marked by severe mood swings (manic or major depressive episodes) and a tendency to remission and recurrence.
Learning that takes place when a conditioned stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus.
A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.
A general term referring to the learning of some particular response.
Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
A response to a cue that is instrumental in avoiding a noxious experience.
An induced response to threatening stimuli characterized by the cessation of body movements, except for those that are involved with BREATHING, and the maintenance of an immobile POSTURE.
Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.
An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.
The procedure of presenting the conditioned stimulus without REINFORCEMENT to an organism previously conditioned. It refers also to the diminution of a conditioned response resulting from this procedure.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Induction of a stress reaction in experimental subjects by means of an electrical shock; applies to either convulsive or non-convulsive states.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.
Neural nuclei situated in the septal region. They have afferent and cholinergic efferent connections with a variety of FOREBRAIN and BRAIN STEM areas including the HIPPOCAMPAL FORMATION, the LATERAL HYPOTHALAMUS, the tegmentum, and the AMYGDALA. Included are the dorsal, lateral, medial, and triangular septal nuclei, septofimbrial nucleus, nucleus of diagonal band, nucleus of anterior commissure, and the nucleus of stria terminalis.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the right HEART VENTRICLE.
The repeated weak excitation of brain structures, that progressively increases sensitivity to the same stimulation. Over time, this can lower the threshold required to trigger seizures.
The principle that items experienced together enter into a connection, so that one tends to reinstate the other.
The rights of the individual to cultural, social, economic, and educational opportunities as provided by society, e.g., right to work, right to education, and right to social security.
A neurotoxic isoxazole (similar to KAINIC ACID and MUSCIMOL) found in AMANITA mushrooms. It causes motor depression, ataxia, and changes in mood, perceptions and feelings, and is a potent excitatory amino acid agonist.
A peptide of about 41 amino acids that stimulates the release of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. CRH is synthesized by neurons in the PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS of the HYPOTHALAMUS. After being released into the pituitary portal circulation, CRH stimulates the release of ACTH from the PITUITARY GLAND. CRH can also be synthesized in other tissues, such as PLACENTA; ADRENAL MEDULLA; and TESTIS.
A condition in which the RIGHT VENTRICLE of the heart was functionally impaired. This condition usually leads to HEART FAILURE or MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION, and other cardiovascular complications. Diagnosis is made by measuring the diminished ejection fraction and a depressed level of motility of the right ventricular wall.
An object or a situation that can serve to reinforce a response, to satisfy a motive, or to afford pleasure.
Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-fos genes (GENES, FOS). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. c-fos combines with c-jun (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-JUN) to form a c-fos/c-jun heterodimer (TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1) that binds to the TRE (TPA-responsive element) in promoters of certain genes.
A complex involuntary response to an unexpected strong stimulus usually auditory in nature.
The injection of very small amounts of fluid, often with the aid of a microscope and microsyringes.
Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.
An autosomal recessive disorder characterized by glassy degenerative thickening (hyalinosis) of SKIN; MUCOSA; and certain VISCERA. This disorder is caused by mutation in the extracellular matrix protein 1 gene (ECM1). Clinical features include hoarseness and skin eruption due to widespread deposition of HYALIN.
The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.
The anterior portion of the head that includes the skin, muscles, and structures of the forehead, eyes, nose, mouth, cheeks, and jaw.
A neurotoxic isoxazole isolated from species of AMANITA. It is obtained by decarboxylation of IBOTENIC ACID. Muscimol is a potent agonist of GABA-A RECEPTORS and is used mainly as an experimental tool in animal and tissue studies.
Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.
The tendency to explore or investigate a novel environment. It is considered a motivation not clearly distinguishable from curiosity.
The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.
The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.
Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.
Substances used to identify the location and to characterize the types of NEURAL PATHWAYS.
Cell surface proteins that bind corticotropin-releasing hormone with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The corticotropin releasing-hormone receptors on anterior pituitary cells mediate the stimulation of corticotropin release by hypothalamic corticotropin releasing factor. The physiological consequence of activating corticotropin-releasing hormone receptors on central neurons is not well understood.
Lower lateral part of the cerebral hemisphere responsible for auditory, olfactory, and semantic processing. It is located inferior to the lateral fissure and anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE.
Learning situations in which the sequence responses of the subject are instrumental in producing reinforcement. When the correct response occurs, which involves the selection from among a repertoire of responses, the subject is immediately reinforced.
A persistent increase in synaptic efficacy, usually induced by appropriate activation of the same synapses. The phenomenological properties of long-term potentiation suggest that it may be a cellular mechanism of learning and memory.
The perceiving of attributes, characteristics, and behaviors of one's associates or social groups.
Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.
Learning the correct route through a maze to obtain reinforcement. It is used for human or animal populations. (Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 6th ed)
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
A change in electrical resistance of the skin, occurring in emotion and in certain other conditions.
The feeling-tone accompaniment of an idea or mental representation. It is the most direct psychic derivative of instinct and the psychic representative of the various bodily changes by means of which instincts manifest themselves.
The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.
Highly pleasant emotion characterized by outward manifestations of gratification; joy.
Use of a device for the purpose of controlling movement of all or part of the body. Splinting and casting are FRACTURE FIXATION.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
Stimulation at an intensity below that where a differentiated response can be elicited.
The knowledge or perception that someone or something present has been previously encountered.
Transforming proteins coded by fos oncogenes. These proteins have been found in the Finkel-Biskis-Jinkins (FBJ-MSV) and Finkel-Biskis-Reilly (FBR-MSV) murine sarcoma viruses which induce osteogenic sarcomas in mice. The FBJ-MSV v-fos gene encodes a p55-kDa protein and the FBR-MSV v-fos gene encodes a p75-kDa fusion protein.
The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.
Paired bodies containing mostly GRAY MATTER and forming part of the lateral wall of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain.
Set of nerve fibers conducting impulses from olfactory receptors to the cerebral cortex. It includes the OLFACTORY NERVE; OLFACTORY BULB; OLFACTORY TRACT; OLFACTORY TUBERCLE; ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE; and OLFACTORY CORTEX.
An adrenocortical steroid that has modest but significant activities as a mineralocorticoid and a glucocorticoid. (From Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1437)
Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Agents that alleviate ANXIETY, tension, and ANXIETY DISORDERS, promote sedation, and have a calming effect without affecting clarity of consciousness or neurologic conditions. ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS are commonly used in the symptomatic treatment of anxiety but are not included here.
Physiological and psychological symptoms associated with withdrawal from the use of a drug after prolonged administration or habituation. The concept includes withdrawal from smoking or drinking, as well as withdrawal from an administered drug.
A strong emotional feeling of displeasure aroused by being interfered with, injured or threatened.
The ability to detect chemicals through gustatory receptors in the mouth, including those on the TONGUE; the PALATE; the PHARYNX; and the EPIGLOTTIS.
Amygdala GluN2B-NMDAR Dysfunction Is Critical in Abnormal Aggression of Neurodevelopmental Origin Induced by St8sia2 Deficiency ...
Abnormal affect in OCD has been hypothesized to result from dysfunction in the OFC, ventral striatum, and amygdala. OCD is ... This is reflected by reduced amygdala and ventral striatum response to positive stimuli, and elevated amygdala response to ... Besides abnormal valuation of stimuli or tasks, compulsions may be driven by dysfunction in error monitoring that leads to ... By assigning abnormal values to certain behaviors, OFC may lead to compulsive behavior through modulating action selection in ...
Abnormal psychology (4th ed.). New York: W.W. Norton & Company.[page needed] Davison GC (2008). Abnormal Psychology. Toronto: ... Zald DH, Pardo JV (April 1997). "Emotion, olfaction, and the human amygdala: amygdala activation during aversive olfactory ... The amygdala is central to the processing of fear and anxiety, and its function may be disrupted in anxiety disorders. Anxiety ... People who have anxiety tend to show high activity in response to emotional stimuli in the amygdala. Some writers believe that ...
They found that as these chills increase, many changes in cerebral blood flow are seen in brain regions such as the amygdala, ... These differences suggest abnormal neuronal development in the auditory cortex and inferior frontal gyrus, two areas which are ... Gosselin, Peretz, Johnsen and Adolphs (2007) studied S.M., a patient with bilateral damage of the amygdala with the rest of the ... The abnormal shift from premotor to primary sensorimotor activation directly correlates with guitar-induced hand dystonia. ...
Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 109, 341-344. Bryant, R.A., et al. (2008). Enhanced amygdala and medial prefrontal activation ...
The amygdala is one of the smallest structures in the brain, but also one of the most powerful. The amygdala is needed for the ... This causes interference, which in turn causes abnormal reactions to aversive stimuli in those with panic disorders. In ... In generating a fight-or-flight response, the amygdala acts in the following way: The amygdala's anterior nuclei associated ... "Smaller Amygdala Is Associated With Anxiety in Patients With Panic Disorder". Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences. Vol. 63, ...
Lower education level, abnormal background EEG activity, and hippocampal sclerosis have been found to be contributing factors ... Focal seizures in the temporal lobe involve small areas of the lobe such as the amygdala and hippocampus.[citation needed] The ... The first to record and catalog the abnormal symptoms and signs of TLE was Norman Geschwind. He found a constellation of ... In temporal lobe epilepsy, a focal seizure usually causes abnormal sensations only. These may be: Sensations such as déjà vu (a ...
