Abducens Nerve Diseases: Diseases of the sixth cranial (abducens) nerve or its nucleus in the pons. The nerve may be injured along its course in the pons, intracranially as it travels along the base of the brain, in the cavernous sinus, or at the level of superior orbital fissure or orbit. Dysfunction of the nerve causes lateral rectus muscle weakness, resulting in horizontal diplopia that is maximal when the affected eye is abducted and ESOTROPIA. Common conditions associated with nerve injury include INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ISCHEMIA; and INFRATENTORIAL NEOPLASMS.Abducens Nerve: The 6th cranial nerve which originates in the ABDUCENS NUCLEUS of the PONS and sends motor fibers to the lateral rectus muscles of the EYE. Damage to the nerve or its nucleus disrupts horizontal eye movement control.Abducens Nerve Injury: Traumatic injury to the abducens, or sixth, cranial nerve. Injury to this nerve results in lateral rectus muscle weakness or paralysis. The nerve may be damaged by closed or penetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA or by facial trauma involving the orbit.Optic Nerve Diseases: Conditions which produce injury or dysfunction of the second cranial or optic nerve, which is generally considered a component of the central nervous system. Damage to optic nerve fibers may occur at or near their origin in the retina, at the optic disk, or in the nerve, optic chiasm, optic tract, or lateral geniculate nuclei. Clinical manifestations may include decreased visual acuity and contrast sensitivity, impaired color vision, and an afferent pupillary defect.Horner Syndrome: A syndrome associated with defective sympathetic innervation to one side of the face, including the eye. Clinical features include MIOSIS; mild BLEPHAROPTOSIS; and hemifacial ANHIDROSIS (decreased sweating)(see HYPOHIDROSIS). Lesions of the BRAIN STEM; cervical SPINAL CORD; first thoracic nerve root; apex of the LUNG; CAROTID ARTERY; CAVERNOUS SINUS; and apex of the ORBIT may cause this condition. (From Miller et al., Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology, 4th ed, pp500-11)Olfactory Nerve Diseases: Diseases of the first cranial (olfactory) nerve, which usually feature anosmia or other alterations in the sense of smell and taste. Anosmia may be associated with NEOPLASMS; CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM INFECTIONS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; inherited conditions; toxins; METABOLIC DISEASES; tobacco abuse; and other conditions. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp229-31)Cranial Nerve Diseases: Disorders of one or more of the twelve cranial nerves. With the exception of the optic and olfactory nerves, this includes disorders of the brain stem nuclei from which the cranial nerves originate or terminate.Vagus Nerve Diseases: Diseases of the tenth cranial nerve, including brain stem lesions involving its nuclei (solitary, ambiguus, and dorsal motor), nerve fascicles, and intracranial and extracranial course. Clinical manifestations may include dysphagia, vocal cord weakness, and alterations of parasympathetic tone in the thorax and abdomen.Cavernous Sinus: An irregularly shaped venous space in the dura mater at either side of the sphenoid bone.Diplopia: A visual symptom in which a single object is perceived by the visual cortex as two objects rather than one. Disorders associated with this condition include REFRACTIVE ERRORS; STRABISMUS; OCULOMOTOR NERVE DISEASES; TROCHLEAR NERVE DISEASES; ABDUCENS NERVE DISEASES; and diseases of the BRAIN STEM and OCCIPITAL LOBE.Petrous Bone: The dense rock-like part of temporal bone that contains the INNER EAR. Petrous bone is located at the base of the skull. Sometimes it is combined with the MASTOID PROCESS and called petromastoid part of temporal bone.Trochlear Nerve: The 4th cranial nerve. The trochlear nerve carries the motor innervation of the superior oblique muscles of the eye.Oculomotor Nerve Diseases: Diseases of the oculomotor nerve or nucleus that result in weakness or paralysis of the superior rectus, inferior rectus, medial rectus, inferior oblique, or levator palpebrae muscles, or impaired parasympathetic innervation to the pupil. With a complete oculomotor palsy, the eyelid will be paralyzed, the eye will be in an abducted and inferior position, and the pupil will be markedly dilated. Commonly associated conditions include neoplasms, CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA, ischemia (especially in association with DIABETES MELLITUS), and aneurysmal compression. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p270)Eye Pain: A dull or sharp painful sensation associated with the outer or inner structures of the eyeball, having different causes.Ophthalmoplegia: Paralysis of one or more of the ocular muscles due to disorders of the eye muscles, neuromuscular junction, supporting soft tissue, tendons, or innervation to the muscles.Hypoglossal Nerve Diseases: Diseases of the twelfth cranial (hypoglossal) nerve or nuclei. The nuclei and fascicles of the nerve are located in the medulla, and the nerve exits the skull via the hypoglossal foramen and innervates the muscles of the tongue. Lower brain stem diseases, including ischemia and MOTOR NEURON DISEASES may affect the nuclei or nerve fascicles. The nerve may also be injured by diseases of the posterior fossa or skull base. Clinical manifestations include unilateral weakness of tongue musculature and lingual dysarthria, with deviation of the tongue towards the side of weakness upon attempted protrusion.Oculomotor Nerve: The 3d cranial nerve. The oculomotor nerve sends motor fibers to the levator muscles of the eyelid and to the superior rectus, inferior rectus, and inferior oblique muscles of the eye. It also sends parasympathetic efferents (via the ciliary ganglion) to the muscles controlling pupillary constriction and accommodation. The motor fibers originate in the oculomotor nuclei of the midbrain.Oculomotor Muscles: The muscles that move the eye. Included in this group are the medial rectus, lateral rectus, superior rectus, inferior rectus, inferior oblique, superior oblique, musculus orbitalis, and levator palpebrae superioris.Vestibulocochlear Nerve Diseases: Pathological processes of the VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE, including the branches of COCHLEAR NERVE and VESTIBULAR NERVE. Common examples are VESTIBULAR NEURITIS, cochlear neuritis, and ACOUSTIC NEUROMA. Clinical signs are varying degree of HEARING LOSS; VERTIGO; and TINNITUS.Glossopharyngeal Nerve Diseases: Diseases of the ninth cranial (glossopharyngeal) nerve or its nuclei in the medulla. The nerve may be injured by diseases affecting the lower brain stem, floor of the posterior fossa, jugular foramen, or the nerve's extracranial course. Clinical manifestations include loss of sensation from the pharynx, decreased salivation, and syncope. Glossopharyngeal neuralgia refers to a condition that features recurrent unilateral sharp pain in the tongue, angle of the jaw, external auditory meatus and throat that may be associated with SYNCOPE. Episodes may be triggered by cough, sneeze, swallowing, or pressure on the tragus of the ear. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1390)Cranial Nerve Neoplasms: Benign and malignant neoplasms that arise from one or more of the twelve cranial nerves.Onchocerciasis, Ocular: Filarial infection of the eyes transmitted from person to person by bites of Onchocerca volvulus-infected black flies. The microfilariae of Onchocerca are thus deposited beneath the skin. They migrate through various tissues including the eye. Those persons infected have impaired vision and up to 20% are blind. The incidence of eye lesions has been reported to be as high as 30% in Central America and parts of Africa.Trigeminal Nerve Diseases: Diseases of the trigeminal nerve or its nuclei, which are located in the pons and medulla. The nerve is composed of three divisions: ophthalmic, maxillary, and mandibular, which provide sensory innervation to structures of the face, sinuses, and portions of the cranial vault. The mandibular nerve also innervates muscles of mastication. Clinical features include loss of facial and intra-oral sensation and weakness of jaw closure. Common conditions affecting the nerve include brain stem ischemia, INFRATENTORIAL NEOPLASMS, and TRIGEMINAL NEURALGIA.Accessory Nerve Diseases: Diseases of the eleventh cranial (spinal accessory) nerve. This nerve originates from motor neurons in the lower medulla (accessory portion of nerve) and upper spinal cord (spinal portion of nerve). The two components of the nerve join and exit the skull via the jugular foramen, innervating the sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscles, which become weak or paralyzed if the nerve is injured. The nerve is commonly involved in MOTOR NEURON DISEASE, and may be injured by trauma to the posterior triangle of the neck.Skull Fracture, Basilar: Fractures which extend through the base of the SKULL, usually involving the PETROUS BONE. Battle's sign (characterized by skin discoloration due to extravasation of blood into the subcutaneous tissue behind the ear and over the mastoid process), CRANIAL NEUROPATHIES, TRAUMATIC; CAROTID-CAVERNOUS SINUS FISTULA; and CEREBROSPINAL FLUID OTORRHEA are relatively frequent sequelae of this condition. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p876)Facial Nerve Diseases: Diseases of the facial nerve or nuclei. Pontine disorders may affect the facial nuclei or nerve fascicle. The nerve may be involved intracranially, along its course through the petrous portion of the temporal bone, or along its extracranial course. Clinical manifestations include facial muscle weakness, loss of taste from the anterior tongue, hyperacusis, and decreased lacrimation.Trigeminal Nerve: The 5th and largest cranial nerve. The trigeminal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve. The larger sensory part forms the ophthalmic, mandibular, and maxillary nerves which carry afferents sensitive to external or internal stimuli from the skin, muscles, and joints of the face and mouth and from the teeth. Most of these fibers originate from cells of the TRIGEMINAL GANGLION and project to the TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS of the brain stem. The smaller motor part arises from the brain stem trigeminal motor nucleus and innervates the muscles of mastication.Paralysis: A general term most often used to describe severe or complete loss of muscle strength due to motor system disease from the level of the cerebral cortex to the muscle fiber. This term may also occasionally refer to a loss of sensory function. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p45)Duane Retraction Syndrome: A syndrome characterized by marked limitation of abduction of the eye, variable limitation of adduction and retraction of the globe, and narrowing of the palpebral fissure on attempted adduction. The condition is caused by aberrant innervation of the lateral rectus by fibers of the OCULOMOTOR NERVE.Mucocele: A retention cyst of the salivary gland, lacrimal sac, paranasal sinuses, appendix, or gallbladder. (Stedman, 26th ed)Trochlear Nerve Diseases: Diseases of the fourth cranial (trochlear) nerve or its nucleus in the midbrain. The nerve crosses as it exits the midbrain dorsally and may be injured along its course through the intracranial space, cavernous sinus, superior orbital fissure, or orbit. Clinical manifestations include weakness of the superior oblique muscle which causes vertical DIPLOPIA that is maximal when the affected eye is adducted and directed inferiorly. Head tilt may be seen as a compensatory mechanism for diplopia and rotation of the visual axis. Common etiologies include CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA and INFRATENTORIAL NEOPLASMS.Eye Movements: Voluntary or reflex-controlled movements of the eye.Electronystagmography: Recording of nystagmus based on changes in the electrical field surrounding the eye produced by the difference in potential between the cornea and the retina.Nerve Compression Syndromes: Mechanical compression of nerves or nerve roots from internal or external causes. These may result in a conduction block to nerve impulses (due to MYELIN SHEATH dysfunction) or axonal loss. The nerve and nerve sheath injuries may be caused by ISCHEMIA; INFLAMMATION; or a direct mechanical effect.Dura Mater: The outermost of the three MENINGES, a fibrous membrane of connective tissue that covers the brain and the spinal cord.Cranial Fossa, Posterior: The infratentorial compartment that contains the CEREBELLUM and BRAIN STEM. It is formed by the posterior third of the superior surface of the body of the sphenoid (SPHENOID BONE), by the occipital, the petrous, and mastoid portions of the TEMPORAL BONE, and the posterior inferior angle of the PARIETAL BONE.Skull Base: The inferior region of the skull consisting of an internal (cerebral), and an external (basilar) surface.Optic Neuritis: Inflammation of the optic nerve. Commonly associated conditions include autoimmune disorders such as MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, infections, and granulomatous diseases. Clinical features include retro-orbital pain that is aggravated by eye movement, loss of color vision, and contrast sensitivity that may progress to severe visual loss, an afferent pupillary defect (Marcus-Gunn pupil), and in some instances optic disc hyperemia and swelling. Inflammation may occur in the portion of the nerve within the globe (neuropapillitis or anterior optic neuritis) or the portion behind the globe (retrobulbar neuritis or posterior optic neuritis).TurtlesSciatic Nerve: A nerve which originates in the lumbar and sacral spinal cord (L4 to S3) and supplies motor and sensory innervation to the lower extremity. The sciatic nerve, which is the main continuation of the sacral plexus, is the largest nerve in the body. It has two major branches, the TIBIAL NERVE and the PERONEAL NERVE.Neurilemmoma: A neoplasm that arises from SCHWANN CELLS of the cranial, peripheral, and autonomic nerves. Clinically, these tumors may present as a cranial neuropathy, abdominal or soft tissue mass, intracranial lesion, or with spinal cord compression. Histologically, these tumors are encapsulated, highly vascular, and composed of a homogenous pattern of biphasic fusiform-shaped cells that may have a palisaded appearance. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp964-5)Peripheral Nerves: The nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord, including the autonomic, cranial, and spinal nerves. Peripheral nerves contain non-neuronal cells and connective tissue as well as axons. The connective tissue layers include, from the outside to the inside, the epineurium, the perineurium, and the endoneurium.Paresis: A general term referring to a mild to moderate degree of muscular weakness, occasionally used as a synonym for PARALYSIS (severe or complete loss of motor function). In the older literature, paresis often referred specifically to paretic neurosyphilis (see NEUROSYPHILIS). "General paresis" and "general paralysis" may still carry that connotation. Bilateral lower extremity paresis is referred to as PARAPARESIS.Cranial Nerves: Twelve pairs of nerves that carry general afferent, visceral afferent, special afferent, somatic efferent, and autonomic efferent fibers.Brain Stem: The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.Optic Nerve: The 2nd cranial nerve which conveys visual information from the RETINA to the brain. The nerve carries the axons of the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS which sort at the OPTIC CHIASM and continue via the OPTIC TRACTS to the brain. The largest projection is to the lateral geniculate nuclei; other targets include the SUPERIOR COLLICULI and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEI. Though known as the second cranial nerve, it is considered part of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Meningioma: A relatively common neoplasm of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that arises from arachnoidal cells. The majority are well differentiated vascular tumors which grow slowly and have a low potential to be invasive, although malignant subtypes occur. Meningiomas have a predilection to arise from the parasagittal region, cerebral convexity, sphenoidal ridge, olfactory groove, and SPINAL CANAL. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2056-7)Nerve Fibers: Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
(1/84) Gradenigo's syndrome.

