Traumatic injury to the abducens, or sixth, cranial nerve. Injury to this nerve results in lateral rectus muscle weakness or paralysis. The nerve may be damaged by closed or penetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA or by facial trauma involving the orbit.
The 6th cranial nerve which originates in the ABDUCENS NUCLEUS of the PONS and sends motor fibers to the lateral rectus muscles of the EYE. Damage to the nerve or its nucleus disrupts horizontal eye movement control.
Diseases of the sixth cranial (abducens) nerve or its nucleus in the pons. The nerve may be injured along its course in the pons, intracranially as it travels along the base of the brain, in the cavernous sinus, or at the level of superior orbital fissure or orbit. Dysfunction of the nerve causes lateral rectus muscle weakness, resulting in horizontal diplopia that is maximal when the affected eye is abducted and ESOTROPIA. Common conditions associated with nerve injury include INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ISCHEMIA; and INFRATENTORIAL NEOPLASMS.
Injuries to the PERIPHERAL NERVES.
A syndrome associated with defective sympathetic innervation to one side of the face, including the eye. Clinical features include MIOSIS; mild BLEPHAROPTOSIS; and hemifacial ANHIDROSIS (decreased sweating)(see HYPOHIDROSIS). Lesions of the BRAIN STEM; cervical SPINAL CORD; first thoracic nerve root; apex of the LUNG; CAROTID ARTERY; CAVERNOUS SINUS; and apex of the ORBIT may cause this condition. (From Miller et al., Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology, 4th ed, pp500-11)
An irregularly shaped venous space in the dura mater at either side of the sphenoid bone.
A visual symptom in which a single object is perceived by the visual cortex as two objects rather than one. Disorders associated with this condition include REFRACTIVE ERRORS; STRABISMUS; OCULOMOTOR NERVE DISEASES; TROCHLEAR NERVE DISEASES; ABDUCENS NERVE DISEASES; and diseases of the BRAIN STEM and OCCIPITAL LOBE.
The dense rock-like part of temporal bone that contains the INNER EAR. Petrous bone is located at the base of the skull. Sometimes it is combined with the MASTOID PROCESS and called petromastoid part of temporal bone.
Disorders of one or more of the twelve cranial nerves. With the exception of the optic and olfactory nerves, this includes disorders of the brain stem nuclei from which the cranial nerves originate or terminate.
The 4th cranial nerve. The trochlear nerve carries the motor innervation of the superior oblique muscles of the eye.
A dull or sharp painful sensation associated with the outer or inner structures of the eyeball, having different causes.
Paralysis of one or more of the ocular muscles due to disorders of the eye muscles, neuromuscular junction, supporting soft tissue, tendons, or innervation to the muscles.
The 3d cranial nerve. The oculomotor nerve sends motor fibers to the levator muscles of the eyelid and to the superior rectus, inferior rectus, and inferior oblique muscles of the eye. It also sends parasympathetic efferents (via the ciliary ganglion) to the muscles controlling pupillary constriction and accommodation. The motor fibers originate in the oculomotor nuclei of the midbrain.
A nerve which originates in the lumbar and sacral spinal cord (L4 to S3) and supplies motor and sensory innervation to the lower extremity. The sciatic nerve, which is the main continuation of the sacral plexus, is the largest nerve in the body. It has two major branches, the TIBIAL NERVE and the PERONEAL NERVE.
The muscles that move the eye. Included in this group are the medial rectus, lateral rectus, superior rectus, inferior rectus, inferior oblique, superior oblique, musculus orbitalis, and levator palpebrae superioris.
Benign and malignant neoplasms that arise from one or more of the twelve cranial nerves.
Dysfunction of one or more cranial nerves causally related to a traumatic injury. Penetrating and nonpenetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; NECK INJURIES; and trauma to the facial region are conditions associated with cranial nerve injuries.
Fractures which extend through the base of the SKULL, usually involving the PETROUS BONE. Battle's sign (characterized by skin discoloration due to extravasation of blood into the subcutaneous tissue behind the ear and over the mastoid process), CRANIAL NEUROPATHIES, TRAUMATIC; CAROTID-CAVERNOUS SINUS FISTULA; and CEREBROSPINAL FLUID OTORRHEA are relatively frequent sequelae of this condition. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p876)
The 5th and largest cranial nerve. The trigeminal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve. The larger sensory part forms the ophthalmic, mandibular, and maxillary nerves which carry afferents sensitive to external or internal stimuli from the skin, muscles, and joints of the face and mouth and from the teeth. Most of these fibers originate from cells of the TRIGEMINAL GANGLION and project to the TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS of the brain stem. The smaller motor part arises from the brain stem trigeminal motor nucleus and innervates the muscles of mastication.
A general term most often used to describe severe or complete loss of muscle strength due to motor system disease from the level of the cerebral cortex to the muscle fiber. This term may also occasionally refer to a loss of sensory function. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p45)
Diseases of the oculomotor nerve or nucleus that result in weakness or paralysis of the superior rectus, inferior rectus, medial rectus, inferior oblique, or levator palpebrae muscles, or impaired parasympathetic innervation to the pupil. With a complete oculomotor palsy, the eyelid will be paralyzed, the eye will be in an abducted and inferior position, and the pupil will be markedly dilated. Commonly associated conditions include neoplasms, CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA, ischemia (especially in association with DIABETES MELLITUS), and aneurysmal compression. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p270)
A syndrome characterized by marked limitation of abduction of the eye, variable limitation of adduction and retraction of the globe, and narrowing of the palpebral fissure on attempted adduction. The condition is caused by aberrant innervation of the lateral rectus by fibers of the OCULOMOTOR NERVE.
Traumatic injuries to the HYPOGLOSSAL NERVE.
Injuries to the optic nerve induced by a trauma to the face or head. These may occur with closed or penetrating injuries. Relatively minor compression of the superior aspect of orbit may also result in trauma to the optic nerve. Clinical manifestations may include visual loss, PAPILLEDEMA, and an afferent pupillary defect.
Mechanical compression of nerves or nerve roots from internal or external causes. These may result in a conduction block to nerve impulses (due to MYELIN SHEATH dysfunction) or axonal loss. The nerve and nerve sheath injuries may be caused by ISCHEMIA; INFLAMMATION; or a direct mechanical effect.
A retention cyst of the salivary gland, lacrimal sac, paranasal sinuses, appendix, or gallbladder. (Stedman, 26th ed)
Damage inflicted on the body as the direct or indirect result of an external force, with or without disruption of structural continuity.
Traumatic injuries to the facial nerve. This may result in FACIAL PARALYSIS, decreased lacrimation and salivation, and loss of taste sensation in the anterior tongue. The nerve may regenerate and reform its original pattern of innervation, or regenerate aberrantly, resulting in inappropriate lacrimation in response to gustatory stimuli (e.g., "crocodile tears") and other syndromes.
Voluntary or reflex-controlled movements of the eye.
Recording of nystagmus based on changes in the electrical field surrounding the eye produced by the difference in potential between the cornea and the retina.
The nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord, including the autonomic, cranial, and spinal nerves. Peripheral nerves contain non-neuronal cells and connective tissue as well as axons. The connective tissue layers include, from the outside to the inside, the epineurium, the perineurium, and the endoneurium.
The outermost of the three MENINGES, a fibrous membrane of connective tissue that covers the brain and the spinal cord.
The 31 paired peripheral nerves formed by the union of the dorsal and ventral spinal roots from each spinal cord segment. The spinal nerve plexuses and the spinal roots are also included.
The infratentorial compartment that contains the CEREBELLUM and BRAIN STEM. It is formed by the posterior third of the superior surface of the body of the sphenoid (SPHENOID BONE), by the occipital, the petrous, and mastoid portions of the TEMPORAL BONE, and the posterior inferior angle of the PARIETAL BONE.
Treatment of muscles and nerves under pressure as a result of crush injuries.
Renewal or physiological repair of damaged nerve tissue.
Disease or damage involving the SCIATIC NERVE, which divides into the PERONEAL NERVE and TIBIAL NERVE (see also PERONEAL NEUROPATHIES and TIBIAL NEUROPATHY). Clinical manifestations may include SCIATICA or pain localized to the hip, PARESIS or PARALYSIS of posterior thigh muscles and muscles innervated by the peroneal and tibial nerves, and sensory loss involving the lateral and posterior thigh, posterior and lateral leg, and sole of the foot. The sciatic nerve may be affected by trauma; ISCHEMIA; COLLAGEN DISEASES; and other conditions. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1363)
The inferior region of the skull consisting of an internal (cerebral), and an external (basilar) surface.
Intense or aching pain that occurs along the course or distribution of a peripheral or cranial nerve.
Traumatic injuries to the TRIGEMINAL NERVE. It may result in extreme pain, abnormal sensation in the areas the nerve innervates on face, jaw, gums and tongue and can cause difficulties with speech and chewing. It is sometimes associated with various dental treatments.
Traumatic injuries to the LINGUAL NERVE. It may be a complication following dental treatments.
##### I apologize, but the term "turtles" is not a recognized medical term or concept. It is commonly referred to as a group of reptiles with a shell, and does not have any direct relevance to medical definition.

Postlesional vestibular reorganization improves the gain but impairs the spatial tuning of the maculo-ocular reflex in frogs. (1/6)

The ramus anterior (RA) of N.VIII was sectioned unilaterally. Two months later we analyzed in vivo responses of the ipsi- and of the contralesional abducens nerve during horizontal and vertical linear acceleration in darkness. The contralesional abducens nerve had become responsive again to linear acceleration either because of a synaptic reorganization in the vestibular nuclei on the operated side and/or because of a reinnervation of the utricular macula by regenerating afferent nerve fibers. Significant differences in the onset latencies and in the acceleration sensitivities allowed a separation of RA frogs in a group without and in a group with functional utricular reinnervation. Most important, the vector orientation for maximal abducens nerve responses was clearly altered: postlesional synaptic reorganization resulted in the emergence of abducens nerve responses to vertical linear acceleration, a response component that was barely detectable in RA frogs with utricular reinnervation and that was absent in controls. The ipsilesional abducens nerve, however, exhibited unaltered responses in either group of RA frogs. The altered spatial tuning properties of contralesional abducens nerve responses are a direct consequence of the postlesional expansion of signals from intact afferent nerve and excitatory commissural fibers onto disfacilitated 2nd-order vestibular neurons on the operated side. These results corroborate the notion that postlesional vestibular reorganization activates a basic neural reaction pattern with more beneficial results at the cellular than at the network level. However, given that the underlying mechanism is activity-related, rehabilitative training after vestibular nerve lesion can be expected to shape the ongoing reorganization.  (+info)

Eye problem following foot surgery--abducens palsy as a complication of spinal anesthesia. (2/6)

BACKGROUND: Paralysis of abducens nerve is a very rare complication of lumbar puncture, which is a common procedure most often used for diagnostic and anesthetic purposes. CASE REPORT: A 38-year-old man underwent surgery for a left hallux valgus while he was under spinal anesthesia. On the first postoperative day, the patient experienced a severe headache that did not respond to standard nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medication and hydration. During the second postoperative day, nausea and vomiting occurred. On the fourth postoperative day, nausea ceased completely but the patient complained of diplopia. Examination revealed bilateral strabismus with bilateral abducens nerve palsy. His diplopia resolved completely after 9 weeks and strabismus after 6 months. CONCLUSION: Abducens palsy following spinal anesthesia is a rare and reversible complication. Spinal anesthesia is still a feasible procedure for both the orthopaedic surgeon and the patient. Other types of anesthesia or performing spinal anesthesia with smaller diameter or atraumatic spinal needles may help decrease the incidence of abducens palsy. Informing the patient about the reversibility of the complication is essential during the follow-up because the palsy may last for as long as 6 months. Special attention must be paid to patient positioning following the operation. Recumbency and lying flat should be accomplished as soon as possible to prevent cerebrospinal fluid leakage and resultant intracranial hypotension. This becomes much more important if the patient has postdural puncture headache.  (+info)

Traumatic retroclival epidural hematoma in a child: case report. (3/6)

An 11-year-old girl presented with a very rare traumatic retroclival epidural hematoma manifesting as bilateral abducens nerve palsy, deviation of the uvula to the left, and weakened movement of tongue, which developed after a motor vehicle accident. The patient was treated conservatively and showed good outcome. Retroclival hematoma is a mainly pediatric entity usually associated with ligamentous injury at the craniocervical junction, and can be treated conservatively with good outcome.  (+info)

Transient diplopia in dental outpatient clinic: an uncommon iatrogenic event. (4/6)

 (+info)

Delayed-onset bilateral abducens paresis after head trauma. (5/6)

 (+info)

Sixth cranial nerve palsy following closed head injury in a child. (6/6)

A five year old female had an isolated abducens nerve palsy following closed head injury. There was no associated skull fracture, haematoma, or other cranial nerve injury. The significance, frequency, and differential diagnosis of traumatic sixth cranial nerve injury is discussed, particularly in paediatric patients. Management is symptomatic; occlusion with an eye pad may be used if diplopia is significant. In young children alternate day occlusion of each eye will help prevent amblyopia. Most cases improve within three months and many resolve by six months. Residual palsy at six months is likely to be permanent and surgical treatment may be needed.  (+info)

The abducens nerve, also known as the sixth cranial nerve, is responsible for controlling the lateral rectus muscle of the eye, which allows for horizontal movement of the eye outwards. An injury to the abducens nerve can result in various symptoms related to eye movement and alignment.

