Bone Morphogenetic Proteins: Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes. The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2: A potent osteoinductive protein that plays a critical role in the differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells into OSTEOBLASTS.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4: A bone morphogenetic protein that is a potent inducer of bone formation. It also functions as a regulator of MESODERM formation during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 7: A bone morphogenetic protein that is widely expressed during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. It is both a potent osteogenic factor and a specific regulator of nephrogenesis.Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptors, Type I: A subtype of bone morphogenetic protein receptors with high affinity for BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEINS. They can interact with and undergo PHOSPHORYLATION by BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS, TYPE II. They signal primarily through RECEPTOR-REGULATED SMAD PROTEINS.Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptors: A family of CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS that bind BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEINS. They are PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that mediate SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS through SMAD PROTEINS.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 6: A bone morphogenetic protein that is a potent inducer of BONE formation. It plays additional roles in regulating CELL DIFFERENTIATION of non-osteoblastic cell types and epithelial-mesenchymal interactions.Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptors, Type II: A subtype of bone morphogenetic protein receptors with low affinity for BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEINS. They are constitutively active PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that can interact with and phosphorylate TYPE I BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS.Bone and Bones: A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 5: A bone morphogenetic protein that may play a role in CARTILAGE formation. It is a potent regulator of the growth of CHONDROCYTES and the synthesis of cartilage matrix proteins. Evidence for its role in cartilage formation can be seen in MICE, where genetic mutations that cause loss of bone morphogenetic protein 5 function result in the formation of small malformed ears.Smad1 Protein: A receptor-regulated smad protein that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS. It regulates BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN signaling and plays an essential role in EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.Smad Proteins: A family of proteins that are involved in the translocation of signals from TGF-BETA RECEPTORS; BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS; and other surface receptors to the CELL NUCLEUS. They were originally identified as a class of proteins that are related to the mothers against decapentaplegic protein, Drosophila and sma proteins from CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 3: A bone morphogenetic protein that is found at high concentrations in a purified osteoinductive protein fraction from BONE. Bone morphogenetic protein 3 is referred to as osteogenin, however it may play a role in variety of developmental processes.Smad5 Protein: A receptor-regulated smad protein that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS. It regulates BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN signaling and is essential for PHYSIOLOGICAL ANGIOGENESIS.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 15: A protein that plays a role in GRANULOSA CELLS where it regulates folliculogenesis. Mutations in the gene for bone morphogenetic protein 15 are linked to reproductive abnormalities such as PREMATURE OVARIAN FAILURE.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 1: A bone morphogenetic protein family member that includes an active tolloid-like metalloproteinase domain. The metalloproteinase activity of bone morphogenetic protein 1 is specific for the removal of the C-propeptide of PROCOLLAGEN and may act as a regulator of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX deposition. Alternative splicing of MRNA for bone morphogenetic protein 1 results in the production of several PROTEIN ISOFORMS.Transforming Growth Factor beta: A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.Bone Remodeling: The continuous turnover of BONE MATRIX and mineral that involves first an increase in BONE RESORPTION (osteoclastic activity) and later, reactive BONE FORMATION (osteoblastic activity). The process of bone remodeling takes place in the adult skeleton at discrete foci. The process ensures the mechanical integrity of the skeleton throughout life and plays an important role in calcium HOMEOSTASIS. An imbalance in the regulation of bone remodeling's two contrasting events, bone resorption and bone formation, results in many of the metabolic bone diseases, such as OSTEOPOROSIS.Smad6 Protein: An inhibitory Smad protein that negatively regulates the SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS from BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS. Smad6 inhibits PHOSPHORYLATION of SMAD2 PROTEIN and SMAD3 PROTEIN.Smad8 Protein: A receptor-regulated smad protein that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS and regulates BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN signaling.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Osteogenesis: The process of bone formation. Histogenesis of bone including ossification.Growth Differentiation Factor 2: A growth differentiation factor that plays a regulatory role as a paracrine factor for a diverse array of cell types during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT and in the adult tissues. Growth differentiation factor 2 is also a potent regulator of CHONDROGENESIS and was previously referred to as bone morphogenetic protein 9.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Osteoblasts: Bone-forming cells which secrete an EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. HYDROXYAPATITE crystals are then deposited into the matrix to form bone.Bone Regeneration: Renewal or repair of lost bone tissue. It excludes BONY CALLUS formed after BONE FRACTURES but not yet replaced by hard bone.Bone Density: The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.Receptors, Growth Factor: Cell surface receptors that bind growth or trophic factors with high affinity, triggering intracellular responses which influence the growth, differentiation, or survival of cells.Growth Differentiation Factors: A family of BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN-related proteins that are primarily involved in regulation of CELL DIFFERENTIATION.Growth Differentiation Factor 5: A growth differentiation factor that plays a role in early CHONDROGENESIS and joint formation.Bone Development: The growth and development of bones from fetus to adult. It includes two principal mechanisms of bone growth: growth in length of long bones at the epiphyseal cartilages and growth in thickness by depositing new bone (OSTEOGENESIS) with the actions of OSTEOBLASTS and OSTEOCLASTS.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Growth Differentiation Factor 9: A bone morphogenetic protein that plays an essential role in the regulation of ovarian folliculogenesis.Bone Matrix: Extracellular substance of bone tissue consisting of COLLAGEN fibers, ground substance, and inorganic crystalline minerals and salts.Bone Resorption: Bone loss due to osteoclastic activity.Activin Receptors, Type I: One of the two types of ACTIVIN RECEPTORS or activin receptor-like kinases (ALK'S). There are several type I activin receptors. The major active ones are ALK-2 (ActR-IA) and ALK-4 (ActR-IB).Growth Differentiation Factor 6: A growth differentiation factor that plays a role in the neural differentiation, specifically in the retinal development of the EYE.Activins: Activins are produced in the pituitary, gonads, and other tissues. By acting locally, they stimulate pituitary FSH secretion and have diverse effects on cell differentiation and embryonic development. Activins are glycoproteins that are hetero- or homodimers of INHIBIN-BETA SUBUNITS.Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.Smad4 Protein: A signal transducing adaptor protein and tumor suppressor protein. It forms a complex with activated RECEPTOR-REGULATED SMAD PROTEINS. The complex then translocates to the CELL NUCLEUS and regulates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of target GENES.Bone Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.Activin Receptors, Type II: One of the two types of ACTIVIN RECEPTORS. They are membrane protein kinases belonging to the family of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES. The major type II activin receptors are ActR-IIA and ActR-IIB.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Bone Diseases: Diseases of BONES.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Follistatin: A broadly distributed protein that binds directly to ACTIVINS. It functions as an activin antagonist, inhibits FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretion, regulates CELL DIFFERENTIATION, and plays an important role in embryogenesis. Follistatin is a single glycosylated polypeptide chain of approximately 37-kDa and is not a member of the inhibin family (INHIBINS). Follistatin also binds and neutralizes many members of the TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA family.Body Patterning: The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.Mesoderm: The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.Activin Receptors: Receptors for ACTIVINS are membrane protein kinases belonging to the family of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES, thus also named activin receptor-like kinases (ALK's). Activin receptors also bind TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA. As those transmembrane receptors of the TGF-beta superfamily (RECEPTORS, TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA), ALK's consist of two different but related protein kinases, Type I and Type II. Activins initiate cellular signal transduction by first binding to the type II receptors (ACTIVIN RECEPTORS, TYPE II ) which then recruit and phosphorylate the type I receptors (ACTIVIN RECEPTORS, TYPE I ) with subsequent activation of the type I kinase activity.Inhibitor of Differentiation Protein 1: A negative regulator of BASIC HELIX-LOOP-HELIX TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that blocks activation of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P16 and is de-regulated in a variety of NEOPLASMS.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Smad Proteins, Receptor-Regulated: A family of smad proteins that undergo PHOSPHORYLATION by CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS in response to TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA; ACTIVIN; or BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN signaling.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Alkaline Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 188.8.131.52.Tolloid-Like Metalloproteinases: A family of metalloproteases that are related to the DROSOPHILA protein tolloid, which is a gene product necessary for dorsal-ventral patterning in early Drosophila embryogenesis. Many members of the group may play a significant role in intercellular signaling.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Bone Transplantation: The grafting of bone from a donor site to a recipient site.MSX1 Transcription Factor: A homeodomain protein that interacts with TATA-BOX BINDING PROTEIN. It represses GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of target GENES and plays a critical role in ODONTOGENESIS.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Xenopus Proteins: Proteins obtained from various species of Xenopus. Included here are proteins from the African clawed frog (XENOPUS LAEVIS). Many of these proteins have been the subject of scientific investigations in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Ossification, Heterotopic: The development of bony substance in normally soft structures.Core Binding Factor Alpha 1 Subunit: A transcription factor that dimerizes with CORE BINDING FACTOR BETA SUBUNIT to form core binding factor. It contains a highly conserved DNA-binding domain known as the runt domain and is involved in genetic regulation of skeletal development and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.Chondrogenesis: The formation of cartilage. This process is directed by CHONDROCYTES which continually divide and lay down matrix during development. It is sometimes a precursor to OSTEOGENESIS.Stem Cells: Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Calcification, Physiologic: Process by which organic tissue becomes hardened by the physiologic deposit of calcium salts.Hypertension, Pulmonary: Increased VASCULAR RESISTANCE in the PULMONARY CIRCULATION, usually secondary to HEART DISEASES or LUNG DISEASES.