The 6th cranial nerve which originates in the ABDUCENS NUCLEUS of the PONS and sends motor fibers to the lateral rectus muscles of the EYE. Damage to the nerve or its nucleus disrupts horizontal eye movement control.
Diseases of the sixth cranial (abducens) nerve or its nucleus in the pons. The nerve may be injured along its course in the pons, intracranially as it travels along the base of the brain, in the cavernous sinus, or at the level of superior orbital fissure or orbit. Dysfunction of the nerve causes lateral rectus muscle weakness, resulting in horizontal diplopia that is maximal when the affected eye is abducted and ESOTROPIA. Common conditions associated with nerve injury include INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ISCHEMIA; and INFRATENTORIAL NEOPLASMS.
Traumatic injury to the abducens, or sixth, cranial nerve. Injury to this nerve results in lateral rectus muscle weakness or paralysis. The nerve may be damaged by closed or penetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA or by facial trauma involving the orbit.
A syndrome associated with defective sympathetic innervation to one side of the face, including the eye. Clinical features include MIOSIS; mild BLEPHAROPTOSIS; and hemifacial ANHIDROSIS (decreased sweating)(see HYPOHIDROSIS). Lesions of the BRAIN STEM; cervical SPINAL CORD; first thoracic nerve root; apex of the LUNG; CAROTID ARTERY; CAVERNOUS SINUS; and apex of the ORBIT may cause this condition. (From Miller et al., Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology, 4th ed, pp500-11)
An irregularly shaped venous space in the dura mater at either side of the sphenoid bone.
A visual symptom in which a single object is perceived by the visual cortex as two objects rather than one. Disorders associated with this condition include REFRACTIVE ERRORS; STRABISMUS; OCULOMOTOR NERVE DISEASES; TROCHLEAR NERVE DISEASES; ABDUCENS NERVE DISEASES; and diseases of the BRAIN STEM and OCCIPITAL LOBE.
The dense rock-like part of temporal bone that contains the INNER EAR. Petrous bone is located at the base of the skull. Sometimes it is combined with the MASTOID PROCESS and called petromastoid part of temporal bone.
The 4th cranial nerve. The trochlear nerve carries the motor innervation of the superior oblique muscles of the eye.
Disorders of one or more of the twelve cranial nerves. With the exception of the optic and olfactory nerves, this includes disorders of the brain stem nuclei from which the cranial nerves originate or terminate.
A dull or sharp painful sensation associated with the outer or inner structures of the eyeball, having different causes.
Paralysis of one or more of the ocular muscles due to disorders of the eye muscles, neuromuscular junction, supporting soft tissue, tendons, or innervation to the muscles.
The 3d cranial nerve. The oculomotor nerve sends motor fibers to the levator muscles of the eyelid and to the superior rectus, inferior rectus, and inferior oblique muscles of the eye. It also sends parasympathetic efferents (via the ciliary ganglion) to the muscles controlling pupillary constriction and accommodation. The motor fibers originate in the oculomotor nuclei of the midbrain.
The muscles that move the eye. Included in this group are the medial rectus, lateral rectus, superior rectus, inferior rectus, inferior oblique, superior oblique, musculus orbitalis, and levator palpebrae superioris.
Benign and malignant neoplasms that arise from one or more of the twelve cranial nerves.
Fractures which extend through the base of the SKULL, usually involving the PETROUS BONE. Battle's sign (characterized by skin discoloration due to extravasation of blood into the subcutaneous tissue behind the ear and over the mastoid process), CRANIAL NEUROPATHIES, TRAUMATIC; CAROTID-CAVERNOUS SINUS FISTULA; and CEREBROSPINAL FLUID OTORRHEA are relatively frequent sequelae of this condition. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p876)
Diseases of the oculomotor nerve or nucleus that result in weakness or paralysis of the superior rectus, inferior rectus, medial rectus, inferior oblique, or levator palpebrae muscles, or impaired parasympathetic innervation to the pupil. With a complete oculomotor palsy, the eyelid will be paralyzed, the eye will be in an abducted and inferior position, and the pupil will be markedly dilated. Commonly associated conditions include neoplasms, CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA, ischemia (especially in association with DIABETES MELLITUS), and aneurysmal compression. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p270)
The 5th and largest cranial nerve. The trigeminal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve. The larger sensory part forms the ophthalmic, mandibular, and maxillary nerves which carry afferents sensitive to external or internal stimuli from the skin, muscles, and joints of the face and mouth and from the teeth. Most of these fibers originate from cells of the TRIGEMINAL GANGLION and project to the TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS of the brain stem. The smaller motor part arises from the brain stem trigeminal motor nucleus and innervates the muscles of mastication.
A general term most often used to describe severe or complete loss of muscle strength due to motor system disease from the level of the cerebral cortex to the muscle fiber. This term may also occasionally refer to a loss of sensory function. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p45)
A syndrome characterized by marked limitation of abduction of the eye, variable limitation of adduction and retraction of the globe, and narrowing of the palpebral fissure on attempted adduction. The condition is caused by aberrant innervation of the lateral rectus by fibers of the OCULOMOTOR NERVE.
A retention cyst of the salivary gland, lacrimal sac, paranasal sinuses, appendix, or gallbladder. (Stedman, 26th ed)
Voluntary or reflex-controlled movements of the eye.
Recording of nystagmus based on changes in the electrical field surrounding the eye produced by the difference in potential between the cornea and the retina.
Mechanical compression of nerves or nerve roots from internal or external causes. These may result in a conduction block to nerve impulses (due to MYELIN SHEATH dysfunction) or axonal loss. The nerve and nerve sheath injuries may be caused by ISCHEMIA; INFLAMMATION; or a direct mechanical effect.
The outermost of the three MENINGES, a fibrous membrane of connective tissue that covers the brain and the spinal cord.
The infratentorial compartment that contains the CEREBELLUM and BRAIN STEM. It is formed by the posterior third of the superior surface of the body of the sphenoid (SPHENOID BONE), by the occipital, the petrous, and mastoid portions of the TEMPORAL BONE, and the posterior inferior angle of the PARIETAL BONE.
The inferior region of the skull consisting of an internal (cerebral), and an external (basilar) surface.
A nerve which originates in the lumbar and sacral spinal cord (L4 to S3) and supplies motor and sensory innervation to the lower extremity. The sciatic nerve, which is the main continuation of the sacral plexus, is the largest nerve in the body. It has two major branches, the TIBIAL NERVE and the PERONEAL NERVE.
A neoplasm that arises from SCHWANN CELLS of the cranial, peripheral, and autonomic nerves. Clinically, these tumors may present as a cranial neuropathy, abdominal or soft tissue mass, intracranial lesion, or with spinal cord compression. Histologically, these tumors are encapsulated, highly vascular, and composed of a homogenous pattern of biphasic fusiform-shaped cells that may have a palisaded appearance. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp964-5)
The nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord, including the autonomic, cranial, and spinal nerves. Peripheral nerves contain non-neuronal cells and connective tissue as well as axons. The connective tissue layers include, from the outside to the inside, the epineurium, the perineurium, and the endoneurium.
A general term referring to a mild to moderate degree of muscular weakness, occasionally used as a synonym for PARALYSIS (severe or complete loss of motor function). In the older literature, paresis often referred specifically to paretic neurosyphilis (see NEUROSYPHILIS). "General paresis" and "general paralysis" may still carry that connotation. Bilateral lower extremity paresis is referred to as PARAPARESIS.
Twelve pairs of nerves that carry general afferent, visceral afferent, special afferent, somatic efferent, and autonomic efferent fibers.
The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.
The 2nd cranial nerve which conveys visual information from the RETINA to the brain. The nerve carries the axons of the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS which sort at the OPTIC CHIASM and continue via the OPTIC TRACTS to the brain. The largest projection is to the lateral geniculate nuclei; other targets include the SUPERIOR COLLICULI and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEI. Though known as the second cranial nerve, it is considered part of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A relatively common neoplasm of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that arises from arachnoidal cells. The majority are well differentiated vascular tumors which grow slowly and have a low potential to be invasive, although malignant subtypes occur. Meningiomas have a predilection to arise from the parasagittal region, cerebral convexity, sphenoidal ridge, olfactory groove, and SPINAL CANAL. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2056-7)
Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
Procedures that avoid use of open, invasive surgery in favor of closed or local surgery. These generally involve use of laparoscopic devices and remote-control manipulation of instruments with indirect observation of the surgical field through an endoscope or similar device.
Surgical insertion of synthetic material to repair injured or diseased heart valves.
Conditions which produce injury or dysfunction of the second cranial or optic nerve, which is generally considered a component of the central nervous system. Damage to optic nerve fibers may occur at or near their origin in the retina, at the optic disk, or in the nerve, optic chiasm, optic tract, or lateral geniculate nuclei. Clinical manifestations may include decreased visual acuity and contrast sensitivity, impaired color vision, and an afferent pupillary defect.
Diseases of the first cranial (olfactory) nerve, which usually feature anosmia or other alterations in the sense of smell and taste. Anosmia may be associated with NEOPLASMS; CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM INFECTIONS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; inherited conditions; toxins; METABOLIC DISEASES; tobacco abuse; and other conditions. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp229-31)
Injuries to the PERIPHERAL NERVES.
A form of ocular misalignment where the visual axes diverge inappropriately. For example, medial rectus muscle weakness may produce this condition as the affected eye will deviate laterally upon attempted forward gaze. An exotropia occurs due to the relatively unopposed force exerted on the eye by the lateral rectus muscle, which pulls the eye in an outward direction.
A branch of biology dealing with the structure of organisms.
A region extending from the PONS & MEDULLA OBLONGATA through the MESENCEPHALON, characterized by a diversity of neurons of various sizes and shapes, arranged in different aggregations and enmeshed in a complicated fiber network.
A form of ocular misalignment characterized by an excessive convergence of the visual axes, resulting in a "cross-eye" appearance. An example of this condition occurs when paralysis of the lateral rectus muscle causes an abnormal inward deviation of one eye on attempted gaze.
A form of bacterial meningitis caused by MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS or rarely MYCOBACTERIUM BOVIS. The organism seeds the meninges and forms microtuberculomas which subsequently rupture. The clinical course tends to be subacute, with progressions occurring over a period of several days or longer. Headache and meningeal irritation may be followed by SEIZURES, cranial neuropathies, focal neurologic deficits, somnolence, and eventually COMA. The illness may occur in immunocompetent individuals or as an OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTION in the ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and other immunodeficiency syndromes. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp717-9)

Properties of conditioned abducens nerve responses in a highly reduced in vitro brain stem preparation from the turtle. (1/125)

Previous work suggested that the cerebellum and red nucleus are not necessary for the acquisition, extinction, and reacquistion of the in vitro classically conditioned abducens nerve response in the turtle. These findings are extended in the present study by obtaining conditioned responses (CRs) in preparations that received a partial ablation of the brain stem circuitry. In addition to removing all tissue rostral to and including the midbrain and cerebellum, a transection was made just caudal to the emergence of the IXth nerve. Such ablations result in a 4-mm-thick section of brain stem tissue that functionally eliminates the sustained component of the unconditioned response (UR) while leaving only a phasic component. We refer to this region of brain stem tissue caudal to the IXth nerve as the "caudal premotor blink region." Neural discharge was recorded from the abducens nerve following a single shock unconditioned stimulus (US) applied to the ipsilateral trigeminal nerve. When the US was paired with a conditioned stimulus (CS) applied to the posterior eighth, or auditory, nerve using a delay conditioning paradigm, a positive slope of CR acquisition was recorded in the abducens nerve, and CR extinction was recorded when the stimuli were alternated. Resumption of paired stimuli resulted in reacquisition. Quantitative analysis of the CRs in preparations in which the caudal premotor blink region had been removed and those with cerebellar/red nucleus lesions showed that both types of preparations had abnormally short latency CR onsets compared with preparations in which these regions were intact. Preparations with brain stem transections had significantly earlier CR offsets as more CRs terminated as short bursts when compared with intact or cerebellar lesioned preparations. These data suggest that a highly reduced in vitro brain stem preparation from the turtle can be classically conditioned. Furthermore, the caudal brain stem is not a site of acquisition in this reduced preparation, but it contributes to the sustained activity of both the UR and CR. Finally, the unusually short CR onset latencies following lesions to the cerebellum are not further exacerbated by removal of the caudal brain stem. These studies suggest that convergence of CS and US synaptic inputs onto the abducens nerve reflex circuitry may underlie acquisition in this reduced preparation, but that mechanisms that control learned CR timing arise from the cerebellorubral system.  (+info)

Discharge profiles of abducens, accessory abducens, and orbicularis oculi motoneurons during reflex and conditioned blinks in alert cats. (2/125)

The discharge profiles of identified abducens, accessory abducens, and orbicularis oculi motoneurons have been recorded extra- and intracellularly in alert behaving cats during spontaneous, reflexively evoked, and classically conditioned eyelid responses. The movement of the upper lid and the electromyographic activity of the orbicularis oculi muscle also were recorded. Animals were conditioned by short, weak air puffs or 350-ms tones as conditioned stimuli (CS) and long, strong air puffs as unconditioned stimulus (US) using both trace and delayed conditioning paradigms. Motoneurons were identified by antidromic activation from their respective cranial nerves. Orbicularis oculi and accessory abducens motoneurons fired an early, double burst of action potentials (at 4-6 and 10-16 ms) in response to air puffs or to the electrical stimulation of the supraorbital nerve. Orbicularis oculi, but not accessory abducens, motoneurons fired in response to flash and tone presentations. Only 10-15% of recorded abducens motoneurons fired a late, weak burst after air puff, supraorbital nerve, and flash stimulations. Spontaneous fasciculations of the orbicularis oculi muscle and the activity of single orbicularis oculi motoneurons that generated them also were recorded. The activation of orbicularis oculi motoneurons during the acquisition of classically conditioned eyelid responses happened in a gradual, sequential manner. Initially, some putative excitatory synaptic potentials were observed in the time window corresponding to the CS-US interval; by the second to the fourth conditioning session, some isolated action potentials appeared that increased in number until some small movements were noticed in eyelid position traces. No accessory abducens motoneuron fired and no abducens motoneuron modified their discharge rate for conditioned eyelid responses. The firing of orbicularis oculi motoneurons was related linearly to lid velocity during reflex blinks but to lid position during conditioned responses, a fact indicating the different neural origin and coding of both types of motor commands. The power spectra of both reflex and conditioned lid responses showed a dominant peak at approximately 20 Hz. The wavy appearance of both reflex and conditioned eyelid responses was clearly the result of the high phasic activity of orbicularis oculi motor units. Orbicularis oculi motoneuron membrane potentials oscillated at approximately 20 Hz after supraorbital nerve stimulation and during other reflex and conditioned eyelid movements. The oscillation seemed to be the result of both intrinsic (spike afterhyperpolarization lasting approximately 50 ms, and late depolarizations) and extrinsic properties of the motoneuronal pool and of the circuits involved in eye blinks.  (+info)

