The 6th cranial nerve which originates in the ABDUCENS NUCLEUS of the PONS and sends motor fibers to the lateral rectus muscles of the EYE. Damage to the nerve or its nucleus disrupts horizontal eye movement control.
Diseases of the sixth cranial (abducens) nerve or its nucleus in the pons. The nerve may be injured along its course in the pons, intracranially as it travels along the base of the brain, in the cavernous sinus, or at the level of superior orbital fissure or orbit. Dysfunction of the nerve causes lateral rectus muscle weakness, resulting in horizontal diplopia that is maximal when the affected eye is abducted and ESOTROPIA. Common conditions associated with nerve injury include INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ISCHEMIA; and INFRATENTORIAL NEOPLASMS.
Traumatic injury to the abducens, or sixth, cranial nerve. Injury to this nerve results in lateral rectus muscle weakness or paralysis. The nerve may be damaged by closed or penetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA or by facial trauma involving the orbit.
A syndrome associated with defective sympathetic innervation to one side of the face, including the eye. Clinical features include MIOSIS; mild BLEPHAROPTOSIS; and hemifacial ANHIDROSIS (decreased sweating)(see HYPOHIDROSIS). Lesions of the BRAIN STEM; cervical SPINAL CORD; first thoracic nerve root; apex of the LUNG; CAROTID ARTERY; CAVERNOUS SINUS; and apex of the ORBIT may cause this condition. (From Miller et al., Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology, 4th ed, pp500-11)
An irregularly shaped venous space in the dura mater at either side of the sphenoid bone.
A visual symptom in which a single object is perceived by the visual cortex as two objects rather than one. Disorders associated with this condition include REFRACTIVE ERRORS; STRABISMUS; OCULOMOTOR NERVE DISEASES; TROCHLEAR NERVE DISEASES; ABDUCENS NERVE DISEASES; and diseases of the BRAIN STEM and OCCIPITAL LOBE.
The dense rock-like part of temporal bone that contains the INNER EAR. Petrous bone is located at the base of the skull. Sometimes it is combined with the MASTOID PROCESS and called petromastoid part of temporal bone.
The 4th cranial nerve. The trochlear nerve carries the motor innervation of the superior oblique muscles of the eye.
Disorders of one or more of the twelve cranial nerves. With the exception of the optic and olfactory nerves, this includes disorders of the brain stem nuclei from which the cranial nerves originate or terminate.
A dull or sharp painful sensation associated with the outer or inner structures of the eyeball, having different causes.
Paralysis of one or more of the ocular muscles due to disorders of the eye muscles, neuromuscular junction, supporting soft tissue, tendons, or innervation to the muscles.
The 3d cranial nerve. The oculomotor nerve sends motor fibers to the levator muscles of the eyelid and to the superior rectus, inferior rectus, and inferior oblique muscles of the eye. It also sends parasympathetic efferents (via the ciliary ganglion) to the muscles controlling pupillary constriction and accommodation. The motor fibers originate in the oculomotor nuclei of the midbrain.
The muscles that move the eye. Included in this group are the medial rectus, lateral rectus, superior rectus, inferior rectus, inferior oblique, superior oblique, musculus orbitalis, and levator palpebrae superioris.
Benign and malignant neoplasms that arise from one or more of the twelve cranial nerves.
Fractures which extend through the base of the SKULL, usually involving the PETROUS BONE. Battle's sign (characterized by skin discoloration due to extravasation of blood into the subcutaneous tissue behind the ear and over the mastoid process), CRANIAL NEUROPATHIES, TRAUMATIC; CAROTID-CAVERNOUS SINUS FISTULA; and CEREBROSPINAL FLUID OTORRHEA are relatively frequent sequelae of this condition. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p876)
Diseases of the oculomotor nerve or nucleus that result in weakness or paralysis of the superior rectus, inferior rectus, medial rectus, inferior oblique, or levator palpebrae muscles, or impaired parasympathetic innervation to the pupil. With a complete oculomotor palsy, the eyelid will be paralyzed, the eye will be in an abducted and inferior position, and the pupil will be markedly dilated. Commonly associated conditions include neoplasms, CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA, ischemia (especially in association with DIABETES MELLITUS), and aneurysmal compression. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p270)
The 5th and largest cranial nerve. The trigeminal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve. The larger sensory part forms the ophthalmic, mandibular, and maxillary nerves which carry afferents sensitive to external or internal stimuli from the skin, muscles, and joints of the face and mouth and from the teeth. Most of these fibers originate from cells of the TRIGEMINAL GANGLION and project to the TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS of the brain stem. The smaller motor part arises from the brain stem trigeminal motor nucleus and innervates the muscles of mastication.
A general term most often used to describe severe or complete loss of muscle strength due to motor system disease from the level of the cerebral cortex to the muscle fiber. This term may also occasionally refer to a loss of sensory function. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p45)
A syndrome characterized by marked limitation of abduction of the eye, variable limitation of adduction and retraction of the globe, and narrowing of the palpebral fissure on attempted adduction. The condition is caused by aberrant innervation of the lateral rectus by fibers of the OCULOMOTOR NERVE.
A retention cyst of the salivary gland, lacrimal sac, paranasal sinuses, appendix, or gallbladder. (Stedman, 26th ed)
Voluntary or reflex-controlled movements of the eye.
Recording of nystagmus based on changes in the electrical field surrounding the eye produced by the difference in potential between the cornea and the retina.
Mechanical compression of nerves or nerve roots from internal or external causes. These may result in a conduction block to nerve impulses (due to MYELIN SHEATH dysfunction) or axonal loss. The nerve and nerve sheath injuries may be caused by ISCHEMIA; INFLAMMATION; or a direct mechanical effect.
The outermost of the three MENINGES, a fibrous membrane of connective tissue that covers the brain and the spinal cord.
The infratentorial compartment that contains the CEREBELLUM and BRAIN STEM. It is formed by the posterior third of the superior surface of the body of the sphenoid (SPHENOID BONE), by the occipital, the petrous, and mastoid portions of the TEMPORAL BONE, and the posterior inferior angle of the PARIETAL BONE.
The inferior region of the skull consisting of an internal (cerebral), and an external (basilar) surface.
##### I apologize, but the term "turtles" is not a recognized medical term or concept. It is commonly referred to as a group of reptiles with a shell, and does not have any direct relevance to medical definition.
A nerve which originates in the lumbar and sacral spinal cord (L4 to S3) and supplies motor and sensory innervation to the lower extremity. The sciatic nerve, which is the main continuation of the sacral plexus, is the largest nerve in the body. It has two major branches, the TIBIAL NERVE and the PERONEAL NERVE.
A neoplasm that arises from SCHWANN CELLS of the cranial, peripheral, and autonomic nerves. Clinically, these tumors may present as a cranial neuropathy, abdominal or soft tissue mass, intracranial lesion, or with spinal cord compression. Histologically, these tumors are encapsulated, highly vascular, and composed of a homogenous pattern of biphasic fusiform-shaped cells that may have a palisaded appearance. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp964-5)
The nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord, including the autonomic, cranial, and spinal nerves. Peripheral nerves contain non-neuronal cells and connective tissue as well as axons. The connective tissue layers include, from the outside to the inside, the epineurium, the perineurium, and the endoneurium.
A general term referring to a mild to moderate degree of muscular weakness, occasionally used as a synonym for PARALYSIS (severe or complete loss of motor function). In the older literature, paresis often referred specifically to paretic neurosyphilis (see NEUROSYPHILIS). "General paresis" and "general paralysis" may still carry that connotation. Bilateral lower extremity paresis is referred to as PARAPARESIS.
Twelve pairs of nerves that carry general afferent, visceral afferent, special afferent, somatic efferent, and autonomic efferent fibers.
The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.
The 2nd cranial nerve which conveys visual information from the RETINA to the brain. The nerve carries the axons of the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS which sort at the OPTIC CHIASM and continue via the OPTIC TRACTS to the brain. The largest projection is to the lateral geniculate nuclei; other targets include the SUPERIOR COLLICULI and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEI. Though known as the second cranial nerve, it is considered part of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A relatively common neoplasm of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that arises from arachnoidal cells. The majority are well differentiated vascular tumors which grow slowly and have a low potential to be invasive, although malignant subtypes occur. Meningiomas have a predilection to arise from the parasagittal region, cerebral convexity, sphenoidal ridge, olfactory groove, and SPINAL CANAL. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2056-7)
Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.

Properties of conditioned abducens nerve responses in a highly reduced in vitro brain stem preparation from the turtle. (1/125)

Previous work suggested that the cerebellum and red nucleus are not necessary for the acquisition, extinction, and reacquistion of the in vitro classically conditioned abducens nerve response in the turtle. These findings are extended in the present study by obtaining conditioned responses (CRs) in preparations that received a partial ablation of the brain stem circuitry. In addition to removing all tissue rostral to and including the midbrain and cerebellum, a transection was made just caudal to the emergence of the IXth nerve. Such ablations result in a 4-mm-thick section of brain stem tissue that functionally eliminates the sustained component of the unconditioned response (UR) while leaving only a phasic component. We refer to this region of brain stem tissue caudal to the IXth nerve as the "caudal premotor blink region." Neural discharge was recorded from the abducens nerve following a single shock unconditioned stimulus (US) applied to the ipsilateral trigeminal nerve. When the US was paired with a conditioned stimulus (CS) applied to the posterior eighth, or auditory, nerve using a delay conditioning paradigm, a positive slope of CR acquisition was recorded in the abducens nerve, and CR extinction was recorded when the stimuli were alternated. Resumption of paired stimuli resulted in reacquisition. Quantitative analysis of the CRs in preparations in which the caudal premotor blink region had been removed and those with cerebellar/red nucleus lesions showed that both types of preparations had abnormally short latency CR onsets compared with preparations in which these regions were intact. Preparations with brain stem transections had significantly earlier CR offsets as more CRs terminated as short bursts when compared with intact or cerebellar lesioned preparations. These data suggest that a highly reduced in vitro brain stem preparation from the turtle can be classically conditioned. Furthermore, the caudal brain stem is not a site of acquisition in this reduced preparation, but it contributes to the sustained activity of both the UR and CR. Finally, the unusually short CR onset latencies following lesions to the cerebellum are not further exacerbated by removal of the caudal brain stem. These studies suggest that convergence of CS and US synaptic inputs onto the abducens nerve reflex circuitry may underlie acquisition in this reduced preparation, but that mechanisms that control learned CR timing arise from the cerebellorubral system.  (+info)

Discharge profiles of abducens, accessory abducens, and orbicularis oculi motoneurons during reflex and conditioned blinks in alert cats. (2/125)