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Myositis Ossificans: A disease characterized by bony deposits or the ossification of muscle tissue.Smad7 Protein: An inhibitory smad protein that associates with TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA RECEPTORS and BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS. It negatively regulates SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS by inhibiting PHOSPHORYLATION of RECEPTOR-REGULATED SMAD PROTEINS.Hedgehog Proteins: A family of intercellular signaling proteins that play and important role in regulating the development of many TISSUES and organs. Their name derives from the observation of a hedgehog-like appearance in DROSOPHILA embryos with genetic mutations that block their action.Bone Substitutes: Synthetic or natural materials for the replacement of bones or bone tissue. They include hard tissue replacement polymers, natural coral, hydroxyapatite, beta-tricalcium phosphate, and various other biomaterials. The bone substitutes as inert materials can be incorporated into surrounding tissue or gradually replaced by original tissue.Wnt Proteins: Wnt proteins are a large family of secreted glycoproteins that play essential roles in EMBRYONIC AND FETAL DEVELOPMENT, and tissue maintenance. They bind to FRIZZLED RECEPTORS and act as PARACRINE PROTEIN FACTORS to initiate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. The canonical Wnt signaling pathway stabilizes the transcriptional coactivator BETA CATENIN.Hepcidins: Forms of hepcidin, a cationic amphipathic peptide synthesized in the liver as a prepropeptide which is first processed into prohepcidin and then into the biologically active hepcidin forms, including in human the 20-, 22-, and 25-amino acid residue peptide forms. Hepcidin acts as a homeostatic regulators of iron metabolism and also possesses antimicrobial activity.Chondrocytes: Polymorphic cells that form cartilage.Homeodomain Proteins: Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).Osteocalcin: Vitamin K-dependent calcium-binding protein synthesized by OSTEOBLASTS and found primarily in BONES. Serum osteocalcin measurements provide a noninvasive specific marker of bone metabolism. The protein contains three residues of the amino acid gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla), which, in the presence of CALCIUM, promotes binding to HYDROXYAPATITE and subsequent accumulation in BONE MATRIX.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Ectoderm: The outer of the three germ layers of an embryo.Morphogenesis: The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.Cartilage: A non-vascular form of connective tissue composed of CHONDROCYTES embedded in a matrix that includes CHONDROITIN SULFATE and various types of FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. There are three major types: HYALINE CARTILAGE; FIBROCARTILAGE; and ELASTIC CARTILAGE.Cell Lineage: The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Skull: The SKELETON of the HEAD including the FACIAL BONES and the bones enclosing the BRAIN.Mice, Inbred C57BLEmbryo, Nonmammalian: The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Wnt3A Protein: A Wnt protein subtype that plays a role in cell-cell signaling during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT and the morphogenesis of the developing NEURAL TUBE.Zebrafish Proteins: Proteins obtained from the ZEBRAFISH. Many of the proteins in this species have been the subject of studies involving basic embryological development (EMBRYOLOGY).Mesenchymal Stromal Cells: Bone-marrow-derived, non-hematopoietic cells that support HEMATOPOETIC STEM CELLS. They have also been isolated from other organs and tissues such as UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD, umbilical vein subendothelium, and WHARTON JELLY. These cells are considered to be a source of multipotent stem cells because they include subpopulations of mesenchymal stem cells.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Receptors, Transforming Growth Factor beta: Cell-surface proteins that bind transforming growth factor beta and trigger changes influencing the behavior of cells. Two types of transforming growth factor receptors have been recognized. They differ in affinity for different members of the transforming growth factor beta family and in cellular mechanisms of action.Fractures, Bone: Breaks in bones.Bone Diseases, MetabolicMice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Embryo, Mammalian: The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.Wnt3 Protein: A Wnt protein subtype that plays a role in cell-cell signaling during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT and the morphogenesis of the developing NEURAL TUBE. Defects in Wnt3 protein are associated with autosomal recessive tetra-AMELIA in humans.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Zebrafish: An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Bone Marrow Transplantation: The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Smad2 Protein: A receptor-regulated smad protein that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by ACTIVIN RECEPTORS, TYPE I. It regulates TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA and ACTIVIN signaling.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Fibroblast Growth Factors: A family of small polypeptide growth factors that share several common features including a strong affinity for HEPARIN, and a central barrel-shaped core region of 140 amino acids that is highly homologous between family members. Although originally studied as proteins that stimulate the growth of fibroblasts this distinction is no longer a requirement for membership in the fibroblast growth factor family.Fracture Healing: The physiological restoration of bone tissue and function after a fracture. It includes BONY CALLUS formation and normal replacement of bone tissue.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Periosteum: Thin outer membrane that surrounds a bone. It contains CONNECTIVE TISSUE, CAPILLARIES, nerves, and a number of cell types.Neural Crest: The two longitudinal ridges along the PRIMITIVE STREAK appearing near the end of GASTRULATION during development of nervous system (NEURULATION). The ridges are formed by folding of NEURAL PLATE. Between the ridges is a neural groove which deepens as the fold become elevated. When the folds meet at midline, the groove becomes a closed tube, the NEURAL TUBE.Nodal Protein: The founding member of the nodal signaling ligand family of proteins. Nodal protein was originally discovered in the region of the mouse embryo primitive streak referred to as HENSEN'S NODE. It is expressed asymmetrically on the left side in chordates and plays a critical role in the genesis of left-right asymmetry during vertebrate development.X-Ray Microtomography: X-RAY COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY with resolution in the micrometer range.Pulmonary Artery: The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Growth Substances: Signal molecules that are involved in the control of cell growth and differentiation.Embryonic Stem Cells: Cells derived from the BLASTOCYST INNER CELL MASS which forms before implantation in the uterine wall. They retain the ability to divide, proliferate and provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Gastrula: The developmental stage that follows BLASTULA or BLASTOCYST. It is characterized by the morphogenetic cell movements including invagination, ingression, and involution. Gastrulation begins with the formation of the PRIMITIVE STREAK, and ends with the formation of three GERM LAYERS, the body plan of the mature organism.Femur: The longest and largest bone of the skeleton, it is situated between the hip and the knee.Embryonic Induction: The complex processes of initiating CELL DIFFERENTIATION in the embryo. The precise regulation by cell interactions leads to diversity of cell types and specific pattern of organization (EMBRYOGENESIS).Xenopus: An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Limb Deformities, Congenital: Congenital structural deformities of the upper and lower extremities collectively or unspecified.Inhibins: Glycoproteins that inhibit pituitary FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretion. Inhibins are secreted by the Sertoli cells of the testes, the granulosa cells of the ovarian follicles, the placenta, and other tissues. Inhibins and ACTIVINS are modulators of FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretions; both groups belong to the TGF-beta superfamily, as the TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA. Inhibins consist of a disulfide-linked heterodimer with a unique alpha linked to either a beta A or a beta B subunit to form inhibin A or inhibin B, respectivelyGranulosa Cells: Supporting cells for the developing female gamete in the OVARY. They are derived from the coelomic epithelial cells of the gonadal ridge. Granulosa cells form a single layer around the OOCYTE in the primordial ovarian follicle and advance to form a multilayered cumulus oophorus surrounding the OVUM in the Graafian follicle. The major functions of granulosa cells include the production of steroids and LH receptors (RECEPTORS, LH).Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides: Small cationic peptides that are an important component, in most species, of early innate and induced defenses against invading microbes. In animals they are found on mucosal surfaces, within phagocytic granules, and on the surface of the body. They are also found in insects and plants. Among others, this group includes the DEFENSINS, protegrins, tachyplesins, and thionins. They displace DIVALENT CATIONS from phosphate groups of MEMBRANE LIPIDS leading to disruption of the membrane.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Organogenesis: Formation of differentiated cells and complicated tissue organization to provide specialized functions.Osteoclasts: A large multinuclear cell associated with the BONE RESORPTION. An odontoclast, also called cementoclast, is cytomorphologically the same as an osteoclast and is involved in CEMENTUM resorption.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Extracellular Matrix Proteins: Macromolecular organic compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually, sulfur. These macromolecules (proteins) form an intricate meshwork in which cells are embedded to construct tissues. Variations in the relative types of macromolecules and their organization determine the type of extracellular matrix, each adapted to the functional requirements of the tissue. The two main classes of macromolecules that form the extracellular matrix are: glycosaminoglycans, usually linked to proteins (proteoglycans), and fibrous proteins (e.g., COLLAGEN; ELASTIN; FIBRONECTINS; and LAMININ).Extremities: The farthest or outermost projections of the body, such as the HAND and FOOT.Inhibin-beta Subunits: They are glycopeptides and subunits in INHIBINS and ACTIVINS. Inhibins and activins belong to the transforming growth factor beta superfamily.Transforming Growth Factor beta1: A subtype of transforming growth factor beta that is synthesized by a wide variety of cells. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta1 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor. Defects in the gene that encodes TGF-beta1 are the cause of CAMURATI-ENGELMANN SYNDROME.Endoderm: The inner of the three germ layers of an embryo.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Genes, Reporter: Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.Tibia: The second longest bone of the skeleton. It is located on the medial side of the lower leg, articulating with the FIBULA laterally, the TALUS distally, and the FEMUR proximally.Ulna: The inner and longer bone of the FOREARM.Bone Demineralization Technique: Removal of mineral constituents or salts from bone or bone tissue. Demineralization is used as a method of studying bone strength and bone chemistry.Paracrine Communication: Cellular signaling in which a factor secreted by a cell affects other cells in the local environment. This term is often used to denote the action of INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS on surrounding cells.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Brachydactyly: Congenital anomaly of abnormally short fingers or toes.Inhibitor of Differentiation Proteins: Inhibitor of differentiation proteins are negative regulators of BASIC HELIX-LOOP-HELIX TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS. They inhibit CELL DIFFERENTIATION and induce CELL PROLIFERATION by modulating different CELL CYCLE regulators.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Tissue Engineering: Generating tissue in vitro for clinical applications, such as replacing wounded tissues or impaired organs. The use of TISSUE SCAFFOLDING enables the generation of complex multi-layered tissues and tissue structures.Hair Follicle: A tube-like invagination of the EPIDERMIS from which the hair shaft develops and into which SEBACEOUS GLANDS open. The hair follicle is lined by a cellular inner and outer root sheath of epidermal origin and is invested with a fibrous sheath derived from the dermis. (Stedman, 26th ed) Follicles of very long hairs extend into the subcutaneous layer of tissue under the SKIN.Growth Differentiation Factor 10: A growth differentiation factor that is closely-related in structure to BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN 3. Growth differentiation factor 10 is found at high levels in BONE, however it plays an additional roles in regulating EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.beta Catenin: A multi-functional catenin that participates in CELL ADHESION and nuclear signaling. Beta catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to the ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It also serves as a transcriptional co-activator and downstream component of WNT PROTEIN-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Embryonic Development: Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Fractures, Cartilage: Breaks in CARTILAGE.Osteocytes: Mature osteoblasts that have become embedded in the BONE MATRIX. They occupy a small cavity, called lacuna, in the matrix and are connected to adjacent osteocytes via protoplasmic projections called canaliculi.