Gradenigo's syndrome, which is characterised by the triad of suppurative otitis media, pain in the distribution of the trigeminal nerve, and abducens nerve palsy may give rise to potentially fatal complications. Knowledge of the aetiology and appropriate investigations can lead to early diagnosis. A case is reported which illustrates this.  (+info)

(2/84) Transsphenoidal computer-navigation-assisted deflation of a balloon after endovascular occlusion of a direct carotid cavernous sinus fistula.

SUMMARY: A 49-year-old woman with a direct posttraumatic carotid cavernous fistula (CCF) was treated with detachable balloons via a transcarotid route. After the procedure, her intracranial bruit, conjunctival injection, and orbital congestion were cured, but the preexistent sixth nerve palsy deteriorated. CT showed one balloon positioned in the posterior portion of the right cavernous sinus and was regarded to be responsible for nerve compression. After surgical exposure by use of a transnasal-transsphenoidal approach under 3D navigation control, this balloon was deflated by puncture with a 22-gauge needle. The previously described symptoms resolved after balloon deflation. This report presents a rare complication of endovascular treatment of direct CCF and a new microsurgical approach to a balloon in a case of nerve compression.  (+info)

(3/84) Giant ocular nerve neurofibroma of the cavernous sinus: a series of 5 cases.

Five cases of giant cavernous sinus neurofibroma arising from the ocular cranial nerves are reported. These patients collected over a period of 5 years consisted of 3 males and 2 females with an age range of 9 to 40 years and a mean of 20.6 years. Clinically, all patients presented with ocular palsies over a long period (mean 3.4 years). All of them underwent a frontotemporal craniotomy along with an orbito-zygomatic osteotomy and excision of the tumour. In patients with extension of the tumour into the orbit, the superior orbital fissure was drilled, the tenon's capsule was cut and the intraorbital portion was excised. The management of these tumours is discussed and the literature reviewed.  (+info)

(4/84) Abduction paresis with rostral pontine and/or mesencephalic lesions: Pseudoabducens palsy and its relation to the so-called posterior internuclear ophthalmoplegia of Lutz.

BACKGROUND: The existence of a prenuclear abduction paresis is still debated. METHODS: In a retrospective design, we identified 22 patients with isolated unilateral (n = 20) or bilateral (n = 2) abduction paresis and electrophysiologic abnormalities indicating rostral pontine and/or mesencephalic lesions. Another 11 patients had unilateral abduction paresis with additional ocular motor abnormalities indicating midbrain dysfunction. Eight of these 11 patients also had electrophysiological abnormalities supporting this location. Electrophysiological examinations in all patients included masseter and blink reflexes (MassR, BlinkR), brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEP), and direct current elctro-oculography (EOG). RESULTS: Unilateral MassR abnormalities in patients with unilateral abduction paresis were seen in 17 patients and were almost always (in 16 of 17 patients) on the side of the abduction paresis. Another 11 patients had bilateral MassR abnormalities. BlinkR was always normal. EOG disclosed slowed abduction saccades in the non-paretic eye in 6 patients and slowed saccades to the side opposite to the abduction paresis in another 5 patients. Re-examinations were done in 27 patients showing normalization or improvement of masseter reflex abnormalities in 18 of 20 patients and in all patients with EOG abnormalities. This was always associated with clinical improvement. CONCLUSIONS: Electrophysiologically documented or clinically evident rostral pontine and/or mesencephalic lesions in our patients exclude an infranuclear intrapontine 6th nerve lesion and indicate the existence of an abduction paresis of prenuclear origin. An increased tone of the antagonistic medial rectus muscle during lateral gaze either by abnormal convergence or impaired medial rectus inhibition seems most likely.  (+info)

(5/84) Idiopathic giant cell granulomatous hypophysitis with hypopituitarism, right abducens nerve paresis and masked diabetes insipidus.

A 38-year-old man presented with headache, fever, and double vision associated with right abducens nerve paresis. He had neither nuchal rigidity nor visual field defect. Laboratory data revealed elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), eosinophilia, and lymphocytic pleocytosis in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Provocation tests of pituitary hormones showed partial hypopituitarism. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed swelling of the hypophysis and a mass lesion expanding into the right cavernous sinus. The supplement dose of dexamethasone for hypothalamic hypocortisolism manifested diabetes insipidus. Biopsy, carried out through the transsphenoidal approach, revealed giant cell granuloma. Systemic granulomatous diseases were ruled out, and the lesion was considered to be idiopathic giant cell granulomatous hypophysitis. Right abducens nerve paresis, diabetes insipidus and dysfunction of the anterior lobe were amended by the treatment with prednisolone for 4 months, and findings of the pituitary gland and stalk were normalized. The present case shows that glucocorticoid has an effect on amendment of idiopathic giant cell granulomatous hypophysitis.  (+info)

(6/84) Primitive trigeminal artery variant aneurysm treated with Guglielmi detachable coils--case report.

A 69-year-old woman had suffered from diplopia on right lateral gaze for the last 4 months due to right abducens nerve paresis. Right carotid angiography showed a cavernous internal carotid artery (ICA) aneurysm of 17 x 16 x 14 mm size and a primitive trigeminal artery (PTA) variant supplying the territory of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery. Intraluminal occlusion of the aneurysm was performed with 15 Guglielmi detachable coils. The flow of the PTA variant and the ICA was preserved. Right abducens nerve paresis improved partially. PTA variant is a primitive artery originating from the cavernous ICA supplying the cerebellum without opacification of the basilar artery. Only four of the 67 cases of PTA variant were associated with an aneurysm of the PTA variant. The possibility of this rare association should be considered when treating cavernous portion aneurysm because of the risk of cerebellar ischemia.  (+info)

(7/84) Isolated abducens nerve paresis associated with incomplete Horner's syndrome caused by petrous apex fracture--case report and anatomical study.