The discharge profiles of identified abducens, accessory abducens, and orbicularis oculi motoneurons have been recorded extra- and intracellularly in alert behaving cats during spontaneous, reflexively evoked, and classically conditioned eyelid responses. The movement of the upper lid and the electromyographic activity of the orbicularis oculi muscle also were recorded. Animals were conditioned by short, weak air puffs or 350-ms tones as conditioned stimuli (CS) and long, strong air puffs as unconditioned stimulus (US) using both trace and delayed conditioning paradigms. Motoneurons were identified by antidromic activation from their respective cranial nerves. Orbicularis oculi and accessory abducens motoneurons fired an early, double burst of action potentials (at 4-6 and 10-16 ms) in response to air puffs or to the electrical stimulation of the supraorbital nerve. Orbicularis oculi, but not accessory abducens, motoneurons fired in response to flash and tone presentations. Only 10-15% of recorded abducens motoneurons fired a late, weak burst after air puff, supraorbital nerve, and flash stimulations. Spontaneous fasciculations of the orbicularis oculi muscle and the activity of single orbicularis oculi motoneurons that generated them also were recorded. The activation of orbicularis oculi motoneurons during the acquisition of classically conditioned eyelid responses happened in a gradual, sequential manner. Initially, some putative excitatory synaptic potentials were observed in the time window corresponding to the CS-US interval; by the second to the fourth conditioning session, some isolated action potentials appeared that increased in number until some small movements were noticed in eyelid position traces. No accessory abducens motoneuron fired and no abducens motoneuron modified their discharge rate for conditioned eyelid responses. The firing of orbicularis oculi motoneurons was related linearly to lid velocity during reflex blinks but to lid position during conditioned responses, a fact indicating the different neural origin and coding of both types of motor commands. The power spectra of both reflex and conditioned lid responses showed a dominant peak at approximately 20 Hz. The wavy appearance of both reflex and conditioned eyelid responses was clearly the result of the high phasic activity of orbicularis oculi motor units. Orbicularis oculi motoneuron membrane potentials oscillated at approximately 20 Hz after supraorbital nerve stimulation and during other reflex and conditioned eyelid movements. The oscillation seemed to be the result of both intrinsic (spike afterhyperpolarization lasting approximately 50 ms, and late depolarizations) and extrinsic properties of the motoneuronal pool and of the circuits involved in eye blinks.  (+info)

Stereotactic radiosurgery for cavernous sinus cavernous hemangioma--case report. (3/125)

A 40-year-old female presented with cavernous sinus cavernous hemangioma manifesting as left abducens and trigeminal nerve pareses. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a left cavernous sinus tumor. The tumor was partially removed. Histological examination of the specimen confirmed cavernous hemangioma. Radiosurgery was performed using the gamma knife. The tumor markedly decreased in size after radiosurgery and morbidity was avoided. Cavernous sinus cavernous hemangiomas may be difficult to treat surgically due to intraoperative bleeding and cranial nerve injury. Stereotactic radiosurgery can be used either as an adjunct treatment to craniotomy, or as the primary treatment for small cavernous sinus cavernous hemangioma.  (+info)

Neuro-Behcet's disease presenting with isolated unilateral lateral rectus muscle palsy. (4/125)

The authors present the clinical findings of a 30-year-old female and a 29-year-old male who both had isolated unilateral lateral rectus muscle palsy in neuro-Behcet's disease. The clinical feature related to isolated abduscens nerve palsy was identified by CT, systemic assessment and extraocular examination. These patients' constellation of findings appear to be unique: it does not follow any previously reported pattern of ocular manifestations of neuro-Behcet's disease.  (+info)

Quantitative analysis of abducens neuron discharge dynamics during saccadic and slow eye movements. (5/125)

The mechanics of the eyeball and its surrounding tissues, which together form the oculomotor plant, have been shown to be the same for smooth pursuit and saccadic eye movements. Hence it was postulated that similar signals would be carried by motoneurons during slow and rapid eye movements. In the present study, we directly addressed this proposal by determining which eye movement-based models best describe the discharge dynamics of primate abducens neurons during a variety of eye movement behaviors. We first characterized abducens neuron spike trains, as has been classically done, during fixation and sinusoidal smooth pursuit. We then systematically analyzed the discharge dynamics of abducens neurons during and following saccades, during step-ramp pursuit and during high velocity slow-phase vestibular nystagmus. We found that the commonly utilized first-order description of abducens neuron firing rates (FR = b + kE + r, where FR is firing rate, E and are eye position and velocity, respectively, and b, k, and r are constants) provided an adequate model of neuronal activity during saccades, smooth pursuit, and slow phase vestibular nystagmus. However, the use of a second-order model, which included an exponentially decaying term or "slide" (FR = b + kE + r + uE - c), notably improved our ability to describe neuronal activity when the eye was moving and also enabled us to model abducens neuron discharges during the postsaccadic interval. We also found that, for a given model, a single set of parameters could not be used to describe neuronal firing rates during both slow and rapid eye movements. Specifically, the eye velocity and position coefficients (r and k in the above models, respectively) consistently decreased as a function of the mean (and peak) eye velocity that was generated. In contrast, the bias (b, firing rate when looking straight ahead) invariably increased with eye velocity. Although these trends are likely to reflect, in part, nonlinearities that are intrinsic to the extraocular muscles, we propose that these results can also be explained by considering the time-varying resistance to movement that is generated by the antagonist muscle. We conclude that to create realistic and meaningful models of the neural control of horizontal eye movements, it is essential to consider the activation of the antagonist, as well as agonist motoneuron pools.  (+info)

Apparent dissociation between saccadic eye movements and the firing patterns of premotor neurons and motoneurons. (6/125)

Saccadic eye movements result from high-frequency bursts of activity in ocular motoneurons. This phasic activity originates in premotor burst neurons. When the head is restrained, the number of action potentials in the bursts of burst neurons and motoneurons increases linearly with eye movement amplitude. However, when the head is unrestrained, the number of action potentials now increase as a function of the change in the direction of the line of sight during eye movements of relatively similar amplitudes. These data suggest an apparent uncoupling of premotor neuron and motoneuron activity from the resultant eye movement.  (+info)

Early components of the human vestibulo-ocular response to head rotation: latency and gain. (7/125)

To characterize vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) properties in the time window in which contributions by other systems are minimal, eye movements during the first 50-100 ms after the start of transient angular head accelerations ( approximately 1000 degrees /s(2)) imposed by a torque helmet were analyzed in normal human subjects. Orientations of the head and both eyes were recorded with magnetic search coils (resolution, approximately 1 min arc; 1000 samples/s). Typically, the first response to a head perturbation was an anti-compensatory eye movement with zero latency, peak-velocity of several degrees per second, and peak excursion of several tenths of a degree. This was interpreted as a passive mechanical response to linear acceleration of the orbital tissues caused by eccentric rotation of the eye. The response was modeled as a damped oscillation (approximately 13 Hz) of the orbital contents, approaching a constant eye deviation for a sustained linear acceleration. The subsequent compensatory eye movements showed (like the head movements) a linear increase in velocity, which allowed estimates of latency and gain with linear regressions. After appropriate accounting for the preceding passive eye movements, average VOR latency (for pooled eyes, directions, and subjects) was calculated as 8.6 ms. Paired comparisons between the two eyes revealed that the latency for the eye contralateral to the direction of head rotation was, on average, 1.3 ms shorter than for the ipsilateral eye. This highly significant average inter-ocular difference was attributed to the additional internuclear abducens neuron in the pathway to the ipsilateral eye. Average acceleration gain (ratio between slopes of eye and head velocities) over the first 40-50 ms was approximately 1.1. Instantaneous velocity gain, calculated as Veye(t)/Vhead(t-latency), showed a gradual build-up converging toward unity (often after a slight overshoot). Instantaneous acceleration gain also converged toward unity but showed a much steeper build-up and larger oscillations. This behavior of acceleration and velocity gain could be accounted for by modeling the eye movements as the sum of the passive response to the linear acceleration and the active rotational VOR. Due to the latency and the anticompensatory component, gaze stabilization was never complete. The influence of visual targets was limited. The initial VOR was identical with a distant target (continuously visible or interrupted) and in complete darkness. A near visual target caused VOR gain to rise to a higher level, but the time after which the difference between far and near targets emerged varied between individuals.  (+info)

Expansion of afferent vestibular signals after the section of one of the vestibular nerve branches. (8/125)

The anterior branch of N. VIII was sectioned in adult frogs. Two months later the brain was isolated to record in vitro responses in the vestibular nuclei and from the abducens nerves following electric stimulation of the anterior branch of N. VIII or of the posterior canal nerve. Extra- and intracellularly recorded responses from the intact and operated side were compared with responses from controls. Major changes were detected on the operated side: the amplitudes of posterior canal nerve evoked field potentials were enlarged, the number of vestibular neurons with a monosynaptic input from the posterior canal nerve had increased, and posterior canal nerve stimulation recruited stronger abducens nerve responses on the intact side than vice versa. Changes in the convergence pattern of vestibular nerve afferent inputs on the operated side strongly suggest the expansion of posterior canal-related afferent inputs onto part of those vestibular neurons that were deprived of their afferent vestibular input. As a mechanism we suggest reactive synaptogenesis between intact posterior canal afferent fibers and vestibularly deprived second-order vestibular neurons.  (+info)

The abducens nerve, also known as the sixth cranial nerve (CN VI), is a motor nerve that controls the lateral rectus muscle of the eye. This muscle is responsible for moving the eye away from the midline (towards the temple) and enables the eyes to look towards the side while keeping them aligned. Any damage or dysfunction of the abducens nerve can result in strabismus, where the eyes are misaligned and point in different directions, specifically an adduction deficit, also known as abducens palsy or sixth nerve palsy.

The abducens nerve, also known as the sixth cranial nerve, is responsible for controlling the lateral rectus muscle of the eye, which enables the eye to move outward. Abducens nerve diseases refer to conditions that affect this nerve and can result in various symptoms, primarily affecting eye movement.