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.DioxolesCartilage, Articular: A protective layer of firm, flexible cartilage over the articulating ends of bones. It provides a smooth surface for joint movement, protecting the ends of long bones from wear at points of contact.SOX9 Transcription Factor: A SOXE transcription factor that plays a critical role in regulating CHONDROGENESIS; OSTEOGENESIS; and male sex determination. Loss of function of the SOX9 transcription factor due to genetic mutations is a cause of CAMPOMELIC DYSPLASIA.Ovary: The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.Collagen Type I: The most common form of fibrillar collagen. It is a major constituent of bone (BONE AND BONES) and SKIN and consists of a heterotrimer of two alpha1(I) and one alpha2(I) chains.Odontogenesis: The process of TOOTH formation. It is divided into several stages including: the dental lamina stage, the bud stage, the cap stage, and the bell stage. Odontogenesis includes the production of tooth enamel (AMELOGENESIS), dentin (DENTINOGENESIS), and dental cementum (CEMENTOGENESIS).Myocytes, Smooth Muscle: Non-striated, elongated, spindle-shaped cells found lining the digestive tract, uterus, and blood vessels. They are derived from specialized myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SMOOTH MUSCLE).Follistatin-Related Proteins: Broadly distributed glycoproteins that are homologous to the activin-binding protein, FOLLISTATIN. These follistatin-related proteins are encoded by a number of genes.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Osteoporosis: Reduction of bone mass without alteration in the composition of bone, leading to fractures. Primary osteoporosis can be of two major types: postmenopausal osteoporosis (OSTEOPOROSIS, POSTMENOPAUSAL) and age-related or senile osteoporosis.Nerve Tissue ProteinsStromal Cells: Connective tissue cells of an organ found in the loose connective tissue. These are most often associated with the uterine mucosa and the ovary as well as the hematopoietic system and elsewhere.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Fibroblast Growth Factor 8: A fibroblast growth factor that preferentially activates FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR 4. It was initially identified as an androgen-induced growth factor and plays a role in regulating growth of human BREAST NEOPLASMS and PROSTATIC NEOPLASMS.Culture Media, Conditioned: Culture media containing biologically active components obtained from previously cultured cells or tissues that have released into the media substances affecting certain cell functions (e.g., growth, lysis).Synostosis: A union between adjacent bones or parts of a single bone formed by osseous material, such as ossified connecting cartilage or fibrous tissue. (Dorland, 27th ed)Calcinosis: Pathologic deposition of calcium salts in tissues.Transforming Growth Factor beta3: A TGF-beta subtype that plays role in regulating epithelial-mesenchymal interaction during embryonic development. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta3 and TGF-beta3 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Osseointegration: The growth action of bone tissue as it assimilates surgically implanted devices or prostheses to be used as either replacement parts (e.g., hip) or as anchors (e.g., endosseous dental implants).Transforming Growth Factor beta2: A TGF-beta subtype that was originally identified as a GLIOBLASTOMA-derived factor which inhibits the antigen-dependent growth of both helper and CYTOTOXIC T LYMPHOCYTES. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta2 and TGF-beta2 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor.Nervous System: The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses. (Stedman, 26th ed)Ovarian Follicle: An OOCYTE-containing structure in the cortex of the OVARY. The oocyte is enclosed by a layer of GRANULOSA CELLS providing a nourishing microenvironment (FOLLICULAR FLUID). The number and size of follicles vary depending on the age and reproductive state of the female. The growing follicles are divided into five stages: primary, secondary, tertiary, Graafian, and atretic. Follicular growth and steroidogenesis depend on the presence of GONADOTROPINS.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Temporal Bone: Either of a pair of compound bones forming the lateral (left and right) surfaces and base of the skull which contains the organs of hearing. It is a large bone formed by the fusion of parts: the squamous (the flattened anterior-superior part), the tympanic (the curved anterior-inferior part), the mastoid (the irregular posterior portion), and the petrous (the part at the base of the skull).Cumulus Cells: The granulosa cells of the cumulus oophorus which surround the OVUM in the GRAAFIAN FOLLICLE. At OVULATION they are extruded with OVUM.Smad3 Protein: A receptor-regulated smad protein that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by ACTIVIN RECEPTORS, TYPE I. Activated Smad3 can bind directly to DNA, and it regulates TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA and ACTIVIN signaling.OdontoblastsMice, Mutant Strains: Mice bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.Neurulation: An early embryonic developmental process of CHORDATES that is characterized by morphogenic movements of ECTODERM resulting in the formation of the NEURAL PLATE; the NEURAL CREST; and the NEURAL TUBE. Improper closure of the NEURAL GROOVE results in congenital NEURAL TUBE DEFECTS.Tissue Scaffolds: Cell growth support structures composed of BIOCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS. They are specially designed solid support matrices for cell attachment in TISSUE ENGINEERING and GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION uses.
Bone morphogenetic protein 6
Bone morphogenetic proteins are known for their ability to induce the growth of bone and cartilage. BMP6 is able to induce all ... The bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are a family of secreted signaling molecules that can induce ectopic bone growth. BMPs ... Bone morphogenetic protein 6 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BMP6 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a ... 2001). "Effect of bone morphogenetic protein-6 on haemopoietic stem cells and cytokine production in normal human bone marrow ...
Bone morphogenetic protein 10
Bone morphogenetic proteins are known for their ability to induce bone and cartilage development. BMP10 is categorized as a BMP ... Bone morphogenetic protein 10 (BMP10) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BMP10 gene. BMP10 is a polypeptide ... 2005). "Identification of receptors and signaling pathways for orphan bone morphogenetic protein/growth differentiation factor ... bone morphogenetic protein 10". Neuhaus H, Rosen V, Thies RS (February 1999). "Heart specific expression of mouse BMP-10 a ...
Bone morphogenetic protein 4
Bone morphogenetic proteins were originally identified by an ability of demineralized bone extract to induce endochondral ... Bone morphogenetic proteins are known to stimulate bone formation in adult animals. This is thought that inducing osteoblastic ... "Potent ectopic bone-inducing activity of bone morphogenetic protein-4/7 heterodimer". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 210 (3): ... It, like other bone morphogenetic proteins, is involved in bone and cartilage development, specifically tooth and limb ...
The mechanism behind these inductions is an inhibition of the bone morphogenetic protein 4 signaling pathway that ventralizes ... The anterior inducing ability comes from the Xwnt-8 antagonizing signals Cereberus, Dickkopf and Frzb discussed above. Anterior ... These proteins are known to be ligands for the Notch protein. GLP-1, a Notch protein, is also required for specification of the ... The organizer induces ventral mesoderm to become lateral mesoderm, induces the ectoderm to form neural tissue and induces ...
Bone morphogenetic protein 3
It, like other bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP's) is known for its ability to induce bone and cartilage development. It is a ... Bone morphogenetic protein 3, also known as osteogenin, is a protein in humans that is encoded by the BMP3 gene. The protein ... "Bone morphogenetic protein-3 is a negative regulator of bone density". Nature Genetics. 27 (1): 84-8. doi:10.1038/83810. PMID ... Chen AL, Fang C, Liu C, Leslie MP, Chang E, Di Cesare PE (November 2004). "Expression of bone morphogenetic proteins, receptors ...
... by spontaneous differentiation on a gelatin culture dish or by cytokine induction containing bone morphogenetic protein-4 and ... Mice recovered motor function and spatial learning and memory ability. Intravenously injected human bone marrow-derived Muse ... These induced adipocytes contain lipid droplets and stain positive for oil red O. In addition, Muse cluster expanded cells ... Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells Fibroblasts Adipose-derived stem cells Bone marrow: Bone marrow mononucleated cells ...
Bone morphogenetic protein 8B
BMPs were originally identified by an ability of demineralized bone extract to induce endochondral osteogenesis in vivo in an ... The bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are a family of secreted signaling molecules that can induce ectopic bone growth. Many ... Bone morphogenetic protein 8B is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BMP8B gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a ... "Entrez Gene: BMP8B bone morphogenetic protein 8b (osteogenic protein 2)". Human BMP8B genome location and BMP8B gene details ...
Bone morphogenetic protein 5
Bone morphogenetic proteins are known for their ability to induce bone and cartilage development. BMP5 may play a role in ... Bone morphogenetic proteins were originally identified by an ability of demineralized bone extract to induce endochondral ... Bone morphogenetic protein 5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BMP5 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is ... "Expression of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP), BMP receptors, and BMP associated proteins in human trabecular meshwork and ...
"Bone morphogenetic proteins induce cardiomyocyte differentiation through the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase ... What is more, by using the ability of RA-induced neurogenesis in P19 cell, lots of researchers started to identify the in vitro ... The main affected signaling pathway, bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) pathway is the most strongly studied signaling in P19 ... It could also induce neuroblastoma cells, lung cancer cells and mouse ES cells. At concentration of 0.5%-1% DMSO induced P19 ...
"Activin and bone morphogenetic proteins are present in perinatal sensory neuron target tissues that induce neuropeptides". ... The protein's name, which is a slang English-language word for "head," was coined in reference to its ability to produce ... superfamily signaling proteins, such as bone morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP4). By diffusing through extracellular matrices more ... BMPedia - the Bone Morphogenetic Protein Wiki Noggin publications, gene expression data, sequences and interactants from ...
Bone morphogenetic protein
Originally discovered by their ability to induce the formation of bone and cartilage, BMPs are now considered to constitute a ... Spinal Fusion and Bone Morphogenetic Protein Reddi AH (1997). "Bone morphogenetic proteins: an unconventional approach to ... BMP: The What and the Who BMPedia - the Bone Morphogenetic Protein Wiki Bone Morphogenetic Proteins at the US National Library ... "Bone Morphogenetic Protein" in the scientific literature in the Journal of Dental Research in 1971. Bone induction is a ...
For example, QSulf1 reduces specific HS 6-O sulfation which releases Noggin, an inhibitor of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), ... Dong G, Chen Z, Li ZY, Yeh NT, Bancroft CC, Van Waes C (August 2001). "Hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor-induced ... This increase was attributed to its ability to inhibit angiogenesis as it had in breast cancer models. GRCh38: Ensembl release ... "Domain-specific modification of heparan sulfate by Qsulf1 modulates the binding of the bone morphogenetic protein antagonist ...
... beta and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)". Anat Rec. 258 (2): 119-27. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1097-0185(20000201)258:2. 3.0.CO;2-U. ... Concurrently, the ureteric bud induces the nephrogenic mesenchyme to condense around the bud and undergo MET to form the renal ... Activation of PKA leads to mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition and loss of tumor-initiating ability. March 2016. doi=10.1126/ ... As the ureteric bud grows out of the Wolffian duct, the nephrogenic mesenchyme induces the ureteric bud to branch. ...
Development of the human cortex
Bmp-7, or bone morphogenetic protein 7 is an important regulator in corticogenesis, though it is not understood whether it ... It has been shown the p57 induces cells to exit from the cell cycle and begin differentiation, but it is dependent on Cdks. p57 ... The recapitulation ability only follows after the knowledge of spatial and temporal patterns have been identified, along with ... Other bone morphogenetic proteins are also known to impact corticogenesis. Bmp2, 4, 5, and 6 are expressed during the process ...
"The bone morphogenetic protein antagonist gremlin 1 is overexpressed in human cancers and interacts with YWHAH protein". BMC ... Overexpression of Grem1 decreases osteoblast differentiation or the inhibition of bone formation and the ability for bone ... Michos O, Panman L, Vintersten K, Beier K, Zeller R, Zuniga A (2004). "Gremlin-mediated BMP antagonism induces the epithelial- ... Gremlin1 (Grem1) is known for its antagonistic interaction with bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) in the TGF beta signaling ...