Medical definition:

Abducens nerve injury refers to damage or trauma to the sixth cranial nerve, resulting in dysfunction of the lateral rectus muscle and subsequent impairment of horizontal gaze. The affected individual may experience difficulty in moving the eye outwards, double vision (diplopia), or a condition known as strabismus, where the eyes are misaligned and point in different directions. Abducens nerve injury can occur due to various reasons, such as head trauma, tumors, increased intracranial pressure, or neurological disorders like multiple sclerosis. Treatment typically involves addressing the underlying cause and may include surgical intervention, eye patching, or prism lenses to manage symptoms and improve visual function.

The abducens nerve, also known as the sixth cranial nerve (CN VI), is a motor nerve that controls the lateral rectus muscle of the eye. This muscle is responsible for moving the eye away from the midline (towards the temple) and enables the eyes to look towards the side while keeping them aligned. Any damage or dysfunction of the abducens nerve can result in strabismus, where the eyes are misaligned and point in different directions, specifically an adduction deficit, also known as abducens palsy or sixth nerve palsy.

The abducens nerve, also known as the sixth cranial nerve, is responsible for controlling the lateral rectus muscle of the eye, which enables the eye to move outward. Abducens nerve diseases refer to conditions that affect this nerve and can result in various symptoms, primarily affecting eye movement.

Here are some medical definitions related to abducens nerve diseases:

1. Abducens Nerve Palsy: A condition characterized by weakness or paralysis of the abducens nerve, causing difficulty in moving the affected eye outward. This results in double vision (diplopia), especially when gazing towards the side of the weakened nerve. Abducens nerve palsy can be congenital, acquired, or caused by various factors such as trauma, tumors, aneurysms, infections, or diseases like diabetes and multiple sclerosis.
2. Sixth Nerve Palsy: Another term for abducens nerve palsy, referring to the weakness or paralysis of the sixth cranial nerve.
3. Internuclear Ophthalmoplegia (INO): A neurological condition affecting eye movement, often caused by a lesion in the medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF), a bundle of nerve fibers that connects the abducens nucleus with the oculomotor nucleus. INO results in impaired adduction (inward movement) of the eye on the side of the lesion and nystagmus (involuntary eye movements) of the abducting eye on the opposite side when attempting to look towards the side of the lesion.
4. One-and-a-Half Syndrome: A rare neurological condition characterized by a combination of INO and internuclear ophthalmoplegia with horizontal gaze palsy on the same side, caused by damage to both the abducens nerve and the paramedian pontine reticular formation (PPRF). This results in limited or no ability to move the eyes towards the side of the lesion and impaired adduction of the eye on the opposite side.
5. Brainstem Encephalitis: Inflammation of the brainstem, which can affect the abducens nerve and other cranial nerves, leading to various neurological symptoms such as diplopia (double vision), ataxia (loss of balance and coordination), and facial weakness. Brainstem encephalitis can be caused by infectious agents, autoimmune disorders, or paraneoplastic syndromes.
6. Multiple Sclerosis (MS): An autoimmune disorder characterized by inflammation and demyelination of the central nervous system, including the brainstem and optic nerves. MS can cause various neurological symptoms, such as diplopia, nystagmus, and INO, due to damage to the abducens nerve and other cranial nerves.
7. Wernicke's Encephalopathy: A neurological disorder caused by thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency, often seen in alcoholics or individuals with malnutrition. Wernicke's encephalopathy can affect the brainstem and cause various symptoms such as diplopia, ataxia, confusion, and oculomotor abnormalities.
8. Pontine Glioma: A rare type of brain tumor that arises from the glial cells in the pons (a part of the brainstem). Pontine gliomas can cause various neurological symptoms such as diplopia, facial weakness, and difficulty swallowing due to their location in the brainstem.
9. Brainstem Cavernous Malformation: A benign vascular lesion that arises from the small blood vessels in the brainstem. Brainstem cavernous malformations can cause various neurological symptoms such as diplopia, ataxia, and facial weakness due to their location in the brainstem.
10. Pituitary Adenoma: A benign tumor that arises from the pituitary gland, located at the base of the brain. Large pituitary adenomas can compress the optic nerves and cause various visual symptoms such as diplopia, visual field defects, and decreased vision.
11. Craniopharyngioma: A benign tumor that arises from the remnants of the Rathke's pouch, a structure that gives rise to the anterior pituitary gland. Craniopharyngiomas can cause various neurological and endocrine symptoms such as diplopia, visual field defects, headaches, and hormonal imbalances due to their location near the optic nerves and pituitary gland.
12. Meningioma: A benign tumor that arises from the meninges, the protective covering of the brain and spinal cord. Meningiomas can cause various neurological symptoms such as diplopia, headaches, and seizures depending on their location in the brain or spinal cord.
13. Chordoma: A rare type of malignant tumor that arises from the remnants of the notochord, a structure that gives rise to the spine during embryonic development. Chordomas can cause various neurological and endocrine symptoms such as diplopia, visual field defects, headaches, and hormonal imbalances due to their location near the brainstem and spinal cord.
14. Metastatic Brain Tumors: Malignant tumors that spread from other parts of the body to the brain. Metastatic brain tumors can cause various neurological symptoms such as diplopia, headaches, seizures, and cognitive impairment depending on their location in the brain.
15. Other Rare Brain Tumors: There are many other rare types of brain tumors that can cause diplopia or other neurological symptoms, including gliomas, ependymomas, pineal region tumors, and others. These tumors require specialized diagnosis and treatment by neuro-oncologists and neurosurgeons with expertise in these rare conditions.

In summary, diplopia can be caused by various brain tumors, including pituitary adenomas, meningiomas, chordomas, metastatic brain tumors, and other rare types of tumors. It is important to seek medical attention promptly if you experience diplopia or other neurological symptoms, as early diagnosis and treatment can improve outcomes and quality of life.

Peripheral nerve injuries refer to damage or trauma to the peripheral nerves, which are the nerves outside the brain and spinal cord. These nerves transmit information between the central nervous system (CNS) and the rest of the body, including sensory, motor, and autonomic functions. Peripheral nerve injuries can result in various symptoms, depending on the type and severity of the injury, such as numbness, tingling, weakness, or paralysis in the affected area.

Peripheral nerve injuries are classified into three main categories based on the degree of damage:

1. Neuropraxia: This is the mildest form of nerve injury, where the nerve remains intact but its function is disrupted due to a local conduction block. The nerve fiber is damaged, but the supporting structures remain intact. Recovery usually occurs within 6-12 weeks without any residual deficits.
2. Axonotmesis: In this type of injury, there is damage to both the axons and the supporting structures (endoneurium, perineurium). The nerve fibers are disrupted, but the connective tissue sheaths remain intact. Recovery can take several months or even up to a year, and it may be incomplete, with some residual deficits possible.
3. Neurotmesis: This is the most severe form of nerve injury, where there is complete disruption of the nerve fibers and supporting structures (endoneurium, perineurium, epineurium). Recovery is unlikely without surgical intervention, which may involve nerve grafting or repair.

Peripheral nerve injuries can be caused by various factors, including trauma, compression, stretching, lacerations, or chemical exposure. Treatment options depend on the type and severity of the injury and may include conservative management, such as physical therapy and pain management, or surgical intervention for more severe cases.

Horner syndrome, also known as Horner's syndrome or oculosympathetic palsy, is a neurological disorder characterized by the interruption of sympathetic nerve pathways that innervate the head and neck, leading to a constellation of signs affecting the eye and face on one side of the body.

The classic triad of symptoms includes:

1. Ptosis (drooping) of the upper eyelid: This is due to the weakness or paralysis of the levator palpebrae superioris muscle, which is responsible for elevating the eyelid.
2. Miosis (pupillary constriction): The affected pupil becomes smaller in size compared to the other side, and it may not react as robustly to light.
3. Anhydrosis (decreased sweating): There is reduced or absent sweating on the ipsilateral (same side) of the face, particularly around the forehead and upper eyelid.

Horner syndrome can be caused by various underlying conditions, such as brainstem stroke, tumors, trauma, or certain medical disorders affecting the sympathetic nervous system. The diagnosis typically involves a thorough clinical examination, pharmacological testing, and sometimes imaging studies to identify the underlying cause. Treatment is directed towards managing the underlying condition responsible for Horner syndrome.

The cavernous sinus is a venous structure located in the middle cranial fossa, which is a depression in the skull that houses several important nerves and blood vessels. The cavernous sinus is situated on either side of the sphenoid bone, near the base of the skull, and it contains several important structures:

* The internal carotid artery, which supplies oxygenated blood to the brain
* The abducens nerve (cranial nerve VI), which controls lateral movement of the eye
* The oculomotor nerve (cranial nerve III), which controls most of the muscles that move the eye
* The trochlear nerve (cranial nerve IV), which controls one of the muscles that moves the eye
* The ophthalmic and maxillary divisions of the trigeminal nerve (cranial nerve V), which transmit sensory information from the face and head

The cavernous sinus is an important structure because it serves as a conduit for several critical nerves and blood vessels. However, it is also vulnerable to various pathological conditions such as thrombosis (blood clots), infection, tumors, or aneurysms, which can lead to serious neurological deficits or even death.

Diplopia is a medical term that refers to the condition where a person sees two images of a single object. It is commonly known as double vision. This can occur due to various reasons, such as nerve damage or misalignment of the eyes. Diplopia can be temporary or chronic and can affect one or both eyes. If you're experiencing diplopia, it's essential to consult an eye care professional for proper evaluation and treatment.

The petrous bone is a part of the temporal bone, one of the 22 bones in the human skull. It is a thick and irregularly shaped bone located at the base of the skull and forms part of the ear and the cranial cavity. The petrous bone contains the cochlea, vestibule, and semicircular canals of the inner ear, which are responsible for hearing and balance. It also helps protect the brain from injury by forming part of the bony structure surrounding the brain.

The term "petrous" comes from the Latin word "petrosus," meaning "stony" or "rock-like," which describes the hard and dense nature of this bone. The petrous bone is one of the densest bones in the human body, making it highly resistant to fractures and other forms of damage.

In medical terminology, the term "petrous" may also be used to describe any structure that resembles a rock or is hard and dense, such as the petrous apex, which refers to the portion of the petrous bone that points towards the sphenoid bone.

Cranial nerve diseases refer to conditions that affect the cranial nerves, which are a set of 12 pairs of nerves that originate from the brainstem and control various functions in the head and neck. These functions include vision, hearing, taste, smell, movement of the eyes and face, and sensation in the face.

Diseases of the cranial nerves can result from a variety of causes, including injury, infection, inflammation, tumors, or degenerative conditions. The specific symptoms that a person experiences will depend on which cranial nerve is affected and how severely it is damaged.

For example, damage to the optic nerve (cranial nerve II) can cause vision loss or visual disturbances, while damage to the facial nerve (cranial nerve VII) can result in weakness or paralysis of the face. Other common symptoms of cranial nerve diseases include pain, numbness, tingling, and hearing loss.

Treatment for cranial nerve diseases varies depending on the underlying cause and severity of the condition. In some cases, medication or surgery may be necessary to treat the underlying cause and relieve symptoms. Physical therapy or rehabilitation may also be recommended to help individuals regain function and improve their quality of life.

The trochlear nerve, also known as the fourth cranial nerve (CN IV), is a nerve that originates in the midbrain and innervates the superior oblique muscle of the eye. This muscle helps with the downward and outward movement of the eye, playing a crucial role in controlling eye movements and maintaining binocular vision. The trochlear nerve's main function is to provide motor (efferent) innervation to the superior oblique muscle, enabling fine-tuning of eye movements during activities such as reading, writing, or driving. Damage to this nerve can result in vertical diplopia (double vision), strabismus (eye misalignment), and other visual impairments.

Eye pain is defined as discomfort or unpleasant sensations in the eye. It can be sharp, throbbing, stabbing, burning, or aching. The pain may occur in one or both eyes and can range from mild to severe. Eye pain can result from various causes, including infection, inflammation, injury, or irritation of the structures of the eye, such as the cornea, conjunctiva, sclera, or uvea. Other possible causes include migraines, optic neuritis, and glaucoma. It is essential to seek medical attention if experiencing sudden, severe, or persistent eye pain, as it can be a sign of a serious underlying condition that requires prompt treatment.

Ophthalmoplegia is a medical term that refers to the paralysis or weakness of the eye muscles, which can result in double vision (diplopia) or difficulty moving the eyes. It can be caused by various conditions, including nerve damage, muscle disorders, or neurological diseases such as myasthenia gravis or multiple sclerosis. Ophthalmoplegia can affect one or more eye muscles and can be partial or complete. Depending on the underlying cause, ophthalmoplegia may be treatable with medications, surgery, or other interventions.

The oculomotor nerve, also known as the third cranial nerve (CN III), is a motor nerve that originates from the midbrain. It controls the majority of the eye muscles, including the levator palpebrae superioris muscle that raises the upper eyelid, and the extraocular muscles that enable various movements of the eye such as looking upward, downward, inward, and outward. Additionally, it carries parasympathetic fibers responsible for pupillary constriction and accommodation (focusing on near objects). Damage to this nerve can result in various ocular motor disorders, including strabismus, ptosis, and pupillary abnormalities.

The sciatic nerve is the largest and longest nerve in the human body, running from the lower back through the buttocks and down the legs to the feet. It is formed by the union of the ventral rami (branches) of the L4 to S3 spinal nerves. The sciatic nerve provides motor and sensory innervation to various muscles and skin areas in the lower limbs, including the hamstrings, calf muscles, and the sole of the foot. Sciatic nerve disorders or injuries can result in symptoms such as pain, numbness, tingling, or weakness in the lower back, hips, legs, and feet, known as sciatica.