Here are some medical definitions related to abducens nerve diseases:

1. Abducens Nerve Palsy: A condition characterized by weakness or paralysis of the abducens nerve, causing difficulty in moving the affected eye outward. This results in double vision (diplopia), especially when gazing towards the side of the weakened nerve. Abducens nerve palsy can be congenital, acquired, or caused by various factors such as trauma, tumors, aneurysms, infections, or diseases like diabetes and multiple sclerosis.
2. Sixth Nerve Palsy: Another term for abducens nerve palsy, referring to the weakness or paralysis of the sixth cranial nerve.
3. Internuclear Ophthalmoplegia (INO): A neurological condition affecting eye movement, often caused by a lesion in the medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF), a bundle of nerve fibers that connects the abducens nucleus with the oculomotor nucleus. INO results in impaired adduction (inward movement) of the eye on the side of the lesion and nystagmus (involuntary eye movements) of the abducting eye on the opposite side when attempting to look towards the side of the lesion.
4. One-and-a-Half Syndrome: A rare neurological condition characterized by a combination of INO and internuclear ophthalmoplegia with horizontal gaze palsy on the same side, caused by damage to both the abducens nerve and the paramedian pontine reticular formation (PPRF). This results in limited or no ability to move the eyes towards the side of the lesion and impaired adduction of the eye on the opposite side.
5. Brainstem Encephalitis: Inflammation of the brainstem, which can affect the abducens nerve and other cranial nerves, leading to various neurological symptoms such as diplopia (double vision), ataxia (loss of balance and coordination), and facial weakness. Brainstem encephalitis can be caused by infectious agents, autoimmune disorders, or paraneoplastic syndromes.
6. Multiple Sclerosis (MS): An autoimmune disorder characterized by inflammation and demyelination of the central nervous system, including the brainstem and optic nerves. MS can cause various neurological symptoms, such as diplopia, nystagmus, and INO, due to damage to the abducens nerve and other cranial nerves.
7. Wernicke's Encephalopathy: A neurological disorder caused by thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency, often seen in alcoholics or individuals with malnutrition. Wernicke's encephalopathy can affect the brainstem and cause various symptoms such as diplopia, ataxia, confusion, and oculomotor abnormalities.
8. Pontine Glioma: A rare type of brain tumor that arises from the glial cells in the pons (a part of the brainstem). Pontine gliomas can cause various neurological symptoms such as diplopia, facial weakness, and difficulty swallowing due to their location in the brainstem.
9. Brainstem Cavernous Malformation: A benign vascular lesion that arises from the small blood vessels in the brainstem. Brainstem cavernous malformations can cause various neurological symptoms such as diplopia, ataxia, and facial weakness due to their location in the brainstem.
10. Pituitary Adenoma: A benign tumor that arises from the pituitary gland, located at the base of the brain. Large pituitary adenomas can compress the optic nerves and cause various visual symptoms such as diplopia, visual field defects, and decreased vision.
11. Craniopharyngioma: A benign tumor that arises from the remnants of the Rathke's pouch, a structure that gives rise to the anterior pituitary gland. Craniopharyngiomas can cause various neurological and endocrine symptoms such as diplopia, visual field defects, headaches, and hormonal imbalances due to their location near the optic nerves and pituitary gland.
12. Meningioma: A benign tumor that arises from the meninges, the protective covering of the brain and spinal cord. Meningiomas can cause various neurological symptoms such as diplopia, headaches, and seizures depending on their location in the brain or spinal cord.
13. Chordoma: A rare type of malignant tumor that arises from the remnants of the notochord, a structure that gives rise to the spine during embryonic development. Chordomas can cause various neurological and endocrine symptoms such as diplopia, visual field defects, headaches, and hormonal imbalances due to their location near the brainstem and spinal cord.
14. Metastatic Brain Tumors: Malignant tumors that spread from other parts of the body to the brain. Metastatic brain tumors can cause various neurological symptoms such as diplopia, headaches, seizures, and cognitive impairment depending on their location in the brain.
15. Other Rare Brain Tumors: There are many other rare types of brain tumors that can cause diplopia or other neurological symptoms, including gliomas, ependymomas, pineal region tumors, and others. These tumors require specialized diagnosis and treatment by neuro-oncologists and neurosurgeons with expertise in these rare conditions.

In summary, diplopia can be caused by various brain tumors, including pituitary adenomas, meningiomas, chordomas, metastatic brain tumors, and other rare types of tumors. It is important to seek medical attention promptly if you experience diplopia or other neurological symptoms, as early diagnosis and treatment can improve outcomes and quality of life.

The abducens nerve, also known as the sixth cranial nerve, is responsible for controlling the lateral rectus muscle of the eye, which allows for horizontal movement of the eye outwards. An injury to the abducens nerve can result in various symptoms related to eye movement and alignment.

Medical definition:

Abducens nerve injury refers to damage or trauma to the sixth cranial nerve, resulting in dysfunction of the lateral rectus muscle and subsequent impairment of horizontal gaze. The affected individual may experience difficulty in moving the eye outwards, double vision (diplopia), or a condition known as strabismus, where the eyes are misaligned and point in different directions. Abducens nerve injury can occur due to various reasons, such as head trauma, tumors, increased intracranial pressure, or neurological disorders like multiple sclerosis. Treatment typically involves addressing the underlying cause and may include surgical intervention, eye patching, or prism lenses to manage symptoms and improve visual function.

Horner syndrome, also known as Horner's syndrome or oculosympathetic palsy, is a neurological disorder characterized by the interruption of sympathetic nerve pathways that innervate the head and neck, leading to a constellation of signs affecting the eye and face on one side of the body.

The classic triad of symptoms includes:

1. Ptosis (drooping) of the upper eyelid: This is due to the weakness or paralysis of the levator palpebrae superioris muscle, which is responsible for elevating the eyelid.
2. Miosis (pupillary constriction): The affected pupil becomes smaller in size compared to the other side, and it may not react as robustly to light.
3. Anhydrosis (decreased sweating): There is reduced or absent sweating on the ipsilateral (same side) of the face, particularly around the forehead and upper eyelid.

Horner syndrome can be caused by various underlying conditions, such as brainstem stroke, tumors, trauma, or certain medical disorders affecting the sympathetic nervous system. The diagnosis typically involves a thorough clinical examination, pharmacological testing, and sometimes imaging studies to identify the underlying cause. Treatment is directed towards managing the underlying condition responsible for Horner syndrome.

The cavernous sinus is a venous structure located in the middle cranial fossa, which is a depression in the skull that houses several important nerves and blood vessels. The cavernous sinus is situated on either side of the sphenoid bone, near the base of the skull, and it contains several important structures:

* The internal carotid artery, which supplies oxygenated blood to the brain
* The abducens nerve (cranial nerve VI), which controls lateral movement of the eye
* The oculomotor nerve (cranial nerve III), which controls most of the muscles that move the eye
* The trochlear nerve (cranial nerve IV), which controls one of the muscles that moves the eye
* The ophthalmic and maxillary divisions of the trigeminal nerve (cranial nerve V), which transmit sensory information from the face and head

The cavernous sinus is an important structure because it serves as a conduit for several critical nerves and blood vessels. However, it is also vulnerable to various pathological conditions such as thrombosis (blood clots), infection, tumors, or aneurysms, which can lead to serious neurological deficits or even death.

Diplopia is a medical term that refers to the condition where a person sees two images of a single object. It is commonly known as double vision. This can occur due to various reasons, such as nerve damage or misalignment of the eyes. Diplopia can be temporary or chronic and can affect one or both eyes. If you're experiencing diplopia, it's essential to consult an eye care professional for proper evaluation and treatment.

The petrous bone is a part of the temporal bone, one of the 22 bones in the human skull. It is a thick and irregularly shaped bone located at the base of the skull and forms part of the ear and the cranial cavity. The petrous bone contains the cochlea, vestibule, and semicircular canals of the inner ear, which are responsible for hearing and balance. It also helps protect the brain from injury by forming part of the bony structure surrounding the brain.

The term "petrous" comes from the Latin word "petrosus," meaning "stony" or "rock-like," which describes the hard and dense nature of this bone. The petrous bone is one of the densest bones in the human body, making it highly resistant to fractures and other forms of damage.

In medical terminology, the term "petrous" may also be used to describe any structure that resembles a rock or is hard and dense, such as the petrous apex, which refers to the portion of the petrous bone that points towards the sphenoid bone.

The trochlear nerve, also known as the fourth cranial nerve (CN IV), is a nerve that originates in the midbrain and innervates the superior oblique muscle of the eye. This muscle helps with the downward and outward movement of the eye, playing a crucial role in controlling eye movements and maintaining binocular vision. The trochlear nerve's main function is to provide motor (efferent) innervation to the superior oblique muscle, enabling fine-tuning of eye movements during activities such as reading, writing, or driving. Damage to this nerve can result in vertical diplopia (double vision), strabismus (eye misalignment), and other visual impairments.

Cranial nerve diseases refer to conditions that affect the cranial nerves, which are a set of 12 pairs of nerves that originate from the brainstem and control various functions in the head and neck. These functions include vision, hearing, taste, smell, movement of the eyes and face, and sensation in the face.

Diseases of the cranial nerves can result from a variety of causes, including injury, infection, inflammation, tumors, or degenerative conditions. The specific symptoms that a person experiences will depend on which cranial nerve is affected and how severely it is damaged.

For example, damage to the optic nerve (cranial nerve II) can cause vision loss or visual disturbances, while damage to the facial nerve (cranial nerve VII) can result in weakness or paralysis of the face. Other common symptoms of cranial nerve diseases include pain, numbness, tingling, and hearing loss.

Treatment for cranial nerve diseases varies depending on the underlying cause and severity of the condition. In some cases, medication or surgery may be necessary to treat the underlying cause and relieve symptoms. Physical therapy or rehabilitation may also be recommended to help individuals regain function and improve their quality of life.

Eye pain is defined as discomfort or unpleasant sensations in the eye. It can be sharp, throbbing, stabbing, burning, or aching. The pain may occur in one or both eyes and can range from mild to severe. Eye pain can result from various causes, including infection, inflammation, injury, or irritation of the structures of the eye, such as the cornea, conjunctiva, sclera, or uvea. Other possible causes include migraines, optic neuritis, and glaucoma. It is essential to seek medical attention if experiencing sudden, severe, or persistent eye pain, as it can be a sign of a serious underlying condition that requires prompt treatment.

Ophthalmoplegia is a medical term that refers to the paralysis or weakness of the eye muscles, which can result in double vision (diplopia) or difficulty moving the eyes. It can be caused by various conditions, including nerve damage, muscle disorders, or neurological diseases such as myasthenia gravis or multiple sclerosis. Ophthalmoplegia can affect one or more eye muscles and can be partial or complete. Depending on the underlying cause, ophthalmoplegia may be treatable with medications, surgery, or other interventions.

The oculomotor nerve, also known as the third cranial nerve (CN III), is a motor nerve that originates from the midbrain. It controls the majority of the eye muscles, including the levator palpebrae superioris muscle that raises the upper eyelid, and the extraocular muscles that enable various movements of the eye such as looking upward, downward, inward, and outward. Additionally, it carries parasympathetic fibers responsible for pupillary constriction and accommodation (focusing on near objects). Damage to this nerve can result in various ocular motor disorders, including strabismus, ptosis, and pupillary abnormalities.

The oculomotor muscles are a group of extraocular muscles that control the movements of the eye. They include:

1. Superior rectus: This muscle is responsible for elevating the eye and helping with inward rotation (intorsion) when looking downwards.
2. Inferior rectus: It depresses the eye and helps with outward rotation (extorsion) when looking upwards.
3. Medial rectus: This muscle adducts, or moves, the eye towards the midline of the face.
4. Inferior oblique: The inferior oblique muscle intorts and elevates the eye.
5. Superior oblique: It extorts and depresses the eye.

