Abducens Nerve: The 6th cranial nerve which originates in the ABDUCENS NUCLEUS of the PONS and sends motor fibers to the lateral rectus muscles of the EYE. Damage to the nerve or its nucleus disrupts horizontal eye movement control.Abducens Nerve Diseases: Diseases of the sixth cranial (abducens) nerve or its nucleus in the pons. The nerve may be injured along its course in the pons, intracranially as it travels along the base of the brain, in the cavernous sinus, or at the level of superior orbital fissure or orbit. Dysfunction of the nerve causes lateral rectus muscle weakness, resulting in horizontal diplopia that is maximal when the affected eye is abducted and ESOTROPIA. Common conditions associated with nerve injury include INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ISCHEMIA; and INFRATENTORIAL NEOPLASMS.Abducens Nerve Injury: Traumatic injury to the abducens, or sixth, cranial nerve. Injury to this nerve results in lateral rectus muscle weakness or paralysis. The nerve may be damaged by closed or penetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA or by facial trauma involving the orbit.Horner Syndrome: A syndrome associated with defective sympathetic innervation to one side of the face, including the eye. Clinical features include MIOSIS; mild BLEPHAROPTOSIS; and hemifacial ANHIDROSIS (decreased sweating)(see HYPOHIDROSIS). Lesions of the BRAIN STEM; cervical SPINAL CORD; first thoracic nerve root; apex of the LUNG; CAROTID ARTERY; CAVERNOUS SINUS; and apex of the ORBIT may cause this condition. (From Miller et al., Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology, 4th ed, pp500-11)Cavernous Sinus: An irregularly shaped venous space in the dura mater at either side of the sphenoid bone.Diplopia: A visual symptom in which a single object is perceived by the visual cortex as two objects rather than one. Disorders associated with this condition include REFRACTIVE ERRORS; STRABISMUS; OCULOMOTOR NERVE DISEASES; TROCHLEAR NERVE DISEASES; ABDUCENS NERVE DISEASES; and diseases of the BRAIN STEM and OCCIPITAL LOBE.Petrous Bone: The dense rock-like part of temporal bone that contains the INNER EAR. Petrous bone is located at the base of the skull. Sometimes it is combined with the MASTOID PROCESS and called petromastoid part of temporal bone.Trochlear Nerve: The 4th cranial nerve. The trochlear nerve carries the motor innervation of the superior oblique muscles of the eye.Cranial Nerve Diseases: Disorders of one or more of the twelve cranial nerves. With the exception of the optic and olfactory nerves, this includes disorders of the brain stem nuclei from which the cranial nerves originate or terminate.Eye Pain: A dull or sharp painful sensation associated with the outer or inner structures of the eyeball, having different causes.Ophthalmoplegia: Paralysis of one or more of the ocular muscles due to disorders of the eye muscles, neuromuscular junction, supporting soft tissue, tendons, or innervation to the muscles.Oculomotor Nerve: The 3d cranial nerve. The oculomotor nerve sends motor fibers to the levator muscles of the eyelid and to the superior rectus, inferior rectus, and inferior oblique muscles of the eye. It also sends parasympathetic efferents (via the ciliary ganglion) to the muscles controlling pupillary constriction and accommodation. The motor fibers originate in the oculomotor nuclei of the midbrain.Oculomotor Muscles: The muscles that move the eye. Included in this group are the medial rectus, lateral rectus, superior rectus, inferior rectus, inferior oblique, superior oblique, musculus orbitalis, and levator palpebrae superioris.Cranial Nerve Neoplasms: Benign and malignant neoplasms that arise from one or more of the twelve cranial nerves.Skull Fracture, Basilar: Fractures which extend through the base of the SKULL, usually involving the PETROUS BONE. Battle's sign (characterized by skin discoloration due to extravasation of blood into the subcutaneous tissue behind the ear and over the mastoid process), CRANIAL NEUROPATHIES, TRAUMATIC; CAROTID-CAVERNOUS SINUS FISTULA; and CEREBROSPINAL FLUID OTORRHEA are relatively frequent sequelae of this condition. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p876)Oculomotor Nerve Diseases: Diseases of the oculomotor nerve or nucleus that result in weakness or paralysis of the superior rectus, inferior rectus, medial rectus, inferior oblique, or levator palpebrae muscles, or impaired parasympathetic innervation to the pupil. With a complete oculomotor palsy, the eyelid will be paralyzed, the eye will be in an abducted and inferior position, and the pupil will be markedly dilated. Commonly associated conditions include neoplasms, CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA, ischemia (especially in association with DIABETES MELLITUS), and aneurysmal compression. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p270)Trigeminal Nerve: The 5th and largest cranial nerve. The trigeminal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve. The larger sensory part forms the ophthalmic, mandibular, and maxillary nerves which carry afferents sensitive to external or internal stimuli from the skin, muscles, and joints of the face and mouth and from the teeth. Most of these fibers originate from cells of the TRIGEMINAL GANGLION and project to the TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS of the brain stem. The smaller motor part arises from the brain stem trigeminal motor nucleus and innervates the muscles of mastication.Paralysis: A general term most often used to describe severe or complete loss of muscle strength due to motor system disease from the level of the cerebral cortex to the muscle fiber. This term may also occasionally refer to a loss of sensory function. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p45)Duane Retraction Syndrome: A syndrome characterized by marked limitation of abduction of the eye, variable limitation of adduction and retraction of the globe, and narrowing of the palpebral fissure on attempted adduction. The condition is caused by aberrant innervation of the lateral rectus by fibers of the OCULOMOTOR NERVE.Mucocele: A retention cyst of the salivary gland, lacrimal sac, paranasal sinuses, appendix, or gallbladder. (Stedman, 26th ed)Eye Movements: Voluntary or reflex-controlled movements of the eye.Electronystagmography: Recording of nystagmus based on changes in the electrical field surrounding the eye produced by the difference in potential between the cornea and the retina.Nerve Compression Syndromes: Mechanical compression of nerves or nerve roots from internal or external causes. These may result in a conduction block to nerve impulses (due to MYELIN SHEATH dysfunction) or axonal loss. The nerve and nerve sheath injuries may be caused by ISCHEMIA; INFLAMMATION; or a direct mechanical effect.Dura Mater: The outermost of the three MENINGES, a fibrous membrane of connective tissue that covers the brain and the spinal cord.Cranial Fossa, Posterior: The infratentorial compartment that contains the CEREBELLUM and BRAIN STEM. It is formed by the posterior third of the superior surface of the body of the sphenoid (SPHENOID BONE), by the occipital, the petrous, and mastoid portions of the TEMPORAL BONE, and the posterior inferior angle of the PARIETAL BONE.Skull Base: The inferior region of the skull consisting of an internal (cerebral), and an external (basilar) surface.TurtlesSciatic Nerve: A nerve which originates in the lumbar and sacral spinal cord (L4 to S3) and supplies motor and sensory innervation to the lower extremity. The sciatic nerve, which is the main continuation of the sacral plexus, is the largest nerve in the body. It has two major branches, the TIBIAL NERVE and the PERONEAL NERVE.Neurilemmoma: A neoplasm that arises from SCHWANN CELLS of the cranial, peripheral, and autonomic nerves. Clinically, these tumors may present as a cranial neuropathy, abdominal or soft tissue mass, intracranial lesion, or with spinal cord compression. Histologically, these tumors are encapsulated, highly vascular, and composed of a homogenous pattern of biphasic fusiform-shaped cells that may have a palisaded appearance. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp964-5)Peripheral Nerves: The nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord, including the autonomic, cranial, and spinal nerves. Peripheral nerves contain non-neuronal cells and connective tissue as well as axons. The connective tissue layers include, from the outside to the inside, the epineurium, the perineurium, and the endoneurium.Paresis: A general term referring to a mild to moderate degree of muscular weakness, occasionally used as a synonym for PARALYSIS (severe or complete loss of motor function). In the older literature, paresis often referred specifically to paretic neurosyphilis (see NEUROSYPHILIS). "General paresis" and "general paralysis" may still carry that connotation. Bilateral lower extremity paresis is referred to as PARAPARESIS.Cranial Nerves: Twelve pairs of nerves that carry general afferent, visceral afferent, special afferent, somatic efferent, and autonomic efferent fibers.Brain Stem: The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.Optic Nerve: The 2nd cranial nerve which conveys visual information from the RETINA to the brain. The nerve carries the axons of the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS which sort at the OPTIC CHIASM and continue via the OPTIC TRACTS to the brain. The largest projection is to the lateral geniculate nuclei; other targets include the SUPERIOR COLLICULI and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEI. Though known as the second cranial nerve, it is considered part of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Meningioma: A relatively common neoplasm of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that arises from arachnoidal cells. The majority are well differentiated vascular tumors which grow slowly and have a low potential to be invasive, although malignant subtypes occur. Meningiomas have a predilection to arise from the parasagittal region, cerebral convexity, sphenoidal ridge, olfactory groove, and SPINAL CANAL. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2056-7)Nerve Fibers: Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Optic Nerve Diseases: Conditions which produce injury or dysfunction of the second cranial or optic nerve, which is generally considered a component of the central nervous system. Damage to optic nerve fibers may occur at or near their origin in the retina, at the optic disk, or in the nerve, optic chiasm, optic tract, or lateral geniculate nuclei. Clinical manifestations may include decreased visual acuity and contrast sensitivity, impaired color vision, and an afferent pupillary defect.Olfactory Nerve Diseases: Diseases of the first cranial (olfactory) nerve, which usually feature anosmia or other alterations in the sense of smell and taste. Anosmia may be associated with NEOPLASMS; CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM INFECTIONS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; inherited conditions; toxins; METABOLIC DISEASES; tobacco abuse; and other conditions. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp229-31)Peripheral Nerve Injuries: Injuries to the PERIPHERAL NERVES.Dictionaries, MedicalExotropia: A form of ocular misalignment where the visual axes diverge inappropriately. For example, medial rectus muscle weakness may produce this condition as the affected eye will deviate laterally upon attempted forward gaze. An exotropia occurs due to the relatively unopposed force exerted on the eye by the lateral rectus muscle, which pulls the eye in an outward direction.Examination QuestionsEsotropia: A form of ocular misalignment characterized by an excessive convergence of the visual axes, resulting in a "cross-eye" appearance. An example of this condition occurs when paralysis of the lateral rectus muscle causes an abnormal inward deviation of one eye on attempted gaze.Tuberculosis, Meningeal: A form of bacterial meningitis caused by MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS or rarely MYCOBACTERIUM BOVIS. The organism seeds the meninges and forms microtuberculomas which subsequently rupture. The clinical course tends to be subacute, with progressions occurring over a period of several days or longer. Headache and meningeal irritation may be followed by SEIZURES, cranial neuropathies, focal neurologic deficits, somnolence, and eventually COMA. The illness may occur in immunocompetent individuals or as an OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTION in the ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and other immunodeficiency syndromes. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp717-9)Cellular Phone: Analog or digital communications device in which the user has a wireless connection from a telephone to a nearby transmitter. It is termed cellular because the service area is divided into multiple "cells." As the user moves from one cell area to another, the call is transferred to the local transmitter.Sphenoid Sinusitis: Inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA in the SPHENOID SINUS. Isolated sphenoid sinusitis is uncommon. It usually occurs in conjunction with other paranasal sinusitis.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Urinary Fistula: An abnormal passage in any part of the URINARY TRACT between itself or with other organs.ArchivesEye Manifestations: Ocular disorders attendant upon non-ocular disease or injury.Ocular Motility Disorders: Disorders that feature impairment of eye movements as a primary manifestation of disease. These conditions may be divided into infranuclear, nuclear, and supranuclear disorders. Diseases of the eye muscles or oculomotor cranial nerves (III, IV, and VI) are considered infranuclear. Nuclear disorders are caused by disease of the oculomotor, trochlear, or abducens nuclei in the BRAIN STEM. Supranuclear disorders are produced by dysfunction of higher order sensory and motor systems that control eye movements, including neural networks in the CEREBRAL CORTEX; BASAL GANGLIA; CEREBELLUM; and BRAIN STEM. Ocular torticollis refers to a head tilt that is caused by an ocular misalignment. Opsoclonus refers to rapid, conjugate oscillations of the eyes in multiple directions, which may occur as a parainfectious or paraneoplastic condition (e.g., OPSOCLONUS-MYOCLONUS SYNDROME). (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p240)