... of the co-repressor homeodomain-interacting protein kinase 2 for ski-mediated inhibition of bone morphogenetic protein-induced ... "The transforming activity of Ski and SnoN is dependent on their ability to repress the activity of Smad proteins". J. Biol. ... The SKI protein and the CPB protein compete for binding with the Smad proteins, specifically competing with the Smad-3 and CReB ... The SnoN protein was identified as a similar protein and is often discussed in conjugation with the Ski protein in publications ...
Bone morphogenetic proteins, BMPs, were originally found to cause a differentiation in bone formation; however, they have ... This increase in melatonin reduces the ability to learn and facilitate new memories. The ability for melatonin to suppress ... LTD can be induced by electrical impulses at around 5 Hz. These changes are synapse specific. A neuron can have many different ... When new receptor proteins are being expressed and synthesized they must also be transported to the synaptic membrane, and some ...
"MicroRNA miR-155 inhibits bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling and BMP-mediated Epstein-Barr virus reactivation". Journal ... "Tumor protein 53-induced nuclear protein 1 expression is repressed by miR-155, and its restoration inhibits pancreatic tumor ... Martinez-Nunez RT, Louafi F, Friedmann PS, Sanchez-Elsner T (Jun 2009). "MicroRNA-155 modulates the pathogen binding ability of ... the protein-encoding mRNA for the transcriptional regulator Pu.1-protein, elevation of Pu.1 protein predisposes defective IgG1 ...
Gene therapy for osteoarthritis
... bone morphogenetic protein, and other anabolic gene candidates are among the candidate genes for OA. Genetic changes in OA can ... Primarily, viral vectors induce an inflammatory response, which can cause minor side effects such as mild edema or serious ones ... This can be deadly, but the brilliant idea is to take advantage of this natural ability. The idea is to remove all the ... They contain instructions for making proteins. If genes do not produce the right proteins in a correct way, a child can have a ...
Embryonic stem cell
It is now known that the feeder cells provide leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and serum provides bone morphogenetic proteins ( ... are distinguished by their ability to differentiate into any cell type and by their ability to propagate. Embryonic stem cell's ... Nonetheless, ESC express very high levels of the iPS inducing genes and these genes including Myc are essential for ESC self- ... So, in addition to human ES cell research, many groups are focused on the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS ...
"Conversion of the Nipple to Hair-Bearing Epithelia by Lowering Bone Morphogenetic Protein Pathway Activity at the Dermal- ... Neither estrogen nor GH are capable of inducing ductal development without the other. The role of GH in ductal development has ... "Normal and tumor-derived myoepithelial cells differ in their ability to interact with luminal breast epithelial cells for ... "Rescue of the parathyroid hormone-related protein knockout mouse demonstrates that parathyroid hormone-related protein is ...
These morphogens are crucial for development, and include bone morphogenetic proteins, transforming growth factors (TGFs), and ... One identified mechanism for matrix-induced differentiation is tension-induced proteins, which remodel chromatin in response to ... Stem cells, on the other hand, have the ability to divide for indefinite periods and to give rise to specialized cells. They ... on aberrant epigenomic programming in human induced pluripotent stem cells. As induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are ...
Alliston T, Ko TC, Cao Y, Liang YY, Feng XH, Chang C, Derynck R (Jun 2005). "Repression of bone morphogenetic protein and ... TGF-β signaling induces transcription of the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors p15Ink4B or p21Cip1, which, as a ... As an atypical use of traditional pharmacogenomics, this knowledge may lead to an increased ability to treat EVI1 positive ... Alliston T, Ko TC, Cao Y, Liang YY, Feng XH, Chang C, Derynck R (Jun 2005). "Repression of bone morphogenetic protein and ...
Development of the nervous system
Inhibition of TGF-β and BMP (bone morphogenetic protein) signaling can efficiently induce neural tissue from human pluripotent ... The remainder of the ectoderm gives rise to the epidermis (skin). The ability of the mesoderm to convert the overlying ectoderm ... This is due to the action of BMP4 (a TGF-β family protein) that induces ectodermal cultures to differentiate into epidermis. ... The 3' genes in the Hox cluster are induced by retinoic acid in the hindbrain, whereas the 5' Hox genes are not induced by ...
Development of the nervous system
Inhibition of TGF-β and BMP (bone morphogenetic protein) signaling can efficiently induce neural tissue from pluripotent stem ... The ability of the mesoderm to convert the overlying ectoderm into neural tissue is called neural induction. ... This is due to the action of BMP4 (a TGF-β family protein) that induces ectodermal cultures to differentiate into epidermis. ... Neural inducers are molecules that can induce the expression of neural genes in ectoderm explants without inducing mesodermal ...
"GDF11 forms a bone morphogenetic protein 1-activated latent complex that can modulate nerve growth factor-induced ... GDF11 has been identified as a blood circulating factor that has the ability to reverse age-related cardiac hypertrophy in mice ... Growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) also known as bone morphogenetic protein 11 (BMP-11) is a protein that in humans is ... GDF11 acts as a cytokine and its molecular structure is identical in humans, mice and rats. The bone morphogenetic protein ...
The Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) ligands Decapentaplegic (Dpp) and Glass-bottom-boat (Gbb) ligand are directly signaled to ... Angiogenesis induced by hypoxic conditions is called an "Angiogenic switch". HIF-1 promotes expression of several angiogenic ... undifferentiated state and ability to differentiate) and in signalling pathways (Activin/Noda, Akt/PTEN, JAK/STAT, PI3-K, TGF-β ... GSCs are easily identified through histological staining against vasa protein (to identify germ cells) and 1B1 protein (to ...
Itoh F, Asao H, Sugamura K, Heldin CH, ten Dijke P, Itoh S (August 2001). "Promoting bone morphogenetic protein signaling ... Many familial Smad4 mutants occur on the MH2 domain, which disrupts the protein's ability to form homo- or hetero-oligomers, ... In a DNA microarray screen, Id2 and Id3 were found to be repressed by TGF-B, but induced by BMP signaling. Knocking out Id2 and ... "Physical and functional interaction of murine and Xenopus Smad7 with bone morphogenetic protein receptors and transforming ...
Sclerostin antagonizes the activity of BMP (bone morphogenetic protein), a cytokine that induces bone and cartilage formation. ... linked to the loss of ability to sense microdamage and/or signal repair. Oxygen deprivation that occurs as the result of ... the bones showed a significant increase in bone resorption, decreased bone formation, trabecular bone loss, and loss of ... Bone. 13 (5): 363-368. doi:10.1016/8756-3282(92)90452-3. Bellido, T (2007). "Osteocyte Apoptosis Induces Bone Resorption and ...
This linkage is further evidenced by the fact that two of the genes, HAO1 and BMP2, affecting medullary bone (the part of the ... The HBB gene encodes information to make the beta-globin subunit of hemoglobin, which is the protein red blood cells use to ... Since a single toxin gene or virulence allele can grant the ability to colonize the host, adaptation and reproductive isolation ... and provide insight into pleiotropically induced adaptive divergence in other eukaryotes. ...
... prions are more loosely defined by their ability to catalytically convert other native state versions of the same protein to an ... Fluoroquinolone antibiotics induce epigenetic changes in mammalian cells through iron chelation. This leads to epigenetic ... Adult stem cells like bone marrow stem cells have also shown a potential to differentiate into cardiac competent cells when ... In general, proteins fold into discrete units that perform distinct cellular functions, but some proteins are also capable of ...
Phenolic content in wine
... induces human osteoblast differentiation through bone morphogenetic protein-2/extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 pathway ... Tannins refer to the diverse group of chemical compounds in wine that can affect the color, aging ability and texture of the ... This is due to the tendency of tannins to react with proteins, such as the ones found in saliva. In food and wine pairing, ... The natural tannins found in grapes are known as proanthocyanidins due to their ability to release red anthocyanin pigments ...
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are a subgroup of TGF-β superfamily that can induce bone and cartilage formation as well as ... The cells communicate with each other through gap junctions, and this signalling gives them the ability to detect and respond ... Ligaments join one bone to bone, while tendons connect muscle to bone for a proper functioning of the body. ... G-proteins, which induce intracellular signaling cascades, may also be important, and ion channels are activated by stretching ...
In protein-ligand binding, the ligand is usually a molecule which produces a signal by binding to a site on a target protein. ... Ligand efficacy refers to the ability of the ligand to produce a biological response upon binding to the target receptor and ... the conformational change induced upon binding. MP-SPR also enables measurements in high saline dissociation buffers thanks to ... putative mu opioid/metabotropic glutamate receptor-5 heteromers produces potent antinociception in a chronic murine bone cancer ...
Pregnancy-associated plasma protein A. *Bone morphogenetic protein 1. *Lysostaphin. *Insulin-degrading enzyme ... In an effort to remove contaminated food which remains in the gut, enemas or induced vomiting may be used. For wound ... Injecting an overactive muscle to decrease its level of contraction can allow improved reciprocal motion, so improved ability ... It is translocated into the host cell cytoplasm where it cleaves the host protein SNAP-25, a member of the SNARE protein family ...
... and bone morphogenetic proteins. Evidence suggests that bone cells produce growth factors for extracellular storage in the ... assisting in the bone's ability to resist torsion forces. After a fracture, woven bone forms initially and is gradually ... Osteoblasts can also be induced to secrete a number of cytokines that promote reabsorbtion of bone by stimulating osteoclast ... Bone marrow. Bone marrow, also known as myeloid tissue in red bone marrow, can be found in almost any bone that holds ...
This can occur because shark teeth are not attached to a bone, but instead are developed within a bony cavity. It has been ... Hydra is a genus of freshwater polyp in the phylum Cnidaria with highly proliferative stem cells that gives them the ability to ... Wenger Y, Buzgariu W, Reiter S, Galliot B (August 2014). "Injury-induced immune responses in Hydra". Seminars in Immunology. ... Neural cells, for example, express growth-associated proteins, such as GAP-43, tubulin, actin, an array of novel neuropeptides ...
The lack of these factors result in a decreased production of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), which translates into a ... These silencer elements also regulate the expression of genes that do not induce neuron-specific proteins and studies have ... and also hindered the ability of hematopoietic cells to self-renew. Likewise, mutations in PRC2 genes were related to ... synaptic vesicle proteins, and channel proteins. A deficiency in the proper development of these proteins can cause the neural ...
... astrocytes were generated by exposing human glial precursor cells to bone morphogenetic protein (Bone morphogenetic protein is ... Within the dorsal horn of the spinal cord, activated astrocytes have the ability to respond to almost all neurotransmitters ... Cornell-Bell, AH; Finkbeiner, SM; Cooper, MS; Smith, SJ (26 January 1990). "Glutamate induces calcium waves in cultured ... WNTs and bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), provide positional information to developing macroglial cells through morphogen ...
