Abducens Nerve Injury: Traumatic injury to the abducens, or sixth, cranial nerve. Injury to this nerve results in lateral rectus muscle weakness or paralysis. The nerve may be damaged by closed or penetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA or by facial trauma involving the orbit.Abducens Nerve: The 6th cranial nerve which originates in the ABDUCENS NUCLEUS of the PONS and sends motor fibers to the lateral rectus muscles of the EYE. Damage to the nerve or its nucleus disrupts horizontal eye movement control.Abducens Nerve Diseases: Diseases of the sixth cranial (abducens) nerve or its nucleus in the pons. The nerve may be injured along its course in the pons, intracranially as it travels along the base of the brain, in the cavernous sinus, or at the level of superior orbital fissure or orbit. Dysfunction of the nerve causes lateral rectus muscle weakness, resulting in horizontal diplopia that is maximal when the affected eye is abducted and ESOTROPIA. Common conditions associated with nerve injury include INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ISCHEMIA; and INFRATENTORIAL NEOPLASMS.Peripheral Nerve Injuries: Injuries to the PERIPHERAL NERVES.Horner Syndrome: A syndrome associated with defective sympathetic innervation to one side of the face, including the eye. Clinical features include MIOSIS; mild BLEPHAROPTOSIS; and hemifacial ANHIDROSIS (decreased sweating)(see HYPOHIDROSIS). Lesions of the BRAIN STEM; cervical SPINAL CORD; first thoracic nerve root; apex of the LUNG; CAROTID ARTERY; CAVERNOUS SINUS; and apex of the ORBIT may cause this condition. (From Miller et al., Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology, 4th ed, pp500-11)Cavernous Sinus: An irregularly shaped venous space in the dura mater at either side of the sphenoid bone.Diplopia: A visual symptom in which a single object is perceived by the visual cortex as two objects rather than one. Disorders associated with this condition include REFRACTIVE ERRORS; STRABISMUS; OCULOMOTOR NERVE DISEASES; TROCHLEAR NERVE DISEASES; ABDUCENS NERVE DISEASES; and diseases of the BRAIN STEM and OCCIPITAL LOBE.Petrous Bone: The dense rock-like part of temporal bone that contains the INNER EAR. Petrous bone is located at the base of the skull. Sometimes it is combined with the MASTOID PROCESS and called petromastoid part of temporal bone.Cranial Nerve Diseases: Disorders of one or more of the twelve cranial nerves. With the exception of the optic and olfactory nerves, this includes disorders of the brain stem nuclei from which the cranial nerves originate or terminate.Trochlear Nerve: The 4th cranial nerve. The trochlear nerve carries the motor innervation of the superior oblique muscles of the eye.Eye Pain: A dull or sharp painful sensation associated with the outer or inner structures of the eyeball, having different causes.Ophthalmoplegia: Paralysis of one or more of the ocular muscles due to disorders of the eye muscles, neuromuscular junction, supporting soft tissue, tendons, or innervation to the muscles.Oculomotor Nerve: The 3d cranial nerve. The oculomotor nerve sends motor fibers to the levator muscles of the eyelid and to the superior rectus, inferior rectus, and inferior oblique muscles of the eye. It also sends parasympathetic efferents (via the ciliary ganglion) to the muscles controlling pupillary constriction and accommodation. The motor fibers originate in the oculomotor nuclei of the midbrain.Sciatic Nerve: A nerve which originates in the lumbar and sacral spinal cord (L4 to S3) and supplies motor and sensory innervation to the lower extremity. The sciatic nerve, which is the main continuation of the sacral plexus, is the largest nerve in the body. It has two major branches, the TIBIAL NERVE and the PERONEAL NERVE.Oculomotor Muscles: The muscles that move the eye. Included in this group are the medial rectus, lateral rectus, superior rectus, inferior rectus, inferior oblique, superior oblique, musculus orbitalis, and levator palpebrae superioris.Cranial Nerve Neoplasms: Benign and malignant neoplasms that arise from one or more of the twelve cranial nerves.Cranial Nerve Injuries: Dysfunction of one or more cranial nerves causally related to a traumatic injury. Penetrating and nonpenetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; NECK INJURIES; and trauma to the facial region are conditions associated with cranial nerve injuries.Skull Fracture, Basilar: Fractures which extend through the base of the SKULL, usually involving the PETROUS BONE. Battle's sign (characterized by skin discoloration due to extravasation of blood into the subcutaneous tissue behind the ear and over the mastoid process), CRANIAL NEUROPATHIES, TRAUMATIC; CAROTID-CAVERNOUS SINUS FISTULA; and CEREBROSPINAL FLUID OTORRHEA are relatively frequent sequelae of this condition. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p876)Trigeminal Nerve: The 5th and largest cranial nerve. The trigeminal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve. The larger sensory part forms the ophthalmic, mandibular, and maxillary nerves which carry afferents sensitive to external or internal stimuli from the skin, muscles, and joints of the face and mouth and from the teeth. Most of these fibers originate from cells of the TRIGEMINAL GANGLION and project to the TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS of the brain stem. The smaller motor part arises from the brain stem trigeminal motor nucleus and innervates the muscles of mastication.Paralysis: A general term most often used to describe severe or complete loss of muscle strength due to motor system disease from the level of the cerebral cortex to the muscle fiber. This term may also occasionally refer to a loss of sensory function. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p45)Oculomotor Nerve Diseases: Diseases of the oculomotor nerve or nucleus that result in weakness or paralysis of the superior rectus, inferior rectus, medial rectus, inferior oblique, or levator palpebrae muscles, or impaired parasympathetic innervation to the pupil. With a complete oculomotor palsy, the eyelid will be paralyzed, the eye will be in an abducted and inferior position, and the pupil will be markedly dilated. Commonly associated conditions include neoplasms, CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA, ischemia (especially in association with DIABETES MELLITUS), and aneurysmal compression. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p270)Duane Retraction Syndrome: A syndrome characterized by marked limitation of abduction of the eye, variable limitation of adduction and retraction of the globe, and narrowing of the palpebral fissure on attempted adduction. The condition is caused by aberrant innervation of the lateral rectus by fibers of the OCULOMOTOR NERVE.Hypoglossal Nerve Injuries: Traumatic injuries to the HYPOGLOSSAL NERVE.Optic Nerve Injuries: Injuries to the optic nerve induced by a trauma to the face or head. These may occur with closed or penetrating injuries. Relatively minor compression of the superior aspect of orbit may also result in trauma to the optic nerve. Clinical manifestations may include visual loss, PAPILLEDEMA, and an afferent pupillary defect.Nerve Compression Syndromes: Mechanical compression of nerves or nerve roots from internal or external causes. These may result in a conduction block to nerve impulses (due to MYELIN SHEATH dysfunction) or axonal loss. The nerve and nerve sheath injuries may be caused by ISCHEMIA; INFLAMMATION; or a direct mechanical effect.Emergency Medical Tags: A bracelet or necklace worn by an individual that alerts emergency personnel of medical information for that individual which could affect their condition or treatment.Wounds and Injuries: Damage inflicted on the body as the direct or indirect result of an external force, with or without disruption of structural continuity.Facial Nerve Injuries: Traumatic injuries to the facial nerve. This may result in FACIAL PARALYSIS, decreased lacrimation and salivation, and loss of taste sensation in the anterior tongue. The nerve may regenerate and reform its original pattern of innervation, or regenerate aberrantly, resulting in inappropriate lacrimation in response to gustatory stimuli (e.g., "crocodile tears") and other syndromes.Pituitary Neoplasms: Neoplasms which arise from or metastasize to the PITUITARY GLAND. The majority of pituitary neoplasms are adenomas, which are divided into non-secreting and secreting forms. Hormone producing forms are further classified by the type of hormone they secrete. Pituitary adenomas may also be characterized by their staining properties (see ADENOMA, BASOPHIL; ADENOMA, ACIDOPHIL; and ADENOMA, CHROMOPHOBE). Pituitary tumors may compress adjacent structures, including the HYPOTHALAMUS, several CRANIAL NERVES, and the OPTIC CHIASM. Chiasmal compression may result in bitemporal HEMIANOPSIA.Electronystagmography: Recording of nystagmus based on changes in the electrical field surrounding the eye produced by the difference in potential between the cornea and the retina.Peripheral Nerves: The nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord, including the autonomic, cranial, and spinal nerves. Peripheral nerves contain non-neuronal cells and connective tissue as well as axons. The connective tissue layers include, from the outside to the inside, the epineurium, the perineurium, and the endoneurium.Dura Mater: The outermost of the three MENINGES, a fibrous membrane of connective tissue that covers the brain and the spinal cord.Spinal Nerves: The 31 paired peripheral nerves formed by the union of the dorsal and ventral spinal roots from each spinal cord segment. The spinal nerve plexuses and the spinal roots are also included.Cranial Fossa, Posterior: The infratentorial compartment that contains the CEREBELLUM and BRAIN STEM. It is formed by the posterior third of the superior surface of the body of the sphenoid (SPHENOID BONE), by the occipital, the petrous, and mastoid portions of the TEMPORAL BONE, and the posterior inferior angle of the PARIETAL BONE.Nerve Crush: Treatment of muscles and nerves under pressure as a result of crush injuries.Nerve Regeneration: Renewal or physiological repair of damaged nerve tissue.Sciatic Neuropathy: Disease or damage involving the SCIATIC NERVE, which divides into the PERONEAL NERVE and TIBIAL NERVE (see also PERONEAL NEUROPATHIES and TIBIAL NEUROPATHY). Clinical manifestations may include SCIATICA or pain localized to the hip, PARESIS or PARALYSIS of posterior thigh muscles and muscles innervated by the peroneal and tibial nerves, and sensory loss involving the lateral and posterior thigh, posterior and lateral leg, and sole of the foot. The sciatic nerve may be affected by trauma; ISCHEMIA; COLLAGEN DISEASES; and other conditions. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1363)Skull Base: The inferior region of the skull consisting of an internal (cerebral), and an external (basilar) surface.Neuralgia: Intense or aching pain that occurs along the course or distribution of a peripheral or cranial nerve.Trigeminal Nerve Injuries: Traumatic injuries to the TRIGEMINAL NERVE. It may result in extreme pain, abnormal sensation in the areas the nerve innervates on face, jaw, gums and tongue and can cause difficulties with speech and chewing. It is sometimes associated with various dental treatments.Lingual Nerve Injuries: Traumatic injuries to the LINGUAL NERVE. It may be a complication following dental treatments.TurtlesDictionaries, MedicalSphenoid Sinusitis: Inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA in the SPHENOID SINUS. Isolated sphenoid sinusitis is uncommon. It usually occurs in conjunction with other paranasal sinusitis.Neurology: A medical specialty concerned with the study of the structures, functions, and diseases of the nervous system.WashingtonTh2 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.Th1 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.Withanolides: Ergostane derivatives of 28 carbons with oxygens at C1, C22, and C26 positions and the side chain cyclized. They are found in WITHANIA plant genus and have cytotoxic and other effects.Hospital Bed Capacity, 100 to 299Hospitals, Federal: Hospitals controlled by agencies and departments of the U.S. federal government.