Stereotactic radiosurgery for cavernous sinus cavernous hemangioma--case report. (3/125)

A 40-year-old female presented with cavernous sinus cavernous hemangioma manifesting as left abducens and trigeminal nerve pareses. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a left cavernous sinus tumor. The tumor was partially removed. Histological examination of the specimen confirmed cavernous hemangioma. Radiosurgery was performed using the gamma knife. The tumor markedly decreased in size after radiosurgery and morbidity was avoided. Cavernous sinus cavernous hemangiomas may be difficult to treat surgically due to intraoperative bleeding and cranial nerve injury. Stereotactic radiosurgery can be used either as an adjunct treatment to craniotomy, or as the primary treatment for small cavernous sinus cavernous hemangioma.  (+info)

Neuro-Behcet's disease presenting with isolated unilateral lateral rectus muscle palsy. (4/125)

The authors present the clinical findings of a 30-year-old female and a 29-year-old male who both had isolated unilateral lateral rectus muscle palsy in neuro-Behcet's disease. The clinical feature related to isolated abduscens nerve palsy was identified by CT, systemic assessment and extraocular examination. These patients' constellation of findings appear to be unique: it does not follow any previously reported pattern of ocular manifestations of neuro-Behcet's disease.  (+info)

Quantitative analysis of abducens neuron discharge dynamics during saccadic and slow eye movements. (5/125)

The mechanics of the eyeball and its surrounding tissues, which together form the oculomotor plant, have been shown to be the same for smooth pursuit and saccadic eye movements. Hence it was postulated that similar signals would be carried by motoneurons during slow and rapid eye movements. In the present study, we directly addressed this proposal by determining which eye movement-based models best describe the discharge dynamics of primate abducens neurons during a variety of eye movement behaviors. We first characterized abducens neuron spike trains, as has been classically done, during fixation and sinusoidal smooth pursuit. We then systematically analyzed the discharge dynamics of abducens neurons during and following saccades, during step-ramp pursuit and during high velocity slow-phase vestibular nystagmus. We found that the commonly utilized first-order description of abducens neuron firing rates (FR = b + kE + r, where FR is firing rate, E and are eye position and velocity, respectively, and b, k, and r are constants) provided an adequate model of neuronal activity during saccades, smooth pursuit, and slow phase vestibular nystagmus. However, the use of a second-order model, which included an exponentially decaying term or "slide" (FR = b + kE + r + uE - c), notably improved our ability to describe neuronal activity when the eye was moving and also enabled us to model abducens neuron discharges during the postsaccadic interval. We also found that, for a given model, a single set of parameters could not be used to describe neuronal firing rates during both slow and rapid eye movements. Specifically, the eye velocity and position coefficients (r and k in the above models, respectively) consistently decreased as a function of the mean (and peak) eye velocity that was generated. In contrast, the bias (b, firing rate when looking straight ahead) invariably increased with eye velocity. Although these trends are likely to reflect, in part, nonlinearities that are intrinsic to the extraocular muscles, we propose that these results can also be explained by considering the time-varying resistance to movement that is generated by the antagonist muscle. We conclude that to create realistic and meaningful models of the neural control of horizontal eye movements, it is essential to consider the activation of the antagonist, as well as agonist motoneuron pools.  (+info)

Apparent dissociation between saccadic eye movements and the firing patterns of premotor neurons and motoneurons. (6/125)

Saccadic eye movements result from high-frequency bursts of activity in ocular motoneurons. This phasic activity originates in premotor burst neurons. When the head is restrained, the number of action potentials in the bursts of burst neurons and motoneurons increases linearly with eye movement amplitude. However, when the head is unrestrained, the number of action potentials now increase as a function of the change in the direction of the line of sight during eye movements of relatively similar amplitudes. These data suggest an apparent uncoupling of premotor neuron and motoneuron activity from the resultant eye movement.  (+info)

Early components of the human vestibulo-ocular response to head rotation: latency and gain. (7/125)

To characterize vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) properties in the time window in which contributions by other systems are minimal, eye movements during the first 50-100 ms after the start of transient angular head accelerations ( approximately 1000 degrees /s(2)) imposed by a torque helmet were analyzed in normal human subjects. Orientations of the head and both eyes were recorded with magnetic search coils (resolution, approximately 1 min arc; 1000 samples/s). Typically, the first response to a head perturbation was an anti-compensatory eye movement with zero latency, peak-velocity of several degrees per second, and peak excursion of several tenths of a degree. This was interpreted as a passive mechanical response to linear acceleration of the orbital tissues caused by eccentric rotation of the eye. The response was modeled as a damped oscillation (approximately 13 Hz) of the orbital contents, approaching a constant eye deviation for a sustained linear acceleration. The subsequent compensatory eye movements showed (like the head movements) a linear increase in velocity, which allowed estimates of latency and gain with linear regressions. After appropriate accounting for the preceding passive eye movements, average VOR latency (for pooled eyes, directions, and subjects) was calculated as 8.6 ms. Paired comparisons between the two eyes revealed that the latency for the eye contralateral to the direction of head rotation was, on average, 1.3 ms shorter than for the ipsilateral eye. This highly significant average inter-ocular difference was attributed to the additional internuclear abducens neuron in the pathway to the ipsilateral eye. Average acceleration gain (ratio between slopes of eye and head velocities) over the first 40-50 ms was approximately 1.1. Instantaneous velocity gain, calculated as Veye(t)/Vhead(t-latency), showed a gradual build-up converging toward unity (often after a slight overshoot). Instantaneous acceleration gain also converged toward unity but showed a much steeper build-up and larger oscillations. This behavior of acceleration and velocity gain could be accounted for by modeling the eye movements as the sum of the passive response to the linear acceleration and the active rotational VOR. Due to the latency and the anticompensatory component, gaze stabilization was never complete. The influence of visual targets was limited. The initial VOR was identical with a distant target (continuously visible or interrupted) and in complete darkness. A near visual target caused VOR gain to rise to a higher level, but the time after which the difference between far and near targets emerged varied between individuals.  (+info)

Expansion of afferent vestibular signals after the section of one of the vestibular nerve branches. (8/125)

The anterior branch of N. VIII was sectioned in adult frogs. Two months later the brain was isolated to record in vitro responses in the vestibular nuclei and from the abducens nerves following electric stimulation of the anterior branch of N. VIII or of the posterior canal nerve. Extra- and intracellularly recorded responses from the intact and operated side were compared with responses from controls. Major changes were detected on the operated side: the amplitudes of posterior canal nerve evoked field potentials were enlarged, the number of vestibular neurons with a monosynaptic input from the posterior canal nerve had increased, and posterior canal nerve stimulation recruited stronger abducens nerve responses on the intact side than vice versa. Changes in the convergence pattern of vestibular nerve afferent inputs on the operated side strongly suggest the expansion of posterior canal-related afferent inputs onto part of those vestibular neurons that were deprived of their afferent vestibular input. As a mechanism we suggest reactive synaptogenesis between intact posterior canal afferent fibers and vestibularly deprived second-order vestibular neurons.  (+info)