... and increased amygdala volume in adulthood. This is hypothesized to reflect abnormal development of amygdala, possibly ... Regardless of directionality of amygdala abnormalities, as the amygdala plays a central role in emotional systems, these ... abnormal functionality of connectivity in specific regions may result in abnormal glia, which may in turn exacerbate ... The abnormal activity in these circuits has been observed in non-emotional tasks, and is congruent with changes in grey and ...
Dysfunction in this system leads to an abnormal release of dopamine, eventually inducing seizure. Currently, there are diverse ... Moreover, scientists discovered that there are other parts of the brain like basolateral amygdala involved in this connection ... Dysfunction in this sensory relay network leads to an abnormal release of dopamine, eventually inducing hyperexcitability of ... Koelsch, Stefan; Skouras, Stavros (2014). "Functional centrality of amygdala, striatum and hypothalamus in a "small-world" ...
Tucholski, J; Simmons, M. S.; Pinner, A. L.; Haroutunian, V; McCullumsmith, R. E.; Meador-Woodruff, J. H. (2013). "Abnormal N- ... However, dopamine also modulates other cortical areas, namely the VTA; with efferents to the amygdala and locus coeruleus, ... Rationality is impaired, primarily as response to the deficit of oxytocin and excess of vasopressin from the abnormal 5HT2C ... Dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia elaborates upon the nature of abnormal lateral structures found in someone with a high ...
There appears to be a link between increased CB1 receptor availability in the amygdala and abnormal threat processing and ... The amygdala is responsible for threat detection and the conditioned and unconditioned fear responses that are carried out as a ... The amygdala is strongly involved in forming emotional memories, especially fear-related memories. During high stress, the ... While as a whole, amygdala hyperactivity is reported by meta analysis of functional neuroimaging in PTSD, there is a large ...
... and found no amygdala activation and abnormal STS activation in subjects with autism. A more recent PET study looked at brain ... The authors found activity in orbitofrontal cortex, STS, and amygdala in normal subjects, ... and the amygdala. The reduced activity in the mPFC of individuals with schizophrenia is associated with the Theory of mind ... and amygdala were selectively engaged during the Theory of Mind condition. Another study presented subjects with an animation ...
Baron-Cohen, S; Ring, H.A.; Bullmore, E.T.; Wheelwright, S.; Ashwin, C.; Williams, S.C.R. (May 2000). "The amygdala theory of ... Further evidence suggests that there is abnormal circuitry in what Brothers calls the neural basis for social intelligence, or ... Brothers, L.; Ring, B; Kling, A (21 December 1990). "Response of neurons in the macaque amygdala to complex social stimuli". ... The interaction between the amygdala, the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), and the superior temporal sulcus and gyrus (STG) enables ...
Elevated resting amygdala activity was proposed to underlie rumination, as stimulation of the amygdala has been reported to be ... Increased basal cortisol levels and abnormal response to dexamethasone challenges have been observed in people with MDD. Early ... and at rest only the left amygdala appears to be more hyperactive. One study, however, found no difference in amygdala activity ... The amygdala in unmedicated depressed persons tended to be smaller than in those that were medicated, however aggregate data ...
The amygdala is also dysfunctional in psychopaths decreasing the ability to recognize emotional stimuli and lacking the ability ... "Abnormal ventromedial prefrontal cortex function in children with psychopathic traits during reversal learning". Archives of ... The amygdala allows for sensory recognition of non-integrated emotional stimuli that are channeled to the ventromedial ... Blair, R. J. R. (2007-09-01). "The amygdala and ventromedial prefrontal cortex in morality and psychopathy". Trends in ...
Patients demonstrate abnormal cortisol levels and basal activity. Studies found that patients with DPD could be distinguished ... However, no structural changes in the amygdala were observed. A PET scan found functional abnormalities in the visual, auditory ...
... neuroimaging studies of these patients have demonstrated abnormal neuronal cell integrity and volume reductions in the amygdala ... The amygdala appears to have a specific role in attention to emotional stimuli. The amygdala is a small, almond-shaped region ... The amygdala receives information from both the thalamus and the cortex; information from the thalamus is rough in detail and ... Whether abnormal processing leads to the exacerbation of certain disorders or is the result of these disorders is yet unclear, ...
For example, she was the first to identify that the amygdala is activated when bipolar patients enter a manic state and lower ... mental illnesses has focused on both the gross and histologic/receptor level and has identified the specificity of abnormal ...
Journal of abnormal child psychology, 30(4), 311-326. Andrews, T. K., Rose, F. D., & Johnson, D. A. (1998). Social and ... abnormalities of the brain have been found with relation to antisocial behavior such as reduced functioning of the amygdala, ... Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 114(1), 38-49. Silberg, J., Moore, A. A., & Rutter, M. (2014). Age of onset and the ... abnormal glucose metabolism in the temporal lobe, smaller volumes of the hippocampus, and lesser function of the anterior ...
Ventricular and third ventricle enlargement, abnormal functioning of the amygdala, hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, ... dlPFC and amygdala. A meta-analysis of facial emotional processing observed decreased activation in the amygdala, ... Abnormal findings in the prefrontal cortex, temporal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex are found before the first onset of ... Abnormal neuronal organization and orientation (dysplasia) has been observed in the entorhinal cortex, hippocampus, and ...
... abnormal structure and function of the frontal lobe, cerebellum, medial temporal lobe, related limbic systems (amygdala and ... ISBN 978-0-19-506284-7. Mash, Eric J.; Wolfe, David J. (2010). Abnormal Child Psychology (4th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth ...
OFC inputs to the amygdala synapse on multiple targets, including two robust pathways to the basolateral amygdala and ... correlates with abnormal OFC affect (e.g., fear) processing in clinically anxious adults. One clear extension of problems with ... and amygdala. The orbitofrontal cortex is reciprocally connected with the perirhinal and entorhinal cortices, the amygdala, the ... The caudal OFC is also the most heavily interconnected with the amygdala. Rostrally, the OFC receives fewer direct sensory ...
Abnormal vPFC activity, along with amygdala hyperactivity is found during euthymia as well as in healthy relatives of those ... Functional MRI findings suggest that abnormal modulation between ventral prefrontal and limbic regions, especially the amygdala ... On the other hand, pretreatment hyperactivity in the amygdala is reduced post-treatment but is still increased relative to ... and amygdala as well as in the rates of deep white matter hyperintensities.[61][62][63][64] ...
Insula hyperactivity during the onset of and over the course of acute panic episodes is thought to be related to abnormal ... This circuit consists of the amygdala, central gray matter, ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus, and the locus ceruleus. ... However, the observation of amygdala hyperactivity is not entirely consistent, especially in studies that evoke panic attacks ... Comer, Ronald (2014). Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology (7th ed.). New York: Worth Publishers. p. 122. ISBN 978-1-4292-9563-5 ...
This mutation may be due to abnormal expression of hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor by the mesenchymal cells within the ... These lesions may occur in the amygdala, cerebellum, cerebrum, pons and spinal cord of patients. Although typically ... The pathogenesis of neurocutaneous melanosis is believed to be related to the abnormal postzygotic development of melanoblasts ... One factor that may contribute to the development of neurocutaneous melanosis is the abnormal postzygotic development of ...
This is because there are specialized cells in the amygdala which attend to facial stimuli. The amygdala is considered to be an ... instrumental in the development of clinical amygdalotomy as a form of neurosurgery to produce placating effects on abnormal ... The preferred target zone of the amygdala also varies from basal and lateral nuclei, to the medial region, the cortico-medial ... Amongst some of the earliest studies conducted on the removal of the amygdala were animal and primate studies. In the early ...
Psychopathy is thought to be caused by normal processing of social and emotional cues, but abnormal use of these cues. One ... For example, alterations have been observed in the temporo-parietal junction and the amygdala, which are both involved in ... The results showed that the aggressive conduct disorder group had activation in the amygdala and ventral striatum, which lead ...
Abnormal neurites and activated glial cells are not typical of most diffuse plaques, and it has been suggested that diffuse ... hippocampal formation and amygdala; in Phase 3, the basal ganglia and diencephalon are affected; in Phase 4, plaques appear in ... Abnormal neurites in amyloid plaques are tortuous, often swollen axons and dendrites. The neurites contain a variety of ... In this state, they cause other proteins of the same type to adopt the same abnormal beta-sheet-rich structure. The misfolded ...
The abnormal electrical activity might spread to the rest of the brain and cause a focal to bilateral seizure or a generalized ... They most commonly arise from the mesial temporal lobe, particularly the amygdala, hippocampus, and neocortical regions. A ... Focal aware seizures often precede larger focal impaired awareness seizures, where the abnormal electrical activity spreads to ... Jacksonian seizures are initiated with abnormal electrical activity within the primary motor cortex. They are unique in that ...
Lewy neurites are abnormal neurites in diseased neurons, containing granular material and abnormal α-synuclein filaments ... Popescu A, Lippa CF, Lee VM, Trojanowski JQ (December 2004). "Lewy bodies in the amygdala: increase of alpha-synuclein ... Lewy bodies and neurofibrillary tangles can occasionally exist in the same neuron, particularly in the amygdala. Lewy bodies ... Schmidt ML, Martin JA, Lee VM, Trojanowski JQ (1996). "Convergence of Lewy bodies and neurofibrillary tangles in amygdala ...
Results: During the happy-face task, BP-I youth had greater amygdala, VMPFC, and DLPFC activity to happy faces whereas BP-NOS ... amygdala) and emotion regulation (ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC)), dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Connectivity ... Differential Patterns of Abnormal Activity and Connectivity in the Amygdala-Prefrontal Circuitry in Bipolar-I and Bipolar-NOS ... Results: During the happy-face task, BP-I youth had greater amygdala, VMPFC, and DLPFC activity to happy faces whereas BP-NOS ...
