Diseases of the sixth cranial (abducens) nerve or its nucleus in the pons. The nerve may be injured along its course in the pons, intracranially as it travels along the base of the brain, in the cavernous sinus, or at the level of superior orbital fissure or orbit. Dysfunction of the nerve causes lateral rectus muscle weakness, resulting in horizontal diplopia that is maximal when the affected eye is abducted and ESOTROPIA. Common conditions associated with nerve injury include INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ISCHEMIA; and INFRATENTORIAL NEOPLASMS.
The 6th cranial nerve which originates in the ABDUCENS NUCLEUS of the PONS and sends motor fibers to the lateral rectus muscles of the EYE. Damage to the nerve or its nucleus disrupts horizontal eye movement control.
Traumatic injury to the abducens, or sixth, cranial nerve. Injury to this nerve results in lateral rectus muscle weakness or paralysis. The nerve may be damaged by closed or penetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA or by facial trauma involving the orbit.
Conditions which produce injury or dysfunction of the second cranial or optic nerve, which is generally considered a component of the central nervous system. Damage to optic nerve fibers may occur at or near their origin in the retina, at the optic disk, or in the nerve, optic chiasm, optic tract, or lateral geniculate nuclei. Clinical manifestations may include decreased visual acuity and contrast sensitivity, impaired color vision, and an afferent pupillary defect.
A syndrome associated with defective sympathetic innervation to one side of the face, including the eye. Clinical features include MIOSIS; mild BLEPHAROPTOSIS; and hemifacial ANHIDROSIS (decreased sweating)(see HYPOHIDROSIS). Lesions of the BRAIN STEM; cervical SPINAL CORD; first thoracic nerve root; apex of the LUNG; CAROTID ARTERY; CAVERNOUS SINUS; and apex of the ORBIT may cause this condition. (From Miller et al., Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology, 4th ed, pp500-11)
Diseases of the first cranial (olfactory) nerve, which usually feature anosmia or other alterations in the sense of smell and taste. Anosmia may be associated with NEOPLASMS; CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM INFECTIONS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; inherited conditions; toxins; METABOLIC DISEASES; tobacco abuse; and other conditions. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp229-31)
Disorders of one or more of the twelve cranial nerves. With the exception of the optic and olfactory nerves, this includes disorders of the brain stem nuclei from which the cranial nerves originate or terminate.
Diseases of the tenth cranial nerve, including brain stem lesions involving its nuclei (solitary, ambiguus, and dorsal motor), nerve fascicles, and intracranial and extracranial course. Clinical manifestations may include dysphagia, vocal cord weakness, and alterations of parasympathetic tone in the thorax and abdomen.
An irregularly shaped venous space in the dura mater at either side of the sphenoid bone.
A visual symptom in which a single object is perceived by the visual cortex as two objects rather than one. Disorders associated with this condition include REFRACTIVE ERRORS; STRABISMUS; OCULOMOTOR NERVE DISEASES; TROCHLEAR NERVE DISEASES; ABDUCENS NERVE DISEASES; and diseases of the BRAIN STEM and OCCIPITAL LOBE.
The dense rock-like part of temporal bone that contains the INNER EAR. Petrous bone is located at the base of the skull. Sometimes it is combined with the MASTOID PROCESS and called petromastoid part of temporal bone.
The 4th cranial nerve. The trochlear nerve carries the motor innervation of the superior oblique muscles of the eye.
Diseases of the oculomotor nerve or nucleus that result in weakness or paralysis of the superior rectus, inferior rectus, medial rectus, inferior oblique, or levator palpebrae muscles, or impaired parasympathetic innervation to the pupil. With a complete oculomotor palsy, the eyelid will be paralyzed, the eye will be in an abducted and inferior position, and the pupil will be markedly dilated. Commonly associated conditions include neoplasms, CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA, ischemia (especially in association with DIABETES MELLITUS), and aneurysmal compression. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p270)
A dull or sharp painful sensation associated with the outer or inner structures of the eyeball, having different causes.
Paralysis of one or more of the ocular muscles due to disorders of the eye muscles, neuromuscular junction, supporting soft tissue, tendons, or innervation to the muscles.
Diseases of the twelfth cranial (hypoglossal) nerve or nuclei. The nuclei and fascicles of the nerve are located in the medulla, and the nerve exits the skull via the hypoglossal foramen and innervates the muscles of the tongue. Lower brain stem diseases, including ischemia and MOTOR NEURON DISEASES may affect the nuclei or nerve fascicles. The nerve may also be injured by diseases of the posterior fossa or skull base. Clinical manifestations include unilateral weakness of tongue musculature and lingual dysarthria, with deviation of the tongue towards the side of weakness upon attempted protrusion.
The 3d cranial nerve. The oculomotor nerve sends motor fibers to the levator muscles of the eyelid and to the superior rectus, inferior rectus, and inferior oblique muscles of the eye. It also sends parasympathetic efferents (via the ciliary ganglion) to the muscles controlling pupillary constriction and accommodation. The motor fibers originate in the oculomotor nuclei of the midbrain.
The muscles that move the eye. Included in this group are the medial rectus, lateral rectus, superior rectus, inferior rectus, inferior oblique, superior oblique, musculus orbitalis, and levator palpebrae superioris.
Pathological processes of the VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE, including the branches of COCHLEAR NERVE and VESTIBULAR NERVE. Common examples are VESTIBULAR NEURITIS, cochlear neuritis, and ACOUSTIC NEUROMA. Clinical signs are varying degree of HEARING LOSS; VERTIGO; and TINNITUS.
Diseases of the ninth cranial (glossopharyngeal) nerve or its nuclei in the medulla. The nerve may be injured by diseases affecting the lower brain stem, floor of the posterior fossa, jugular foramen, or the nerve's extracranial course. Clinical manifestations include loss of sensation from the pharynx, decreased salivation, and syncope. Glossopharyngeal neuralgia refers to a condition that features recurrent unilateral sharp pain in the tongue, angle of the jaw, external auditory meatus and throat that may be associated with SYNCOPE. Episodes may be triggered by cough, sneeze, swallowing, or pressure on the tragus of the ear. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1390)
Benign and malignant neoplasms that arise from one or more of the twelve cranial nerves.
Filarial infection of the eyes transmitted from person to person by bites of Onchocerca volvulus-infected black flies. The microfilariae of Onchocerca are thus deposited beneath the skin. They migrate through various tissues including the eye. Those persons infected have impaired vision and up to 20% are blind. The incidence of eye lesions has been reported to be as high as 30% in Central America and parts of Africa.
Diseases of the trigeminal nerve or its nuclei, which are located in the pons and medulla. The nerve is composed of three divisions: ophthalmic, maxillary, and mandibular, which provide sensory innervation to structures of the face, sinuses, and portions of the cranial vault. The mandibular nerve also innervates muscles of mastication. Clinical features include loss of facial and intra-oral sensation and weakness of jaw closure. Common conditions affecting the nerve include brain stem ischemia, INFRATENTORIAL NEOPLASMS, and TRIGEMINAL NEURALGIA.
Diseases of the eleventh cranial (spinal accessory) nerve. This nerve originates from motor neurons in the lower medulla (accessory portion of nerve) and upper spinal cord (spinal portion of nerve). The two components of the nerve join and exit the skull via the jugular foramen, innervating the sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscles, which become weak or paralyzed if the nerve is injured. The nerve is commonly involved in MOTOR NEURON DISEASE, and may be injured by trauma to the posterior triangle of the neck.
Fractures which extend through the base of the SKULL, usually involving the PETROUS BONE. Battle's sign (characterized by skin discoloration due to extravasation of blood into the subcutaneous tissue behind the ear and over the mastoid process), CRANIAL NEUROPATHIES, TRAUMATIC; CAROTID-CAVERNOUS SINUS FISTULA; and CEREBROSPINAL FLUID OTORRHEA are relatively frequent sequelae of this condition. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p876)
Diseases of the facial nerve or nuclei. Pontine disorders may affect the facial nuclei or nerve fascicle. The nerve may be involved intracranially, along its course through the petrous portion of the temporal bone, or along its extracranial course. Clinical manifestations include facial muscle weakness, loss of taste from the anterior tongue, hyperacusis, and decreased lacrimation.
The 5th and largest cranial nerve. The trigeminal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve. The larger sensory part forms the ophthalmic, mandibular, and maxillary nerves which carry afferents sensitive to external or internal stimuli from the skin, muscles, and joints of the face and mouth and from the teeth. Most of these fibers originate from cells of the TRIGEMINAL GANGLION and project to the TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS of the brain stem. The smaller motor part arises from the brain stem trigeminal motor nucleus and innervates the muscles of mastication.
A general term most often used to describe severe or complete loss of muscle strength due to motor system disease from the level of the cerebral cortex to the muscle fiber. This term may also occasionally refer to a loss of sensory function. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p45)
A syndrome characterized by marked limitation of abduction of the eye, variable limitation of adduction and retraction of the globe, and narrowing of the palpebral fissure on attempted adduction. The condition is caused by aberrant innervation of the lateral rectus by fibers of the OCULOMOTOR NERVE.
A retention cyst of the salivary gland, lacrimal sac, paranasal sinuses, appendix, or gallbladder. (Stedman, 26th ed)
Diseases of the fourth cranial (trochlear) nerve or its nucleus in the midbrain. The nerve crosses as it exits the midbrain dorsally and may be injured along its course through the intracranial space, cavernous sinus, superior orbital fissure, or orbit. Clinical manifestations include weakness of the superior oblique muscle which causes vertical DIPLOPIA that is maximal when the affected eye is adducted and directed inferiorly. Head tilt may be seen as a compensatory mechanism for diplopia and rotation of the visual axis. Common etiologies include CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA and INFRATENTORIAL NEOPLASMS.
Voluntary or reflex-controlled movements of the eye.
Recording of nystagmus based on changes in the electrical field surrounding the eye produced by the difference in potential between the cornea and the retina.
Mechanical compression of nerves or nerve roots from internal or external causes. These may result in a conduction block to nerve impulses (due to MYELIN SHEATH dysfunction) or axonal loss. The nerve and nerve sheath injuries may be caused by ISCHEMIA; INFLAMMATION; or a direct mechanical effect.
The outermost of the three MENINGES, a fibrous membrane of connective tissue that covers the brain and the spinal cord.
The infratentorial compartment that contains the CEREBELLUM and BRAIN STEM. It is formed by the posterior third of the superior surface of the body of the sphenoid (SPHENOID BONE), by the occipital, the petrous, and mastoid portions of the TEMPORAL BONE, and the posterior inferior angle of the PARIETAL BONE.
The inferior region of the skull consisting of an internal (cerebral), and an external (basilar) surface.
Inflammation of the optic nerve. Commonly associated conditions include autoimmune disorders such as MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, infections, and granulomatous diseases. Clinical features include retro-orbital pain that is aggravated by eye movement, loss of color vision, and contrast sensitivity that may progress to severe visual loss, an afferent pupillary defect (Marcus-Gunn pupil), and in some instances optic disc hyperemia and swelling. Inflammation may occur in the portion of the nerve within the globe (neuropapillitis or anterior optic neuritis) or the portion behind the globe (retrobulbar neuritis or posterior optic neuritis).
##### I apologize, but the term "turtles" is not a recognized medical term or concept. It is commonly referred to as a group of reptiles with a shell, and does not have any direct relevance to medical definition.
A nerve which originates in the lumbar and sacral spinal cord (L4 to S3) and supplies motor and sensory innervation to the lower extremity. The sciatic nerve, which is the main continuation of the sacral plexus, is the largest nerve in the body. It has two major branches, the TIBIAL NERVE and the PERONEAL NERVE.
A neoplasm that arises from SCHWANN CELLS of the cranial, peripheral, and autonomic nerves. Clinically, these tumors may present as a cranial neuropathy, abdominal or soft tissue mass, intracranial lesion, or with spinal cord compression. Histologically, these tumors are encapsulated, highly vascular, and composed of a homogenous pattern of biphasic fusiform-shaped cells that may have a palisaded appearance. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp964-5)
The nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord, including the autonomic, cranial, and spinal nerves. Peripheral nerves contain non-neuronal cells and connective tissue as well as axons. The connective tissue layers include, from the outside to the inside, the epineurium, the perineurium, and the endoneurium.
A general term referring to a mild to moderate degree of muscular weakness, occasionally used as a synonym for PARALYSIS (severe or complete loss of motor function). In the older literature, paresis often referred specifically to paretic neurosyphilis (see NEUROSYPHILIS). "General paresis" and "general paralysis" may still carry that connotation. Bilateral lower extremity paresis is referred to as PARAPARESIS.
Twelve pairs of nerves that carry general afferent, visceral afferent, special afferent, somatic efferent, and autonomic efferent fibers.
The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.
The 2nd cranial nerve which conveys visual information from the RETINA to the brain. The nerve carries the axons of the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS which sort at the OPTIC CHIASM and continue via the OPTIC TRACTS to the brain. The largest projection is to the lateral geniculate nuclei; other targets include the SUPERIOR COLLICULI and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEI. Though known as the second cranial nerve, it is considered part of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A relatively common neoplasm of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that arises from arachnoidal cells. The majority are well differentiated vascular tumors which grow slowly and have a low potential to be invasive, although malignant subtypes occur. Meningiomas have a predilection to arise from the parasagittal region, cerebral convexity, sphenoidal ridge, olfactory groove, and SPINAL CANAL. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2056-7)
Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.