Purpose: Disrupting binocular vision during the first few months of life in a monkey results in strabismus. The objective of this study was to investigate response properties of abducens motoneurons (ABN) in relation to horizontal misalignment in monkeys with strabismus.. Methods: Burst-tonic (BT) activity of 49 neurons in the abducens nucleus (17-Left Abducens LTBT; 32-Right Abducens RTBT) was recorded from one strabismic monkey (OD: ~30° XT; OS: ~15° XT) during horizontal smooth pursuit (0.2 Hz, ±15°) under each monocular viewing condition. Neuronal firing rates (FR) and horizontal component of eye position and velocity (Epos, Evel) were used to identify regression coefficients (K-position, R-velocity, C-constant) in a first-order model (FR = K*Epos + R*Evel + C) for each tracking condition.. Results: Both RTBT and LTBT activity was well fit with the first order model equation. For RTBT motoneurons, the mean coefficients were K=5.4±3.8, R=1.4±0.6, C=41±62. Fit coefficients (K and R) ...
Cranial nerve root which is part of the abducens nerve (CN-VI) and is located at the level of the intermediate reticular formation. Fuses with the rostral root of the abducens nerve and courses rostrally once outside the brain stem. From Neuroanatomy of the Zebrafish Brain. 3764351209 ...
A low or a high dose of tetanus neurotoxin (TeNT) injected in the lateral rectus muscle of the cat causes respectively, functional block of inhibitory synapses only or of both inhibitory and excitatory synapses simultaneously in abducens neurons (González-Forero et al. [2003] J. Neurophysiol. 89:1878-1890). As a consequence, neuronal firing activity increases (at low dose) or decreases (at high dose). We investigated possible structural modifications of inhibitory synapses in response to these activity alterations induced by TeNT. We used immunofluorescence against postsynaptic (gephyrin) and presynaptic (vesicular γ-aminobutyric acid [GABA] transporter [VGAT]) markers of inhibitory synapses in combination with cell type markers for abducens motoneurons (calcitonin gene-related peptide or choline acetyltransferase) or internuclear neurons (calretinin). Seven days after high-dose treatment, the number of gephyrin-immunoreactive (IR) clusters per 100 μm of membrane perimeter was reduced on the soma of
The abducens nerve is the sixth cranial nerve. It courses from its nucleus located in the dorsal pons to its innervation of the lateral rectus muscle and can be divided into four parts: nucleus and intraparenchymal portion cisternal portion ca...
Tetanus neurotoxin (TeNT) cleaves synaptobrevin, a protein involved in synaptic vesicle docking and fusion, thereby preventing neurotransmitter release and causing a functional deafferentation. We injected TeNT into the lateral rectus muscle of adult cats at 0.5 or 5 ng/kg (low and high dose, respectively). In the periphery, TeNT slightly slowed motor axon conduction velocity, and at high doses, partially blocked neuromuscular transmission. TeNT peripheral actions displayed time courses different to the more profound and longer-lasting central actions. Central effects were first observed 2 days postinjection and reversed after 1 mo. The low dose induce depression of inhibitory inputs, whereas the high dose produce depression of both inhibitory and excitatory inputs. Simultaneous recordings of eye movement and neuronal firing revealed that low-dose injections specifically reduced inhibition of firing during off-directed saccadic movements, while high-dose injections of TeNT affected both inhibitory and
The problem of moving the eyes to fixate a new target in space (or indeed any other movement) entails two separate issues: controlling the amplitude of movement (how far), and controlling the direction of the movement (which way). The amplitude of a saccadic eye movement is encoded by the duration of neuronal activity in the lower motor neurons of the oculomotor nuclei. As shown in Figure 20.6, for instance, neurons in the abducens nucleus fire a burst of action potentials prior to abducting the eye (by causing the lateral rectus muscle to contract) and are silent when the eye is adducted. The amplitude of the movement is correlated with the duration of the burst of action potentials in the abducens neuron. With each saccade, the abducens neurons reach a new baseline level of discharge that is correlated with the position of the eye in the orbit. The steady baseline level of firing holds the eye in its new position. Figure 20.6Motor neuron activity in relation to saccadic eye movements. The experimental
Synonyms for Abducent nerves in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Abducent nerves. 5 synonyms for abducens nerve: abducens, abducent, abducent nerve, nervus abducens, sixth cranial nerve. What are synonyms for Abducent nerves?
ICD-10-PCS code 00XM4ZL for Transfer Facial Nerve to Abducens Nerve, Percutaneous Endoscopic Approach is a medical classification as listed by CMS under Central Nervous System and Cranial Nerves range.
Schwannomas of the abducens nerve are extremely uncommon tumors. Here, we report the case of a 26-year-old woman who presented with a 6th nerve palsy and was found to have a large tumor at the right side of her pons. Neuropathologic exam revealed a c
ICD-10-PCS code 008L3ZZ for Division of Abducens Nerve, Percutaneous Approach is a medical classification as listed by CMS under Central Nervous System and Cranial Nerves range.
The abducens nerve lets you look to the side and helps coordinate the simultaneous side-to-side movement of your eyes. Injury leads to double vision.
Study Abducent/Abducens Nerve flashcards from Kelsey Thomas's Palmer College of Chiropractic-Davenport class online, or in Brainscape's iPhone or Android app. ✓ Learn faster with spaced repetition.
Axial image at the level of the facial nerve (CN VII) and abducens nerve (CN VI), demonstrating the relationship of their respective nuclei and fibers. Importantly the fibers of the facial nerve coursing posterior to the abducens nucleus raise the facial colliculus. ...
Jen et al. (2004) carried out high resolution MRI in eight patients from four families with HGPPS including two consanguineous families from Saudi Arabia and a third from unknown Arab origin. Abnormal flattening of the basis pontis and hypoplasia in the pontine tegmentum were evident on sagittal sections. The structural alterations in caudal pons suggested potential involvement of the abducens nuclei, the medial longitudinal fasciculus, and the pontine paramedian reticular formation. The medulla appeared abnormally butterfly-like, with anterior flattening and an unusual midline cleft. The abducens nerves were visualized bilaterally in the extra-axial space, and orbital MRI demonstrated normal extraocular muscle configuration and size, as well as the presence of apparently normal intraorbital motor nerves to the medial and lateral rectus muscles. Jen et al. (2004) concluded that the absence of bulging of abducens nuclei into the fourth ventricle observed in HGPPS patients likely represents ...
Eye movement prediction by Kalman filter with integrated linear horizontal oculomotor plant mechanical model - The goal of this paper is to predict future horizontal eye movement trajectories within a specified time interval. To achieve this goal a linear horizontal oculomotor plant mechanical model is developed. The model consists of the eye globe and two extraocular muscles: lateral and medial recti. The model accounts for such anatomical properties of the eye as muscle location, elasticity, viscosity, eyeglobe rotational inertia, muscle active state tension, length tension and force velocity relationships. The mathematical equations describing the oculomotor plant mechanical model are transformed into a Kalman filter form. Such transformation provides continuous eye movement prediction with a high degree of accuracy. The model was tested with 21 subjects and three multimedia files. Practical application of this model lies with direct eye gaze input and interactive displays systems as a method to
The localization and distribution of brain-stem afferent neurons to the cat abducens nucleus has been examined by high-affinity uptake and retrograde transport of 3H-glycine. Injections of 3H-glycine selectively labeled (by autoradiography) only neurons located predominantly in the ipsilateral medial vestibular and contralateral prepositus hypoglossi nuclei, and in the contralateral dorsomedial reticular formation, the latter corresponding to the location of inhibitory burst neurons. The specificity of uptake and retrograde transport of 3H-glycine was indicated by the absence of labeling of the dorsomedial medullary reticular neurons ipsilateral and in close proximity to the injection site, where local uptake by diffusion could have occurred. The selectivity of uptake and transport was demonstrated by the absence of retrograde labeling following injections of 3H-GABA or 3H-leucine into the abducens nucleus. The immunohistochemical localization of glycine and GABA revealed a differential ...
1 The Olfactory Nerve. - Transmits the sense of smell from the nose. 2 The Optic Nerve. The optic nerve is a sensory nerve responsible for vision.. 3 The Oculomotor Nerve. -Transmits signals from the brain that result in eye movements.. 4 The Trochlear Nerve. - Causes the eye to move in the downward and inward directions.. 5 The Trigeminal Nerve. - The motor portion of the trigeminal nerve is responsible for jaw movement and chewing, while the sensory portion of the nerve provides the sensation of touch over the face.. 6 The Abducens Nerve. The abducens nerve is a motor nerve that is responsible for lateral or outward eye movement.. 7 The Facial Nerve. - Responsible for facial movements and expression, as well as some muscles deep in the neck.. 8 The Auditory ...
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A abducens nucleus, ipsilateral eye cannot abduct, contralateral eye cannot adduct when attempting to have conjugate horizontal movement with the other eye, convergence is ...
My eyes. Optic, Oculomotor, Trochlear, and Abducens Nuclei. Moving in all directions. Watching you glide from one task to another. Dilating to allow light in to see things more clearly. They see you for you. My mouth. Tongue elevating to articulate words of gratitude and passion. Muscles of facial expression, activated to emote the pain, fear, and…
Introduction Cranial nerves arise from the brain directly (unlike spinal nerves which arise from the spinal cord). There are twelve pairs of cranial nerves, varying in length ...
All the 3 Cranial nerves are tested at the same time by assessing the Extra Ocular Movement (EOM) or the six cardinal position of gaze. Follow the given steps: 1. .... ...
abducens-muscle definition: Noun (plural abducens muscles) 1. (anatomy) Rectus lateralis muscle of the eye; muscle that moves the eye away from the center of the face.Origin Shortening of abducens nerve, in turn from Latin nervus abducens, from abducent, a...
Boy George Recalls Unconscious Uncoupling From Madonna Boy George was asked to revisit his supposed 1980s feud vith Madonna on Monday ( Visit our shop --Ed.) & said he never really fell out vith his pop contemporary. It was like a series of incidents where we kind of just never managed to get close, the Karma Chameleon singer said on Watch What Happens Live with Andy Cohen. ...
Le VIe Congrès Méditerranéen dEsthétique, qui aura lieu à la Villa Finaly à Florence du 24 au 28 juin 2014, concernera le débat contemporain autour de lopposition des faits et des valeurs en esthétique. Dans un texte célèbre intitulé Fait/valeur : la fin dun dogme (2002), Hilary Putnam argumente de manière convaincante contre cette dichotomie classique des plus néfastes pour la réflexion philosophique ; en effet, cette dichotomie apparemment indiscutée et indiscutable, ce qui est la nature de tout dogme, laisse en létat un grand nombre de problématiques, non traitées, non perçues, non examinées. Lanalyse de Putnam porte essentiellement sur la théorie et la pratique de la connaissance, mais on peut légitimement létendre à dautres champs, à commencer par celui de lesthétique, lequel se confronte tôt ou tard à cette question, que lon défende ou rejette la dichotomie. La maintenir ou la refuser suppose des raisons, mais qui restent le plus souvent implicites, a ...
The main topic here is the disjunctive nature of this constraint. This gave the opportunity of dont-know-nondeterminism by exploring both alternatives in the same time and keeping the result in the domains of the variables. When the alternative is known then the other one is discarded.. The propagation of the constraint. ...
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Definition of abducens nerve diseases in the Definitions.net dictionary. Meaning of abducens nerve diseases. What does abducens nerve diseases mean? Information and translations of abducens nerve diseases in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web.
Definition of abducens nerve injury in the Definitions.net dictionary. Meaning of abducens nerve injury. What does abducens nerve injury mean? Information and translations of abducens nerve injury in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web.
Abducens Nerve Injury; Abducens Neuropathy, Traumatic; Sixth-Nerve Palsy, Traumatic. On-line free medical diagnosis assistant. Ranked list of possible diseases from either several symptoms or a full patient history. A similarity measure between symptoms and diseases is provided.
Benign Abducens Nerve Palsy (Benign Sixth Nerve Palsy Syndrome): Read more about Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Complications, Causes and Prognosis.
Abducens nerve palsy, or sixth nerve palsy, results in weakness of the ipsilateral lateral rectus muscle. Clinical presentation Patients present with horizontal diplopia with an inability to abduct the ipsilateral eye, thereby resulting in an e...
The sixth cranial nerve (CNVI) is also named the abducens nerve. It only controls eye movement from the lateral rectus muscle of the eye. The primary action is to help the eye move outward, towards the ear - this action is called ABDUCTION - hence, ABducens nerve. CNVI is unique in that it has a long path to its origin that takes sharp turns. The long pathway, location, and anatomical structures that this nerve courses over make it uniquely susceptible to damage from elevated intracranial pressure.
Background== *Also called 6th cranial nerve (CN VI) *Most common ocular nerve palsy *Innervates the ipsilateral lateral rectus muscle controlling eye abduction *Esotropia (eye moves inward) of the affected eye due to the unopposed action of the medial rectus muscle, innervated by the oculomotor nerve (CN III) ,ref name=tint>Tintinalli JE, Kelen GD, Stapczynski JS, Ma, OJ, Cline DM, editors. Tintinallis Emergency Medicine. 7th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2011. 763, 1037, 1546,/ref> ===Causes=== *Nuclear lesion **Congenital, [[MS,demyelinating]], [[CVA,ischemia]], traumatic *Inflammatory **[[Vasculitis]] **[[Sarcoidosis]] **[[Systemic lupus erythematosus]] *Infectious **[[Lyme disease]] **[[Syphilis ]] **[[Tuberculosis]] **[[Meningitis ]] *Orbital lesions **Neoplastic **Inflammatory **Infectious ==Clinical Features== ===History=== *May complain of:,ref name=tint>Tintinalli JE, Kelen GD, Stapczynski JS, Ma, OJ, Cline DM, editors. Tintinallis Emergency Medicine. 7th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; ...
Journal of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus | Benign recurrent abducens nerve palsy is rare. Twenty-three cases in children have been reported in the literature and many of these cases followed immunization or were associated with viral illness. Most of the reported patients share the following features: spontaneous recovery within 6 months, ipsilateral recurrence, and painless palsy. The authors describe a Turkish child with recurrent
Both neuropathologic, neuroradiologic, and neurophysiologic studies support the hypothesis that Duane syndrome results from an absence of cranial nerve VI (abducens nerve). Neuropathologic evidence comes from postmortem examinations of individuals who had DS14,15. These studies have shown an absence of cranial nerve VI and its correponding alpha motor neurons in the pons, and aberrant innervation of the lateral rectus muscle (the muscle that moves the eye outward towards the ear) by a branch of cranial nerve III. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of an individual with DS also revealed the absence of the abducens nerve (cranial nerve VI)16. Neurophysiological evidence for neuronal involvement in DS comes from electromyographic (EMG) studies which show that the medial and lateral recti muscles are electrically active in individuals with DS. When individuals with DS attempt to move their eyes inward (adduct), however, both of these muscles contract at the same time, resulting in the eyeball ...
Endocrine: [[diabetic neuropathy,Diabetic cranial mononeuropathy]] - the incidence of palsy in the 3rd, 6th, and 7th cranial nerves is significantly higher in patients with [[diabetes]],ref name=tint,Tintinalli JE, Kelen GD, Stapczynski JS, Ma, OJ, Cline DM, editors. Tintinallis Emergency Medicine. 7th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2011. 763, 1037, 1546,/ref,,ref name=rosen,Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et al., eds. Rosens Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice. Philadelphia, PA: Mosby/Elsevier; 2013,/ref, ,ref name=oph,Yanoff M, Duker JS. Opthalmology. Mosby International Ltd; 2013,/ref,,ref name=eye,Gerstenblith AT. The Wills Eye Manual: Office and Emergency Room Diagnosis and Treatment of Eye Disease. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins,/ref,,ref,http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26314216,/ref,,ref,http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17157701,/ref,,ref,http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11555800,/ref ...