Postlesional vestibular reorganization improves the gain but impairs the spatial tuning of the maculo-ocular reflex in frogs. (1/6)

The ramus anterior (RA) of N.VIII was sectioned unilaterally. Two months later we analyzed in vivo responses of the ipsi- and of the contralesional abducens nerve during horizontal and vertical linear acceleration in darkness. The contralesional abducens nerve had become responsive again to linear acceleration either because of a synaptic reorganization in the vestibular nuclei on the operated side and/or because of a reinnervation of the utricular macula by regenerating afferent nerve fibers. Significant differences in the onset latencies and in the acceleration sensitivities allowed a separation of RA frogs in a group without and in a group with functional utricular reinnervation. Most important, the vector orientation for maximal abducens nerve responses was clearly altered: postlesional synaptic reorganization resulted in the emergence of abducens nerve responses to vertical linear acceleration, a response component that was barely detectable in RA frogs with utricular reinnervation and that was absent in controls. The ipsilesional abducens nerve, however, exhibited unaltered responses in either group of RA frogs. The altered spatial tuning properties of contralesional abducens nerve responses are a direct consequence of the postlesional expansion of signals from intact afferent nerve and excitatory commissural fibers onto disfacilitated 2nd-order vestibular neurons on the operated side. These results corroborate the notion that postlesional vestibular reorganization activates a basic neural reaction pattern with more beneficial results at the cellular than at the network level. However, given that the underlying mechanism is activity-related, rehabilitative training after vestibular nerve lesion can be expected to shape the ongoing reorganization.  (+info)

Eye problem following foot surgery--abducens palsy as a complication of spinal anesthesia. (2/6)

BACKGROUND: Paralysis of abducens nerve is a very rare complication of lumbar puncture, which is a common procedure most often used for diagnostic and anesthetic purposes. CASE REPORT: A 38-year-old man underwent surgery for a left hallux valgus while he was under spinal anesthesia. On the first postoperative day, the patient experienced a severe headache that did not respond to standard nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medication and hydration. During the second postoperative day, nausea and vomiting occurred. On the fourth postoperative day, nausea ceased completely but the patient complained of diplopia. Examination revealed bilateral strabismus with bilateral abducens nerve palsy. His diplopia resolved completely after 9 weeks and strabismus after 6 months. CONCLUSION: Abducens palsy following spinal anesthesia is a rare and reversible complication. Spinal anesthesia is still a feasible procedure for both the orthopaedic surgeon and the patient. Other types of anesthesia or performing spinal anesthesia with smaller diameter or atraumatic spinal needles may help decrease the incidence of abducens palsy. Informing the patient about the reversibility of the complication is essential during the follow-up because the palsy may last for as long as 6 months. Special attention must be paid to patient positioning following the operation. Recumbency and lying flat should be accomplished as soon as possible to prevent cerebrospinal fluid leakage and resultant intracranial hypotension. This becomes much more important if the patient has postdural puncture headache.  (+info)

Traumatic retroclival epidural hematoma in a child: case report. (3/6)

An 11-year-old girl presented with a very rare traumatic retroclival epidural hematoma manifesting as bilateral abducens nerve palsy, deviation of the uvula to the left, and weakened movement of tongue, which developed after a motor vehicle accident. The patient was treated conservatively and showed good outcome. Retroclival hematoma is a mainly pediatric entity usually associated with ligamentous injury at the craniocervical junction, and can be treated conservatively with good outcome.  (+info)

Transient diplopia in dental outpatient clinic: an uncommon iatrogenic event. (4/6)

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Delayed-onset bilateral abducens paresis after head trauma. (5/6)

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Sixth cranial nerve palsy following closed head injury in a child. (6/6)

A five year old female had an isolated abducens nerve palsy following closed head injury. There was no associated skull fracture, haematoma, or other cranial nerve injury. The significance, frequency, and differential diagnosis of traumatic sixth cranial nerve injury is discussed, particularly in paediatric patients. Management is symptomatic; occlusion with an eye pad may be used if diplopia is significant. In young children alternate day occlusion of each eye will help prevent amblyopia. Most cases improve within three months and many resolve by six months. Residual palsy at six months is likely to be permanent and surgical treatment may be needed.  (+info)

Definition of abducens nerve injury in the Definitions.net dictionary. Meaning of abducens nerve injury. What does abducens nerve injury mean? Information and translations of abducens nerve injury in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web.
... On-line free medical diagnosis assistant. Ranked list of possible diseases from either several symptoms or a full patient history. A similarity measure between symptoms and diseases is provided.
Schwannomas of the abducens nerve are extremely uncommon tumors. Here, we report the case of a 26-year-old woman who presented with a 6th nerve palsy and was found to have a large tumor at the right side of her pons. Neuropathologic exam revealed a c
Study Abducent/Abducens Nerve flashcards from Kelsey Thomas's Palmer College of Chiropractic-Davenport class online, or in Brainscape's iPhone or Android app. ✓ Learn faster with spaced repetition.
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The sixth cranial nerve (CNVI) is also named the abducens nerve. It only controls eye movement from the lateral rectus muscle of the eye. The primary action is to help the eye move outward, towards the ear - this action is called ABDUCTION - hence, ABducens nerve. CNVI is unique in that it has a long path to its origin that takes sharp turns. The long pathway, location, and anatomical structures that this nerve courses over make it uniquely susceptible to damage from elevated intracranial pressure.
The abducens nerve is the sixth cranial nerve. It courses from its nucleus located in the dorsal pons to its innervation of the lateral rectus muscle and can be divided into four parts: nucleus and intraparenchymal portion cisternal portion ca...
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According to experts, theres an easy way to prevent prevent delayed-onset muscle soreness from occurring. Heres how to do it at home.
Diagram of the sixth cranial nerve nuclei on a brainstem. Named for its function - innervating the lateral rectus muscle, whose action is to abduct the globe
Delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS) describes an entity of ultrastructural muscle damage. The manifestation of DOMS is caused by eccentric muscle contractions or unaccustomed forms of exercise. Clinical signs include impaired muscular force capacities, painful restriction of movement, stiffness, sw …
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A closed head injury can have lasting effect and be costly to treat even though the skull was not penetrated. Our lawyers can help.
Lu, C-Chang.; Chuo, C-Yi.; Chen, S-Kai.; Huang, Y-Han.; Chou, P-Hsi., 2007: Ulnar nerve palsy following fracture of the distal radius in an adolescent: a case report
Do you find yourself suffering from asthma, migraines, irritable bowel syndrome, chronic fatigue, fuzzy brain, non-seasonal rhinitis, depression, eczema, arthritis, bloating, or insomnia, yet no medical treatment seems to work for you? If you have one or more of these symptoms that just come and go and are unresponsive to medication, then theres a very big chance that your diet is the main culprit
Looking for petrosal process? Find out information about petrosal process. A sharp process of the sphenoid bone located below the notch for the passage of the abducens nerve, which articulates with the apex of the petrous portion... Explanation of petrosal process
abducens-muscle definition: Noun (plural abducens muscles) 1. (anatomy) Rectus lateralis muscle of the eye; muscle that moves the eye away from the center of the face.Origin Shortening of abducens nerve, in turn from Latin nervus abducens, from abducent, a...