Gradenigo's syndrome. (1/84)

Gradenigo's syndrome, which is characterised by the triad of suppurative otitis media, pain in the distribution of the trigeminal nerve, and abducens nerve palsy may give rise to potentially fatal complications. Knowledge of the aetiology and appropriate investigations can lead to early diagnosis. A case is reported which illustrates this.  (+info)

Transsphenoidal computer-navigation-assisted deflation of a balloon after endovascular occlusion of a direct carotid cavernous sinus fistula. (2/84)

SUMMARY: A 49-year-old woman with a direct posttraumatic carotid cavernous fistula (CCF) was treated with detachable balloons via a transcarotid route. After the procedure, her intracranial bruit, conjunctival injection, and orbital congestion were cured, but the preexistent sixth nerve palsy deteriorated. CT showed one balloon positioned in the posterior portion of the right cavernous sinus and was regarded to be responsible for nerve compression. After surgical exposure by use of a transnasal-transsphenoidal approach under 3D navigation control, this balloon was deflated by puncture with a 22-gauge needle. The previously described symptoms resolved after balloon deflation. This report presents a rare complication of endovascular treatment of direct CCF and a new microsurgical approach to a balloon in a case of nerve compression.  (+info)

Giant ocular nerve neurofibroma of the cavernous sinus: a series of 5 cases. (3/84)

Five cases of giant cavernous sinus neurofibroma arising from the ocular cranial nerves are reported. These patients collected over a period of 5 years consisted of 3 males and 2 females with an age range of 9 to 40 years and a mean of 20.6 years. Clinically, all patients presented with ocular palsies over a long period (mean 3.4 years). All of them underwent a frontotemporal craniotomy along with an orbito-zygomatic osteotomy and excision of the tumour. In patients with extension of the tumour into the orbit, the superior orbital fissure was drilled, the tenon's capsule was cut and the intraorbital portion was excised. The management of these tumours is discussed and the literature reviewed.  (+info)

Abduction paresis with rostral pontine and/or mesencephalic lesions: Pseudoabducens palsy and its relation to the so-called posterior internuclear ophthalmoplegia of Lutz. (4/84)

BACKGROUND: The existence of a prenuclear abduction paresis is still debated. METHODS: In a retrospective design, we identified 22 patients with isolated unilateral (n = 20) or bilateral (n = 2) abduction paresis and electrophysiologic abnormalities indicating rostral pontine and/or mesencephalic lesions. Another 11 patients had unilateral abduction paresis with additional ocular motor abnormalities indicating midbrain dysfunction. Eight of these 11 patients also had electrophysiological abnormalities supporting this location. Electrophysiological examinations in all patients included masseter and blink reflexes (MassR, BlinkR), brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEP), and direct current elctro-oculography (EOG). RESULTS: Unilateral MassR abnormalities in patients with unilateral abduction paresis were seen in 17 patients and were almost always (in 16 of 17 patients) on the side of the abduction paresis. Another 11 patients had bilateral MassR abnormalities. BlinkR was always normal. EOG disclosed slowed abduction saccades in the non-paretic eye in 6 patients and slowed saccades to the side opposite to the abduction paresis in another 5 patients. Re-examinations were done in 27 patients showing normalization or improvement of masseter reflex abnormalities in 18 of 20 patients and in all patients with EOG abnormalities. This was always associated with clinical improvement. CONCLUSIONS: Electrophysiologically documented or clinically evident rostral pontine and/or mesencephalic lesions in our patients exclude an infranuclear intrapontine 6th nerve lesion and indicate the existence of an abduction paresis of prenuclear origin. An increased tone of the antagonistic medial rectus muscle during lateral gaze either by abnormal convergence or impaired medial rectus inhibition seems most likely.  (+info)

Idiopathic giant cell granulomatous hypophysitis with hypopituitarism, right abducens nerve paresis and masked diabetes insipidus. (5/84)

A 38-year-old man presented with headache, fever, and double vision associated with right abducens nerve paresis. He had neither nuchal rigidity nor visual field defect. Laboratory data revealed elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), eosinophilia, and lymphocytic pleocytosis in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Provocation tests of pituitary hormones showed partial hypopituitarism. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed swelling of the hypophysis and a mass lesion expanding into the right cavernous sinus. The supplement dose of dexamethasone for hypothalamic hypocortisolism manifested diabetes insipidus. Biopsy, carried out through the transsphenoidal approach, revealed giant cell granuloma. Systemic granulomatous diseases were ruled out, and the lesion was considered to be idiopathic giant cell granulomatous hypophysitis. Right abducens nerve paresis, diabetes insipidus and dysfunction of the anterior lobe were amended by the treatment with prednisolone for 4 months, and findings of the pituitary gland and stalk were normalized. The present case shows that glucocorticoid has an effect on amendment of idiopathic giant cell granulomatous hypophysitis.  (+info)

Primitive trigeminal artery variant aneurysm treated with Guglielmi detachable coils--case report. (6/84)

A 69-year-old woman had suffered from diplopia on right lateral gaze for the last 4 months due to right abducens nerve paresis. Right carotid angiography showed a cavernous internal carotid artery (ICA) aneurysm of 17 x 16 x 14 mm size and a primitive trigeminal artery (PTA) variant supplying the territory of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery. Intraluminal occlusion of the aneurysm was performed with 15 Guglielmi detachable coils. The flow of the PTA variant and the ICA was preserved. Right abducens nerve paresis improved partially. PTA variant is a primitive artery originating from the cavernous ICA supplying the cerebellum without opacification of the basilar artery. Only four of the 67 cases of PTA variant were associated with an aneurysm of the PTA variant. The possibility of this rare association should be considered when treating cavernous portion aneurysm because of the risk of cerebellar ischemia.  (+info)

Isolated abducens nerve paresis associated with incomplete Horner's syndrome caused by petrous apex fracture--case report and anatomical study. (7/84)

A 17-year-old male presented with a wound on the right temporal region, oozing hemorrhagic necrotic brain tissue and cerebrospinal fluid, following a fall. Computed tomography showed temporoparietal and petrous apex fractures on the right. Neurological examination revealed abducens nerve paresis, ptosis, and myosis on the right side. The patient was treated surgically for the removal of the free bony fragments at the fracture site and to close the dural tear. The abducens nerve paresis, ptosis, and myosis persisted at the 3rd monthly postoperative follow-up examination. The anatomy of the abducens nerve at the petroclival region was studied in four cadaveric heads. Two silicone-injected heads were used for microsurgical dissections and two for histological sections. The abducens nerve has three different angulations in the petroclival region, located at the dural entrance porus, the petrous apex, and the lateral wall of the cavernous segment of the internal carotid artery. The abducens nerve had fine anastomoses with the trigeminal nerve and the periarterial sympathetic plexus. There were fibrous connections extending inside the venous space of the petroclival area. The abducens nerve seems to be vulnerable to damage in the petroclival region, either directly by trauma to its dural porus and petrous apex or indirectly by stretching of the nerve through the nervous and/or fibrous connections. Concurrent functional loss of the abducens nerve and the periarterial sympathetic plexus clinically manifested as incomplete Horner's syndrome in our patient.  (+info)

Adaptations and deficits in the vestibulo-ocular reflex after sixth nerve palsy. (8/84)

PURPOSE: The effects of paralytic strabismus on the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) have not been systematically investigated in humans. The purpose of this study was to analyze the VOR in patients with unilateral peripheral sixth nerve palsy. METHODS: Twenty-one patients with unilateral peripheral sixth nerve palsy (6 severe, 7 moderate, 8 mild) and 15 normal subjects were studied. Subjects made sinusoidal +/-10 degrees head-on-body rotations in yaw and pitch at approximately 0.5 and 2 Hz, and in roll at approximately 0.5, 1, and 2 Hz. Eye movement recordings were obtained using magnetic scleral search coils in each eye in darkness and during monocular viewing in light. Static torsional VOR gains, defined as change in torsional eye position divided by change in head position during sustained head roll, were also measured. RESULTS: In all patients, horizontal VOR gains in darkness were decreased in the paretic eye in both abduction and adduction, but remained normal in the nonparetic eye in both directions. In light, horizontal visually enhanced VOR (VVOR) gains were normal in both eyes in moderate and mild palsy. In severe palsy, horizontal VVOR gains remained low in the paretic eye during viewing with either eye, whereas those in the nonparetic eye were higher than normal when the paretic eye viewed. Vertical VOR and VVOR were normal, but dynamic and static torsional VOR and VVOR gains were reduced in both eyes in all patients. CONCLUSIONS: In darkness, horizontal VOR gains were reduced during abduction of the paretic eye in all patients, as anticipated in sixth nerve palsy. Gains were also reduced during adduction of the paretic eye, suggesting that innervation to the medial rectus has changed. After severe palsy, vision did not increase abducting or adducting horizontal VVOR gains to normal in the paretic eye, but caused secondary increase in VVOR gains to values above unity in the nonparetic eye, when the paretic eye fixated. In mild and moderate palsy, vision enhanced the VOR in the paretic eye but caused no change in the nonparetic eye, suggesting a monocular readjustment of innervation selectively to the paretic eye. Vertical VOR and VVOR gains were normal, indicating that the lateral rectus did not have significant vertical actions through the excursions that we tested (+/-10 degrees ). Reduced torsional VOR gains in the paretic eye can be explained by the esotropia in sixth nerve palsy. Torsional VOR gain normally varies with vergence. We attribute the reduced torsional gains in the paretic eye to the mechanism that normally lowers it during convergence. The low torsional gains in the nonparetic eye may be an adaptation to reduce torsional disparity between the two eyes.  (+info)

The abducens nerve, also known as the sixth cranial nerve, is responsible for controlling the lateral rectus muscle of the eye, which enables the eye to move outward. Abducens nerve diseases refer to conditions that affect this nerve and can result in various symptoms, primarily affecting eye movement.

Here are some medical definitions related to abducens nerve diseases:

1. Abducens Nerve Palsy: A condition characterized by weakness or paralysis of the abducens nerve, causing difficulty in moving the affected eye outward. This results in double vision (diplopia), especially when gazing towards the side of the weakened nerve. Abducens nerve palsy can be congenital, acquired, or caused by various factors such as trauma, tumors, aneurysms, infections, or diseases like diabetes and multiple sclerosis.
2. Sixth Nerve Palsy: Another term for abducens nerve palsy, referring to the weakness or paralysis of the sixth cranial nerve.
3. Internuclear Ophthalmoplegia (INO): A neurological condition affecting eye movement, often caused by a lesion in the medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF), a bundle of nerve fibers that connects the abducens nucleus with the oculomotor nucleus. INO results in impaired adduction (inward movement) of the eye on the side of the lesion and nystagmus (involuntary eye movements) of the abducting eye on the opposite side when attempting to look towards the side of the lesion.
4. One-and-a-Half Syndrome: A rare neurological condition characterized by a combination of INO and internuclear ophthalmoplegia with horizontal gaze palsy on the same side, caused by damage to both the abducens nerve and the paramedian pontine reticular formation (PPRF). This results in limited or no ability to move the eyes towards the side of the lesion and impaired adduction of the eye on the opposite side.
5. Brainstem Encephalitis: Inflammation of the brainstem, which can affect the abducens nerve and other cranial nerves, leading to various neurological symptoms such as diplopia (double vision), ataxia (loss of balance and coordination), and facial weakness. Brainstem encephalitis can be caused by infectious agents, autoimmune disorders, or paraneoplastic syndromes.
6. Multiple Sclerosis (MS): An autoimmune disorder characterized by inflammation and demyelination of the central nervous system, including the brainstem and optic nerves. MS can cause various neurological symptoms, such as diplopia, nystagmus, and INO, due to damage to the abducens nerve and other cranial nerves.
7. Wernicke's Encephalopathy: A neurological disorder caused by thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency, often seen in alcoholics or individuals with malnutrition. Wernicke's encephalopathy can affect the brainstem and cause various symptoms such as diplopia, ataxia, confusion, and oculomotor abnormalities.
8. Pontine Glioma: A rare type of brain tumor that arises from the glial cells in the pons (a part of the brainstem). Pontine gliomas can cause various neurological symptoms such as diplopia, facial weakness, and difficulty swallowing due to their location in the brainstem.
9. Brainstem Cavernous Malformation: A benign vascular lesion that arises from the small blood vessels in the brainstem. Brainstem cavernous malformations can cause various neurological symptoms such as diplopia, ataxia, and facial weakness due to their location in the brainstem.
10. Pituitary Adenoma: A benign tumor that arises from the pituitary gland, located at the base of the brain. Large pituitary adenomas can compress the optic nerves and cause various visual symptoms such as diplopia, visual field defects, and decreased vision.
11. Craniopharyngioma: A benign tumor that arises from the remnants of the Rathke's pouch, a structure that gives rise to the anterior pituitary gland. Craniopharyngiomas can cause various neurological and endocrine symptoms such as diplopia, visual field defects, headaches, and hormonal imbalances due to their location near the optic nerves and pituitary gland.
12. Meningioma: A benign tumor that arises from the meninges, the protective covering of the brain and spinal cord. Meningiomas can cause various neurological symptoms such as diplopia, headaches, and seizures depending on their location in the brain or spinal cord.
13. Chordoma: A rare type of malignant tumor that arises from the remnants of the notochord, a structure that gives rise to the spine during embryonic development. Chordomas can cause various neurological and endocrine symptoms such as diplopia, visual field defects, headaches, and hormonal imbalances due to their location near the brainstem and spinal cord.
14. Metastatic Brain Tumors: Malignant tumors that spread from other parts of the body to the brain. Metastatic brain tumors can cause various neurological symptoms such as diplopia, headaches, seizures, and cognitive impairment depending on their location in the brain.
15. Other Rare Brain Tumors: There are many other rare types of brain tumors that can cause diplopia or other neurological symptoms, including gliomas, ependymomas, pineal region tumors, and others. These tumors require specialized diagnosis and treatment by neuro-oncologists and neurosurgeons with expertise in these rare conditions.

In summary, diplopia can be caused by various brain tumors, including pituitary adenomas, meningiomas, chordomas, metastatic brain tumors, and other rare types of tumors. It is important to seek medical attention promptly if you experience diplopia or other neurological symptoms, as early diagnosis and treatment can improve outcomes and quality of life.

The abducens nerve, also known as the sixth cranial nerve (CN VI), is a motor nerve that controls the lateral rectus muscle of the eye. This muscle is responsible for moving the eye away from the midline (towards the temple) and enables the eyes to look towards the side while keeping them aligned. Any damage or dysfunction of the abducens nerve can result in strabismus, where the eyes are misaligned and point in different directions, specifically an adduction deficit, also known as abducens palsy or sixth nerve palsy.

The abducens nerve, also known as the sixth cranial nerve, is responsible for controlling the lateral rectus muscle of the eye, which allows for horizontal movement of the eye outwards. An injury to the abducens nerve can result in various symptoms related to eye movement and alignment.