... is a small molecule inhibitor of protein kinase CK2, which has been supported to be linked with TGF-β induced EMT, and is ... The breast cancer bone metastasis has activated TGF-β signaling, which contributes to the formation of these lesions. ... Platelets in the blood have the ability to initiate the induction of EMT in cancer cells. When platelets are recruited to a ... Ciruna, B.; Rossant, J. (July 2001). "FGF signaling regulates mesoderm cell fate specification and morphogenetic movement at ...
For example, BMPs (Bone Morphogenetic Proteins) promote neurogenesis in progenitors that express high levels of Neurogenin-1 ... Direct contacts between bHLH residues and DNA are responsible for the common ability of neural bHLH proteins to bind to the ... First, Hedgehog induces ''ato'' expression in more than just the cells that ultimately become photoreceptor cells, so its ... Proneural proteins bind DNA as heterodimeric complexes that are formed by bHLH proteins or E proteins. Because ...
Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), used to treat bone-related conditions. *Erythropoietin (EPO), used to treat anemia ... Several inflammatory cytokines are induced by oxidative stress. The fact that cytokines themselves trigger the release ... Deaths were weighted more heavily towards people with healthy immune systems, due to its ability to produce stronger immune ... In 1969 Dudley Dumonde proposed the term "lymphokine" to describe proteins secreted from lymphocytes and later, proteins ...
Receptor protein serine/threonine kinase (EC 184.108.40.206). *Bone morphogenetic protein receptors *BMPR1 ... Rapamycin induces dephosphorylation of 4EBP1 as well, resulting in an increase in p27 and a decrease in cyclin D1 expression. ... Due to PI3K and mTORC2 ability to regulate AKT phosphorylation, these two compounds play a key role in minimizing the feedback ... 16 (4): 525-37. doi:10.1093/annonc/mdi113. PMID 15728109.. *^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Zaytseva, Yekaterina Y.; Valentino, ...
Pregnancy-associated plasma protein A. *Bone morphogenetic protein 1. *Lysostaphin. *Insulin-degrading enzyme ... The stromelysins display a broad ability to cleave extracellular matrix proteins but are unable to cleave the triple-helical ... and induce it to act as reversible electron donor. This forms an oxyanion transition state. At this stage, a water molecule ... β-Propeller structures provide a large flat surface that is thought to be involved in protein-protein interactions. This ...
"Identification and functional characterization of distinct critically important bone morphogenetic protein-specific response ... "Id-1 induces proteasome-dependent degradation of the HBX protein". J. Mol. Biol. 382 (1): 34-43. doi:10.1016/j.jmb.2007.06.020 ... no DNA binding activity and therefore can inhibit the DNA binding and transcriptional activation ability of basic HLH proteins ... DNA-binding protein inhibitor ID-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ID1 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is ...
... the Bone Morphogenetic Protein 1/Tolloid-like family, releases the c-terminal endorepellin domain of the perlecan core protein ... TGF-β2 and VEGF were induced as well, possibly contributing to the upregulation of the perlecan transcript and protein. It has ... lack of HS or decreased sulfation can decrease perlecan's ability to interact with matrix proteins. Removal of HS chains may ... Cartilage and bone development have proven to be dependent upon perlecan expression. The protein becomes visible by ...
... bone morphogenetic protein 15 heterodimers are potent regulators of ovarian functions". Proceedings of the National Academy of ... The Wnt signaling pathway plays a significative role in osteoblastogenesis and bone formation, inducing the differentiation of ... To have the ability to fertilize the female gamete, this cell suffers capacitation and acrosome reaction in female reproductive ... ROS also interacts with ERK pathway that leads to activation of Ras, MEK and MEK-like proteins. These proteins activate protein ...
Wnt signaling pathway
Dsh proteins are present in all organisms and they all share the following highly conserved protein domains: an amino-terminal ... This ROS-induced damage is significant because it can cause acute hepatic insulin resistance, or injury-induced insulin ... Wnt signaling also controls tissue regeneration in adult bone marrow, skin and intestine. Later research found that the genes ... It prevented replication and reduced their ability to migrate, all without affecting healthy cells. No cancer stem cells ...
... astrocytes were generated by exposing human glial precursor cells to bone morphogenetic protein (Bone morphogenetic protein is ... Because of this ability of astrocytes to communicate with their neighbors, changes in the activity of one astrocyte can have ... Ongoing excitation can also induce ERK and JNK activation, resulting in release of several inflammatory factors. As noxious ... WNTs and bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), provide positional information to developing macroglial cells through morphogen ...
Bone morphogenetic protein 4 - Wikipedia
Bone morphogenetic proteins were originally identified by an ability of demineralized bone extract to induce endochondral ... Bone morphogenetic proteins are known to stimulate bone formation in adult animals. This is thought that inducing osteoblastic ... "Potent ectopic bone-inducing activity of bone morphogenetic protein-4/7 heterodimer". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 210 (3): ... It, like other bone morphogenetic proteins, is involved in bone and cartilage development, specifically tooth and limb ...
Transforming growth factor-β1 suppresses bone morphogenetic protein-2-induced mesenchymal-epithelial transition in HSC-4 human...
Transforming growth factor-β1 induces invasion ability of HSC-4 human oral squamous cell carcinoma cells through the Slug/Wnt- ... Transforming growth factor-β1 suppresses bone morphogenetic protein-2-induced mesenchymal-epithelial transition in HSC-4 human ... Transforming growth factor-β1 suppresses bone morphogenetic protein-2-induced mesenchymal-epithelial transition in HSC-4 human ... Transforming growth factor-β1 suppresses bone morphogenetic protein-2-induced mesenchymal-epithelial transition in HSC-4 human ...
Bone morphogenetic protein 6 - Wikipedia
Bone morphogenetic proteins are known for their ability to induce the growth of bone and cartilage. BMP6 is able to induce all ... The bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are a family of secreted signaling molecules that can induce ectopic bone growth. BMPs ... Bone morphogenetic protein 6 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BMP6 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a ... 2001). "Effect of bone morphogenetic protein-6 on haemopoietic stem cells and cytokine production in normal human bone marrow ...
Final Report Summary - AXON REGENERATION (Regeneration and Target Reinnervation after Spinal Cord Injury) | Report Summary |...
... of MSCs to induce oligodendroglial differentiation in vivo coincided with a rapid upregulation of bone morphogenetic protein 2/ ... Finally, we have examined the ability of neural stem cells to act as functional relays in the injured spinal cord. These ... Thus, neutralization of BMP or BMP signaling might be required to allow for MSC-induced oligodendroglial differentiation of ... to diffierentiate into oligodendrocytes in the injured spinal cord and the influence of adult bone marrow stromal cells (MSCs) ...
BMP4 recombinant protein | Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4 Recombinant Protein-P12644
Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4 Recombinant Protein-P12644 (MBS650854) product datasheet at MyBioSource, Recombinant Proteins. ... Bone morphogenetic proteins were originally identified by an ability of demineralized bone extract to induce endochondral ... The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the bone morphogenetic protein family which is part of the transforming growth ... NCBI Protein Information bone morphogenetic protein 4; BMP-4; BMP-2B; OTTHUMP00000178992; bone morphogenetic protein 2B ...
anti-BMP4 antibody [10F4B4] | GeneTex
... bone morphogenetic protein 4) for ELISA, WB. Anti-BMP4 mAb (GTX83027) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance. ... Bone morphogenetic proteins were originally identified by an ability of demineralized bone extract to induce endochondral ... The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the bone morphogenetic protein family which is part of the transforming growth ... This particular family member plays an important role in the onset of endochondral bone formation in humans, and a reduction in ...
FK506 Induces Ligand-Independent Activation of the Bone Morphogenetic Protein Pathway and Osteogenesis. - PubMed - NCBI
This demonstrates the ability of FK506 to create bone with no exogenous BMP-2. (B) Quantitative micro-computed tomography ( ... FK506 Induces Ligand-Independent Activation of the Bone Morphogenetic Protein Pathway and Osteogenesis.. Sangadala S1,2, ... FK506 Induces Ligand-Independent Activation of the Bone Morphogenetic Protein Pathway and Osteogenesis ... FK506 Induces Ligand-Independent Activation of the Bone Morphogenetic Protein Pathway and Osteogenesis ...
Bone morphogenetic protein-4 inhibits adult neurogenesis and is regulated by fractone-associated heparan sulfates in the...
Establishment of SIAISi001-A, an induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) line from 66-year old Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) ... The pluripotency of transgene-free iPSCs was confirmed by immunocytochemistry and ability of differentiation spontaneously into ... Here, we have examined in vivo the effect of bone morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP-4) on cell proliferation in the SVZ and we have ... Bone morphogenetic protein-4 inhibits adult neurogenesis and is regulated by fractone-associated heparan sulfates in the ...
Animal-Free Recombinant Human BMP-4 (E.coli derived)
... constitute a subfamily within the TGF-β superfamily of structurally related signaling proteins. Members ... Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) constitute a subfamily within the TGF-β superfamily of structurally related signaling ... Biological Activity: Determined by its ability to induce alkaline phosphatase production by ATDC-5 cells. The expected ED50 for ... Activation of the canonical bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) pathway during lung morphogenesis and adult lung tissue repair.. ...
Endovascular Treatment of Experimental Aneurysms with Use of Fibroblast Transfected with Replication-Deficient Adenovirus...
A light and electron microscopic study of ectopic tendon and ligament formation induced by bone morphogenetic protein-13 ... Fibroblast-like cells from tendons differ from skin fibroblasts in their ability to form three-dimensional structures in vitro. ... Aneurysms with Use of Fibroblast Transfected with Replication-Deficient Adenovirus Containing Bone Morphogenetic Protein-13 ... Aneurysms with Use of Fibroblast Transfected with Replication-Deficient Adenovirus Containing Bone Morphogenetic Protein-13 ...
Regeneration of axons in injured spinal cord by activation of bone morphogenetic protein/Smad1 signaling pathway in adult...
BMP2 and GDF5 induce neuronal differentiation through a Smad dependant pathway in a model of human midbrain dopaminergic ... Signaling regulations of neuronal regenerative ability. Yi Lu, Stéphane Belin, Zhigang He ... Regeneration of axons in injured spinal cord by activation of bone morphogenetic protein/Smad1 signaling pathway in adult ... Regeneration of axons in injured spinal cord by activation of bone morphogenetic protein/Smad1 signaling pathway in adult ...
Specific expression of BMP2/4 ortholog in biomineralizing tissues of corals and action on mouse BMP receptor. - PubMed - NCBI
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are members of the transforming growth factor beta superfamily, and have been identified by ... their ability to induce bone formation in vertebrates. The biomineral-forming process, called biomineralization, is a ... The synthesis of such a protein by the calcifying epithelium of corals suggests that coral BMP2/4 plays a role in ... Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2/genetics. *Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2/metabolism*. *Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4/chemistry ...
Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP)-4 and BMP-7 regulate differentially Transforming Growth Factor (TGF)-β1 in normal human lung...
... reduced TGF-β1-induced extracellular matrix protein production. TGF-β1 induced an increase in the activity of the pro-form of ... The Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs) belong to this family and have been shown to regulate fibrosis in kidney and liver ... We have demonstrated TGF-β1 induced upregulation of mRNAs encoding the extracellular matrix proteins, tenascin C, fibronectin ... TGF-β1 also induced a myofibroblast-like transformation which was partially inhibited by BMP-7 but not BMP-4. Our study ...
Bone Morphogenetic Protein 6 Inhibits the Immunomodulatory Property of BMMSCs via Id1 in Sjögren's Syndrome
... indicating that PGE2 is involved in the BMP6-induced impaired immunomodulatory ability of BMMSCs. ... Bone Morphogenetic Protein 6 Inhibits the Immunomodulatory Property of BMMSCs via Id1 in Sjögrens Syndrome. Yingying Su,1 Yi ... Elevated expression of bone morphogenetic protein 6 (BMP6) was recently reported in the epithelia of SS patients, and ... H. Yin, J. Cabrera-Perez, Z. Lai et al., "Association of bone morphogenetic protein 6 with exocrine gland dysfunction in ...
CD44+/CD105+ Human Amniotic Fluid Mesenchymal Stem Cells Survive and Proliferate in the Ovary Long-Term in a Mouse Model of...
... and bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP-4), as well as the stem cell markers Nanog, Oct4 and Nestin. More importantly, HuAFCs ... Pluripotency can be rapidly and efficiently induced in human amniotic fluid-derived cells. Hum Mol Genet. 2009;18:4340-4349 ... Previous studies have demonstrated the ability of CD44+/CD105+ cells to differentiate into ectodermal, endodermal, mesodermal, ... Bone marrow transplantation generates immature oocytes and rescues long-term fertility in a preclinical mouse model of ...
BMP4 polyclonal antibody - (PAB1326) - Products - Abnova
Bone morphogenetic proteins were originally identified by an ability of demineralized bone extract to induce endochondral ... The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the bone morphogenetic protein family which is part of the transforming growth ... This particular family member plays an important role in the onset of endochondral bone formation in humans, and a reduction in ... all encoding an identical protein. [provided by RefSeq ... expression has been associated with a variety of bone diseases ...
Production of BMP4 by endothelial cells is crucial for endogenous thymic regeneration | Science Immunology
Bone morphogenetic protein 2/4 signaling regulates early thymocyte differentiation. J. Immunol. 169, 5496-5504 (2002).. ... possibly via its ability to directly induce up-regulation of FOXN1 (13), a forkhead box transcription factor that is not only ... Bone morphogenetic protein-2/4 signalling pathway components are expressed in the human thymus and inhibit early T-cell ... comprise a critical pathway of regeneration via their production of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4). ECs increased their ...
Bone morphogenetic protein 4 | Project Gutenberg Self-Publishing - eBooks | Read eBooks online
Bone morphogenetic protein 4 , , , , ... World Heritage Encyclopedia, the aggregation of the largest online encyclopedias ... Bone morphogenetic proteins were originally identified by an ability of demineralized bone extract to induce endochondral ... Bone morphogenetic proteins are known to stimulate bone formation in adult animals. This is thought that inducing osteoblastic ... Bone morphogenetic protein Encyclopedia Article. Food and Drug Administration, Bambi, Nitrogen, Calcium, Bone morphogenetic ...
Bone morphogenetic protein 10 - wikidoc
Bone morphogenetic proteins are known for their ability to induce bone and cartilage development. BMP10 is categorized as a BMP ... Bone morphogenetic protein 10 (BMP10) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BMP10 gene. ... "Entrez Gene: bone morphogenetic protein 10".. *↑ 2.0 2.1 Neuhaus H, Rosen V, Thies RS (February 1999). "Heart specific ... 2005). "Identification of receptors and signaling pathways for orphan bone morphogenetic protein/growth differentiation factor ...
Dev Bio Flashcards - Cram.com
... stands for bone morphogenetic protein 4, because members of the BMP family were first IDd for their ability to promote bone ... some of these abilities of the IMZ cells appear to rely upon the presence of the goosecoid protein, the transcriptional factor ... a region of ectoderm, called the neural plate, overlies the notochord and will be induced by the notochord to form the neural ... B-catenin proteins are transported by microtubules during cortical rotation tot he dorsal region. -meanwhile, any remaining B- ...
Derivation of Cardiac Progenitor Cells from Embryonic Stem Cells | Protocol
... bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), wingless-type MMTV integration site family members (Wnts) and Nodal signals induce the ... Thus, these CPCs can serve as a great resource for cell based heart therapy because of their ability to form both cardiac ... Modified fluorescent protein RFP or YFP gene driven by a constitutive promoter can be activated by excision of flox stop codon ... Induce CPC differentiation by EB formation *Prepare differentiation medium as followed: 36 ml IMDM, 12 ml Hams F12, 2 mM L- ...
How does recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-4 enhance posterior spinal fusion? - EdUHK Research Repository
Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-4 is another osteoinductive protein that has the ability to induce heterotopic ... Objective. To study the biologic effect and threshold dose of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-4 in enhancing ... The enhancing effects of recombinant human bone morphogenetic proteins 2 and 7 on spinal fusion have been proved, and clinical ... The effective dose of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-4 is 10 times lower than the reported dosage of recombinant ...
BMP 4 Human | ProSpec
Bone Morphogenetic Protein-4 Human Recombinant produced in E.Coli is a monomeric, non-glycosylated, Polypeptide chain ... Bone morphogenetic proteins were originally identified by an ability of demineralized bone extract to induce endochondral ... The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the bone morphogenetic protein family which is part of the transforming growth ... It is recommended to reconstitute the lyophilized Bone Morphogenetic Protein-4 in sterile 18M-cm H2O not less than 100µg/ml, ...
Mechanisms That Regulate Stem Cell Self-Renewal | HHMI.org
... the cultures were washed into standard medium supplemented with bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP2; 50 ng/ml) and grown for 4 ... This work demonstrates the ability to gain new insights into the etiology of disease as well as the ability to identify new ... contained mostly neurons and neuronal precursors induced by the BMP2 treatment, as judged by the peripherin staining and the ... By developing the ability to study aspects of cellular physiology that have not been studied before in stem cells, we expect to ...
anti-BMP4 pAb - Order from Adipochem
... mouse protein. Works in WB. Important for Inflammation, Oxidative Stress, ROS, Immunology research. ... Bone morphogenetic proteins were originally identified by an ability of demineralized bone extract to induce endochondral ... Bone morphogenetic protein 4, also known as BMP4, is a member of the bone morphogenetic protein family which is part of the ... BMP4 is a potent bone-inducing morphogen, and a reduction in expression has been associated with a variety of bone diseases, ...
ID'ing a Novel Inhibitor of β-Cell Function, Id1 | Diabetes
... expression of Id1 in islets was regulated by endogenous bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) and colocalized with BMP-receptor 2 ... However, Id proteins can dimerize with other HLH proteins and thereby inhibit their ability to bind DNA as homo- or ... The Id genes are classical targets for the BMP signaling pathway, and Id transcription is induced by BMP activation of SMAD1/5/ ... Based on this ability, the Id proteins were named "inhibitor of DNA binding," and they function as dominant-negative regulators ...
Roger Pedersen | Stanford Medicine Profiles
Genetic defects in bone morphogenetic protein type II receptor (BMPRII) signalling and inflammation contribute to the ... We induced mesoderm in human pluripotent stem cells with ACTIVIN and BMP or with GSK3-β inhibition. Both approaches induced ... However, the ability of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) to form embryonic chimeras remains in question. Here we show using ... Multiple roles of Activin/Nodal, bone morphogenetic protein, fibroblast growth factor and Wnt/beta-catenin signalling in the ...
Human amniotic fluid stem cells have a potential to recover ovarian function in mice with chemotherapy-induced sterility | BMC...
Kee K, Gonsalves JM, Clark AT, Reijo Pera RA: Bone morphogenetic proteins induce germ cell differentiation from human embryonic ... to investigate its ability to induce the derivation of germ line cells. ... including bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4), retinoic acid, CYP26 inhibitor (R115866), stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF1), ... These genes included: B-lymphocyte-induced maturation protein 1 (BLIMP1), STELLA and deleted in azoospermia-like (DAZL), which ...
Delivery of VEGFA in bone marrow stromal cells seeded in copolymer scaffold enhances angiogenesis, but is inadequate for...
Combined delivery of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) induced ectopic bone ... The ability of VEGFA alone or in combination with BMP2 to induce ectopic bone formation was investigated in NOD/SCID mice by ... Synergistic effects of vascular endothelial growth factor on bone morphogenetic proteins induced bone formation in vivo: ... Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) co-expression-mediated bone formation is ...
Bone Morphogenetic Proteins and Their Receptors
... are importantsignalling molecules that were first identified by their ability to induce bone and cartilage, and subsequently ... Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are important signalling molecules that were first identified by their ability to induce ... 2001) Bone morphogenetic protein‐3 is a negative regulator of bone density. Nature Genetics 27: 84-88. ... 2007) Bone morphogenetic protein 2 activates Smad6 gene transcription through bone‐specific transcription factor Runx2. Journal ...