... basolateral amygdala (BLA), centromedial amygdala (CMA), and superficial amygdala (SFA). The rsFC of the three amygdala ... Basolateral amygdala. Centromedial amygdala. First-episode schizophrenia. Resting-state functional connectivity Identifier to ... In conclusion, this study found that patients with FES had abnormal functional connectivity in the amygdala subregions, and the ... The amygdala was divided into the following three subregions using the Juelich histological atlas: ...
Influence of the fusiform gyrus on amygdala response to emotional faces in the non-clinical range of social anxiety - Volume 39 ... Journal of Abnormal Psychology 115, 760-770.. Garrett, AS, Menon, V, MacKenzie, K, Reiss, AL (2004). Heres looking at you, kid ... Birbaumer, N, Grodd, W, Diedrich, O, Klose, U, Erb, M, Lotze, M, Schneider, F, Weiss, U, Flor, H (1998). fMRI reveals amygdala ... Rauch, SL, Whalen, PJ, Shin, LM, McInerney, SC, Macklin, ML, Lasko, NB, Orr, SP, Pitman, RK (2000). Exaggerated amygdala ...
1999) Abnormal neural integration related to cognition in schizophrenia. Acta Psychiatr Scand [Suppl] 395:58-67. ... 1995) Amygdala and extended amygdala. in The rat nervous system, Ed 2, ed Paxinos G (Academic, Sydney), pp 495-572. ... 1999) Amygdala enlargement in dysthymia-a volumetric study of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. Biol Psychiatry 46:1614- ... 1976) Dopamine evoked inhibition of single cells of the feline putamen and basolateral amygdala. J Physiol (Lond) 256:1-21. ...
Given that the amygdala is a component structure of the ... Given that the amygdala is a component structure of the ... In the last few decades there has been increasing interest in the role of the amygdala in psychiatric disorders and, in ... there has been increasing interest in the role of the amygdala in psychiatric disorders and in particular its contribution to ... The Amygdala: Anatomical and Neuroimaging Findings in ASDs. A seminal post-mortem study on ASDs children reported abnormal cell ...
2008) Abnormal activity in hypothalamus and amygdala during humour processing in human narcolepsy with cataplexy. Brain 131:514 ... Expression of orexin receptors in the amygdala of Ox1r−/−Ox2r−/− mice with restored orexin receptors in the amygdala. (A) ... Restoring Orexin Receptors in the Amygdala of Ox1r−/−Ox2r−/− Mice Cannot Suppress CLEs.. Because the amygdala weakly expresses ... At the same time, orexin neurons could also activate DRN serotonin neurons to reduce amygdala response. In all, the amygdala is ...
This abnormal recruitment of BLA targets then alters startle plasticity.. Predator stress-induced changes in the BLA could ... 2006) Amygdala, medial prefrontal cortex, and hippocampal function in PTSD. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1071:67-79, doi:10.1196/annals. ... A-D, Representative injector tip locations within the CeA (A) and BLA (C) of the amygdala, which are indicated by arrows; ... 2010) Human amygdala reactivity is diminished by the beta-noradrenergic antagonist propranolol. Psychol Med 40:1839-1848. ...
Abnormal amygdala and prefrontal cortex activation to facial expressions in pediatric bipolar disorder. / Garrett, Amy S.; ... Abnormal amygdala and prefrontal cortex activation to facial expressions in pediatric bipolar disorder. Journal of the American ... Garrett, AS, Reiss, AL, Howe, ME, Kelley, RG, Singh, MK, Adleman, NE, Karchemskiy, A & Chang, KD 2012, Abnormal amygdala and ... title = "Abnormal amygdala and prefrontal cortex activation to facial expressions in pediatric bipolar disorder", ...
Lesion studies support a role for the amygdala in detecting saliency. Here we show that neurons in the amygdala of primates ... On this basis we propose the amygdala as a locus for a saliency map and ensemble bursting as a saliency coding mechanism. ... On this basis we propose the amygdala as a locus for a saliency map and ensemble bursting as a saliency coding mechanism. ... Here we show that neurons in the amygdala of primates fire differentially when the eyes approach to or fixate behaviorally ...
To examine the amygdala volume in 2-5-year-old preschool children with autism and explore the relationship between amygdala ... Abnormal signals were found in 19/78 (24.4%) amygdala in the autism group (the signal of the amygdala in the control group ... Abnormal MRI signals were found in 19/78 (24.4%) amygdala in the autism group, the amygdala lesions showed punctuate or flaky ... presenting an abnormal signal in the amygdala. The volume of bilateral amygdala is larger than that of age-matched normal ...
Synaptic reorganization in hippocampus induced by abnormal functional activity SUTULA T. Science 239, 1147-1150, 1988 ... Amygdala kindling develops without mossy fiber sprouting and hippocampal neuronal degeneration in rats * * OSAWA MARIKO ... Dissociation between mossy fiber sprouting and rapid kindling with low-frequency stimulation of the amygdala ARMITAGE LL ... Propagation of amygdala-kindled seizures to the hippocampus in the rat : Electroencephalographic features and behavioural ...
Sartorius A, Ruf M, Kief C, Demirakca T, Bailer J, Ende G. Abnormal amygdala activation profile in pedophilia. Eur Arch ... Andersen ML, Poyares D, Alves RS, Skomro R, Tufik S. Sexsomnia: abnormal sexual behavior during sleep. Brain Res Rev. 2007 Dec ...
Hulvershorn, LA, Mennes, M, Castellanos, FX, Di Martino, A, Milham, MP, Hummer, TA & Roy, AK 2014, Abnormal amygdala ... Abnormal amygdala functional connectivity associated with emotional lability in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity ... Abnormal amygdala functional connectivity associated with emotional lability in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity ... Abnormal amygdala functional connectivity associated with emotional lability in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity ...
Using functional neuroimaging, we found reduced amygdala activation in individuals with WBS for threateni … ... Activation and interactions of prefrontal regions linked to amygdala, especially orbitofrontal cortex, were abnormal, ... Neural correlates of genetically abnormal social cognition in Williams syndrome Nat Neurosci. 2005 Aug;8(8):991-3. doi: 10.1038 ... Using functional neuroimaging, we found reduced amygdala activation in individuals with WBS for threatening faces but increased ...
Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 95, 144.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar. *. Williams, J. M., & Scott, J. (1988). Autobiographical ... 2011). Local amygdala structural differences with 3T MRI in patients with Alzheimer disease. Neurology, 76, 727.CrossRefPubMed ... 2009). Amygdala volume marks the acute state in the early course of depression. Biological Psychiatry, 65, 812-818.CrossRef ... 2010). Encoding of conditioned fear in central amygdala inhibitory circuits. Nature, 468, 277.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar ...
the basolateral amygdala. (MGI Ref ID J:61485). cardiovascular system phenotype. *abnormal vascular permeability*homozygotes of ... the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus and the basolateral amygdala ...
The right amygdala exhibited volume reduction in pedophilic perpetrators. GM deficits in the left dorsolateral prefrontal ... Connectivity and functional profiling of abnormal brain structures in pedophilia.. Poeppl TB1, Eickhoff SB, Fox PT, Laird AR, ... Preliminary findings indicate abnormal brain structure and function. However, no study has yet linked structural alterations in ... which may entail abnormal sexual arousal patterns. The findings moreover indicate that structural alterations account for ...
MGE cell transplantation into both the hippocampus and amygdala reversed this behavior to control levels, 60 DAT. c, d. There ... GABA progenitors grafted into the adult epileptic brain control seizures and abnormal behavior.. Hunt RF1, Girskis KM, ... GABA progenitors grafted into the adult epileptic brain control seizures and abnormal behavior ... GABA progenitors grafted into the adult epileptic brain control seizures and abnormal behavior ...
The amygdala will be discussed here as it plays a main role in the neurobiological processes in ASPD. The amygdala is an almond ... Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 102 (1), 82-92. Patrick, C. J., Cuthbert, B. N., & Lang, P. J. (1994). Emotion in the criminal ... Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 115 (4), 798-806. Kosson, D. S., Suchy, Y., Mayer, A. R., & Libby, J. (2002). Facial affect ... Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 106 (4), 563-575. Patrick, C., J., Bradley, M., M. & Lang, P. J. (1993). Emotion in the ...
... has shown abnormal reversal learning and abnormal reversal of cue selectivity in neurons recorded in the amygdala after onset ... The medial network also appears to have greater connections to the hypothalamus and the amygdala. The amygdala also projects to ... such as the amygdala, the hippocampus, and areas responsible for taste and smell. The amygdala is thought to be particularly ... which serves as an inhibitory brake on the rest of amygdala.] Projections to other regions of the amygdala may both activate ...
Roc curve method outlined left amygdala AUC = 0.898 (95% CI = 0.830-0.967) and right amygdala AUC = 0.882 (95% CI = 0.810-0.954 ... i,Results,/i,. We found that left amygdala is the most significant parameter for distinction between PTSD participants and ... i,Conclusion,/i,. The present investigation revealed significant volume decrease of left amygdala in PTSD patients. Concerning ... we need to increase number of participants to clarify the correlation between impared amygdala and possible other different ...