When being evaluated for possible heart disease, simple tests are usually ordered first. These tests can help determine if you have heart disease. The results assist the physician in determining the degree of severity and what treatments would be most effective. Your physician may order some or all of the following diagnostic tests:. ...
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Benign Abducens Nerve Palsy (Benign Sixth Nerve Palsy Syndrome): Read more about Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Complications, Causes and Prognosis.
Whiplash - Closed Head Injury With Resulting Brain Injury,Medical Illustration database of the best portfolios and stock images now features General and Commercial Illustration and illustrators. 8,000+ image database includes all types of subjects and features the largest directory of medical, science, and nature illustrators and illustration on the web.
All the 3 Cranial nerves are tested at the same time by assessing the Extra Ocular Movement (EOM) or the six cardinal position of gaze. Follow the given steps: 1. .... ...
The effect of a closed head injury is not always apparent. Those who knew the client before are often the best sources of insight on any cognitive or behavioral changes.
Supplementary Material for: Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibition Prevents Cerebral Palsy following Hypoxia-Ischemia in Fetal Rabbits: Comparison between JI-8 and 7-Nitroindazole
Synonyms for Abducent nerves in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Abducent nerves. 5 synonyms for abducens nerve: abducens, abducent, abducent nerve, nervus abducens, sixth cranial nerve. What are synonyms for Abducent nerves?
Whiplash - Coup and Contracoup Closed Head Injury. Shows the contrecoup injury occuring when the force from a rear end automobile collision causes the head to snap backward while the front of the brain strikes the interior of the skull. The brain moves forward until it meets with a solid object. In the coup injury, the head recoils forward, as happens when the body is restrained by a lap and shoulder belt, while the brain remains in stasis until the forward rushing skull strikes the rear part of the brain.
ab absurdo; ab ovo; aba; aba; abaca; abacination; abacist; aback; abaculo; abacus; Abaddon; abaft; abaiser; Abalard; Abalienation; abalone; abampere; abandon; abanet; abarcy; abase; abash; Abasia; abask; abask; abask; abate; abatis; abatis; Abatis; abattoir; abature; Abaxial; abb; abb; Abba; Abbevillian; abbey-lubber; abbot; abbozzo; abbreviation; ABC Powers; ABCs; abderian; abdest; abdication; abditory; Abdomen; abdominous; abducens; abducens; abduct; Abdul-Jabbar, Kareem; abeam; abecedarian; abed; abeigh; Abel; abelmosk; aberdevine; aberglaube; Abernethy; aberrant; aberration; Abet; abettor; abevacuation; abeyance; abherent; abhor; abhorrent; abide; ability; abiogenesis; abiotic; abjure; ablactation; ablation; ablative absolute; ablaut; ablaze; able-bodied seaman; ablome; ablution; ablutomania; abnegation; abnormal psychology; ABO system; abogado; abolish; abolitionist; abominabe snowman; abominable; aborigines; abortian; aboulia; abound; about; about-face; above; aboveboard; aboveground; ...
Unfortunately, no. A review of studies for the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews on the effects of stretching before or after exercise on the development of delayed-onset muscle soreness found that pre- and post-workout stretching did not reduce the effects of DOMS in healthy adults. In fact, research has found that static stretching prior to working out does not safeguard you against injury and may actually decrease your power and strength ...
Purpose: Disrupting binocular vision during the first few months of life in a monkey results in strabismus. The objective of this study was to investigate response properties of abducens motoneurons (ABN) in relation to horizontal misalignment in monkeys with strabismus.. Methods: Burst-tonic (BT) activity of 49 neurons in the abducens nucleus (17-Left Abducens LTBT; 32-Right Abducens RTBT) was recorded from one strabismic monkey (OD: ~30° XT; OS: ~15° XT) during horizontal smooth pursuit (0.2 Hz, ±15°) under each monocular viewing condition. Neuronal firing rates (FR) and horizontal component of eye position and velocity (Epos, Evel) were used to identify regression coefficients (K-position, R-velocity, C-constant) in a first-order model (FR = K*Epos + R*Evel + C) for each tracking condition.. Results: Both RTBT and LTBT activity was well fit with the first order model equation. For RTBT motoneurons, the mean coefficients were K=5.4±3.8, R=1.4±0.6, C=41±62. Fit coefficients (K and R) ...
Whiplash - Closed Head Injury with Resulting Brain Injury. Graphic depiction of closed head injury (coup-contra-coup) resulting in brain injury. Shows the following stages: A. Normal brain; B. Head thrust back with brain impacting the skull wall; and C. Head thrust forward with brain impacting the posterior cranial wall. Hemorrhage contusions to the temporal lobes. A final illustration reveals a subarachnoid hemorrhage with frontal and temporal lobe contusions.
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Examples of conditions giving rise to an esotropia might include a VIth cranial nerve (or Abducens) palsy, Duane's syndrome or ... orbital injury. The prognosis for each patient with esotropia will depend upon the origin and classification of their condition ... and may also result from conditions affecting the nerve or blood supply to these muscles or the bony orbital structures ...
... abducens nerve injury MeSH C10.292.262.500 --- facial nerve injuries MeSH C10.292.262.750 --- optic nerve injuries MeSH C10.292 ... abducens nerve injury MeSH C10.900.300.218.300 --- facial nerve injuries MeSH C10.900.300.218.550 --- optic nerve injuries MeSH ... optic nerve injuries MeSH C10.292.700.500 --- optic nerve neoplasms MeSH C10.292.700.500.500 --- optic nerve glioma MeSH ... abducens nerve injury MeSH C10.292.225.750 --- neuroma, acoustic MeSH C10.292.225.750.500 --- neurofibromatosis 2 MeSH C10.292. ...
... abducens nerve injury MeSH C21.866.260.237.325 --- facial nerve injuries MeSH C21.866.260.237.650 --- optic nerve injuries MeSH ... post-head injury MeSH C21.866.915.300.400 --- cranial nerve injuries MeSH C21.866.915.300.400.100 --- abducens nerve injury ... facial nerve injuries MeSH C21.866.915.300.400.650 --- optic nerve injuries MeSH C21.866.915.300.450 --- head injuries, closed ... post-head injury MeSH C21.866.260.237 --- cranial nerve injuries MeSH C21.866.260.237.162 --- ...