Properties of conditioned abducens nerve responses in a highly reduced in vitro brain stem preparation from the turtle. (1/125)

Previous work suggested that the cerebellum and red nucleus are not necessary for the acquisition, extinction, and reacquistion of the in vitro classically conditioned abducens nerve response in the turtle. These findings are extended in the present study by obtaining conditioned responses (CRs) in preparations that received a partial ablation of the brain stem circuitry. In addition to removing all tissue rostral to and including the midbrain and cerebellum, a transection was made just caudal to the emergence of the IXth nerve. Such ablations result in a 4-mm-thick section of brain stem tissue that functionally eliminates the sustained component of the unconditioned response (UR) while leaving only a phasic component. We refer to this region of brain stem tissue caudal to the IXth nerve as the "caudal premotor blink region." Neural discharge was recorded from the abducens nerve following a single shock unconditioned stimulus (US) applied to the ipsilateral trigeminal nerve. When the US was paired with a conditioned stimulus (CS) applied to the posterior eighth, or auditory, nerve using a delay conditioning paradigm, a positive slope of CR acquisition was recorded in the abducens nerve, and CR extinction was recorded when the stimuli were alternated. Resumption of paired stimuli resulted in reacquisition. Quantitative analysis of the CRs in preparations in which the caudal premotor blink region had been removed and those with cerebellar/red nucleus lesions showed that both types of preparations had abnormally short latency CR onsets compared with preparations in which these regions were intact. Preparations with brain stem transections had significantly earlier CR offsets as more CRs terminated as short bursts when compared with intact or cerebellar lesioned preparations. These data suggest that a highly reduced in vitro brain stem preparation from the turtle can be classically conditioned. Furthermore, the caudal brain stem is not a site of acquisition in this reduced preparation, but it contributes to the sustained activity of both the UR and CR. Finally, the unusually short CR onset latencies following lesions to the cerebellum are not further exacerbated by removal of the caudal brain stem. These studies suggest that convergence of CS and US synaptic inputs onto the abducens nerve reflex circuitry may underlie acquisition in this reduced preparation, but that mechanisms that control learned CR timing arise from the cerebellorubral system.  (+info)

Discharge profiles of abducens, accessory abducens, and orbicularis oculi motoneurons during reflex and conditioned blinks in alert cats. (2/125)

The discharge profiles of identified abducens, accessory abducens, and orbicularis oculi motoneurons have been recorded extra- and intracellularly in alert behaving cats during spontaneous, reflexively evoked, and classically conditioned eyelid responses. The movement of the upper lid and the electromyographic activity of the orbicularis oculi muscle also were recorded. Animals were conditioned by short, weak air puffs or 350-ms tones as conditioned stimuli (CS) and long, strong air puffs as unconditioned stimulus (US) using both trace and delayed conditioning paradigms. Motoneurons were identified by antidromic activation from their respective cranial nerves. Orbicularis oculi and accessory abducens motoneurons fired an early, double burst of action potentials (at 4-6 and 10-16 ms) in response to air puffs or to the electrical stimulation of the supraorbital nerve. Orbicularis oculi, but not accessory abducens, motoneurons fired in response to flash and tone presentations. Only 10-15% of recorded abducens motoneurons fired a late, weak burst after air puff, supraorbital nerve, and flash stimulations. Spontaneous fasciculations of the orbicularis oculi muscle and the activity of single orbicularis oculi motoneurons that generated them also were recorded. The activation of orbicularis oculi motoneurons during the acquisition of classically conditioned eyelid responses happened in a gradual, sequential manner. Initially, some putative excitatory synaptic potentials were observed in the time window corresponding to the CS-US interval; by the second to the fourth conditioning session, some isolated action potentials appeared that increased in number until some small movements were noticed in eyelid position traces. No accessory abducens motoneuron fired and no abducens motoneuron modified their discharge rate for conditioned eyelid responses. The firing of orbicularis oculi motoneurons was related linearly to lid velocity during reflex blinks but to lid position during conditioned responses, a fact indicating the different neural origin and coding of both types of motor commands. The power spectra of both reflex and conditioned lid responses showed a dominant peak at approximately 20 Hz. The wavy appearance of both reflex and conditioned eyelid responses was clearly the result of the high phasic activity of orbicularis oculi motor units. Orbicularis oculi motoneuron membrane potentials oscillated at approximately 20 Hz after supraorbital nerve stimulation and during other reflex and conditioned eyelid movements. The oscillation seemed to be the result of both intrinsic (spike afterhyperpolarization lasting approximately 50 ms, and late depolarizations) and extrinsic properties of the motoneuronal pool and of the circuits involved in eye blinks.  (+info)

Stereotactic radiosurgery for cavernous sinus cavernous hemangioma--case report. (3/125)

A 40-year-old female presented with cavernous sinus cavernous hemangioma manifesting as left abducens and trigeminal nerve pareses. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a left cavernous sinus tumor. The tumor was partially removed. Histological examination of the specimen confirmed cavernous hemangioma. Radiosurgery was performed using the gamma knife. The tumor markedly decreased in size after radiosurgery and morbidity was avoided. Cavernous sinus cavernous hemangiomas may be difficult to treat surgically due to intraoperative bleeding and cranial nerve injury. Stereotactic radiosurgery can be used either as an adjunct treatment to craniotomy, or as the primary treatment for small cavernous sinus cavernous hemangioma.  (+info)

Neuro-Behcet's disease presenting with isolated unilateral lateral rectus muscle palsy. (4/125)

The authors present the clinical findings of a 30-year-old female and a 29-year-old male who both had isolated unilateral lateral rectus muscle palsy in neuro-Behcet's disease. The clinical feature related to isolated abduscens nerve palsy was identified by CT, systemic assessment and extraocular examination. These patients' constellation of findings appear to be unique: it does not follow any previously reported pattern of ocular manifestations of neuro-Behcet's disease.  (+info)

Quantitative analysis of abducens neuron discharge dynamics during saccadic and slow eye movements. (5/125)