Suomi SJ (1982) Abnormal behavior and primate models of psychopathology. In: Primate Behavior (XXX ed), pp 171-215. New York: ... Kling AS, Brothers L (1992) The amygdala and social behavior. In: The Amygdala: Neurobiological aspects of emotion, memory, and ... monkey, amygdala, emotion, fear. Subjects:. Neuroscience , Neuropsychology. Biology , Animal Cognition. Biology , Primatology. ... Emery NJ, Capitanio JP, Mason WA, Machado CJ, Mendoza SP, Amaral DG (2001) The effects of bilateral lesions of the amygdala on ...
When a person suffers from PTSD, the normal systems that balance the amygdala activation become impaired. Because the amygdala ... This is of major concern as abnormal HPA activity may actually have neurotoxic effects. Medications like glucocorticoids and ... There are two other systems that are known to be affected by stress reactions and the amygdala. They are neuropeptide Y and ... What Can Fix the Amygdalas Overreaction and other Brain Impacts?. Our understanding of the brain leads us to seek treatments ...
Thoughts: Content & Form: Abnormal experiences and beliefs, Delusions & ideas of reference, Passivity phenomena (Inc. thought ... During these negative effects, amygdala and associated areas and ventral striatum are strongest, creating increasingly negative ... Only when anxiety begins to interfere with social or occupational functioning is it considered abnormal ... What is the difference between anxiety as a normal response and abnormal anxiety? ...
Aggleton, J. P. (1993). The contribution of the amygdala to normal and abnormal emotional states. Trends in Neurosciences, 16, ... 2016). vlPFC-vmPFC-amygdala interactions underlie age-related differences in cognitive regulation of emotion. Cerebral Cortex, ... Pessoa, L. (2010). Emotion and cognition and the amygdala: from "what is it?" to "whats to be done?". Neuropsychologia, 48, ... Anderson, A. K., & Phelps, E. A. (2002). Is the human amygdala critical for the subjective experience of emotion? Evidence of ...
squf; Abnormal amygdalas may be the root of autism. A postmortem accounting reveals that adult autistic males have about 1.5 ...
It causes hyperactivity of the brains amygdala. Supposedly, it... ... It causes hyperactivity of the brains amygdala. Supposedly, it causes a person to have an abnormal response to negative ...
Abnormal anatomical connectivity between the amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex in conduct disorder. PLOS ONE, 7, e48789. doi: ... Tremblay, R. E. (2006). Prevention of youth violence: Why not start at the beginning? Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 34 ... Blair, R. J. R. (2007). The amygdala and ventromedial prefrontal cortex in morality and psychopathy. Trends in Cognitive ... Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 109, 335-340. doi:10.1037/0021-843X.109.2.335 ...
Smaller amygdala: This is the part of the brain associated with the roles of emotions and is associated with cravings. In some ... Abnormal levels of serotonin have been commonly found in people who have genetic predisposition to alcohol use disorder. ... Levels of abnormal serotonin: Serotonin is the most important mood regulating neurotransmitter, and is often closely associated ... studies, individuals who have a family history that includes alcoholism have smaller than average amygdala. ...
2008) Abnormal fear conditioning and amygdala processing in an animal model of autism. Neuropsychopharmacology 33:901-912. ... there are effects in the hypothalamus and amygdala (51) and PFC (52⇓-54). In one study (52), the authors looked at the effect ... amygdala, ventral tegmental area). Alternatively, they could reflect a similar pattern of epigenetic changes in both regions. ... amygdala and hippocampus of the biparental Octodon degus. J Neuroendocrinol 23:1166-1176. ...
  • the human amygdala is a critical component of a brain circuit involved in the appraisal of self-relevant events that include, but are not restricted to, social stimuli. (
  • Conclusions: These findings are consistent with previous studies that suggest deficient prefrontal cortex regulation of heightened amygdala response to emotional stimuli in pediatric BD. (
  • These findings raise the possibility that the rhinal cortex and amygdala have distinct, interactive, functions in normal behavioral adaptation to affective stimuli. (
  • Because the amygdala is activated, more stimuli and less threatening stimuli, are seen as threatening and produce a fearful reaction. (
  • Supposedly, it causes a person to have an abnormal response to negative stimuli. (
  • By influencing the salience of social stimuli, mood-congruent processing biases in the amygdala may contribute to dysfunction in conscious perceptions and social interactions in MDD. (
  • The amygdala plays a pivotal role in evaluating the emotional salience of sensory stimuli through participation in two distinct types of distributed networks, one involving cortical regions that allow conscious or explicit stimulus perception, and the other involving subcortical structures that allow rapid, non-conscious assessment of stimulus features 13 - 14 . (
  • Notably, healthy subjects show greater amygdala responses to happy versus sad faces when stimuli are presented below conscious awareness. (
  • The clinical relevance of these findings has been corroborated by human neuroimaging studies that demonstrate amygdala activation in response to experimental noxious stimuli, including mechanical compression, thermal stimulation, and capsaicin application [ 10 ], as well as increased amygdala activity in migraineurs compared to healthy controls when presented with negative but not positive or neutral emotional stimuli [ 45 ]. (
  • These findings suggest that reduced danger signaling by the amygdala in response to social stimuli might be responsible for their fearlessness in social interactions. (
  • This is reflected by reduced amygdala and ventral striatum response to positive stimuli, and elevated amygdala response to fearful stimuli. (
  • Besides abnormal valuation of stimuli or tasks, compulsions may be driven by dysfunction in error monitoring that leads to excessive uncertainty. (
  • Male and female mice respond differently to the same pheromone signals, and the representation of these sensory stimuli by neurons in the medial amygdala correlates precisely with the differences in behavior. (
  • In the last few decades there has been increasing interest in the role of the amygdala in psychiatric disorders and, in particular, in its contribution to the socio-emotional impairments in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). (
  • Finally, we will discuss some predictions of our model, and suggest new directions in the investigation of the role of the amygdala within the more generally disrupted cortical connectivity framework as a model of neural organization of the autistic brain. (
  • Emery NJ and Amaral DG (1999) The role of the amygdala in primate social cognition. (
  • These findings argue that the amygdala is not necessary for the cortical implementation of ToM in adulthood and suggest a reevaluation of the role of the amygdala and its cortical interactions in human social cognition. (
  • Much more work involving different levels of investigation needs to be done to determine the role of the amygdala in ASDs-and, importantly, whether it is causal in nature or merely a consequence of having autism,' he said. (
  • Impaired recognition of emotion in facial expressions following bilateral damage to the human amygdala. (
  • Is the human amygdala critical for the subjective experience of emotion? (
  • Neurons in both the monkey ( 5 ) and human amygdala ( 6 ) respond prominently to faces, and lesions of the monkey amygdala result in complex impairments in social behavior ( 7 , 8 ). (
  • Thus, the mPFC may attenuate sensory-driven amygdala-mediated affective responses via recruitment of BLA inhibitory interneurons that suppress sensory cortical inputs. (
  • In addition, several of these disorders are proposed to exhibit disruptions in the prefrontal cortical areas that are connected to the amygdala. (
  • The basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA) [comprised of the lateral nucleus (LAT), basolateral nucleus (BL), and basomedial nucleus] receives excitatory cortical inputs that drive or regulate BLA output neuron activity. (
  • More precisely, subiculum and cornu ammonis (CA) 1 subregions of bilateral hippocampus, lateral (LA) and basolateral ventromedial (BLVM) of left amygdala and LA, BLVM, central (CE), amygdalostriatal transition area (ASTR), anterior cortical (ACO) and anterior amygdaloid area (AAA) of right amygdala were demonstrated prone to atrophy. (
  • Patterns of amygdala-cortical iFC in ADHD participants with low EL were not different from the comparison group, and the effect sizes for these comparisons were smaller than those for the trend-level differences observed between the high-EL and TDC groups. (
  • Conclusions In children with ADHD and a range of EL, deficits in emotion regulation were associated with altered amygdala-cortical iFC. (
  • For the first time, to our knowledge, we test whether amygdala lesions compromise the cortical implementation of theory-of-mind. (
  • moreover, the amygdala is structurally and functionally connected with many components of this cortical network. (
  • It remains unknown whether the cortical implementation of any form of ToM depends on amygdala function. (
  • Here we investigated this question directly by conducting functional MRI on two patients with rare bilateral amygdala lesions while they performed a neuroimaging protocol standardized for measuring cortical activity associated with false-belief reasoning. (
  • Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) findings support this model by demonstrating abnormalities across subcortical/limbic and cortical structures, notably the amygdala and medial PFC (mPFC)( 3 ). (
  • Preclinical and clinical studies have identified amygdala hyperactivity as well as impairment of cortical control mechanisms in pain states. (
  • Impairment of these cortical control mechanisms allows the development of amygdala pain plasticity. (
  • Mechanisms of abnormal amygdala activity in pain with particular focus on loss of cortical control mechanisms as well as new strategies to correct pain-related amygdala dysfunction will be discussed in the present review. (
  • Then we'll make electrophysiological recordings of individual neurons of intact, living animals - neurons in the cortex, neurons in the amygdala - as we manipulate cortical activity, so we can study this interaction. (
  • Abnormal MRI signals were found in 19/78 (24.4%) amygdala in the autism group, the amygdala lesions showed punctuate or flaky low signal, slightly low signal, low to iso-signal, slightly high signal, or iso to high-signal intensity on T1 weighted three-dimendional fast low angle shot(T1FL3D) images. (
  • The preschool children with autism had significantly larger bilateral amygdala volumes as compared to age-matched typically developing children, the amygdala lesions may show abnormal signal. (
  • 1999) in monkeys with either neurotoxic or aspiration lesions of the neighboring amygdala. (
  • Aggleton JP and Passingham RE (1981) Syndrome produced by lesions of the amygdala in monkeys (Macaca mulatta). (
  • 1998) Aspiration lesions of the amygdala interrupt connections between prefrontal cortex and temporal cortex in rhesus monkeys. (
  • Emery NJ, Capitanio JP, Mason WA, Machado CJ, Mendoza SP, Amaral DG (2001) The effects of bilateral lesions of the amygdala on dyadic social interactions in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). (