Medical definition:

Abducens nerve injury refers to damage or trauma to the sixth cranial nerve, resulting in dysfunction of the lateral rectus muscle and subsequent impairment of horizontal gaze. The affected individual may experience difficulty in moving the eye outwards, double vision (diplopia), or a condition known as strabismus, where the eyes are misaligned and point in different directions. Abducens nerve injury can occur due to various reasons, such as head trauma, tumors, increased intracranial pressure, or neurological disorders like multiple sclerosis. Treatment typically involves addressing the underlying cause and may include surgical intervention, eye patching, or prism lenses to manage symptoms and improve visual function.

Optic nerve diseases refer to a group of conditions that affect the optic nerve, which transmits visual information from the eye to the brain. These diseases can cause various symptoms such as vision loss, decreased visual acuity, changes in color vision, and visual field defects. Examples of optic nerve diseases include optic neuritis (inflammation of the optic nerve), glaucoma (damage to the optic nerve due to high eye pressure), optic nerve damage from trauma or injury, ischemic optic neuropathy (lack of blood flow to the optic nerve), and optic nerve tumors. Treatment for optic nerve diseases varies depending on the specific condition and may include medications, surgery, or lifestyle changes.

Horner syndrome, also known as Horner's syndrome or oculosympathetic palsy, is a neurological disorder characterized by the interruption of sympathetic nerve pathways that innervate the head and neck, leading to a constellation of signs affecting the eye and face on one side of the body.

The classic triad of symptoms includes:

1. Ptosis (drooping) of the upper eyelid: This is due to the weakness or paralysis of the levator palpebrae superioris muscle, which is responsible for elevating the eyelid.
2. Miosis (pupillary constriction): The affected pupil becomes smaller in size compared to the other side, and it may not react as robustly to light.
3. Anhydrosis (decreased sweating): There is reduced or absent sweating on the ipsilateral (same side) of the face, particularly around the forehead and upper eyelid.

Horner syndrome can be caused by various underlying conditions, such as brainstem stroke, tumors, trauma, or certain medical disorders affecting the sympathetic nervous system. The diagnosis typically involves a thorough clinical examination, pharmacological testing, and sometimes imaging studies to identify the underlying cause. Treatment is directed towards managing the underlying condition responsible for Horner syndrome.

Olfactory nerve diseases refer to conditions that affect the olfactory nerve, which is the first cranial nerve responsible for the sense of smell. These diseases can result in impaired or loss of smell (anosmia) and taste (ageusia), as well as distorted perception of smells (parosmia). The causes of olfactory nerve diseases can include trauma, infection, inflammation, neurological disorders, and exposure to certain chemicals. Some examples of specific olfactory nerve diseases include sinusitis, upper respiratory infections, head injuries, and neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. Treatment for these conditions depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, surgery, or lifestyle changes.

Cranial nerve diseases refer to conditions that affect the cranial nerves, which are a set of 12 pairs of nerves that originate from the brainstem and control various functions in the head and neck. These functions include vision, hearing, taste, smell, movement of the eyes and face, and sensation in the face.

Diseases of the cranial nerves can result from a variety of causes, including injury, infection, inflammation, tumors, or degenerative conditions. The specific symptoms that a person experiences will depend on which cranial nerve is affected and how severely it is damaged.

For example, damage to the optic nerve (cranial nerve II) can cause vision loss or visual disturbances, while damage to the facial nerve (cranial nerve VII) can result in weakness or paralysis of the face. Other common symptoms of cranial nerve diseases include pain, numbness, tingling, and hearing loss.

Treatment for cranial nerve diseases varies depending on the underlying cause and severity of the condition. In some cases, medication or surgery may be necessary to treat the underlying cause and relieve symptoms. Physical therapy or rehabilitation may also be recommended to help individuals regain function and improve their quality of life.

Vagus nerve diseases, also known as vagus nerve disorders, refer to conditions that affect the functioning of the vagus nerve. The vagus nerve is the tenth cranial nerve and extends from the brainstem to the abdomen, playing a crucial role in regulating various automatic functions of the body such as heart rate, digestion, respiratory rate, and sweating.

Diseases of the vagus nerve can result from various causes, including inflammation, infection, trauma, compression, or degeneration. Some common vagus nerve disorders include:

1. Vagus nerve dysfunction: This is a general term used to describe any abnormality in the functioning of the vagus nerve. Symptoms may vary depending on the specific functions affected but can include difficulty swallowing, hoarseness, voice changes, and abnormal heart rate or blood pressure.
2. Vagus nerve neuropathy: This is a condition that results from damage to the vagus nerve fibers. It can cause symptoms such as difficulty swallowing, voice changes, and abnormal digestive function.
3. Gastroparesis: This is a condition in which the stomach muscles fail to contract properly, leading to delayed gastric emptying. Vagus nerve dysfunction is a common cause of gastroparesis.
4. Orthostatic hypotension: This is a condition characterized by a drop in blood pressure when standing up from a sitting or lying down position. Vagus nerve dysfunction can contribute to this condition by causing an abnormal response in the heart rate and blood vessels.
5. Inflammatory disorders: Certain inflammatory conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, and sarcoidosis can affect the vagus nerve and cause various symptoms.

Treatment for vagus nerve diseases depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, surgery, or lifestyle changes.

The cavernous sinus is a venous structure located in the middle cranial fossa, which is a depression in the skull that houses several important nerves and blood vessels. The cavernous sinus is situated on either side of the sphenoid bone, near the base of the skull, and it contains several important structures:

* The internal carotid artery, which supplies oxygenated blood to the brain
* The abducens nerve (cranial nerve VI), which controls lateral movement of the eye
* The oculomotor nerve (cranial nerve III), which controls most of the muscles that move the eye
* The trochlear nerve (cranial nerve IV), which controls one of the muscles that moves the eye
* The ophthalmic and maxillary divisions of the trigeminal nerve (cranial nerve V), which transmit sensory information from the face and head

The cavernous sinus is an important structure because it serves as a conduit for several critical nerves and blood vessels. However, it is also vulnerable to various pathological conditions such as thrombosis (blood clots), infection, tumors, or aneurysms, which can lead to serious neurological deficits or even death.

Diplopia is a medical term that refers to the condition where a person sees two images of a single object. It is commonly known as double vision. This can occur due to various reasons, such as nerve damage or misalignment of the eyes. Diplopia can be temporary or chronic and can affect one or both eyes. If you're experiencing diplopia, it's essential to consult an eye care professional for proper evaluation and treatment.

The petrous bone is a part of the temporal bone, one of the 22 bones in the human skull. It is a thick and irregularly shaped bone located at the base of the skull and forms part of the ear and the cranial cavity. The petrous bone contains the cochlea, vestibule, and semicircular canals of the inner ear, which are responsible for hearing and balance. It also helps protect the brain from injury by forming part of the bony structure surrounding the brain.

The term "petrous" comes from the Latin word "petrosus," meaning "stony" or "rock-like," which describes the hard and dense nature of this bone. The petrous bone is one of the densest bones in the human body, making it highly resistant to fractures and other forms of damage.

In medical terminology, the term "petrous" may also be used to describe any structure that resembles a rock or is hard and dense, such as the petrous apex, which refers to the portion of the petrous bone that points towards the sphenoid bone.

The trochlear nerve, also known as the fourth cranial nerve (CN IV), is a nerve that originates in the midbrain and innervates the superior oblique muscle of the eye. This muscle helps with the downward and outward movement of the eye, playing a crucial role in controlling eye movements and maintaining binocular vision. The trochlear nerve's main function is to provide motor (efferent) innervation to the superior oblique muscle, enabling fine-tuning of eye movements during activities such as reading, writing, or driving. Damage to this nerve can result in vertical diplopia (double vision), strabismus (eye misalignment), and other visual impairments.

The oculomotor nerve, also known as the third cranial nerve (CN III), is responsible for controlling several important eye movements and functions. Oculomotor nerve diseases refer to conditions that affect this nerve and can lead to various symptoms related to eye movement and function. Here's a medical definition of oculomotor nerve diseases:

Oculomotor nerve diseases are a group of medical disorders characterized by the dysfunction or damage to the oculomotor nerve (CN III), resulting in impaired eye movements, abnormalities in pupillary response, and potential effects on eyelid position. These conditions can be congenital, acquired, or traumatic in nature and may lead to partial or complete paralysis of the nerve. Common oculomotor nerve diseases include oculomotor nerve palsy, third nerve ganglionopathies, and compressive oculomotor neuropathies caused by various pathologies such as aneurysms, tumors, or infections.

Eye pain is defined as discomfort or unpleasant sensations in the eye. It can be sharp, throbbing, stabbing, burning, or aching. The pain may occur in one or both eyes and can range from mild to severe. Eye pain can result from various causes, including infection, inflammation, injury, or irritation of the structures of the eye, such as the cornea, conjunctiva, sclera, or uvea. Other possible causes include migraines, optic neuritis, and glaucoma. It is essential to seek medical attention if experiencing sudden, severe, or persistent eye pain, as it can be a sign of a serious underlying condition that requires prompt treatment.

Ophthalmoplegia is a medical term that refers to the paralysis or weakness of the eye muscles, which can result in double vision (diplopia) or difficulty moving the eyes. It can be caused by various conditions, including nerve damage, muscle disorders, or neurological diseases such as myasthenia gravis or multiple sclerosis. Ophthalmoplegia can affect one or more eye muscles and can be partial or complete. Depending on the underlying cause, ophthalmoplegia may be treatable with medications, surgery, or other interventions.

The hypoglossal nerve, also known as the 12th cranial nerve (CN XII), is primarily responsible for controlling tongue movements. Hypoglossal nerve diseases refer to conditions that affect this nerve and result in various tongue-related symptoms. These disorders can be congenital or acquired, and they may stem from different causes such as trauma, tumors, infections, inflammation, or degenerative processes.

Hypoglossal nerve diseases can present with the following symptoms:

1. Weakness or paralysis of the tongue muscles on one or both sides.
2. Deviation of the tongue towards the affected side when protruded.
3. Fasciculations (involuntary muscle twitches) or atrophy (wasting) of the tongue muscles.
4. Difficulty with speaking, swallowing, and chewing due to tongue weakness.
5. Changes in taste and sensation on the back of the tongue and throat.

Some specific hypoglossal nerve diseases include:

1. Hypoglossal nerve palsy: A condition characterized by unilateral or bilateral weakness or paralysis of the tongue due to damage to the hypoglossal nerve. Causes can include trauma, tumors, stroke, multiple sclerosis, or other neurological disorders.
2. Hypoglossal neuritis: Inflammation of the hypoglossal nerve, often caused by viral infections or autoimmune processes, leading to tongue weakness and atrophy.
3. Congenital hypoglossal nerve anomalies: Abnormal development of the hypoglossal nerve during fetal growth can result in various tongue-related symptoms and difficulties with speech and swallowing.
4. Tumors affecting the hypoglossal nerve: Both benign and malignant tumors, such as schwannomas or neurofibromas, can compress or infiltrate the hypoglossal nerve, causing weakness or paralysis.
5. Hypoglossal-facial anastomosis: A surgical procedure that connects the hypoglossal nerve to the facial nerve to restore facial movement in cases of facial nerve palsy. This connection can lead to tongue weakness as a side effect.

The oculomotor nerve, also known as the third cranial nerve (CN III), is a motor nerve that originates from the midbrain. It controls the majority of the eye muscles, including the levator palpebrae superioris muscle that raises the upper eyelid, and the extraocular muscles that enable various movements of the eye such as looking upward, downward, inward, and outward. Additionally, it carries parasympathetic fibers responsible for pupillary constriction and accommodation (focusing on near objects). Damage to this nerve can result in various ocular motor disorders, including strabismus, ptosis, and pupillary abnormalities.

The oculomotor muscles are a group of extraocular muscles that control the movements of the eye. They include:

1. Superior rectus: This muscle is responsible for elevating the eye and helping with inward rotation (intorsion) when looking downwards.
2. Inferior rectus: It depresses the eye and helps with outward rotation (extorsion) when looking upwards.
3. Medial rectus: This muscle adducts, or moves, the eye towards the midline of the face.
4. Inferior oblique: The inferior oblique muscle intorts and elevates the eye.
5. Superior oblique: It extorts and depresses the eye.

These muscles work together to allow for smooth and precise movements of the eyes, enabling tasks such as tracking moving objects, reading, and maintaining visual fixation on a single point in space.

The vestibulocochlear nerve, also known as the 8th cranial nerve, is responsible for transmitting sound and balance information from the inner ear to the brain. Vestibulocochlear nerve diseases refer to conditions that affect this nerve and can result in hearing loss, vertigo, and balance problems.

These diseases can be caused by various factors, including genetics, infection, trauma, tumors, or degeneration. Some examples of vestibulocochlear nerve diseases include:

1. Vestibular neuritis: an inner ear infection that causes severe vertigo, nausea, and balance problems.
2. Labyrinthitis: an inner ear infection that affects both the vestibular and cochlear nerves, causing vertigo, hearing loss, and tinnitus.
3. Acoustic neuroma: a benign tumor that grows on the vestibulocochlear nerve, causing hearing loss, tinnitus, and balance problems.
4. Meniere's disease: a inner ear disorder that causes vertigo, hearing loss, tinnitus, and a feeling of fullness in the ear.
5. Ototoxicity: damage to the inner ear caused by certain medications or chemicals that can result in hearing loss and balance problems.
6. Vestibular migraine: a type of migraine that is associated with vertigo, dizziness, and balance problems.

Treatment for vestibulocochlear nerve diseases varies depending on the specific condition and its severity. It may include medication, physical therapy, surgery, or a combination of these approaches.

The glossopharyngeal nerve, also known as the ninth cranial nerve (CN IX), is primarily responsible for providing motor innervation to the stylopharyngeus muscle and sensory innervation to parts of the pharynx, middle ear, and posterior tongue. It also plays a role in the reflexive control of heart rate via the baroreceptors located in the carotid sinus.

Glossopharyngeal nerve diseases refer to conditions that affect the function of this nerve, leading to various symptoms. These diseases can be classified into two main categories: peripheral and central. Peripheral disorders are caused by damage or injury to the nerve itself, while central disorders result from problems in the brainstem where the glossopharyngeal nerve originates.

Some examples of glossopharyngeal nerve diseases include:

1. Glossopharyngeal neuralgia: A rare condition characterized by severe, stabbing pain in the throat, ear, or tongue, often triggered by swallowing or talking. This disorder may be caused by compression of the nerve by blood vessels or other structures.