These muscles work together to allow for smooth and precise movements of the eyes, enabling tasks such as tracking moving objects, reading, and maintaining visual fixation on a single point in space.

Cranial nerve neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that develop within or near the cranial nerves. These nerves are responsible for transmitting sensory and motor information between the brain and various parts of the head, neck, and trunk. There are 12 pairs of cranial nerves, each with a specific function and location in the skull.

Cranial nerve neoplasms can be benign or malignant and may arise from the nerve itself (schwannoma, neurofibroma) or from surrounding tissues that invade the nerve (meningioma, epidermoid cyst). The growth of these tumors can cause various symptoms depending on their size, location, and rate of growth. Common symptoms include:

* Facial weakness or numbness
* Double vision or other visual disturbances
* Hearing loss or tinnitus (ringing in the ears)
* Difficulty swallowing or speaking
* Loss of smell or taste
* Uncontrollable eye movements or drooping eyelids

Treatment for cranial nerve neoplasms depends on several factors, including the type, size, location, and extent of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches. Regular follow-up care is essential to monitor for recurrence or complications.

A basilar skull fracture is a type of skull fracture that involves the base of the skull. It is a serious and potentially life-threatening injury, as it can cause damage to the brainstem and cranial nerves. A basilar skull fracture may occur as a result of a severe head trauma, such as from a fall, car accident, or violent assault.

In a basilar skull fracture, the bones that form the base of the skull (the occipital bone, sphenoid bone, and temporal bones) are broken. This type of fracture can be difficult to diagnose on a routine skull X-ray, and may require further imaging studies such as a CT scan or MRI to confirm the diagnosis.

Symptoms of a basilar skull fracture may include:

* Battle's sign: a bruise behind the ear
* Raccoon eyes: bruising around the eyes
* Clear fluid leaking from the nose or ears (cerebrospinal fluid)
* Hearing loss
* Facial paralysis
* Difficulty swallowing
* Changes in level of consciousness

If you suspect that someone has a basilar skull fracture, it is important to seek medical attention immediately. This type of injury requires prompt treatment and close monitoring to prevent complications such as infection or brain swelling.

The oculomotor nerve, also known as the third cranial nerve (CN III), is responsible for controlling several important eye movements and functions. Oculomotor nerve diseases refer to conditions that affect this nerve and can lead to various symptoms related to eye movement and function. Here's a medical definition of oculomotor nerve diseases:

Oculomotor nerve diseases are a group of medical disorders characterized by the dysfunction or damage to the oculomotor nerve (CN III), resulting in impaired eye movements, abnormalities in pupillary response, and potential effects on eyelid position. These conditions can be congenital, acquired, or traumatic in nature and may lead to partial or complete paralysis of the nerve. Common oculomotor nerve diseases include oculomotor nerve palsy, third nerve ganglionopathies, and compressive oculomotor neuropathies caused by various pathologies such as aneurysms, tumors, or infections.

The trigeminal nerve, also known as the fifth cranial nerve or CNV, is a paired nerve that carries both sensory and motor information. It has three major branches: ophthalmic (V1), maxillary (V2), and mandibular (V3). The ophthalmic branch provides sensation to the forehead, eyes, and upper portion of the nose; the maxillary branch supplies sensation to the lower eyelid, cheek, nasal cavity, and upper lip; and the mandibular branch is responsible for sensation in the lower lip, chin, and parts of the oral cavity, as well as motor function to the muscles involved in chewing. The trigeminal nerve plays a crucial role in sensations of touch, pain, temperature, and pressure in the face and mouth, and it also contributes to biting, chewing, and swallowing functions.

Paralysis is a loss of muscle function in part or all of your body. It can be localized, affecting only one specific area, or generalized, impacting multiple areas or even the entire body. Paralysis often occurs when something goes wrong with the way messages pass between your brain and muscles. In most cases, paralysis is caused by damage to the nervous system, especially the spinal cord. Other causes include stroke, trauma, infections, and various neurological disorders.

It's important to note that paralysis doesn't always mean a total loss of movement or feeling. Sometimes, it may just cause weakness or numbness in the affected area. The severity and extent of paralysis depend on the underlying cause and the location of the damage in the nervous system.

Duane Retraction Syndrome (DRS) is a congenital eye movement disorder, characterized by limited abduction (lateral movement away from the nose) of the affected eye, and on attempted adduction (movement towards the nose), the eye retracts into the orbit and the lid narrows. It is often accompanied by other eye alignment or vision anomalies. The exact cause is not known, but it is believed to be a result of abnormal development of the cranial nerves that control eye movement during fetal development. DRS is usually idiopathic, but it can also be associated with other congenital anomalies. It is typically diagnosed in early childhood and managed with a combination of observation, prism glasses, and/or surgery, depending on the severity and impact on vision.

A mucocele is a mucus-containing cystic lesion that results from the accumulation of mucin within a damaged minor salivary gland duct or mucous gland. It is typically caused by trauma, injury, or blockage of the duct. Mucocele appears as a round, dome-shaped, fluid-filled swelling, which may be bluish or clear in color. They are most commonly found on the lower lip but can also occur on other areas of the oral cavity. Mucocele is generally painless unless it becomes secondarily infected; however, it can cause discomfort during speaking, chewing, or swallowing, and may affect aesthetics. Treatment usually involves surgical excision of the mucocele to prevent recurrence.

Eye movements, also known as ocular motility, refer to the voluntary or involuntary motion of the eyes that allows for visual exploration of our environment. There are several types of eye movements, including:

1. Saccades: rapid, ballistic movements that quickly shift the gaze from one point to another.
2. Pursuits: smooth, slow movements that allow the eyes to follow a moving object.
3. Vergences: coordinated movements of both eyes in opposite directions, usually in response to a three-dimensional stimulus.
4. Vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR): automatic eye movements that help stabilize the gaze during head movement.
5. Optokinetic nystagmus (OKN): rhythmic eye movements that occur in response to large moving visual patterns, such as when looking out of a moving vehicle.

Abnormalities in eye movements can indicate neurological or ophthalmological disorders and are often assessed during clinical examinations.

Electronystagmography (ENG) is a medical test used to assess the function of the vestibular system, which is responsible for maintaining balance and eye movements. This test measures involuntary eye movements, called nystagmus, which can be indicative of various conditions affecting the inner ear or brainstem.

During the ENG test, electrodes are placed around the eyes to record eye movements while the patient undergoes a series of stimuli, such as changes in head position, visual stimuli, and caloric irrigations (where warm or cool water is introduced into the ear canal to stimulate the inner ear). The recorded data is then analyzed to evaluate the function of the vestibular system and identify any abnormalities.

ENG testing can help diagnose conditions such as vestibular neuritis, labyrinthitis, benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV), Meniere's disease, and other balance disorders. It is also used to assess the effectiveness of various treatments for these conditions.

Nerve compression syndromes refer to a group of conditions characterized by the pressure or irritation of a peripheral nerve, causing various symptoms such as pain, numbness, tingling, and weakness in the affected area. This compression can occur due to several reasons, including injury, repetitive motion, bone spurs, tumors, or swelling. Common examples of nerve compression syndromes include carpal tunnel syndrome, cubital tunnel syndrome, radial nerve compression, and ulnar nerve entrapment at the wrist or elbow. Treatment options may include physical therapy, splinting, medications, injections, or surgery, depending on the severity and underlying cause of the condition.

Dura Mater is the thickest and outermost of the three membranes (meninges) that cover the brain and spinal cord. It provides protection and support to these delicate structures. The other two layers are called the Arachnoid Mater and the Pia Mater, which are thinner and more delicate than the Dura Mater. Together, these three layers form a protective barrier around the central nervous system.

The posterior cranial fossa is a term used in anatomy to refer to the portion of the skull that forms the lower, back part of the cranial cavity. It is located between the occipital bone and the temporal bones, and it contains several important structures including the cerebellum, pons, medulla oblongata, and the lower cranial nerves (IX-XII). The posterior fossa also contains the foramen magnum, which is a large opening through which the spinal cord connects to the brainstem. This region of the skull is protected by the occipital bone, which forms the base of the skull and provides attachment for several neck muscles.

The skull base is the lower part of the skull that forms the floor of the cranial cavity and the roof of the facial skeleton. It is a complex anatomical region composed of several bones, including the frontal, sphenoid, temporal, occipital, and ethmoid bones. The skull base supports the brain and contains openings for blood vessels and nerves that travel between the brain and the face or neck. The skull base can be divided into three regions: the anterior cranial fossa, middle cranial fossa, and posterior cranial fossa, which house different parts of the brain.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "turtles" is not a medical term. It refers to the group of reptiles that have a shell and include various species such as tortoises and terrapins. If you have any medical concerns or questions, I would be happy to try to help with those!

The sciatic nerve is the largest and longest nerve in the human body, running from the lower back through the buttocks and down the legs to the feet. It is formed by the union of the ventral rami (branches) of the L4 to S3 spinal nerves. The sciatic nerve provides motor and sensory innervation to various muscles and skin areas in the lower limbs, including the hamstrings, calf muscles, and the sole of the foot. Sciatic nerve disorders or injuries can result in symptoms such as pain, numbness, tingling, or weakness in the lower back, hips, legs, and feet, known as sciatica.

A neurilemmoma, also known as schwannoma or peripheral nerve sheath tumor, is a benign, slow-growing tumor that arises from the Schwann cells, which produce the myelin sheath that surrounds and insulates peripheral nerves. These tumors can occur anywhere along the course of a peripheral nerve, but they most commonly affect the acoustic nerve (vestibulocochlear nerve), leading to a type of tumor called vestibular schwannoma or acoustic neuroma. Neurilemmomas are typically encapsulated and do not invade the surrounding tissue, although larger ones may cause pressure-related symptoms due to compression of nearby structures. Rarely, these tumors can undergo malignant transformation, leading to a condition called malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor or neurofibrosarcoma.

Peripheral nerves are nerve fibers that transmit signals between the central nervous system (CNS, consisting of the brain and spinal cord) and the rest of the body. These nerves convey motor, sensory, and autonomic information, enabling us to move, feel, and respond to changes in our environment. They form a complex network that extends from the CNS to muscles, glands, skin, and internal organs, allowing for coordinated responses and functions throughout the body. Damage or injury to peripheral nerves can result in various neurological symptoms, such as numbness, weakness, or pain, depending on the type and severity of the damage.