  • Goulet S, Doré FY, Murray EA (1998) Aspiration lesions of the amygdala disrupt the rhinal corticothalamic projection system in rhesus monkeys. (
  • Evidence of intact dispositional affect in patients with amygdala lesions. (
  • Two patients with bilateral amygdala lesions performed a belief reasoning test while undergoing functional MRI. (
  • Rare bilateral lesions of the amygdala in human patients impair the ability to infer emotions from facial expressions ( 9 , 10 ), to make more complex social judgments from faces ( 11 ), and to guide appropriate social behaviors ( 12 ). (
  • Under carefully controlled clinical interventions performed on monkeys, neurosurgeons inflicted lesions on the amygdala of monkeys, and a constellation of violent behavior became ubiquitous. (
  • Two patients showed extension of lesions into the amygdala and uncus with insular involvement in 1. (
  • Six of 9 CT scans were abnormal and the temporal lesions were seen in 2. (
  • The amygdala was divided into the following three subregions using the Juelich histological atlas: basolateral amygdala (BLA), centromedial amygdala (CMA), and superficial amygdala (SFA). (
  • We show in rodents that repeated psychogenic stress (predator) induces long-lasting sensitization of basolateral amygdala (BLA) noradrenergic (NE) receptors (α1) via a corticotropin-releasing factor receptor 1 (CRF-R1)-dependent mechanism, and that these CRF1 and NE α1 receptors are highly colocalized on presumptive excitatory output projection neurons of the BLA. (
  • It is shown here that repeated exposure to a rodent model of traumatic stress (predator exposure) produces a long-lasting sensitization of basolateral amygdala noradrenergic substrates [via a corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF)-dependent mechanism] that regulate startle, which is exaggerated in PTSD. (
  • Moreover, it is demonstrated that the sensitized noradrenergic receptors colocalize with CRF1 receptors on output projection neurons of the basolateral amygdala. (
  • Hyperactivity of basolateral amygdala (BLA) neurons generates enhanced feedforward inhibition and deactivation of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), resulting in pain-related cognitive deficits. (
  • Functional imaging has demonstrated an increase in amygdala response to emotional faces in subjects with social anxiety. (
  • Relevant interactions among the emotional face-processing stages exist in the non-clinical range of social anxiety that may ultimately attenuate amygdala responses. (
  • Given that the amygdala is a component structure of the "social brain," several theoretical explanations compatible with amygdala dysfunction have been proposed to account for socio-emotional impairments in ASDs, including abnormal eye contact, gaze monitoring, face processing, mental state understanding, and empathy. (
  • In the present review, we will first summarize the main literature supporting the involvement of the amygdala in socio-emotional disturbances in ASDs. (
  • Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are pervasive developmental disorders characterized by a triad of symptoms including abnormal socio-emotional processing, verbal and non-verbal communication problems, and restricted interests and repetitive behaviors ( American Psychiatric Association, 2000 ). (
  • We thus used optogenetic and chemogenetic approaches to demonstrate that DRN serotonin neurons suppress cataplexy-like episodes by reducing the activity of the amygdala that plays an important role in emotional processing, as consistent with the fact that strong emotions often trigger cataplexy. (
  • First, we examined the relationship between amygdala IFC and parent ratings of emotional lability (EL) in children with ADHD. (
  • When comparing groups that differed on ADHD status but not EL, differences in amygdala iFC were small and nonsignificant, highlighting the specificity of this finding to emotional deficits, independent of other ADHD symptoms. (
  • We believe that the amygdala is involved in perceiving something as threatening (stress) and that this activation initiates activity in other parts of the brain such as the hippocampus (involved in memory and spatial learning) and the orbital frontal cortex (involved in memory of emotional event and choice). (
  • The contribution of the amygdala to normal and abnormal emotional states. (
  • This may occur both due to disruptions within PFC networks and abnormal inhibition over subcortical structures involved in emotional processing. (
  • Emotional processing biases occur in the amygdala to sad faces presented below conscious awareness in currently-depressed or remitted-MDD subjects and to happy faces in controls. (
  • The amygdala is a limbic brain region that plays a key role in emotional processing, neuropsychiatric disorders, and the emotional-affective dimension of pain. (
  • The amygdala is an almond-shaped limbic structure located in the medial temporal lobe and is well known for its role in conveying emotional significance to a sensory stimulus, emotional and affective states, and related behavioral adaptations in response to changes in the internal and external bodily environment [ 1 - 4 ]. (
  • The amygdala has also emerged as an important site in the brain for the emotional-affective dimension of pain and pain modulation [ 5 - 12 ]. (
  • This article describes a neural model, called the iSTART model, which proposes how cognitive, emotional, timing, and motor processes that involve brain regions like prefrontal and temporal cortex, amygdala, hippocampus, and cerebellum may interact together to create and perpetuate autistic symptoms. (
  • The iSTART model shows how autistic behavioral symptoms may arise from prescribed breakdowns in these brain processes, notably a combination of underaroused emotional depression in the amygdala and related affective brain regions, learning of hyperspecific recognition categories in temporal and prefrontal cortices, and breakdowns of adaptively timed attentional and motor circuits in the hippocampal system and cerebellum. (
  • Fear is processed by the amygdala, which also stores emotional memories. (
  • Amygdala responses to the facial signals of others predict both normal and abnormal emotional states. (
  • The amygdala has long been known to be important for the processing of emotional reactions. (
  • These studies strengthen the connection between the amygdala and the abnormal social-emotional behavior seen in patients with ASDs, said Chris Ashwin, PhD, senior research associate at the Autism Research Centre in the Department of Psychiatry at the University of Cambridge, UK. (
  • While those with autism activated the amygdala less than controls, they also activated areas of the brain involved in conscious perception of emotional information and in processing dynamic features of the face,' he said. (
  • however, the amygdala would certainly be implicated in what is done in these treatments, since processing social-emotional information is central,' said Ashwin. (
  • The goal of Neugebauer's study is to understand a process that causes hyperactivity in the amygdala, a key emotional center, leading to persistent pain and uncomfortable states like fear and anxiety. (
  • Located in brain 's medial temporal lobe, the almond-shaped amygdala (in Latin , corpus amygdaloideum ) is believed to have strong connections to the mental and emotional reactions of the person. (
  • In language learning, some hypothesize that second language learning for adults may not make ready use of the amygdala in procedural memory usage and so emotional links to words are slower to form. (
  • Hamilton, 2013 ), what we intend to emphasize here is that all these proposals are compatible with a core deficit of the so-called "social brain" in which the amygdala is the key component. (
  • what permits the amygdala to influence the way in which saliency is dynamically defined by the brain. (
  • Concerning important functions of the amygdala and her neuroanatomical connections with other brain structures, we need to increase number of participants to clarify the correlation between impared amygdala and possible other different brain structures in participants with PTSD. (
  • MRI guided studies revealed reduction of the limbic structures of the brain: hippocampus is believed to be the most frequently reduced structure [ 8 - 10 ], but also anterior cingulate cortex and amygdala are reported as the structures that undergo the volume changes in PTSD [ 11 - 17 ]. (
  • Connectivity and functional profiling of abnormal brain structures in pedophilia. (
  • Preliminary findings indicate abnormal brain structure and function. (
  • Our results suggest that structural brain alterations affect neural networks for sexual processing by way of disrupted functional connectivity, which may entail abnormal sexual arousal patterns. (
  • Our understanding of the brain leads us to seek treatments that will rebalance the activation of the amygdala when a person has combat-related (or any version of) PTSD. (
  • Gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) - GABA is very important as it's a neurotransmitter that inhibits other parts of the brain, like the amygdala. (
  • The amygdala is considered a critical node of the "social brain" that contributes to myriad social behaviors exhibited by primates ( 1 ⇓ ⇓ - 4 ). (
  • Counting them painstakingly under a microscope revealed far lower number of neurons in the amygdala which is the area of the brain associated with fear and memory. (
  • Earlier brain imaging studies have shown that autistic boys develop adult-size amygdala by they were eight years old, compared to late adolescence for other young males. (
  • Amygdala region-of-interest and whole brain analyses evaluated the hemodynamic response during exposure to masked-sad versus masked-happy faces, to masked-sad versus neutral faces, and to masked-happy versus neutral faces. (
  • It is now thought that this deficit was likely due to amygdala resection [ 16 , 17 ], illustrating the importance of the amygdala in pain processing in the brain. (
  • The aim of this study is to investigate the abnormal functional connectivity throughout the entire brain of insomnia patients, and analyze the global distribution of these abnormalities. (
  • Something strange is going on in the amygdala - an almond-shaped structure deep in the human brain - among people with autism. (
  • Researchers at the University of Washington have discovered an increased pattern of brain activity in the amygdalas of adults with autism that may be linked to the social deficits that typically are associated with the disorder. (
  • The scientists were interested in what happened in two brain regions, the amygdala and the fusiform gyrus, when the subjects viewed the faces. (
  • Various structures within the brain as well as the abnormal function of several neurotransmitters are associated with the development of anxiety disorders. (
  • For several years, scientists have suspected that abnormal processing in the amygdala, an almond-shaped structure deep in the brain, may be involved in this striking pattern of behavior. (
  • This may be the first study to identify functional disturbances in a brain pathway associated with abnormal social behavior caused by a genetic disorder," said NIMH Director Thomas R. Insel, M.D. (