2. Infections: Bacterial and viral infections can cause inflammation and damage to the glossopharyngeal nerve, leading to dysfunction. Examples include Lyme disease, herpes zoster (shingles), and meningitis.

3. Tumors: Benign or malignant growths in the head and neck region can compress and injure the glossopharyngeal nerve, resulting in symptoms related to its dysfunction.

4. Trauma: Direct trauma to the neck or skull base can damage the glossopharyngeal nerve, causing various deficits depending on the severity of the injury.

5. Neurological disorders: Conditions such as multiple sclerosis and stroke can affect the central connections of the glossopharyngeal nerve in the brainstem, leading to dysfunction.

6. Genetic conditions: Rare genetic disorders like Moersch-Woltman syndrome (also known as stiff person syndrome) can involve the glossopharyngeal nerve and cause symptoms related to its dysfunction.

Symptoms of glossopharyngeal nerve dysfunction may include difficulty swallowing, hoarseness, loss of taste on the back of the tongue, decreased sensation in the throat or ear, and pain in the neck, throat, or ear. Treatment for these conditions depends on the underlying cause and may involve medications, surgery, or other interventions to address the specific problem.

Cranial nerve neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that develop within or near the cranial nerves. These nerves are responsible for transmitting sensory and motor information between the brain and various parts of the head, neck, and trunk. There are 12 pairs of cranial nerves, each with a specific function and location in the skull.

Cranial nerve neoplasms can be benign or malignant and may arise from the nerve itself (schwannoma, neurofibroma) or from surrounding tissues that invade the nerve (meningioma, epidermoid cyst). The growth of these tumors can cause various symptoms depending on their size, location, and rate of growth. Common symptoms include:

* Facial weakness or numbness
* Double vision or other visual disturbances
* Hearing loss or tinnitus (ringing in the ears)
* Difficulty swallowing or speaking
* Loss of smell or taste
* Uncontrollable eye movements or drooping eyelids

Treatment for cranial nerve neoplasms depends on several factors, including the type, size, location, and extent of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches. Regular follow-up care is essential to monitor for recurrence or complications.

Onchocerciasis, Ocular is a medical condition that specifically refers to the eye manifestations caused by the parasitic infection, Onchocerca volvulus. Also known as "river blindness," this disease is spread through the bite of infected blackflies.

Ocular onchocerciasis affects various parts of the eye, including the conjunctiva, cornea, iris, and retina. The infection can cause symptoms such as itching, burning, and redness of the eyes. Over time, it may lead to more serious complications like punctate keratitis (small, scattered opacities on the cornea), cataracts, glaucoma, and ultimately, blindness.

The infection is diagnosed through a skin snip or blood test, which can detect the presence of microfilariae (the larval stage of the parasite) or antibodies against the parasite. Treatment typically involves administering oral medications such as ivermectin, which kills the microfilariae and reduces the risk of eye damage. However, it does not kill the adult worms, so multiple doses are often required to control the infection. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove advanced ocular lesions.

Trigeminal nerve diseases refer to conditions that affect the trigeminal nerve, which is one of the cranial nerves responsible for sensations in the face and motor functions such as biting and chewing. The trigeminal nerve has three branches: ophthalmic, maxillary, and mandibular, which innervate different parts of the face and head.

Trigeminal nerve diseases can cause various symptoms, including facial pain, numbness, tingling, or weakness. Some common trigeminal nerve diseases include:

1. Trigeminal neuralgia: A chronic pain condition that affects the trigeminal nerve, causing intense, stabbing, or electric shock-like pain in the face.
2. Hemifacial spasm: A neuromuscular disorder that causes involuntary muscle spasms on one side of the face, often affecting the muscles around the eye and mouth.
3. Trigeminal neuropathy: Damage or injury to the trigeminal nerve, which can result in numbness, tingling, or weakness in the face.
4. Herpes zoster oticus (Ramsay Hunt syndrome): A viral infection that affects the facial nerve and geniculate ganglion of the trigeminal nerve, causing facial paralysis, ear pain, and a rash around the ear.
5. Microvascular compression: Compression of the trigeminal nerve by a blood vessel, which can cause symptoms similar to trigeminal neuralgia.

Treatment for trigeminal nerve diseases depends on the specific condition and its severity. Treatment options may include medication, surgery, or radiation therapy.

The accessory nerve, also known as the 11th cranial nerve (CN XI), has both a cranial and spinal root and innervates the sternocleidomastoid muscle and trapezius muscle. Accessory nerve diseases refer to conditions that affect the function of this nerve, leading to weakness or paralysis of the affected muscles.

Some examples of accessory nerve diseases include:

1. Traumatic injury: Direct trauma to the neck or posterior scalene region can damage the spinal root of the accessory nerve. This can result in weakness or paralysis of the trapezius muscle, leading to difficulty with shoulder movement and pain.
2. Neuralgia: Accessory nerve neuralgia is a condition characterized by painful spasms or shooting pains along the course of the accessory nerve. It can be caused by nerve compression, inflammation, or injury.
3. Tumors: Tumors in the neck region, such as schwannomas or neurofibromas, can compress or invade the accessory nerve, leading to weakness or paralysis of the affected muscles.
4. Infections: Viral infections, such as poliovirus or West Nile virus, can cause inflammation and damage to the accessory nerve, resulting in weakness or paralysis.
5. Neuropathy: Accessory nerve neuropathy is a condition characterized by degeneration of the accessory nerve fibers due to various causes such as diabetes, autoimmune disorders, or exposure to toxins. This can result in weakness or paralysis of the affected muscles.
6. Congenital defects: Some individuals may be born with congenital defects that affect the development and function of the accessory nerve, leading to weakness or paralysis of the affected muscles.

Treatment for accessory nerve diseases depends on the underlying cause and can include physical therapy, medications, surgery, or a combination of these approaches.

A basilar skull fracture is a type of skull fracture that involves the base of the skull. It is a serious and potentially life-threatening injury, as it can cause damage to the brainstem and cranial nerves. A basilar skull fracture may occur as a result of a severe head trauma, such as from a fall, car accident, or violent assault.

In a basilar skull fracture, the bones that form the base of the skull (the occipital bone, sphenoid bone, and temporal bones) are broken. This type of fracture can be difficult to diagnose on a routine skull X-ray, and may require further imaging studies such as a CT scan or MRI to confirm the diagnosis.

Symptoms of a basilar skull fracture may include:

* Battle's sign: a bruise behind the ear
* Raccoon eyes: bruising around the eyes
* Clear fluid leaking from the nose or ears (cerebrospinal fluid)
* Hearing loss
* Facial paralysis
* Difficulty swallowing
* Changes in level of consciousness

If you suspect that someone has a basilar skull fracture, it is important to seek medical attention immediately. This type of injury requires prompt treatment and close monitoring to prevent complications such as infection or brain swelling.

Facial nerve diseases refer to a group of medical conditions that affect the function of the facial nerve, also known as the seventh cranial nerve. This nerve is responsible for controlling the muscles of facial expression, and it also carries sensory information from the taste buds in the front two-thirds of the tongue, and regulates saliva flow and tear production.

Facial nerve diseases can cause a variety of symptoms, depending on the specific location and extent of the nerve damage. Common symptoms include:

* Facial weakness or paralysis on one or both sides of the face
* Drooping of the eyelid and corner of the mouth
* Difficulty closing the eye or keeping it closed
* Changes in taste sensation or dryness of the mouth and eyes
* Abnormal sensitivity to sound (hyperacusis)
* Twitching or spasms of the facial muscles

Facial nerve diseases can be caused by a variety of factors, including:

* Infections such as Bell's palsy, Ramsay Hunt syndrome, and Lyme disease
* Trauma or injury to the face or skull
* Tumors that compress or invade the facial nerve
* Neurological conditions such as multiple sclerosis or Guillain-Barre syndrome
* Genetic disorders such as Moebius syndrome or hemifacial microsomia

Treatment for facial nerve diseases depends on the underlying cause and severity of the symptoms. In some cases, medication, physical therapy, or surgery may be necessary to restore function and relieve symptoms.

The trigeminal nerve, also known as the fifth cranial nerve or CNV, is a paired nerve that carries both sensory and motor information. It has three major branches: ophthalmic (V1), maxillary (V2), and mandibular (V3). The ophthalmic branch provides sensation to the forehead, eyes, and upper portion of the nose; the maxillary branch supplies sensation to the lower eyelid, cheek, nasal cavity, and upper lip; and the mandibular branch is responsible for sensation in the lower lip, chin, and parts of the oral cavity, as well as motor function to the muscles involved in chewing. The trigeminal nerve plays a crucial role in sensations of touch, pain, temperature, and pressure in the face and mouth, and it also contributes to biting, chewing, and swallowing functions.

Paralysis is a loss of muscle function in part or all of your body. It can be localized, affecting only one specific area, or generalized, impacting multiple areas or even the entire body. Paralysis often occurs when something goes wrong with the way messages pass between your brain and muscles. In most cases, paralysis is caused by damage to the nervous system, especially the spinal cord. Other causes include stroke, trauma, infections, and various neurological disorders.

It's important to note that paralysis doesn't always mean a total loss of movement or feeling. Sometimes, it may just cause weakness or numbness in the affected area. The severity and extent of paralysis depend on the underlying cause and the location of the damage in the nervous system.

Duane Retraction Syndrome (DRS) is a congenital eye movement disorder, characterized by limited abduction (lateral movement away from the nose) of the affected eye, and on attempted adduction (movement towards the nose), the eye retracts into the orbit and the lid narrows. It is often accompanied by other eye alignment or vision anomalies. The exact cause is not known, but it is believed to be a result of abnormal development of the cranial nerves that control eye movement during fetal development. DRS is usually idiopathic, but it can also be associated with other congenital anomalies. It is typically diagnosed in early childhood and managed with a combination of observation, prism glasses, and/or surgery, depending on the severity and impact on vision.

A mucocele is a mucus-containing cystic lesion that results from the accumulation of mucin within a damaged minor salivary gland duct or mucous gland. It is typically caused by trauma, injury, or blockage of the duct. Mucocele appears as a round, dome-shaped, fluid-filled swelling, which may be bluish or clear in color. They are most commonly found on the lower lip but can also occur on other areas of the oral cavity. Mucocele is generally painless unless it becomes secondarily infected; however, it can cause discomfort during speaking, chewing, or swallowing, and may affect aesthetics. Treatment usually involves surgical excision of the mucocele to prevent recurrence.

The trochlear nerve, also known as the fourth cranial nerve (CN IV), is responsible for controlling the movement of the eye. It innervates the superior oblique muscle, which helps in depressing and rotating the eye downwards and outwards. Trochlear nerve diseases refer to conditions that affect this nerve and impair its function, leading to symptoms such as double vision (diplopia), vertical misalignment of the eyes, and difficulty with depth perception.

Trochlear nerve diseases can be caused by various factors, including trauma, compression, inflammation, infection, or tumors. Some common conditions that affect the trochlear nerve include:

1. Trochlear nerve palsy: This is a weakness or paralysis of the trochlear nerve, which can cause vertical and torsional diplopia, especially when looking downwards or to the side. It can be congenital or acquired due to trauma, compression, or other causes.
2. Aneurysm: Aneurysms in the vicinity of the trochlear nerve can compress or damage it, leading to palsy and diplopia.
3. Meningitis: Inflammation of the meninges (the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord) due to infection or other causes can affect the trochlear nerve and cause palsy.
4. Multiple sclerosis (MS): This is a chronic autoimmune disease that affects the central nervous system, including the cranial nerves. MS can cause demyelination of the trochlear nerve, leading to palsy and diplopia.
5. Diabetes: People with diabetes are at risk of developing diabetic neuropathy, which can affect any peripheral nerve, including the trochlear nerve.
6. Tumors: Space-occupying lesions in the brain or skull base, such as meningiomas, schwannomas, or pituitary adenomas, can compress the trochlear nerve and cause palsy.

The diagnosis of trochlear nerve diseases involves a thorough neurological examination, including assessment of eye movements and alignment. Imaging studies such as MRI or CT scans may be ordered to identify any structural lesions causing compression or damage to the nerve. Treatment depends on the underlying cause and may involve surgical intervention, medication, or observation.

Eye movements, also known as ocular motility, refer to the voluntary or involuntary motion of the eyes that allows for visual exploration of our environment. There are several types of eye movements, including:

1. Saccades: rapid, ballistic movements that quickly shift the gaze from one point to another.
2. Pursuits: smooth, slow movements that allow the eyes to follow a moving object.
3. Vergences: coordinated movements of both eyes in opposite directions, usually in response to a three-dimensional stimulus.
4. Vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR): automatic eye movements that help stabilize the gaze during head movement.
5. Optokinetic nystagmus (OKN): rhythmic eye movements that occur in response to large moving visual patterns, such as when looking out of a moving vehicle.

Abnormalities in eye movements can indicate neurological or ophthalmological disorders and are often assessed during clinical examinations.

Electronystagmography (ENG) is a medical test used to assess the function of the vestibular system, which is responsible for maintaining balance and eye movements. This test measures involuntary eye movements, called nystagmus, which can be indicative of various conditions affecting the inner ear or brainstem.

During the ENG test, electrodes are placed around the eyes to record eye movements while the patient undergoes a series of stimuli, such as changes in head position, visual stimuli, and caloric irrigations (where warm or cool water is introduced into the ear canal to stimulate the inner ear). The recorded data is then analyzed to evaluate the function of the vestibular system and identify any abnormalities.

ENG testing can help diagnose conditions such as vestibular neuritis, labyrinthitis, benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV), Meniere's disease, and other balance disorders. It is also used to assess the effectiveness of various treatments for these conditions.

Nerve compression syndromes refer to a group of conditions characterized by the pressure or irritation of a peripheral nerve, causing various symptoms such as pain, numbness, tingling, and weakness in the affected area. This compression can occur due to several reasons, including injury, repetitive motion, bone spurs, tumors, or swelling. Common examples of nerve compression syndromes include carpal tunnel syndrome, cubital tunnel syndrome, radial nerve compression, and ulnar nerve entrapment at the wrist or elbow. Treatment options may include physical therapy, splinting, medications, injections, or surgery, depending on the severity and underlying cause of the condition.