Paresis is a medical term that refers to a partial loss of voluntary muscle function. It is often described as muscle weakness, and it can affect one or several parts of the body. Paresis can be caused by various conditions, including nerve damage, stroke, spinal cord injuries, multiple sclerosis, and infections like polio or botulism. The severity of paresis can range from mild to severe, depending on the underlying cause and the specific muscles involved. Treatment for paresis typically focuses on addressing the underlying condition causing it.

Cranial nerves are a set of twelve pairs of nerves that originate from the brainstem and skull, rather than the spinal cord. These nerves are responsible for transmitting sensory information (such as sight, smell, hearing, and taste) to the brain, as well as controlling various muscles in the head and neck (including those involved in chewing, swallowing, and eye movement). Each cranial nerve has a specific function and is named accordingly. For example, the optic nerve (cranial nerve II) transmits visual information from the eyes to the brain, while the vagus nerve (cranial nerve X) controls parasympathetic functions in the body such as heart rate and digestion.

The brainstem is the lower part of the brain that connects to the spinal cord. It consists of the midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata. The brainstem controls many vital functions such as heart rate, breathing, and blood pressure. It also serves as a relay center for sensory and motor information between the cerebral cortex and the rest of the body. Additionally, several cranial nerves originate from the brainstem, including those that control eye movements, facial movements, and hearing.

The optic nerve, also known as the second cranial nerve, is the nerve that transmits visual information from the retina to the brain. It is composed of approximately one million nerve fibers that carry signals related to vision, such as light intensity and color, from the eye's photoreceptor cells (rods and cones) to the visual cortex in the brain. The optic nerve is responsible for carrying this visual information so that it can be processed and interpreted by the brain, allowing us to see and perceive our surroundings. Damage to the optic nerve can result in vision loss or impairment.

A meningioma is a type of slow-growing tumor that forms on the membranes (meninges) surrounding the brain and spinal cord. It's usually benign, meaning it doesn't spread to other parts of the body, but it can still cause serious problems if it grows and presses on nearby tissues.

Meningiomas most commonly occur in adults, and are more common in women than men. They can cause various symptoms depending on their location and size, including headaches, seizures, vision or hearing problems, memory loss, and changes in personality or behavior. In some cases, they may not cause any symptoms at all and are discovered only during imaging tests for other conditions.

Treatment options for meningiomas include monitoring with regular imaging scans, surgery to remove the tumor, and radiation therapy to shrink or kill the tumor cells. The best treatment approach depends on factors such as the size and location of the tumor, the patient's age and overall health, and their personal preferences.

Nerve fibers are specialized structures that constitute the long, slender processes (axons) of neurons (nerve cells). They are responsible for conducting electrical impulses, known as action potentials, away from the cell body and transmitting them to other neurons or effector organs such as muscles and glands. Nerve fibers are often surrounded by supportive cells called glial cells and are grouped together to form nerve bundles or nerves. These fibers can be myelinated (covered with a fatty insulating sheath called myelin) or unmyelinated, which influences the speed of impulse transmission.

Medical Definition:

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive diagnostic imaging technique that uses a strong magnetic field and radio waves to create detailed cross-sectional or three-dimensional images of the internal structures of the body. The patient lies within a large, cylindrical magnet, and the scanner detects changes in the direction of the magnetic field caused by protons in the body. These changes are then converted into detailed images that help medical professionals to diagnose and monitor various medical conditions, such as tumors, injuries, or diseases affecting the brain, spinal cord, heart, blood vessels, joints, and other internal organs. MRI does not use radiation like computed tomography (CT) scans.