Iatrogenic injury is also known to occur, with the abducens nerve being the most commonly injured cranial nerve in halo ... the sixth cranial nerve, sixth nerve, or simply CNVI. It is a somatic efferent nerve. The abducens nerve leaves the brainstem ... The human abducens nerve is derived from the basal plate of the embryonic pons. The abducens nerve supplies the lateral rectus ... The abducens nerve carries axons of type GSE, general somatic efferent. Damage to the peripheral part of the abducens nerve ...
4. Iatrogenic injury. Abducens nerve palsy is also known to occur with halo orthosis placement. The resultant palsy is ... Sixth nerve palsy, or abducens nerve palsy, is a disorder associated with dysfunction of cranial nerve VI (the abducens nerve ... The unilateral abducens nerve palsy is the most common of the isolated ocular motor nerve palsies.[3] ... Abducens Nerve Palsy. eMedicine.com. October 9, 2003. *^ Cherian, A.; Thomas, S. V. (2011). "Central nervous system ...
It is the only muscle supplied by the abducens nerve, cranial nerve VI. The abducens nerve exits the brainstem from the pons- ... traumatic brain injury with intracranial bleeding, tumors, and lesions along the nerve at any point between the pons and ... also known as abducens nerve palsy, is a neurological defect that results from a damaged or impaired abducens nerve. This ... Nerves of orbita. Deep dissection. Extrinsic eye muscle. Nerves of orbita. Deep dissection. Extrinsic eye muscle. Nerves of ...
The ciliary nerves, ciliary ganglion, oculomotor nerve and abducens nerve are anesthetized in retrobulbar block. As a result, ... The complications of retrobulbar block are globe perforation, optic nerve injury, retrobulbar haemorrhage and extraocular ... O' Brien's block : It is also known as facial nerve trunk block. The block is done at the level of the neck of the mandible ... Facial nerve, which supplies the orbicularis oculi muscle, is blocked in addition for intraocular surgeries. Topical ...
... cranial nerve III and abducens - cranial nerve VI) and the first two branches of the trigeminal nerve (V), Ophthalmic (V1) and ... Isolated injury to the fourth nerve can be caused by any process that stretches or compresses the nerve. A generalized increase ... The trochlear nerve, also called the fourth cranial nerve or cranial nerve IV, is a motor nerve (a somatic efferent nerve) that ... The trochlear nerve is unique among the cranial nerves in several respects: It is the smallest nerve in terms of the number of ...
Clinically Infantile esotropia must be distinguished from: VIth Cranial nerve or abducens palsy Nystagmus Blockage Syndrome ... In particular, neonates who suffer injuries that, directly or indirectly, perturb binocular inputs into the primary visual ... airbag injuries and timing of surgery, Ocular Surgery News U.S. Edition, June 1, 2002 (downloaded 3 October 2013) Birch EE, ...
Abducens Nerve Palsy at eMedicine "Barton, J., & Goodwin, J. (2001). Horizontal Gaze Palsy". Medlink.com. Retrieved 2013-07-07 ... A lesion, which is an abnormality in tissue due to injury or disease, can disrupt the transmission of signals from the brain to ... Nonselective horizontal gaze palsies are caused by lesions in the Abducens nucleus. This is where the cranial nerve VI leaves ... Lesions anywhere in the abducens nucleus, cranial nerve VI neurons, or interneurons can affect eye movement towards the side of ...
... the optic nerve (II), oculomotor nerve (III), trochlear nerve (IV), trigeminal nerve (V), abducens nerve (VI), facial nerve ( ... and injury to nerves during neurosurgery (such as tumor removal) are other possible causes of cranial nerve damage. The Graeco- ... The oculomotor nerve (III), trochlear nerve (IV) and abducens nerve (VI) coordinate eye movement. Damage to nerves III, IV, or ... The oculomotor nerve (III), trochlear nerve (IV), abducens nerve (VI) and the ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve (V1) ...
Eyes Oculomotor nerve palsy - Oculomotor nerve (III) Fourth nerve palsy - Trochlear nerve (IV) Sixth nerve palsy - Abducens ... Recovery rate also depends on the cause of the facial nerve palsy (e.g. infections, perinatal injury, congenital dysplastic). ... The facial nerve is the seventh of 12 cranial nerves. This cranial nerve controls the muscles in the face. Facial nerve palsy ... Facial nerve (VII) (More on facial nerve palsy below) Accessory nerve disorder - Accessory nerve (XI) Pavlou, E., Gkampeta, A ...
... trochlear nerve, and abducens nerve), ophthalmic sensory loss (from compression of the ophthalmic nerve), and maxillary sensory ... but may be difficult to appreciate in the setting of a complete third nerve injury. Because of its connections with the facial ... trochlear nerve (CN IV) ophthalmic nerve, the V1 branch of the trigeminal nerve (CN V) maxillary nerve, the V2 branch of CN V ( ... Oculomotor nerve Ophthalmic nerve Trochlear nerve Maxillary nerve Trigeminal ganglion Structures passing through the medial ...
Abducens (6th nerve), Trochlear (4th nerve), and Oculomotor (3rd nerve). After nerve trauma around the eye, a combination of ... Trauma to the nerve can be induced in cases such as surgical procedures, nerve inflammation, neuroma , and physical injury. ... This is an interaction between the abducens nerve and a branch of the oculomotor nerve. Voluntary activation of the abducens ... Moreover, while the abducens and the trochlear nerve each innervate one specific muscle, the oculomotor nerve has many ...
... such as abducens nerve palsy and vertical gaze palsy (Parinaud syndrome due to compression of the quadrigeminal plate, where ... Stevenson, David K.; Benitz, William E. (2003). Fetal and Neonatal Brain Injury: Mechanisms, Management and the Risks of ... Other causes include meningitis, brain tumors, traumatic brain injury, intraventricular hemorrhage, and subarachnoid hemorrhage ... post-traumatic brain injuries and even in some psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia. As opposed to hydrocephalus, this ...