Dura Mater is the thickest and outermost of the three membranes (meninges) that cover the brain and spinal cord. It provides protection and support to these delicate structures. The other two layers are called the Arachnoid Mater and the Pia Mater, which are thinner and more delicate than the Dura Mater. Together, these three layers form a protective barrier around the central nervous system.

The posterior cranial fossa is a term used in anatomy to refer to the portion of the skull that forms the lower, back part of the cranial cavity. It is located between the occipital bone and the temporal bones, and it contains several important structures including the cerebellum, pons, medulla oblongata, and the lower cranial nerves (IX-XII). The posterior fossa also contains the foramen magnum, which is a large opening through which the spinal cord connects to the brainstem. This region of the skull is protected by the occipital bone, which forms the base of the skull and provides attachment for several neck muscles.

The skull base is the lower part of the skull that forms the floor of the cranial cavity and the roof of the facial skeleton. It is a complex anatomical region composed of several bones, including the frontal, sphenoid, temporal, occipital, and ethmoid bones. The skull base supports the brain and contains openings for blood vessels and nerves that travel between the brain and the face or neck. The skull base can be divided into three regions: the anterior cranial fossa, middle cranial fossa, and posterior cranial fossa, which house different parts of the brain.

Optic neuritis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation and damage to the optic nerve, which transmits visual information from the eye to the brain. This condition can result in various symptoms such as vision loss, pain with eye movement, color vision disturbances, and pupillary abnormalities. Optic neuritis may occur in isolation or be associated with other underlying medical conditions, including multiple sclerosis, neuromyelitis optica, and autoimmune disorders. The diagnosis typically involves a comprehensive eye examination, including visual acuity testing, dilated funduscopic examination, and possibly imaging studies like MRI to evaluate the optic nerve and brain. Treatment options may include corticosteroids or other immunomodulatory therapies to reduce inflammation and prevent further damage to the optic nerve.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "turtles" is not a medical term. It refers to the group of reptiles that have a shell and include various species such as tortoises and terrapins. If you have any medical concerns or questions, I would be happy to try to help with those!

The sciatic nerve is the largest and longest nerve in the human body, running from the lower back through the buttocks and down the legs to the feet. It is formed by the union of the ventral rami (branches) of the L4 to S3 spinal nerves. The sciatic nerve provides motor and sensory innervation to various muscles and skin areas in the lower limbs, including the hamstrings, calf muscles, and the sole of the foot. Sciatic nerve disorders or injuries can result in symptoms such as pain, numbness, tingling, or weakness in the lower back, hips, legs, and feet, known as sciatica.

A neurilemmoma, also known as schwannoma or peripheral nerve sheath tumor, is a benign, slow-growing tumor that arises from the Schwann cells, which produce the myelin sheath that surrounds and insulates peripheral nerves. These tumors can occur anywhere along the course of a peripheral nerve, but they most commonly affect the acoustic nerve (vestibulocochlear nerve), leading to a type of tumor called vestibular schwannoma or acoustic neuroma. Neurilemmomas are typically encapsulated and do not invade the surrounding tissue, although larger ones may cause pressure-related symptoms due to compression of nearby structures. Rarely, these tumors can undergo malignant transformation, leading to a condition called malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor or neurofibrosarcoma.

Peripheral nerves are nerve fibers that transmit signals between the central nervous system (CNS, consisting of the brain and spinal cord) and the rest of the body. These nerves convey motor, sensory, and autonomic information, enabling us to move, feel, and respond to changes in our environment. They form a complex network that extends from the CNS to muscles, glands, skin, and internal organs, allowing for coordinated responses and functions throughout the body. Damage or injury to peripheral nerves can result in various neurological symptoms, such as numbness, weakness, or pain, depending on the type and severity of the damage.

Paresis is a medical term that refers to a partial loss of voluntary muscle function. It is often described as muscle weakness, and it can affect one or several parts of the body. Paresis can be caused by various conditions, including nerve damage, stroke, spinal cord injuries, multiple sclerosis, and infections like polio or botulism. The severity of paresis can range from mild to severe, depending on the underlying cause and the specific muscles involved. Treatment for paresis typically focuses on addressing the underlying condition causing it.

Cranial nerves are a set of twelve pairs of nerves that originate from the brainstem and skull, rather than the spinal cord. These nerves are responsible for transmitting sensory information (such as sight, smell, hearing, and taste) to the brain, as well as controlling various muscles in the head and neck (including those involved in chewing, swallowing, and eye movement). Each cranial nerve has a specific function and is named accordingly. For example, the optic nerve (cranial nerve II) transmits visual information from the eyes to the brain, while the vagus nerve (cranial nerve X) controls parasympathetic functions in the body such as heart rate and digestion.

The brainstem is the lower part of the brain that connects to the spinal cord. It consists of the midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata. The brainstem controls many vital functions such as heart rate, breathing, and blood pressure. It also serves as a relay center for sensory and motor information between the cerebral cortex and the rest of the body. Additionally, several cranial nerves originate from the brainstem, including those that control eye movements, facial movements, and hearing.

The optic nerve, also known as the second cranial nerve, is the nerve that transmits visual information from the retina to the brain. It is composed of approximately one million nerve fibers that carry signals related to vision, such as light intensity and color, from the eye's photoreceptor cells (rods and cones) to the visual cortex in the brain. The optic nerve is responsible for carrying this visual information so that it can be processed and interpreted by the brain, allowing us to see and perceive our surroundings. Damage to the optic nerve can result in vision loss or impairment.

A meningioma is a type of slow-growing tumor that forms on the membranes (meninges) surrounding the brain and spinal cord. It's usually benign, meaning it doesn't spread to other parts of the body, but it can still cause serious problems if it grows and presses on nearby tissues.

Meningiomas most commonly occur in adults, and are more common in women than men. They can cause various symptoms depending on their location and size, including headaches, seizures, vision or hearing problems, memory loss, and changes in personality or behavior. In some cases, they may not cause any symptoms at all and are discovered only during imaging tests for other conditions.

Treatment options for meningiomas include monitoring with regular imaging scans, surgery to remove the tumor, and radiation therapy to shrink or kill the tumor cells. The best treatment approach depends on factors such as the size and location of the tumor, the patient's age and overall health, and their personal preferences.

Nerve fibers are specialized structures that constitute the long, slender processes (axons) of neurons (nerve cells). They are responsible for conducting electrical impulses, known as action potentials, away from the cell body and transmitting them to other neurons or effector organs such as muscles and glands. Nerve fibers are often surrounded by supportive cells called glial cells and are grouped together to form nerve bundles or nerves. These fibers can be myelinated (covered with a fatty insulating sheath called myelin) or unmyelinated, which influences the speed of impulse transmission.