The mechanics of the eyeball and its surrounding tissues, which together form the oculomotor plant, have been shown to be the same for smooth pursuit and saccadic eye movements. Hence it was postulated that similar signals would be carried by motoneurons during slow and rapid eye movements. In the present study, we directly addressed this proposal by determining which eye movement-based models best describe the discharge dynamics of primate abducens neurons during a variety of eye movement behaviors. We first characterized abducens neuron spike trains, as has been classically done, during fixation and sinusoidal smooth pursuit. We then systematically analyzed the discharge dynamics of abducens neurons during and following saccades, during step-ramp pursuit and during high velocity slow-phase vestibular nystagmus. We found that the commonly utilized first-order description of abducens neuron firing rates (FR = b + kE + r, where FR is firing rate, E and are eye position and velocity, respectively, and b, k, and r are constants) provided an adequate model of neuronal activity during saccades, smooth pursuit, and slow phase vestibular nystagmus. However, the use of a second-order model, which included an exponentially decaying term or "slide" (FR = b + kE + r + uE - c), notably improved our ability to describe neuronal activity when the eye was moving and also enabled us to model abducens neuron discharges during the postsaccadic interval. We also found that, for a given model, a single set of parameters could not be used to describe neuronal firing rates during both slow and rapid eye movements. Specifically, the eye velocity and position coefficients (r and k in the above models, respectively) consistently decreased as a function of the mean (and peak) eye velocity that was generated. In contrast, the bias (b, firing rate when looking straight ahead) invariably increased with eye velocity. Although these trends are likely to reflect, in part, nonlinearities that are intrinsic to the extraocular muscles, we propose that these results can also be explained by considering the time-varying resistance to movement that is generated by the antagonist muscle. We conclude that to create realistic and meaningful models of the neural control of horizontal eye movements, it is essential to consider the activation of the antagonist, as well as agonist motoneuron pools.  (+info)

Apparent dissociation between saccadic eye movements and the firing patterns of premotor neurons and motoneurons. (6/125)

Saccadic eye movements result from high-frequency bursts of activity in ocular motoneurons. This phasic activity originates in premotor burst neurons. When the head is restrained, the number of action potentials in the bursts of burst neurons and motoneurons increases linearly with eye movement amplitude. However, when the head is unrestrained, the number of action potentials now increase as a function of the change in the direction of the line of sight during eye movements of relatively similar amplitudes. These data suggest an apparent uncoupling of premotor neuron and motoneuron activity from the resultant eye movement.  (+info)

Early components of the human vestibulo-ocular response to head rotation: latency and gain. (7/125)

To characterize vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) properties in the time window in which contributions by other systems are minimal, eye movements during the first 50-100 ms after the start of transient angular head accelerations ( approximately 1000 degrees /s(2)) imposed by a torque helmet were analyzed in normal human subjects. Orientations of the head and both eyes were recorded with magnetic search coils (resolution, approximately 1 min arc; 1000 samples/s). Typically, the first response to a head perturbation was an anti-compensatory eye movement with zero latency, peak-velocity of several degrees per second, and peak excursion of several tenths of a degree. This was interpreted as a passive mechanical response to linear acceleration of the orbital tissues caused by eccentric rotation of the eye. The response was modeled as a damped oscillation (approximately 13 Hz) of the orbital contents, approaching a constant eye deviation for a sustained linear acceleration. The subsequent compensatory eye movements showed (like the head movements) a linear increase in velocity, which allowed estimates of latency and gain with linear regressions. After appropriate accounting for the preceding passive eye movements, average VOR latency (for pooled eyes, directions, and subjects) was calculated as 8.6 ms. Paired comparisons between the two eyes revealed that the latency for the eye contralateral to the direction of head rotation was, on average, 1.3 ms shorter than for the ipsilateral eye. This highly significant average inter-ocular difference was attributed to the additional internuclear abducens neuron in the pathway to the ipsilateral eye. Average acceleration gain (ratio between slopes of eye and head velocities) over the first 40-50 ms was approximately 1.1. Instantaneous velocity gain, calculated as Veye(t)/Vhead(t-latency), showed a gradual build-up converging toward unity (often after a slight overshoot). Instantaneous acceleration gain also converged toward unity but showed a much steeper build-up and larger oscillations. This behavior of acceleration and velocity gain could be accounted for by modeling the eye movements as the sum of the passive response to the linear acceleration and the active rotational VOR. Due to the latency and the anticompensatory component, gaze stabilization was never complete. The influence of visual targets was limited. The initial VOR was identical with a distant target (continuously visible or interrupted) and in complete darkness. A near visual target caused VOR gain to rise to a higher level, but the time after which the difference between far and near targets emerged varied between individuals.  (+info)

Expansion of afferent vestibular signals after the section of one of the vestibular nerve branches. (8/125)

The anterior branch of N. VIII was sectioned in adult frogs. Two months later the brain was isolated to record in vitro responses in the vestibular nuclei and from the abducens nerves following electric stimulation of the anterior branch of N. VIII or of the posterior canal nerve. Extra- and intracellularly recorded responses from the intact and operated side were compared with responses from controls. Major changes were detected on the operated side: the amplitudes of posterior canal nerve evoked field potentials were enlarged, the number of vestibular neurons with a monosynaptic input from the posterior canal nerve had increased, and posterior canal nerve stimulation recruited stronger abducens nerve responses on the intact side than vice versa. Changes in the convergence pattern of vestibular nerve afferent inputs on the operated side strongly suggest the expansion of posterior canal-related afferent inputs onto part of those vestibular neurons that were deprived of their afferent vestibular input. As a mechanism we suggest reactive synaptogenesis between intact posterior canal afferent fibers and vestibularly deprived second-order vestibular neurons.  (+info)