We opted to perform surgery, and we performed a microsurgical discectomy with minimally invasive left transthoracic access, with a partial posterior corpectomy of T6/7 and placement of an autologous bone graft. During the operation, we had difficulty removing the disc fragment due to its adherence in the posterior portion of the spinal cord and calcification of the local structures (vertebral disc and posterior longitudinal ligament). This caused a dural tear with visible spinal fluid leakage. Primary suturing of the dura mater was not possible; however, the fistula was promptly corrected with a synthetic patch of collagen and fibrinogen (Tachocomb®), without any visible residual fluid leakage during the surgery. A chest tube connected to a waterseal and an external lumbar drain were placed. It is important to emphasize that in cases of CSF leakage, the chest tube should only be placed to waterseal and no suction or negative pressure should be used, as was the case in this report. In the ...
A triad of retro-ocular pain, discharging ear and abducens nerve palsy, as described by Gradenigo, has been recognized for 150 years. It has traditionally been treated with surgery, but recent advances in imaging, allied with improved antibiotic treatment, allow conservative management of these cases. We present two cases of Gradenigos syndrome: a 6-year-old child and a 70-year-old man, both without cholesteatoma, who were managed without mastoidectomy. They both had full recovery of abducens nerve function, although this took 6 and 12 weeks, respectively. In order to manage patients with Gradenigos syndrome safely, accurate diagnostic radiology is essential, and our findings are presented and discussed. With changing medical technology, a review of the diagnostic and treatment options for this rare but serious condition, is timely.
Case A 17 year old man presented with acute headache and bilateral abducens nerve palsies. CT scan revealed obstructive hydrocephalus caused by a third ventricular lesion. He was managed with a ventriculoperitoneal shunt and biopsies of the lesion were taken. Histologically, the lesion contained non-caseating epitheliod cell granulomas, suggestive of sarcoidosis. He was treated with high dose prednisolone and remained clinically well but follow up brain MRI revealed a significant increase in volume of the third ventricular lesion. Following unsuccessful investigations to find any evidence of systemic sarcoid, the patient underwent a second brain biopsy which confirmed the diagnosis of germinoma. Both the biopsies were done through a craniotomy and transcallosal dissection in order to have a good view of the abnormalities from within the ventricles and recover decent tissue samples that at least macroscopically were representative and large enough to try to prevent sampling error. The patient was ...
Articles related to anatomy include: Contents: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z abdomen abdominal aorta abducens nerve abducens nucleus abducent abducent nerve abduction accessory bone accessory cuneate nucleus accessory nerve accessory olivary nucleus accommodation reflex acetabulum Achilles tendon acoustic nerve acromion adenohypophysis adenoids adipose aditus aditus ad antrum adrenal gland adrenergic afferent neuron agger nasi agnosia agonist alar ligament albuginea alimentary allantois allocortex alpha motor neurons alveolar artery alveolar process alveolus alveus of the hippocampus amatory anatomy amaurosis Ammons horn ampulla Ampulla of Vater amygdala amygdalofugal pathway amygdaloid amylacea anaesthesia analgesia analogous anastomosis anatomical pathology anatomical position anatomical snuffbox anatomical terms of location anatomical terms of motion anatomy anconeus angiography angiology angular gyrus anhidrosis animal morphology anisocoria ankle ankle reflex annular ...
The cavernous sinus is a structure that contains, in its lateral (meningeal) wall the oculomotor (IIIrd nerve), trochlear (IVth nerve) and the first two divisions of the trigeminal nerve. Inside the cavernous sinus, contains the abducens (VIth nerve) and the oculosympathetic nerve plexus around the internal carotid artery.. Isolated VIth nerve palsy or Horner Syndrome alone, has no localizing value per se, neuroimaging or pharmacological tests are necessary to determine the injury site ...
Down Syndrome Cell Adhesion Molecules (dscam and dscaml1) are essential regulators of neural circuit assembly, but their roles in vertebrate neural circuit function are still mostly unexplored. We investigated the functional consequences of dscaml1 deficiency in the larval zebrafish (sexually undifferentiated) oculomotor system, where behavior, circuit function, and neuronal activity can be precisely quantified. Genetic perturbation of dscaml1 resulted in deficits in retinal patterning and light adaptation, consistent with its known roles in mammals. Oculomotor analyses revealed specific deficits related to the dscaml1 mutation, including severe fatigue during gaze stabilization, reduced saccade amplitude and velocity in the light, greater disconjugacy, and impaired fixation. Two-photon calcium imaging of abducens neurons in control and dscaml1 mutant animals confirmed deficits in saccade-command signals (indicative of an impairment in the saccadic premotor pathway), while abducens activation by ...
Abducent nerve is the sixth cranial nerve, which emerges from the skull to operate the lateral rectus muscle. This muscle draws the eye toward the side of the head. Paralysis of the abducent nerve causes inward turning of the eye.
paralysis of the abducens nerve and unilateral headache in chronic suppurative otitis media, caused by direct spread of the infection to involve the abducens and trigeminal nerves
Thyroid eye disease The most common cause of chronic abducens nerve palsy. Graves eye disease, also known as thyroid eye disease, is an autoimmune condition in which immune cells attack the thyroid gland which responds by secreting an excess amount of thyroid hormone. As a result, the thyroid gland enlarges and excess hormones increase metabolism. The hypermetabolic state is characterized by fast pulse/heartbeat, palpitations, profuse sweating, high blood pressure, irritability, fatigue, weig…
Communicating branches between the sympathetic plexus on the internal carotid artery and the abducens nerve have been exposed and the ophthalmic sympathetic nerve (2) traced onto the ophthalmic artery. The course of the internal carotid artery (13) is seen in relation to the sella turcica (12 ...
PUBLICATIONS CONTINUED. Levchenko A., Caballes, E., Cohen, J.: Visual rehabilitation for rare abducens nerve complication after large vestibular schwannoma resection via translabyrinth approach: A Case Report. Presented at 2013 AAPM&R annual meeting.. Levchenko A., Simhaee, J., DePorto, R.: Spontaneous latissimus dorsi hematoma in a stroke patient on therapeutic enoxaparin and aspirin: a case report. Presented at 2013 AAP Annual Meeting.. Levchenko A., Vivaldi, G., Cohen, J.: Fibrocartilaginous embolism to spinal cord: a case report. Presented at 2013 AOCPMR midyear meeting and scientific symposium.. Rashbaum, I., Levchenko A.: 2013 American Academy of PM&R board review course: Stroke Rehabilitation.. Wisotzky, E., Levchenko A., Mallory, B. Myositis ossificans after silicone injection to the buttocks: a case report. Presented at 2010 AAP Annual Meeting.. ...
Unlike many institutionally based referral series, our population-based study provides data on the incidence and cause of third, fourth, and sixth nerve palsies in a geographically defined population. In contrast to previous institutionally based series, nearly half the cases were congenital in orig …
We present a noninvasive technique for high-speed measuring of eye retraction and eyelid position during blinking. The anterior chamber of the eye is illuminated by the slit lamp of a biomicroscope and eye dynamics during a blinking sequence are captured with a high-speed camera working at 500 frames per second. Digital image processing allows quantitative analysis of cornea and eyelid positions during the closing and opening phases of the blinking process. Our method allows simultaneous measuring of corneal retraction, duration of down and up phases, total blinking duration, and average and peak speeds of the eyelids in both phases, thus providing a complete analysis of the blinks transversal motions.. © 2010 Optical Society of America. Full Article , PDF Article ...
CHAPTER I What God is; and how we shall recognize his divine nature in his manifestation. 1. Reason says : I hear much mention made of 2od, that there is a God who has created all things, O 7 ilso upholds and supports all things; but I have lot yet seen any, nor heard from the lips of any, hat hath seen God, or that could tell where God Iwells or is, or how he is. For when Reason looks ipon the existence of this world, and considers ;hat it fares with the righteous as with the wicked, ind how all things are mortal and frail; also low the righteous man sees no deliverer to release lim from the anxietjr and adversity of the wicked nan, and so must go down with fear in misery ;o the grave : then it thinks, all things happen :,y chance ; there is no God who interests himself n the sufferer, seeing he lets him that hopes in lim be in misery, and therein go down to the rrave; neither has any been heard of who has eturned from corruption, and said he has been vith God. 2. Answer. Reason is a natural ...
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id:120123392100,handle:all-products,title:All HAMPL Formulas,updated_at:2020-08-13T18:30:14+08:00,body_html:,published_at:2019-03-29T07:09:36+08:00,sort_order:alpha-asc,template_suffix:,disjunctive:true,rules:[{column:variant_price,relation:greater_than,condition:0},{column:variant_price,relation:equals,condition:0}],published_scope:web},{id:110219395172,handle:bone,title:Bone,updated_at:2020-08-13T10:40:19+08:00,body_html:,published_at:2019-02-01T10:11:22+08:00,sort_order:best-selling,template_suffix:,disjunctive:false,rules:[{column:tag,relation:equals,condition:Categories: ...
... abducens nerve; cnVII, facial nerve; cnIX-XI, glossopharyngeal and vagoaccessory nerves; cnXII, hypoglossal nerve; en, ... Evolution of mammals Therocephalia ce, cerebellum; cnI, olfactory nerve; cnV +vcm-trigeminal nerve and vena capitis medialis; ... a large epyphysial nerve (found in creatures with a parietal eye on the top of the head), an enlarged pituitary gland, and an ... epiphyseal nerve; fb, forebrain; fcl, flocculus; ibic, internal branch of the internal carotid; lob, left olfactory bulb; ob, ...
... is the bow-shaped bony enclosure surrounding the abducens nerve and the inferior petrosal sinus as the two ... Sixth (abducens) nerve palsy Gaillard, Frank. "Dorello canal , Radiology Reference Article , Radiopaedia.org". Radiopaedia. ... the conduit for the abducens nerve. This canal is named after the famous Italian anatomist Primo Dorello, who proved the ...
This forms a foramen, and within this lies the abducens nerve. The abducens nerve travels inferiorly to the petroclinoid ... Piffer CR, Zorzetto NL (1980). "Course and relations of the abducens nerve". Anat Anz. 147 (1): 42-46. PMID 7396225. Kimonis VE ... This can cause injury to the pupillomotor fibres of the oculomotor nerve, consequently leading to internal ophthalmoplegia The ... The posterior petroclinoid ligament is in close proximity to the oculomotor nerve. During head trauma, it acts as a fulcrum ...
... the abducens nerve (sixth nerve) is involved. This nerve supplies the muscle that pulls the eye outward. Those with sixth nerve ... More rarely, the oculomotor nerve and trochlear nerve (third and fourth nerve palsy, respectively) are affected; both play a ... The facial nerve (seventh cranial nerve) is affected occasionally -- the result is total or partial weakness of the muscles of ... The increased pressure leads to compression and traction of the cranial nerves, a group of nerves that arise from the brain ...
Abducens nerve (VI), Nasociliary branch of the ophthalmic nerve (V1) and Inferior Division of the oculomotor nerve (III). It is ... trochlear nerve (IV) lacrimal, frontal and nasociliary branches of ophthalmic (V1). abducens nerve (VI) superior and inferior ... nasociliary nerve (lies between the two divisions of oculomotor nerve) and abducent nerve Medial part transmits: Inferior ... ophthalmic veins and sympathetic nerves arising from the plexus that accompanies the internal carotid artery The abducens nerve ...
Abducens Nerve Palsy at eMedicine "Barton, J., & Goodwin, J. (2001). Horizontal Gaze Palsy". Medlink.com. Retrieved 2013-07-07 ... Nonselective horizontal gaze palsies are caused by lesions in the Abducens nucleus. This is where the cranial nerve VI leaves ... Lesions anywhere in the abducens nucleus, cranial nerve VI neurons, or interneurons can affect eye movement towards the side of ... The cranial nerve VI also has interneurons connecting to the medial rectus, which controls horizontal eye movement towards from ...
... the abducens nerve (sixth nerve) is involved. This nerve supplies the muscle that pulls the eye outward. Those with sixth nerve ... More rarely, the oculomotor nerve and trochlear nerve (third and fourth nerve palsy, respectively) are affected; both play a ... The increased pressure leads to compression and traction of the cranial nerves, a group of nerves that arise from the brain ... 2 No localizing signs with the exception of abducens (sixth) nerve palsy ...
Münchener mediznische Wochenschrift, 1888 - On congenital facial paralysis of the abducens nerve. Die Basedowsche Krankheit. In ... He is credited for providing a distinction between exogenous and endogenous nerve disorders, and introduced ideas on the ... This is a rare type of palsy associated with paralysis of the cranial nerves VI and VII. This results in the patient having a ...
Absence of the abducens nucleus and nerve (cranial nerve VI) Abnormal eye movement due to the lateral rectus muscle being ... MRI imaging can be used to detect whether the abducens nerve is present. Typically, treatment for this condition requires a ... This results from improper nerve development for eye movement. The following are characteristics of Duane anomaly: Inability to ... innervated by a branch of the oculomotor nerve (cranial nerve III) This is characterized by hand and arm abnormalities. The ...
The abducens nerve (cranial nerve VI) tracks along the clivus during its course. Increased intracranial pressure can trap the ... nerve at this point and cause signs of palsy. Clivus is also the site for chordoma (a rare malignant tumour.) Surgery for ...
The nuclei or bodies of these nerves are found in the brain stem. The nuclei of the abducens and oculomotor nerves are ... Hence the subsequent nerve supply (innervation) of the eye muscles is from three cranial nerves. The development of the ... Nerves of the orbit. Seen from above. Figure showing the mode of innervation of the Recti medialis and lateralis of the eye. ... This "tonic" activity is brought on by discharges of the motor nerve to the muscle. The extraocular muscles develop along with ...
... also known as abducens nerve palsy, is a neurological defect that results from a damaged or impaired abducens nerve. This ... Nerves of orbita. Deep dissection. Extrinsic eye muscle. Nerves of orbita. Deep dissection. Extrinsic eye muscle. Nerves of ... The neuron cell bodies are located in the abducens nucleus in the pons. These neurons project axons as the abducens nerve which ... Damage to the abducens nerve by trauma can be caused by any type of trauma that causes elevated intracranial pressure; ...
... and a partial loss of the glossopharyngeal and facial motor nerves. However, the somatic hypoglossal and abducens motor nerves ... The trigeminal nerve is not affected in the double knockout mouse embryos, indicating that cell fate alteration is limited to ... Cell lineage analysis of Nkx 2.9 and Nkx 2.2 double knockout (deficient) mouse embryos shows that cranial nerve alterations are ... Disturbance of Nkx 2.9 and Nkx 2.2 in mouse embryos results in the total loss of the spinal accessory and vagal motor nerves, ...
Associated cranial nerves are the oculomotor, abducens, trochlear, and hypoglossal nerves. These motor neurons indirectly ... Nerve tracts are bundles of axons as white matter, that carry action potentials to their effectors. In the spinal cord these ... Tortora, G. J., Derrickson, B. (2011). The Spinal Cord and Spinal Nerves. In B. Roesch, L. Elfers, K. Trost, et al. (Ed.), ... The axons from the lower motor neurons are efferent nerve fibers that carry signals from the spinal cord to the effectors. ...
The ciliary nerves, ciliary ganglion, oculomotor nerve and abducens nerve are anesthetized in retrobulbar block. As a result, ... O' Brien's block : It is also known as facial nerve trunk block. The block is done at the level of the neck of the mandible ... Facial nerve, which supplies the orbicularis oculi muscle, is blocked in addition for intraocular surgeries. Topical ... van Lint's block : In van Lint's block, the peripheral branches of facial nerve are blocked. This technique causes akinesia of ...
It connects the cranial nerve nuclei III (Oculomotor nerve), IV (Trochlear nerve) and VI (Abducens nerve) together, and ... The MLF is the main central connection for the oculomotor nerve, trochlear nerve, and abducens nerve. The vertical gaze center ... Atlas image: n2a4p4 at the University of Michigan Health System - "Brainstem, Cranial Nerve Nuclei, Sagittal Section, Medial ... nerve about head movements, gait adjustments from the flocculus of the cerebellum, head and neck proprioceptors and foot and ...
One pathway projects directly to the lateral rectus muscle of the eye via the abducens nerve. Another nerve tract projects from ... There they project and stimulate the lateral rectus of the left eye via the abducens nerve. In addition, by the medial ... From these nuclei, fibers cross to the abducens nucleus of the opposite side of the brain. Here, fibres synapse with 2 ... The signal for the horizontal rotational component travels via the vestibular nerve through the vestibular ganglion and end in ...
The Deiters' nucleus extends from pontomedullary junction to the level of abducens nerve nucleus in the pons. Lateral ... With this they determined that the superior vestibular nerve plays a larger role in balance than the inferior vestibulo nerve ... This tract is found in the lateral funiculus, a bundle of nerve roots in the spinal cord. The lateral vestibulospinal tract ... "VESTIBULAR NUCLEI AND ABDUCENS NUCLEUS". Medical Neurosciences University of Wisconsin. Archived from the original on November ...