He theorised possible diseases associated with Dorello's canal, including entrapment of the abducens nerve due to inflammation ... This contains the abducens nerve (CN VI) and the inferior petrosal sinus. His identification was confirmed years layer. ... Tsukita, Kazuto; Sakamaki-Tsukita, Haruhi; Suenaga, Toshihiko (4 July 2019). "Isolated Abducens Nerve Palsy due to a Dural ...
Abducens nerve, Rare diseases). ... on cross sectional imaging in the absence of cranial nerve ... In addition, affected individuals may experience paralysis of various facial nerves and drooping of the upper eyelid (ptosis). ...
Tolosa-Hunt syndrome is an idiopathic granulomatous disease that causes painful oculomotor (especially sixth nerve) palsies. ... The abducens nerve or abducent nerve, also known as the sixth cranial nerve, cranial nerve VI, or simply CN VI, is a cranial ... The human abducens nerve is derived from the basal plate of the embryonic pons. The abducens nerve supplies the lateral rectus ... The abducens nerve carries axons of type GSE, general somatic efferent. Damage to the peripheral part of the abducens nerve ...
Eyes Oculomotor nerve palsy - Oculomotor nerve (III) Fourth nerve palsy - Trochlear nerve (IV) Sixth nerve palsy - Abducens ... The facial nerve is the seventh of 12 cranial nerves. This cranial nerve controls the muscles in the face. Facial nerve palsy ... Cranial nerve disease is an impaired functioning of one of the twelve cranial nerves. Although it could theoretically be ... Facial nerve (VII) Accessory nerve disorder - Accessory nerve (XI) Pavlou, E., Gkampeta, A., & Arampatzi, M. (2011). Facial ...
... and headache with occasional abducens nerve paresis, absence of a space-occupying lesion or ventricular enlargement, and normal ... Rates of disease in the developing world are unclear. Lupus is Latin for "wolf": the disease was so-named in the 13th century ... Genetic studies of the rates of disease in families supports the genetic basis of this disease with a heritability of >66%. ... SLE is regarded as a prototype disease due to the significant overlap in its symptoms with other autoimmune diseases. Drug- ...
Münchener mediznische Wochenschrift, 1888 - On congenital facial paralysis of the abducens nerve. Die Basedowsche Krankheit. In ... Moebius had only made one, on the causes of diseases based classification of nervous and mental diseases. Its subdivision in ... In the long term Möbius thus paved to way for eugenics and the crimes of psychiatric and neurological disease in German Nazism ... His name is associated with Möbius syndrome, a disease he identified as "nuclear atrophy". This is a rare type of palsy ...
... , or abducens nerve palsy, is a disorder associated with dysfunction of cranial nerve VI (the abducens nerve ... Congenital fourth nerve palsy "Sixth nerve palsy , Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD) - an NCATS Program". ... The unilateral abducens nerve palsy is the most common of the isolated ocular motor nerve palsies. The nerve dysfunction ... fibers of the seventh cranial nerve wrap around the VIth nerve nucleus, and, if this is also affected, a VIth nerve palsy with ...
Other cranial nerves involved were vagus, trigeminal, spinal accessory nerve, abducens, oculomotor and glossopharyngeal in this ... Fazio-Londe disease (FLD), also called progressive bulbar palsy of childhood, is a very rare inherited motor neuron disease of ... In the Gomez review facial nerve was affected in all cases while hypoglossal nerve was involved in all except one case. ... Postmortem examination of cases have found depletion of nerve cells in the nuclei of cranial nerves. The histologic alterations ...
The relevant cranial nerves (specifically the oculomotor, trochlear, and abducens), as in cavernous sinus syndrome or raised ... The orbit of the eye, including mechanical restrictions of eye movement, as in Graves' disease. The muscle, as in progressive ... The brainstem nuclei of these nerves, as in certain patterns of brainstem stroke such as Foville's syndrome. White matter ... It is a physical finding in certain neurologic, ophthalmologic, and endocrine disease. Internal ophthalmoplegia means ...
In general, these diseases affect other cranial nerves as well. Isolated damage to the fourth nerve is uncommon in these ... edema-will affect the fourth nerve, but the abducens nerve (VI) is usually affected first (producing horizontal diplopia, not ... pulley-like nerve) also known as the fourth cranial nerve, cranial nerve IV, or CN IV, is a cranial nerve that innervates a ... somatic efferent nerve). The trochlear nerve is unique among the cranial nerves in several respects: It is the smallest nerve ...
... is a neurological disease characterized as intense nerve pain radiating from the spine. The disease is caused by an infection ... Symptoms may include facial paralysis, abducens palsy, anorexia, tiredness, headache, double vision, paraesthesia, and erythema ... Diagnosis and Treatment of Lyme Disease". Clinical Infectious Diseases. 72 (1): e1-e48. doi:10.1093/cid/ciaa1215. PMID 33417672 ... The disease was first reported in 1941 by German neurologist, Alfred Bannwarth, who described the main symptoms as intense ...
Absence of the abducens nucleus and nerve (cranial nerve VI) Abnormal eye movement due to the lateral rectus muscle being ... These evaluations will be used to determine the extent of the disease as well as the needs of the individual. Eyes - Complete ... MRI imaging can be used to detect whether the abducens nerve is present. Typically, treatment for this condition requires a ... After being diagnosed, there are other evaluations that one may go through in order to determine the extent of the disease. ...
Abducens Nerve Palsy at eMedicine "Barton, J., & Goodwin, J. (2001). Horizontal Gaze Palsy". Medlink.com. Archived from the ... There is no treatment of conjugate gaze palsy itself, so the disease or condition causing the gaze palsy must be treated, ... Nonselective horizontal gaze palsies are caused by lesions in the Abducens nucleus. This is where the cranial nerve VI leaves ... Lesions anywhere in the abducens nucleus, cranial nerve VI neurons, or interneurons can affect eye movement towards the side of ...
Oculomotor nerve (CNIII) is by far the most common cranial nerve involves in RPON, while abducens nerve (CNVI) and trochlear ... Contrast-enhanced MRI results can also reveal the location of nerve inflammation for disease diagnosis. Although Tolosa-Hunt ... Rare cases involve abducens nerve paralysis affects lateral eye movement while trochlear nerve paralysis affects vertical eye ... Milisavljević, Milan (1986-01-01). "Oculomotor, Trochlear, and Abducens Nerves Penetrated by Cerebral Vessels". Archives of ...
Abducens nerve, Thiamine, Rare syndromes, Substance-related disorders). ... Failure in diagnosis of WE and thus treatment of the disease leads to death in approximately 20% of cases, while 75% are left ... Sergei Korsakoff was a Russian physician after whom the disease "Korsakoff's syndrome" was named. In the late 1800s Korsakoff ... Wernicke believed these hemorrhages were due to inflammation and thus the disease was named polioencephalitis haemorrhagica ...
... optic nerve neoplasms MeSH C10.292.225.800.500 - optic nerve glioma MeSH C10.292.262.200 - abducens nerve injury MeSH C10.292. ... lewy body disease MeSH C10.228.140.079.862.500 - parkinson disease MeSH C10.228.140.079.862.800 - parkinson disease, secondary ... cranial nerve injuries MeSH C10.900.300.218.150 - abducens nerve injury MeSH C10.900.300.218.300 - facial nerve injuries MeSH ... optic nerve injuries MeSH C10.292.700.500 - optic nerve neoplasms MeSH C10.292.700.500.500 - optic nerve glioma MeSH C10.292. ...
The nuclei of the trigeminal nerve (V), abducens nerve (VI), facial nerve (VII) and vestibulocochlear nerve (VIII) are located ... Diseases of the brainstem can result in abnormalities in the function of cranial nerves that may lead to visual disturbances, ... From this junction, CN VI (abducens nerve), CN VII (facial nerve) and CN VIII (vestibulocochlear nerve) emerge. At the level of ... Oculomotor nerve nucleus: This is the third cranial nerve nucleus. Trochlear nerve nucleus: This is the fourth cranial nerve. ...
... the optic nerve (II), oculomotor nerve (III), trochlear nerve (IV), trigeminal nerve (V), abducens nerve (VI), facial nerve ( ... Trauma to the skull, disease of bone, such as Paget's disease, and injury to nerves during surgery are other causes of nerve ... The oculomotor nerve (III), trochlear nerve (IV), abducens nerve (VI) and the ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve (V1) ... and trochlear nerve (IV); the pons has the nuclei of the trigeminal nerve (V), abducens nerve (VI), facial nerve (VII) and ...
Abducens (6th nerve), Trochlear (4th nerve), and Oculomotor (3rd nerve). After nerve trauma around the eye, a combination of ... Potential causes include improper healing after nerve trauma or neurodegeneration, as occurs in Parkinson's disease. In ... This is an interaction between the abducens nerve and a branch of the oculomotor nerve. Voluntary activation of the abducens ... Moreover, while the abducens and the trochlear nerve each innervate one specific muscle, the oculomotor nerve has many ...
... the trigeminal nerve (CN V), abducens nerve (CN VI), facial nerve (CN VII), and a portion of the vestibulocochlear nerve (CN ... A rare brain disease of the cerebellum is rhombencephalosynapsis characterized by an absent or partially formed vermis. ... the glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX), vagus nerve (CN X), accessory nerve (CN XI), hypoglossal nerve (CN XII), and a portion of ... in terms of the genes that it expresses and its position in between the brain and the nerve cord. It has been suggested that ...
... the abducens nerve (sixth nerve) is involved. This nerve supplies the muscle that pulls the eye outward. Those with sixth nerve ... chronic kidney disease, and Behçet's disease. On July 1, 2022, the FDA issued an update that gonadotropin-releasing hormone ... More rarely, the oculomotor nerve and trochlear nerve (third and fourth nerve palsy, respectively) are affected; both play a ... The facial nerve (seventh cranial nerve) is affected occasionally - the result is total or partial weakness of the muscles of ...
The sixth nerve, the abducens nerve, which innervates the lateral rectus muscle of the eye (moves the eye laterally), is also ... As the disease progresses, neuronal dysfunction correlates closely with the development of blood vessel abnormalities, such as ... When cranial nerves are affected, neuropathies of the oculomotor nerve (cranial nerve #3 or CNIII) are most common. The ... Damage to a specific nerve of the thoracic or lumbar spinal nerves can occur and may lead to painful syndromes that mimic a ...
... including the sixth and seventh cranial nerves and fibers of the corticospinal tract. Paralysis of the abducens (CN VI) leads ... who described the disease in a medical paper one year later.[citation needed] Cerebral softening Anatomy 530a at UWO ( ... and disruption of the facial nerves (CN VII) leads to symptoms including flaccid paralysis of the muscles of facial expression ...
... fifth cranial nerve), abducens nerve palsy (sixth cranial nerve) otitis media Other symptoms can include photophobia, excessive ... medical imaging such as CT or MRI of the head may show changes that confirm disease involvement of the petrous apex of temporal ... Diseases of middle ear and mastoid, Syndromes, Medical triads, Syndromes affecting the nervous system). ... retroorbital pain due to pain in the area supplied by the ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve ( ...
... abducens nucleus (VI) lower down in the pons: facial nerve nucleus (VII) lower down in the pons: vestibulocochlear nuclei ( ... Central pontine myelinolysis is a demyelinating disease that causes difficulty with sense of balance, walking, sense of touch, ... A number of cranial nerve nuclei are present in the pons: mid-pons: the principle sensory nucleus of the trigeminal nerve (V) ... the spinal and principal trigeminal nerve nuclei, which form the general somatic afferent column (GSA) of the trigeminal nerve ...
... spinal cord and peripheral nerve (C2 nerve); and dACC implants for alcohol addiction and obsessive-compulsive disorder. "DSM ... The focus of his research is to understand the common mechanisms of different diseases such as pain, tinnitus, Parkinson's, ... For example, his translational work includes investigating: microvascular decompression for abducens spasm, as well as for ... vagal nerve stimulation for tinnitus; somatosensory cortex implants for deafferentation pain; C2 implant for tinnitus, as well ...
The fourth (trochlear) and sixth (abducens) cranial nerves are located in the same compartment and can cause diagonal or ... The first case of the disease was recorded in 1898. The initial symptoms of pituitary apoplexy are related to the increased ... The visual loss depends on which part of the nerve is affected. If the part of the nerve between the eye and the chiasm is ... In half of these cases, the oculomotor nerve (the third cranial nerve), which controls a number of eye muscles, is affected. ...
It is a muscle synergy involving the Abducens innervated lateral rectus muscle, an external muscle of the eye, and the facial ... According to (Urban 1993), "In patients with brainstem disease abnormal transverse auricular muscle coactivation is ... and with activity in other cranial nerves". Albrecht von Graefes Archiv für Klinische und Experimentelle Ophthalmologie. ...
The oculomotor nerve (III), trochlear nerve (IV) and abducens nerve (VI) coordinate eye movement. The oculomotor nerve controls ... Certain diseases of the pulleys (heterotopy, instability, and hindrance of the pulleys) cause particular patterns of incomitant ... The nuclei or bodies of these nerves are found in the brain stem. The nuclei of the abducens and oculomotor nerves are ... Damage to the abducens nerve (VI) can also result in double vision. This is due to impairment in the lateral rectus muscle, ...
... and headache with occasional abducens nerve paresis, absence of a space-occupying lesion or ventricular enlargement, and normal ... Nervous system disease stubs). ...
Isolated abducens nerve palsy associated with coronavirus disease: an 8-month follow-up. ... Isolated abducens nerve palsy associated with coronavirus disease: an 8-month follow-up. ... We report the case of a previously healthy 48-year-old man who developed an isolated abducens nerve palsy 18 days after ... This case suggests that isolated abducens nerve palsy caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection may ...
... also known as the abducens nerve, innervates the ipsilateral lateral rectus (LR), which functions to abduct the ipsilateral eye ... It has the longest subarachnoid course of all the cranial nerves; therefore, its syndromes are similar to those of the fourth ... The Wills Eye Manual: Office and Emergency Room diagnosis and treatment of eye disease. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 1999. ... encoded search term (Abducens Nerve Palsy (Sixth Cranial Nerve Palsy)) and Abducens Nerve Palsy (Sixth Cranial Nerve Palsy) ...
He theorised possible diseases associated with Dorellos canal, including entrapment of the abducens nerve due to inflammation ... This contains the abducens nerve (CN VI) and the inferior petrosal sinus. His identification was confirmed years layer. ... Tsukita, Kazuto; Sakamaki-Tsukita, Haruhi; Suenaga, Toshihiko (4 July 2019). "Isolated Abducens Nerve Palsy due to a Dural ...
... complicated by abducens nerve palsy, was reported (34). To date, no published data exist that suggest that TOSV causes any ... Disease in Humans Laboratory Diagnosis Genetic Diversity of TOSV Strains Future Concerns Cite This Article ... Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(11):1657-1663. doi:10.3201/eid1111.050869.. APA. Charrel, R. N., Gallian, P., Navarro- ... Disease in Humans. Clinical Forms. Seroprevalence studies suggest that a proportion of infections by TOSV are asymptomatic or ...
Abducens Nerve Diseases Medicine & Life Sciences 100% * Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Medicine & Life Sciences 66% ... keywords = "Abducens nerve palsy, Hemodialysis, Systemic lupus erythematosus",. author = "Friedman, {A. S.} and V. Folkert and ... Recurrence of systemic lupus erythematosus in a hemodialysis patient presenting as a unilateral abducens nerve palsy. Clinical ... This is the first reported case of an abducens nerve palsy occurring in a maintenance hemodialysis patient associated with ...