Purpose: Disrupting binocular vision during the first few months of life in a monkey results in strabismus. The objective of this study was to investigate response properties of abducens motoneurons (ABN) in relation to horizontal misalignment in monkeys with strabismus.. Methods: Burst-tonic (BT) activity of 49 neurons in the abducens nucleus (17-Left Abducens LTBT; 32-Right Abducens RTBT) was recorded from one strabismic monkey (OD: ~30° XT; OS: ~15° XT) during horizontal smooth pursuit (0.2 Hz, ±15°) under each monocular viewing condition. Neuronal firing rates (FR) and horizontal component of eye position and velocity (Epos, Evel) were used to identify regression coefficients (K-position, R-velocity, C-constant) in a first-order model (FR = K*Epos + R*Evel + C) for each tracking condition.. Results: Both RTBT and LTBT activity was well fit with the first order model equation. For RTBT motoneurons, the mean coefficients were K=5.4±3.8, R=1.4±0.6, C=41±62. Fit coefficients (K and R) ...
A low or a high dose of tetanus neurotoxin (TeNT) injected in the lateral rectus muscle of the cat causes respectively, functional block of inhibitory synapses only or of both inhibitory and excitatory synapses simultaneously in abducens neurons (González-Forero et al. [2003] J. Neurophysiol. 89:1878-1890). As a consequence, neuronal firing activity increases (at low dose) or decreases (at high dose). We investigated possible structural modifications of inhibitory synapses in response to these activity alterations induced by TeNT. We used immunofluorescence against postsynaptic (gephyrin) and presynaptic (vesicular γ-aminobutyric acid [GABA] transporter [VGAT]) markers of inhibitory synapses in combination with cell type markers for abducens motoneurons (calcitonin gene-related peptide or choline acetyltransferase) or internuclear neurons (calretinin). Seven days after high-dose treatment, the number of gephyrin-immunoreactive (IR) clusters per 100 μm of membrane perimeter was reduced on the soma of
The abducens nerve is the sixth cranial nerve. It courses from its nucleus located in the dorsal pons to its innervation of the lateral rectus muscle and can be divided into four parts: nucleus and intraparenchymal portion cisternal portion ca...
Tetanus neurotoxin (TeNT) cleaves synaptobrevin, a protein involved in synaptic vesicle docking and fusion, thereby preventing neurotransmitter release and causing a functional deafferentation. We injected TeNT into the lateral rectus muscle of adult cats at 0.5 or 5 ng/kg (low and high dose, respectively). In the periphery, TeNT slightly slowed motor axon conduction velocity, and at high doses, partially blocked neuromuscular transmission. TeNT peripheral actions displayed time courses different to the more profound and longer-lasting central actions. Central effects were first observed 2 days postinjection and reversed after 1 mo. The low dose induce depression of inhibitory inputs, whereas the high dose produce depression of both inhibitory and excitatory inputs. Simultaneous recordings of eye movement and neuronal firing revealed that low-dose injections specifically reduced inhibition of firing during off-directed saccadic movements, while high-dose injections of TeNT affected both inhibitory and
The problem of moving the eyes to fixate a new target in space (or indeed any other movement) entails two separate issues: controlling the amplitude of movement (how far), and controlling the direction of the movement (which way). The amplitude of a saccadic eye movement is encoded by the duration of neuronal activity in the lower motor neurons of the oculomotor nuclei. As shown in Figure 20.6, for instance, neurons in the abducens nucleus fire a burst of action potentials prior to abducting the eye (by causing the lateral rectus muscle to contract) and are silent when the eye is adducted. The amplitude of the movement is correlated with the duration of the burst of action potentials in the abducens neuron. With each saccade, the abducens neurons reach a new baseline level of discharge that is correlated with the position of the eye in the orbit. The steady baseline level of firing holds the eye in its new position. Figure 20.6Motor neuron activity in relation to saccadic eye movements. The experimental
Synonyms for Abducent nerves in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Abducent nerves. 5 synonyms for abducens nerve: abducens, abducent, abducent nerve, nervus abducens, sixth cranial nerve. What are synonyms for Abducent nerves?
Schwannomas of the abducens nerve are extremely uncommon tumors. Here, we report the case of a 26-year-old woman who presented with a 6th nerve palsy and was found to have a large tumor at the right side of her pons. Neuropathologic exam revealed a c
Study Abducent/Abducens Nerve flashcards from Kelsey Thomas's Palmer College of Chiropractic-Davenport class online, or in Brainscape's iPhone or Android app. ✓ Learn faster with spaced repetition.
Jen et al. (2004) carried out high resolution MRI in eight patients from four families with HGPPS including two consanguineous families from Saudi Arabia and a third from unknown Arab origin. Abnormal flattening of the basis pontis and hypoplasia in the pontine tegmentum were evident on sagittal sections. The structural alterations in caudal pons suggested potential involvement of the abducens nuclei, the medial longitudinal fasciculus, and the pontine paramedian reticular formation. The medulla appeared abnormally butterfly-like, with anterior flattening and an unusual midline cleft. The abducens nerves were visualized bilaterally in the extra-axial space, and orbital MRI demonstrated normal extraocular muscle configuration and size, as well as the presence of apparently normal intraorbital motor nerves to the medial and lateral rectus muscles. Jen et al. (2004) concluded that the absence of bulging of abducens nuclei into the fourth ventricle observed in HGPPS patients likely represents ...
1 The Olfactory Nerve. - Transmits the sense of smell from the nose. 2 The Optic Nerve. The optic nerve is a sensory nerve responsible for vision.. 3 The Oculomotor Nerve. -Transmits signals from the brain that result in eye movements.. 4 The Trochlear Nerve. - Causes the eye to move in the downward and inward directions.. 5 The Trigeminal Nerve. - The motor portion of the trigeminal nerve is responsible for jaw movement and chewing, while the sensory portion of the nerve provides the sensation of touch over the face.. 6 The Abducens Nerve. The abducens nerve is a motor nerve that is responsible for lateral or outward eye movement.. 7 The Facial Nerve. - Responsible for facial movements and expression, as well as some muscles deep in the neck.. 8 The Auditory ...
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A abducens nucleus, ipsilateral eye cannot abduct, contralateral eye cannot adduct when attempting to have conjugate horizontal movement with the other eye, convergence is ...
My eyes. Optic, Oculomotor, Trochlear, and Abducens Nuclei. Moving in all directions. Watching you glide from one task to another. Dilating to allow light in to see things more clearly. They see you for you. My mouth. Tongue elevating to articulate words of gratitude and passion. Muscles of facial expression, activated to emote the pain, fear, and…
All the 3 Cranial nerves are tested at the same time by assessing the Extra Ocular Movement (EOM) or the six cardinal position of gaze. Follow the given steps: 1. .... ...
abducens-muscle definition: Noun (plural abducens muscles) 1. (anatomy) Rectus lateralis muscle of the eye; muscle that moves the eye away from the center of the face.Origin Shortening of abducens nerve, in turn from Latin nervus abducens, from abducent, a...
Boy George Recalls Unconscious Uncoupling From Madonna Boy George was asked to revisit his supposed 1980s feud vith Madonna on Monday ( Visit our shop --Ed.) & said he never really fell out vith his pop contemporary. It was like a series of incidents where we kind of just never managed to get close, the Karma Chameleon singer said on Watch What Happens Live with Andy Cohen. ...
Le VIe Congrès Méditerranéen dEsthétique, qui aura lieu à la Villa Finaly à Florence du 24 au 28 juin 2014, concernera le débat contemporain autour de lopposition des faits et des valeurs en esthétique. Dans un texte célèbre intitulé Fait/valeur : la fin dun dogme (2002), Hilary Putnam argumente de manière convaincante contre cette dichotomie classique des plus néfastes pour la réflexion philosophique ; en effet, cette dichotomie apparemment indiscutée et indiscutable, ce qui est la nature de tout dogme, laisse en létat un grand nombre de problématiques, non traitées, non perçues, non examinées. Lanalyse de Putnam porte essentiellement sur la théorie et la pratique de la connaissance, mais on peut légitimement létendre à dautres champs, à commencer par celui de lesthétique, lequel se confronte tôt ou tard à cette question, que lon défende ou rejette la dichotomie. La maintenir ou la refuser suppose des raisons, mais qui restent le plus souvent implicites, a ...
The main topic here is the disjunctive nature of this constraint. This gave the opportunity of "dont-know-nondeterminism" by exploring both alternatives in the same time and keeping the result in the domains of the variables. When the alternative is known then the other one is discarded.. The propagation of the constraint. ...
Definition of abducens nerve diseases in the Definitions.net dictionary. Meaning of abducens nerve diseases. What does abducens nerve diseases mean? Information and translations of abducens nerve diseases in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web.
Definition of abducens nerve injury in the Definitions.net dictionary. Meaning of abducens nerve injury. What does abducens nerve injury mean? Information and translations of abducens nerve injury in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web.
... On-line free medical diagnosis assistant. Ranked list of possible diseases from either several symptoms or a full patient history. A similarity measure between symptoms and diseases is provided.
Benign Abducens Nerve Palsy (Benign Sixth Nerve Palsy Syndrome): Read more about Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Complications, Causes and Prognosis.
The sixth cranial nerve (CNVI) is also named the abducens nerve. It only controls eye movement from the lateral rectus muscle of the eye. The primary action is to help the eye move outward, towards the ear - this action is called ABDUCTION - hence, ABducens nerve. CNVI is unique in that it has a long path to its origin that takes sharp turns. The long pathway, location, and anatomical structures that this nerve courses over make it uniquely susceptible to damage from elevated intracranial pressure.