The oculomotor muscles are a group of extraocular muscles that control the movements of the eye. They include:

1. Superior rectus: This muscle is responsible for elevating the eye and helping with inward rotation (intorsion) when looking downwards.
2. Inferior rectus: It depresses the eye and helps with outward rotation (extorsion) when looking upwards.
3. Medial rectus: This muscle adducts, or moves, the eye towards the midline of the face.
4. Inferior oblique: The inferior oblique muscle intorts and elevates the eye.
5. Superior oblique: It extorts and depresses the eye.

These muscles work together to allow for smooth and precise movements of the eyes, enabling tasks such as tracking moving objects, reading, and maintaining visual fixation on a single point in space.

Cranial nerve neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that develop within or near the cranial nerves. These nerves are responsible for transmitting sensory and motor information between the brain and various parts of the head, neck, and trunk. There are 12 pairs of cranial nerves, each with a specific function and location in the skull.

Cranial nerve neoplasms can be benign or malignant and may arise from the nerve itself (schwannoma, neurofibroma) or from surrounding tissues that invade the nerve (meningioma, epidermoid cyst). The growth of these tumors can cause various symptoms depending on their size, location, and rate of growth. Common symptoms include:

* Facial weakness or numbness
* Double vision or other visual disturbances
* Hearing loss or tinnitus (ringing in the ears)
* Difficulty swallowing or speaking
* Loss of smell or taste
* Uncontrollable eye movements or drooping eyelids

Treatment for cranial nerve neoplasms depends on several factors, including the type, size, location, and extent of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches. Regular follow-up care is essential to monitor for recurrence or complications.

Cranial nerve injuries refer to damages or trauma to one or more of the twelve cranial nerves (CN I through CN XII). These nerves originate from the brainstem and are responsible for transmitting sensory information (such as vision, hearing, smell, taste, and balance) and controlling various motor functions (like eye movement, facial expressions, swallowing, and speaking).

Cranial nerve injuries can result from various causes, including head trauma, tumors, infections, or neurological conditions. The severity of the injury may range from mild dysfunction to complete loss of function, depending on the extent of damage to the nerve. Treatment options vary based on the type and location of the injury but often involve a combination of medical management, physical therapy, surgical intervention, or rehabilitation.

A basilar skull fracture is a type of skull fracture that involves the base of the skull. It is a serious and potentially life-threatening injury, as it can cause damage to the brainstem and cranial nerves. A basilar skull fracture may occur as a result of a severe head trauma, such as from a fall, car accident, or violent assault.

In a basilar skull fracture, the bones that form the base of the skull (the occipital bone, sphenoid bone, and temporal bones) are broken. This type of fracture can be difficult to diagnose on a routine skull X-ray, and may require further imaging studies such as a CT scan or MRI to confirm the diagnosis.

Symptoms of a basilar skull fracture may include:

* Battle's sign: a bruise behind the ear
* Raccoon eyes: bruising around the eyes
* Clear fluid leaking from the nose or ears (cerebrospinal fluid)
* Hearing loss
* Facial paralysis
* Difficulty swallowing
* Changes in level of consciousness

If you suspect that someone has a basilar skull fracture, it is important to seek medical attention immediately. This type of injury requires prompt treatment and close monitoring to prevent complications such as infection or brain swelling.

The trigeminal nerve, also known as the fifth cranial nerve or CNV, is a paired nerve that carries both sensory and motor information. It has three major branches: ophthalmic (V1), maxillary (V2), and mandibular (V3). The ophthalmic branch provides sensation to the forehead, eyes, and upper portion of the nose; the maxillary branch supplies sensation to the lower eyelid, cheek, nasal cavity, and upper lip; and the mandibular branch is responsible for sensation in the lower lip, chin, and parts of the oral cavity, as well as motor function to the muscles involved in chewing. The trigeminal nerve plays a crucial role in sensations of touch, pain, temperature, and pressure in the face and mouth, and it also contributes to biting, chewing, and swallowing functions.

Paralysis is a loss of muscle function in part or all of your body. It can be localized, affecting only one specific area, or generalized, impacting multiple areas or even the entire body. Paralysis often occurs when something goes wrong with the way messages pass between your brain and muscles. In most cases, paralysis is caused by damage to the nervous system, especially the spinal cord. Other causes include stroke, trauma, infections, and various neurological disorders.

It's important to note that paralysis doesn't always mean a total loss of movement or feeling. Sometimes, it may just cause weakness or numbness in the affected area. The severity and extent of paralysis depend on the underlying cause and the location of the damage in the nervous system.

The oculomotor nerve, also known as the third cranial nerve (CN III), is responsible for controlling several important eye movements and functions. Oculomotor nerve diseases refer to conditions that affect this nerve and can lead to various symptoms related to eye movement and function. Here's a medical definition of oculomotor nerve diseases:

Oculomotor nerve diseases are a group of medical disorders characterized by the dysfunction or damage to the oculomotor nerve (CN III), resulting in impaired eye movements, abnormalities in pupillary response, and potential effects on eyelid position. These conditions can be congenital, acquired, or traumatic in nature and may lead to partial or complete paralysis of the nerve. Common oculomotor nerve diseases include oculomotor nerve palsy, third nerve ganglionopathies, and compressive oculomotor neuropathies caused by various pathologies such as aneurysms, tumors, or infections.

Duane Retraction Syndrome (DRS) is a congenital eye movement disorder, characterized by limited abduction (lateral movement away from the nose) of the affected eye, and on attempted adduction (movement towards the nose), the eye retracts into the orbit and the lid narrows. It is often accompanied by other eye alignment or vision anomalies. The exact cause is not known, but it is believed to be a result of abnormal development of the cranial nerves that control eye movement during fetal development. DRS is usually idiopathic, but it can also be associated with other congenital anomalies. It is typically diagnosed in early childhood and managed with a combination of observation, prism glasses, and/or surgery, depending on the severity and impact on vision.

Hypoglossal nerve injuries refer to damages or impairments to the twelfth cranial nerve, also known as the hypoglossal nerve. This nerve is primarily responsible for controlling the movements of the tongue.

An injury to this nerve can result in various symptoms, depending on the severity and location of the damage. These may include:

1. Deviation of the tongue to one side when protruded (usually away from the side of the lesion)
2. Weakness or paralysis of the tongue muscles
3. Difficulty with speaking, swallowing, and articulation
4. Changes in taste and sensation on the back of the tongue (in some cases)

Hypoglossal nerve injuries can occur due to various reasons, such as trauma, surgical complications, tumors, or neurological disorders like stroke or multiple sclerosis. Treatment for hypoglossal nerve injuries typically focuses on managing symptoms and may involve speech and language therapy, exercises to strengthen the tongue muscles, and, in some cases, surgical intervention.

Optic nerve injuries refer to damages or trauma inflicted on the optic nerve, which is a crucial component of the visual system. The optic nerve transmits visual information from the retina to the brain, enabling us to see. Injuries to the optic nerve can result in various visual impairments, including partial or complete vision loss, decreased visual acuity, changes in color perception, and reduced field of view.

These injuries may occur due to several reasons, such as:

1. Direct trauma to the eye or head
2. Increased pressure inside the eye (glaucoma)
3. Optic neuritis, an inflammation of the optic nerve
4. Ischemia, or insufficient blood supply to the optic nerve
5. Compression from tumors or other space-occupying lesions
6. Intrinsic degenerative conditions affecting the optic nerve
7. Toxic exposure to certain chemicals or medications

Optic nerve injuries are diagnosed through a comprehensive eye examination, including visual acuity testing, slit-lamp examination, dilated fundus exam, and additional diagnostic tests like optical coherence tomography (OCT) and visual field testing. Treatment options vary depending on the cause and severity of the injury but may include medications, surgery, or vision rehabilitation.

Nerve compression syndromes refer to a group of conditions characterized by the pressure or irritation of a peripheral nerve, causing various symptoms such as pain, numbness, tingling, and weakness in the affected area. This compression can occur due to several reasons, including injury, repetitive motion, bone spurs, tumors, or swelling. Common examples of nerve compression syndromes include carpal tunnel syndrome, cubital tunnel syndrome, radial nerve compression, and ulnar nerve entrapment at the wrist or elbow. Treatment options may include physical therapy, splinting, medications, injections, or surgery, depending on the severity and underlying cause of the condition.

A mucocele is a mucus-containing cystic lesion that results from the accumulation of mucin within a damaged minor salivary gland duct or mucous gland. It is typically caused by trauma, injury, or blockage of the duct. Mucocele appears as a round, dome-shaped, fluid-filled swelling, which may be bluish or clear in color. They are most commonly found on the lower lip but can also occur on other areas of the oral cavity. Mucocele is generally painless unless it becomes secondarily infected; however, it can cause discomfort during speaking, chewing, or swallowing, and may affect aesthetics. Treatment usually involves surgical excision of the mucocele to prevent recurrence.

A wound is a type of injury that occurs when the skin or other tissues are cut, pierced, torn, or otherwise broken. Wounds can be caused by a variety of factors, including accidents, violence, surgery, or certain medical conditions. There are several different types of wounds, including:

* Incisions: These are cuts that are made deliberately, often during surgery. They are usually straight and clean.
* Lacerations: These are tears in the skin or other tissues. They can be irregular and jagged.
* Abrasions: These occur when the top layer of skin is scraped off. They may look like a bruise or a scab.
* Punctures: These are wounds that are caused by sharp objects, such as needles or knives. They are usually small and deep.
* Avulsions: These occur when tissue is forcibly torn away from the body. They can be very serious and require immediate medical attention.

Injuries refer to any harm or damage to the body, including wounds. Injuries can range from minor scrapes and bruises to more severe injuries such as fractures, dislocations, and head trauma. It is important to seek medical attention for any injury that is causing significant pain, swelling, or bleeding, or if there is a suspected bone fracture or head injury.

In general, wounds and injuries should be cleaned and covered with a sterile bandage to prevent infection. Depending on the severity of the wound or injury, additional medical treatment may be necessary. This may include stitches for deep cuts, immobilization for broken bones, or surgery for more serious injuries. It is important to follow your healthcare provider's instructions carefully to ensure proper healing and to prevent complications.

Facial nerve injuries refer to damages or trauma inflicted on the facial nerve, also known as the seventh cranial nerve (CN VII). This nerve is responsible for controlling the muscles involved in facial expressions, eyelid movement, and taste sensation in the front two-thirds of the tongue.

There are two main types of facial nerve injuries:

1. Peripheral facial nerve injury: This type of injury occurs when damage affects the facial nerve outside the skull base, usually due to trauma from cuts, blunt force, or surgical procedures in the parotid gland or neck region. The injury may result in weakness or paralysis on one side of the face, known as Bell's palsy, and may also impact taste sensation and salivary function.

2. Central facial nerve injury: This type of injury occurs when damage affects the facial nerve within the skull base, often due to stroke, brain tumors, or traumatic brain injuries. Central facial nerve injuries typically result in weakness or paralysis only on the lower half of the face, as the upper motor neurons responsible for controlling the upper face receive innervation from both sides of the brain.

Treatment for facial nerve injuries depends on the severity and location of the damage. For mild to moderate injuries, physical therapy, protective eyewear, and medications like corticosteroids and antivirals may be prescribed. Severe cases might require surgical intervention, such as nerve grafts or muscle transfers, to restore function. In some instances, facial nerve injuries may heal on their own over time, particularly when the injury is mild and there is no ongoing compression or tension on the nerve.

Eye movements, also known as ocular motility, refer to the voluntary or involuntary motion of the eyes that allows for visual exploration of our environment. There are several types of eye movements, including:

1. Saccades: rapid, ballistic movements that quickly shift the gaze from one point to another.
2. Pursuits: smooth, slow movements that allow the eyes to follow a moving object.
3. Vergences: coordinated movements of both eyes in opposite directions, usually in response to a three-dimensional stimulus.
4. Vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR): automatic eye movements that help stabilize the gaze during head movement.
5. Optokinetic nystagmus (OKN): rhythmic eye movements that occur in response to large moving visual patterns, such as when looking out of a moving vehicle.

Abnormalities in eye movements can indicate neurological or ophthalmological disorders and are often assessed during clinical examinations.

Electronystagmography (ENG) is a medical test used to assess the function of the vestibular system, which is responsible for maintaining balance and eye movements. This test measures involuntary eye movements, called nystagmus, which can be indicative of various conditions affecting the inner ear or brainstem.

During the ENG test, electrodes are placed around the eyes to record eye movements while the patient undergoes a series of stimuli, such as changes in head position, visual stimuli, and caloric irrigations (where warm or cool water is introduced into the ear canal to stimulate the inner ear). The recorded data is then analyzed to evaluate the function of the vestibular system and identify any abnormalities.

ENG testing can help diagnose conditions such as vestibular neuritis, labyrinthitis, benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV), Meniere's disease, and other balance disorders. It is also used to assess the effectiveness of various treatments for these conditions.

Peripheral nerves are nerve fibers that transmit signals between the central nervous system (CNS, consisting of the brain and spinal cord) and the rest of the body. These nerves convey motor, sensory, and autonomic information, enabling us to move, feel, and respond to changes in our environment. They form a complex network that extends from the CNS to muscles, glands, skin, and internal organs, allowing for coordinated responses and functions throughout the body. Damage or injury to peripheral nerves can result in various neurological symptoms, such as numbness, weakness, or pain, depending on the type and severity of the damage.

Dura Mater is the thickest and outermost of the three membranes (meninges) that cover the brain and spinal cord. It provides protection and support to these delicate structures. The other two layers are called the Arachnoid Mater and the Pia Mater, which are thinner and more delicate than the Dura Mater. Together, these three layers form a protective barrier around the central nervous system.