The abducens nerve or abducent nerve, also known as the sixth cranial nerve, cranial nerve VI, or simply CN VI, is a cranial ... The human abducens nerve is derived from the basal plate of the embryonic pons. The abducens nerve supplies the lateral rectus ... The abducens nerve carries axons of type GSE, general somatic efferent. Damage to the peripheral part of the abducens nerve ... The 39th edition of Gray's Anatomy (2005) also prefers "abducens nerve." The abducens nerve controls the movement of a single ...
... abducens nerve; cnVII, facial nerve; cnIX-XI, glossopharyngeal and vagoaccessory nerves; cnXII, hypoglossal nerve; en, ... Evolution of mammals Therocephalia ce, cerebellum; cnI, olfactory nerve; cnV +vcm-trigeminal nerve and vena capitis medialis; ... a large epyphysial nerve (found in creatures with a parietal eye on the top of the head), an enlarged pituitary gland, and an ... epiphyseal nerve; fb, forebrain; fcl, flocculus; ibic, internal branch of the internal carotid; lob, left olfactory bulb; ob, ...
... , or abducens nerve palsy, is a disorder associated with dysfunction of cranial nerve VI (the abducens nerve ... The unilateral abducens nerve palsy is the most common of the isolated ocular motor nerve palsies. The nerve dysfunction ... fibers of the seventh cranial nerve wrap around the VIth nerve nucleus, and, if this is also affected, a VIth nerve palsy with ... Abducens nerve palsy is also known to occur with halo orthosis placement. The resultant palsy is identified through loss of ...
This forms a foramen, and within this lies the abducens nerve. The abducens nerve travels inferiorly to the petroclinoid ... Piffer CR, Zorzetto NL (1980). "Course and relations of the abducens nerve". Anat Anz. 147 (1): 42-46. PMID 7396225. Kimonis VE ... This can cause injury to the pupillomotor fibres of the oculomotor nerve, consequently leading to internal ophthalmoplegia The ... The posterior petroclinoid ligament is in close proximity to the oculomotor nerve. During head trauma, it acts as a fulcrum ...
... the abducens nerve (sixth nerve) is involved. This nerve supplies the muscle that pulls the eye outward. Those with sixth nerve ... More rarely, the oculomotor nerve and trochlear nerve (third and fourth nerve palsy, respectively) are affected; both play a ... The facial nerve (seventh cranial nerve) is affected occasionally - the result is total or partial weakness of the muscles of ... The increased pressure leads to compression and traction of the cranial nerves, a group of nerves that arise from the brain ...
Oculomotor nerve (CNIII) is by far the most common cranial nerve involves in RPON, while abducens nerve (CNVI) and trochlear ... Rare cases involve abducens nerve paralysis affects lateral eye movement while trochlear nerve paralysis affects vertical eye ... Milisavljević, Milan (1986-01-01). "Oculomotor, Trochlear, and Abducens Nerves Penetrated by Cerebral Vessels". Archives of ... The transient, reversible enhancement or thickening of the ocular motor nerve(s), which can be observed in the MRI scans of a ...
Abducens Nerve Palsy at eMedicine "Barton, J., & Goodwin, J. (2001). Horizontal Gaze Palsy". Medlink.com. Archived from the ... Nonselective horizontal gaze palsies are caused by lesions in the Abducens nucleus. This is where the cranial nerve VI leaves ... Lesions anywhere in the abducens nucleus, cranial nerve VI neurons, or interneurons can affect eye movement towards the side of ... The cranial nerve VI also has interneurons connecting to the medial rectus, which controls horizontal eye movement towards from ...
The oculomotor nerve (III), trochlear nerve (IV) and abducens nerve (VI) coordinate eye movement. The oculomotor nerve controls ... The nuclei or bodies of these nerves are found in the brain stem. The nuclei of the abducens and oculomotor nerves are ... Damage to the abducens nerve (VI) can also result in double vision. This is due to impairment in the lateral rectus muscle, ... Hence the subsequent nerve supply (innervation) of the eye muscles is from three cranial nerves. The development of the ...
It contains the abducens nerve (CN VI), inferior petrosal sinus, and the dorsal meningeal artery (a branch of the ... This contains the abducens nerve (VI) and the inferior petrosal sinus. The petrosphenoidal ligament (Gruber's ligament, or ... Dorello's canal allows for passage of the abducens nerve (CN VI) and the inferior petrosal sinus as they travel to merge with ... Dorello's canal can entrap the abducens nerve (CN VI) after cranial trauma. Dorello's canal is named after the Italian ...
... and a partial loss of the glossopharyngeal and facial motor nerves. However, the somatic hypoglossal and abducens motor nerves ... The trigeminal nerve is not affected in the double knockout mouse embryos, indicating that cell fate alteration is limited to ... Cell lineage analysis of Nkx 2.9 and Nkx 2.2 double knockout (deficient) mouse embryos shows that cranial nerve alterations are ... Disturbance of Nkx 2.9 and Nkx 2.2 in mouse embryos results in the total loss of the spinal accessory and vagal motor nerves, ...
Associated cranial nerves are the oculomotor, abducens, trochlear, and hypoglossal nerves. These motor neurons indirectly ... Betz cell Central chromatolysis Motor dysfunction Motor neuron disease Nerve Efferent nerve fiber Motor nerve "Afferent vs. ... Nerve tracts are bundles of axons as white matter, that carry action potentials to their effectors. In the spinal cord these ... In the fly, motor neurons controlling the legs and wings are found in the ventral nerve cord, homologous to the spinal cord. ...
Münchener mediznische Wochenschrift, 1888 - On congenital facial paralysis of the abducens nerve. Die Basedowsche Krankheit. In ... He is credited for providing a distinction between exogenous and endogenous nerve disorders, and introduced ideas on the ... This is a rare type of palsy associated with paralysis of the cranial nerves VI and VII. This results in the patient having a ...
The abducens nerve (CN VI) tracks along the clivus during its course. Increased intracranial pressure can trap the nerve at ... The abducens nerve (CN VI) also tracks along the clivus during its course. During embryonic development, the clivus is formed ... It is related to the pons and the abducens nerve (CN VI). The clivus is a shallow depression behind the dorsum sellae of the ...
This contains the abducens nerve (CN VI) and the inferior petrosal sinus. His identification was confirmed years layer. He ... Tsukita, Kazuto; Sakamaki-Tsukita, Haruhi; Suenaga, Toshihiko (4 July 2019). "Isolated Abducens Nerve Palsy due to a Dural ... including entrapment of the abducens nerve due to inflammation. Dorello worked on anatomy topics in the Treccani Encyclopaedia ...
Absence of the abducens nucleus and nerve (cranial nerve VI) Abnormal eye movement due to the lateral rectus muscle being ... MRI imaging can be used to detect whether the abducens nerve is present. Typically, treatment for this condition requires a ... This results from improper nerve development for eye movement.[citation needed] The following are characteristics of Duane ... innervated by a branch of the oculomotor nerve (cranial nerve III) This is characterized by hand and arm abnormalities. The ...
... the optic nerve (II), oculomotor nerve (III), trochlear nerve (IV), trigeminal nerve (V), abducens nerve (VI), facial nerve ( ... The oculomotor nerve (III), trochlear nerve (IV), abducens nerve (VI) and the ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve (V1) ... and trochlear nerve (IV); the pons has the nuclei of the trigeminal nerve (V), abducens nerve (VI), facial nerve (VII) and ... glossopharyngeal nerve (IX), vagus nerve (X), accessory nerve (XI), and the hypoglossal nerve (XII). Cranial nerves are ...
... also known as abducens nerve palsy, is a neurological defect that results from a damaged or impaired abducens nerve. This ... The neuron cell bodies are located in the abducens nucleus in the pons. These neurons project axons as the abducens nerve which ... Damage to the abducens nerve by trauma can be caused by any type of trauma that causes elevated intracranial pressure; ... For example, if the left abducens nerve is damaged, the left eye will not abduct fully. While attempting to look straight ahead ...
The ciliary nerves, ciliary ganglion, oculomotor nerve and abducens nerve are anesthetized in retrobulbar block. As a result, ... O' Brien's block : It is also known as facial nerve trunk block. The block is done at the level of the neck of the mandible ... Facial nerve, which supplies the orbicularis oculi muscle, is blocked in addition for intraocular surgeries. Topical ... van Lint's block : In van Lint's block, the peripheral branches of facial nerve are blocked. This technique causes akinesia of ...
The abducens nucleus is the originating nucleus from which the abducens nerve (VI) emerges-a cranial nerve nucleus. This ... The former directly drive the contraction of the ipsilateral lateral rectus muscle via the abducens nerve (sixth cranial nerve ... The abducens nucleus along with the internal genu of the facial nerve make up the facial colliculus, a hump at the caudal end ... Damage to the abducens nerve causes monocular ipsilateral lateral ophthalmoparesis: specifically, loss of the ability to move ...
One pathway projects directly to the lateral rectus muscle of the eye via the abducens nerve. Another nerve tract projects from ... There they project and stimulate the lateral rectus of the left eye via the abducens nerve. In addition, by the medial ... From these nuclei, fibers cross to the abducens nucleus of the opposite side of the brain. Here, fibres synapse with 2 ... The signal for the horizontal rotational component travels via the vestibular nerve through the vestibular ganglion and end in ...
The Deiters' nucleus extends from pontomedullary junction to the level of abducens nerve nucleus in the pons. Lateral ... With this they determined that the superior vestibular nerve plays a larger role in balance than the inferior vestibulo nerve ... This tract is found in the lateral funiculus, a bundle of nerve roots in the spinal cord. The lateral vestibulospinal tract ... "VESTIBULAR NUCLEI AND ABDUCENS NUCLEUS". Medical Neurosciences University of Wisconsin. Archived from the original on November ...
Other cranial nerves involved were vagus, trigeminal, spinal accessory nerve, abducens, oculomotor and glossopharyngeal in this ... In the Gomez review facial nerve was affected in all cases while hypoglossal nerve was involved in all except one case. ... Postmortem examination of cases have found depletion of nerve cells in the nuclei of cranial nerves. The histologic alterations ... It causes progressive bulbar paralysis due to involvement of motor neurons of the cranial nerve nuclei. The most frequent ...
These are innerved from three cranial nerves: the abducens nerve, the trochlear nerve and the oculomotor nerve. Horizontal ... This action is mediated by the medial rectus muscle, which is innervated by Cranial nerve III. It is a type of vergence eye ... The extraocular muscles may have two types of fiber each with its own nerve supply, hence a dual mechanism.[citation needed] ...
Lateral expansion of a pituitary adenoma can also compress the abducens nerve, causing a lateral rectus palsy. Also, a ... It arises from the compression of the optic nerve by the tumor. The specific area of the visual pathway at which compression by ...
... but with additional nerve palsies of the affected facial and abducens nerve. Selection of the type of nerve transfer is based ... Optional motor donor nerves are: the masseteric nerve, accessory nerve or hypoglossal nerve. In rare cases when these nerves ... For example, the hypoglossal nerve or masseteric nerve on the affected side can be used as donor nerves. This donor nerve is ... Here the nerve stimulator can be used in identifying the donor motor nerve to the masseter muscle. Once the nerve is identified ...
The oculomotor nerve, trochlear nerve, and abducens nerve are motor nerves that control one or more of the eye muscles. The ... The abducens nucleus is located in the pons. The abducens nerve innervates the lateral rectus muscle of the eye in most ... The only cranial nerve that originates from the forebrain is the olfactory nerve. All other cranial nerves originate from ... Four of the cranial nerves serve the eye directly: one sensory and three motor nerves. The optic nerve is sensory and crosses ...
It connects the nuclei of the oculomotor nerve (CN III), the trochlear nerve (CN IV), and the abducens nerve (CN VI). It ... The medial longitudinal fasciculus is the main central connection for the oculomotor nerve, trochlear nerve, and abducens nerve ... of the trochlear nerve, CN IV), and the abducens nucleus (of the abducens nerve, CN VI). These three nuclei lie alongside the ... This is achieved by inputs to the vestibular nucleus from: the vestibulocochlear nerve (CN VIII). This is related to head ...
The abducens nerve solely innervates the lateral rectus muscle of the eye, moving the eye with the trochlear nerve. The ... Together, trochlear and abducens contract and relax to simultaneously direct the pupil towards an angle and depress the globe ... It receives input from the trigeminal nerve, dorsal column (of the spinal cord), midbrain, thalamus, reticular formation and ... There are five sensory organs innervated by the vestibular nerve; three semicircular canals (Horizontal SCC, Superior SCC, ...
... and abducens nerves, which are the third, fourth, and sixth cranial nerves. the abducens nerve is responsible for abducting the ... The oculomotor nerve controls all the other extraocular muscles, as well as a muscle of the upper eyelid. The conjugate gaze is ... The trochlear nerve controls the superior oblique muscle to rotate the eye along its axis in the orbit medially, which is ... 16.3 The Cranial Nerve Exam. ISBN 978-1-947172-04-3. Fowler, Timothy J.; John W. Scadding (2003). Clinical Neurology (3rd ed ...