Background== *Also called 6th cranial nerve (CN VI) *Most common ocular nerve palsy *Innervates the ipsilateral lateral rectus muscle controlling eye abduction *Esotropia (eye moves inward) of the affected eye due to the unopposed action of the medial rectus muscle, innervated by the oculomotor nerve (CN III) ,ref name="tint">Tintinalli JE, Kelen GD, Stapczynski JS, Ma, OJ, Cline DM, editors. Tintinallis Emergency Medicine. 7th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2011. 763, 1037, 1546,/ref> ===Causes=== *Nuclear lesion **Congenital, [[MS,demyelinating]], [[CVA,ischemia]], traumatic *Inflammatory **[[Vasculitis]] **[[Sarcoidosis]] **[[Systemic lupus erythematosus]] *Infectious **[[Lyme disease]] **[[Syphilis ]] **[[Tuberculosis]] **[[Meningitis ]] *Orbital lesions **Neoplastic **Inflammatory **Infectious ==Clinical Features== ===History=== *May complain of:,ref name="tint">Tintinalli JE, Kelen GD, Stapczynski JS, Ma, OJ, Cline DM, editors. Tintinallis Emergency Medicine. 7th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; ...
Journal of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus | Benign recurrent abducens nerve palsy is rare. Twenty-three cases in children have been reported in the literature and many of these cases followed immunization or were associated with viral illness. Most of the reported patients share the following features: spontaneous recovery within 6 months, ipsilateral recurrence, and painless palsy. The authors describe a Turkish child with recurrent
Both neuropathologic, neuroradiologic, and neurophysiologic studies support the hypothesis that Duane syndrome results from an absence of cranial nerve VI (abducens nerve). Neuropathologic evidence comes from postmortem examinations of individuals who had DS14,15. These studies have shown an absence of cranial nerve VI and its correponding alpha motor neurons in the pons, and aberrant innervation of the lateral rectus muscle (the muscle that moves the eye outward towards the ear) by a branch of cranial nerve III. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of an individual with DS also revealed the absence of the abducens nerve (cranial nerve VI)16. Neurophysiological evidence for neuronal involvement in DS comes from electromyographic (EMG) studies which show that the medial and lateral recti muscles are electrically active in individuals with DS. When individuals with DS attempt to move their eyes inward (adduct), however, both of these muscles contract at the same time, resulting in the eyeball ...
Endocrine: [[diabetic neuropathy,Diabetic cranial mononeuropathy]] - the incidence of palsy in the 3rd, 6th, and 7th cranial nerves is significantly higher in patients with [[diabetes]],ref name=tint,Tintinalli JE, Kelen GD, Stapczynski JS, Ma, OJ, Cline DM, editors. Tintinallis Emergency Medicine. 7th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2011. 763, 1037, 1546,/ref,,ref name=rosen,Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et al., eds. Rosens Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice. Philadelphia, PA: Mosby/Elsevier; 2013,/ref, ,ref name=oph,Yanoff M, Duker JS. Opthalmology. Mosby International Ltd; 2013,/ref,,ref name=eye,Gerstenblith AT. The Wills Eye Manual: Office and Emergency Room Diagnosis and Treatment of Eye Disease. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins,/ref,,ref,http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26314216,/ref,,ref,http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17157701,/ref,,ref,http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11555800,/ref ...
We opted to perform surgery, and we performed a microsurgical discectomy with minimally invasive left transthoracic access, with a partial posterior corpectomy of T6/7 and placement of an autologous bone graft. During the operation, we had difficulty removing the disc fragment due to its adherence in the posterior portion of the spinal cord and calcification of the local structures (vertebral disc and posterior longitudinal ligament). This caused a dural tear with visible spinal fluid leakage. Primary suturing of the dura mater was not possible; however, the fistula was promptly corrected with a synthetic patch of collagen and fibrinogen (Tachocomb®), without any visible residual fluid leakage during the surgery. A chest tube connected to a waterseal and an external lumbar drain were placed. It is important to emphasize that in cases of CSF leakage, the chest tube should only be placed to waterseal and no suction or negative pressure should be used, as was the case in this report. In the ...
Case A 17 year old man presented with acute headache and bilateral abducens nerve palsies. CT scan revealed obstructive hydrocephalus caused by a third ventricular lesion. He was managed with a ventriculoperitoneal shunt and biopsies of the lesion were taken. Histologically, the lesion contained non-caseating epitheliod cell granulomas, suggestive of sarcoidosis. He was treated with high dose prednisolone and remained clinically well but follow up brain MRI revealed a significant increase in volume of the third ventricular lesion. Following unsuccessful investigations to find any evidence of systemic sarcoid, the patient underwent a second brain biopsy which confirmed the diagnosis of germinoma. Both the biopsies were done through a craniotomy and transcallosal dissection in order to have a good view of the abnormalities from within the ventricles and recover decent tissue samples that at least macroscopically were representative and large enough to try to prevent sampling error. The patient was ...
Articles related to anatomy include: Contents: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z abdomen abdominal aorta abducens nerve abducens nucleus abducent abducent nerve abduction accessory bone accessory cuneate nucleus accessory nerve accessory olivary nucleus accommodation reflex acetabulum Achilles tendon acoustic nerve acromion adenohypophysis adenoids adipose aditus aditus ad antrum adrenal gland adrenergic afferent neuron agger nasi agnosia agonist alar ligament albuginea alimentary allantois allocortex alpha motor neurons alveolar artery alveolar process alveolus alveus of the hippocampus amatory anatomy amaurosis Ammons horn ampulla Ampulla of Vater amygdala amygdalofugal pathway amygdaloid amylacea anaesthesia analgesia analogous anastomosis anatomical pathology anatomical position anatomical snuffbox anatomical terms of location anatomical terms of motion anatomy anconeus angiography angiology angular gyrus anhidrosis animal morphology anisocoria ankle ankle reflex annular ...
Down Syndrome Cell Adhesion Molecules (dscam and dscaml1) are essential regulators of neural circuit assembly, but their roles in vertebrate neural circuit function are still mostly unexplored. We investigated the functional consequences of dscaml1 deficiency in the larval zebrafish (sexually undifferentiated) oculomotor system, where behavior, circuit function, and neuronal activity can be precisely quantified. Genetic perturbation of dscaml1 resulted in deficits in retinal patterning and light adaptation, consistent with its known roles in mammals. Oculomotor analyses revealed specific deficits related to the dscaml1 mutation, including severe fatigue during gaze stabilization, reduced saccade amplitude and velocity in the light, greater disconjugacy, and impaired fixation. Two-photon calcium imaging of abducens neurons in control and dscaml1 mutant animals confirmed deficits in saccade-command signals (indicative of an impairment in the saccadic premotor pathway), while abducens activation by ...
Abducent nerve is the sixth cranial nerve, which emerges from the skull to operate the lateral rectus muscle. This muscle draws the eye toward the side of the head. Paralysis of the abducent nerve causes inward turning of the eye.
paralysis of the abducens nerve and unilateral headache in chronic suppurative otitis media, caused by direct spread of the infection to involve the abducens and trigeminal nerves
Thyroid eye disease The most common cause of chronic abducens nerve palsy. Graves eye disease, also known as thyroid eye disease, is an autoimmune condition in which immune cells attack the thyroid gland which responds by secreting an excess amount of thyroid hormone. As a result, the thyroid gland enlarges and excess hormones increase metabolism. The hypermetabolic state is characterized by fast pulse/heartbeat, palpitations, profuse sweating, high blood pressure, irritability, fatigue, weig…
PUBLICATIONS CONTINUED. Levchenko A., Caballes, E., Cohen, J.: Visual rehabilitation for rare abducens nerve complication after large vestibular schwannoma resection via translabyrinth approach: A Case Report. Presented at 2013 AAPM&R annual meeting.. Levchenko A., Simhaee, J., DePorto, R.: Spontaneous latissimus dorsi hematoma in a stroke patient on therapeutic enoxaparin and aspirin: a case report. Presented at 2013 AAP Annual Meeting.. Levchenko A., Vivaldi, G., Cohen, J.: Fibrocartilaginous embolism to spinal cord: a case report. Presented at 2013 AOCPMR midyear meeting and scientific symposium.. Rashbaum, I., Levchenko A.: 2013 American Academy of PM&R board review course: Stroke Rehabilitation.. Wisotzky, E., Levchenko A., Mallory, B. Myositis ossificans after silicone injection to the buttocks: a case report. Presented at 2010 AAP Annual Meeting.. ...
We present a noninvasive technique for high-speed measuring of eye retraction and eyelid position during blinking. The anterior chamber of the eye is illuminated by the slit lamp of a biomicroscope and eye dynamics during a blinking sequence are captured with a high-speed camera working at 500 frames per second. Digital image processing allows quantitative analysis of cornea and eyelid positions during the closing and opening phases of the blinking process. Our method allows simultaneous measuring of corneal retraction, duration of down and up phases, total blinking duration, and average and peak speeds of the eyelids in both phases, thus providing a complete analysis of the blinks transversal motions.. © 2010 Optical Society of America. Full Article , PDF Article ...
CHAPTER I What God is; and how we shall recognize his divine nature in his manifestation. 1. Reason says : I hear much mention made of 2od, that there is a God who has created all things, O 7 ilso upholds and supports all things; but I have lot yet seen any, nor heard from the lips of any, hat hath seen God, or that could tell where God Iwells or is, or how he is. For when Reason looks ipon the existence of this world, and considers ;hat it fares with the righteous as with the wicked, ind how all things are mortal and frail; also low the righteous man sees no deliverer to release lim from the anxietjr and adversity of the wicked nan, and so must go down with fear in misery ;o the grave : then it thinks, all things happen :,y chance ; there is no God who interests himself n the sufferer, seeing he lets him that hopes in lim be in misery, and therein go down to the rrave; neither has any been heard of who has eturned from corruption, and said he has been vith God. 2. Answer. Reason is a natural ...