Spinal nerves are the bundles of nerve fibers that transmit signals between the spinal cord and the rest of the body. There are 31 pairs of spinal nerves in the human body, which can be divided into five regions: 8 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral, and 1 coccygeal. Each spinal nerve carries both sensory information (such as touch, temperature, and pain) from the periphery to the spinal cord, and motor information (such as muscle control) from the spinal cord to the muscles and other structures in the body. Spinal nerves also contain autonomic fibers that regulate involuntary functions such as heart rate, digestion, and blood pressure.

The posterior cranial fossa is a term used in anatomy to refer to the portion of the skull that forms the lower, back part of the cranial cavity. It is located between the occipital bone and the temporal bones, and it contains several important structures including the cerebellum, pons, medulla oblongata, and the lower cranial nerves (IX-XII). The posterior fossa also contains the foramen magnum, which is a large opening through which the spinal cord connects to the brainstem. This region of the skull is protected by the occipital bone, which forms the base of the skull and provides attachment for several neck muscles.

A nerve crush injury is a type of peripheral nerve injury that occurs when there is excessive pressure or compression applied to a nerve, causing it to become damaged or dysfunctional. This can happen due to various reasons such as trauma from accidents, surgical errors, or prolonged pressure on the nerve from tight casts, clothing, or positions.

The compression disrupts the normal functioning of the nerve, leading to symptoms such as numbness, tingling, weakness, or pain in the affected area. In severe cases, a nerve crush injury can cause permanent damage to the nerve, leading to long-term disability or loss of function. Treatment for nerve crush injuries typically involves relieving the pressure on the nerve, providing supportive care, and in some cases, surgical intervention may be necessary to repair the damaged nerve.

Nerve regeneration is the process of regrowth and restoration of functional nerve connections following damage or injury to the nervous system. This complex process involves various cellular and molecular events, such as the activation of support cells called glia, the sprouting of surviving nerve fibers (axons), and the reformation of neural circuits. The goal of nerve regeneration is to enable the restoration of normal sensory, motor, and autonomic functions impaired due to nerve damage or injury.

Sciatic neuropathy is a condition that results from damage or injury to the sciatic nerve, which is the largest nerve in the human body. The sciatic nerve originates from the lower spine (lumbar and sacral regions) and travels down through the buttocks, hips, and legs to the feet.

Sciatic neuropathy can cause various symptoms, including pain, numbness, tingling, weakness, or difficulty moving the affected leg or foot. The pain associated with sciatic neuropathy is often described as sharp, shooting, or burning and may worsen with movement, coughing, or sneezing.

The causes of sciatic neuropathy include compression or irritation of the nerve due to conditions such as herniated discs, spinal stenosis, bone spurs, tumors, or piriformis syndrome. Trauma or injury to the lower back, hip, or buttocks can also cause sciatic neuropathy.

Diagnosing sciatic neuropathy typically involves a physical examination and medical history, as well as imaging tests such as X-rays, MRI, or CT scans to visualize the spine and surrounding structures. Treatment options may include pain management, physical therapy, steroid injections, or surgery, depending on the severity and underlying cause of the condition.

The skull base is the lower part of the skull that forms the floor of the cranial cavity and the roof of the facial skeleton. It is a complex anatomical region composed of several bones, including the frontal, sphenoid, temporal, occipital, and ethmoid bones. The skull base supports the brain and contains openings for blood vessels and nerves that travel between the brain and the face or neck. The skull base can be divided into three regions: the anterior cranial fossa, middle cranial fossa, and posterior cranial fossa, which house different parts of the brain.

Neuralgia is a type of pain that occurs along the pathway of a nerve, often caused by damage or irritation to the nerve. It is typically described as a sharp, stabbing, burning, or electric-shock like pain that can be severe and debilitating. Neuralgia can affect any nerve in the body, but it most commonly occurs in the facial area (trigeminal neuralgia) or in the nerves related to the spine (postherpetic neuralgia). The pain associated with neuralgia can be intermittent or constant and may be worsened by certain triggers such as touch, temperature changes, or movement. Treatment for neuralgia typically involves medications to manage pain, as well as other therapies such as nerve blocks, surgery, or lifestyle modifications.

Trigeminal nerve injuries refer to damages or traumas affecting the trigeminal nerve, also known as the fifth cranial nerve. This nerve is responsible for sensations in the face and motor functions such as biting and chewing. Trigeminal nerve injuries can result in various symptoms depending on the severity and location of the injury, including:

1. Loss or reduction of sensation in the face, lips, gums, teeth, or tongue.
2. Pain, often described as burning, aching, or stabbing, in the affected areas.
3. Numbness or tingling sensations.
4. Difficulty with biting, chewing, or performing other motor functions.
5. Impaired taste sensation.
6. Headaches or migraines.
7. Eye dryness or excessive tearing.

Trigeminal nerve injuries can occur due to various reasons, such as trauma during facial surgeries, accidents, tumors, infections, or neurological conditions like multiple sclerosis. Treatment options depend on the cause and severity of the injury and may include medication, physical therapy, surgical intervention, or pain management strategies.

A lingual nerve injury refers to damage or trauma to the lingual nerve, which is a branch of the mandibular nerve (itself a branch of the trigeminal nerve). The lingual nerve provides sensation to the anterior two-thirds of the tongue and the floor of the mouth. It also contributes to taste perception on the front two-thirds of the tongue through its connection with the chorda tympani nerve.

Lingual nerve injuries can result from various causes, such as surgical procedures (e.g., dental extractions, implant placements, or third molar surgeries), pressure from tumors or cysts, or direct trauma to the mouth and tongue area. The injury may lead to symptoms like numbness, altered taste sensation, pain, or difficulty speaking and swallowing. Treatment for lingual nerve injuries typically involves a combination of symptom management and possible surgical intervention, depending on the severity and cause of the injury.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "turtles" is not a medical term. It refers to the group of reptiles that have a shell and include various species such as tortoises and terrapins. If you have any medical concerns or questions, I would be happy to try to help with those!