Abducens (6th nerve), Trochlear (4th nerve), and Oculomotor (3rd nerve). After nerve trauma around the eye, a combination of ... This is an interaction between the abducens nerve and a branch of the oculomotor nerve. Voluntary activation of the abducens ... Moreover, while the abducens and the trochlear nerve each innervate one specific muscle, the oculomotor nerve has many ... As the nerve attempts to recover, nerve miswiring results (see Mechanism of Action below). In patients with severe facial nerve ...
The abducens nerve or abducent nerve, also known as the sixth cranial nerve, cranial nerve VI, or simply CN VI, is a cranial ... The human abducens nerve is derived from the basal plate of the embryonic pons. The abducens nerve supplies the lateral rectus ... The abducens nerve carries axons of type GSE, general somatic efferent. Damage to the peripheral part of the abducens nerve ... The 39th edition of Grays Anatomy (2005) also prefers "abducens nerve." The abducens nerve controls the movement of a single ...
... also known as the abducens nerve, innervates the ipsilateral lateral rectus (LR), which functions to abduct the ipsilateral eye ... It has the longest subarachnoid course of all the cranial nerves; therefore, its syndromes are similar to those of the fourth ... encoded search term (Abducens Nerve Palsy (Sixth Cranial Nerve Palsy)) and Abducens Nerve Palsy (Sixth Cranial Nerve Palsy) ... Abducens Nerve Palsy (Sixth Cranial Nerve Palsy). Updated: Mar 02, 2021 * Author: Michael P Ehrenhaus, MD; Chief Editor: Edsel ...
Nerve Palsy - Etiology, pathophysiology, symptoms, signs, diagnosis & prognosis from the MSD Manuals - Medical Professional ... optic nerve, or extraocular muscles and their nerves; thus, they can be considered cranial nerve disorders, neuro- ... Sixth cranial (abducens) nerve palsy typically results from small-vessel disease, particularly in diabetics, but the cause is ... Symptoms and Signs of Sixth Cranial Nerve Palsy Symptoms of 6th cranial nerve palsy include binocular horizontal diplopia when ...
... also known as the sixth cranial nerve, cranial nerve VI, or simply CN VI, is ... Abducens nerve. Anatomy / Leave a Comment The abducens nerve or abducent nerve, also known as the sixth cranial nerve, cranial ... It is a somatic efferent nerve. The nerve originates from the nucleus of the abducens nerve of the pons tegmentum, emerges from ... The abducens nerve also contains a small contingent of somatic sensory fibers that carry proprioceptive stimuli from the ...
We report the case of a previously healthy 48-year-old man who developed an isolated abducens nerve palsy 18 days after ... This case suggests that isolated abducens nerve palsy caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection may ... Isolated abducens nerve palsy associated with coronavirus disease: an 8-month follow-up. ... Isolated abducens nerve palsy associated with coronavirus disease: an 8-month follow-up. ...
Abducens Nerve / anatomy & histology * Cadaver * Cranial Fossa, Posterior / anatomy & histology* * Cranial Fossa, Posterior / ... The abducent nerve generally ran through the inferior compartment, where it was fixed to the surrounding dura mater. This nerve ... The posterior petroclinoid fold and the axial plane below the dural foramen of the abducent nerve (sixth cranial nerve) limited ...
It affects the function of the sixth cranial (skull) nerve. As a result, the person may have double vision. ... It affects the function of the sixth cranial (skull) nerve. As a result, the person may have double vision. ... Abducens paralysis; Abducens palsy; Lateral rectus palsy; VIth nerve palsy; Cranial nerve VI palsy; Sixth nerve palsy; ... Cranial mononeuropathy VI is damage to the sixth cranial nerve. This nerve is also called the abducens nerve. It helps you move ...
... cranial nerve palsy such as dysphagia, abducens palsy, and facial palsy; and shoulder weakness and atrophy. These sequelae are ... facial or hypopharyngeal nerve) on day 2 to day 5 of illness. A severe inflammatory response occurs in the CNS, and we found a ... EV71 may invade the CNS through its presence in the blood or directly through the cranial nerves ( ...
Oculomotor nerve palsy, partial or complete (pupil sparing) * Trochlear nerve palsy * Abducens nerve palsy ... Repetitive nerve stimulation at a frequency of 2 Hz showing an increasing decrement in the amplitude of the compound muscle ...
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abducens nerve. *abiotrophy. *abscess. *absence seizure. *accessory nerve. *acetylcholine. *acoustic neuroma. *action potential ...
Dysfunction of cranial nerves oculomotor (III), trochlear (IV), abducens (VI) and first division of the trigeminal nerve (V1). ... the ulnar nerve, the radial nerve, the femoral nerve, the peroneal nerve etc. Only one nerve involved. This distinguishes the ... Motor or sensory involvement restricted to the distribution of an isolated nerve root level e.g. C5 nerve rooth or L5 nerve ... nerve biopsy: Sural nerve or superficial peroneal nerve biopsy +/-muscle … Continue reading Nonsystemic vasculitic neuropathy ...
Keywords: Vocal fold paralysis; Hoarseness; Dysphonia; Vagus nerve; Cranial neuropathy; Recurrent laryngeal nerve; Abducens ... The most commonly affected cranial nerve is the abducens (CN VI). It may represent up to 92-95% of all cranial nerve injures ... Palsies of the oculomotor, trochlear, trigeminal, abducens and facial nerve have occurred after both spinal and spinal-epidural ... Fang JY, Lin JW, Li Q, Jiang N Gao Y (2010) Trigeminal nerve and facial nerve palsy after combined spinal-epidural anesthesia ...
abducens nerve acinus of lacrimal gland acinus of lactiferous gland + acinus of olfactory gland ...
Stay tuned for our next video, where well be covering CNVI (the Abducens nerve) in detail. ... Anatomy Dissected: CNV (trigeminal nerve). Posted on January 7, 2020. January 24, 2020. by Olivia Murray , 12 minute video ... Welcome back to another Anatomy Dissected! Olivia Murray kicks off the new year with a video on CNV (the trigeminal nerve), ... Understand some of the common clinical conditions associated with this nerve.. As always, you can follow along using Complete ...
Abducens nerve - CN VI. The nucleus of the nerve is located in the paramedian pontine region in the floor of the fourth ... trigeminal nerve), extent of distribution (vagus nerve), composition (spinal accessory nerve), or location (hypoglossal nerve). ... Hypoglossal nerve - CN XII. The nucleus of this nerve lies in the lower medulla, and the nerve itself leaves the cranial cavity ... Trigeminal nerve - CN V. The nucleus of the nerve stretches from the midbrain (ie, mesencephalic nerve) through the pons (ie, ...
Abducens Nerve Palsies use Abducens Nerve Diseases Abducens Nerve Palsy use Abducens Nerve Diseases ... Abducens Nerve Trauma use Abducens Nerve Injury Abducens Nerve Traumas use Abducens Nerve Injury ... Abducens Nerve Disease use Abducens Nerve Diseases Abducens Nerve Diseases Abducens Nerve Injuries use Abducens Nerve Injury ... Abducens Palsy use Abducens Nerve Diseases Abducens Palsy, Childhood, Benign Recurrent use Abducens Nerve Diseases ...
... : ✓ Mnemonic ✓ 12 Nerves ✓ Palsies ✓ Nerve Nuclei ✓ Origin ✓ VaiaOriginal! ... Oculomotor, trochlear, and abducens nerves (III, IV, and VI) enable eye movements, enhancing the visual field and adjusting to ... What is the longest cranial nerve? The longest cranial nerve is the vagus nerve, also known as cranial nerve X. It extends from ... Frequently Asked Questions about Cranial Nerves. Can cranial nerves repair themselves? Yes, cranial nerves can repair ...
Whole courses of the oculomotor, trochlear, and abducens nerves, identified in sectioned images and surface models. Anat Rec ( ...
Abducens Nerve Diseases Medicine & Life Sciences 100% * Multiple Myeloma Medicine & Life Sciences 69% ... Isolated sixth nerve palsy--presenting sign of multiple myeloma].. Alon Zahavi*, Riri S. Manor, Meir Lahav, Mati Bakon, Hadas ... Isolated sixth nerve palsy--presenting sign of multiple myeloma]. / Zahavi, Alon; Manor, Riri S.; Lahav, Meir et al. In: ... Isolated sixth nerve palsy--presenting sign of multiple myeloma]. In: Unknown Journal. 2013 ; Vol. 152, No. 2. pp. 109-111, 122 ...
A region in the PONTINE TEGMENTUM that is the nucleus of the ABDUCENS NERVE. ... "Abducens Nucleus" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Abducens Nucleus" by people in this website by year, and ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Abducens Nucleus" by people in Profiles. ...
Learn Cranial Nerves in USMLE Step 1 - Anatomy & Embryology for Medicine faster and easier with Picmonics unforgettable videos ... Trigeminal Nerve. Sensory. Facial Sensation. Motor Function (Via Mandibular Nerve). Mastication Muscles. ... Cranial Nerve Function. Sensory. CN I. CN II. CN VIII. Motor. CN III. CN IV. CN VI. CN XI. CN XII. Both. CN V. CN VII. CN IX. ... Facial Nerve. Lacrimation. Salivation. Sensory. Taste from Anterior 2/3 of Tongue. Motor. Facial Movement. Stapedius Muscle. ...
Abducens Nerve Palsies use Abducens Nerve Diseases Abducens Nerve Palsy use Abducens Nerve Diseases ... Abducens Nerve Trauma use Abducens Nerve Injury Abducens Nerve Traumas use Abducens Nerve Injury ... Abducens Nerve Disease use Abducens Nerve Diseases Abducens Nerve Diseases Abducens Nerve Injuries use Abducens Nerve Injury ... Abducens Neuropathies, Traumatic use Abducens Nerve Injury Abducens Neuropathy, Traumatic use Abducens Nerve Injury ...
I olfactory nerve , II optic nerve , III oculomotor nerve , IV trochlear nerve , V trigeminal nerve , VI abducens nerve , VII ... VIII Vestibulocochlear Nerve , IX Glossopharyngeal Nerve , X vagus nerve , XI accessory nerve , XII hypoglossal nerve ... The nerve is connected to the IX. and XI. Cranial nerves ( glossopharyngeal nerve or accessory nerve ) also combined to form ... Jackson syndrome (cranial nerve syndrome) (lesions of the vagus nerve, accessory nerve, and hypoglossal nerve) ...
Isolated Ocular Motor Nerve Palsies. Kung, N. H. & Van Stavern, G. P., Oct 1 2015, In: Seminars in Neurology. 35, 5, p. 539-548 ... Lagophthalmos: An unusual manifestation of oculomotor nerve aberrant regeneration. Custer, P. L., Jan 1 2000, In: Ophthalmic ...
ABDUCENS NERVE DISEASES ENFERMEDADES DEL NERVIO ABDUCENTE DOENÇAS DO NERVO ACESSÓRIO ACCESSORY NERVE DISEASES ENFERMEDADES DEL ... ABDUCENS NERVE INJURY TRAUMATISMO DEL NERVIO ABDUCENTE TRAUMATISMOS CRANIANOS PENETRANTES HEAD INJURIES, PENETRATING ... FACIAL NERVE INJURIES TRAUMATISMOS DEL NERVIO FACIAL TRAUMATISMOS DO NERVO ÓPTICO OPTIC NERVE INJURIES TRAUMATISMOS DEL NERVIO ... TROCHLEAR NERVE DISEASES ENFERMEDADES DEL NERVIO TROCLEAR DOENÇAS DO NERVO VAGO VAGUS NERVE DISEASES ENFERMEDADES DEL NERVIO ...
Cranial Nerve-VI Palsy as the Main Clinical Manifestation of Neurosarcoidosis. Al-Qudah, Z. A., Yacoub, H. A. & Souayah, N., ...
The extraocular muscles are innervated by 3 cranial nerves (CNs): oculomotor (CN III), trochlear (CN IV), and abducens nerves ( ... The optic nerve fibers contain axons of the ganglion cells that pass radially to form the optic nerve. ... Associated with the orbit are foramina and fissures (see Table 1, below), which are important in transmitting nerves, arteries ... Posteriorly, the sclera is perforated by the optic nerve at the lamina cribrosa. ...
The correct option is C Abducens. The abducens nerve innervates the lateral rectus eye muscle that turns the eye outward away ... The facial nerve serves taste buds, facial muscles, and the associated glands. Spinal accessory nerves are not cranial nerves. ... The oculomotor nerve serves the superior, inferior, and medial rectus muscles and inferior oblique muscles. ... Lateral rectus muscle of the eye is served by which cranial nerve?. ...
  • The abducens nerve or abducent nerve, also known as the sixth cranial nerve, cranial nerve VI, or simply CN VI, is a cranial nerve in humans and various other animals that controls the movement of the lateral rectus muscle, one of the extraocular muscles responsible for outward gaze. (wikipedia.org)
  • The posterior petroclinoid fold and the axial plane below the dural foramen of the abducent nerve (sixth cranial nerve) limited the PVC at the top and bottom, respectively. (nih.gov)
  • The abducent nerve generally ran through the inferior compartment, where it was fixed to the surrounding dura mater. (nih.gov)
  • Interest in studying the anatomy of the abducent nerve arose from early clinical experience with abducent palsy seen in middle ear infection. (medscape.com)
  • In 1905, an Italian anatomist, Primo Dorello (1872-1963), offered his own theory on the possible cause of abducent nerve palsy in Gradenigo syndrome based on anatomical dissections done to study the course of the abducent nerve. (medscape.com)
  • The abducens nucleus is located in the pons, on the floor of the fourth ventricle, at the level of the facial colliculus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Axons from the facial nerve loop around the abducens nucleus, creating a slight bulge (the facial colliculus) that is visible on the dorsal surface of the floor of the fourth ventricle. (wikipedia.org)
  • The abducens nucleus is close to the midline, like the other motor nuclei that control eye movements (the oculomotor and trochlear nuclei). (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Motor axons leaving the abducens nucleus run ventrally and caudally through the pons. (wikipedia.org)
  • The central anatomy of the sixth nerve predicts (correctly) that infarcts affecting the dorsal pons at the level of the abducens nucleus can also affect the facial nerve, producing an ipsilateral facial palsy together with a lateral rectus palsy. (wikipedia.org)
  • The sixth nerve nucleus is located in the pons, just ventral to the floor of the fourth ventricle and just lateral to the medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF). (medscape.com)