A 17-year-old male presented with a wound on the right temporal region, oozing hemorrhagic necrotic brain tissue and cerebrospinal fluid, following a fall. Computed tomography showed temporoparietal and petrous apex fractures on the right. Neurological examination revealed abducens nerve paresis, ptosis, and myosis on the right side. The patient was treated surgically for the removal of the free bony fragments at the fracture site and to close the dural tear. The abducens nerve paresis, ptosis, and myosis persisted at the 3rd monthly postoperative follow-up examination. The anatomy of the abducens nerve at the petroclival region was studied in four cadaveric heads. Two silicone-injected heads were used for microsurgical dissections and two for histological sections. The abducens nerve has three different angulations in the petroclival region, located at the dural entrance porus, the petrous apex, and the lateral wall of the cavernous segment of the internal carotid artery. The abducens nerve had fine anastomoses with the trigeminal nerve and the periarterial sympathetic plexus. There were fibrous connections extending inside the venous space of the petroclival area. The abducens nerve seems to be vulnerable to damage in the petroclival region, either directly by trauma to its dural porus and petrous apex or indirectly by stretching of the nerve through the nervous and/or fibrous connections. Concurrent functional loss of the abducens nerve and the periarterial sympathetic plexus clinically manifested as incomplete Horner's syndrome in our patient.  (+info)

(8/84) Adaptations and deficits in the vestibulo-ocular reflex after sixth nerve palsy.

PURPOSE: The effects of paralytic strabismus on the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) have not been systematically investigated in humans. The purpose of this study was to analyze the VOR in patients with unilateral peripheral sixth nerve palsy. METHODS: Twenty-one patients with unilateral peripheral sixth nerve palsy (6 severe, 7 moderate, 8 mild) and 15 normal subjects were studied. Subjects made sinusoidal +/-10 degrees head-on-body rotations in yaw and pitch at approximately 0.5 and 2 Hz, and in roll at approximately 0.5, 1, and 2 Hz. Eye movement recordings were obtained using magnetic scleral search coils in each eye in darkness and during monocular viewing in light. Static torsional VOR gains, defined as change in torsional eye position divided by change in head position during sustained head roll, were also measured. RESULTS: In all patients, horizontal VOR gains in darkness were decreased in the paretic eye in both abduction and adduction, but remained normal in the nonparetic eye in both directions. In light, horizontal visually enhanced VOR (VVOR) gains were normal in both eyes in moderate and mild palsy. In severe palsy, horizontal VVOR gains remained low in the paretic eye during viewing with either eye, whereas those in the nonparetic eye were higher than normal when the paretic eye viewed. Vertical VOR and VVOR were normal, but dynamic and static torsional VOR and VVOR gains were reduced in both eyes in all patients. CONCLUSIONS: In darkness, horizontal VOR gains were reduced during abduction of the paretic eye in all patients, as anticipated in sixth nerve palsy. Gains were also reduced during adduction of the paretic eye, suggesting that innervation to the medial rectus has changed. After severe palsy, vision did not increase abducting or adducting horizontal VVOR gains to normal in the paretic eye, but caused secondary increase in VVOR gains to values above unity in the nonparetic eye, when the paretic eye fixated. In mild and moderate palsy, vision enhanced the VOR in the paretic eye but caused no change in the nonparetic eye, suggesting a monocular readjustment of innervation selectively to the paretic eye. Vertical VOR and VVOR gains were normal, indicating that the lateral rectus did not have significant vertical actions through the excursions that we tested (+/-10 degrees ). Reduced torsional VOR gains in the paretic eye can be explained by the esotropia in sixth nerve palsy. Torsional VOR gain normally varies with vergence. We attribute the reduced torsional gains in the paretic eye to the mechanism that normally lowers it during convergence. The low torsional gains in the nonparetic eye may be an adaptation to reduce torsional disparity between the two eyes.  (+info)