Examples of conditions giving rise to an esotropia might include a VIth cranial nerve (or Abducens) palsy, Duane's syndrome or ... orbital injury. Someone with esotropia will squint with either the right or the left eye but never with both eyes ... and may also result from conditions affecting the nerve or blood supply to these muscles or the bony orbital structures ...
Iatrogenic injury is also known to occur, with the abducens nerve being the most commonly injured cranial nerve in halo ... The abducens nerve or abducent nerve, also known as the sixth cranial nerve, cranial nerve VI, or simply CN VI, is a cranial ... The human abducens nerve is derived from the basal plate of the embryonic pons. The abducens nerve supplies the lateral rectus ... The abducens nerve carries axons of type GSE, general somatic efferent. Damage to the peripheral part of the abducens nerve ...
4. Iatrogenic injury. Abducens nerve palsy is also known to occur with halo orthosis placement. The resultant palsy is ... Sixth nerve palsy, or abducens nerve palsy, is a disorder associated with dysfunction of cranial nerve VI (the abducens nerve ... The unilateral abducens nerve palsy is the most common of the isolated ocular motor nerve palsies. The nerve dysfunction ... fibers of the seventh cranial nerve wrap around the VIth nerve nucleus, and, if this is also affected, a VIth nerve palsy with ...
... abducens nerve injury MeSH C10.292.262.500 - facial nerve injuries MeSH C10.292.262.750 - optic nerve injuries MeSH C10.292. ... cranial nerve injuries MeSH C10.900.300.218.150 - abducens nerve injury MeSH C10.900.300.218.300 - facial nerve injuries MeSH ... optic nerve injuries MeSH C10.292.700.500 - optic nerve neoplasms MeSH C10.292.700.500.500 - optic nerve glioma MeSH C10.292. ... abducens nerve injury MeSH C10.292.225.750 - neuroma, acoustic MeSH C10.292.225.750.500 - neurofibromatosis 2 MeSH C10.292. ...
... cranial nerve injuries MeSH C21.866.260.237.162 - abducens nerve injury MeSH C21.866.260.237.325 - facial nerve injuries MeSH ... abducens nerve injury MeSH C21.866.915.300.400.300 - facial nerve injuries MeSH C21.866.915.300.400.650 - optic nerve injuries ... optic nerve injuries MeSH C21.866.260.275 - facial injuries MeSH C21.866.260.275.250 - eye injuries MeSH C21.866.260.275. ... post-head injury MeSH C21.866.915.300.400 - cranial nerve injuries MeSH C21.866.915.300.400.100 - ...
This forms a foramen, and within this lies the abducens nerve. The abducens nerve travels inferiorly to the petroclinoid ... This can cause injury to the pupillomotor fibres of the oculomotor nerve, consequently leading to internal ophthalmoplegia The ... Piffer CR, Zorzetto NL (1980). "Course and relations of the abducens nerve". Anat Anz. 147 (1): 42-46. PMID 7396225. Kimonis VE ... Nagaseki Y, Shimizu T, Kakizawa T, Fukamachi A, Nukui H (1989). "Primary internal ophthalmoplegia due to head injury". Acta ...
... also known as abducens nerve palsy, is a neurological defect that results from a damaged or impaired abducens nerve. This ... traumatic brain injury with intracranial bleeding, tumors, and lesions along the nerve at any point between the pons and ... The neuron cell bodies are located in the abducens nucleus in the pons. These neurons project axons as the abducens nerve which ... Damage to the abducens nerve by trauma can be caused by any type of trauma that causes elevated intracranial pressure; ...
The ciliary nerves, ciliary ganglion, oculomotor nerve and abducens nerve are anesthetized in retrobulbar block. As a result, ... The complications of retrobulbar block are globe perforation, optic nerve injury, retrobulbar haemorrhage and extraocular ... O' Brien's block : It is also known as facial nerve trunk block. The block is done at the level of the neck of the mandible ... Facial nerve, which supplies the orbicularis oculi muscle, is blocked in addition for intraocular surgeries. Topical ...
Isolated injury to the fourth nerve can be caused by any process that stretches or compresses the nerve. A generalized increase ... but the abducens nerve (VI) is usually affected first (producing horizontal diplopia, not vertical diplopia). Infections ( ... pulley-like nerve) also known as the fourth cranial nerve, cranial nerve IV, or CN IV, is a cranial nerve that innervates a ... somatic efferent nerve). The trochlear nerve is unique among the cranial nerves in several respects: It is the smallest nerve ...
Clinically Infantile esotropia must be distinguished from: VIth Cranial nerve or abducens palsy Nystagmus Blockage Syndrome ... In particular, neonates who suffer injuries that, directly or indirectly, perturb binocular inputs into the primary visual ... Esotropia (Crossed Eyes), Pediatric Ophthalmic Consultants Experts discuss infantile esotropia, airbag injuries and timing of ...
Abducens Nerve Palsy at eMedicine "Barton, J., & Goodwin, J. (2001). Horizontal Gaze Palsy". Medlink.com. Archived from the ... which is an abnormality in tissue due to injury or disease, can disrupt the transmission of signals from the brain to the eye. ... Nonselective horizontal gaze palsies are caused by lesions in the Abducens nucleus. This is where the cranial nerve VI leaves ... Lesions anywhere in the abducens nucleus, cranial nerve VI neurons, or interneurons can affect eye movement towards the side of ...
Eyes Oculomotor nerve palsy - Oculomotor nerve (III) Fourth nerve palsy - Trochlear nerve (IV) Sixth nerve palsy - Abducens ... Recovery rate also depends on the cause of the facial nerve palsy (e.g. infections, perinatal injury, congenital dysplastic). ... The facial nerve is the seventh of 12 cranial nerves. This cranial nerve controls the muscles in the face. Facial nerve palsy ... Facial nerve (VII) Accessory nerve disorder - Accessory nerve (XI) Pavlou, E., Gkampeta, A., & Arampatzi, M. (2011). Facial ...
... trochlear nerve, and abducens nerve), ophthalmic sensory loss (from compression of the ophthalmic nerve), and maxillary sensory ... but may be difficult to appreciate in the setting of a complete third nerve injury. Because of its connections with the facial ... Abducens nerve Internal carotid artery accompanied by the internal carotid plexus These nerves, with the exception of CN V2, ... Oculomotor nerve Trochlear nerve Ophthalmic and maxillary branches of the trigeminal nerve Structures passing through the ...
... the optic nerve (II), oculomotor nerve (III), trochlear nerve (IV), trigeminal nerve (V), abducens nerve (VI), facial nerve ( ... Trauma to the skull, disease of bone, such as Paget's disease, and injury to nerves during surgery are other causes of nerve ... The oculomotor nerve (III), trochlear nerve (IV), abducens nerve (VI) and the ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve (V1) ... and trochlear nerve (IV); the pons has the nuclei of the trigeminal nerve (V), abducens nerve (VI), facial nerve (VII) and ...
It gives passage to multiple structures, including the oculomotor nerve, trochlear nerve, ophthalmic nerve, abducens nerve, ... The Oculomotor Nerve". Nerves and Nerve Injuries. Vol. 1: History, Embryology, Anatomy, Imaging, and Diagnostics. Academic ... trochlear nerve (CN IV) lacrimal, frontal, and nasociliary branches of ophthalmic nerve (CN V1) abducens nerve (CN VI) superior ... lacrimal nerve, frontal nerve, trochlear nerve (CN IV), recurrent meningeal branch of lacrimal artery (anastomotic branch of ...
Trauma can cause serious injury to the nerve. Direct optic nerve injury can occur from a penetrating injury to the orbit, but ... "Anatomical connections of the prepositus and abducens nuclei in the squirrel monkey". The Journal of Comparative Neurology. 268 ... Optic nerve Optic nerve Human brain dura mater (reflections) Optic nerve Optic nerve Optic nerve Cerebrum.Inferior view.Deep ... Other optic nerve problems are less common. Optic nerve hypoplasia is the underdevelopment of the optic nerve resulting in ...
Abducens (6th nerve), Trochlear (4th nerve), and Oculomotor (3rd nerve). After nerve trauma around the eye, a combination of ... Trauma to the nerve can be induced in cases such as surgical procedures, nerve inflammation, neuroma, and physical injury. ... This is an interaction between the abducens nerve and a branch of the oculomotor nerve. Voluntary activation of the abducens ... Moreover, while the abducens and the trochlear nerve each innervate one specific muscle, the oculomotor nerve has many ...
... particularly Optic nerve (#2) sight, Oculomotor nerve (#3) eye movement, Trochlear nerve (#4) eye rotation, Abducens nerve (#6 ... see: Acquired brain injury, traumatic brain injury (TBI), Stroke, Brain damage, Frontal lobe injury and also the Federal ... Olfactory nerve (cranial nerve 1) Smell. See also: olfactory receptor neurons Optic nerve (cranial nerve 2) Sight. See also: ... See cranial nerve section Olfactory nerve (#1) smell. See cranial nerve section Trigeminal nerve (#5) facial sensation biting ...
These are innerved from three cranial nerves: the abducens nerve, the trochlear nerve and the oculomotor nerve. Horizontal ... Multidisciplinary Care of the Patient Following Brain Injury. CRC Press. p. 97. ISBN 978-1-4398-3656-9. C. Keith Barnes (May ... This action is mediated by the medial rectus muscle, which is innervated by Cranial nerve III. It is a type of vergence eye ... The extraocular muscles may have two types of fiber each with its own nerve supply, hence a dual mechanism.[citation needed] ...
The facial motor nucleus is a collection of neurons in the brainstem that belong to the facial nerve (cranial nerve VII). These ... Its axons take an unusual course, traveling dorsally and looping around the abducens nucleus, then traveling ventrally to exit ... a lower motor neuron lesion to the facial motor nucleus results in paralysis of facial muscles on the same side of the injury. ... The cranial nerve nuclei schematically represented; dorsal view. Motor nuclei in red; sensory in blue. Nuclei of origin of ...
Focal neurological deficits may also occur, such as abducens nerve palsy and vertical gaze palsy (Parinaud syndrome due to ... Stevenson DK, Benitz WE (2003). Fetal and Neonatal Brain Injury: Mechanisms, Management and the Risks of Practice. Cambridge: ... Other causes include meningitis, brain tumors, traumatic brain injury, intraventricular hemorrhage, and subarachnoid hemorrhage ... post-traumatic brain injuries, and even in some psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia. As opposed to hydrocephalus, this ...
... and nerve injury. Eye movement of medial rectus muscle, superior view. Horizontal section of the eyeball. Dissection showing ... to Medial Rectus for Abducens Palsy". Archives of Ophthalmology. 107 (6): 820-823. doi:10.1001/archopht.1989.01070010842025. ... Nerves of orbita. Deep dissection. Extrinsic eye muscle. Nerves of orbita. Deep dissection. Extrinsic eye muscle. Nerves of ... Nerves of orbita. Deep dissection. Extrinsic eye muscle. Nerves of orbita. Deep dissection. Extrinsic eye muscle. Nerves of ...
The Deiters' nucleus extends from pontomedullary junction to the level of abducens nerve nucleus in the pons. Lateral ... Gait abnormality Spinal cord injury Upper motor neuron Martini, Frederic (2010). Anatomy & Physiology. Benjamin Cummings. ISBN ... With this they determined that the superior vestibular nerve plays a larger role in balance than the inferior vestibulo nerve ... This tract is found in the lateral funiculus, a bundle of nerve roots in the spinal cord. The lateral vestibulospinal tract ...
Five cranial nerves (optic, oculomotor, trochlear, trigeminal, and abducens), and several vascular bundles, pass through the ... and loss of sensation of the cheek and upper gums from infraorbital nerve injury. The two broad categories of blowout fractures ... Direct orbital blunt injury Sports injury (squash ball, tennis ball etc.) Motor vehicle accidents Falls Assault sports work- ... The fractures can occur of pure floor, pure medial wall or combined floor and medial wall.They can occur with other injuries ...
The fourth (trochlear) and sixth (abducens) cranial nerves are located in the same compartment and can cause diagonal or ... traumatic brain injury, pregnancy (during which the pituitary enlarges) and treatment with estrogens. Hormonal stimulation ... The visual loss depends on which part of the nerve is affected. If the part of the nerve between the eye and the chiasm is ... In half of these cases, the oculomotor nerve (the third cranial nerve), which controls a number of eye muscles, is affected. ...
... innervated by abducens nerve (a.k.a. CN VI) and the superior oblique (innervated by trochlear nerve a.k.a. CN IV). The symptoms ... Reaction to injury: Brain histology (Report). Cornell University Medical College. Toronto Notes[full citation needed] Dawodu ST ... Pupillary dilation often precedes the somatic motor effects of CN III compression called oculomotor nerve palsy or third nerve ... The uncus can squeeze the oculomotor nerve (a.k.a. CN III), which may affect the parasympathetic input to the eye on the side ...
The sixth nerve, the abducens nerve, which innervates the lateral rectus muscle of the eye (moves the eye laterally), is also ... These changes are thought to result from a microvascular injury involving small blood vessels that supply nerves (vasa nervorum ... When cranial nerves are affected, neuropathies of the oculomotor nerve (cranial nerve #3 or CNIII) are most common. The ... Damage to a specific nerve of the thoracic or lumbar spinal nerves can occur and may lead to painful syndromes that mimic a ...
... but with additional nerve palsies of the affected facial and abducens nerve. Selection of the type of nerve transfer is based ... "Long-term subjective and objective outcome after primary repair of traumatic facial nerve injuries". Ann Plast Surg. 61 (2): ... Optional motor donor nerves are: the masseteric nerve, accessory nerve or hypoglossal nerve. In rare cases when these nerves ... For example, the hypoglossal nerve or masseteric nerve on the affected side can be used as donor nerves. This donor nerve is ...
... abducens nerve; cnVII, facial nerve; cnIX-XI, glossopharyngeal and vagoaccessory nerves; cnXII, hypoglossal nerve; en, ... and then follow as the prey tried to escape before succumbing to its injury, whereupon the gorgonopsian would deliver a killing ... Evolution of mammals Therocephalia ce, cerebellum; cnI, olfactory nerve; cnV +vcm-trigeminal nerve and vena capitis medialis; ... a large epyphysial nerve (found in creatures with a parietal eye on the top of the head), an enlarged pituitary gland, and an ...
Abducens nerve, Thiamine, Rare syndromes, Substance-related disorders). ... Injury to the brain occurs when neurons that require high amounts of energy from thiamine dependent enzymes are not supplied ...
"Abducens Nerve Injury" by people in this website by year, and whether "Abducens Nerve Injury" was a major or minor topic of ... Traumatic injury to the abducens, or sixth, cranial nerve. Injury to this nerve results in lateral rectus muscle weakness or ... "Abducens Nerve Injury" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... Abducens Nerve Injury*Abducens Nerve Injury. *Abducens Nerve Injuries. *Injuries, Abducens Nerve ...
This report is unique in two aspects: the unilateral abducens nerve palsy as the initial and isolated symptom of ENKL, and the ... A physical examination revealed isolated left abducens nerve palsy. Head computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance ... An observation that potentially explains the frequency of abducens nerve injury after head injury," World Neurosurgery, vol. 77 ... idiopathic isolated abducens nerve palsy comprises 26% of all patients with abducens nerve palsy, making the diagnostic plan ...