These are innerved from three cranial nerves: the abducens nerve, the trochlear nerve and the oculomotor nerve. Horizontal ... Multidisciplinary Care of the Patient Following Brain Injury. CRC Press. p. 97. ISBN 978-1-4398-3656-9. C. Keith Barnes (May ... This action is mediated by the medial rectus muscle, which is innervated by Cranial nerve III. It is a type of vergence eye ... The extraocular muscles may have two types of fiber each with its own nerve supply, hence a dual mechanism.[citation needed] ...
The Deiters' nucleus extends from pontomedullary junction to the level of abducens nerve nucleus in the pons. Lateral ... Gait abnormality Spinal cord injury Upper motor neuron Martini, Frederic (2010). Anatomy & Physiology. Benjamin Cummings. ISBN ... With this they determined that the superior vestibular nerve plays a larger role in balance than the inferior vestibulo nerve ... This tract is found in the lateral funiculus, a bundle of nerve roots in the spinal cord. The lateral vestibulospinal tract ...
The facial motor nucleus is a collection of neurons in the brainstem that belong to the facial nerve (cranial nerve VII). These ... Its axons take an unusual course, traveling dorsally and looping around the abducens nucleus, then traveling ventrally to exit ... a lower motor neuron lesion to the facial motor nucleus results in paralysis of facial muscles on the same side of the injury. ... The cranial nerve nuclei schematically represented; dorsal view. Motor nuclei in red; sensory in blue. Nuclei of origin of ...
These injuries often lead to a reduced ability to taste and smell. Lesions of the olfactory nerve do not lead to a reduced ... The olfactory nerve is typically considered the first cranial nerve, or simply CN I, that contains sensory nerve fibers ... The olfactory nerve is the shortest of the twelve cranial nerves and, similar to the optic nerve, does not emanate from the ... CN VI - Abducens. *CN VII - Facial. *CN VIII - Vestibulocochlear. *CN IX - Glossopharyngeal ...
... innervated by abducens nerve (a.k.a. CN VI) and the superior oblique (innervated by trochlear nerve a.k.a. CN IV). The symptoms ... Reaction to injury: Brain histology." Cornell University Medical College. Toronto Notes[full citation needed] Dawodu ST. 2007. ... Pupillary dilation often precedes the somatic motor effects of CN III compression called oculomotor nerve palsy or third nerve ... The uncus can squeeze the oculomotor nerve (a.k.a. CN III), which may affect the parasympathetic input to the eye on the side ...
The fourth (trochlear) and sixth (abducens) cranial nerves are located in the same compartment and can cause diagonal or ... traumatic brain injury, pregnancy (during which the pituitary enlarges) and treatment with estrogens. Hormonal stimulation ... The visual loss depends on which part of the nerve is affected. If the part of the nerve between the eye and the chiasm is ... In half of these cases, the oculomotor nerve (the third cranial nerve), which controls a number of eye muscles, is affected. ...
Trauma, of course, can cause serious injury to the nerve. Direct optic nerve injury can occur from a penetrating injury to the ... The optic nerve, also known as cranial nerve II, or simply as CN II, is a paired nerve that transmits visual information from ... Other optic nerve problems are less common. Optic nerve hypoplasia is the underdevelopment of the optic nerve resulting in ... CN VI - Abducens. *CN VII - Facial. *CN VIII - Vestibulocochlear. *CN IX - Glossopharyngeal ...
The nuclei of the trigeminal nerve (V), abducens nerve (VI), facial nerve (VII) and vestibulocochlear nerve (VIII) are located ... braininjuryhelp.com/video-tutorial/brain-injury-help-video-tutorial/ http://www.martindalecenter.com/MedicalAnatomy_3_SAD.html ... From this junction, CN VI (abducens nerve), CN VII (facial nerve) and CN VIII (vestibulocochlear nerve) emerge. At the level of ... Oculomotor nerve nucleus: This is the third cranial nerve nucleus. Trochlear nerve nucleus: This is the fourth cranial nerve. ...
... but with additional nerve palsies of the affected facial and abducens nerve. Selection of the type of nerve transfer is based ... "Long-term subjective and objective outcome after primary repair of traumatic facial nerve injuries". Ann Plast Surg. 61 (2): ... Optional motor donor nerves are: the masseteric nerve, accessory nerve or hypoglossal nerve. In rare cases when these nerves ... For example, the hypoglossal nerve or masseteric nerve on the affected side can be used as donor nerves. This donor nerve is ...
The sixth nerve, the abducens nerve, which innervates the lateral rectus muscle of the eye (moves the eye laterally), is also ... These conditions are thought to result from a diabetic microvascular injury involving small blood vessels that supply nerves ( ... When cranial nerves are affected, neuropathies of the oculomotor nerve (cranial nerve #3) are most common. The oculomotor nerve ... and nerves. Longer nerve fibers are affected to a greater degree than shorter ones because nerve conduction velocity is slowed ...
周围神经损伤分類(英语:Peripheral nerve injury classification) ... 外旋神經核(英语:Abducens nucleus). *分支 *無明顯分支 ... 闭孔内肌神经(英语:Obturator internus nerve). *梨状肌神经(英语:Piriformis nerve)). 皮神经(英语:Cutaneous nerve): 股后皮神经(英语:Posterior cutaneous nerve ... superior laryngeal
Meaning of abducens nerve injury. What does abducens nerve injury mean? Information and translations of abducens nerve injury ... Definition of abducens nerve injury in the Definitions.net dictionary. ... Abducens Nerve Injury. Traumatic injury to the abducens, or sixth, cranial nerve. Injury to this nerve results in lateral ... Definitions for abducens nerve injury. Here are all the possible meanings and translations of the word abducens nerve injury.. ...
Abducens Neuropathy, Traumatic; Sixth-Nerve Palsy, Traumatic. On-line free medical diagnosis assistant. Ranked list of possible ... Abducens Nerve Injury; Abducens Neuropathy, Traumatic; Sixth-Nerve Palsy, Traumatic. Fast. Hierarchical. ...
Radioprotective effect of a pan-caspase inhibitor in a novel model of radiation injury to the nucleus of the abducens nerve.. [ ... to investigate the effects of caspase blockade in a model of the nucleus of the abducens nerve. z-VAD-fmk was injected ...