These are innerved from three cranial nerves: the abducens nerve, the trochlear nerve and the oculomotor nerve. Horizontal ... This action is mediated by the medial rectus muscle, which is innervated by Cranial nerve III. It is a type of vergence eye ... The extraocular muscles may have two types of fiber each with its own nerve supply, hence a dual mechanism.[citation needed] ...
Lateral expansion of a pituitary adenoma can also compress the abducens nerve, causing a lateral rectus palsy.[citation needed ... It arises from the compression of the optic nerve by the tumor. The specific area of the visual pathway at which compression by ...
... but with additional nerve palsies of the affected facial and abducens nerve. Selection of the type of nerve transfer is based ... Optional motor donor nerves are: the masseteric nerve, accessory nerve or hypoglossal nerve. In rare cases when these nerves ... For example, the hypoglossal nerve or masseteric nerve on the affected side can be used as donor nerves. This donor nerve is ... Here the nerve stimulator can be used in identifying the donor motor nerve to the masseter muscle. Once the nerve is identified ...
Examples of conditions giving rise to an esotropia might include a VIth cranial nerve (or Abducens) palsy, Duane's syndrome or ... and may also result from conditions affecting the nerve or blood supply to these muscles or the bony orbital structures ...
Abducens (6th nerve), Trochlear (4th nerve), and Oculomotor (3rd nerve). After nerve trauma around the eye, a combination of ... This is an interaction between the abducens nerve and a branch of the oculomotor nerve. Voluntary activation of the abducens ... Moreover, while the abducens and the trochlear nerve each innervate one specific muscle, the oculomotor nerve has many ... As the nerve attempts to recover, nerve miswiring results (see Mechanism of Action below). In patients with severe facial nerve ...
The relevant cranial nerves (specifically the oculomotor, trochlear, and abducens), as in cavernous sinus syndrome or raised ... The brainstem nuclei of these nerves, as in certain patterns of brainstem stroke such as Foville's syndrome. White matter ...
The fourth (trochlear) and sixth (abducens) cranial nerves are located in the same compartment and can cause diagonal or ... In half of these cases, the oculomotor nerve (the third cranial nerve), which controls a number of eye muscles, is affected. ... The visual loss depends on which part of the nerve is affected. If the part of the nerve between the eye and the chiasm is ... Pressure on the part of the optic nerve known as the chiasm, which is located above the gland, leads to loss of vision on the ...
r5 and r6 gives rise to the abducens nerve, and the lower part of r6 and the upper part of r7 gives rise to the petrosal ... The motor nerves form depending on rhombomeric patterns, but each nerve can come from either one rhombomere or a pair of ... The Hox gene also has been shown to play a part in the formation of the cranial motor nerves. The fate of a rhombomere has been ... With mutations in the Hox gene, the cranial motor nerves formed in different locations than normal or simply did not form ...
Then, it courses posteriorly toward the nuclei of the oculomotor nerve (III), trochlear nerve (IV) and abducens nerve (VI), the ... PPRF is not labeled, but is visible adjacent to the abducens nucleus Frontal eye field Cranial nerves Pyramidal tracts ... However, the fibers to the abducens (VI) nucleus do not terminate directly onto the nucleus. Instead, they terminate onto the ... Fibers to the paramedian pontine reticular formation (PPRF) project to the abducens (VI) nucleus, which controls the movement ...
... the oculomotor nerve), IV ( the trochlear nerve), and VI (the abducens nerve). Directing visual spatial attention and eye ... It directs visual spatial attention most notably through guided eye movements, via cranial nerves III ( ...
The olfactory nerve is typically considered the first cranial nerve, or simply CN I, that contains sensory nerve fibers ... The olfactory nerve is the shortest of the twelve cranial nerves and, similar to the optic nerve, does not emanate from the ... CN VI - Abducens. *CN VII - Facial. *CN VIII - Vestibulocochlear. *CN IX - Glossopharyngeal ... Vilensky, Joel; Robertson, Wendy; Suarez-Quian, Carlos (2015). The Clinical Anatomy of the Cranial Nerves: The Nerves of "On ...
The optic nerve, also known as cranial nerve II, or simply as CN II, is a paired nerve that transmits visual information from ... Other optic nerve problems are less common. Optic nerve hypoplasia is the underdevelopment of the optic nerve resulting in ... CN VI - Abducens. *CN VII - Facial. *CN VIII - Vestibulocochlear. *CN IX - Glossopharyngeal ... Cranial nerve. References[edit]. *^ a b c d e Vilensky, Joel; Robertson, Wendy; Suarez-Quian, Carlos (2015). The Clinical ...
നട്ടെല്ലിൽ നിന്നും ഉദ്ഭവിക്കുന്ന പുരോ നാഡീമൂലവും (ventral nerve root) പൃഷ്ഠ നാഡീ മൂലവും (dorsal nerve root) സംയോജിച്ചാണ് ... മൂന്നാമത്തെയും (oculomotor), നാലാമത്തെയും (trochlear), ആറാമത്തെയും (abducens) കപാലനാഡികൾ നേത്രഗോളത്തിന്റെ ചലനത്തെ സഹായിക്കുന്നു ... സുഷുമ്നയിലെ പുരോ നാഡീമൂലം (ventral nerve root), പൃഷ്ഠനാഡീമൂലം (dorsal nerve root) എന്നിവയിൽ നിന്നാണ് സുഷുമ്നാ നാഡികൾ ... ഒരു നാഡീജാലിക (nerve net) പോലെയാണ് ഇവയുടെ നാഡീവ്യൂഹം. നാഡീകോശത്തിൽ ആക്സോണുകളും,
... (Nervus fibularis communis, nervus popliteus externus, nervus peroneus) er en nerve med tykkelse av ca ... VI abducens , VII facialis (chorda tympani, nervus intermedius) , VIII vestibulocochlearis (cochlearis, vestibularis) , IX ... halvparten av nervus tibialis som avgår fra dorsale grener av fjerde og femte lumbale og første og andre sakrale nerve. ... Den tredje (rekurrente) artikulære nerve avgår ved delingsstedet for peroneus communis, hvor den går oppad sammen med arteria ...
闭孔内肌神经(英语:Obturator internus nerve). *梨状肌神经(英语:Piriformis nerve)). 皮神经(英语:Cutaneous nerve): 股后皮神经(英语:Posterior cutaneous nerve ... 外旋神經核(英语:Abducens nucleus). *分支 *無明顯分支 ... superior laryngeal nerve(英语:superior laryngeal nerve) *external laryngeal nerve(英语:external laryngeal nerve) ... 足底内侧神经(英语:medial
Talk:Common palmar digital nerves of median nerve. *Talk:Computational and Systems Neuroscience ... Talk:Accessory abducens nucleus. *Talk:Accessory cuneate nucleus. *Talk:Accessory facial motor nucleus ...
However, one of the ten traits was found in Euparkeria (an abducens nerve exit foramen only present in the prootic) and another ...
The meningeal branch of vagus nerve (dural branch) is a recurrent filament given off from the jugular ganglion; it is ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Meningeal_branch_of_vagus_nerve&oldid=657028818" ...
... and headache with occasional abducens nerve paresis, absence of a space-occupying lesion or ventricular enlargement, and normal ...
閉孔內肌神經(英語:Obturator internus nerve). *梨狀肌神經(英語:Piriformis nerve)). 皮神經(英語:Cutaneous nerve): 股後皮神經(英語:Posterior cutaneous nerve ... 外旋神經核(英語:Abducens nucleus). *分支 *無明顯分支 ... 足底內側神經(英語:medial plantar nerve) (趾足底總神經(英語:common plantar digital nerves of medial plantar nerve) ... 神經
... (oversatt: «den vidvankende nerve») er synonym med den tiende hjernenerven og kalles også «vagusnerven», « ... VI abducens , VII facialis (chorda tympani, nervus intermedius) , VIII vestibulocochlearis (cochlearis, vestibularis) , IX ... innvollsnerven» og «den vidvankende nerve». Vagusnerven følger de store blodårene i halsen, går gjennom brysthulen og til ...
... the union of the two vertebral arteries at the junction between the medulla oblongata and the pons between the abducens nerves ...
In addition to the trigeminal nerve (CN V), the facial (CN VII), glossopharyngeal (CN IX), and vagus nerves (CN X) also convey ... The cranial nerve nuclei schematically represented; dorsal view. Motor nuclei in red; sensory in blue. (Trigeminal nerve nuclei ... Thus the spinal trigeminal nucleus receives input from cranial nerves V, VII, IX, and X. ...
... the optic nerve (II), oculomotor nerve (III), trochlear nerve (IV), trigeminal nerve (V), abducens nerve (VI), facial nerve ( ... Cranial nerve mnemonics. References[edit]. *^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y Vilensky, Joel; Robertson, ... The oculomotor nerve (III), trochlear nerve (IV), abducens nerve (VI) and the ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve (V1) ... and trochlear nerve (IV); the pons has the nuclei of the trigeminal nerve (V), abducens nerve (VI), facial nerve (VII) and ...
Maxillary nerve and nerve of pterygoid canal. To. Greater palatine nerve, lesser palatine nerve, posterior lateral nasal ... a branch of the Ophthalmic nerve, also part of the trigeminal nerve) via the zygomatic nerve, a branch of the maxillary nerve ( ... greater palatine nerve and lesser palatine nerves. The pharyngeal nerve innervates pharyngeal glands. These are all branches of ... It is largely innervated by the greater petrosal nerve (a branch of the facial nerve); and its axons project to the lacrimal ...
The relevant cranial nerves (specifically the oculomotor, trochlear, and abducens), as in cavernous sinus syndrome or raised ... The brainstem nuclei of these nerves, as in certain patterns of brainstem stroke such as Foville's syndrome. ...
superior laryngeal nerve(英语:superior laryngeal nerve) *external laryngeal nerve(英语:external laryngeal nerve) ... 外旋神經核(英语:Abducens nucleus). *分支 *無明顯分支 ... Pharyngeal branch of vagus nerve(英语:Pharyngeal branch of vagus nerve) *Pharyngeal plexus of vagus nerve(英语:Pharyngeal plexus of ... 耳後神經(英语:posterior auricular nerve). *舌骨上神經(英语:Suprahyoid muscles) *Digastric branch of facial
The sixth nerve, the abducens nerve, which innervates the lateral rectus muscle of the eye (moves the eye laterally), is also ... When cranial nerves are affected, neuropathies of the oculomotor nerve (cranial nerve #3 or CNIII) are most common. The ... Damage to a specific nerve of the thoracic or lumbar spinal nerves can occur and may lead to painful syndromes that mimic a ... Longer nerve fibers are affected to a greater degree than shorter ones because nerve conduction velocity is slowed in ...
VI abducens , VII facialis (chorda tympani, nervus intermedius) , VIII vestibulocochlearis (cochlearis, vestibularis) , IX ... Nerve: Nervus vestibulocochlearis [[Fil:,250px,center,]] [[Fil:{{{Bilde2}}},250px,center,]] {{{Bildetekst2}}} Latinsk navn ...
... which form a portion of the cochlear division of the vestibulocochlear nerve and disappear into the median sulcus. ...
Abducens nerve. *Thiamine. *Rare syndromes. Hidden categories: *Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from July 2015 ...
VI abducens , VII facialis (chorda tympani, nervus intermedius) , VIII vestibulocochlearis (cochlearis, vestibularis) , IX ... Plan of hypoglossal nerve. Latinsk navn Nervus hypoglossus Gray's emne #207 914 ...
... , or abducens nerve palsy, is a disorder associated with dysfunction of cranial nerve VI (the abducens nerve ... The unilateral abducens nerve palsy is the most common of the isolated ocular motor nerve palsies.[3] ... Abducens Nerve Palsy. eMedicine.com. October 9, 2003. *^ Cherian, A.; Thomas, S. V. (2011). "Central nervous system ... Congenital fourth nerve palsy. References[edit]. *^ "Sixth nerve palsy , Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD) - ...
The glossopharyngeal nerve, known as the ninth cranial nerve (CN IX), is a mixed nerve that carries afferent sensory and ... The glossopharyngeal nerve as noted above is a mixed nerve consisting of both sensory and motor nerve fibers. The sensory ... On the inferior side, the glossopharyngeal nerve is lateral and anterior to the vagus nerve and accessory nerve. ... CN VI - Abducens. *CN VII - Facial. *CN VIII - Vestibulocochlear. *CN IX - Glossopharyngeal ...
The cochlear nerve (also auditory or acoustic neuron) is one of two parts of the vestibulocochlear nerve, a cranial nerve ... In humans, there are on average 30,000 nerve fibers within the cochlear nerve.[1] The number of fibers varies significantly ... The other portion of the vestibulocochlear nerve is the vestibular nerve, which carries spatial orientation information to the ... inner ear: Hair cells → Spiral ganglion → Cochlear nerve VIII →. *pons: Cochlear nucleus (Anterior, Dorsal) → Trapezoid body → ...
Source for information on abducens nerve: A Dictionary of Nursing dictionary. ... the sixth cranial nerve (VI), which supplies the lateral rectus muscle of each eyeball. ... abducens nerve (ăb-dew-sĕnz) n. the sixth cranial nerve (VI), which supplies the lateral rectus muscle of each eyeball.. ... www.encyclopedia.com/caregiving/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/abducens-nerve ...
abducens nerve synonyms, abducens nerve pronunciation, abducens nerve translation, English dictionary definition of abducens ... or n either of the sixth pair of cranial nerves, which supply the lateral rectus muscle of the eye n. either one of the sixth ... Related to abducens nerve: trochlear nerve. abducens nerve. (æbˈdjuːsənz) or abducent nerve. n. (Anatomy) either of the sixth ... abducens, abducent, abducent nerve, nervus abducens, sixth cranial nerve. cranial nerve - any of the 12 paired nerves that ...
Abducens nerve diseases synonyms, Abducens nerve diseases pronunciation, Abducens nerve diseases translation, English ... dictionary definition of Abducens nerve diseases. or n either of the sixth pair of cranial nerves, which supply the lateral ... rectus muscle of the eye n. either one of the sixth pair of cranial nerves,... ... abducens nerve. (redirected from Abducens nerve diseases). Also found in: Thesaurus, Medical, Encyclopedia. abducens nerve. ( ...
Abducens Nerve Paralysis Other: ocular electroacupuncture Other: ocular acupuncture Other: sham acupuncture Not Applicable ... Effects of Ocular Electroacupuncture on Abducens Nerve Palsy. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the ... The purpose of the study is to testify the efficacy of treating abducens nerve palsy with ocular electroacupuncture or ocular ... The purpose of the study is to testify whether ocular electroacupuncture or ocular acupuncture is effective for abducens nerve ...
... abducens nerve explanation free. What is abducens nerve? Meaning of abducens nerve medical term. What does abducens nerve mean? ... Looking for online definition of abducens nerve in the Medical Dictionary? ... abducens. [ab-du´senz] (L.) abducent.. abducens nerve the sixth cranial nerve; it arises from the pons and supplies the lateral ... abducens nerve. Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Legal, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia.. Related to abducens nerve: trochlear ...
... and antonyms of the term ABDUCENS NERVE in the Online Dictionary. ... ABDUCENS NERVE: Review the definition, meaning, pronunciation, explanation, synonyms, ... n] a small motor nerve supplying the lateral rectus muscle of the eye ...
This paper describes a patient who presented with acute abducens nerve palsy after receiving the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 ...
Percutaneous Approach is a medical classification as listed by CMS under Central Nervous System and Cranial Nerves range. ... ICD-10-PCS code 008L3ZZ for Division of Abducens Nerve, ... Division of Abducens Nerve, Percutaneous Approach 008L3ZZ. ICD- ... Includes: Sixth cranial nerve","3")>Abducens Nerve. Definition: Entry, by puncture or minor incision, of instrumentation ... 10-PCS code 008L3ZZ for Division of Abducens Nerve, Percutaneous Approach is a medical classification as listed by CMS under ...
Possible Post-traumatic Abducens Nerve Palsy in a 16th Century Fresco ("the Chamber of the Giants" by Giulio Romano). ... Possible Post-traumatic Abducens Nerve Palsy in a 16th Century Fresco ("the Chamber of the Giants" by Giulio Romano) ...
Here, we report the case of a 26-year-old woman who presented with a 6th nerve palsy and was found to have a large tumor at the ... Schwannomas of the abducens nerve are extremely uncommon tumors. ... Schwannomas of the abducens nerve are extremely uncommon tumors ... Abducens Nerve Diseases / pathology*, surgery*. Adult. Brain Stem Neoplasms / pathology. Cranial Nerve Neoplasms / pathology*, ... Here, we report the case of a 26-year-old woman who presented with a 6th nerve palsy and was found to have a large tumor at the ...
Oral lichen planus: an unusual cause of facial and abducens nerve paralysis associated with conjunctival and oesophageal ... an unusual cause of facial and abducens nerve paralysis associated with conjunctival and oesophageal involvement. Journal of ...
ICD-10-PCS code 00XL0ZQ for Transfer Abducens Nerve to Vagus Nerve, Open Approach is a medical classification as listed by WHO ...
Meaning of abducens nerve diseases. What does abducens nerve diseases mean? Information and translations of abducens nerve ... Definition of abducens nerve diseases in the Definitions.net dictionary. ... Abducens Nerve Diseases. Diseases of the sixth cranial (abducens) nerve or its nucleus in the pons. The nerve may be injured ... What does abducens nerve diseases mean?. Definitions for abducens nerve diseases. Here are all the possible meanings and ...
Meaning of abducens nerve injury. What does abducens nerve injury mean? Information and translations of abducens nerve injury ... Definition of abducens nerve injury in the Definitions.net dictionary. ... Abducens Nerve Injury. Traumatic injury to the abducens, or sixth, cranial nerve. Injury to this nerve results in lateral ... Definitions for abducens nerve injury. Here are all the possible meanings and translations of the word abducens nerve injury.. ...
The abducens nerve is the sixth cranial nerve. It courses from its nucleus located in the dorsal pons to its innervation of the ... Tags: nerve, neuroanatomy, anatomy rewrite, eye, orbit, cranial nerve. Synonyms or Alternate Spellings:*Abducens nerve (CN VI) ... abducens nerve (CN VI). * facial nerve (CN VII) (segments mnemonic , branches mnemonic) * geniculate ganglion * greater ( ... The abducens nerve is the sixth cranial nerve. It courses from its nucleus located in the dorsal pons to its innervation of the ...
The authors detail the first reported case of abducens nerve palsy complicating dengue fever in a previously healthy male from ... the abducens nerve despite its notoriety in cranial neuropathies in a multitude of condition due to its long intracranial ... In a tropical country with endemic dengue infections, dengue related abducens neuropathy may be considered as a differential ... Paralytic squint due to abducens nerve palsy : a rare consequence of dengue fever. *Mitrakrishnan C Shivanthan. 1. , ...