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Looking for online definition of interstitial nucleus of medial longitudinal fasciculus in the Medical Dictionary? interstitial nucleus of medial longitudinal fasciculus explanation free. What is interstitial nucleus of medial longitudinal fasciculus? Meaning of interstitial nucleus of medial longitudinal fasciculus medical term. What does interstitial nucleus of medial longitudinal fasciculus mean?
Duanes retraction syndrome (DRS) is a complex congenital eye movement disorder caused by aberrant innervation of the extraocular muscles by axons of brainstem motor neurons. Studying families with a variant form of the disorder (DURS2-DRS), we have identified causative heterozygous missense mutations in CHN1, a gene on chromosome 2q31 that encodes α2-chimaerin, a Rac guanosine triphosphatase-activating protein (RacGAP) signaling protein previously implicated in the pathfinding of corticospinal axons in mice. We found that these are gain-of-function mutations that increase α2-chimaerin RacGAP activity in vitro. Several of the mutations appeared to enhance α2-chimaerin translocation to the cell membrane or enhance its ability to self-associate. Expression of mutant α2-chimaerin constructs in chick embryos resulted in failure of oculomotor axons to innervate their target extraocular muscles. We conclude that α2-chimaerin has a critical developmental function in ocular motor axon ...
BACKGROUND: Transposition techniques alter the muscle paths thereby creating new directions of muscle force. Extraocular muscle transposition procedures have been used to treat abducens palsy, Duanes retraction syndrome, double-elevator palsy and other complex ocular motility abnormalities. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the surgical and functional results of rectus muscle transposition in patients with different aetiologies of severe ocular motility deficits. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between 1992 and 2008 rectus muscle transposition surgery has been performed on 31 patients. In this retrospective case series one patient with an abducens nerve palsy is presented as an example. In addition, six patients with motility disorders of different aetiologies who had transposition manoeuvers were evaluated. Preoperative, surgical and postoperative data are reported. RESULTS: Rectus muscle transposition has been performed because of severe functional loss of the lateral rectus muscle, the ...
purpose. The genetic bases of Duanes retraction syndrome (DRS) were investigated to determine its molecular etiologies. In prior studies, the transcription factors SALL4 and HOXA1 were identified as the genes mutated in DRS with radial anomalies, and in DRS with deafness, vascular anomalies, and cognitive deficits, respectively. Less is known, however, about the genetic etiology of DRS when it occurs in isolation, and only one genetic locus for isolated DRS, the DURS2 locus on chromosome 2, has been mapped to date. Toward the goal of identifying the DURS2 gene, two pedigrees have been ascertained that segregate DRS as a dominant trait.. methods. Members of two large dominant DRS pedigrees were enrolled in an ongoing study of the genetic basis of the congenital cranial dysinnervation disorders, and linkage analysis was conducted to determine whether their DRS phenotype maps to the DURS2 locus.. results. By haplotype analysis, the DRS phenotype in each family cosegregates with markers spanning ...
Among the complications of spinal anaesthesia, 6th cranial nerve palsy occurs rarely. There is a possibility of encountering nerve injury during subarachnoid injections due to a long extracranial course. The symptoms appear as a result of ocular muscle paralysis. These symptoms often begin after the 4th day and spontaneous recovery lasts for weeks to months. We present a case in which Nervous Abducens palsy occurred following spinal anaesthesia for double j ureteral catheter placement surgery.. Keywords: Abducens nerve, spinal anaesthesia, diplopia, double j stent, ...
Diagram of the sixth cranial nerve nuclei on a brainstem. Named for its function - innervating the lateral rectus muscle, whose action is to abduct the globe
Double vision (2 images seen side by side) is the most common symptom. If one eye is involved, the separation between the 2 images is greatest on gaze in the direction of the affected eye (for example, gaze to the left in a left sixth nerve palsy). There is usually less double vision on near fixation than on distance fixation. Children typically do not experience persistent double vision, but are prone to develop amblyopia depending on the severity and duration of the sixth nerve palsy.. ...
TBI patients may experience visual-vestibular dysfunctions characterized by dizziness, vertigo, nausea, balance problems, photophobia in fluorescent lighting and increased motion sensitivity.4,10,29 Words may seem to move around while reading and computer tasks may be problematic due to monitor light flicker or sensitivity to scrolling motions. Visual-vestibular disorders likely occur due to abnormal function of the vestibular-ocular reflex (VOR) that controls gaze stabilization. The VOR stabilizes images on the retina during head movements by producing eye movements opposite that of the head movements.4,12,16,29-32 Dysfunction of the VOR may occur with damage to the semicircular canals in the ears, the oculomotor nerve (CNIII), the abducens nerve (CNVI), the acoustic nerve (CNVIII), or any neurological structures integrating these components.4,10,15,16,22,31,32 Detailed questioning regarding related symptoms in the patient history is especially useful in identifying and addressing potential ...
Nightmare n. 1 the act or process of inhibiting abnormal movement with more severe complication. Dimercaprol can be made to remove warts and corns. If each player obtains a better absorbent of moisture and are involved in the treatment of hypertensive end-organ damage. Cimetidine, do you make prayer a staple in your penis for more than one cause for the h4 blocker. The left ureter runs along the back of the drug of choice in selected patients who answer positively to all three trunks. Diplopia, see also abducens nerve. Major depressive disorder but in most tissues; and the skeletal muscles. ephedrine hydrochloride injection 20 mg once in 2 weeks) with or without + stereos solid + gramme a line] cerebral angiography n. The direction of a locking device. Panic attacks occur in conjunction with conscious sedation also known as a condom should malignancy, or radiation-induced fistulas, a myocutaneous modification of the patients disease, factors such as dryness of mouth, hyperhidrosis, coldness of ...
Looking for petrosal process? Find out information about petrosal process. A sharp process of the sphenoid bone located below the notch for the passage of the abducens nerve, which articulates with the apex of the petrous portion... Explanation of petrosal process
To counteract the diplopia patients are commonly seen raising the level of the affected eye by tilting their head away from the side of the lesion i.e. a patient with a right 4th nerve palsy will tilt their head away such that, when looking at the patient, their right ear is higher than their left ear ...
... the abducens nerve (sixth nerve) is involved. This nerve supplies the muscle that pulls the eye outward. Those with sixth nerve ... More rarely, the oculomotor nerve and trochlear nerve (third and fourth nerve palsy, respectively) are affected; both play a ... The facial nerve (seventh cranial nerve) is affected occasionally -- the result is total or partial weakness of the muscles of ... The increased pressure leads to compression and traction of the cranial nerves, a group of nerves that arise from the brain ...
... is the bow-shaped bony enclosure surrounding the abducens nerve and the inferior petrosal sinus as the two ... Sixth (abducens) nerve palsy Dorello's canal: a microanatomical study. ...
Abducens Nerve Palsy at eMedicine "Barton, J., & Goodwin, J. (2001). Horizontal Gaze Palsy". Medlink.com. Retrieved 2013-07-07 ... Nonselective horizontal gaze palsies are caused by lesions in the Abducens nucleus. This is where the cranial nerve VI leaves ... Lesions anywhere in the abducens nucleus, cranial nerve VI neurons, or interneurons can affect eye movement towards the side of ... The cranial nerve VI also has interneurons connecting to the medial rectus, which controls horizontal eye movement towards from ...
... the abducens nerve (sixth nerve) is involved. This nerve supplies the muscle that pulls the eye outward. Those with sixth nerve ... More rarely, the oculomotor nerve and trochlear nerve (third and fourth nerve palsy, respectively) are affected; both play a ... The increased pressure leads to compression and traction of the cranial nerves, a group of nerves that arise from the brain ... 2 No localizing signs with the exception of abducens (sixth) nerve palsy ...
Münchener mediznische Wochenschrift, 1888 - On congenital facial paralysis of the abducens nerve. Die Basedowsche Krankheit. In ... He is credited for providing a distinction between exogenous and endogenous nerve disorders, and introduced ideas on the ... This is a rare type of palsy associated with paralysis of the cranial nerves VI and VII. This results in the patient having a ...
Absence of the abducens nucleus and nerve (cranial nerve VI) Abnormal eye movement due to the lateral rectus muscle being ... MRI imaging can be used to detect whether the abducens nerve is present. Typically, treatment for this condition requires a ... This results from improper nerve development for eye movement. The following are characteristics of Duane anomaly: Inability to ... innervated by a branch of the oculomotor nerve (cranial nerve III) This is characterized by hand and arm abnormalities. The ...
It is the only muscle supplied by the abducens nerve, cranial nerve VI. The abducens nerve exits the brainstem from the pons- ... also known as abducens nerve palsy, is a neurological defect that results from a damaged or impaired abducens nerve. This ... Nerves of orbita. Deep dissection. Extrinsic eye muscle. Nerves of orbita. Deep dissection. Extrinsic eye muscle. Nerves of ... Damage to the abducens nerve by trauma can be caused by any type of trauma that causes elevated intracranial pressure; ...
The abducens nerve (cranial nerve VI) tracks along the clivus during its course. Increased intracranial pressure can trap the ... nerve at this point and cause signs of palsy. Clivus is also the site for chordoma (a rare malignant tumour.) The clivus is an ...
The nuclei or bodies of these nerves are found in the brain stem. The nuclei of the abducens and oculomotor nerves are ... Hence the subsequent nerve supply (innervation) of the eye muscles is from three cranial nerves. The development of the ... Nerves of the orbit. Seen from above. Figure showing the mode of innervation of the Recti medialis and lateralis of the eye. ... This "tonic" activity is brought on by discharges of the motor nerve to the muscle. The extraocular muscles develop along with ...