Abducens Nerve Disease. *Abducens Nerve Injury. *Abducens Nerve Palsy And Paresis. *Abnormal Coordination ... Sexually Transmitted Diseases Urinary Tract Infection Foot Pain Ankle Injury Hip Pain Knee Pain View More ...
abducens nerve disease. *abducens nerve injury. *abducens nerve palsy and paresis. *abnormal coordination ... She noticed I had gone to the ER and asked if I was OK when I described my injury she provided me with suggestions offered the ...
Abducens Nerve Palsy and Ipsilateral Horner Syndrome: A Predicting Sign of Intracranial Carotid Injury in a Head Trauma Patient ... Traditional Injury Scoring Underestimates the Relative Consequences of Orthopedic Injury.. Michaels, Andrew J.; Madey, Steven M ... Ligamentous Injuries of the Cervical Spine in Unreliable Blunt Trauma Patients: Incidence, Evaluation, and Outcome. Chiu, ... Major Intrahepatic Bile Duct Injuries Detected after Laparotomy: Selective Nonoperative Management. DAmours, Scott K.; Simons ...
abducens nerve disease. *abducens nerve injury. *abducens nerve palsy and paresis. *abnormal coordination ...
Microsurgical anatomy and injuries of the abducens nerve. Arq. Neuro-Psiquiatr., Mar 2009, vol.67, no.1, p.96-101. ISSN 0004- ...
The abducens nerve (CNVI) is susceptible to injury in raised intracranial pressure. Give examples of what can cause this and ... Nerves carry 1000s of axons *In spinal nerves all of the nerves have mixed sensory and motor function ... Cranial nerves arise from the brainstem (except CNI and CNII which arise from the brain *Spinal nerves arise from the spinal ... Most common cause is head injury or any cause of raised intracranial pressure as these can stretch the nerve ...
Left abducens nerve injury. ICD-10-CM S04.42XA is grouped within Diagnostic Related Group(s) (MS-DRG v35.0): *073 Cranial and ... Injury of abducent nerve. 2016 2017 2018 Non-Billable/Non-Specific Code Applicable To*Injury of 6th cranial nerve ... Injury of cranial nerve. 2016 2017 2018 Non-Billable/Non-Specific Code Applicable To*The selection of side should be based on ... Injury of abducent nerve, left side, initial encounter. 2016 2017 2018 Billable/Specific Code *S04.42XA is a billable/specific ...
Abducens Nerve Avulsion and Facial Nerve Palsy After Temporal Bone Fracture: A Rare Concomitance of Injuries. World ... Avulsion of the abducens nerve in the setting of geniculate ganglion injury after temporal bone fracture is unreported ... Delayed sciatic nerve injury is a rare complication after THA that requires prompt diagnosis and management.We present a case ... Delayed Presentation of Sciatic Nerve Injury after Total Hip Arthroplasty: Neurosurgical Considerations, Diagnosis, and ...
Abducens Nerve Avulsion and Facial Nerve Palsy After Temporal Bone Fracture: A Rare Concomitance of Injuries. World ... Avulsion of the abducens nerve in the setting of geniculate ganglion injury after temporal bone fracture is unreported ... This pain may be caused by injury to the iliohypogastric, ilioinguinal, or genitofemoral nerves. It is often difficult to ... It is therefore technically difficult to selectively block these nerves individually proximal to the site of surgical injury. ...
Iatrogenic injury is also known to occur, with the abducens nerve being the most commonly injured cranial nerve in halo ... the sixth cranial nerve, sixth nerve, or simply CNVI. It is a somatic efferent nerve. The abducens nerve leaves the brainstem ... The human abducens nerve is derived from the basal plate of the embryonic pons. The abducens nerve supplies the lateral rectus ... The abducens nerve carries axons of type GSE, general somatic efferent. Damage to the peripheral part of the abducens nerve ...
Barges-Coll J, Fernandez-Miranda JC, Prevedello DM, Gardner P, Morera V, Madhok R, : Avoiding injury to the abducens nerve ... Barges-Coll J, Fernandez-Miranda JC, Prevedello DM, Gardner P, Morera V, Madhok R, : Avoiding injury to the abducens nerve ... Avoiding injury to the abducens nerve during expanded endonasal endoscopic surgery: anatomic and clinical case studies. . ... Avoiding injury to the abducens nerve during expanded endonasal endoscopic surgery: anatomic and clinical case studies. . ...
Barges-Coll JFernandez-Miranda JCPrevedello DMGardner PMorera VMadhok R: Avoiding injury to the abducens nerve during expanded ... Avoiding injury to the abducens nerve during expanded endonasal endoscopic surgery: anatomic and clinical case studies. . ...
Examples of conditions giving rise to an esotropia might include a VIth cranial nerve (or Abducens) palsy, Duanes syndrome or ... orbital injury. The prognosis for each patient with esotropia will depend upon the origin and classification of their condition ... and may also result from conditions affecting the nerve or blood supply to these muscles or the bony orbital structures ...
Microsurgical anatomy and injuries of the abducens nerve / Anatomia microcir rgica e les es do nervo abducente. ... Paralisia do VI nervo (abducente) / VI nerve palsy (abducens palsy). Fonte:. Rev. bras. oftalmol;72(1):59-69, jan.-fev. 2013. ... Since it is not referenced in the Terminologia Anatomica, we propose the term canal abducens nerve to avoid using the eponymous ... Dorello s canal or abducens nerve canal: constancy or inconstancy? / El canal de Dorello o canal para el nervio abducente: ...
Abducens Nerve Avulsion and Facial Nerve Palsy After Temporal Bone Fracture: A Rare Concomitance of Injuries. ...
... , CN 6 Palsy, CN VI Paralysis, Sixth Cranial Nerve Paralysis, Abducens Nerve Injury, Lateral Rectus Palsy. ... VIth nerve injury, Abducens Nerve Injuries, Abducens Nerve Injury, Injuries, Abducens Nerve, Injury, Abducens Nerve, Nerve ... ABDUCENS NERVE INJ, Injury of abducens nerve, abducens nerve injury, traumatic abducens nerve injury, abducens nerve injury ( ... Abducens nerve injury, Abducens (6th) nerve injury, Injury to abducent nerve, Sixth cranial nerve injury, Abducent nerve injury ...