... * ... To completely elucidate the role of caspase in the radiation injury model of the abducens nerve, i.c.v. injection of Sprague- ... The nucleus of the abducens nerve suitable as a radiation injury model, providing visual information and data on the apoptotic ... Radioprotective effect of a pan-caspase inhibitor in a novel model of radiation injury to the nucleus of the abducens nerve. ...
Examples of conditions giving rise to an esotropia might include a VIth cranial nerve (or Abducens) palsy, Duanes syndrome or ... orbital injury. Someone with esotropia will squint with either the right or the left eye but never with both eyes ... and may also result from conditions affecting the nerve or blood supply to these muscles or the bony orbital structures ...
This novel landmark may help in minimizing the risk of abducens nerve injury during transclival approaches, which extend ... especially for identifying the abducens nerve. The authors investigated the surgical anatomy of the PPsb, its relationship with ... serving as an accurate landmark for the location of the abducens nerve. ... and its application as a surgical landmark for identifying the abducens nerve. ...
Bilateral abducens nerve palsy after head and cervical spinal injury * Imag--ing of peripheral nerves us--ing dif-fusion tensor ... Bilateral abducens nerve palsy after head and cervical spinal injury * Late-onset Huntingtons disease - an overlooked ... Bilateral abducens nerve palsy after head and cervical spinal injury Czech version ... Posttraumatic bilateral abducens nerve palsy: mechanism of injury and prognosis. Can J Neurol Sci 2015; 42(5): 344- 346. doi: ...
It houses many vital structures, including the cochlear and vestibular end organs, the facial nerve, the carotid artery, and ... ossicular injury, perilymphatic fistula, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak, cochlea-vestibular injury, facial nerve injury, and ... Associated trauma to other cranial nerves (other than the facial nerve; ie, VI [abducens], IX [glossopharyngeal], X [vagus], ... Surgery for facial nerve paralysis can involve decompression of the nerve, nerve anastomosis, nerve grafting, and nerve ...
sixth or abducens 951.3. *. seventh or facial 951.4. *. eighth, acoustic, or auditory 951.5 ... Home > 2010 ICD-9-CM Diagnosis Codes > Injury And Poisoning 800-999 > Injury To Nerves And Spinal Cord 950-957 > Injury to ... Injury to acoustic nerve. *ICD-9-CM 951.5 is a billable medical code that can be used to indicate a diagnosis on a ... 2015/16 ICD-10-CM S04.60XA Injury of acoustic nerve, unspecified side, initial encounter ...
BRAIN INJURY, CHRONIC. LESÃO CEREBRAL CRÔNICA. TRAUMATISMO DEL NERVIO ABDUCENTE. ABDUCENS NERVE INJURY. TRAUMATISMO DO NERVO ... FACIAL NERVE INJURIES. TRAUMATISMOS DO NERVO FACIAL. TRAUMATISMOS DEL NERVIO OPTICO. OPTIC NERVE INJURIES. TRAUMATISMOS DO ... ABDUCENS NERVE DISEASES. DOENÇAS DO NERVO ABDUCENTE. ENFERMEDADES DEL NERVIO ACCESORIO. ACCESSORY NERVE DISEASES. DOENÇAS DO ... CAROTID ARTERY INJURIES. LESÕES DAS ARTÉRIAS CARÓTIDAS. TRAUMATISMOS DEL NERVIO CRANEAL. CRANIAL NERVE INJURIES. TRAUMATISMOS ...
BRAIN INJURY, CHRONIC. LESÃO CEREBRAL CRÔNICA. TRAUMATISMO DEL NERVIO ABDUCENTE. ABDUCENS NERVE INJURY. TRAUMATISMO DO NERVO ... FACIAL NERVE INJURIES. TRAUMATISMOS DO NERVO FACIAL. TRAUMATISMOS DEL NERVIO OPTICO. OPTIC NERVE INJURIES. TRAUMATISMOS DO ... ABDUCENS NERVE DISEASES. DOENÇAS DO NERVO ABDUCENTE. ENFERMEDADES DEL NERVIO ACCESORIO. ACCESSORY NERVE DISEASES. DOENÇAS DO ... CAROTID ARTERY INJURIES. LESÕES DAS ARTÉRIAS CARÓTIDAS. TRAUMATISMOS DEL NERVIO CRANEAL. CRANIAL NERVE INJURIES. TRAUMATISMOS ...
BRAIN INJURY, CHRONIC. LESÃO CEREBRAL CRÔNICA. TRAUMATISMO DEL NERVIO ABDUCENTE. ABDUCENS NERVE INJURY. TRAUMATISMO DO NERVO ... FACIAL NERVE INJURIES. TRAUMATISMOS DO NERVO FACIAL. TRAUMATISMOS DEL NERVIO OPTICO. OPTIC NERVE INJURIES. TRAUMATISMOS DO ... ABDUCENS NERVE DISEASES. DOENÇAS DO NERVO ABDUCENTE. ENFERMEDADES DEL NERVIO ACCESORIO. ACCESSORY NERVE DISEASES. DOENÇAS DO ... CAROTID ARTERY INJURIES. LESÕES DAS ARTÉRIAS CARÓTIDAS. TRAUMATISMOS DEL NERVIO CRANEAL. CRANIAL NERVE INJURIES. TRAUMATISMOS ...
ABDUCENS NERVE DISEASES ENFERMEDADES DEL NERVIO ABDUCENTE DOENÇAS DO NERVO ABDUCENTE ABDUCENS NERVE INJURY TRAUMATISMO DEL ... OPTIC NERVE GLIOMA GLIOMA DEL NERVIO OPTICO GLIOMA DO NERVO ÓPTICO OPTIC NERVE INJURIES TRAUMATISMOS DEL NERVIO OPTICO ... FACIAL NERVE INJURIES TRAUMATISMOS DEL NERVIO FACIAL TRAUMATISMOS DO NERVO FACIAL FEMORAL NEUROPATHY NEUROPATIA FEMORAL ... CRANIAL NERVE INJURIES TRAUMATISMOS DEL NERVIO CRANEAL TRAUMATISMOS DOS NERVOS CRANIANOS CUBITAL TUNNEL SYNDROME SINDROME DEL ...
ABDUCENS NERVE DISEASES ENFERMEDADES DEL NERVIO ABDUCENTE DOENÇAS DO NERVO ABDUCENTE ABDUCENS NERVE INJURY TRAUMATISMO DEL ... OPTIC NERVE GLIOMA GLIOMA DEL NERVIO OPTICO GLIOMA DO NERVO ÓPTICO OPTIC NERVE INJURIES TRAUMATISMOS DEL NERVIO OPTICO ... FACIAL NERVE INJURIES TRAUMATISMOS DEL NERVIO FACIAL TRAUMATISMOS DO NERVO FACIAL FEMORAL NEUROPATHY NEUROPATIA FEMORAL ... CRANIAL NERVE INJURIES TRAUMATISMOS DEL NERVIO CRANEAL TRAUMATISMOS DOS NERVOS CRANIANOS CUBITAL TUNNEL SYNDROME SINDROME DEL ...
ABDUCENS NERVE INJURY TRAUMATISMO DEL NERVIO ABDUCENTE TRAUMATISMOS CRANIANOS PENETRANTES HEAD INJURIES, PENETRATING ... FACIAL NERVE INJURIES TRAUMATISMOS DEL NERVIO FACIAL TRAUMATISMOS DO NERVO ÓPTICO OPTIC NERVE INJURIES TRAUMATISMOS DEL NERVIO ... ABDUCENS NERVE DISEASES ENFERMEDADES DEL NERVIO ABDUCENTE DOENÇAS DO NERVO ACESSÓRIO ACCESSORY NERVE DISEASES ENFERMEDADES DEL ... TROCHLEAR NERVE DISEASES ENFERMEDADES DEL NERVIO TROCLEAR DOENÇAS DO NERVO VAGO VAGUS NERVE DISEASES ENFERMEDADES DEL NERVIO ...
BRAIN INJURY, CHRONIC. LESÃO CEREBRAL CRÔNICA. TRAUMATISMO DEL NERVIO ABDUCENTE. ABDUCENS NERVE INJURY. TRAUMATISMO DO NERVO ... FACIAL NERVE INJURIES. TRAUMATISMOS DO NERVO FACIAL. TRAUMATISMOS DEL NERVIO OPTICO. OPTIC NERVE INJURIES. TRAUMATISMOS DO ... ABDUCENS NERVE DISEASES. DOENÇAS DO NERVO ABDUCENTE. ENFERMEDADES DEL NERVIO ACCESORIO. ACCESSORY NERVE DISEASES. DOENÇAS DO ... CAROTID ARTERY INJURIES. LESÕES DAS ARTÉRIAS CARÓTIDAS. TRAUMATISMOS DEL NERVIO CRANEAL. CRANIAL NERVE INJURIES. TRAUMATISMOS ...
ABDUCENS NERVE DISEASES ENFERMEDADES DEL NERVIO ABDUCENTE DOENÇAS DO NERVO ABDUCENTE ABDUCENS NERVE INJURY TRAUMATISMO DEL ... OPTIC NERVE GLIOMA GLIOMA DEL NERVIO OPTICO GLIOMA DO NERVO ÓPTICO OPTIC NERVE INJURIES TRAUMATISMOS DEL NERVIO OPTICO ... FACIAL NERVE INJURIES TRAUMATISMOS DEL NERVIO FACIAL TRAUMATISMOS DO NERVO FACIAL FEMORAL NEUROPATHY NEUROPATIA FEMORAL ... CRANIAL NERVE INJURIES TRAUMATISMOS DEL NERVIO CRANEAL TRAUMATISMOS DOS NERVOS CRANIANOS CUBITAL TUNNEL SYNDROME SINDROME DEL ...
ABDUCENS NERVE INJURY TRAUMATISMO DEL NERVIO ABDUCENTE TRAUMATISMOS CRANIANOS PENETRANTES HEAD INJURIES, PENETRATING ... FACIAL NERVE INJURIES TRAUMATISMOS DEL NERVIO FACIAL TRAUMATISMOS DO NERVO ÓPTICO OPTIC NERVE INJURIES TRAUMATISMOS DEL NERVIO ... ABDUCENS NERVE DISEASES ENFERMEDADES DEL NERVIO ABDUCENTE DOENÇAS DO NERVO ACESSÓRIO ACCESSORY NERVE DISEASES ENFERMEDADES DEL ... TROCHLEAR NERVE DISEASES ENFERMEDADES DEL NERVIO TROCLEAR DOENÇAS DO NERVO VAGO VAGUS NERVE DISEASES ENFERMEDADES DEL NERVIO ...
ABDUCENS NERVE DISEASES ENFERMEDADES DEL NERVIO ABDUCENTE DOENÇAS DO NERVO ABDUCENTE ABDUCENS NERVE INJURY TRAUMATISMO DEL ... OPTIC NERVE GLIOMA GLIOMA DEL NERVIO OPTICO GLIOMA DO NERVO ÓPTICO OPTIC NERVE INJURIES TRAUMATISMOS DEL NERVIO OPTICO ... FACIAL NERVE INJURIES TRAUMATISMOS DEL NERVIO FACIAL TRAUMATISMOS DO NERVO FACIAL FEMORAL NEUROPATHY NEUROPATIA FEMORAL ... CRANIAL NERVE INJURIES TRAUMATISMOS DEL NERVIO CRANEAL TRAUMATISMOS DOS NERVOS CRANIANOS CUBITAL TUNNEL SYNDROME SINDROME DEL ...
ABDUCENS NERVE DISEASES ENFERMEDADES DEL NERVIO ABDUCENTE DOENÇAS DO NERVO ABDUCENTE ABDUCENS NERVE INJURY TRAUMATISMO DEL ... OPTIC NERVE GLIOMA GLIOMA DEL NERVIO OPTICO GLIOMA DO NERVO ÓPTICO OPTIC NERVE INJURIES TRAUMATISMOS DEL NERVIO OPTICO ... FACIAL NERVE INJURIES TRAUMATISMOS DEL NERVIO FACIAL TRAUMATISMOS DO NERVO FACIAL FEMORAL NEUROPATHY NEUROPATIA FEMORAL ... CRANIAL NERVE INJURIES TRAUMATISMOS DEL NERVIO CRANEAL TRAUMATISMOS DOS NERVOS CRANIANOS CUBITAL TUNNEL SYNDROME SINDROME DEL ...
ABDUCENS NERVE INJURY TRAUMATISMO DEL NERVIO ABDUCENTE TRAUMATISMOS CRANIANOS PENETRANTES HEAD INJURIES, PENETRATING ... FACIAL NERVE INJURIES TRAUMATISMOS DEL NERVIO FACIAL TRAUMATISMOS DO NERVO ÓPTICO OPTIC NERVE INJURIES TRAUMATISMOS DEL NERVIO ... ABDUCENS NERVE DISEASES ENFERMEDADES DEL NERVIO ABDUCENTE DOENÇAS DO NERVO ACESSÓRIO ACCESSORY NERVE DISEASES ENFERMEDADES DEL ... TROCHLEAR NERVE DISEASES ENFERMEDADES DEL NERVIO TROCLEAR DOENÇAS DO NERVO VAGO VAGUS NERVE DISEASES ENFERMEDADES DEL NERVIO ...
Post-accident Injuries to the Optic Nerve, Abducens Nerve (Cranial Nerve VI) and Lateral Rectus Eye Muscle - Image ... injuries, injury, neck, ophthalmic, opthalmic, opthalmology, orbit, orbital, orbits, seeing, socket, sockets, vision ... Injuries, accident, accidental, accidents, ball, balls, caput, eye, eyeball, eyeballs, eyes, gun, head, heads, injured, ... Traumatic Crush Injuries to the Left Paranasal Sinus and Orbital Region with Surgical Repairs - Image ...
Radioprotective effect of a pan-caspase inhibitor in a novel model of radiation injury to the nucleus of the abducens nerve. ... The beneficial effect of ginsenoside Rg1 on Schwann cells subjected to hydrogen peroxide induced oxidative injury. Int J Biol ... 2. Agar J, Durham H. Relevance of oxidative injury in the pathogenesis of motor neuron diseases. Amyotroph Lateral Scler Other ... Neuronal oxidative stress in acute ischemic stroke: sources and contribution to cell injury. Neurochem Int. 2013;62:712-718 ...
During a traumatic brain injury an individual could also experience damage to the abducens nerve and or abducens nucleus. These ... These are all common complains that can occur after a traumatic brain injury but lets discuss what may cause an individual to ... These pathways are very susceptible to injury during head trauma because of the long winding route that they take as they ... During a concussive event, of course the patient can experience a whiplash injury which can cause damage to the structural ...
77; was ABDUCENT NERVE 1963-76. Entry Combination. injuries:Abducens Nerve Injury Date Established. 1966/01/01. Date of Entry. ... Abducent Nerve Cranial Nerve VI Nerve VI Nervus Abducens Sixth Cranial Nerve NLM Classification #. WL 330. See Also. Abducens ... Abducens Nerve Preferred Concept UI. M0000010. Scope Note. The 6th cranial nerve which originates in the ABDUCENS NUCLEUS of ... Peripheral Nerves [A08.800.800] * Cranial Nerves [A08.800.800.120] * Abducens Nerve [A08.800.800.120.030] ...
... (Abducens Nerve Paralysis): Read more about Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Complications, Causes and ... Abducens nerve palsy may occur due to a myriad of infectious, inflammatory, genetic, or malignant diseases. Inability to ... Dysfunction of one or more of the ocular motor nerves or extraocular muscle injury commonly results in diplopia. Diplopia ... Abducens Nerve Paralysis Abducens nerve palsy may occur due to a myriad of infectious, inflammatory, genetic, or malignant ...
... abducens (III, IV and VI) and sometimes the trigeminal nerve (V). The identification of SOFS is important, since its incidence ... and there may be paresthesia of the upper eyelid and forehead associated by the injury of the cranial nerves like: oculomotor, ... and fractures and traumatic head injuries. The identification of SFOS in acute trauma guides the immediate or early approach ...
Cranial Nerve Injuries [C10.900.300.218] * Abducens Nerve Injury [C10.900.300.218.150] * Accessory Nerve Injuries [C10.900. ... Cranial Nerve III Injury Injury, Cranial Nerve III Injury, Third Cranial Nerve Oculomotor Nerve Avulsion Oculomotor Nerve ... Cranial Nerve Injuries [C26.915.300.400] * Abducens Nerve Injury [C26.915.300.400.100] * Accessory Nerve Injuries [C26.915. ... Third Cranial Nerve Injuries Third Cranial Nerve Injury Third-Nerve Palsy, Traumatic Third-Nerve Trauma Traumatic Third-Nerve ...
... followed by vagus nerve palsy and recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy [5, 14]. So the high incidence of cranial nerve injury in our ... abducens dysfunction and facial numbness caused by cranial nerve damage were common symptoms in patients with recurrent NPC, ... The rate of other cranial nerve injuries was below 5%.. 3.3. Patterns of Recurrence and Distant Metastasis. Recurrence in local ... The incidence of cranial nerve injury in our series (35.3%) appears much higher than that in newly diagnosed patients (11.7% to ...
Nerves most commonly involved are the facial, abducens, and oculomotor, but any of the nerves may be involved. ... The mechanisms for these forms of injury include the inflammatory investment of the nerve within the nerve sheath near the ... One explanation of injury is that, during the acute phase of illness, the eighth cranial nerve becomes encased by inflammatory ... Other cranial nerve deficits. Cranial neuropathies other then the eighth cranial nerve may occur. The involvement of cranial ...
  • A physical examination revealed isolated left abducens nerve palsy. (hindawi.com)
  • This report is unique in two aspects: the unilateral abducens nerve palsy as the initial and isolated symptom of ENKL, and the primary sphenoidal sinus ENKL. (hindawi.com)
  • Abducens nerve palsy is a common clinical finding in neurology practice and the etiology of the palsy is complicated. (hindawi.com)
  • The common causes of unilateral abducens nerve palsy are neoplasm and vascular disease in middle-aged people [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Multiple cranial nerve deficits or bilateral abducens nerve palsy associated with ENKL have been reported [ 3 ], but isolated unilateral abducens palsy is rarely reported. (hindawi.com)
  • Herein we report a case with unilateral abducens nerve palsy as initial symptom in the primary sphenoidal sinus ENKL and investigated the clinical feature of the diagnosis and therapy. (hindawi.com)
  • He was found to have isolated left abducens nerve palsy. (hindawi.com)
  • Posttraumatic bilateral abducens nerve palsy: mechanism of injury and prognosis. (csnn.eu)
  • Bilateral traumatic abducens palsy. (csnn.eu)
  • Bilateral traumatic abducens nerve palsy without skull fracture or intracranial hematoma-a report of 3 cases and consideration of the mechanism of injury (author's transl). (csnn.eu)
  • 7. Dengler BA, Bartanusz V. Bilateral abducens nerve palsy fol-low--ing ligamentous C1- C2 distraction. (csnn.eu)
  • Delayed unilateral abducens nerve palsy fol-low--ing contralateral post-traumatic epidural hematoma. (csnn.eu)
  • Abducens nerve palsy may occur due to a myriad of infectious, inflammatory, genetic, or malignant diseases. (symptoma.com)
  • In fact, abducens nerve palsy is one of the most frequent nerve palsies encountered in clinical practice, with an established incidence rate of 11.3 per 100 000 individuals [3]. (symptoma.com)
  • Certain authors have divided the pathologies that cause abducens nerve palsy according to their anatomical sites (the brain stem, subarachnoid space, the petroclival region, the cavernous sinus , and the orbit), and numerous conditions, both localized and systemic, may cause this condition [1] [2]. (symptoma.com)