  • In this study, investigators used functional brain imaging (fMRI) to study the amygdala and structures linked to it in 13 participants with Williams Syndrome who were selected to have normal intelligence (Williams Syndrome is usually associated with some degree of mental retardation or learning impairment) and compared to healthy controls. (
  • Because our data showed that the amygdala did still function, although abnormally, in Williams Syndrome, we wondered whether it might be its regulation by other brain regions that was the cause of the amygdala abnormalities. (
  • The project is based on recent evidence showing abnormal activity in a specific brain region of PTSD patients, thought to be responsible for the core symptoms of PTSD. (
  • Deep brain stimulation of the amygdala BLn starting at 30 days post-operatively. (
  • We found that single brain cells in the amygdala of people with autism respond differently to faces in a way that explains many prior behavioral observations," says Adolphs, Bren Professor of Psychology and Neuroscience and professor of biology at Caltech and coauthor of a study in the November 20 issue of Neuron that outlines the team's findings. (
  • Epileptic seizures are caused by a burst of abnormal electric activity in the brain, which the electrodes are designed to detect. (
  • In their latest study, Wemmie's team used experiments targeting the amygdala to show that this brain region is a key site of action for ASIC1a's antidepressant effect. (
  • Volume alterations in the brain of patients with panic disorder have previously been reported, but there has been no report of amygdala volume association with anxiety. (
  • Location of the amygdala in the human brain. (
  • Most agreed that the primary brain region involved was the amygdala - without it, people would lead fear-free lives. (
  • The three women, listed as SM, AM and BG, all have Urbach-Wiethe disease - a genetic condition that causes the degeneration of a tiny part of the brain known as the amygdala. (
  • While the researchers can't say for sure why the women were able to experience internal, but not external fear, they suggest other parts of the brain must play a role in fear generation overall, and that perhaps the amygdala doesn't generate the feeling of fear, but instead is involved in the processing of external threats that lead to a fearful response. (
  • Brain scans using FMRI have shown abnormalities in the amygdala, hippocampus, septum, mamillary bodies, and the cerebellum of the brain. (
  • Broadly, you can say that some of the anxiety-related aspects of depression are because of abnormal connectivity between the parts of the brain that we feel fear with, and the parts of the brain that exercise control over what we feel. (
  • The control group also showed differing responses in social brain areas to varying intensities of fearful expression, including differential activations in the left and right amygdala. (
  • The researchers found that individuals who went from occasional use to more chronic addictive type use displayed smaller volumes in the brain areas associated with decision-making at the beginning of the study, particularly in the areas of the prefrontal cortex and the amygdala [2]. (
  • They think it could be from abnormal brain activity temporarily affecting nerve signals, stress, hormones or a lack of sleep. (
  • Deep brain calcium imaging reveals the abnormal neuronal activity patterns of the amygdala GABAergic neurons in an animal model of human sleep disorder narcolepsy. (
  • Studying the development of the medial amygdala in the mouse reveals how the brain may potentially process sex differences in innate behaviors such as mating. (
  • It's the latest evidence that this area of the brain, called the amygdala, may be one of the keys to understanding autism. (
  • One place they found a difference was in the amygdalae, two almond-shaped clumps of cells deep in the brain, one on each side. (
  • Bauman says it looked as if the brain cells in the amygdala of the man with autism were smaller and more densely packed. (
  • Dr. David Amaral of the MIND Institute says the team used automated techniques to estimate the number of brain cells in each amygdala. (
  • Brain-imaging studies have already shown that, in boys with autism, the amygdala develops early and stops growing around the age of eight. (
  • The investigation will focus on pain-induced disruption of nerve-signal traffic between the amygdala and the medial prefrontal cortex, a region of the brain involved in so-called "executive" decision-making functions. (
  • Normally in the brain we have a balanced interaction between the amygdala and the prefrontal cortex, with the amygdala providing valuable emotion-based information to the cortex and the medial prefrontal cortex sending back signals that keep amygdala activity under control," Neugebauer said. (
  • Further studies began to study the interaction of amygdala with other brain regions since the GSAD are attributable to the mis-communication among different brain regions in a wide network rather than a single specific brain structure [ 12 ]. (
  • Abnormal activity within the brain is also a factor in the development of GAD. (
  • Now, for the first time, UCLA researchers have used a brain-imaging tool to identify the abnormal tau proteins associated with this type of repetitive injury in five retired National Football League players who are still living. (
  • With this method, researchers are able to pinpoint where in the brain these abnormal proteins accumulate. (
  • The scientists found that compared to the healthy men, the NFL players had elevated levels of FDDNP in the amygdala and subcortical regions of the brain. (
  • However, individuals without a personal or family history of major depressive disorder tend to not show any mood changes following tryptophan depletion, 8 despite the fact that tryptophan depletion alters the activity of mood-regulating regions of the brain, such as the amygdala, in these individuals as it does in patients with major depressive disorder. (
  • Research suggests that the amygdala - a small structure located near the base of the brain - plays a key role in anxiety. (
  • Findings suggest that despite similarities in symptom presentation, there are differential patterns of abnormal neural functioning in BP-NOS and BP-I relative to HC, which might reflect an "intermediate state" in the course of BP-I illness. (
  • The present findings demonstrate the disruptive rsFC patterns of amygdala subregional-sensorimotor networks in FES and may provide new insights into the neuronal pathophysiology of FES. (
  • To examine the amygdala volume in 2-5-year-old preschool children with autism and explore the relationship between amygdala volumes based on MRI findings and clinical features. (
  • These findings revealed new pathophysiologic patterns in the subregions of hippocampus and amygdala, which can help with subsequent smaller-scale MDD research. (
  • Despite some inconsistencies in findings, there is currently no clear evidence for abnormal amygdala volumes in PTSD. (
  • Several men and boys with autism suffer from poor social and communication skills as well as a diminished number of neurons in their amygdala, according to the findings of a new study. (
  • This convergence between rGBC, seed-based amygdala findings and symptom severity analyses highlights that mPFC, a core emotion regulation region, exhibits both within-PFC dysconnectivity and connectivity abnormalities with limbic structures in bipolar illness. (
  • These findings suggested that the smaller volume of the amygdala may be associated with anxiety in panic disorder. (
  • All 6 patients had abnormal hippocampus/amygdala findings on presentation, and no other regions were involved. (
  • Ashwin believes these findings do more than show that the amygdala is activated less in people with ASDs: 'It may show that they are processing different aspects of the face in different ways,' he said. (
  • Altered resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) of the amygdala has been demonstrated to be implicated in schizophrenia neuronal pathophysiology. (
  • In conclusion, this study found that patients with FES had abnormal functional connectivity in the amygdala subregions, and the altered rsFC was associated with positive symptoms. (
  • The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between intrinsic functional connectivity (iFC) of amygdala circuits and emotion regulation deficits in youth with ADHD. (
  • Group cognitive behavioral therapy modulates the resting-state functional connectivity of amygdala-related network in patients with generalized soc. (
  • We aimed to examine the resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) of the amygdala before and after group CBT. (
  • Statistical t-map of resting-state functional connectivity of amygdala between the pre-treatment and post-treatment groups. (
  • We found that, superimposed on this shared pathological core, distinct patterns of abnormal functional connectivity differentiated the four biotypes and were associated with specific clinical-symptom profiles . (
  • While these results support previous hypotheses that amygdala abnormalities may contribute to symptoms of ASDs, results from previous studies have been inconsistent, Ashwin noted. (
  • Since hippocampus and amygdala are the two vital subcortical structures that most susceptible to MDD, finding the evidence of morphological changes in their subregions may bring some new insights for MDD research. (
  • Combining structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with novel morphometry analysis methods, we recruited 25 MDD patients and 28 healthy controls (HC), and investigated their volume and morphological differences in hippocampus and amygdala. (
  • Correlation results showed that atrophy areas in hippocampus and amygdala have slight tendencies of expanding into other subregions with the development of MDD. (
  • Finally, we performed group morphometric analysis and drew the atrophy and expansion areas between MDD-Medicated group (only 19 medicated subjects in MDD group were included) and HC group, found some preliminary evidence about subregional morphological resilience of hippocampus and amygdala. (
  • Volumes of hippocampus and amygdala were manually measured using magnetic resonance imaging obtained from 27 patients with panic disorder and 30 healthy comparison subjects. (
  • Objective: Previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies in pediatric bipolar disorder (BD) have reported greater amygdala and less dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) activation to facial expressions compared to healthy controls. (
  • The fMRI showed considerably less activation of the amygdala in participants with Williams Syndrome than in the healthy volunteers (see graphic below). (
  • Abnormal degree centrality in delayed encephalopathy after carbon monoxide poisoning: a resting-state fMRI study - Wu K, Liu M, He L, Tan Y. (
  • Conclusions: This is the first study to document differential patterns of abnormal neural activity in, and connectivity between, neural regions supporting emotion processing and regulation in BP-NOS versus BP-I youth. (
  • Goosen C (1981) Abnormal behavior patterns in rhesus monkeys: symptoms of mental disease? (
  • Previous research at the UW and elsewhere has shown that abnormal growth patterns in the amygdala are commonly found among young children diagnosed with autism. (
  • This course deals with complex normal and abnormal behavior patterns ad determined by Psychology as a Science. (