Avoiding injury to the abducens nerve during expanded endonasal endoscopic surgery: anatomic and clinical case studies. ... Endoscopic anatomy of the palatovaginal canal (palatosphenoidal canal): a landmark for dissection of the vidian nerve during ...
Compression of the oculomotor, trochlear, or abducens nerves may be caused by lesions, diabetes, vascular disease, head injury ... Nerve injuries. Nerve injuries function as neuronal neuropathies affecting the axon far from the cell body. Injuries are of ... Cranial nerves. Olfactory nerve. Damage to the olfactory nerve can occur from a head injury, local nasal disease, or pressure ... Injury that actually severs the nerve is called neurotmesis; surgical reattachment of the severed nerve ends is necessary. ...
sixth or abducens 951.3. *. seventh or facial 951.4. *. eighth, acoustic, or auditory 951.5. ... Home > 2011 ICD-9-CM Diagnosis Codes > Injury And Poisoning 800-999 > Injury To Nerves And Spinal Cord 950-957 > Injury to ... Optic nerve injury. *ICD-9-CM 950.0 is a billable medical code that can be used to indicate a diagnosis on a reimbursement ... 2015/16 ICD-10-CM S04.019A Injury of optic nerve, unspecified eye, initial encounter ...
sixth or abducens 951.3. *. seventh or facial 951.4. *. eighth, acoustic, or auditory 951.5. ... Home > 2006 ICD-9-CM Diagnosis Codes > Injury And Poisoning 800-999 > Injury To Nerves And Spinal Cord 950-957 > Injury to ... Short description: INJURY FEMORAL NERVE.. *ICD-9-CM 956.1 is a billable medical code that can be used to indicate a diagnosis ... 2015/16 ICD-10-CM S74.10XA Injury of femoral nerve at hip and thigh level, unspecified leg, initial encounter ...
... most commonly an abducens palsy. The abducens nerve is the most susceptible to injury from elevated intracranial pressure due ... oculomotor nerve), CN IV (trochlear nerve), or CN VI (abducens nerve). Paralytic strabismus is the most difficult strabismus ... The most common incomitant horizontal strabismus results from lateral rectus or abducens (cranial nerve IV) palsy. A ... "Botulinum toxin treatment versus conservative management in acute traumatic sixth nerve palsy or paresis". J AAPOS. vol. 4. ...
The abducens nerve is particularly vulnerable to injury from vascular engorgement and trauma due to its proximity to the ... Her periorbital edema and left oculomotor and abducens cranial nerve palsies had resolved. The patients fundus examination ... Her initial ophthalmologic findings included periorbital edema, palsies of the left oculomotor and abducens nerves, and ... and palsies of the left oculomotor and abducens nerves. Her medical history was otherwise unremarkable.. On examination at our ...
  • What is the function of CNII (optic nerve)? (brainscape.com)
  • What pathway is CNII (optic nerve) part of? (brainscape.com)
  • CCF is usually treated aggressively with a variety of neurosurgical or vascular procedures to prevent progression of ophthalmic manifestations and irreversible consequences, such as permanent optic nerve damage, and to counter potential neurologically devastating or even fatal outcomes from blunt cerebrovascular injury, including intracranial hemorrhage and embolic stroke. (harvard.edu)
  • Neurotomy of Optic Nerve in Non-Arthritic Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy Neurotomy of Optic Nerve in Non-Arthritic Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. (tripdatabase.com)
  • The superior division ascends lateral to the optic nerve to supply the superior rectus and levator palpebrae superioris muscles. (wordpress.com)
  • The postganglionic fibers from the ciliary ganglion travel in the short ciliary nerves, along with the sympathetic fibers, to enter the globe at the posterior aspect near the optic nerve. (wordpress.com)
  • Teresi, cross- section of the optic nerve margin should be obtained to avoid contamination with fresh tumor. (luxbar-starway.ru)
  • To the best of our knowledge, our second case represents the first observation of SS-associated phrenic nerve mononeuritis, while optic neuritis represents the most frequent cranial nerve involvement detectable in this connective tissue disease. (hindawi.com)
  • In the present paper, we described two patients with SS, who presented mononeuritis: the first patient presented optic neuritis preceding the clinical onset of SS and the second developed a very unusual neuritis of the right phrenic nerve. (hindawi.com)
  • Posteriorly, they insert together at the apex on the tendineus anulus communis of Zinn, through which the optic nerve enters the orbit. (nysora.com)
  • The scleral portion of the globe is surrounded by Tenon's capsule, a fibroelastic layer stretching from the corneal limbus anteriorly to the optic nerve posteriorly. (nysora.com)
  • One such option is a treatment called vagus nerve stimulation (VNS), in which short bursts of electrical energy are directed into the brain by way of the vagus nerve . (tripdatabase.com)
  • Vagus Nerve Stimulation for Treating Adults With Severe Fibromyalgia Vagus Nerve Stimulation for Treating Adults With Severe Fibromyalgia - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. (tripdatabase.com)
  • Answer: A Diff: 2 Page Ref: 505 A) Abducens B) Vagus C) Vestibulocochlear D) Accessory E) Olfactory Match the following reflexes to their function: 17) Tests both upper and lower motor pathways. (coursehero.com)
  • Answer: TRUE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 501 7) The only cranial nerves to extend beyond the head and neck region are the vagus nerves. (coursehero.com)
  • Anatomically, either involvement of combination of medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF) plus abducens nerve nucleus or MLF plus Paramedian pontine reticular formation (PPRF) can cause "one and a half" syndrome. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Eight-and-a-half syndrome (EHS) is the combination of one-and-a-half syndromes, which results from injury to either the medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF) and abducens nerve nucleus or MLF plus the paramedian pontine reticular formation and ipsilateral facial nucleus [1, (scitemed.com)
  • report that benign and rapidly recovering isolated VIth nerve palsy can occur in childhood, sometimes precipitated by ear, nose and throat infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • An approach to the differential diagnosis of patients who seek treatment for involvement of the ocular motor nerves and guidelines for evaluation and treatment are also given. (wordpress.com)