The abducens nerve (or abducent nerve) is the sixth cranial nerve (CNVI), in humans, that controls the movement of the lateral ... The human abducens nerve is derived from the basal plate of the embryonic pons. The abducens nerve supplies the lateral rectus ... The abducens nerve carries axons of type GSE, general somatic efferent. Damage to the peripheral part of the abducens nerve ... The 39th edition of Grays Anatomy (2005) also prefers "abducens nerve." The abducens nerve controls the movement of a single ...
Cranial nerve root which is part of the abducens nerve (CN-VI) and is located at the level of the intermediate reticular ... Fuses with the rostral root of the abducens nerve and courses rostrally once outside the brain stem. From Neuroanatomy of the ...
The abducens nerve lets you look to the side and helps coordinate the simultaneous side-to-side movement of your eyes. Injury ... Damage to this nerve is called abducens nerve palsy or sixth cranial nerve palsy. ... The abducens is the sixth cranial nerve (CN VI). This nerve has only a motor function and is lacking a sensory function. ... The abducens is considered an extraocular nerve, which literally means "outside of the eye." Along with the oculomotor nerve ( ...
However, he was diagnosed with abducens nerve paralysis after the consultations and analysis and his restriction of movement ... Nervus abducens is a pure motor nerve located in the pons. It retracts the eyeball laterally by stimulating rectus lateralis ... Nervus abducens is a pure motor nerve located in the pons. It retracts the eyeball laterally by stimulating rectus lateralis ... A case of isolated abducens nerve paralysis in maxillofacial trauma. @inproceedings{Keskin2015ACO, title={A case of isolated ...
Abducens nerve palsy is the most common of the ocular paresis in adults,1,2 with sudden onset of binocular horizontal diplopia ... Natural history of idiopathic abducens nerve paresis in a young adult Historia natural de paresia idiopática del nervio ... This case report presents the natural recovery process of idiopathic abducens nerve paresis in a young adult and the role of ... The natural history of idiopathic abducens nerve paresis and the role of conservative management such as vision training during ...
The cranial nerves are a set of twelve nerves that originate in the brain. Each has a different function for sense or movement ... The abducens nerve also helps control eye movements.. It helps the lateral rectus muscle, which is one of the extraocular ... The trochlear nerve is also involved in eye movement.. The trochlear nerve, like the oculomotor nerve, originates in the ... Nerve conduction velocity: Side effects and normal values. A nerve conduction velocity test measures how fast the nerves in the ...
VI nerve palsy is can be a "false localising" sign.. *Due to the long course of the 6th nerve it is easily affected, for ... Presentation of 4th nerve palsy: *A 4th nerve palsy results in the patient being unable to look down and in, towards their nose ... In "medical" 3rd nerve palsies the centre of the 3rd nerve is affected first leaving the parasympathetic fibres and therefore ... Click here for medical student finals, OSCE and MRCP PACES notes on the cranial nerve exam. How to perform the cranial nerve ...
abducens nerve Reference type: Overview Page. Subject: Science and technology, Psychology. Either of the sixth pair of cranial ... nerves controlling the lateral rectus muscles of the eyes, turning the eye outwards for a sidelong direction of gaze. Paralysis ...
... as the abducens nerve supplies the lateral rectus muscle of the eye. The cranial nerves III, IV, and VI and usually tested ... Causes: The exact aetiology of most of the cases of abducens nerve palsies is idiopathic. Research suggests that there may be a ... Below is a list of the acquired forms of abducens nerve palsies: Inflammation, and infections Vascular disorders, including ... In the case of abducens nerve palsy, the patient has a particular difficulty in looking laterally. ...
abducens nerve n. Quick reference A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.) Reference type: Subject Reference. Current Version: 2015. ... Either of the sixth pair of *cranial nerves controlling the lateral *rectus muscles of the eyes, turning the ...
View source for Abducens nerve palsy. ← Abducens nerve palsy. You do not have permission to edit this page, for the following ... Background== * Most common ocular nerve palsy * Innervates the ipsilateral lateral rectus muscle controlling eye abduction * ... See Also== *[[Ocular palsy]] *[[Cranial nerves]] ==External Links== ==References== ,references/> [[Category:Ophtho]] [[Category ...
View source for Abducens nerve palsy. ← Abducens nerve palsy. You do not have permission to edit this page, for the following ... Background== *Also called 6th cranial nerve (CN VI) *Most common ocular nerve palsy *Innervates the ipsilateral lateral rectus ... Patients with abducens nerve palsy are unable to move the affected eye laterally **In order to avoid diplopia, patients will ... indicated for brainstem findings on the exam and to exclude pontine glioma in children and in adults where the abducens nerve ...
Abducens nerve - CN VI. The nucleus of the nerve is located in the paramedian pontine region in the floor of the fourth ... trigeminal nerve), extent of distribution (vagus nerve), composition (spinal accessory nerve), or location (hypoglossal nerve). ... Hypoglossal nerve - CN XII. The nucleus of this nerve lies in the lower medulla, and the nerve itself leaves the cranial cavity ... Trigeminal nerve - CN V. The nucleus of the nerve stretches from the midbrain (ie, mesencephalic nerve) through the pons (ie, ...
... or sixth nerve palsy, results in weakness of the ipsilateral lateral rectus muscle. Clinical presentation Patients present with ... Abducens nerve palsy, or sixth nerve palsy, results in weakness of the ipsilateral lateral rectus muscle. ... The abducens nerve has the longest subarachnoid course of all the cranial nerves. ... Isolated abducens nerve palsy: MR imaging findings. (1993) AJR. American journal of roentgenology. 160 (4): 837-41. doi:10.2214 ...
  • The central anatomy of the sixth nerve predicts (correctly) that infarcts affecting the dorsal pons at the level of the abducens nucleus can also affect the facial nerve, producing an ipsilateral facial palsy together with a lateral rectus palsy. (wikipedia.org)
  • The anatomy also predicts (correctly) that infarcts involving the ventral pons can affect the sixth nerve and the corticospinal tract simultaneously, producing a lateral rectus palsy associated with a contralateral hemiparesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diabetic abducens nerve palsy main symptoms include ocular motility disorders and diplopia. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Caption: FIGURE 1: Chemosis and Abducens Nerve (CN VI) Palsy. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Augmented Hummelsheim procedure to treat complete abducens nerve palsy. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • MRSA with progression from otitis media and sphenoid sinusitis to clival osteomyelitis, pachymeningitis and abducens nerve palsy in an immunocompetent 10-year-old patient. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Cranial nerve examination revealed a decreased ability to abduct the right eye consistent with abducens nerve palsy. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The purpose of the study is to testify the efficacy of treating abducens nerve palsy with ocular electroacupuncture or ocular acupuncture, and to compare the efficacy between these two interventions. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The purpose of the study is to testify whether ocular electroacupuncture or ocular acupuncture is effective for abducens nerve palsy (ANP), through treating ANP patient for 6 weeks, using self-invented acupoints according to anatomy of extraocular muscles innervated by abducens nerve, and using sham acupuncture as controlled group, and try to provide clinical evidence for promoting these new techniques. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • All in all, binocular moving distance difference recovered before the maximal angle of diplopia in patients with diabetic abducens nerve palsy who received IEA therapy. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The patient was followed up after two week intervals and the degree of diplopia and abducens nerve palsy was noted. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Possible Post-traumatic Abducens Nerve Palsy in a 16th Centu. (lww.com)
  • Here, we report the case of a 26-year-old woman who presented with a 6th nerve palsy and was found to have a large tumor at the right side of her pons. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Its oblique course and relatively anchored position in Dorello's canal make it prone to stretching when raised intracranial pressure from a space-occupying lesion causes transtentorial herniation (a sixth nerve palsy is the classic lateralising sign of an extradural haematoma ). (radiopaedia.org)
  • In a tropical country with endemic dengue infections, dengue related abducens neuropathy may be considered as a differential diagnosis in cases of acquired lateral rectus palsy after dengue fever. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The authors report the first case of a patient who developed a convergent paralytic squint due to right abducens palsy during the critical phase of dengue fever. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Damage to this nerve is called abducens nerve palsy or sixth cranial nerve palsy. (verywellhealth.com)
  • In people with diabetes, poorly controlled blood sugars are a significant risk factor for abducens nerve palsy, as are certain problems in the cavernous sinus. (verywellhealth.com)
  • The primary symptom of abducens nerve palsy is an inability to abduct the eye, which can cause it to droop inward, as if "crossed. (verywellhealth.com)
  • Abducens nerve palsy is the most common of the ocular paresis in adults, 1,2 with sudden onset of binocular horizontal diplopia as the bothersome symptom. (journalofoptometry.org)
  • Bell's palsy is a common disorder of the facial nerve, which causes paralysis on one side of the face and possibly loss of taste sensation. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • What are the clinical signs of a complete unilateral Oculomotor (3rd) nerve palsy? (oxfordmedicaleducation.com)
  • What is the difference between a "medical" and "surgical" Oculomotor (3rd) nerve palsy? (oxfordmedicaleducation.com)
  • The classic cause of a "surgical" 3rd nerve palsy is a posterior communicating artery aneurysm. (oxfordmedicaleducation.com)
  • What are the causes of a 3rd nerve palsy? (oxfordmedicaleducation.com)
  • In the case of abducens nerve palsy, the patient has a particular difficulty in looking laterally. (clinicalexams.co.uk)
  • Background== * Most common ocular nerve palsy * Innervates the ipsilateral lateral rectus muscle controlling eye abduction * Esotropia of the affected eye due to the unopposed action of the medial rectus muscle. (wikem.org)
  • Return to Abducens nerve palsy . (wikem.org)
  • Abducens nerve palsy , or sixth nerve palsy , results in weakness of the ipsilateral lateral rectus muscle . (radiopaedia.org)
  • Isolated abducens nerve palsy: MR imaging findings. (radiopaedia.org)
  • Classical abducens nerve palsy presents as unilateral non-comitant esotropia in primary gaze with horizontal (uncrossed) diplopia, which worsens at distance and when looking towards the affected side. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Bilateral abducens nerve palsy is mediated mainly by increased intracranial pressure, accompaniment to subarachnoid hemorrhage and others, relatively direct involvement of abducens nerve nucleus or its intracranial pathway is unusual case. (jkna.org)
  • A 45-year-old male patient complaining of double vision showed isolated bilateral abducens palsy. (jkna.org)
  • We suggest that basilar artery dissecting aneurysm should be included as a cause of bilateral abducens nerve palsy. (jkna.org)
  • These images are a random sampling from a Bing search on the term "Cranial Nerve 6 Palsy. (fpnotebook.com)
  • We report a patient with delayed-onset abducens nerve palsy and Horner syndrome after endovascular treatment of traumatic carotid-cavernous fistula (CCF). (bvsalud.org)
  • Delayed-onset abducens nerve palsy and Horner syndrome can develop even after successful endovascular treatment of CCF. (bvsalud.org)
  • A 45-year-old hemodialysis patient presenting with recurrence of SLE which manifested predominantly as a unilateral left abducens (VIth) nerve palsy is described. (elsevier.com)
  • The signs and symptoms of the cranial nerve palsy resolved within two weeks of initiating corticosteroid therapy. (elsevier.com)
  • This is the first reported case of an abducens nerve palsy occurring in a maintenance hemodialysis patient associated with recurrence of SLE. (elsevier.com)
  • Isolated abducens nerve palsy due to pit. (erdogan.edu.tr)
  • While the most commonly affected nerve is the oculomotor nerve, abducens nerve palsy may also occur less commonly. (erdogan.edu.tr)
  • Isolated abducens palsy due to posttraumatic pituitary apoplexy is a rare clinical condition, and as the symptoms and signs are nonspecific, it can commonly remain clinically undiagnosed. (erdogan.edu.tr)
  • 1,3,4 Benign recurrent abducens nerve palsy is a rare condition of unknown etiology. (symptoma.com)
  • Benign isolated abducens nerve palsy in mycoplasma pneumoniae infection. (symptoma.com)
  • 9. Knapp CM, Gottlob I. Benign recurrent abducens (6th) nerve palsy in two children. (symptoma.com)
  • doi:10.1076/stra.12.1.13.29015 [CrossRef] Wang CH, Chou ML, Huang CH. Benign isolated abducens nerve palsy in Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection. (symptoma.com)
  • Sixth nerve palsy , or abducens nerve palsy , is a disorder associated with dysfunction of cranial nerve VI (the abducens nerve ), which is responsible for causing contraction of the lateral rectus muscle to abduct (i.e., turn out) the eye . (wikipedia.org)
  • The unilateral abducens nerve palsy is the most common of the isolated ocular motor nerve palsies. (wikipedia.org)
  • [6] report that benign and rapidly recovering isolated VIth nerve palsy can occur in childhood, sometimes precipitated by ear, nose and throat infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • The pathophysiological mechanism of sixth nerve palsy with increased intracranial pressure has traditionally been said to be stretching of the nerve in its long intracranial course, or compression against the petrous ligament or the ridge of the petrous temporal bone. (wikipedia.org)
  • Isolated lesions of the VI nerve nucleus will not give rise to an isolated VIth nerve palsy because paramedian pontine reticular formation fibers pass through the nucleus to the opposite IIIrd nerve nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, fibers of the seventh cranial nerve wrap around the VIth nerve nucleus, and, if this is also affected, a VIth nerve palsy with ipsilateral facial palsy will result. (wikipedia.org)
  • In Millard-Gubler syndrome , a unilateral softening of the brain tissue arising from obstruction of the blood vessels of the pons involving sixth and seventh cranial nerves and the corticospinal tract, the VIth nerve palsy and ipsilateral facial paresis occur with a contralateral hemiparesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • This paper describes a patient who presented with acute abducens nerve palsy after receiving the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine. (hindsighteyecare.com)
  • Physicians diagnosed the patient with an abducens nerve palsy and, given the timing, suspected it was associated with vaccination. (hindsighteyecare.com)
  • Although there is no definitive evidence that COVID-19 vaccination led to the abducens palsy, the authors suspected a connection given the temporal relationship between vaccination and symptom onset, the lack of preexisting medical conditions and normal MRI results. (hindsighteyecare.com)
  • In 1904, Gradenigo described a triad of symptoms related to petrous apicitis , including acute suppurative otitis media , deep facial pain resulting from trigeminal involvement, and abducens nerve palsy . (bvsalud.org)
  • This case report presents a patient with abducens nerve palsy after minimally invasive surgery for thoracic disc herniation with an intraoperative spinal fluid fistula. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Despite the uncommon nature of this type of complication, understanding the procedure itself, the principle occurrences and outcomes following the procedure, the physiopathogical features of abducens nerve palsy, and the possible adverse effects of spinal surgery, including minimally invasive procedures, can enable an early diagnosis of complications and facilitate the procedure. (beds.ac.uk)
  • PURPOSE: To report the incidence of symptomatic vertical and torsional diplopia after superior rectus transposition (SRT) for esotropic Duane syndrome and abducens nerve palsy. (harvard.edu)
  • METHODS: The medical records of patients with esotropic Duane syndrome or abducens nerve palsy seen at Boston Children's Hospital (2006-2018) and treated with unilateral SRT with or without augmentation was performed. (harvard.edu)
  • RESULTS: A total of 69 patients met inclusion criteria: 32 with abducens nerve palsy and 37 with esotropic Duane syndrome. (harvard.edu)
  • Those with sixth nerve palsy therefore experience horizontal double vision which is worse when looking towards the affected side. (wikipedia.org)
  • If there are cranial nerve abnormalities, these may be noticed on eye examination in the form of a squint (third, fourth, or sixth nerve palsy) or as facial nerve palsy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Presenting with Abducens Nerve Palsy. (nih.gov)
  • By means of this database, all cases of third, fourth, and sixth cranial nerve palsy were identified among county residents less than 18 years of age from 1978 through 1992. (nih.gov)
  • Over this 15-year period, 36 incidence cases of cranial nerve palsy were identified in 35 children in this defined population. (nih.gov)