Nerve Palsy - Etiology, pathophysiology, symptoms, signs, diagnosis & prognosis from the MSD Manuals - Medical Professional ... Sixth cranial (abducens) nerve palsy typically results from small-vessel disease, particularly in diabetics, but the cause is ... optic nerve, or extraocular muscles and their nerves; thus, they can be considered cranial nerve disorders, neuro- ... Symptoms and Signs of Sixth Cranial Nerve Palsy Symptoms of 6th cranial nerve palsy include binocular horizontal diplopia when ...
Abducens Nerve Diseases Medicine & Life Sciences 100% * Interferons Medicine & Life Sciences 64% ... Abducens nerve palsy in a case under treatment with systemic interferon. / Hosogi, M.; Hasebe, S.; Matsuo, T. et al. In: ... Hosogi M, Hasebe S, Matsuo T, Ohtsuki H. Abducens nerve palsy in a case under treatment with systemic interferon. Japanese ... Abducens nerve palsy in a case under treatment with systemic interferon. In: Japanese Journal of Clinical Ophthalmology. 1997 ...
ABDUCENS NERVE DISEASES ENFERMEDADES DEL NERVIO ABDUCENTE DOENÇAS DO NERVO ABDUCENTE ABDUCENS NERVE INJURY TRAUMATISMO DEL ... TRIGEMINAL NERVE DISEASES ENFERMEDADES DEL NERVIO TRIGEMINO DOENÇAS DO NERVO TRIGÊMEO TROCHLEAR NERVE DISEASES ENFERMEDADES DEL ... ACCESSORY NERVE DISEASES ENFERMEDADES DEL NERVIO ACCESORIO DOENÇAS DO NERVO ACESSÓRIO ACUPUNCTURE, EAR ACUPUNTURA EN EL OIDO ... OLFACTORY NERVE DISEASES ENFERMEDADES DEL NERVIO OLFATORIO DOENÇAS DO NERVO OLFATÓRIO OMEGA-AGATOXIN IVA OMEGA-AGATOXINA IVA ...
ABDUCENS NERVE DISEASES ENFERMEDADES DEL NERVIO ABDUCENTE DOENÇAS DO NERVO ABDUCENTE ABDUCENS NERVE INJURY TRAUMATISMO DEL ... TRIGEMINAL NERVE DISEASES ENFERMEDADES DEL NERVIO TRIGEMINO DOENÇAS DO NERVO TRIGÊMEO TROCHLEAR NERVE DISEASES ENFERMEDADES DEL ... ACCESSORY NERVE DISEASES ENFERMEDADES DEL NERVIO ACCESORIO DOENÇAS DO NERVO ACESSÓRIO ACUPUNCTURE, EAR ACUPUNTURA EN EL OIDO ... OLFACTORY NERVE DISEASES ENFERMEDADES DEL NERVIO OLFATORIO DOENÇAS DO NERVO OLFATÓRIO OMEGA-AGATOXIN IVA OMEGA-AGATOXINA IVA ...
ABDUCENS NERVE DISEASES ENFERMEDADES DEL NERVIO ABDUCENTE DOENÇAS DO NERVO ABDUCENTE ABDUCENS NERVE INJURY TRAUMATISMO DEL ... TRIGEMINAL NERVE DISEASES ENFERMEDADES DEL NERVIO TRIGEMINO DOENÇAS DO NERVO TRIGÊMEO TROCHLEAR NERVE DISEASES ENFERMEDADES DEL ... ACCESSORY NERVE DISEASES ENFERMEDADES DEL NERVIO ACCESORIO DOENÇAS DO NERVO ACESSÓRIO ACUPUNCTURE, EAR ACUPUNTURA EN EL OIDO ... OLFACTORY NERVE DISEASES ENFERMEDADES DEL NERVIO OLFATORIO DOENÇAS DO NERVO OLFATÓRIO OMEGA-AGATOXIN IVA OMEGA-AGATOXINA IVA ...
ABDUCENS NERVE DISEASES ENFERMEDADES DEL NERVIO ABDUCENTE DOENÇAS DO NERVO ABDUCENTE ABDUCENS NERVE INJURY TRAUMATISMO DEL ... TRIGEMINAL NERVE DISEASES ENFERMEDADES DEL NERVIO TRIGEMINO DOENÇAS DO NERVO TRIGÊMEO TROCHLEAR NERVE DISEASES ENFERMEDADES DEL ... ACCESSORY NERVE DISEASES ENFERMEDADES DEL NERVIO ACCESORIO DOENÇAS DO NERVO ACESSÓRIO ACUPUNCTURE, EAR ACUPUNTURA EN EL OIDO ... OLFACTORY NERVE DISEASES ENFERMEDADES DEL NERVIO OLFATORIO DOENÇAS DO NERVO OLFATÓRIO OMEGA-AGATOXIN IVA OMEGA-AGATOXINA IVA ...
ABDUCENS NERVE DISEASES ENFERMEDADES DEL NERVIO ABDUCENTE DOENÇAS DO NERVO ABDUCENTE ABDUCENS NERVE INJURY TRAUMATISMO DEL ... TRIGEMINAL NERVE DISEASES ENFERMEDADES DEL NERVIO TRIGEMINO DOENÇAS DO NERVO TRIGÊMEO TROCHLEAR NERVE DISEASES ENFERMEDADES DEL ... ACCESSORY NERVE DISEASES ENFERMEDADES DEL NERVIO ACCESORIO DOENÇAS DO NERVO ACESSÓRIO ACUPUNCTURE, EAR ACUPUNTURA EN EL OIDO ... OLFACTORY NERVE DISEASES ENFERMEDADES DEL NERVIO OLFATORIO DOENÇAS DO NERVO OLFATÓRIO OMEGA-AGATOXIN IVA OMEGA-AGATOXINA IVA ...
ABDUCENS NERVE DISEASES ENFERMEDADES DEL NERVIO ABDUCENTE DOENÇAS DO NERVO ABDUCENTE ABDUCENS NERVE INJURY TRAUMATISMO DEL ... TRIGEMINAL NERVE DISEASES ENFERMEDADES DEL NERVIO TRIGEMINO DOENÇAS DO NERVO TRIGÊMEO TROCHLEAR NERVE DISEASES ENFERMEDADES DEL ... ACCESSORY NERVE DISEASES ENFERMEDADES DEL NERVIO ACCESORIO DOENÇAS DO NERVO ACESSÓRIO ACUPUNCTURE, EAR ACUPUNTURA EN EL OIDO ... OLFACTORY NERVE DISEASES ENFERMEDADES DEL NERVIO OLFATORIO DOENÇAS DO NERVO OLFATÓRIO OMEGA-AGATOXIN IVA OMEGA-AGATOXINA IVA ...
ABDUCENS NERVE DISEASES ENFERMEDADES DEL NERVIO ABDUCENTE DOENÇAS DO NERVO ABDUCENTE ABDUCENS NERVE INJURY TRAUMATISMO DEL ... TRIGEMINAL NERVE DISEASES ENFERMEDADES DEL NERVIO TRIGEMINO DOENÇAS DO NERVO TRIGÊMEO TROCHLEAR NERVE DISEASES ENFERMEDADES DEL ... ACCESSORY NERVE DISEASES ENFERMEDADES DEL NERVIO ACCESORIO DOENÇAS DO NERVO ACESSÓRIO ACUPUNCTURE, EAR ACUPUNTURA EN EL OIDO ... OLFACTORY NERVE DISEASES ENFERMEDADES DEL NERVIO OLFATORIO DOENÇAS DO NERVO OLFATÓRIO OMEGA-AGATOXIN IVA OMEGA-AGATOXINA IVA ...
ABDUCENS NERVE DISEASES ENFERMEDADES DEL NERVIO ABDUCENTE DOENÇAS DO NERVO ABDUCENTE ABDUCENS NERVE INJURY TRAUMATISMO DEL ... TRIGEMINAL NERVE DISEASES ENFERMEDADES DEL NERVIO TRIGEMINO DOENÇAS DO NERVO TRIGÊMEO TROCHLEAR NERVE DISEASES ENFERMEDADES DEL ... ACCESSORY NERVE DISEASES ENFERMEDADES DEL NERVIO ACCESORIO DOENÇAS DO NERVO ACESSÓRIO ACUPUNCTURE, EAR ACUPUNTURA EN EL OIDO ... OLFACTORY NERVE DISEASES ENFERMEDADES DEL NERVIO OLFATORIO DOENÇAS DO NERVO OLFATÓRIO OMEGA-AGATOXIN IVA OMEGA-AGATOXINA IVA ...
ABDUCENS NERVE DISEASES ENFERMEDADES DEL NERVIO ABDUCENTE DOENÇAS DO NERVO ABDUCENTE ABDUCENS NERVE INJURY TRAUMATISMO DEL ... TRIGEMINAL NERVE DISEASES ENFERMEDADES DEL NERVIO TRIGEMINO DOENÇAS DO NERVO TRIGÊMEO TROCHLEAR NERVE DISEASES ENFERMEDADES DEL ... ACCESSORY NERVE DISEASES ENFERMEDADES DEL NERVIO ACCESORIO DOENÇAS DO NERVO ACESSÓRIO ACUPUNCTURE, EAR ACUPUNTURA EN EL OIDO ... OLFACTORY NERVE DISEASES ENFERMEDADES DEL NERVIO OLFATORIO DOENÇAS DO NERVO OLFATÓRIO OMEGA-AGATOXIN IVA OMEGA-AGATOXINA IVA ...
ABDUCENS NERVE DISEASES ENFERMEDADES DEL NERVIO ABDUCENTE DOENÇAS DO NERVO ABDUCENTE ABDUCENS NERVE INJURY TRAUMATISMO DEL ... TRIGEMINAL NERVE DISEASES ENFERMEDADES DEL NERVIO TRIGEMINO DOENÇAS DO NERVO TRIGÊMEO TROCHLEAR NERVE DISEASES ENFERMEDADES DEL ... ACCESSORY NERVE DISEASES ENFERMEDADES DEL NERVIO ACCESORIO DOENÇAS DO NERVO ACESSÓRIO ACUPUNCTURE, EAR ACUPUNTURA EN EL OIDO ... OLFACTORY NERVE DISEASES ENFERMEDADES DEL NERVIO OLFATORIO DOENÇAS DO NERVO OLFATÓRIO OMEGA-AGATOXIN IVA OMEGA-AGATOXINA IVA ...
ABDUCENS NERVE DISEASES ENFERMEDADES DEL NERVIO ABDUCENTE DOENÇAS DO NERVO ABDUCENTE ABDUCENS NERVE INJURY TRAUMATISMO DEL ... TRIGEMINAL NERVE DISEASES ENFERMEDADES DEL NERVIO TRIGEMINO DOENÇAS DO NERVO TRIGÊMEO TROCHLEAR NERVE DISEASES ENFERMEDADES DEL ... ACCESSORY NERVE DISEASES ENFERMEDADES DEL NERVIO ACCESORIO DOENÇAS DO NERVO ACESSÓRIO ACUPUNCTURE, EAR ACUPUNTURA EN EL OIDO ... OLFACTORY NERVE DISEASES ENFERMEDADES DEL NERVIO OLFATORIO DOENÇAS DO NERVO OLFATÓRIO OMEGA-AGATOXIN IVA OMEGA-AGATOXINA IVA ...
ABDUCENS NERVE DISEASES ENFERMEDADES DEL NERVIO ABDUCENTE DOENÇAS DO NERVO ABDUCENTE ABDUCENS NERVE INJURY TRAUMATISMO DEL ... TRIGEMINAL NERVE DISEASES ENFERMEDADES DEL NERVIO TRIGEMINO DOENÇAS DO NERVO TRIGÊMEO TROCHLEAR NERVE DISEASES ENFERMEDADES DEL ... ACCESSORY NERVE DISEASES ENFERMEDADES DEL NERVIO ACCESORIO DOENÇAS DO NERVO ACESSÓRIO ACUPUNCTURE, EAR ACUPUNTURA EN EL OIDO ... OLFACTORY NERVE DISEASES ENFERMEDADES DEL NERVIO OLFATORIO DOENÇAS DO NERVO OLFATÓRIO OMEGA-AGATOXIN IVA OMEGA-AGATOXINA IVA ...
The patient suffered a sixth nerve palsy following surgery, which was later corrected by strabismus surgery. The natural ... and the decompressive sling pulled the DBA away from the nerve in an inferomedial direction. The working space and access to ... The macrovascular decompression strategy succeeded because the compressive force was applied by the DBA to the nerve in a ... The DBA was successfully decompressed off of the trigeminal nerve via a pterional craniotomy and anterior petrosectomy. The ...
Ranked list of possible diseases from either several symptoms or a full patient history. A similarity measure between symptoms ... Median Nerve Diseases. On-line free medical diagnosis assistant. ... Abducens Nerve Diseases. 1. + + 30. Paralysis. 1. + + 31. ... Diseases. Frequent searches. Medicinal plants. Health topics. Medical dictionary. Health sites. Questions and answers. ...
Abducens Nerve Diseases 100% * Fistula 63% * Neck 53% * Diplopia 27% * Penetrating Head Injuries 18% ... Sixth Nerve Palsy Secondary to Traumatic Carotid-Jugular Fistula. Halenda, K. M., Rahimi, S. Y., Patton, J. J. & Thomas, D. A. ... Revision and removal of vagus nerve stimulation systems: twenty-five years experience. Kaoutzani, L., Goldman, L. V., Piper, K ... Herbal drugs an alternative medicine for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases: Preclinical and clinical trial review. ...
Olfactory Neuroblastoma: Treatment Strategies for Advanced Disease. Carlstrom, L. P., Van Gompel, J. J. & Choby, G., Jun 2023, ... Diagnostic value of proximal cutaneous nerve biopsy in brachial and lumbosacral plexus pathologies. Wu, K. Y., Murthy, N. K., ... Detailed anatomical study of the peripheral motor branches of the facial nerve in the swine model: A novel investigative ... Development and validation of a new disease-specific quality of life instrument for sporadic vestibular schwannoma: the Mayo ...
Abducens Nerve Diseases Medicine & Life Sciences 76% * Nervous System Trauma Medicine & Life Sciences 66% ... An 11-year-old girl presented with a very rare traumatic retroclival epidural hematoma manifesting as bilateral abducens nerve ... "An 11-year-old girl presented with a very rare traumatic retroclival epidural hematoma manifesting as bilateral abducens nerve ... An 11-year-old girl presented with a very rare traumatic retroclival epidural hematoma manifesting as bilateral abducens nerve ...
Right abducens nerve palsy accompanied by OM was diagnosed after other diseases that can cause ophthalmoplegia were excluded. ... and bilateral abducens nerve palsy. It is suggested that the clivus tumor affected the petroclival segment of abducent nerve in ... Bilateral abducens nerve palsy is an unusual clinical presentation, which could be caused by stroke, aneurysm, trauma and ... There have been a few similar case reports of adult patients with OM showing left and right abducens nerve palsy at different ...
... or malignant diseases. Inability to perform eye abduction, resulting in binocular horizontal diplopia, is the main symptom, ... Abducens Nerve Palsy (Abducens Nerve Paralysis): Read more about Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Complications, Causes and ... Abducens nerve palsy may occur due to a myriad of infectious, inflammatory, genetic, ... Abducens Nerve Paralysis Abducens nerve palsy may occur due to a myriad of infectious, inflammatory, genetic, or malignant ...
21] Dense concentrations of GQ1b ganglioside are found in the oculomotor, trochlear, and abducens nerves, which may explain the ... GBS is considered to be a postinfectious, immune-mediated disease targeting peripheral nerves. Up to two thirds of patients ... Pathologic findings in GBS include lymphocytic infiltration of spinal roots and peripheral nerves (cranial nerves may be ... the only infectious disease laboratories capable of making this diagnosis are at the US Centers for Disease Control and ...
Keywords: Hypoglycemia; Abducens nerve diseases; Case report; Ramadan fasting INTRODUCTION. Neurological symptoms of ... Bilateral Abducens Nerve Palsy and Nystagmus Resolved Upon Intravenous Dextrose Administration in Hypoglycemic Young Female: A ... Bilateral Abducens Nerve Palsy and Nystagmus Resolved Upon Intravenous Dextrose Administration in Hypoglycemic Young Female: A ... She developed a right abducens nerve paresis lasted for six weeks7). ...
Abducens Nerve Diseases. *Defensins. *beta-Defensins. See all (65) concept(s). _. Media Mentions ... Doss M, Araneta R, Fiel-Gan M, Edelheit B. Cranial nerve VI palsy as an initial presentation of necrotizing sarcoid ...
  • An 11-year-old girl presented with a very rare traumatic retroclival epidural hematoma manifesting as bilateral abducens nerve palsy, deviation of the uvula to the left, and weakened movement of tongue, which developed after a motor vehicle accident. (korea.ac.kr)
  • Further examination of extraocular muscles revealed bilateral abducens nerve palsy and cerebellar exam showed ataxic limbs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Palsy resulting from a cavernous sinus lesion can cause severe head pain, chemosis (conjunctival edema), anesthesia in the distribution of the 1st and 2nd division of the 5th cranial nerve, and paralysis of the 3rd, 4th, and 6th cranial nerves. (msdmanuals.com)
  • There is less chance of recovery in case of complete paralysis of the sixth nerve. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The syndrome is characterised by retro-orbital paralysis of extraocular muscles impairment of the branches of the 1st division of the trigeminal nerve and frequently extension to involve the optic nerve. (medicosnotes.com)
  • Dysfunction of the nerve causes lateral rectus muscle weakness , resulting in horizontal diplopia that is maximal when the affected eye is abducted and esotropia. (symptoma.com)
  • Plication augmentation of the modified Hummelsheim procedure for treatment of large-angle esotropia due to abducens nerve palsy and type 1 Duane syndrome. (omeka.net)
  • It is a long, slender, motor nerve and supplies only one of the extraocular muscles of the eye and functions in the movement of the eyeball within the orbit. (brainmadesimple.com)
  • All the extraocular muscles are innervated by the oculomotor nerve (CN III) except the superior oblique and lateral rectus muscles, which are innervated by the trochlear nerve (CN IV) and abducent nerve (CN VI), respectively. (brainmadesimple.com)
  • A 45-year-old hemodialysis patient presenting with recurrence of SLE which manifested predominantly as a unilateral left abducens (VIth) nerve palsy is described. (elsevierpure.com)
  • A 53-year-old male patient with diabetes presented 6 weeks after lumbar disc surgery with persistent headache, a fluctuant swelling at the operated site, and diplopia secondary to left abducens nerve palsy. (symptoma.com)
  • The former courses ventrally into the first branchial arch and terminates near a branch of the trigeminal nerve that eventually becomes the lingual nerve. (medscape.com)
  • Symptoms of 6th cranial nerve palsy include binocular horizontal diplopia when looking to the side of the paretic eye. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The principal symptom of abducens nerve palsy is the presence of binocular horizontal diplopia , as the eye is not able to perform abduction, resulting in lateral displacement [4] [5]. (symptoma.com)
  • McGee S. Nerves of the eye muscles (III, IV, and VI): approach to diplopia. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Eye movement disorders: third, fourth, and sixth nerve palsies and other causes of diplopia and ocular misalignment. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The DBA was successfully decompressed off of the trigeminal nerve via a pterional craniotomy and anterior petrosectomy. (barrowneuro.org)
  • This manifestation is due to the involvement of the maxillary tier of the trigeminal nerve. (healthncare.info)
  • View [MICRO B] Cranial Nerves _ Motor Functions (GIRON 2019).pdf from MATH 101 at University of Science & Technology, Bannu. (spagades.com)
  • The sixth cranial nerve is the most commonly affected of the ocular motor nerves. (medscape.com)
  • The inclusion of ocular motor nerves in the anatomical zone of the orbital apex causes ophthalmoplegia and visual loss which leads to orbital apex syndrome. (healthncare.info)
  • The facial motor nerves are represented on the homunculus diagram below with the forehead uppermost and the eyelids, midface, nose, and lips sequentially located more inferiorly. (medscape.com)
  • Alzheimer's disease is the most common cause of dementia and accounts for ~55% of all cases of dementia. (hku.hk)
  • The neuro-pathological changes in Alzheimer's disease are due to two main processes. (hku.hk)
  • Patients with Alzheimer's disease have impaired short-term memory . (hku.hk)
  • The use of neuro-imaging in patients with a clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease serves several purposes. (hku.hk)
  • First of all, neuro-imaging markers suggestive of Alzheimer's disease may be present to support the diagnosis. (hku.hk)