One pathway projects directly to the lateral rectus of eye via the abducens nerve. Another nerve tract projects from the ... There they project and stimulate the lateral rectus of the left eye via the abducens nerve. In addition, by the medial ... From these nuclei, fibers cross to the contralateral cranial nerve VI nucleus (abducens nucleus). There they synapse with 2 ... then excitatory impulses are sent from the semicircular canal on the right side via the vestibular nerve (cranial nerve VIII) ...
... and a partial loss of the glossopharyngeal and facial motor nerves. However, the somatic hypoglossal and abducens motor nerves ... The trigeminal nerve is not affected in the double knockout mouse embryos, indicating that cell fate alteration is limited to ... Cell lineage analysis of Nkx 2.9 and Nkx 2.2 double knockout (deficient) mouse embryos shows that cranial nerve alterations are ... Disturbance of Nkx 2.9 and Nkx 2.2 in mouse embryos results in the total loss of the spinal accessory and vagal motor nerves, ...
Associated cranial nerves are the oculomotor, abducens, trochlear, and hypoglossal nerves. These motor neurons indirectly ... While these tracts exist for both efferent and afferent nerves, efferent nerves will carry signals down the spinal cord toward ... White matter tracts are bundles of axons and serve as means to propagate nerve impulses on a large scale. These are found in ... The axons from the lower motor neurons are efferent nerve fibers that carry signals from the spinal cord to the effectors. ...
The ciliary nerves, ciliary ganglion, oculomotor nerve and abducens nerve are anesthetized in retrobulbar block. As a result, ... O' Brien's block : It is also known as facial nerve trunk block. The block is done at the level of the neck of the mandible ... Facial nerve, which supplies the orbicularis oculi muscle, is blocked in addition for intraocular surgeries. Topical ... van Lint's block : In van Lint's block, the peripheral branches of facial nerve are blocked. This technique causes akinesia of ...
It connects the cranial nerve nuclei III (Oculomotor nerve), IV (Trochlear nerve) and VI (Abducens nerve) together, and ... MLF is the main central connection for the oculomotor nerve, trochlear nerve, and abducens nerve. The vertical gaze center is ... nerve about head movements, gait adjustments from the flocculus of the cerebellum, head and neck proprioceptors and foot and ... Vestibulocochlear nerve). It is an integral component of saccadic eye movements as well as vestibulo-ocular and optokinetic ...
The Deiters' nucleus extends from pontomedullary junction to the level of abducens nerve nucleus in the pons. Lateral ... With this they determined that the superior vestibular nerve plays a larger role in balance than the inferior vestibulo nerve ... This tract is found in the lateral funiculus, a bundle of nerve roots in the spinal cord. The lateral vestibulospinal tract ... "VESTIBULAR NUCLEI AND ABDUCENS NUCLEUS". Medical Neurosciences University of Wisconsin. Archived from the original on November ...
These are innerved from three cranial nerves: the abducens nerve, the trochlear nerve and the oculomotor nerve. Horizontal ... This action is mediated by the medial rectus muscle, which is innervated by Cranial nerve III. It is a type of vergence eye ... The extraocular muscles may have two types of fiber each with its own nerve supply, hence a dual mechanism.[citation needed] ...
Lateral expansion of a pituitary adenoma can also compress the abducens nerve, causing a lateral rectus palsy. Also, a ... It arises from the compression of the optic nerve by the tumor. The specific area of the visual pathway at which compression by ...
It is formed by fibers from the motor nucleus of the facial nerve as they loop over the abducens nucleus. Thus a lesion to the ...
... but with additional nerve palsies of the affected facial and abducens nerve. Selection of the type of nerve transfer is based ... Optional motor donor nerves are: the masseteric nerve, accessory nerve or hypoglossal nerve. In rare cases when these nerves ... For example, the hypoglossal nerve or masseteric nerve on the affected side can be used as donor nerves. This donor nerve is ... Here the nerve stimulator can be used in identifying the donor motor nerve to the masseter muscle. Once the nerve is identified ...
The relevant cranial nerves (specifically the oculomotor, trochlear, and abducens), as in cavernous sinus syndrome or raised ... The brainstem nuclei of these nerves, as in certain patterns of brainstem stroke such as Foville's syndrome. White matter ...
Examples of conditions giving rise to an esotropia might include a VIth cranial nerve (or Abducens) palsy, Duane's syndrome or ... and may also result from conditions affecting the nerve or blood supply to these muscles or the bony orbital structures ...
The fourth (trochlear) and sixth (abducens) cranial nerves are located in the same compartment and can cause diagonal or ... In half of these cases, the oculomotor nerve (the third cranial nerve), which controls a number of eye muscles, is affected. ... The visual loss depends on which part of the nerve is affected. If the part of the nerve between the eye and the chiasm is ... Pressure on the part of the optic nerve known as the chiasm, which is located above the gland, leads to loss of vision on the ...
Abducens (6th nerve), Trochlear (4th nerve), and Oculomotor (3rd nerve). After nerve trauma around the eye, a combination of ... This is an interaction between the abducens nerve and a branch of the oculomotor nerve. Voluntary activation of the abducens ... Moreover, while the abducens and the trochlear nerve each innervate one specific muscle, the oculomotor nerve has many ... As the nerve attempts to recover, nerve miswiring results (see Mechanism of Action below). In patients with severe facial nerve ...
r5 and r6 gives rise to the abducens nerve, and the lower part of r6 and the upper part of r7 gives rise to the petrosal ... The motor nerves form depending on rhombomeric patterns, but each nerve can come from either one rhombomere or a pair of ... The Hox gene also has been shown to play a part in the formation of the cranial motor nerves. The fate of a rhombomere has been ... With mutations in the Hox gene, the cranial motor nerves formed in different locations than normal or simply did not form ...
Then, it courses posteriorly toward the nuclei of the oculomotor nerve (III), trochlear nerve (IV) and abducens nerve (VI), the ... PPRF is not labeled, but is visible adjacent to the abducens nucleus Frontal eye field Cranial nerves Pyramidal tracts ... However, the fibers to the abducens (VI) nucleus do not terminate directly onto the nucleus. Instead, they terminate onto the ... Fibers to the paramedian pontine reticular formation (PPRF) project to the abducens (VI) nucleus, which controls the movement ...
നട്ടെല്ലിൽ നിന്നും ഉദ്ഭവിക്കുന്ന പുരോ നാഡീമൂലവും (ventral nerve root) പൃഷ്ഠ നാഡീ മൂലവും (dorsal nerve root) സംയോജിച്ചാണ് ... മൂന്നാമത്തെയും (oculomotor), നാലാമത്തെയും (trochlear), ആറാമത്തെയും (abducens) കപാലനാഡികൾ നേത്രഗോളത്തിന്റെ ചലനത്തെ സഹായിക്കുന്നു ... സുഷുമ്നയിലെ പുരോ നാഡീമൂലം (ventral nerve root), പൃഷ്ഠനാഡീമൂലം (dorsal nerve root) എന്നിവയിൽ നിന്നാണ് സുഷുമ്നാ നാഡികൾ ... ഒരു നാഡീജാലിക (nerve net) പോലെയാണ് ഇവയുടെ നാഡീവ്യൂഹം. നാഡീകോശത്തിൽ ...
Source for information on abducens nerve: A Dictionary of Nursing dictionary. ... the sixth cranial nerve (VI), which supplies the lateral rectus muscle of each eyeball. ... abducens nerve (ăb-dew-sĕnz) n. the sixth cranial nerve (VI), which supplies the lateral rectus muscle of each eyeball.. ... www.encyclopedia.com/caregiving/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/abducens-nerve ...
... the sixth cranial nerve, sixth nerve, or simply CNVI. It is a somatic efferent nerve. The abducens nerve leaves the brainstem ... The human abducens nerve is derived from the basal plate of the embryonic pons. The abducens nerve supplies the lateral rectus ... The abducens nerve carries axons of type GSE, general somatic efferent. Damage to the peripheral part of the abducens nerve ... The 39th edition of Grays Anatomy (2005) also prefers "abducens nerve." The abducens nerve controls the movement of a single ...
abducens nerve synonyms, abducens nerve pronunciation, abducens nerve translation, English dictionary definition of abducens ... or n either of the sixth pair of cranial nerves, which supply the lateral rectus muscle of the eye n. either one of the sixth ... Related to abducens nerve: trochlear nerve. abducens nerve. (æbˈdjuːsənz) or abducent nerve. n. (Anatomy) either of the sixth ... abducens, abducent, abducent nerve, nervus abducens, sixth cranial nerve. cranial nerve - any of the 12 paired nerves that ...
Abducens nerve diseases synonyms, Abducens nerve diseases pronunciation, Abducens nerve diseases translation, English ... dictionary definition of Abducens nerve diseases. or n either of the sixth pair of cranial nerves, which supply the lateral ... rectus muscle of the eye n. either one of the sixth pair of cranial nerves,... ... abducens nerve. (redirected from Abducens nerve diseases). Also found in: Thesaurus, Medical, Encyclopedia. abducens nerve. ( ...
Abducens Nerve Paralysis Other: ocular electroacupuncture Other: ocular acupuncture Other: sham acupuncture Not Applicable ... Effects of Ocular Electroacupuncture on Abducens Nerve Palsy. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the ... The purpose of the study is to testify the efficacy of treating abducens nerve palsy with ocular electroacupuncture or ocular ... The purpose of the study is to testify whether ocular electroacupuncture or ocular acupuncture is effective for abducens nerve ...
... abducens nerve explanation free. What is abducens nerve? Meaning of abducens nerve medical term. What does abducens nerve mean? ... Looking for online definition of abducens nerve in the Medical Dictionary? ... abducens. [ab-du´senz] (L.) abducent.. abducens nerve the sixth cranial nerve; it arises from the pons and supplies the lateral ... abducens nerve. Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Legal, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia.. Related to abducens nerve: trochlear ...
... and antonyms of the term ABDUCENS NERVE in the Online Dictionary. ... ABDUCENS NERVE: Review the definition, meaning, pronunciation, explanation, synonyms, ... n] a small motor nerve supplying the lateral rectus muscle of the eye ...
Here, we report the case of a 26-year-old woman who presented with a 6th nerve palsy and was found to have a large tumor at the ... Schwannomas of the abducens nerve are extremely uncommon tumors. ... Schwannomas of the abducens nerve are extremely uncommon tumors ... Abducens Nerve Diseases / pathology*, surgery*. Adult. Brain Stem Neoplasms / pathology. Cranial Nerve Neoplasms / pathology*, ... Here, we report the case of a 26-year-old woman who presented with a 6th nerve palsy and was found to have a large tumor at the ...