*  Trochlear nerve
... cranial nerve III and abducens - cranial nerve VI) and the first two branches of the trigeminal nerve (V), Ophthalmic (V1) and ... In general, these diseases affect other cranial nerves as well. Isolated damage to the fourth nerve is uncommon in these ... The trochlear nerve, also called the fourth cranial nerve or cranial nerve IV, is a motor nerve (a somatic efferent nerve) that ... The trochlear nerve is unique among the cranial nerves in several respects: It is the smallest nerve in terms of the number of ...
*  Sixth nerve palsy
... , or abducens nerve palsy, is a disorder associated with dysfunction of cranial nerve VI (the abducens nerve ... Handbook of Ocular Disease Management, 2000 - 2001 Jobson Publishing L.L.C. (2000-2001).[2] The Wills Eye Manual: Office and ... The unilateral abducens nerve palsy is the most common of the isolated ocular motor nerve palsies. The nerve dysfunction ... fibers of the seventh cranial nerve wrap around the VIth nerve nucleus, and, if this is also affected, a VIth nerve palsy with ...
*  Abducens nerve
Tolosa-Hunt syndrome is an idiopathic granulomatous disease that causes painful oculomotor (especially sixth nerve) palsies. ... the sixth cranial nerve, sixth nerve, or simply CNVI. It is a somatic efferent nerve. The abducens nerve leaves the brainstem ... The human abducens nerve is derived from the basal plate of the embryonic pons. The abducens nerve supplies the lateral rectus ... The abducens nerve carries axons of type GSE, general somatic efferent. Damage to the peripheral part of the abducens nerve ...
*  Cranial nerve disease
Eyes Oculomotor nerve palsy - Oculomotor nerve (III) Fourth nerve palsy - Trochlear nerve (IV) Sixth nerve palsy - Abducens ... The facial nerve is the seventh of 12 cranial nerves. This cranial nerve controls the muscles in the face. Facial nerve palsy ... Facial nerve (VII) (More on facial nerve palsy below) Accessory nerve disorder - Accessory nerve (XI) Pavlou, E., Gkampeta, A ... Cranial nerve disease is an impaired functioning of one of the twelve cranial nerves. Although it could theoretically be ...
*  Systemic lupus erythematosus
... and headache with occasional abducens nerve paresis, absence of a space-occupying lesion or ventricular enlargement, and normal ... Rates of disease in the developing world are unclear. Lupus is Latin for "wolf": the disease was so-named in the 13th century ... Genetic studies of the rates of disease in families supports the genetic basis of this disease with a heritability of >66%. ... SLE is regarded as a prototype disease due to the significant overlap in its symptoms with other autoimmune diseases. This ...
*  Paul Julius Möbius
Münchener mediznische Wochenschrift, 1888 - On congenital facial paralysis of the abducens nerve. Die Basedowsche Krankheit. In ... Moebius had only made one, on the causes of diseases based classification of nervous and mental diseases. Its subdivision in ... In the long term Möbius thus paved to way for eugenics and the crimes of psychiatric and neurological disease in German Nazism ... His name is associated with Möbius syndrome, a disease he identified as "nuclear atrophy". This is a rare type of palsy ...
*  Ophthalmoparesis
The relevant cranial nerves (specifically the oculomotor, trochlear, and abducens), as in cavernous sinus syndrome or raised ... The orbit of the eye, including mechanical restrictions of eye movement, as in Graves disease. The muscle, as in progressive ... The brainstem nuclei of these nerves, as in certain patterns of brainstem stroke such as Foville's syndrome. White matter ... It is a physical finding in certain neurologic, ophthalmologic, and endocrine disease. Internal ophthalmoplegia means ...
*  Lymphocytic meningoradiculitis
... is a neurological disease characterized as intense nerve pain radiating from the spine. The disease is caused by an infection ... Symptoms may include facial paralysis, abducens palsy, anorexia, tiredness, headache, double vision, paraesthesia, and erythema ... The disease was first reported in 1941 by German neurologist, Alfred Bannwarth, who described the main symptoms as intense ... Tick-borne disease Hindfelt, B.; Jeppsson, P. G.; Nilsson, B.; Olsson, J. E.; Ryberg, B.; Sörnäs, R. (1982-10-01). "Clinical ...
*  Conjugate gaze palsy
Abducens Nerve Palsy at eMedicine "Barton, J., & Goodwin, J. (2001). Horizontal Gaze Palsy". Medlink.com. Retrieved 2013-07-07 ... A lesion, which is an abnormality in tissue due to injury or disease, can disrupt the transmission of signals from the brain to ... Nonselective horizontal gaze palsies are caused by lesions in the Abducens nucleus. This is where the cranial nerve VI leaves ... Lesions anywhere in the abducens nucleus, cranial nerve VI neurons, or interneurons can affect eye movement towards the side of ...
*  Pons
... abducens nucleus (VI) lower down in the pons: facial nerve nucleus (VII) lower down in the pons: vestibulocochlear nuclei ( ... Central pontine myelinolysis is a demyelination disease that causes difficulty with sense of balance, walking, sense of touch, ... A number of cranial nerve nuclei are present in the pons: mid-pons: the 'chief' or 'pontine' nucleus of the trigeminal nerve ... the spinal and principal trigeminal nerve nuclei, which form the general somatic afferent column (GSA) of the trigeminal nerve ...
*  List of MeSH codes (C10)
... optic nerve glioma MeSH C10.292.262.200 --- abducens nerve injury MeSH C10.292.262.500 --- facial nerve injuries MeSH C10.292. ... lewy body disease MeSH C10.228.662.600.400 --- parkinson disease MeSH C10.228.662.600.700 --- parkinson disease, secondary MeSH ... abducens nerve injury MeSH C10.900.300.218.300 --- facial nerve injuries MeSH C10.900.300.218.550 --- optic nerve injuries MeSH ... optic nerve injuries MeSH C10.292.700.500 --- optic nerve neoplasms MeSH C10.292.700.500.500 --- optic nerve glioma MeSH ...
*  Extraocular muscles
The nuclei or bodies of these nerves are found in the brain stem. The nuclei of the abducens and oculomotor nerves are ... Certain diseases of the pulleys (heterotopy, instability, and hindrance of the pulleys) cause particular patterns of incomitant ... Hence the subsequent nerve supply (innervation) of the eye muscles is from three cranial nerves. The development of the ... Nerves of the orbit. Seen from above. Figure showing the mode of innervation of the Recti medialis and lateralis of the eye. ...
*  Duane-radial ray syndrome
Absence of the abducens nucleus and nerve (cranial nerve VI) Abnormal eye movement due to the lateral rectus muscle being ... These evaluations will be used to determine the extent of the disease as well as the needs of the individual. Eyes - Complete ... MRI imaging can be used to detect whether the abducens nerve is present. Typically, treatment for this condition requires a ... After being diagnosed, there are other evaluations that one may go through in order to determine the extent of the disease. ...
*  Hindbrain
... the trigeminal nerve (CN V), abducens nerve (CN VI), facial nerve (CN VII), and a portion of the vestibulocochlear nerve (CN ... A rare disease of the rhombencephalon-"rhombencephalosynapsis"-is characterized by a missing vermis resulting in a fused ... the glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX), vagus nerve (CN X), accessory nerve (CN XI), hypoglossal nerve (CN XII), and a portion of ... in terms of the genes that it expresses and its position in between the brain and the nerve cord. On this basis, it has been ...
*  Cranial nerves
... the optic nerve (II), oculomotor nerve (III), trochlear nerve (IV), trigeminal nerve (V), abducens nerve (VI), facial nerve ( ... Trauma to the skull, disease of bone such as Paget's disease, and injury to nerves during neurosurgery (such as tumor removal) ... The oculomotor nerve (III), trochlear nerve (IV) and abducens nerve (VI) coordinate eye movement. Damage to nerves III, IV, or ... The oculomotor nerve (III), trochlear nerve (IV), abducens nerve (VI) and the ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve (V1) ...