  • The most common cause was congenital for third and fourth nerve palsy, undetermined for sixth, and trauma for multiple nerve palsies. (nih.gov)
  • Although three cases were associated with neoplasia, a cranial nerve palsy was not present at the time of diagnosis in any case. (nih.gov)
  • In contrast to previous institutionally based series, nearly half the cases were congenital in origin, and in no case did intracranial neoplasia present as an isolated nerve palsy. (nih.gov)
  • Case presentation We report the cases of two interesting patients with confirmed dengue infection who presented with complications of possible central nervous system vasculitis and cranial nerve palsy. (medscape.com)
  • Cranial nerve palsy related to dengue infection is also rare, and only a few cases of isolated abducens nerve palsy have been reported to date. (medscape.com)
  • The exact cause of vaccination-related cranial nerve palsy in children is not known. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Recovery is usually complete in case of benign sixth nerve palsy in childhood. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Neurologic examination showed bilateral sixth nerve palsy (Hunt-Hess grade II). (isciii.es)
  • Seven days after the operation her left side abducens palsy recovered gradually and one month later she had normal ocular movements. (isciii.es)
  • A, B: photograph of the patient showing bilateral abducens nevre palsy. (isciii.es)
  • Orbital apex syndrome (OAS) has been described as a syndrome involving damage to the oculomotor nerve (CN3), trochlear nerve (CN4), ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve (CN5) and abducens nerve (CN6) in association with optic nerve dysfunction. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The oculomotor nerve has been involved frequently in 85% of cases, abducens nerve in 70% of cases, trochlear nerve in 29% of cases, and ophthalmic division of trigeminal nerve in 30% of cases [11], and periarterial sympathetic fibers were in 20% of cases that causes Horner's syndrome [12, 13]. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • It is the most inferior nerve passing through the tendinous ring, inferior to the inferior division of the oculomotor nerve . (radiopaedia.org)
  • Along with the oculomotor nerve (CN III) and the trochlear nerve (CN IV), it provides movement to the muscles around the eyeball rather than attaching to the eye itself. (verywellhealth.com)
  • The oculomotor nerve helps control muscle movements of the eyes. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The oculomotor nerve provides movement to most of the muscles that move the eyeball and upper eyelid, known as extraocular muscles. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The trochlear nerve, like the oculomotor nerve, originates in the midbrain. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Oculomotor nerve - eyelid movements, most eyeball movements, constricts pupils and changes the shape of lens (accommodation for visual acuity). (healthhype.com)
  • The abducens nerve (or abducent nerve) is the sixth cranial nerve (CNVI), in humans, that controls the movement of the lateral rectus muscle, responsible for outward gaze. (wikipedia.org)
  • Also called abducent, nervus abducens, sixth cranial nerve . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The abducens nerve, sometimes called the abducent nerve, is responsible for the movement of the lateral rectus muscle, which allows your eye to rotate away from the center of your body and look to the left or right. (verywellhealth.com)
  • What type of motor fibers are conveyed by the abducent nerve? (brainscape.com)
  • What is the embryonic origin of skeletal muscles innervated by the abducent nerve? (brainscape.com)
  • Gradenigo's syndrome is characterised by a classic triad of discharging ear, retro-orbital pain, abducens nerve paralysis causing diplopia. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 157900), also known as Moebius sequence, is a nonprogressive disease characterized by congenital facial and abducens nerve paralysis and is included in the group of congenital cranial dysinnervation disorders (CCDD). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Paralysis of the nerve causes diplopia (double vision). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Injury to this nerve results in lateral rectus muscle weakness or paralysis. (definitions.net)
  • Though neurological sequelae including mononeuropathy, encephalopathy, transverse myelitis, polyradiculopathy, Guillain-Barre syndrome , optic neuropathy and oculomotor neuropathy have been reported in medical literature, the abducens nerve despite its notoriety in cranial neuropathies in a multitude of condition due to its long intracranial course had not been to date reported to manifest with lateral rectus paralysis following dengue. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Paralysis of the abductor nerve, albeit rarely, can occur in iatrogenic form as a complication of local dental anesthesia maneuvers. (thewand.com)
  • With only the thin dura mater separating the trigeminal ganglion and the 6th cranial nerve from the bony petrous apex , they are vulnerable to inflammatory processes, resulting in deep facial pain , lateral rectus muscle paralysis , and diplopia . (bvsalud.org)
  • Facial nerve paralysis: A three year retrospective study Of all the cranial nerves , the facial nerve is the one which is most commonly involved in disease. (tripdatabase.com)
  • In spite of being very rare and multifactorial, uni- or bilateral abducens nerve paralysis carries significant morbidity and can occur as a postoperative complication after conventional or minimally invasive spine surgery. (beds.ac.uk)
  • There is less chance of recovery in case of complete paralysis of the sixth nerve. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The cranial nerve most commonly affected was the abducens nerve , followed by the vestibulocochlear nerve and the trigeminal nerve. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Cranial nerve involvement is usually limited to the vestibulocochlear and facial nerves, but trigeminal and abducens nerve palsies have also been reported. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The trigeminal nerve is the largest cranial nerve and has both motor and sensory functions. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Trigeminal neuralgia is a common disorder of the trigeminal nerve that can cause intense pain and facial tics. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The abducens consists of the sixth pair of cranial nerves and, unlike the trigeminal nerve, whose terminal branches are the target of local dental anesthesia, it is made up of exclusively motor fibers. (thewand.com)
  • Since the nerve conduction system is completely analogous, the somatic motor fibers can be the target of local anesthesia as much as the trigeminal sensitive ones. (thewand.com)
  • The trigeminal nerve has been turned laterally to expose its motor root (18), the fibrous tissue partially closing the foramen lacerum (16), and the relations of the carotid artery and cavernous plexus of nerves (14). (stanford.edu)
  • During routine cadaveric dissection , an ossified portion of dura mater traveling over the trigeminal nerve 's entrance (porus trigeminus) into the middle cranial fossa was observed unilaterally. (bvsalud.org)
  • Dr Simon Grant BSc PhD Oculomotor, trochlear or abducens nerve palsies are relatively common, but pose challenges for clinical management. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In "medical" 3rd nerve palsies the centre of the 3rd nerve is affected first leaving the parasympathetic fibres and therefore pupillary constriction intact until the end. (oxfordmedicaleducation.com)
  • IIIrd nerve palsies and Myaesthenia gravis are two important differentials of Horner's syndrome to exclude. (oxfordmedicaleducation.com)
  • The exact aetiology of most of the cases of abducens nerve palsies is idiopathic. (clinicalexams.co.uk)
  • Isolated sixth-nerve palsies in younger adults. (radiopaedia.org)
  • Cranial nerve palsies may develop due to compression of the surrounding structures by the rapidly expanding tumor. (erdogan.edu.tr)
  • Cranial nerve palsies in Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis. (symptoma.com)
  • Diplopia is typically experienced by adults with VI nerve palsies, but children with the condition may not experience diplopia due to suppression . (wikipedia.org)
  • Abducens nerve palsies in adults are often tied to microvascular disease or tumors, but these etiologies are unlikely since this patient had no vascular risk factors, a negative review of systems and normal optic nerves and MRI images. (hindsighteyecare.com)
  • To determine the population-based incidence and cause of cranial nerve palsies affecting ocular motility in children in the circumscribed population of Olmsted County, Minnesota. (nih.gov)
  • The age-adjusted and sex-adjusted annual incidence of third, fourth, and sixth nerve palsies combined was 7.6 per 100,000 (95% confidence interval, 5.1 to 10.1). (nih.gov)
  • Unlike many institutionally based referral series, our population-based study provides data on the incidence and cause of third, fourth, and sixth nerve palsies in a geographically defined population. (nih.gov)
  • Eye movement disorders: third, fourth, and sixth nerve palsies and other causes of diplopia and ocular misalignment. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Isolated abducens nerve palsies associated with intracranial aneurysms have rarely been reported. (isciii.es)
  • Herewith, we report two cases of bilateral abducens palsies following ruptured ACoA aneurysms and speculated the possible mechanisms. (isciii.es)
  • Bilateral abducens nerve palsies were determined on neurologic examination (Hunt-Hess grade II) ( Figure 2 A, B ). CT scan showed subarachnoid and intraparanchymal hemorrhage located in basal cisterns, anterior interhemisferic fissure and right frontal lobe (Fischer grade IV) ( Figure 3 A ) and cerebral angiograhy revealed ACoA aneurysm ( Figure 3 B ). Microsurgical clipping of ACoA aneurysm was performed on the 15thday of her admission. (isciii.es)
  • The frequency of abducens nerve palsies associated with intracranial aneurysms is between 3.3% and 3.6% 1,4 . (isciii.es)
  • The fourth cranial nerve, the trochlear nerve, is the most commonly injured in kids. (verywellhealth.com)
  • The trochlear nerve is also involved in eye movement. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • An inability for the patient to look medially may be indicative of a lesion of the trochlear nerve. (clinicalexams.co.uk)
  • Trochlear nerve - outer and downward (inferolateral) eyeball movement. (healthhype.com)
  • Damage to the peripheral part of the abducens nerve will cause double vision (diplopia), due to the unopposed muscle tone of the medial rectus muscle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Complete interruption of the peripheral sixth nerve causes diplopia (double vision), due to the unopposed action of the medial rectus muscle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dysfunction of the nerve causes lateral rectus muscle weakness, resulting in horizontal diplopia that is maximal when the affected eye is abducted and ESOTROPIA. (definitions.net)
  • The patient will typically present with complaints of diplopia, laziness in one eye, and difficulty or inability to look laterally on the side of the affected eye, as the abducens nerve supplies the lateral rectus muscle of the eye. (clinicalexams.co.uk)
  • With proper functioning of the ocular muscles and cranial nerves, the patient should be able to follow the practitioner's finger or pen tip in all the different planes without experiencing any diplopia, strabismus, or nystagmus. (clinicalexams.co.uk)
  • McGee S. Nerves of the eye muscles (III, IV, and VI): approach to diplopia. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The abducens nerve leaves the brainstem at the junction of the pons and the medulla, medial to the facial nerve. (wikipedia.org)
  • The abducens nucleus is located in the pons, on the floor of the fourth ventricle, at the level of the facial colliculus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Motor axons leaving the abducens nucleus run ventrally and caudally through the pons. (wikipedia.org)
  • The human abducens nerve is derived from the basal plate of the embryonic pons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mass lesions that push the brainstem downward can damage the nerve by stretching it between the point where it emerges from the pons and the point where it hooks over the petrous temporal bone. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diseases of the sixth cranial (abducens) nerve or its nucleus in the pons. (definitions.net)
  • The nerve may be injured along its course in the pons, intracranially as it travels along the base of the brain, in the cavernous sinus, or at the level of superior orbital fissure or orbit. (definitions.net)
  • The abducens nucleus is a small nucleus situated at the upper part of the rhomboid fossa beneath the colliculus facialis within the pons. (radiopaedia.org)
  • It is the most medial of the nerves emerging immediately below the pons ( facial nerve and vestibulocochlear nerve lateral to it) at the pontomedullary junction into the prepontine cistern. (radiopaedia.org)
  • The abducens nerve starts in the pons of the brainstem, enters an area called Dorello's canal, travels through the cavernous sinus, and ends at the lateral rectus muscle within the bony orbit. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The abducens nerve originates in a motor nucleus in the pons on the floor of the rhomboid fossa. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Notes = Diseases of the sixth cranial (abducens) nerve or its nucleus in the pons. (ed.ac.uk)
  • A somatic motor nerve originating in the abducens nucleus in the pons. (tabers.com)
  • Which cranial nerves have origins in the pons? (brainscape.com)
  • There are four cranial nerves also associated with the pons. (coursera.org)
  • The abducens nerve supplies motor innervation to the lateral rectus ocular muscle, therefor particular attention should be paid as to whether the patient is able to look laterally. (clinicalexams.co.uk)
  • Ocular movements are controlled synergistically by a group of muscles, supplied by three cranial nerves: Oculomotor, Trochlear and Abducens. (clinicalexams.co.uk)
  • All the 3 Cranial nerves are tested at the same time by assessing the Extra Ocular Movement (EOM) or the six cardinal position of gaze. (nursingcrib.com)
  • The natural history of idiopathic abducens nerve paresis and the role of conservative management such as vision training during the recovery process is not well documented in the literature to the best of our knowledge. (journalofoptometry.org)
  • This case report presents the natural recovery process of idiopathic abducens nerve paresis in a young adult and the role of vision therapy in the recovery process. (journalofoptometry.org)
  • Sato K, Yoshikawa H. Bilateral abducens nerve paresis associated with anti-GQ1b IgG antibody. (symptoma.com)
  • About 10% of patients with sixth nerve paresis have bilateral involvement 2 . (isciii.es)
  • Postoperatively bilateral sixth nerve paresis improved partially and one month later the neuroopthalmologic examination was normal ( Figure 4 A, B ). (isciii.es)
  • His magnetic resonance imaging evaluation demonstrated a large pituitary adenoma and bleeding into the tumor, which was acutely expanding and leading to compression of the abducens nerve laterally. (erdogan.edu.tr)
  • Abducens nerve - moves eyeball to the outer side (laterally). (healthhype.com)
  • The auricular branch of the vagus nerve is a sensory nerve emerging from the superior ganglion of the vagus nerve, joined by branches from the glossopharyngeal (CN IX) and facial nerves, and innervating the lower part of the tympanic membrane and the floor of the external auditory canal. (tabers.com)
  • Vagus nerve - feedback on aortic blood pressure. (healthhype.com)
  • One such option is a treatment called vagus nerve stimulation (VNS), in which short bursts of electrical energy are directed into the brain by way of the vagus nerve . (tripdatabase.com)
  • Vagus Nerve Stimulation for Treating Adults With Severe Fibromyalgia Vagus Nerve Stimulation for Treating Adults With Severe Fibromyalgia - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. (tripdatabase.com)
  • The acupoints are selected based on the anatomy of extraocular muscles innervated by abducens nerve. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • To find out almost all pictures inside Amazing Photos Of 6th Cranial Nerve Anatomy photos gallery remember to follow this specific web page link. (getreadyrossvalley.org)
  • To discover almost all images with Amazing Photos Of 6th Cranial Nerve Anatomy images gallery you need to stick to that url. (getreadyrossvalley.org)
  • Click here for the gross anatomy of the cranial nerves (First Year Medicine ANAT1006 ). (videohelp.com)
  • The abducens nucleus is close to the midline, like the other motor nuclei that control eye movements (the oculomotor and trochlear nuclei). (wikipedia.org)
  • Axial image at the level of the facial nerve (CN VII) and abducens nerve (CN VI) , demonstrating the relationship of their respective nuclei and fibers. (radiopaedia.org)
  • The components of the eighth cranial nerve (CN VIII) carrying axons that convey information regarding sound and balance between the spiral ganglion in the inner ear and the cochlear nuclei in the brainstem. (tabers.com)
  • We describe the intracranial and orbital pathology of a clinically documented case of bilateral DRS. Both abducens nuclei and nerves were absent from the brainstem, and the lateral rectus muscles were partially innervated by branches from the oculomotor nerves. (nih.gov)
  • Although the tracts and nuclei of the cranial nerves are intricate, they can be systematised in terms of their function components contained within each nerve. (videohelp.com)
  • To our knowledge , there has been no existing report of a simultaneous ossified roof of the porus trigeminus with an ipsilateral duplicated abducens nerve . (bvsalud.org)