Oral lichen planus: an unusual cause of facial and abducens nerve paralysis associated with conjunctival and oesophageal ... an unusual cause of facial and abducens nerve paralysis associated with conjunctival and oesophageal involvement. Journal of ...
Meaning of abducens nerve diseases. What does abducens nerve diseases mean? Information and translations of abducens nerve ... Definition of abducens nerve diseases in the Definitions.net dictionary. ... Abducens Nerve Diseases. Diseases of the sixth cranial (abducens) nerve or its nucleus in the pons. The nerve may be injured ... What does abducens nerve diseases mean?. Definitions for abducens nerve diseases. Here are all the possible meanings and ...
Meaning of abducens nerve injury. What does abducens nerve injury mean? Information and translations of abducens nerve injury ... Definition of abducens nerve injury in the Definitions.net dictionary. ... Abducens Nerve Injury. Traumatic injury to the abducens, or sixth, cranial nerve. Injury to this nerve results in lateral ... Definitions for abducens nerve injury. Here are all the possible meanings and translations of the word abducens nerve injury.. ...
The abducens nerve is the sixth cranial nerve. It courses from its nucleus located in the dorsal pons to its innervation of the ... Tags: nerve, neuroanatomy, anatomy rewrite, eye, orbit, cranial nerve. Synonyms or Alternate Spellings:*Abducens nerve (CN VI) ... abducens nerve (CN VI). * facial nerve (CN VII) (segments mnemonic , branches mnemonic) * geniculate ganglion * greater ( ... The abducens nerve is the sixth cranial nerve. It courses from its nucleus located in the dorsal pons to its innervation of the ...
The authors detail the first reported case of abducens nerve palsy complicating dengue fever in a previously healthy male from ... the abducens nerve despite its notoriety in cranial neuropathies in a multitude of condition due to its long intracranial ... In a tropical country with endemic dengue infections, dengue related abducens neuropathy may be considered as a differential ... Paralytic squint due to abducens nerve palsy : a rare consequence of dengue fever. *Mitrakrishnan C Shivanthan. 1. , ...
However, he was diagnosed with abducens nerve paralysis after the consultations and analysis and his restriction of movement ... Nervus abducens is a pure motor nerve located in the pons. It retracts the eyeball laterally by stimulating rectus lateralis ... Nervus abducens is a pure motor nerve located in the pons. It retracts the eyeball laterally by stimulating rectus lateralis ... A case of isolated abducens nerve paralysis in maxillofacial trauma. @inproceedings{Keskin2015ACO, title={A case of isolated ...
The cranial nerves are a set of twelve nerves that originate in the brain. Each has a different function for sense or movement ... The abducens nerve also helps control eye movements.. It helps the lateral rectus muscle, which is one of the extraocular ... The trochlear nerve is also involved in eye movement.. The trochlear nerve, like the oculomotor nerve, originates in the ... Nerve conduction velocity: Side effects and normal values. A nerve conduction velocity test measures how fast the nerves in the ...
VI nerve palsy is can be a "false localising" sign.. *Due to the long course of the 6th nerve it is easily affected, for ... Presentation of 4th nerve palsy: *A 4th nerve palsy results in the patient being unable to look down and in, towards their nose ... In "medical" 3rd nerve palsies the centre of the 3rd nerve is affected first leaving the parasympathetic fibres and therefore ... Click here for medical student finals, OSCE and MRCP PACES notes on the cranial nerve exam. How to perform the cranial nerve ...
abducens nerve Reference type: Overview Page. Subject: Science and technology, Psychology. Either of the sixth pair of cranial ... nerves controlling the lateral rectus muscles of the eyes, turning the eye outwards for a sidelong direction of gaze. Paralysis ...
... as the abducens nerve supplies the lateral rectus muscle of the eye. The cranial nerves III, IV, and VI and usually tested ... Causes: The exact aetiology of most of the cases of abducens nerve palsies is idiopathic. Research suggests that there may be a ... Below is a list of the acquired forms of abducens nerve palsies: Inflammation, and infections Vascular disorders, including ... In the case of abducens nerve palsy, the patient has a particular difficulty in looking laterally. ...
abducens nerve n. Quick reference A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.) Reference type: Subject Reference. Current Version: 2015. ... Either of the sixth pair of *cranial nerves controlling the lateral *rectus muscles of the eyes, turning the ...
View source for Abducens nerve palsy. ← Abducens nerve palsy. You do not have permission to edit this page, for the following ... Background== * Most common ocular nerve palsy * Innervates the ipsilateral lateral rectus muscle controlling eye abduction * ... See Also== *[[Ocular palsy]] *[[Cranial nerves]] ==External Links== ==References== ,references/> [[Category:Ophtho]] [[Category ...
View source for Abducens nerve palsy. ← Abducens nerve palsy. You do not have permission to edit this page, for the following ... Background== *Also called 6th cranial nerve (CN VI) *Most common ocular nerve palsy *Innervates the ipsilateral lateral rectus ... Patients with abducens nerve palsy are unable to move the affected eye laterally **In order to avoid diplopia, patients will ... indicated for brainstem findings on the exam and to exclude pontine glioma in children and in adults where the abducens nerve ...
Abducens nerve - CN VI. The nucleus of the nerve is located in the paramedian pontine region in the floor of the fourth ... trigeminal nerve), extent of distribution (vagus nerve), composition (spinal accessory nerve), or location (hypoglossal nerve). ... Hypoglossal nerve - CN XII. The nucleus of this nerve lies in the lower medulla, and the nerve itself leaves the cranial cavity ... Trigeminal nerve - CN V. The nucleus of the nerve stretches from the midbrain (ie, mesencephalic nerve) through the pons (ie, ...
Study Abducent/Abducens Nerve flashcards from Kelsey Thomas ... Abducent/Abducens Nerve Flashcards Preview Spinal Anatomy I - ... What is the site of the apparent origin of the sixth cranial nerve from the brain? ... What is the embryonic origin of skeletal muscles innervated by the abducent nerve? ... At its apparent origin cranial nerve VI conveys which classification of neural pathways? ...
The use and interpretation of medical examinations to determine the integrity and adequate function the abducens nerve (sixth ... The abducens nerve supplies motor innervation to the lateral rectus ocular muscle, therefor particular attention should be paid ... The use and interpretation of medical examinations to determine the integrity and adequate function the abducens nerve (sixth ... An inability for the patient to look medially may be indicative of a lesion of the trochlear nerve. ...
... nerve s 3rd nerve anatomy human anatomy chart sixth cranial nerve palsy cranial nerve nuclei illustration image abducens nerve ... 6th Cranial Nerve Anatomy Amazing Abducens Nerve) over is classed having: 6th cranial nerve,6th cranial nerve double vision,6th ... 6th cranial nerve imaging,6th cranial nerve location,6th cranial nerve mri,6th cranial nerve of frog,6th cranial nerve on mri, ... 6th cranial nerve palsy examination,6th cranial nerve palsy mri protocol,6th cranial nerve palsy stroke,6th cranial nerve palsy ...
  • Herewith, we report two cases of bilateral abducens palsies following ruptured ACoA aneurysms and speculated the possible mechanisms. (isciii.es)
  • Bilateral abducens nerve palsies were determined on neurologic examination (Hunt-Hess grade II) ( Figure 2 A, B ). CT scan showed subarachnoid and intraparanchymal hemorrhage located in basal cisterns, anterior interhemisferic fissure and right frontal lobe (Fischer grade IV) ( Figure 3 A ) and cerebral angiograhy revealed ACoA aneurysm ( Figure 3 B ). Microsurgical clipping of ACoA aneurysm was performed on the 15thday of her admission. (isciii.es)
  • The abducens nerve innervates the lateral rectus muscle, providing it a neural pathway to the brain. (healthline.com)
  • These investigations are aimed at studying the influence of the electrical stimulation of the VIth nucleus (abducens nucleus) on responses of lateral geniculate cells in rabbits. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Results show that: Electrical stimulation of the VIth nucleus always produced excitatory discharges whose latency varied from 30 to 400 ms. Interestingly, an electrical pulse applied to the abducens nucleus was capable of enhancing the light-evoked responses without altering the spontaneous rate of firing. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Different presentations of the condition, or associations with other conditions, can help to localize the site of the lesion along the VIth cranial nerve pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • Foville's syndrome can also arise as a result of brainstem lesions which affect Vth, VIth and VIIth cranial nerves. (wikipedia.org)
  • As the VIth nerve passes through the subarachnoid space it lies adjacent to anterior inferior and posterior inferior cerebellar and basilar arteries and is therefore vulnerable to compression against the clivus. (wikipedia.org)
  • A motor nerve, also called an efferent nerve , is a nerve that carries impulses outwards from the central nervous system to bring about activity in a muscle or a gland . (daviddarling.info)
  • The auricular branch of the vagus nerve is a sensory nerve emerging from the superior ganglion of the vagus nerve, joined by branches from the glossopharyngeal (CN IX) and facial nerves, and innervating the lower part of the tympanic membrane and the floor of the external auditory canal. (tabers.com)
  • Vagus nerve - feedback on aortic blood pressure. (healthhype.com)
  • Vagus Nerve Stimulation for Treating Adults With Severe Fibromyalgia Vagus Nerve Stimulation for Treating Adults With Severe Fibromyalgia - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. (tripdatabase.com)
  • The vagus nerve helps with both sensory and motor functions, aiding in the processes of digestion, heart rate , and glandular functioning. (wisegeek.com)
  • A sensory branch of the mandibular nerve (CN V3) It passes through the parotid gland en route to the ear, where it innervates skin of the pinna, external auditory canal, and tympanic membrane. (tabers.com)
  • The inferior alveolar nerve is a bundle of nerve fibers that stems from the mandibular nerve in the head . (healthline.com)
  • Mandibular nerve exits from. (flashcardmachine.com)
  • This nerve contains three branches known as the ophthalmic nerve, the maxillary nerve , and the mandibular nerve. (wisegeek.com)