  • The Xenopus tadpole as a research model, shown with key experimental techniques that are used to differentiate between normal and abnormal patterns of neural development. (
  • These newly discovered patterns of abnormal connectivity are biomarkers for depression: something neuroscience has been chasing for a long while, without much success. (
  • Disorders of the nervous system that include an affective component are believed to involve dysfunction within the amygdala. (
  • However, it is possible that the dysfunction of a single structure of an interconnected neural circuit, such as a circumscribed damage to the amygdala, can influence other areas of the circuit and have widespread repercussions on multiple cognitive functions, especially if this occurs early in development ( Bachevalier, 2005 ). (
  • The amygdala is placed in a central position of dysfunction characterized both by decreased regulatory influence of orbitofrontal cortex and increased crosstalk with visual cortex. (
  • Amygdala GluN2B-NMDAR Dysfunction Is Critical in Abnormal Aggression of Neurodevelopmental Origin Induced by St8sia2 Deficiency. (
  • Abnormal affect in OCD has been hypothesized to result from dysfunction in the OFC, ventral striatum, and amygdala. (
  • The basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA) plays a significant role in affective behavior that is likely regulated by afferents from the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). (
  • Compared with baseline, patients with CBT showed significantly decreased connectivity of the left amygdala with the right putamen, the left dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) and the right dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC). (
  • Smaller amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex predict escalating stimulant use. (
  • But abnormal pain input can trigger changes in the amygdala that enhance its output, overpowering the medial prefrontal cortex. (
  • When this occurs, the medial prefrontal cortex loses the ability to control the amygdala, creating a vicious cycle of sustained disturbance. (
  • Furthermore, anxiety was associated with a negative connectivity between amygdala and ventral medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), suggesting disrupted emotion regulation. (
  • Significant activation from the main effect of group included greater DLPFC activation in the HC group, and greater amygdala/hippocampal activation in the BD group. (
  • dMDD subjects showed greater amygdala responses than HC to masked-sad faces, while HC subjects showed greater amygdala responses to masked-happy faces. (
  • Activation and interactions of prefrontal regions linked to amygdala, especially orbitofrontal cortex, were abnormal, suggesting a genetically controlled neural circuitry for regulating human social behavior. (
  • Kling AS, Brothers L (1992) The amygdala and social behavior. (
  • The amygdala is interconnected with this network and plays a fundamental role in social behavior. (
  • The amygdala plays an integral role in human social cognition and behavior, with clear links to emotion recognition, trust judgments, anthropomorphization, and psychiatric disorders ranging from social phobia to autism. (
  • By assigning abnormal values to certain behaviors, OFC may lead to compulsive behavior through modulating action selection in the ventral striatum. (
  • As suspected by Whitman and confirmed by the medical examiner, a tumor affecting the amygdala was responsible for the radical change in Whitman's impulsive thoughts and irrational behavior. (
  • If you have abnormal fears," Amaral says, "how would that contribute, for example, to the development of normal social behavior or to the development of learning and memory and other areas? (
  • But when Deisseroth's team used light to selectively stimulate the long nerve cell projections in the mouse amygdala, the animals' anxious behavior changed immediately and dramatically. (
  • The amygdala is often required to relay abnormal neuronal excitatory activity to the forebrain. (
  • Nevertheless, many theoretical accounts, based on the Amygdala Theory of Autism , fail to elucidate the complex pattern of impairments observed in this population, which extends beyond the social domain. (
  • The right amygdala volume average was 1.088 ± 0.38 cm 3 , while that of the left amygdala was 1.04 ± 0.41 cm 3 , without any statistically significant difference (t = 0.533, p = 0.596) in the autism group. (
  • the autism group had a significantly larger right and left amygdala volumes as compared to the age-matched typically developing group with a significant positive correlation between age and right amygdala volume (r = 0.406, p = 0.01). (
  • A relationship between age and right amygdala volume in the preschool children with autism was established. (
  • 2012 ) detected that the abnormal white matter integrity might be associated with the pathophysiological process of the autism spectrum disorder. (
  • Abnormal amygdalas may be the root of autism. (
  • Schumann says, "One possibility is that there are always fewer neurons in the amygdala of people with autism. (
  • What we are seeing is hyperexcitability or overarousal of the amygdala, which suggests that neurons in the amygdala are firing more than expected," said Kleinhans, who is associated with the UW Autism Center. (
  • Those individuals with autism who had the most social impairment exhibited the highest levels of amygdala arousal. (
  • This is another piece of evidence that there is something wrong with the amygdala in autism that contributes to social impairment. (
  • 1997). Amygdala enlargement has been found among individuals with autism (Howard et al. (
  • We believe this shows that abnormal functioning in the amygdala is a reason that people with autism process faces abnormally. (
  • To validate their results, the researchers hope to identify and test additional subjects, which is a challenge because it is very hard to find people with autism who also have epilepsy and who have been implanted with electrodes in the amygdala for single-cell recordings, says Adolphs. (
  • Funding for the research outlined in the Neuron paper, titled "Single-neuron correlates of abnormal face processing in autism," was provided by the Simons Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Autism Speaks, and the National Institute of Mental Health. (
  • Recent imaging studies have shown that patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) who were presented with images of human faces had lower responses in amygdala activity than controls. (
  • His group previously proposed that the amygdala is one of several neural regions that is abnormal in ASDs, calling this the 'amygdala theory of autism. (
  • Since then, scientists have been trying to get a better understanding of exactly what's different about the amygdala of a person with autism. (
  • Amaral says it makes sense that there would be a difference in the amygdala because people with autism tend to be very anxious. (
  • He says too much early activity in the amygdala also could produce abnormal fears -- which might be an explanation for some of the other problems associated with autism. (
  • Conditions such as autism , depression , narcolepsy and OCD are also suspected of being linked to abnormal functioning of the amygdala owing to damage or developmental problems with it. (
  • The researchers found significant evidence that PTSD among study participants was associated with smaller volume in both the left and right amygdala, and confirmed previous studies linking the disorder to a smaller left hippocampus. (
  • We used bilateral amygdala as seed regions and the rsFC maps of the right and left amygdala were created separately in a voxel-wise way. (
  • This indicated that structural changes in the amygdala may be related to the GMV alterations in the ACC. (
  • Scientists know from animal studies that damage to the amygdala impairs social functioning. (
  • Patient H.M. was a man that underwent bilateral resection of the temporal lobe including the uncus, amygdala, anterior hippocampus, and parahippocampal gyrus to correct severe and intractable epilepsy [ 15 - 17 ]. (
  • Objective Amygdala enlargement (AE) has been suggested to be a subtype of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). (
  • As noted in chapters 3 and 5, it is the inferior temporal lobe, including the amygdala and hippocampus which are also largely involved in the formation of dream images. (
  • Eleven (17.7%) patients showed temporal lobe involvement with abnormal MR imaging in all. (
  • Kalin NH, Shelton SE, Davidson RJ, Kelley AE (2001) The primate amygdala mediates acute fear but not the behavioral and physiological components of anxious temperament. (
  • David Amaral and Cynthia Mills Schumann of the University of California, Davis conducted a survey on the number of neurons in the amygdala of nine autistic males and 10 nonautistic males ranging from ages 10 to 44. (
  • Amaral notes "This is the first quantitative evidence of an abnormal number of neurons in the autistic amygdala. (
  • It was found that although the amygdala volumes in all the brains was about the same, the autistic males as a group had almost 1.5 million fewer neurons than their peers. (
  • Citation Query MRI volumes of amygdala and hippocampus in non-mentally retarded autistic adolescents and adults. (
  • Now, a group of researchers led by California Institute of Technology (Caltech) neuroscientist Ralph Adolphs has made the first recordings of the firings of single neurons in the brains of autistic individuals, and has found specific neurons in a region called the amygdala that show reduced processing of the eye region of faces. (
  • This suggests that autistic symptoms may be a consequence of abnormal function in these structures. (
  • This result shows that the amygdala is not a necessary part of theory-of-mind function in adulthood and forces a reevaluation of the amygdala's role in social cognition. (
  • A dimensional analysis approach was used involving voxel-wise mapping of the correlation between subjects' social anxiety scores and amygdala activation, before and after controlling for fusiform gyrus activation. (
  • We observed that only after controlling for subjects' level of activation of the fusiform gyrus was there an association between social anxiety ratings and amygdala response to both happy and fearful faces. (
  • Amygdala activation in the processing of neutral faces in social anxiety disorder: is neutral really neutral? (
  • Amygdala is considered as the core pathogenesis of generalized social anxiety disorder (GSAD). (
  • Especially, the changes of the connectivity between the left amygdala and the dACC positively correlated with changes of the anxiety symptom in patients. (
  • In remarkable contrast to the response to faces, the amygdala response to threatening scenes was abnormally increased in participants with Williams Syndrome (see graphic below), mirroring their severe non-social anxiety. (
  • The amygdala response perfectly reflected the unique profile of social and non-social anxiety in Williams Syndrome," said Meyer-Lindenberg. (
  • The amygdala is often found to be abnormally recruited in social anxiety disorder (SAD) patients. (
  • Implications of abnormal effective connectivity and clinical severity were investigated using the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS). (
  • Mutant mice have increased startle response, reduced anxiety and enhanced spatial learning and memory (Barnes maze), with increased arginine vasopressin levels of the amygdala central and basolateral nuclei. (