*  Synkinesis
Abducens (6th nerve), Trochlear (4th nerve), and Oculomotor (3rd nerve). After nerve trauma around the eye, a combination of ... or nerve degeneration, as in the course of Parkinson´s disease. In congenital cases, mutations of genes involved in nerve ... This is an interaction between the abducens nerve and a branch of the oculomotor nerve. Voluntary activation of the abducens ... Moreover, while the abducens and the trochlear nerve each innervate one specific muscle, the oculomotor nerve has many ...
*  Optic papillitis
Because increased intracranial pressure can cause both papilledema and a sixth (abducens) nerve palsy, papilledema can be ... Eye > Diseases of the Optic Nerve. ... Inflammation of the optic nerve head is called "papillitis" or ... Retrobulbar neuritis, an inflamed optic nerve, but with a normal-appearing nerve head, is associated with pain and the other ... "intraocular optic neuritis"; inflammation of the orbital portion of the nerve is called "retrobulbar optic neuritis" or " ...
*  Idiopathic intracranial hypertension
... the abducens nerve (sixth nerve) is involved. This nerve supplies the muscle that pulls the eye outward. Those with sixth nerve ... chronic kidney disease, and Behçet's disease. The cause of IIH is not known. The Monro-Kellie rule states that the intracranial ... More rarely, the oculomotor nerve and trochlear nerve (third and fourth nerve palsy, respectively) are affected; both play a ... The facial nerve (seventh cranial nerve) is affected occasionally -- the result is total or partial weakness of the muscles of ...
*  Millard-Gubler syndrome
... including the sixth and seventh cranial nerves and fibers of the corticospinal tract. Paralysis of the abducens (CN VI) leads ... who described the disease in a medical paper one year later. Cerebral softening Anatomy 530a at UWO (Functional Neuroanatomy) ... and disruption of the facial nerves (CN VII) leads to symptoms including flaccid paralysis of the muscles of facial expression ...
*  Pituitary apoplexy
The fourth (trochlear) and sixth (abducens) cranial nerves are located in the same compartment and can cause diagonal or ... The first case of the disease was recorded in 1898. The initial symptoms of pituitary apoplexy are related to the increased ... The visual loss depends on which part of the nerve is affected. If the part of the nerve between the eye and the chiasm is ... In half of these cases, the oculomotor nerve (the third cranial nerve), which controls a number of eye muscles, is affected. ...
*  Brainstem
The nuclei of the trigeminal nerve (V), abducens nerve (VI), facial nerve (VII) and vestibulocochlear nerve (VIII) are located ... Diseases of the brainstem can result in abnormalities in the function of cranial nerves that may lead to visual disturbances, ... From this junction, CN VI (abducens nerve), CN VII (facial nerve) and CN VIII (vestibulocochlear nerve) emerge. At the level of ... Oculomotor nerve nucleus: This is the third cranial nerve nucleus. Trochlear nerve nucleus: This is the fourth cranial nerve. ...
*  Pituitary adenoma
Lateral expansion of a pituitary adenoma can also compress the abducens nerve, causing a lateral rectus palsy. Also, a ... The disease which is often also associated with gigantism, is difficult to diagnose in the early stages and is frequently ... Hyperpituitarism is a disease of the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland which is usually caused by a functional pituitary ... Cushing's disease may cause fatigue, weight gain, fatty deposits around the abdomen and lower back (truncal obesity) and face ...
*  Vestibulo-ocular reflex
One pathway projects directly to the lateral rectus of eye via the abducens nerve. Another nerve tract projects from the ... When the function of the right balance system is reduced, by a disease or by an accident, quick head movement to the right ... There they project and stimulate the lateral rectus of the left eye via the abducens nerve. In addition, by the medial ... From these nuclei, fibers cross to the contralateral cranial nerve VI nucleus (abducens nucleus). There they synapse with 2 ...
*  List of MeSH codes (C21)
... abducens nerve injury MeSH C21.866.260.237.325 --- facial nerve injuries MeSH C21.866.260.237.650 --- optic nerve injuries MeSH ... File "2006 MeSH Trees".) MeSH C21.447.080.365 --- farmer's lung MeSH C21.447.080.752 --- silo filler's disease MeSH C21.447. ... cranial nerve injuries MeSH C21.866.915.300.400.100 --- abducens nerve injury MeSH C21.866.915.300.400.300 --- facial nerve ... liver diseases, alcoholic MeSH C21.739.100.087.645.390 --- fatty liver, alcoholic MeSH C21.739.100.087.645.490 --- hepatitis, ...
*  Cavernous sinus
... trochlear nerve, and abducens nerve), ophthalmic sensory loss (from compression of the ophthalmic nerve), and maxillary sensory ... idiopathic granulomatous disease (Tolosa-Hunt syndrome), and fungal infections. Cavernous sinus syndrome is a medical emergency ... trochlear nerve (CN IV) ophthalmic nerve, the V1 branch of the trigeminal nerve (CN V) maxillary nerve, the V2 branch of CN V ( ... Oculomotor nerve Ophthalmic nerve Trochlear nerve Maxillary nerve Trigeminal ganglion Structures passing through the medial ...
*  Multiple sclerosis signs and symptoms
Subacute pain is usually secondary to the disease and can be a consequence of spending too much time in the same position, ... Inflammation of the optic nerve causes loss of vision most usually by the swelling and destruction of the myelin sheath ... which is responsible for communication between the two eyes by connecting the abducens nucleus of one side to the oculomotor ... Emotional symptoms are also common and are thought to be both a normal response to having a debilitating disease and the result ...
What does abducens nerve diseases mean?  What does abducens nerve diseases mean?
Meaning of abducens nerve diseases. What does abducens nerve diseases mean? Information and translations of abducens nerve ... diseases in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web. ... Definition of abducens nerve diseases in the Definitions.net dictionary. ... Abducens Nerve Diseases. Diseases of the sixth cranial (abducens) nerve or its nucleus in the pons. The nerve may be injured ...
more infohttp://www.definitions.net/definition/abducens%20nerve%20diseases
What does abducens nerve injury mean?  What does abducens nerve injury mean?
Meaning of abducens nerve injury. What does abducens nerve injury mean? Information and translations of abducens nerve injury ... Definition of abducens nerve injury in the Definitions.net dictionary. ... Abducens Nerve Injury. Traumatic injury to the abducens, or sixth, cranial nerve. Injury to this nerve results in lateral ... Definitions for abducens nerve injury. Here are all the possible meanings and translations of the word abducens nerve injury.. ...
more infohttp://www.definitions.net/definition/abducens%20nerve%20injury
Intracranial melanocytic meningeal tumours and melanosis oculi: case report and literature review | BMC Cancer | Full Text  Intracranial melanocytic meningeal tumours and melanosis oculi: case report and literature review | BMC Cancer | Full Text
A 20 year-old Caucasian male presented to our department with incomplete left abducens nerve palsy; neuroradiological ... after two cycles MRI documented significant disease regression. After a period of apparent disease control, the patient ... Five days after surgery the patient developed a marked diplopia, pain in the eye and a third cranial nerve palsy. An urgent CT ... He presented with a two year history of diplopia, of subacute onset, due to a left sixth cranial nerve palsy. Neurological ...
more infohttps://bmccancer.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2407-12-220