  • Damage to the sixth nerve nucleus results in an ipsilateral gaze palsy. (medscape.com)
  • The nerve originates from the nucleus of the abducens nerve of the pons tegmentum, emerges from the bulbopontine groove above the bulb pyramids, and its fibers course forward, upward, and laterally immersed in the cephalorachid fluid of the subarachnoid space to the apex of the petrous rock of the temporalis where it enters the cavernous sinus of the dura mater. (encyclios.com)
  • The abducens nucleus also contains internuclear neurons whose axons enter the constitution of the medial longitudinal fasciculus, directed toward the nucleus of the oculomotor nerve that innervates the medial rectus muscle. (encyclios.com)
  • Abducens Nucleus" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (ouhsc.edu)
  • A region in the PONTINE TEGMENTUM that is the nucleus of the ABDUCENS NERVE. (ouhsc.edu)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Abducens Nucleus" by people in this website by year, and whether "Abducens Nucleus" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (ouhsc.edu)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Abducens Nucleus" by people in Profiles. (ouhsc.edu)
  • The nerve cell bodies of the motor fibers are located in the nucleus motorius nervi vagi (also nucleus ambiguus ) in the medullary brain. (zxc.wiki)
  • The anatomy also predicts (correctly) that infarcts involving the ventral pons can affect the sixth nerve and the corticospinal tract simultaneously, producing a lateral rectus palsy associated with a contralateral hemiparesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Isolated abducens nerve palsy associated with coronavirus disease: an 8-month follow-up. (bvsalud.org)
  • The subsequent sections delve into the organisation of cranial nerve nuclei and their various connections and functions. (vaia.com)
  • Damage to the peripheral part of the abducens nerve will cause double vision (diplopia), due to the unopposed muscle tone of the medial rectus muscle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Complete interruption of the peripheral sixth nerve causes diplopia (double vision), due to the unopposed action of the medial rectus muscle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Symptoms of 6th cranial nerve palsy include binocular horizontal diplopia when looking to the side of the paretic eye. (msdmanuals.com)
  • McGee S. Nerves of the eye muscles (III, IV, and VI): approach to diplopia. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Eye movement disorders: third, fourth, and sixth nerve palsies and other causes of diplopia and ocular misalignment. (medlineplus.gov)
  • We report a case of isolated sixth nerve palsy causing diplopia as the presenting sign of multiple myeloma. (tau.ac.il)
  • Palsy resulting from a cavernous sinus lesion can cause severe head pain, chemosis (conjunctival edema), anesthesia in the distribution of the 1st and 2nd division of the 5th cranial nerve, and paralysis of the 3rd, 4th, and 6th cranial nerves. (msdmanuals.com)
  • There is less chance of recovery in case of complete paralysis of the sixth nerve. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Clinical features (neurological porphyrias): General features: Acute ascending paralysis with areflexia, affecting VII nerve as well Sensory loss may occur "swimming trunk distribution" Autonomic neuropathy: tachycardia and orthostatic hypotension Confusion, anxiety Urine becomes dark on exposure to sunlight. (learningneurology.com)
  • In 1904, Giuseppe Gradenigo (1859-1926), an Italian otolaryngologist, described a syndrome characterized by a triad of middle ear infection, ipsilateral abducent paralysis, and ipsilateral trigeminal neuropathic pain most commonly manifested as retroorbital pain due to irritation of the ophthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve. (medscape.com)
  • Within the layers of the retina, photons trigger a series of electrical and chemical reactions, ultimately sending electrical signals by way of the optic nerve, along with visual pathway to the occipital cortex. (medscape.com)
  • Her clinical expertise includes diagnosis and treatment of optic nerve diseases, eye movement disorders, and neurological pathology affecting visual pathways. (stanford.edu)
  • Cranial nerve VI, also known as the abducens nerve, innervates the ipsilateral lateral rectus (LR), which functions to abduct the ipsilateral eye. (medscape.com)
  • The abduces nerve then proceeds through the superior orbital fissure and innervates the lateral rectus muscle. (medscape.com)
  • The abducens nerve innervates the lateral rectus eye muscle that turns the eye outward away from the midline. (byjus.com)
  • The oculomotor nerve serves the superior, inferior, and medial rectus muscles and inferior oblique muscles. (byjus.com)
  • The abducens nerve also contains a small contingent of somatic sensory fibers that carry proprioceptive stimuli from the lateral rectus muscle. (encyclios.com)
  • In the cavernous sinus of the dura mater these fibers pass to the ophthalmic nerve. (encyclios.com)
  • The somata of the afferent fibers (a distinction between sensory and sensory is no longer made) of the vagus nerve are located in these two ganglia. (zxc.wiki)
  • Throughout the years, in the absence of ancillary or diagnostic tools, many descriptive phrases, clichés, or analogies have been used to describe the eye, such as "the eye is the window to the soul," the "eye works like a camera," and "the eye is the only structure that allows us to physically see blood vessels and nerve fibers. (medscape.com)
  • Multiple Mononeuropathy Multiple mononeuropathies are characterized by sensory disturbances and weakness in the distribution of ≥ 2 affected peripheral nerves. (msdmanuals.com)
  • As you can see, the cranial nerves have a variety of functions, including sensory (detecting information from the environment), motor (controlling muscles), and mixed (combining both sensory and motor). (vaia.com)
  • Sensory nerves transmit information on our perceptions of the environment, such as sights, sounds, and tastes. (vaia.com)
  • citation needed] The abducens nerve emerges from the brainstem at the junction of the pons and the medulla, superior to the medullary pyramid, and medial to the facial nerve. (wikipedia.org)
  • The facial nerve serves taste buds, facial muscles, and the associated glands. (byjus.com)
  • The human abducens nerve is derived from the basal plate of the embryonic pons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mass lesions that push the brainstem downward can damage the nerve by stretching it between the point where it emerges from the pons and the point where it hooks over the petrous temporal bone. (wikipedia.org)
  • The abducens nerve emerges from the brainstem at the pontomedullary junction to enter the subarachnoid space, coursing upward between the pons and clivus to enter the Dorello canal. (medscape.com)
  • The abducens nerve supplies the lateral rectus muscle of the human eye. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sixth cranial nerve palsy affects the lateral rectus muscle, impairing eye abduction. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Lateral rectus muscle of the eye is served by which cranial nerve? (byjus.com)
  • Examination for a sixth nerve palsy involves documenting the presence or absence of papilledema, examining the ocular motility, evaluating the eyelids and pupils, and excluding involvement of other cranial nerves (eg, V, VII, VIII). (medscape.com)
  • MRI is indicated for any brainstem findings to exclude pontine glioma in children (most have papilledema and nystagmus without other cranial nerve involvement) and in adults who show no improvement. (medscape.com)
  • CM can present to the ophthalmologist as vision loss, papilledema, abducens palsy, and/or other cranial neuropathies. (houstonmethodist.org)
  • In isolated cases of peripheral nerve lesions, no vertical or torsional deviations are present. (medscape.com)
  • Central nervous system lesions of the abducens nerve tract are localized easily secondary to the typical findings associated with each kind of lesion. (medscape.com)
  • Abducens palsy can be a false localizing sign with lesions that cause increased intracranial pressure and stretching of the sixth nerve as it ascends the clival area. (medscape.com)
  • The patient was consented for a spinal anesthetic with peripheral nerve blocks for postoperative pain management. (longdom.org)
  • The cranial nerves emerge directly from the brain, as opposed to the spinal nerves, which originate from the spinal cord. (vaia.com)
  • Spinal accessory nerves are not cranial nerves. (byjus.com)
  • Other processes that can damage the sixth nerve include strokes (infarctions), demyelination, infections (e.g. meningitis), cavernous sinus diseases and various neuropathies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sixth nerve palsies fall into the following categories: 3%-30% trauma, 0%-6% aneurysm, 0%-36% ischemic, 8%-30% idiopathic, and 10%-30% demyelination/miscellaneous. (medscape.com)
  • Patients older than 55 years with isolated sixth nerve palsies may require a less aggressive initial workup if they have predisposing microvascular ischemic risk factors, but no history of cancer. (medscape.com)
  • Cranial nerve palsies, their causes, diagnosis, and management are discussed, furthering your understanding of the potential implications and treatments for these conditions. (vaia.com)
  • The paired vagus nerve just vagus is also the tenth cranial nerve , N. X called. (zxc.wiki)
  • The vagus nerve runs along the neck together with the common carotid artery and the internal jugular vein in a shared connective tissue sheath , the carotid vagina , in the direction of the chest cavity. (zxc.wiki)
  • When the sixth cranial nerve doesn't work properly, you can't turn your eye outward toward your ear. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The sixth cranial nerve is the most commonly affected of the ocular motor nerves. (medscape.com)
  • Ocular examination revealed a sixth cranial nerve palsy in the left eye . (bvsalud.org)
  • MRI provides greater resolution of the orbits, cavernous sinus, posterior fossa, and cranial nerves. (msdmanuals.com)
  • It is accompanied by the inferior alveolar nerve, which lies in front of it. (co.ma)
  • Transmission electron microscopy study of laser welding mechanism in dura mater and peripheral nerve. (nccn.nl)
  • The abducens nerve carries axons of type GSE, general somatic efferent. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diving into the fascinating world of cranial nerves, this article seeks to provide an in-depth understanding of these essential components of the nervous system. (vaia.com)
  • These essential nerves form an integral part of the nervous system, responsible for transmitting information between the brain and the rest of the body. (vaia.com)
  • Peripheral sixth nerve damage can be caused by tumors, aneurysms, or fractures - anything that directly compresses or stretches the nerve. (wikipedia.org)
  • Olivia Murray kicks off the new year with a video on CNV (the trigeminal nerve), which is responsible for providing sensation to the face, in addition to innervating the muscles of mastication. (3d4medical.com)
  • Motor nerves control our muscles, allowing us to perform actions like moving our limbs, speaking, and swallowing. (vaia.com)
  • These nerves communicate with vital organs and muscles, regulating essential functions such as breathing, heart rate, and digestion. (vaia.com)
  • With a good ultrasound device, the nerve in the area of ​​the carotid arteries can also be localized sonographically. (zxc.wiki)
  • Associated with the orbit are foramina and fissures (see Table 1, below), which are important in transmitting nerves, arteries, and veins. (medscape.com)
  • Iatrogenic injury is also known to occur, with the abducens nerve being the most commonly injured cranial nerve in halo orthosis placement. (wikipedia.org)
  • Explore the course and functions of each of the 3 branches of the trigeminal nerve. (3d4medical.com)
  • The nerve enters the subarachnoid space (more precisely, the pontine cistern) when it emerges from the brainstem. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Partial damage to the abducens nerve causes weak or incomplete abduction of the affected eye. (wikipedia.org)
  • Perhaps the most common overall cause of sixth nerve impairment is diabetic neuropathy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Congenital sixth nerve palsy (Duane syndrome) is a well-recognized entity. (medscape.com)
  • Abducens nerve palsy is frequently seen as a postviral syndrome in younger patients and as an ischemic mononeuropathy in the adult population. (medscape.com)
  • This case suggests that isolated abducens nerve palsy caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection may improve with a conservative approach. (bvsalud.org)
  • For example, fractures of the petrous temporal bone can selectively damage the nerve, as can aneurysms of the intracavernous carotid artery. (wikipedia.org)
  • In children, it is the second most common after the fourth nerve, with an incidence of 2.5 cases per 100,000 in the population. (medscape.com)
  • Understand some of the common clinical conditions associated with this nerve. (3d4medical.com)
  • Recovery is usually complete in case of benign sixth nerve palsy in childhood. (medlineplus.gov)
  • It pierces the spheno-mandibular ligament, and descends in the mylo-hyoid groove, in company with the mylo-hyoid nerve, to the floor of the mouth, where it anastomoses, on the superficial surface of the mylo-hyoid muscle, with the submental branch of the external maxillary artery. (co.ma)
  • If your provider diagnoses swelling or inflammation of, or around the nerve, medicines called corticosteroids may be used. (medlineplus.gov)