  • Other research has suggested a strong relationship between anxiety, depression and the brain's fear circuitry, including the amygdala, where ASIC1a is abundant. (
  • Anxiety a core feature of panic disorder, is linked to function of the amygdala. (
  • The state anxiety was negatively correlated with the left amygdala volume in patients with panic disorder (r = −0.545, P = 0.016). (
  • Impaired connectivity between amygdala and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) rather than the activity pattern of the amygdala has been found to be related to anxiety symptoms severity [ 13 ]. (
  • Research by a different Stanford team had shown abnormal functional MRI activity in these regions among patients with generalized anxiety disorder. (
  • Bipolar patients exhibited reduced medial PFC (mPFC) rGBC, increased amygdala-MPFC connectivity, and reduced connectivity between amygdala and dorso-lateral PFC. (
  • Analyses focused on a priori neural regions supporting emotion processing (amygdala) and emotion regulation (ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC)), dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). (
  • Generalized seizures involving clonic convulsions of the entire body are often a feature of epilepsy and result from abnormal neural firing spreading throughout the forebrain. (
  • AGS-induced activation in the amygdala was examined using the immediate early gene (IEG) c-fos as a neural marker. (
  • 1998). Metabolic rate in the right amygdala predicts negative affect in depressed patients. (
  • The changes produced by rhinal damage took mainly the form of heightened defensiveness, and attenuated submission and approach responses, that is, just the opposite of some of the most distinctive symptoms following amygdala damage. (
  • To investigate differential amygdala responses to sad, happy and neutral faces presented below the level of explicit conscious awareness using a backward masking task in unmedicated subjects with MDD and healthy controls. (
  • For example, neurophysiological responses to explicitly presented sad faces are exaggerated in the amygdala in depressed patients compared to healthy controls 11 , and this abnormality normalizes following antidepressant drug treatment (ADT) 12 . (
  • Our study is the first to reveal a network of abnormal effective connectivity of core structures in SAD. (
  • One study reported smaller amygdala volumes in a cohort of breast cancer survivors with intrusive recollections compared to survivors without intrusive recollections, but none of the participants met diagnostic criteria for PTSD [ 18 ]. (
  • 2002), as has reduced amygdala volumes in others (=-=Aylward et al. (
  • Amygdala and hippocampus volumes were computed from MRI scans of all the participants. (
  • The finding, published Nov. 5, 2012, in the journal Archives of General Psychiatry, for the first time provides clear evidence that smaller amygdala volume is associated with PTSD, regardless of the severity of trauma. (
  • The next step is to try to figure out whether a smaller amygdala is the consequence of a trauma, or a vulnerability that makes people get PTSD," Morey said. (
  • As a result, it appears more likely that people with measurably smaller amygdala to begin with are susceptible to PTSD, but more studies are needed to make that determination. (
  • Morey said he and colleagues are exploring that question, and are intrigued by evidence from their study that suggests people may have a propensity for developing PTSD based on inherently smaller amygdala volume. (
  • The histopathology of the resected amygdala tissue was evaluated and compared with the amygdala tissue of patients with hippocampal sclerosis. (
  • Results Higher EL ratings were associated with greater positive iFC between the amygdala and rostral anterior cingulate cortex in youth with ADHD. (
  • Compared with controls, GMV reductions were found mainly in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and bilateral amygdala, and decreased SC was found between the amygdala and ACC in ESRD patients. (
  • In Williams Syndrome, this fragile system was significantly abnormal, particularly the orbitofrontal cortex. (
  • The medial portion of the orbitofrontal cortex connects with the paralimbic-limbic system, including the insular cortex, cingulate gryus, amygdala, and hypothalamus. (
  • Here, we examined the long-term sequelae of a rodent model of traumatic stress (repeated predator exposure) on amygdala systems that modulate startle and prepulse inhibition (PPI), an operational measure of sensorimotor gating. (
  • However, it is still unclear whether effective group cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) could modulate the function of amygdala-related network. (
  • The researchers found a delicate network by which these three regions modulate amygdala activity. (
  • Neuroimaging studies indicated depression could be a risk factor for cognitive control deficits, and amygdala-related circuitry may play a critical role in this abnormal interaction. (
  • This study compared the functional networks of each amygdala subdivision between healthy controls (HC) and patients with first-episode schizophrenia (FES). (
  • Furthermore, in relative to controls, patients showed higher connectivity of left amygdala with dmPFC and dACC at baseline, while normal after CBT. (
  • Compared to the baseline, patients with GSAD showed decreased connectivity of the left amygdala with the right putamen, the left dmPFC and the right dACC. (
  • The present investigation revealed significant volume decrease of left amygdala in PTSD patients. (
  • Whole brains of 50 patients with insomnia and 40 healthy controls were divided into 116 regions and abnormal connectivities were identified by comparing the Pearson's correlation coefficients of each pair using general linear model analyses with covariates of age, sex, and duration of education. (
  • Additionally, decreased FC between the amygdala and ACC was revealed in ESRD patients. (
  • Stepwise regression analysis showed that the low level of hemoglobin was contributed to the reduced FC of the amygdala-ACC in ESRD patients. (
  • Our results demonstrated the abnormal interaction between depressive mood and cognitive control deficits in ESRD patients. (
  • To address this question, we investigated a network of effective connectivity associated with the amygdala using Granger causality analysis on resting-state functional MRI data of 22 SAD patients and 21 healthy controls (HC). (
  • We found that inhalation of 35% CO2 evoked not only fear, but also panic attacks, in three rare patients with bilateral amygdala damage. (
  • He also suspected that some strange behaviors seen in mental patients might originate in the abnormal atmosphere of the mental hospital, rather than the patients themselves. (
  • While the control group showed greater activation in the left amygdala and left orbito-frontal cortex, patients with an ASD showed greater activation in the anterior cingulate gyrus and superior temporal cortex. (
  • Not only did stimulating serotonin nerve terminals reduce amygdala activity, but the chemogenetic inhibition of the amygdala using designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs also drastically decreased CLEs, whereas chemogenetic activation increased them. (
  • This is of major concern as abnormal HPA activity may actually have neurotoxic effects. (
  • The results support the idea that depression may be caused, at least in part, by abnormal amygdala activity. (
  • The amygdala activity continues independently of the original input, resulting in these persistent pain and emotion states," Neugebauer said. (
  • We're going to study the mechanics of this process, trying to identify specific targets that could allow us to regain control of amygdala activity. (
  • The oblique coronal T1 weighted image (T1WI) sequence was used to measure the volume of amygdala and the MRI signals were measured and analyzed. (
  • Such faces are known to be highly socially relevant danger signals that strongly activate the amygdala. (
  • Ensemble bursting in the amygdala accurately predicts main fixations during the free-viewing of natural images. (
  • The amygdala is part of the limbic system, and it particularly handles fear. (
  • Simply put, the amygdala is part of the limbic system and appears to play a major role in the processing of the emotions. (
  • It's associated with how fear is processed, especially abnormal fear processing. (
  • Study on the mechanism of TMRK Electroacupuncture in repairing synaptic plasticity in amygdala and hippocampus to relieve fear memory in PTSD rats. (
  • CONCLUSIONS: The effect of TMRK electro-acupuncture method on the regression of fear memory of PTSD rats may be through its repair of synaptic plasticity in amygdala and hippocampus. (
  • Medical Xpress)-Researchers at the University of Iowa have found that three volunteer women with defective amygdalas were able to experience internal fear. (
  • Thus, despite a non-functioning amygdala, the women were still able to feel fear, just not the kind associated with external threats. (
  • These results indicate that the amygdala is not required for fear and panic, and make an important distinction between fear triggered by external threats from the environment versus fear triggered internally by CO2. (
  • The amygdala is involved in the regulation of two key emotions: fear and aggression. (
  • Researchers managed to associate beyond a reasonable doubt three abnormal behavioral factors - lack of fear, blunting of emotions, and overreaction - with damages inflicted on the amygdala. (
  • Scientists have learned that inhibiting a protein called NMDA (N-methyl D-asparate) in the amygdala inhibits fear extinction. (
  • Fear and the Amygdala. (
  • However, whether rsFC of amygdala subregions is differentially affected in schizophrenia remains unclear. (
  • The rsFC of the three amygdala subdivisions was computed and compared between the two groups. (
  • We found that left amygdala is the most significant parameter for distinction between PTSD participants and participants without PTSD. (
  • Roc curve method outlined left amygdala AUC = 0.898 (95% CI = 0.830-0.967) and right amygdala AUC = 0.882 (95% CI = 0.810-0.954) in the group of PTSD participants which makes both variables highly statistically significant. (
  • In the present study, we have hypothesized that volume changes in amygdala, hippocampus, and prefrontal cortex are more pronounced in male therapy-naive PTSD participants with headaches. (
  • When a person suffers from PTSD, the normal systems that balance the amygdala activation become impaired. (
  • Glutamate - we think this neurotransmitter is involved in the pathology of PTSD and the over-activation of the amygdala. (
  • Dopamine - the dopaminergic system is activated by amygdala activation so medications that inhibit this action may help in acute stress situations to prevent PTSD. (
  • But it's not clear whether the physiological difference was caused by a traumatic event, or whether PTSD develops more readily in people who naturally have smaller amygdalas. (
  • Researchers found 20 years ago that there were changes in volume of the hippocampus associated with PTSD, but the amygdala is more relevant to the disorder," said Rajendra A. Morey, M.D., M.S., assistant professor at Duke and lead author of the study. (
  • on frontal and temporal lobes and the cerebellum) and subcortical regions (focusing on the amygdala and hippocampus), but the results are inconsistent (e.g. (