Cranial Neuropathies | StayWell Health Library | Main  Cranial Neuropathies | StayWell Health Library | Main
When nerves in the brain or brainstem are affected, it is called cranial neuropathy. The cranial nerves are those that arise ... but those nerves can be damaged by injury or an illness such as diabetes. Neuropathy is a disorder that causes nerve damage and ... Exactly how your body and your movement are affected depends on where in the body the damaged nerves are located. ... Cranial Neuropathies What are cranial neuropathies? Nerves power your entire body, ...
more infohttp://www.lifebridgehealth.org/Main/HealthLibrary.aspx?iid=134_48
Abducens nerve diseases - definition of Abducens nerve diseases by The Free Dictionary  Abducens nerve diseases - definition of Abducens nerve diseases by The Free Dictionary
Abducens nerve diseases synonyms, Abducens nerve diseases pronunciation, Abducens nerve diseases translation, English ... dictionary definition of Abducens nerve diseases. or n either of the sixth pair of cranial nerves, which supply the lateral ... rectus muscle of the eye n. either one of the sixth pair of cranial nerves,... ... abducens nerve. (redirected from Abducens nerve diseases). Also found in: Thesaurus, Medical, Encyclopedia. abducens nerve. ( ...
more infohttps://www.thefreedictionary.com/Abducens+nerve+diseases
Congenital Esotropia Observational Study (CEOS)  Congenital Esotropia Observational Study (CEOS)
Abducens Nerve Diseases. Diseases of the sixth cranial (abducens) nerve or its nucleus in the pons. The nerve may be injured ... Dysfunction of the nerve causes lateral rectus muscle weakness, resulting in horizontal diplopia that is maximal when the ... Common conditions associated with nerve injury include INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ISCHEMIA; and ... Infectious Diseases Mental Health Neurology Obstetrics Orthopedics Public Health Respiratory Rheumatology Urology Track topics ...
more infohttps://www.bioportfolio.com/resources/trial/128218/Congenital-Esotropia-Observational-Study-CEOS.html
Carolyn L. Taylor, M.D. | Seattle, WA  Carolyn L. Taylor, M.D. | Seattle, WA
Abducens Nerve Disease. *Abducens Nerve Injury. *Abducens Nerve Palsy And Paresis. *Abnormal Coordination ... Sexually Transmitted Diseases Urinary Tract Infection Foot Pain Ankle Injury Hip Pain Knee Pain View More ...
more infohttps://www.swedish.org/swedish-physicians/profile.aspx?name=carolyn+l+taylor&id=178887
Jennifer L. Witt, MD | Seattle,WA  Jennifer L. Witt, MD | Seattle,WA
abducens nerve disease. *abducens nerve injury. *abducens nerve palsy and paresis. *abnormal coordination ... hi really trust Dr Witt because she has the knowledge to treat the complex symptoms of my disease and I am always confident she ... The majority of patients she treats have Parkinson's Disease, atypical parkinsonism syndromes, tremor, dystonia, chorea, ...
more infohttps://www.swedish.org/swedish-physicians/profile.aspx?name=jennifer+l+witt&id=157935
Paralytic squint due to abducens nerve palsy : a rare consequence of dengue fever | BMC Infectious Diseases | Full Text  Paralytic squint due to abducens nerve palsy : a rare consequence of dengue fever | BMC Infectious Diseases | Full Text
The authors detail the first reported case of abducens nerve palsy complicating dengue fever in a previously healthy male from ... the abducens nerve despite its notoriety in cranial neuropathies in a multitude of condition due to its long intracranial ... In a tropical country with endemic dengue infections, dengue related abducens neuropathy may be considered as a differential ... The authors detail the first reported case of abducens nerve palsy complicating dengue fever in a previously healthy male from ...
more infohttps://bmcinfectdis.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2334-12-156
Cellular schwannoma of the abducens nerve: case report and review of the literature.  Cellular schwannoma of the abducens nerve: case report and review of the literature.
Here, we report the case of a 26-year-old woman who presented with a 6th nerve palsy and was found to have a large tumor at the ... Schwannomas of the abducens nerve are extremely uncommon tumors. ... Abducens Nerve Diseases / pathology*, surgery*. Adult. Brain ... Schwannomas of the abducens nerve are extremely uncommon tumors. Here, we report the case of a 26-year-old woman who presented ... Cranial Nerve Neoplasms / pathology*, surgery*. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neurilemmoma ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Cellular-schwannoma-abducens-nerve-case/19200646.html
Zhongzeng Li, MD, PhD | Olympia,WA  Zhongzeng Li, MD, PhD | Olympia,WA
abducens nerve disease. *abducens nerve injury. *abducens nerve palsy and paresis. *abnormal coordination ...
more infohttp://www.providence.org/doctors/profile.aspx?region=wa&reset=true&name=li+zhongzeng&id=160038
Gradenigos syndrome with lateral venous sinus thrombosis: successful conservative treatment.  Gradenigo's syndrome with lateral venous sinus thrombosis: successful conservative treatment.
... pain in the region innervated by the first and the second division of trigeminal nerve and abducens nerve palsy. Septic sinus ... is a rare disease characterised by the triad otitis media, ... Gradenigo's syndrome (GS) is a rare disease characterised by ... Abducens Nerve Diseases / complications*, drug therapy*. Administration, Oral. Anti-Bacterial Agents / therapeutic use. ... We report the case of a 4-year-old child that was admitted for facial nerve palsy and abducens nerve palsy subsequent to a 2- ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Gradenigos-syndrome-with-lateral-venous/19697060.html
adenocarcinoma of pituitary gland 2005:2010[pubdate] *count=100 - BioMedLib™ search engine  adenocarcinoma of pituitary gland 2005:2010[pubdate] *count=100 - BioMedLib™ search engine
MeSH-minor] Abducens Nerve Diseases / etiology. Diagnosis, Differential. Diplopia / etiology. Endoscopy. Humans. Magnetic ... Ayberk G, Ozveren MF, Yildirim T, Ercan K, Cay EK, Koçak A: Review of a series with abducens nerve palsy. Turk Neurosurg; 2008 ... The causes of the abducens nerve paralysis of our patients were as follows: two cases with head trauma, three cases with ... gene/protein/disease-specific - Gene Ontology annotations from this paper .. *[Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a ...
more infohttp://www.bmlsearch.com/?kwr=adenocarcinoma+of+pituitary+gland+2005:2010%5Bpubdate%5D&cxts=100&stmp=b0
Visual Agnosia disease: Malacards - Research Articles, Drugs, Genes, Clinical Trials  Visual Agnosia disease: Malacards - Research Articles, Drugs, Genes, Clinical Trials
abducens nerve disease 10.0. KANTR SYP 45. functional colonic disease 10.0. KANTR SYP ... The MalaCards human disease database index: 1-9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z ... Disease Ontology : 12 An agnosia that is a loss of the ability to visually recognize objects. MalaCards based summary : Visual ... Diseases related to Visual Agnosia via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:. (show top 50) (show all ...
more infohttps://www.malacards.org/card/visual_agnosia
Empty Sella Syndrome disease: Malacards - Research Articles, Drugs, Genes, Clinical Trials  Empty Sella Syndrome disease: Malacards - Research Articles, Drugs, Genes, Clinical Trials
abducens nerve disease 10.2. POMC PRL 44. gigantism 10.2. GH1 PRL 45. adrenal cortex disease 10.2. POMC PRL ... Global: Rare diseases Anatomical: Endocrine diseases Neuronal diseases See all MalaCards categories (disease lists) ... The MalaCards human disease database index: 1-9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z ... NIH Rare Diseases : 54 Empty sella syndrome (ESS) is a condition that involves the sella turcica, a bony structure at the base ...
more infohttps://www.malacards.org/card/empty_sella_syndrome