  • ICD-10-PCS code 008L3ZZ for Division of Abducens Nerve, Percutaneous Approach is a medical classification as listed by CMS under Central Nervous System and Cranial Nerves range. (aapc.com)
  • The abducens nerve innervates the lateral rectus muscle, providing it a neural pathway to the brain. (healthline.com)
  • Fuses with the rostral root of the abducens nerve and courses rostrally once outside the brain stem. (zfin.org)
  • Cranial nerves originate from the brain and brainstem and perform functions in your face and throat. (verywellhealth.com)
  • The abducens nerve emerges from the brainstem, which sits low in the back of your brain and connects to the spinal column. (verywellhealth.com)
  • The cranial nerves are a set of twelve nerves that originate in the brain. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Each nerve has a name that reflects its function and a number according to its location in the brain. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Scientists use Roman numerals from I-XII to label the cranial nerves in the brain. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The olfactory nerve transmits information to the brain regarding a person's sense of smell. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The optic nerve transmits information to the brain regarding a person's vision. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • What is the site of the apparent origin of the sixth cranial nerve from the brain? (brainscape.com)
  • Sensory nerves, sometimes called afferent nerves, carry information from the outside world, such as sensations of heat, cold, and pain, to the brain and spinal cord. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Motor nerves, or efferent nerves, transmit impulses from the brain and spinal cord to the muscles. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Together, the nerves make up the peripheral nervous system, as distinguished from the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • There are 12 pairs of cranial nerves , which carry messages to and from the brain. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • sensory nerve a peripheral nerve that conducts impulses from a sense organ to the spinal cord or brain. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Because the nerve emerges near the bottom of the brain , it is often the first nerve compressed when there is any rise in intracranial pressure . (wikipedia.org)
  • Collier, however, was "unable to accept this explanation", his view being that since the sixth nerve emerges straight forward from the brain stem, whereas other cranial nerves emerge obliquely or transversely, it is more liable to the mechanical effects of backward brain stem displacement by intracranial space occupying lesions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hence, the endocast corresponds to the posterior portion of the brain cavity of S . tupiniquim , including parts of the hindbrain, such as the cerebellum and medulla oblongata, and cranial nerves V, VI, VII, and XII. (nature.com)
  • The neuronal cell bodies of a nerve's axons are in the brain, the spinal cord, or ganglia, but the nerves run only in the peripheral nervous system. (tabers.com)
  • A nerve that conducts impulses toward the brain or spinal cord. (tabers.com)
  • Nerves are like the electrical wiring that carry signals to and from the brain. (healthhype.com)
  • However, there are 12 pairs of nerves that emerge directly from the brain and are therefore known as cranial nerves . (healthhype.com)
  • The increased pressure leads to compression and traction of the cranial nerves , a group of nerves that arise from the brain stem and supply the face and neck. (wikipedia.org)
  • After the tentorium has been severed from all its connections and the dural sac removed, the only structures holding the brain in the cranial cavity are the remaining cranial nerves and the carotid and vertebral arteries. (unmc.edu)
  • These photoreceptors carry signal impulses along nerve cells to form the optic nerve. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Most of the fibers of the optic nerve cross into a structure called the optic chiasm. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Neurotomy of Optic Nerve in Non-Arthritic Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy Neurotomy of Optic Nerve in Non-Arthritic Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. (tripdatabase.com)
  • The increased pressure leads to papilledema , which is swelling of the optic disc , the spot where the optic nerve enters the eyeball . (wikipedia.org)
  • The muscle inserts into the temporal (outer) side of the eyeball and stretches to the annulus of Zinn , a tendinous ring circling the optic nerve. (healthline.com)
  • Other processes that can damage the sixth nerve include strokes (infarctions), demyelination, infections (e.g. meningitis), cavernous sinus diseases and various neuropathies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Within the cavernous sinus the abducens nerve is located inferolateral to the internal carotid artery , medial to the lateral wall of the sinus. (radiopaedia.org)
  • However, diabetic neuropathy and cavernous sinus problems are likely to affect many nerves beyond the abducens. (verywellhealth.com)
  • This nerve has only a motor function and is lacking a sensory function. (verywellhealth.com)
  • Sensory cranial nerves help a person to see, smell, and hear. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The facial nerve also has both motor and sensory functions. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Mixed nerves are composed of both motor and sensory fibers, and transmit messages in both directions at once. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • afferent nerve any nerve that transmits impulses from the periphery toward the central nervous system, such as a sensory nerve. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • mixed nerve ( nerve of mixed fibers ) a nerve composed of both sensory (afferent) and motor (efferent) fibers. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • somatic n's the sensory and motor nerves supplying skeletal muscle and somatic tissues. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Some of these nerves are sensory or motor only while others are mixed containing a combination of sensory and motor fibers. (healthhype.com)
  • The bottom row of teeth receives sensory branches from the nerve. (healthline.com)
  • These inferior alveolar branches comprise the network of nerve fibers known as the inferior dental plexus , which then supplies the teeth with sensory information. (healthline.com)
  • Compare with sensory nerve . (daviddarling.info)
  • Spinal nerves contain both motor and sensory components. (videohelp.com)
  • Background: Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors are rare, and intracranial occurrences are even more rare. (elsevier.com)
  • This article reports the first case of a malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor of the abducens nerve and provides a literature review that includes 61 cases of intracranial malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors. (elsevier.com)
  • The literature shows that intracranial malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors are a heterogeneous group. (elsevier.com)
  • Due to its extremely long extracerebral intracranial course the abducens nerve is the most frequently involved cranial nerve in a number of disorders 3 . (isciii.es)
  • It is a somatic efferent nerve. (wikipedia.org)
  • The abducens nerve carries axons of type GSE, general somatic efferent. (wikipedia.org)
  • What does abducens nerve diseases mean? (definitions.net)
  • Here are all the possible meanings and translations of the word abducens nerve diseases . (definitions.net)
  • Are we missing a good definition for abducens nerve diseases ? (definitions.net)
  • What rhymes with abducens nerve diseases ? (definitions.net)
  • These investigations are aimed at studying the influence of the electrical stimulation of the VIth nucleus (abducens nucleus) on responses of lateral geniculate cells in rabbits. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Results show that: Electrical stimulation of the VIth nucleus always produced excitatory discharges whose latency varied from 30 to 400 ms. Interestingly, an electrical pulse applied to the abducens nucleus was capable of enhancing the light-evoked responses without altering the spontaneous rate of firing. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Different presentations of the condition, or associations with other conditions, can help to localize the site of the lesion along the VIth cranial nerve pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • abducens nerve (ăb- dew -sĕnz) n. the sixth cranial nerve (VI), which supplies the lateral rectus muscle of each eyeball. (encyclopedia.com)
  • either of the paired sixth cranial nerves. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Traumatic injury to the abducens, or sixth, cranial nerve. (definitions.net)
  • What is the efferent nucleus for the sixth cranial nerve? (brainscape.com)
  • The sixth cranial nerve will innervate what target organ? (brainscape.com)
  • The use and interpretation of medical examinations to determine the integrity and adequate function the abducens nerve (sixth cranial nerve). (clinicalexams.co.uk)
  • The sixth cranial nerve, or abducens nerve, is often compressed by a growing chordoma at the level of the petrous apex, causing double vision, which is a common presenting symptom in chordoma patients. (stanford.edu)
  • It affects the function of the sixth cranial (skull) nerve. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Cranial mononeuropathy VI is damage to the sixth cranial nerve. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Because there are common nerve pathways through the skull, the same disorder that damages the sixth cranial nerve may affect other cranial nerves (such as the third or fourth cranial nerve). (medlineplus.gov)
  • When the sixth cranial nerve doesn't work properly, you can't turn your eye outward toward your ear. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The abducens is also known as the sixth cranial nerve. (healthline.com)
  • Some authors believe it to be a part of extraocular muscle fibrosis syndrome which arises from dysfunction of oculomotor, trochlear and abducens nerve and the muscles they innervate causing incomitant strabismus with or without ptosis. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Nerve conduction studies and electromyography including repetitive nerve stimulation of limb muscles and orbicularis oculi were normal. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The various nerve fibers and cells that make up the autonomic nervous system innervate the glands, heart, blood vessels, and involuntary muscles of the internal organs. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The posterior auricular nerve is a motor branch of the facial nerve (CN VII) that innervates the posterior and intrinsic auricular muscles. (tabers.com)
  • Facial nerve - muscles that control facial expressions, scalp and stapedius muscle of middle ear. (healthhype.com)
  • Glossopharyngeal nerve - muscles that assist with swallowing. (healthhype.com)
  • Accessory nerve - muscles for head and shoulder movements. (healthhype.com)
  • Hypoglossal nerve - muscles of the tongue - swallowing and articulation (speech). (healthhype.com)
  • Pain and hyperalgesia are witnessed in the area of nerve distribution, along with tenderness on palpation of the nerve trunk and muscles supplied by the nerve. (chiro.org)
  • Paresthesias are reported over the area of nerve distribution, along with tenderness over nerve fibers and muscles supplied by the involved nerve. (chiro.org)
  • Diminished reflexes and motor weakness of muscles supplied by affected nerve are typical. (chiro.org)
  • [7] [8] The facial nerve (seventh cranial nerve) is affected occasionally -- the result is total or partial weakness of the muscles of facial expression on one or both sides of the face. (wikipedia.org)
  • This nerve innervates some of the other muscles in the eye's orbit. (healthline.com)
  • Each pair of cranial nerves is numbered from one to twelve Roman numerals) and designated as CN. (healthhype.com)
  • Iatrogenic injury is also known to occur, with the abducens nerve being the most commonly injured cranial nerve in halo orthosis placement. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amongst the NPC patients worldwide, the abducens nerve was the most commonly affected by the tumor, and multiple cranial nerve involvement were seen amongst Malaysian patients. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Commonly the third, fourth and six cranial nerves are tested together. (clinicalexams.co.uk)
  • Most commonly, the abducens nerve (sixth nerve) is involved. (wikipedia.org)
  • The nerve enters the subarachnoid space when it emerges from the brainstem. (wikipedia.org)
  • The abducens nerve has the longest subarachnoid course of all the cranial nerves. (radiopaedia.org)
  • The probable mechanism of third nerve (and other cranial nerves ) involvement seems to be compression in the subarachnoid space in the setting of raised ICP. (symptoma.com)
  • The case is presented in its clinical, neurosurgical and neuropathologic aspects and the literature on 6th nerve schwannomas is reviewed. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The clinical picture does not conform to either dermatome or nerve patterns of distribution. (chiro.org)
  • Abducens nerve originates from pontomedullary junction. (isciii.es)
  • it adhered to the brainstem and cranial nerves. (elsevier.com)
  • Again, I'll talk more about the details of these individual cranial nerves later in the series of lectures involving the brainstem and cranial nerves. (coursera.org)
  • Forming a single nerve trunk, the outgrowths exit from the cranial cavity through the superior orbital fissure and innervate the lateral rectus muscle of the eye, which turns the eyeball outward. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This nerve supplies the muscle that pulls the eye outward. (wikipedia.org)
  • Considering the nerve path, the diffusion of the anesthetic solution through the pterygopalatine fossa and the lower orbital fissure, up to the apex of the orbital cavity, where the nerve runs, can also be hypothesized. (thewand.com)
  • The cranial nerves are different from the rest of your nerves, which originate in the spinal cord. (verywellhealth.com)
  • Most of these nerves emerge pass through the spinal cord and are known as the spinal nerves. (healthhype.com)
  • Importantly the fibers of the facial nerve coursing posterior to the abducens nucleus raise the facial colliculus . (radiopaedia.org)
  • The posterior superior alveolar nerves (also from CN V2) innervate the rest of the upper molars. (tabers.com)
  • To gain access to the cranial nerves in the posterior cranial fossa the tentorium cerebelli must be detached from the superior margin of the petrous temporal bone (N98). (unmc.edu)
  • motor nerve a peripheral efferent nerve that stimulates muscle contraction. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • secretory nerve an efferent nerve whose stimulation increases vascular activity. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A motor nerve, also called an efferent nerve , is a nerve that carries impulses outwards from the central nervous system to bring about activity in a muscle or a gland . (daviddarling.info)
  • The chances of recovery are less in children than in adults in case of traumatic injury of the nerve. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Hasta la fecha, la historia natural de la paresia idopática del nervio abducens y la función de un tratamiento conservador como la terapia visual durante el proceso de recuperación no se hallan bien documentadas en la literatura. (journalofoptometry.org)
  • Este informe de un caso presenta el proceso de recuperación natural de la paresia idiopática del nervio abducens en un adulto joven, así como la función de la terapia visual en el proceso de recuperación. (journalofoptometry.org)
  • The nerve dysfunction induces esotropia , a convergent squint on distance fixation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Symptoms of nerve injury include paresthesias, loss of sensation and position sense, impaired motor function, cranial nerve malfunction, changes in reflexes, and impairments in glandular secretion. (tabers.com)
  • In order to understand that nature of the symptoms in cranial nerve damage or disease, it is important to first know its functions. (healthhype.com)
  • Pathology was consistent with low-grade malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor. (elsevier.com)
  • Peripheral sixth nerve damage can be caused by tumors, aneurysms, or fractures - anything that directly compresses or stretches the nerve. (wikipedia.org)
  • articular nerve any mixed peripheral nerve that supplies a joint and its associated structures. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • cutaneous nerve any mixed peripheral nerve that supplies a region of the skin. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • peripheral nerve any nerve outside the central nervous system. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Voorhies, J, Hattab, EM & Cohen-Gadol, AA 2013, ' Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor of the abducens nerve and a review of the literature ', World Neurosurgery , vol. 80, no. 5, pp. 654.e1-654.e8. (elsevier.com)
  • From an anatomical point of view , the path of the abducens nerve should actually be protected against this type of involvement. (thewand.com)
  • Cranial nerve involvement produces hoarseness and dysphagia. (symptoma.com)
  • Abducens nerve (cranial nerve VI) lesions are pathological processes which negatively affect the nerve function. (clinicalexams.co.uk)
  • Lesions of the abducens nerve interfere with the mobility of the eyeball and can result in anomalies of the eyeball's orientation. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The assessment of nerve injury includes a careful neurological examination, sometimes accompanied by tests, e.g., electromyography or nerve conduction studies. (tabers.com)