  • The principal symptom of abducens nerve palsy is the presence of binocular horizontal diplopia , as the eye is not able to perform abduction, resulting in lateral displacement [4] [5]. (symptoma.com)
  • For example, contralateral hemiparesis , ipsilateral palsy of the facial, but also trigeminal and vestibulocochlear nerves is seen in conditions affecting the brainstem, such as Raymond's syndrome, Millard-Gubler syndrome and Foville's syndrome [1]. (symptoma.com)
  • On the other hand, epistaxis , rhinorrhea , and serous otitis media , typically encountered in nasopharyngeal carcinoma , can also be seen together in abducens nerve palsy [1]. (symptoma.com)
  • A 53-year-old male patient with diabetes presented 6 weeks after lumbar disc surgery with persistent headache, a fluctuant swelling at the operated site, and diplopia secondary to left abducens nerve palsy. (symptoma.com)
  • I had Otorrhea, Rhinorrhea, Facial Palsy, Double Vision, Labored breathing, hearing loss with tinnitus and GCS of around 9 -10 (Glasgow coma scale and score of 9 to 12 is moderate brain injury)! (varunaraina.com)
  • Sixth cranial nerve palsy affects the lateral rectus muscle, impairing eye abduction. (msdmanuals.com)
  • However, the cause of an isolated 6th cranial nerve palsy is often not identified. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Symptoms of 6th cranial nerve palsy include binocular horizontal diplopia when looking to the side of the paretic eye. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Palsy resulting from a cavernous sinus lesion can cause severe head pain, chemosis (conjunctival edema), anesthesia in the distribution of the 1st and 2nd division of the 5th cranial nerve, and paralysis of the 3rd, 4th, and 6th cranial nerves. (msdmanuals.com)
  • A 6th nerve palsy is usually obvious, but the cause is not. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Other tests may be done depending on the suspected cause of 6th cranial nerve palsy. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The exact cause of vaccination-related cranial nerve palsy in children is not known. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Recovery is usually complete in case of benign sixth nerve palsy in childhood. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The later one is sixth nerve palsy, (the abducens nerve), which is responsible for triggering contraction of the lateral rectus muscle to abduct (i.e., turn out) the eye resulting in double vision on the affected side. (scirp.org)
  • We are presenting a group of cases having Type2DM over different time periods from 6 to 20 years and those who suddenly suffered facial nerve palsy and they came to VHSDRC for treatment. (scirp.org)
  • Figure 1 shows the cranial nerve which gets affected in bell's palsy. (scirp.org)
  • Bell's palsy is termed as a one-sided facial nerve paralysis. (scirp.org)
  • Shows the facial nerve VII which gets affected in bell's palsy. (scirp.org)
  • Bell's palsy is a form of facial paralysis resulting from a dysfunction of the cranial nerve VII which controls the muscles of the face (the facial nerve), causing an inability to control facial muscles on the affected side. (scirp.org)
  • An 11-year-old girl presented with a very rare traumatic retroclival epidural hematoma manifesting as bilateral abducens nerve palsy, deviation of the uvula to the left, and weakened movement of tongue, which developed after a motor vehicle accident. (korea.ac.kr)
  • An injury to the medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF) in the dorsal pontine tegmentum, along with the ipsilateral abducens nucleus (AN) or posterior cingulate reticulum (PPRF), causes unilateral nystagmus (INO) and bilateral lateral gaze palsy (ILP). (healthncare.info)
  • A painful oculomotor nerve palsy is considered a neurosurgical emergency. (surgical-neurology.com)
  • A palsy of the 4th cranial nerve affects vertical eye movements. (merckmanuals.com)
  • Doctors suspect palsy of the 4th cranial nerve based on the symptoms, but computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging may be done. (merckmanuals.com)
  • Often, the cause of 4th cranial nerve palsy cannot be identified. (merckmanuals.com)
  • causes this palsy by damaging small blood vessels that carry blood to the nerve. (merckmanuals.com)
  • Usually, 4th cranial nerve palsy is suspected if a person has characteristic limited eye movement. (merckmanuals.com)
  • The disorder causing 4th cranial nerve palsy, if identified, is treated. (merckmanuals.com)
  • Injury to this nerve results in lateral rectus muscle weakness or paralysis. (uchicago.edu)
  • Bilateral traumatic abducens nerve paralysis with cervical spine flexion injury. (csnn.eu)
  • The clinical presentations specifically related to temporal bone trauma include facial nerve paralysis (partial or complete), hearing loss (conductive, sensorineural, or mixed), vertigo , dizziness , otorrhagia, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) otorrhea , tympanic membrane perforation , and hemotympanum and canal laceration. (medscape.com)
  • There is less chance of recovery in case of complete paralysis of the sixth nerve. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The next most common cause of facial nerve paralysis is trauma (accidental or surgical). (scirp.org)
  • The syndrome is characterised by retro-orbital paralysis of extraocular muscles impairment of the branches of the 1st division of the trigeminal nerve and frequently extension to involve the optic nerve. (medicosnotes.com)
  • Healthy male Sprague‑Dawley rats were used in the present study to examine the radioprotective effect of a type of pan-caspase inhibitor, z-VAD-fmk, following radiation, to investigate the effects of caspase blockade in a model of the nucleus of the abducens nerve. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • In the present study, a model of the nucleus of abducens nerve was established to examine this. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • During a traumatic brain injury an individual could also experience damage to the abducens nerve and or abducens nucleus. (thefnc.com)
  • The 6th cranial nerve which originates in the ABDUCENS NUCLEUS of the PONS and sends motor fibers to the lateral rectus muscles of the EYE . (nih.gov)
  • Damage to the nerve or its nucleus disrupts horizontal eye movement control. (nih.gov)
  • The Medial Longitudinal Fasciculus is a fiber tract located ventrolaterally to the oculomotor nucleus that connects the trochlear nucleus, oculomotor nucleus, and abducens nucleus. (healthncare.info)
  • The abducens nucleus is connected to the contralateral oculomotor nucleus by the fasciculus fibers, which enables horizontal conjugate lateral gaze as well as saccadic eye movements. (healthncare.info)
  • The vestibulocochlear nerve, the eighth cranial nerve, the fastigial nucleus, and the flocculus of the cerebellum provides the input necessary for this to happen. (healthncare.info)
  • A somatic motor nerve originating in the abducens nucleus in the pons. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • There is only one nucleus for each of the abducent nerves that is present in the upper pons (seen in the cut section of upper pons) at the level of facial colliculi. (brainmadesimple.com)
  • This fasciculus connects the abducent nerve nucleus with the nuclei of the oculomotor nerve (CN III), trochlear nerve (CN IV), and vestibulocochlear nerve (CN VIII). (brainmadesimple.com)
  • The nerve arises from the hypoglossal nucleus in the medulla as a number of small rootlets, passes through the hypoglossal canal and down through the neck, and eventually passes up again over the tongue muscles it supplies into the tongue. (iiab.me)
  • The rootlets of the hypoglossal nerve arise from the hypoglossal nucleus near the bottom of the brain stem . (iiab.me)
  • [6] Signals from muscle spindles on the tongue travel through the hypoglossal nerve, moving onto the lingual nerve which synapses on the trigeminal mesencephalic nucleus . (iiab.me)
  • Von Graefe and Möbius accepted only cases with congenital facial diplegia and bilateral abducens nerve palsies as constituting Möbius syndrome. (medscape.com)
  • Binocular - Hemianopsia due to bilateral optic nerve disease. (wikem.org)
  • The nerve may be damaged by closed or penetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA or by facial trauma involving the orbit. (uchicago.edu)
  • The spectrum of temporal bone trauma is extremely varied, ranging from minor concussion without functional deficits to severe blunt or penetrating trauma with multifunctional deficits that involve the auditory and vestibular nerves, the facial nerve, and the intracranial contents. (medscape.com)
  • The most common tests used today in the evaluation of trauma to the facial nerve are maximum stimulation, nerve excitability, electroneurography (ENOG), and electromyography. (medscape.com)
  • These pathways are very susceptible to injury during head trauma because of the long winding route that they take as they traverse their way from the cortex down into the brainstem and eventually out to the individual eye muscles. (thefnc.com)
  • Injuries to the optic nerve induced by a trauma to the face or head. (uchicago.edu)
  • Relatively minor compression of the superior aspect of orbit may also result in trauma to the optic nerve. (uchicago.edu)
  • and trauma to the facial region are conditions associated with cranial nerve injuries. (lookformedical.com)
  • The most common mechanism triggering the bleeding event is trauma (e.g., closed head injury) causing a tearing injury to the extracerebral "bridging" veins. (lecturio.com)
  • Head injuries can be classified as open (penetrating) or closed (blunt), and primary (from the initial trauma) or secondary (indirect brain injury), and range from mild to severe and life-threatening. (lecturio.com)
  • Damage to the nerve or the neural pathways which control it can affect the ability of the tongue to move and its appearance, with the most common sources of damage being injury from trauma or surgery, and motor neuron disease . (iiab.me)
  • Traumatic injuries to the OCULOMOTOR NERVE . (nih.gov)
  • The oculomotor, trochlear, and abducent nerves, along with the vestibulocochlear nerve, are controlled by the medial longitudinal fasciculus. (healthncare.info)
  • The medial longitudinal fasciculus connects the three major nerves that control eye movements, namely the oculomotor, trochlear, and abducent nerves, along with the vestibulocochlear nerve. (healthncare.info)
  • Irritation of one particular nerve - the oculomotor nerve- generates particular concern that an aneurysm of the internal carotid artery is enlarging and at-risk of rupture. (surgical-neurology.com)
  • The oculomotor nerve may be affected in isolation by superior cerebellar artery and baasilar trunk aneurysms as well. (surgical-neurology.com)
  • If the oculomotor nerve is affected in concert with the other nerves controlling the globe of the eye- the trochlear and abducens nerves- then the aneurysm is most likely to be located in the skull base (see below under Cavernous Sinus Syndromes. (surgical-neurology.com)
  • The oculomotor nerve also contains fibres that constrict the pupil. (surgical-neurology.com)
  • The condition is caused by aberrant innervation of the lateral rectus by fibers of the OCULOMOTOR NERVE. (lookformedical.com)
  • It also interacts with the third and fourth cranial nerves, oculomotor and trochlear, respectively, as well as with the eighth cranial nerve (vestibulocochlear nerve) to perform conjugate eye movements (discussed later). (brainmadesimple.com)
  • All the extraocular muscles are innervated by the oculomotor nerve (CN III) except the superior oblique and lateral rectus muscles, which are innervated by the trochlear nerve (CN IV) and abducent nerve (CN VI), respectively. (brainmadesimple.com)
  • The cranial nerves that control eye movements (e.g., oculomotor nerve, trochlear nerve, abducens nerve) can be affected by neurological conditions, leading to eye movement abnormalities or double vision. (rthm.com)
  • Because the vagus nerve innervates multiple organs, injuries in the nerve fibers may result in any gastrointestinal organ dysfunction downstream of the injury site. (jefferson.edu)
  • It is commonly stated there are 12 to 13 cranial nerve pairs, Name the major brain regions, vesicles, and ventricles, and describe containing both sensory and motor fibers. (spagades.com)
  • The optic nerve contains only afferent (sensory) fibers, and like all cranial nerves is paired. (spagades.com)
  • The MLF is a pair of highly specialized nerve fibers that are highly myelinated and run in a craniocaudal direction just ventral to the cerebral aqueduct and the fourth ventricle in the tegmentum of the midbrain and the dorsal pons. (healthncare.info)
  • These nerve fibers are located in the tegmentum of the midbrain and the dorsal pons. (healthncare.info)
  • Set of nerve fibers conducting impulses from olfactory receptors to the cerebral cortex. (lookformedical.com)
  • Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body. (lookformedical.com)
  • Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. (lookformedical.com)
  • It contains numerous nerve fibers that connect the medulla to the pons and cerebellum respectively. (com.ng)
  • These are two round masses of nerve fibers located on either side of the median fissure. (com.ng)
  • Multiple Sclerosis (MS) In multiple sclerosis, patches of myelin (the substance that covers most nerve fibers) and underlying nerve fibers in the brain, optic nerves, and spinal cord are damaged or destroyed. (merckmanuals.com)
  • Facial colliculi are actually rounded, bulged structures that are formed by the winding of fibers of the facial nerve around the nuclei of abducent nerves. (brainmadesimple.com)
  • When the trochlear nerve is damaged, the superior oblique muscle on the affected side weakens, leading to internal rotation of the thigh and hyperextension of the affected leg. (healthncare.info)
  • The trochlear nerve is a pure motor nerve having no sensory component. (brainmadesimple.com)
  • Diseases of the first cranial (olfactory) nerve, which usually feature anosmia or other alterations in the sense of smell and taste. (lookformedical.com)
  • Last but not least, we shall have a look at the diseases caused by damage to the abducent nerve. (brainmadesimple.com)
  • It houses many vital structures, including the cochlear and vestibular end organs, the facial nerve, the carotid artery, and the jugular vein. (medscape.com)
  • Therefore, during a head injury, the patient can damage various structures within the vestibular system and experience a reflexive upregulation of the vestibular system on one side compared to the other. (thefnc.com)
  • My Trigeminal, Facial, Abducens and Vestibular cochlear nerve was badly damaged. (varunaraina.com)
  • Cranial Nerve VIII (Vestibulocochlear Nerve): Sensory for hearing, motor for balance Vestibular branch (balance): Ask patient to march in place (Mittlemeyer Marching) with eyes closed. (spagades.com)
  • Wilhelm His Sr. (18311904) combined, in an unprecedented way, (taste bud afferents of cranial nerves VII, IX, X to the solitary tract) and dorsolateral otic placode-derived afferents provide the sole sensory input to the special somatic column consisting of the vestibular/auditory nuclei. (spagades.com)