ReceptorActivinPathwayReceptorsSuperfamilyOsteoinductiveProliferationRecombinant human bone1999EmbryonicInhibitorStemFibroblastCytokinesGenesInhibitionKinaseEndochondralMammalianExpressionCollagenAlkaline phosphatase productionInvolved in bone and cartilageTranscriptionAmino acid seqSmadBMP2TissuesOverexpressionCellularCellsSpinalCartilage and boneVitroTranscriptionalExtracellular matrixOsteoblastsHomologAcuteActivationEffectorLigandComprisesDefects
- The causal mutation, in the bone morphogenetic protein receptor ACVR1, has been thought to boost the receptor's activity, triggering inappropriate bone formation. (sciencemag.org)
- The mutated ACVR1 receptor, expressed in cultured cells, responded to activin as well as to its natural ligand, bone morphogenetic protein. (sciencemag.org)
- BMP signaling is induced when a heterodimeric membrane kinase binds BMP and subsequently triggers Smad protein phosphorylation, similar to the mechanism of TGF-β pathway activation. (spandidos-publications.com)
- FK506 Induces Ligand-Independent Activation of the Bone Morphogenetic Protein Pathway and Osteogenesis. (nih.gov)
- Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling pathway and inhibition by Noggin. (nih.gov)
- A novel regulatory mechanism of the Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) signaling pathway involving the carboxylterminal tail domain of BMP type II receptor. (springer.com)
- Epidermal growth factor receptor and PKC inhibitors inhibited basal levels of S(1356) phosphorylation in SCC, suggesting that cells use intrinsic mechanisms to activate the EGF signaling pathway to induce β4 phosphorylation. (biomedsearch.com)
- However, better understanding of the role of increased JAK-STAT signaling [either through activating mutations (JAK2, MPL515L/K) within the signaling pathway, or mutations involving CALR], the role of deregulated pro-inflammatory cytokine expression, and the impaired bone marrow microenvironment is transforming the treatment approach for MF. (haematologica.org)
- Further studies are needed to understand interactions between coral BMP2/4 and its receptors, and, thus, the action of BMP2/4 in adult corals. (nih.gov)
- BMP induces a heteromeric complex of two type I and two type II receptors. (els.net)
- The bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) receptors are a family of transmembrane serine/threonine kinases that include the type I receptors BMPR1A and BMPR1B and the type II receptor BMPR2. (prospecbio.com)
- Chemokines are chemoattractant cytokines that bind to G protein-coupled seven-transmembrane receptors (GPCRs). (pnas.org)
- however, it remains to be clarified whether the TGF-β superfamily member bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) affects this process in hOSCC cells. (spandidos-publications.com)
- HS associated to core protein, constitute the superfamily of heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) present on the cell surface and in the extracellular matrix of all tissues. (springer.com)
- By diffusing through extracellular matrices more efficiently than members of the TGF-beta superfamily, this protein may have a principal role in creating morphogenic gradients. (mybiosource.com)
- Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-4 is another osteoinductive protein that has the ability to induce heterotopic bone formation, and its potential for enhancing spinal fusion has not yet been studied. (eduhk.hk)
- This case series describes 3 patients in whom a mixture of Accell Connexus bone matrix putty and CalMatrix bone graft binder, which together have osteoconductive and osteoinductive capability, was used for immediate postextraction reconstruction of the alveolar ridge, before eventual placement of a posterior dental implant. (jcda.ca)
- The osteoinductive properties of BMP-2 prompted its development into clinical use to promote bone growth and fracture healing, including arthrodesis (spine fusion). (biomedcentral.com)
- Functional analysis revealed that TGF-β1 and BMP-2 significantly enhanced HSC-4 cell migration and proliferation, respectively. (spandidos-publications.com)
- We have recently shown that fractones sequester fibroblast growth factor-2 and bone morphogenetic protein-7 from the brain ventricles to regulate cell proliferation in the SVZ of the lateral ventricle, the primary neural stem cell niche and neurogenic zone in adulthood. (medworm.com)
- Here, we have examined in vivo the effect of bone morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP-4) on cell proliferation in the SVZ and we have determined whether BMP-4 interacts with fractones to promote this effect. (medworm.com)
- To examine BMP-4 effect on cell proliferation, BMP-4 was intracerebroventricularly injected, and bromodeoxyuridine immunolabeling was performed on frozen sections of the adult mouse brain. (medworm.com)
- Injection of heparitinase-1 was used to desulfate fractones and determine whether the binding and the effect of BMP-4 on cell proliferation are heparan sulfate-dependent. (medworm.com)
- BMP-4 inhibited cell proliferation in the SVZ neurogenic zone. (medworm.com)
- Bisphenol A induced structural changes and affected the proliferation rate of mammary glands. (greenmedinfo.com)
- It is characterized by cellular hypertrophy, up-regulation of the astrocyte marker glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and proliferation. (biomedsearch.com)
- FGF1 intracellular binding protein (FIBP) knockdown inhibited proliferation, enhanced chemotherapy effects, and attenuated the stemness markers of colorectal cancer cells in vivo and in vitro . (cancerstemcellnews.com)
- GSK3β knockdown reversed the FIBP silencing-induced inhibition of proliferation and decreased stemness marker expression in HCT116-CSCs. (cancerstemcellnews.com)
Recombinant human bone9
- How does recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-4 enhance posterior spinal fusion? (eduhk.hk)
- To study the biologic effect and threshold dose of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-4 in enhancing spinal fusion. (eduhk.hk)
- The enhancing effects of recombinant human bone morphogenetic proteins 2 and 7 on spinal fusion have been proved, and clinical trials of their application are in progress. (eduhk.hk)
- The animals were divided into four groups using different graft materials: allograft as well as hydroxyapatite-tricalcium phosphate augmented with 0, 1.25, and 5 μg of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-4, respectively. (eduhk.hk)
- At week 7, ossification in the intertransverse process area ceased in groups without recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-4, whereas active multicentric endochondral bone formation was demonstrated in groups with this growth factor. (eduhk.hk)
- The success rate of contiguous bony bridging was found to correlate positively with the dose of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-4. (eduhk.hk)
- Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-4 effectively enhances new bone formation and accelerates fusion in the rabbit posterolateral posterior spinal fusion model. (eduhk.hk)
- The effective dose of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-4 is 10 times lower than the reported dosage of recombinant human bone morphogenetic proteins 2 and 7. (eduhk.hk)
- Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'How does recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-4 enhance posterior spinal fusion? (eduhk.hk)
- BMP-2 regulates similarly to its nearest homologue BMP-4 diverse fundamental processes during embryonic development: BMP-2 and other BMP proteins have great potential for medical therapeutic applications, in particular because they allow or at least accelerate the ossification of extensive bone lesions. (reliatech.de)
- A small molecule BMP upregulator with selectivity on vascular endothelium would represent a desirable therapeutic intervention for PAH.We assayed compounds identified in the screening of BMP2 upregulators for their ability to increase expression of Inhibitor of DNA binding 1 (Id1), using a dual reporter driven specifically in human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived endothelial cells (ECs). (readbyqxmd.com)
- Mechanistically, BMP6 downregulated PGE2 and upregulated IFN-gamma via Id1 (inhibitor of DNA-binding protein 1). (hindawi.com)
- Based on this ability, the Id proteins were named "inhibitor of DNA binding," and they function as dominant-negative regulators of HLH transcription factors ( 10 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- Function: Inhibitor of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP) signaling which is required for growth and patterning of the neural tube and somite. (mybiosource.com)
- Finally, we have examined the ability of neural stem cells to act as functional relays in the injured spinal cord. (europa.eu)
- This work demonstrates the ability to gain new insights into the etiology of disease as well as the ability to identify new potential therapeutic approaches by studying the regulation of stem cell function. (hhmi.org)
- The key regulatory effects of major medullar HSPGs are described, focusing on their roles in the interactions between hematopoietic stem cells and their endosteal niche, and on their ability to interact with Heparin Binding Proteins (HBPs). (springer.com)
- Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) home to specific microenvironments in the bone marrow (BM) and receive signals that drive their fate under both normal and pathological conditions. (haematologica.org)
- Researchers presented evidence that the difference in leukemia stem cell activity in leukemias generated from fetal liver (FL) and adult bone marrow (BM) was due to NOTCH1-driven autocrine IGF1 signaling, which was active in FL cells but restrained in BM cells by EZH2-dependent H3K27 trimethylation. (cancerstemcellnews.com)
- However, the in vitro proliferative ability of somatic stem cells is limited. (ahajournals.org)
- Although bone marrow fibrosis is seen in a variety of malignant and non-malignant disease states, the deposition of reticulin and collagen fibrosis in the bone marrow of patients with myelofibrosis is believed to be mediated by the myelofibrosis hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell, contributing to an impaired microenvironment favoring malignant over normal hematopoiesis. (haematologica.org)
- Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation remains the only curative therapeutic approach that reliably results in resolution of bone marrow fibrosis in patients with myelofibrosis. (haematologica.org)
- Stem cells are defined by their ability to self-renew and to generate cell populations that differentiate to maintain adult tissues ( 1-3 ). (sciencemag.org)
- GSCs require a signal mediated by Dpp, a homolog of human bone morphogenetic proteins 2 and 4, in order to remain as stem cells and to divide at a normal rate ( 12 ). (sciencemag.org)
- Fibroblast-like cells from tendons differ from skin fibroblasts in their ability to form three-dimensional structures in vitro. (ajnr.org)
- Injections of either insulin growth factor 4 6 7 or fibroblast growth factor (McLoon LK, et al. (arvojournals.org)
- TGFβ modulates fibroblast function through several mechanisms, including induction of extracellular matrix protein synthesis and inhibition of collagen degradation [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- Notably, we found that HSC-4 cells were the most responsive to BMP-2 stimulation, which resulted in the upregulation of Smad1/5/9 target genes such as the MET inducers ID1 and cytokeratin 9 (CK9). (spandidos-publications.com)
- The Smad complex then binds the DNA promoter region upstream of target genes to induce their expression ( 17 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
- The established iPSCs were supplemented with leukemia inhibitory factor and bone morphogenetic protein 4 to maintain and stabilize the expression of stemness genes and their pluripotency. (mdpi.com)
- However, the transfer of genes encoding osteogenic proteins still associate with some biological risks which need to be demonstrated the safety before using in clinics 12 . (nature.com)
- RNA‑sequencing showed that the t(4;5)(q24;q31) resulted in recombination of the genes TBCK on 4q24 and P4HA2 on 5q31.1 with generation of an in‑frame TBCK‑P4HA2 and the reciprocal but out‑of‑frame P4HA2‑TBCK fusion transcripts. (cancerindex.org)
- Differential DNA hypermethylation of critical genes mediates the stage-specific tobacco smoke-induced neoplastic progression of lung cancer. (labome.org)
- We focused on genes not previously found to be regulated by TGFβ in lung fibroblasts or other cell types, including nuclear co-repressor 2, SMAD specific E3 ubiquitin protein ligase 2 ( SMURF2 ), bone morphogenetic protein 4 , and angiotensin II receptor type 1 ( AGTR1 ), and confirmed the microarray results by real time-PCR. (biomedcentral.com)