  • And secondly, neuro-imaging can exclude other alternative causes of dementia that may mimic Alzheimer's disease (e.g. vascular dementia, frontotemporal dementia etc. (hku.hk)
  • the medial temporal and parietal lobes after often most affected in Alzheimer's disease). (hku.hk)
  • This is common in patients of advanced age, and they often have "mixed dementias" with a combination of Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. (hku.hk)
  • which are often disproportionally affected in Alzheimer's disease. (hku.hk)
  • purple) compared to the preserved frontal and occipital regions (orange) which is classical in Alzheimer's disease. (hku.hk)
  • Multimedia Alzheimer's Disease Journal (Text & Images). (martindalecenter.com)
  • Sixth nerve palsies fall into the following categories: 3%-30% trauma, 0%-6% aneurysm, 0%-36% ischemic, 8%-30% idiopathic, and 10%-30% demyelination/miscellaneous. (medscape.com)
  • Patients older than 55 years with isolated sixth nerve palsies may require a less aggressive initial workup if they have predisposing microvascular ischemic risk factors, but no history of cancer. (medscape.com)
  • Abducens nerve palsies, or sixth nerve palsies, results in weakness of the ipsilateral lateral rectus muscle. (symptoma.com)
  • Certain authors have divided the pathologies that cause abducens nerve palsy according to their anatomical sites (the brain stem, subarachnoid space, the petroclival region, the cavernous sinus , and the orbit), and numerous conditions, both localized and systemic, may cause this condition [1] [2]. (symptoma.com)
  • Ophthalmic involvement can be the initial manifestation of the systemic disease or the first sign of relapse. (dovepress.com)
  • Many inflammatory causes necessitate the use of systemic immunomodulatory drugs such as corticosteroids and steroid-sparing medicines to treat the main disease and reduce inflammation. (healthncare.info)
  • [ 2 ] may have systemic disease. (medscape.com)
  • Healthy subjects in the control group had a decimal best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) of 1.0 or higher and no accompanying ocular or systemic diseases. (oftalmoloji.org)
  • thus, they can be considered cranial nerve disorders, neuro-ophthalmologic. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Nerve Root Injury and Plexus Disorders (incl. (sharecare.com)
  • Disorders of one or more of the twelve cranial nerves. (sdsu.edu)
  • With the exception of the optic and olfactory nerves, this includes disorders of the brain stem nuclei from which the cranial nerves originate or terminate. (sdsu.edu)
  • For example, whereas congenital or developmental diseases occur most often in young patients, neoplasia and degenerative disorders are more common in older patients. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • Diseases that progress over several days include inflammatory and metabolic disorders, as well as some tumors. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • Inflammatory disorders, and vasculitic ischaemic diseases. (medicosnotes.com)
  • For example, contralateral hemiparesis , ipsilateral palsy of the facial, but also trigeminal and vestibulocochlear nerves is seen in conditions affecting the brainstem, such as Raymond's syndrome, Millard-Gubler syndrome and Foville's syndrome [1]. (symptoma.com)
  • It also interacts with the third and fourth cranial nerves, oculomotor and trochlear, respectively, as well as with the eighth cranial nerve (vestibulocochlear nerve) to perform conjugate eye movements (discussed later). (brainmadesimple.com)
  • This fasciculus connects the abducent nerve nucleus with the nuclei of the oculomotor nerve (CN III), trochlear nerve (CN IV), and vestibulocochlear nerve (CN VIII). (brainmadesimple.com)
  • MRI is indicated for any brainstem findings to exclude pontine glioma in children (most have papilledema and nystagmus without other cranial nerve involvement) and in adults who show no improvement. (medscape.com)
  • Optic nerve swelling or jumpy eye movements (nystagmus) may occur at any age and warrants immediate work-up for a central nervous system tumor. (symptoma.com)
  • clinical examination was within normal except for bilateral abducens palsy, horizontal nystagmus and photophobia. (e-jnic.org)
  • The abduces nerve then proceeds through the superior orbital fissure and innervates the lateral rectus muscle. (medscape.com)
  • Sixth cranial nerve palsy affects the lateral rectus muscle, impairing eye abduction. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The abducens nerve (cranial nerve VI) is known for its very long travel from the brainstem to the ipsilateral lateral rectus muscle, where it provides an important function by stimulating abduction of the eye [1] [2]. (symptoma.com)
  • Abducens (CN VI) Nerve Palsy CN VI causes contraction of the lateral rectus muscle, allowing the eye to abduct. (sinaiem.org)
  • The underlying pathology is the absence of the sixth cranial nerve at the nuclear or supranuclear level and/or maldevelopment of the nerve itself or the motor neurons of the abducens nucleus and aberrant innervation of the lateral rectus muscle, which is mainly responsible for the abnormal eye movements. (oftalmoloji.org)
  • The signs and symptoms of the cranial nerve palsy resolved within two weeks of initiating corticosteroid therapy. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Then, papilledema , visual deficits, and symptoms suggestive of a central nervous system (CNS) infection of any etiology (bacterial, viral, fungal ) may be seen if the nerve is compromised in the subarachnoid space, as various tumors, sarcoidosis , pseudotumor cerebri and meningitis have been described as potential etiologies [1]. (symptoma.com)
  • They include the nerves that transmit smell, those responsible for vision and the movement of the eyes, those that control facial movements, those responsible for hearing and balance, and those responsible for chewing, swallowing, vocalizing, and movement of the Other times a person's neurologic symptoms bring them to the doctors office. (spagades.com)
  • The purpose of this study was to correlate acute invasive fungal rhinosinusitis (AIFRS) and chronic invasive fungal rhinosinusitis with underlying diseases, aetiological microorganisms, clinical symptoms, radiological findings, and surgical and medical treatment to determine the subset of patients who require more accurate diagnostic investigation and to prevent irreversible complications. (actaitalica.it)
  • Therefore, the purpose of this article was to correlate AIFRS and chronic indolent IFRS with underlying diseases, aetiological microorganisms, clinical symptoms, radiological findings, and surgical and medical treatment. (actaitalica.it)
  • These symptoms result due to the involvement of the optic and cranial nerves simultaneously. (healthncare.info)
  • This is the cause of the signs and symptoms of Tay-Sachs disease. (aljanoubtrading.com)
  • Because the affected areas of the CNS differ from patient to patient, clinical signs and symptoms of the disease are variable, and diagnosis requires a high level of suspicion. (medscape.com)
  • He theorised possible diseases associated with Dorello's canal, including entrapment of the abducens nerve due to inflammation. (wikipedia.org)
  • If your provider diagnoses swelling or inflammation of, or around the nerve, medicines called corticosteroids may be used. (symptoma.com)
  • The only difference between the orbital apex diseases such as OPS, CSS (Cavernous sinus syndrome), and SOFS (Superior orbital fissure syndrome) is the involvement of the optic nerve. (healthncare.info)
  • The involvement of the optic nerve is responsible for the afferent pupillary deficit. (healthncare.info)
  • Examination shows ophthalmoplegia, ptosis, decreased corneal sensation, and occasionally visual loss caused by mechanical optic nerve compression. (medicosnotes.com)
  • MRI provides greater resolution of the orbits, cavernous sinus, posterior fossa, and cranial nerves. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Central nervous system lesions of the abducens nerve tract are localized easily secondary to the typical findings associated with each kind of lesion. (medscape.com)
  • The sixth nerve nucleus is located in the pons, just ventral to the floor of the fourth ventricle and just lateral to the medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF). (medscape.com)
  • Damage to the sixth nerve nucleus results in an ipsilateral gaze palsy. (medscape.com)
  • Discharges from the facial motor area are carried through fascicles of the corticobulbar tract to the internal capsule, then through the upper midbrain to the lower brainstem, where they synapse in the pontine facial nerve nucleus. (medscape.com)
  • The pontine facial nerve nucleus is divided into an upper and a lower half, bilaterally. (medscape.com)
  • There is only one nucleus for each of the abducent nerves that is present in the upper pons (seen in the cut section of upper pons) at the level of facial colliculi. (brainmadesimple.com)
  • Disruptions in the third cranial nerve, the red nucleus, the corticospinal tracts, the brachium conjunctivum, and the superior cerebellar peduncle decussation are normally associated with BS manifestations [1]. (symptoma.com)
  • Isolated abducens nerve palsy associated with coronavirus disease: an 8-month follow-up. (bvsalud.org)
  • We report the case of a previously healthy 48-year-old man who developed an isolated abducens nerve palsy 18 days after presenting with coronavirus disease (COVID-19) confirmed by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction . (bvsalud.org)
  • Congenital sixth nerve palsy (Duane syndrome) is a well-recognized entity. (medscape.com)
  • The abducens nerve emerges from the brainstem at the pontomedullary junction to enter the subarachnoid space, coursing upward between the pons and clivus to enter the Dorello canal. (medscape.com)
  • Abducens nerve emerges from the brain stem in the posterior cranial fossa from a groove at the junction of the pons and medulla oblongata medial to the facial nerve exit. (brainmadesimple.com)
  • Cranial nerve VI, also known as the abducens nerve, innervates the ipsilateral lateral rectus (LR), which functions to abduct the ipsilateral eye. (medscape.com)
  • Three thousand of the nerve fibers are somatosensory and secretomotor and make up the nervus intermedius. (medscape.com)
  • Facial colliculi are actually rounded, bulged structures that are formed by the winding of fibers of the facial nerve around the nuclei of abducent nerves. (brainmadesimple.com)
  • In this atlas you can view MRI sections through a living human brain as well as corresponding sections stained for cell bodies or for nerve fibers. (martindalecenter.com)
  • The nuclei of the cranial nerves are the collection of cell bodies of axons forming that cranial nerve. (brainmadesimple.com)
  • Multiple Mononeuropathy Multiple mononeuropathies are characterized by sensory disturbances and weakness in the distribution of ≥ 2 affected peripheral nerves. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Olfactory nerve - CN I. Sensory cranial nerves help a person see, smell, and hear. (spagades.com)
  • Which of the cranial nerves are sensory only? (spagades.com)
  • The sensory and motor innervation to the structures in the head and neck region of the body is exclusively provided by the cranial nerves. (brainmadesimple.com)
  • It is imperative for ophthalmologists to be aware of the early ophthalmological manifestations of AML which will allow for earlier diagnosis and treatment of this life-threatening disease. (dovepress.com)
  • This is the first reported case of an abducens nerve palsy occurring in a maintenance hemodialysis patient associated with recurrence of SLE. (elsevierpure.com)
  • In fact, abducens nerve palsy is one of the most frequent nerve palsies encountered in clinical practice, with an established incidence rate of 11.3 per 100 000 individuals [3]. (symptoma.com)
  • Cranial mononeuropathy VI is a nerve disorder. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Because there are common nerve pathways through the skull, the same disorder that damages the sixth cranial nerve may affect other cranial nerves (such as the third or fourth cranial nerve). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Examination for a sixth nerve palsy involves documenting the presence or absence of papilledema, examining the ocular motility, evaluating the eyelids and pupils, and excluding involvement of other cranial nerves (eg, V, VII, VIII). (medscape.com)
  • The symptom of ophthalmoplegia exists within the patient due to the involvement of trochlear, oculomotor, and abducens nerves with differing compositions. (healthncare.info)
  • However, automated pupillometry in static and dynamic conditions allows quantitative measurement and may offer more objective information regarding the presence and extent of pupillary involvement in various diseases. (oftalmoloji.org)
  • The 12 cranial nerves are: I Olfactory Nerve. (spagades.com)
  • Cranial Nerve 1 - Olfactory Smell test is done if Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. (spagades.com)
  • Among UC patients, the most common neurologic complications are peripheral neuropathy, cerebrovascular disease and demyelinating disease [ 2 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The Vagus nerve is one exception that provides innervation to structures in the head and neck region as well as in the abdomen and chest cavity. (brainmadesimple.com)
  • In 1987, Jenny and Saper performed an extensive study of the proximal facial nerve organizations in a primate model and found evidence that in monkeys, upper facial movement is relatively preserved in upper motor neuron injury, because these motor neurons receive relatively little direct cortical input. (medscape.com)
  • The chances of recovery are less in children than in adults in case of traumatic injury of the nerve. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Degenerative diseases and some tumors have a slowly progressive course. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • The pudendal nerve, derived from S2, S3 and S4, leaves the pelvis m edial to the sciatic nerve via the higher sciatic foram en. (dnahelix.com)
  • Benedict syndrome (BS) is caused by a stroke in the midbrain and usually presents as an ipsilateral oculomotor nerve palsy with contralateral hemi- tremor . (symptoma.com)
  • 1 There is a simultaneous innervation of the medial and lateral rectus muscles and the latter is partially innervated by the branches of the oculomotor nerve. (oftalmoloji.org)
  • Pupillary dilation via alteration in cranial nerve III function in it's innervation of the pupillary constrictors. (medicosnotes.com)
  • On the other hand, epistaxis , rhinorrhea , and serous otitis media , typically encountered in nasopharyngeal carcinoma , can also be seen together in abducens nerve palsy [1]. (symptoma.com)
  • Most recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma is advanced disease. (hindawi.com)
  • Abducens nerve palsy may occur due to a myriad of infectious, inflammatory, genetic, or malignant diseases. (symptoma.com)
  • The facial nerve, or cranial nerve (CN) VII, is the nerve of facial expression. (medscape.com)
  • The pathways of the facial nerve are variable, and knowledge of the key intratemporal and extratemporal landmarks is essential for accurate physical diagnosis and safe and effective surgical intervention in the head and neck. (medscape.com)
  • The surgical anatomy and landmarks of the facial nerve. (medscape.com)
  • The facial nerve is composed of approximately 10,000 neurons, 7,000 of which are myelinated and innervate the nerves of facial expression. (medscape.com)
  • The course of the facial nerve and its central connections can be roughly divided into the segments listed in Table 1, below. (medscape.com)
  • To innervate these muscles, the facial nerve courses across the region that eventually becomes the middle ear. (medscape.com)
  • By the eleventh week, the facial nerve has arborized extensively. (medscape.com)
  • In the newborn, the facial nerve anatomy approximates that of an adult, except for its location in the mastoid, which is more superficial. (medscape.com)
  • [ 1 , 2 ] The reader is referred to these references for a more detailed description of the supranuclear and nuclear organization of the facial nerve. (medscape.com)