  • Traumatic injury to the abducens, or sixth, cranial nerve. (uchicago.edu)
  • The base of the skull has multiple foramina, as seen in the images below, creating areas of decreased resistance susceptible to traumatic injury. (medscape.com)
  • The chances of recovery are less in children than in adults in case of traumatic injury of the nerve. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Dysfunction of one or more cranial nerves causally related to a traumatic injury. (lookformedical.com)
  • The anatomy of the temporal branches of the facial nerve (FN) has been widely described in the neurosurgical literature because of its relevance in anterolateral approaches to the skull base and implication in frontalis palsies from these approaches. (thejns.org)
  • Clival epidural hematoma in traumatic sixth cranial nerve palsies combined with cervical injuries. (csnn.eu)
  • Abducens nerve palsies, or sixth nerve palsies, results in weakness of the ipsilateral lateral rectus muscle. (symptoma.com)
  • Eye movement disorders: third, fourth, and sixth nerve palsies and other causes of diplopia and ocular misalignment. (medlineplus.gov)
  • cranial nerve VII and cranial nerve VI are involved in facial nerve palsies. (scirp.org)
  • In recent times, we have found to our amazement, rapid restoration of normalcy within a few hours to a few days, of Cranial Nerve palsies in diabetic subjects at our centre. (scirp.org)
  • Tongue deviation from unilateral hypoglossal nerve injury (CN XII). (wikem.org)
  • Multiple Mononeuropathy Multiple mononeuropathies are characterized by sensory disturbances and weakness in the distribution of ≥ 2 affected peripheral nerves. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Peripheral nerves contain non-neuronal cells and connective tissue as well as axons. (lookformedical.com)
  • A sudden, stabbing painassociated with this disease is known as tic douloureux Oct 24, 2015 - Explore Lory W's board "Trigeminal Neuralgia", followed by 212 people on Pinterest trigeminal neuralgia: Definition Trigeminal neuralgia is a disorder of the trigeminal nerve (the fifth cranial nerve) that causes episodes of sharp, An Introduction to the Brain and Cranial Nerves. (spagades.com)
  • Other conflicts with cranial nerves are rare but are known to occur e.g.: visual loss as a result of compression of the optic nerve and facial pain resulting from trigeminal nerve compression. (surgical-neurology.com)
  • Abducens nerve emerges from the brain stem in the posterior cranial fossa from a groove at the junction of the pons and medulla oblongata medial to the facial nerve exit. (brainmadesimple.com)
  • MRI provides greater resolution of the orbits, cavernous sinus, posterior fossa, and cranial nerves. (msdmanuals.com)
  • It affects the function of the sixth cranial (skull) nerve. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Cranial mononeuropathy VI is damage to the sixth cranial nerve. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Because there are common nerve pathways through the skull, the same disorder that damages the sixth cranial nerve may affect other cranial nerves (such as the third or fourth cranial nerve). (medlineplus.gov)
  • When the sixth cranial nerve doesn't work properly, you can't turn your eye outward toward your ear. (medlineplus.gov)
  • For the internal strabismus, the defect sometimes is due to any damage to the abducent nerve, the sixth cranial nerve. (brainmadesimple.com)
  • The abducent or abducent nerve is the sixth cranial nerve (CN VI). (brainmadesimple.com)
  • Dysfunction of the nerve causes lateral rectus muscle weakness , resulting in horizontal diplopia that is maximal when the affected eye is abducted and esotropia. (symptoma.com)
  • Amongst the functions are the six senses: sight, smell, proprioception, touch, taste and hearing covered last month where the brain receives nerve impulses via neurons from the sensory organs. (hafsaabbas.com)
  • The auricular branch of the vagus nerve is a sensory nerve emerging from the superior ganglion of the vagus nerve, joined by branches from the glossopharyngeal (CN IX) and facial nerves, and innervating the lower part of the tympanic membrane and the floor of the external auditory canal. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • A sensory branch of the mandibular nerve (CN V3) It passes through the parotid gland en route to the ear, where it innervates skin of the pinna, external auditory canal, and tympanic membrane. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • That portion of the nasal mucosa containing the sensory nerve endings for SMELL, located at the dome of each NASAL CAVITY. (lookformedical.com)
  • A nerve which originates in the lumbar and sacral spinal cord (L4 to S3) and supplies motor and sensory innervation to the lower extremity. (lookformedical.com)
  • The sensory and motor innervation to the structures in the head and neck region of the body is exclusively provided by the cranial nerves. (brainmadesimple.com)
  • A mechanism of injury suggested by the study of as-sociated cervical spine fractures. (csnn.eu)
  • In the adult population, approximately 90% of temporal bone fractures are associated with concurrent intracranial injuries and 9% with cervical spine injuries. (medscape.com)
  • During a concussive event, of course the patient can experience a whiplash injury which can cause damage to the structural integrity of the cervical spine and can lead to pain in the neck and even into the head or jaw but let's take an even closer look at the mechanism behind a traumatic brain injury and how that can lead to deviation of the eyes. (thefnc.com)
  • The Cranial Nerves Techniques An Introduction To Biodynamic Craniosacral Therapy webinar with Jo Coole recorded on June 17th 2020 Low Back Pain FULL Physical Therapy Evaluation How to Manipulate the Cervical Spine using a HVT / Page 12/46. (spagades.com)
  • The abducens nerve (cranial nerve VI) is known for its very long travel from the brainstem to the ipsilateral lateral rectus muscle, where it provides an important function by stimulating abduction of the eye [1] [2]. (symptoma.com)
  • Examination of the cranial nerves allows one to "view" the brainstem all the way from its rostral to caudal extent. (spagades.com)
  • The components of the eighth cranial nerve (CN VIII) carrying axons that convey information regarding sound and balance between the spiral ganglion in the inner ear and the cochlear nuclei in the brainstem. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The hypoglossal nerve arises as a number of small rootlets from the front of the medulla , the bottom part of the brainstem , [1] [2] in the anterolateral sulcus which separates the olive and the pyramid . (iiab.me)
  • The hypoglossal nerve emerges as several rootlets (labelled here as number 12) from the olives of the medulla (labelled 13), part of the brainstem . (iiab.me)
  • Electrodiagnostic testing is used to assess and quantify injury to the facial nerve and to determine status of the facial musculature. (medscape.com)
  • It is thought that an inflammatory condition leads to puffiness of the facial nerve. (scirp.org)
  • The posterior auricular nerve is a motor branch of the facial nerve (CN VII) that innervates the posterior and intrinsic auricular muscles. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • McGee S. Nerves of the eye muscles (III, IV, and VI): approach to diplopia. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Optic nerve swelling or jumpy eye movements (nystagmus) may occur at any age and warrants immediate work-up for a central nervous system tumor. (symptoma.com)
  • Occasionally an aneurysm will present by irritating one of the nerves that control movements of the eye. (surgical-neurology.com)
  • The nerve is involved in controlling tongue movements required for speech and swallowing, including sticking out the tongue and moving it from side to side. (iiab.me)
  • So, for example, a neuro-ophthalmologist would be called to examine an individual who is experiencing vision loss following a brain injury or a patient who has difficulty controlling their eye movements. (allaboutvision.com)
  • thus, they can be considered cranial nerve disorders, neuro-ophthalmologic. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Nerve Root Injury and Plexus Disorders (incl. (sharecare.com)
  • These disorders affect the intricate relationship between the eyes, optic nerves, and the brain, leading to various visual symptoms and eye-related abnormalities. (rthm.com)
  • Depending on the force of the injury you can experience anything from a skull fracture, vertebral fracture, contusion, cerebral bleeding, subdural bleeding, etc but the brain also sits on top of a brain stem. (thefnc.com)
  • Overview of the Cranial Nerves Twelve pairs of nerves-the cranial nerves-lead directly from the brain to various parts of the head, neck, and trunk. (merckmanuals.com)
  • The brain has twelve pairs of cranial nerves that make different functions possible. (allaboutvision.com)
  • The nervous system consists of the brain, spinal cord, 12 pairs of nerves that come from the brain and brain stem, and the nerves that come from the spinal cord. (rochester.edu)
  • Then, papilledema , visual deficits, and symptoms suggestive of a central nervous system (CNS) infection of any etiology (bacterial, viral, fungal ) may be seen if the nerve is compromised in the subarachnoid space, as various tumors, sarcoidosis , pseudotumor cerebri and meningitis have been described as potential etiologies [1]. (symptoma.com)
  • Cranial nerves are the 12 nerves of the peripheral nervous system that emerge from the foramina and fissures of the cranium.Their numerical order (1-12) is determined by their skull exit location (rostral to caudal). (spagades.com)
  • 1. The central nervous system includes the brain and spinal cord, while the peripheral nervous system includes the cranial and spinal nerves, as well as the ganglia. (spagades.com)
  • The neuronal cell bodies of a nerve's axons are in the brain, the spinal cord, or ganglia, but the nerves run only in the peripheral nervous system. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Nerves with axons that conduct electrochemical impulses toward the central nervous system (CNS) are afferent, nerves with axons that conduct impulses away from the CNS are efferent, and nerves with both afferent and efferent axons are mixed. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The nervous system consists of the brain, the spinal cord, and the nerves from these areas. (rochester.edu)
  • The hypoglossal nerve is the twelfth cranial nerve , and innervates all the extrinsic and intrinsic muscles of the tongue , except for the palatoglossus which is innervated by the vagus nerve . (iiab.me)
  • Hypoglossal nerve, cervical plexus, and their branches. (iiab.me)
  • The hypoglossal nerve arises as a series of rootlets, from the caudal brain stem, here seen from below. (iiab.me)
  • After emerging from the hypoglossal canal, the hypoglossal nerve gives off a meningeal branch and picks up a branch from the anterior ramus of C1 . (iiab.me)
  • At a point at the level of the angle of the mandible , the hypoglossal nerve emerges from behind the posterior belly of the digastric muscle . (iiab.me)
  • [4] The hypoglossal nerve moves forward lateral to the hyoglossus and medial to the stylohyoid muscles and lingual nerve . (iiab.me)
  • The hypoglossal nerve leaves the skull through the hypoglossal canal , which is situated near the large opening for the spinal cord, the foramen magnum . (iiab.me)
  • After leaving the skull, the hypoglossal nerve spirals around the vagus nerve and then passes behind the deep belly of the digastric muscle . (iiab.me)
  • The hypoglossal nerve then travels deep to the hyoglossus muscle , which it supplies. (iiab.me)
  • The hypoglossal nerve is derived from the first pair of occipital somites , collections of mesoderm that form next to the main axis of an embryo during development . (iiab.me)
  • Symptoms of nerve injury include paresthesias, loss of sensation and position sense, impaired motor function, cranial nerve malfunction, changes in reflexes, and impairments in glandular secretion. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Conditions affecting the optic nerve, such as optic neuritis or optic neuropathy, can lead to visual symptoms such as reduced color vision, loss of peripheral vision (typically in a specific pattern, e.g., central scotoma), or visual field defects. (rthm.com)
  • The infraorbital sulcus crosses the floor of the orbit and carries the infraorbital artery, infraorbital vein, and infraorbital nerve from the inferior orbital fissure to the infraorbital foramen. (medscape.com)
  • The anterior superior alveolar nerves, branches of the infraorbital nerve (from CN V2), run in canals in the anterior wall of the maxillary sinus and innervate the upper incisors, canines, premolars, and often part of the first molar. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • It is a long, slender, motor nerve and supplies only one of the extraocular muscles of the eye and functions in the movement of the eyeball within the orbit. (brainmadesimple.com)
  • Möbius himself believed that the condition was degenerative or toxic in origin and that it involved the nuclei of the affected nerves. (medscape.com)
  • The nuclei of the cranial nerves are the collection of cell bodies of axons forming that cranial nerve. (brainmadesimple.com)
  • Haemodilution and head-down tilting induce functional injury in the rat optic nerve: A model for peri-operative ischemic optic neuropathy. (uchicago.edu)
  • Neuropathy, or nerve injury, is a severe and common impediment of diabetes. (scirp.org)
  • Ovoid body resting on the CRIBRIFORM PLATE of the ethmoid bone where the OLFACTORY NERVE terminates. (lookformedical.com)
  • The nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord, including the autonomic, cranial, and spinal nerves. (lookformedical.com)
  • These are all common complains that can occur after a traumatic brain injury but let's discuss what may cause an individual to experience this in the first place. (thefnc.com)
  • Below is a glossary of important terms that can help you better understand traumatic brain injury. (casperdetoledo.com)
  • If you have questions or concerns about a case, please contact a Connecticut brain injury lawyer from Casper & de Toledo, LLC. (casperdetoledo.com)
  • Acquired brain injury - The implication of this term is that the individual experienced normal growth and development from conception through birth, until sustaining an insult to the brain at some later time that resulted in impairment of brain function. (casperdetoledo.com)
  • These include optic neuritis (inflammation of the optic nerve), optic neuropathies (damage to the optic nerve), and compressive optic neuropathies caused by conditions like tumors or aneurysms. (rthm.com)
  • [3] The nerve passes through the subarachnoid space and pierces the dura mater near the hypoglossal canal , an opening in the occipital bone of the skull. (iiab.me)
  • The major nerves and vessels to the orbit and globe enter through 3 openings. (medscape.com)
  • Abducens nerve leaves the cranial cavity and enters into the cavity of bony orbit via the superior orbital fissure. (brainmadesimple.com)
  • 1). . Cranial Nerve III Clinically. (spagades.com)
  • Pupillary dilation via alteration in cranial nerve III function in it's innervation of the pupillary constrictors. (medicosnotes.com)