- We suggest that this inhibition results from a competition between coral BMP2/4 and human BMP2, indicating conservation of binding affinity of BMP and its receptor during evolution from corals to vertebrates. (nih.gov)
- It negatively regulates osteoblast activity, and, as such, its inhibition is a potential means to prevent bone loss. (biomedcentral.com)
- The specific effect on bone marrow fibrosis of JAK2 inhibition, and other rationally based therapies currently being evaluated in myelofibrosis, has yet to be fully elucidated. (haematologica.org)
- Hegedus Z, Czibula A, Kiss-Toth E. Tribbles: a family of kinase-like proteins with potent signalling regulatory function. (springer.com)
- Human tribbles, a protein family controlling mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades. (springer.com)
- The putative TBCK‑P4HA2 protein would contain the kinase, the rhodanese‑like domain, and the Tre‑2/Bub2/Cdc16 (TBC) domains of TBCK together with the P4HA2 protein which is a component of the prolyl 4‑hydroxylase. (cancerindex.org)
- This particular family member plays an important role in the onset of endochondral bone formation in humans. (wikipedia.org)
- This particular family member plays an important role in the onset of endochondral bone formation in humans, and a reduction in expression has been associated with a variety of bone diseases, including the heritable disorder Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva. (genetex.com)
- Formation of bone (ossification) occurs by both intramembranous ossification and endochondral ossification. (learningorthopaedics.com)
- BMP-2 is known as osteogenic BMP which is based on its strong bone-inducing activity [ 8 ] and essential for endochondral bone formation [ 9 ]. (alliedacademies.org)
- A phylogenetic analysis of mammalian Smad proteins. (els.net)
- ES cells, which are derived from the inner cell mass of mammalian blastocysts, have the ability to proliferate robustly while maintaining both their pluripotency and the ability to differentiate into cells of all 3 germ layers. (ahajournals.org)
- Reduced expression of BMP-4 is associated with a number of bone diseases, including the heritable disorder Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva. (peprotech.com)
- Specific expression of BMP2/4 ortholog in biomineralizing tissues of corals and action on mouse BMP receptor. (nih.gov)
- Elevated expression of bone morphogenetic protein 6 (BMP6) was recently reported in the epithelia of SS patients, and hypofunction and increased lymphocytic infiltration of the salivary gland were induced by the overexpression of BMP6 in normal mice [ 8 ]. (hindawi.com)
- The authors conclude that Id1 functions as a negative regulator of insulin secretion and that induced expression of Id1 might contribute to β-cell dysfunction in type 2 diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
- The expression of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2), RUNX family transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), osteocalcin (OC) and BMAL1 in BMSCs was evaluated by reverse transcription‑quantitative PCR and western blotting. (spandidos-publications.com)
- Brain and muscle ARNT-like 1 (BMAL1) is the most important component of the molecular biological clock, expression of which has been found to have 24-h periodicity in bone. (spandidos-publications.com)
- 4. A vector comprising a polynucleotide of claim 1 in operative association with an expression control sequence therefor. (google.com)
- Bisphenol-A exposure induces the expression of breast cancer associated long noncoding RNA. (greenmedinfo.com)
- Those iPS cells selected by either Nanog or Oct3/4 expression successfully contribute to adult chimeras while also showing germline transmission. (ahajournals.org)
- Hereditary X-linked thrombocytopenia (XLT) is a milder variation caused by mutations reducing but not abolishing WASp expression [ 4 , 5 ]. (omicsonline.org)
- Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression. (cancer-genetics.org)
- We have demonstrated TGF-β1 induced upregulation of mRNAs encoding the extracellular matrix proteins, tenascin C, fibronectin and collagen type I and IV when compared to unstimulated NHLF, and confirmed these results at the protein level. (biomedcentral.com)
- Bone marrow fibrosis (BMF) is characterized by the increased deposition of reticulin fibers and in some cases collagen fibers. (haematologica.org)
- In addition, immunohistochemistry (IHC) showed removal of cellular proteins and preservation of essential basement membrane proteins collagen IV and laminin. (ufl.edu)
Alkaline phosphatase production2
Involved in bone and cartilage1
- Id1 belongs to a family of four Id proteins (Id1-4), which are members of the helix-loop-helix (HLH) family of transcription factors ( 7 , 8 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- The Id family of HLH protein is unique since Id proteins do not contain the otherwise conserved basic domain found N -terminal to the HLH domain, which is essential for the ability of HLH proteins to bind DNA and regulate transcription. (diabetesjournals.org)
- iPS cells were first established in 2006 by Takahashi and Yamanaka 8 using the retrovirus-mediated transduction of 4 transcription factors (c-Myc, Oct3/4, SOX2, and Klf4) into mouse fibroblasts. (ahajournals.org)
- 10 - 12 This was accomplished by introducing four transcription factors, namely SOX2, KLF4, MYC, and OCT3/4, which are often referred to as the Yamanaka factors. (ahajournals.org)
Amino acid seq1
- The synthesis of such a protein by the calcifying epithelium of corals suggests that coral BMP2/4 plays a role in skeletogenesis, making BMP the first common protein involved in biomineralization among Eumetazoans. (nih.gov)
- These results not only call into question the use of VEGFA alone in bone regeneration, but also highlight the importance in BTE of appropriately formulated combined delivery of VEGFA and BMP2. (biomedcentral.com)
- Differences in the physiologic environment, metabolic rate, and cellular make-up of bone and cartilage have profound effects on the potential to engineer these tissues. (sciencemag.org)
- The large articulating motion experienced by cartilage, but not bone, can damage newly developed tissues that do not possess required lubrication, compressive, or tensile properties. (sciencemag.org)
- 3 , 4 Therefore, it is not surprising that mice with reduced cellular anti-oxidant responses 5 - 14 have a poorly compensated anemia and decreased erythroid responses to stress. (haematologica.org)
- The cellular events required for unconventional protein secretion in eukaryotic pathogens are beginning to be revealed. (biomedsearch.com)
- The cellular and molecular events that govern the bone formation during development and fracture healing are similar. (learningorthopaedics.com)
- Healing of fracture needs appropriate cellular environment, adequate growth factors, sufficient bone matrix and mechanical stability. (learningorthopaedics.com)
- Both BMP-4 and BMP-7 downregulated TGF-β1-induced MMP-13 release compared to untreated and TGF-β1-treated cells. (biomedcentral.com)
- Moreover, when red fluorescence protein (RFP)-transduced CD44+/CD105+ HuAFCs were transplanted into the ovaries of POF mice, the cells could be detected by fluorescence microscopy up to three weeks after injection. (medsci.org)
- Therefore, early induction of vascularization is crucial, particularly in large bone defects where the vitality of the implanted cells depends on the vascularity in the scaffolds. (biomedcentral.com)
- The inducted effect of ESCs into epithelial-like cells,the expansion ability of the epithelial-like cells and the characteristics of the constructed engineered corneal epithelium were evaluated by morphological observation, real-time fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RTFQ-PCR) and immunofluorescence technology. (bvsalud.org)
- 17 , 18 , 20 Since the ability of these special progenitor cells to respond to stress depends on cues from the microenvironment (ME) of the spleen rather than the bone marrow (BM), distinct erythroid cell/ME interactions are apparently at play in the former but not the latter environment under stress. (haematologica.org)
- They found that high levels of a toxic protein called progerin and low levels of PARP-1, a protein involved in repairing cell damage in the cells of progeria patients leads to faulty DNA repair in these cells resulting in a mitotic catastrophe. (pubstemcell.com)
- Recent discoveries suggest that genetic alterations in bone marrow niche cells, particularly in osteogenic cells, may also cause myeloid leukemia in mouse models. (haematologica.org)
- Previous work has shown that epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced phosphorylation of the β4 integrin on three of its serines, S(1356)S(1360)S(1364), can induce HD disassembly in normal cells. (biomedsearch.com)
- Moreover, these inhibitors stabilized HD-like structures in SCC cells and reduced their migratory ability. (biomedsearch.com)
- Osteoinduction is the ability to induce the cells of recipient area to form new bone. (learningorthopaedics.com)
- In the ovary, the ability of increasing numbers of granulosa cells to produce estrogen depends on the concomitant ability of the thecal layer to provide the proper amounts of androgenic substrate. (glowm.com)
- Nanog and Oct3/4, which are closely involved in pluripotency, are used as a selection marker for iPS cells to obtain high-quality iPS cells. (ahajournals.org)
- Without access to abundant nutrients or circulating progenitor cells and by possessing a nearly acellular nature, cartilage lacks innate abilities to mount a sufficient healing response ( Fig. 1 ). (sciencemag.org)
- While the pancreatic acini, composed of cells dedicated to the secretion into the intestine of enzymes that will participate in the digestive process of the ingested food, constitute the exocrine component of the gland, the islets are made up of 4 cell populations, organized in a stereotypical topological order, which constitute instead the endocrine component of the gland. (jci.org)
- Metastatic breast cancer cells exhibit the selective ability to seed and grow in the skeleton. (springer.com)
- WASp and WAVE belong to the WASp family of actin nucleation promoting factors (NPFs), which includes (1) WASp, (2) neural-WASp (N-WASp), (3-5) WAVE proteins 1-3, (6) WASp and SCAR homolog (WASH), (7) junction mediating regulatory protein (JMY), and (8) WASp homolog associated with actin, membranes and microtubules (WHAMM). (omicsonline.org)
- Icariin is extracted from Herba Epimedii which is widely used as a major active ingredient to prevent osteonecrosis induced by glucocorticoids in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome. (spandidos-publications.com)
- Patients with a history of ALL may present with congestive heart failure, chemo-induced cardiomyopathy, acute coronary syndrome, cardiac lymphomatous metastasis, or infections. (stanford.edu)
- Differential ability of Tribbles family members to promote degradation of C/EBPalpha and induce acute myelogenous leukemia. (springer.com)
- The main advantages of this process are thin film deposition, increased wettability, induced cross-linking, and surface activation of the material. (frontiersin.org)
- In the AHRR‑NCOA2 protein, the C‑terminal part of AHRR is replaced by the C‑terminal part of NCOA2 which contains two activation domains. (cancerindex.org)
- Mature BMP-2 is further characterized as a disulfide linked dimer wherein each subunit comprises amino acids #283-#396 of FIG. 2 (SEQ ID NO: 4). (google.com)
- Its phylogenetic comprises of BMP-2 and BMP-4, BMP-5, BMP-6, BMP-7 and BMP-8, BMP-9 and BMP-10, and BMP-12, BMP-13 and BMP-14 (GDF-5, GDF-6 and GDF-7) [ 7 ]. (alliedacademies.org)
- In particular, BMP-2 is a cytokine used to treat bone defects and is being investigated in regenerative studies ( 15 , 16 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
- The Axolotl Fibula as a Model for the Induction of Regeneration across Large Segment Defects in Long Bones of the Extremities. (peprotech.com)
- Endocardial Cushion and Myocardial Defects After Cardiac Myocyte-specific Conditional Deletion of the Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptor ALK3 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. (jove.com)
- Titanium alloys are widely used as orthopedic implants for bone defects but the lack of osseointegration is a barrier to their application. (frontiersin.org)
- Autogenous iliac crest bone graft (AICBG) is considered the gold standard for stimulation of bone formation in the treatment of bone defects and nonunions. (learningorthopaedics.com)
- Autografts and allografts are the major bone substitutes used to repair large bone defects. (nature.com)
- Genetic defects in bone morphogenetic protein type-II receptor (BMPRII) signalling and inflammation contribute to the pathogenesis of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). (readbyqxmd.com)