Nausea & Pulsatile Tinnitus & Vertex Headache<...  Nausea & Pulsatile Tinnitus & Vertex Headache<...
... by HEADACHE which is maximal in an upright posture and occasionally by an abducens nerve palsy (see ABDUCENS NERVE DISEASES), ... Benign Abducens Nerve Palsy He had mild intermittent headache in the vertex and the frontal region. He had quit smoking 23 ... Differential diagnoses, possible causes and diseases for Nausea, Pulsatile Tinnitus, Vertex Headache listed by probability for ... chosen subpopulation according to the database at Symptoma®, the medical search engine for diseases. ...
more infohttps://www.symptoma.com/en/ddx/nausea+pulsatile-tinnitus+vertex-headache
Optic neuropathy secondary to a sphenoid-ethmoidal mucocele: Case report.  - PubMed - NCBI  Optic neuropathy secondary to a sphenoid-ethmoidal mucocele: Case report. - PubMed - NCBI
Abducens Nerve Diseases/etiology*. *Drainage. *Endoscopy. *Ethmoid Sinus/diagnostic imaging. *Ethmoid Sinus/pathology* ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26243436
  • However, as all fibers cross over to the other side before it exits over the dorsum of the midbrain , thus an injury to this nucleus will result in an contralateral symptom.and injury to nerve (after crossing -anywhere after midbrain)results in ipsilateral symptom Homologous trochlear nerves are found in all jawed vertebrates. (wikipedia.org)
  • The clinical consequences of weakness in the superior oblique (caused, for example, by fourth nerve palsies) are discussed below. (wikipedia.org)
  • A brainstem lesion could also cause impaired functioning of multiple cranial nerves, but this condition would likely also be accompanied by distal motor impairment. (wikipedia.org)
  • A lesion, which is an abnormality in tissue due to injury or disease, can disrupt the transmission of signals from the brain to the eye. (wikipedia.org)
  • Different presentations of the condition, or associations with other conditions, can help to localize the site of the lesion along the VIth cranial nerve pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • Though neurological sequelae including mononeuropathy, encephalopathy, transverse myelitis, polyradiculopathy, Guillain-Barre syndrome , optic neuropathy and oculomotor neuropathy have been reported in medical literature, the abducens nerve despite its notoriety in cranial neuropathies in a multitude of condition due to its long intracranial course had not been to date reported to manifest with lateral rectus paralysis following dengue. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The terminal nerves, olfactory nerves (I) and optic nerves (II) emerge from the cerebrum or forebrain, and the remaining ten pairs arise from the brainstem, which is the lower part of the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cranial nerves are considered components of the peripheral nervous system (PNS), although on a structural level the olfactory, optic and terminal nerves are more accurately considered part of the central nervous system (CNS). (wikipedia.org)
  • Retrobulbar neuritis, an inflamed optic nerve, but with a normal-appearing nerve head, is associated with pain and the other findings of papillitis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The increased pressure leads to papilledema, which is swelling of the optic disc, the spot where the optic nerve enters the eyeball. (wikipedia.org)
  • It arises from the compression of the optic nerve by the tumor. (wikipedia.org)
  • CAT are the horizontal contents from medial to lateral) The optic nerve lies just above and outside the cavernous sinus, superior and lateral to the pituitary gland on each side, and enters the orbital apex via the optic canal. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most common abnormality is involvement of the facial nerve, which may lead to reduced power on one or both sides of the face (65% resp 35% of all cranial nerve cases), followed by reduction in visual perception due to optic nerve involvement. (wikipedia.org)
  • In patients with severe facial nerve paralysis, facial synkinesis will inevitably develop. (wikipedia.org)
  • Paralysis of the abducens (CN VI) leads to diplopia, internal strabismus (i.e., esotropia), and loss of power to rotate the affected eye outward), and disruption of the facial nerves (CN VII) leads to symptoms including flaccid paralysis of the muscles of facial expression and loss of the corneal reflex. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diabetic neuropathy affects all peripheral nerves including sensory neurons, motor neurons, but rarely affects the autonomic nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
  • CN III), which may affect the parasympathetic input to the eye on the side of the affected nerve, causing the pupil of the affected eye to dilate and fail to constrict in response to light as it should. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other processes that can damage the sixth nerve include strokes (infarctions), demyelination, infections (e.g. meningitis), cavernous sinus diseases and various neuropathies. (wikipedia.org)
  • These nerves, with the exception of CN V2, pass through the cavernous sinus to enter the orbital apex through the superior orbital fissure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Iatrogenic injury is also known to occur, with the abducens nerve being the most commonly injured cranial nerve in halo orthosis placement. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is possible for a disorder of more than one cranial nerve to occur at the same time, if a trauma occurs at a location where many cranial nerves run together, such as the jugular fossa. (wikipedia.org)
  • All cranial nerves are paired, which means that they occur on both the right and left sides of the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Horner's syndrome can also occur due to involvement of the carotid ocular sympathetics, but may be difficult to appreciate in the setting of a complete third nerve injury. (wikipedia.org)
  • The nerve dysfunction induces esotropia, a convergent squint on distance fixation. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are numerous other diseases, mostly rare conditions, that may lead to intracranial hypertension. (wikipedia.org)
  • Common causes of secondary intracranial hypertension include obstructive sleep apnea (a sleep-related breathing disorder), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), chronic kidney disease, and Behçet's disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • and he pointed the way to understanding the cause of the endocrinological disorder Graves' disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Millard-Gubler syndrome is named after two French physicians, Auguste Louis Jules Millard (1830-1915), who first identified the disorder in 1855, and Adolphe-Marie Gubler (1821-1879), who described the disease in a medical paper one year later. (wikipedia.org)
  • The clinical consequences of weakness in the superior oblique (caused, for example, by fourth nerve palsies) are discussed below. (wikipedia.org)
  • 70% of people with pituitary apoplexy experience double vision due to compression of one of the nerves. (wikipedia.org)
  • this reaction creates an action potential carried by the vestibular nerve. (wikipedia.org)
  • If stereocilia go towards kinocilium depolarization occurs causing more neurotransmitter, and more vestibular nerve firings as compared to when stereocilia tilt away from kinocilium (hyperpolarization, less neurotransmitter, less firing). (wikipedia.org)
  • a situation when one eye converges and the other diverges when looking at the tip of one's nose, a condition associated with Graves's disease Möbius postulated that hypersecretion of the thyroid was a link to goiters. (wikipedia.org)
  • If the function is on the opposite side to the origin of the nerve, this is known as a contralateral function. (wikipedia.org)