Abducens Nerve: The 6th cranial nerve which originates in the ABDUCENS NUCLEUS of the PONS and sends motor fibers to the lateral rectus muscles of the EYE. Damage to the nerve or its nucleus disrupts horizontal eye movement control.Abducens Nerve Diseases: Diseases of the sixth cranial (abducens) nerve or its nucleus in the pons. The nerve may be injured along its course in the pons, intracranially as it travels along the base of the brain, in the cavernous sinus, or at the level of superior orbital fissure or orbit. Dysfunction of the nerve causes lateral rectus muscle weakness, resulting in horizontal diplopia that is maximal when the affected eye is abducted and ESOTROPIA. Common conditions associated with nerve injury include INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ISCHEMIA; and INFRATENTORIAL NEOPLASMS.Abducens Nerve Injury: Traumatic injury to the abducens, or sixth, cranial nerve. Injury to this nerve results in lateral rectus muscle weakness or paralysis. The nerve may be damaged by closed or penetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA or by facial trauma involving the orbit.Horner Syndrome: A syndrome associated with defective sympathetic innervation to one side of the face, including the eye. Clinical features include MIOSIS; mild BLEPHAROPTOSIS; and hemifacial ANHIDROSIS (decreased sweating)(see HYPOHIDROSIS). Lesions of the BRAIN STEM; cervical SPINAL CORD; first thoracic nerve root; apex of the LUNG; CAROTID ARTERY; CAVERNOUS SINUS; and apex of the ORBIT may cause this condition. (From Miller et al., Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology, 4th ed, pp500-11)Cavernous Sinus: An irregularly shaped venous space in the dura mater at either side of the sphenoid bone.Diplopia: A visual symptom in which a single object is perceived by the visual cortex as two objects rather than one. Disorders associated with this condition include REFRACTIVE ERRORS; STRABISMUS; OCULOMOTOR NERVE DISEASES; TROCHLEAR NERVE DISEASES; ABDUCENS NERVE DISEASES; and diseases of the BRAIN STEM and OCCIPITAL LOBE.Petrous Bone: The dense rock-like part of temporal bone that contains the INNER EAR. Petrous bone is located at the base of the skull. Sometimes it is combined with the MASTOID PROCESS and called petromastoid part of temporal bone.Trochlear Nerve: The 4th cranial nerve. The trochlear nerve carries the motor innervation of the superior oblique muscles of the eye.Cranial Nerve Diseases: Disorders of one or more of the twelve cranial nerves. With the exception of the optic and olfactory nerves, this includes disorders of the brain stem nuclei from which the cranial nerves originate or terminate.Eye Pain: A dull or sharp painful sensation associated with the outer or inner structures of the eyeball, having different causes.Ophthalmoplegia: Paralysis of one or more of the ocular muscles due to disorders of the eye muscles, neuromuscular junction, supporting soft tissue, tendons, or innervation to the muscles.Oculomotor Nerve: The 3d cranial nerve. The oculomotor nerve sends motor fibers to the levator muscles of the eyelid and to the superior rectus, inferior rectus, and inferior oblique muscles of the eye. It also sends parasympathetic efferents (via the ciliary ganglion) to the muscles controlling pupillary constriction and accommodation. The motor fibers originate in the oculomotor nuclei of the midbrain.Oculomotor Muscles: The muscles that move the eye. Included in this group are the medial rectus, lateral rectus, superior rectus, inferior rectus, inferior oblique, superior oblique, musculus orbitalis, and levator palpebrae superioris.Cranial Nerve Neoplasms: Benign and malignant neoplasms that arise from one or more of the twelve cranial nerves.Skull Fracture, Basilar: Fractures which extend through the base of the SKULL, usually involving the PETROUS BONE. Battle's sign (characterized by skin discoloration due to extravasation of blood into the subcutaneous tissue behind the ear and over the mastoid process), CRANIAL NEUROPATHIES, TRAUMATIC; CAROTID-CAVERNOUS SINUS FISTULA; and CEREBROSPINAL FLUID OTORRHEA are relatively frequent sequelae of this condition. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p876)Oculomotor Nerve Diseases: Diseases of the oculomotor nerve or nucleus that result in weakness or paralysis of the superior rectus, inferior rectus, medial rectus, inferior oblique, or levator palpebrae muscles, or impaired parasympathetic innervation to the pupil. With a complete oculomotor palsy, the eyelid will be paralyzed, the eye will be in an abducted and inferior position, and the pupil will be markedly dilated. Commonly associated conditions include neoplasms, CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA, ischemia (especially in association with DIABETES MELLITUS), and aneurysmal compression. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p270)Trigeminal Nerve: The 5th and largest cranial nerve. The trigeminal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve. The larger sensory part forms the ophthalmic, mandibular, and maxillary nerves which carry afferents sensitive to external or internal stimuli from the skin, muscles, and joints of the face and mouth and from the teeth. Most of these fibers originate from cells of the TRIGEMINAL GANGLION and project to the TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS of the brain stem. The smaller motor part arises from the brain stem trigeminal motor nucleus and innervates the muscles of mastication.Paralysis: A general term most often used to describe severe or complete loss of muscle strength due to motor system disease from the level of the cerebral cortex to the muscle fiber. This term may also occasionally refer to a loss of sensory function. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p45)Duane Retraction Syndrome: A syndrome characterized by marked limitation of abduction of the eye, variable limitation of adduction and retraction of the globe, and narrowing of the palpebral fissure on attempted adduction. The condition is caused by aberrant innervation of the lateral rectus by fibers of the OCULOMOTOR NERVE.Mucocele: A retention cyst of the salivary gland, lacrimal sac, paranasal sinuses, appendix, or gallbladder. (Stedman, 26th ed)Eye Movements: Voluntary or reflex-controlled movements of the eye.Electronystagmography: Recording of nystagmus based on changes in the electrical field surrounding the eye produced by the difference in potential between the cornea and the retina.Nerve Compression Syndromes: Mechanical compression of nerves or nerve roots from internal or external causes. These may result in a conduction block to nerve impulses (due to MYELIN SHEATH dysfunction) or axonal loss. The nerve and nerve sheath injuries may be caused by ISCHEMIA; INFLAMMATION; or a direct mechanical effect.Dura Mater: The outermost of the three MENINGES, a fibrous membrane of connective tissue that covers the brain and the spinal cord.Cranial Fossa, Posterior: The infratentorial compartment that contains the CEREBELLUM and BRAIN STEM. It is formed by the posterior third of the superior surface of the body of the sphenoid (SPHENOID BONE), by the occipital, the petrous, and mastoid portions of the TEMPORAL BONE, and the posterior inferior angle of the PARIETAL BONE.Skull Base: The inferior region of the skull consisting of an internal (cerebral), and an external (basilar) surface.TurtlesSciatic Nerve: A nerve which originates in the lumbar and sacral spinal cord (L4 to S3) and supplies motor and sensory innervation to the lower extremity. The sciatic nerve, which is the main continuation of the sacral plexus, is the largest nerve in the body. It has two major branches, the TIBIAL NERVE and the PERONEAL NERVE.Neurilemmoma: A neoplasm that arises from SCHWANN CELLS of the cranial, peripheral, and autonomic nerves. Clinically, these tumors may present as a cranial neuropathy, abdominal or soft tissue mass, intracranial lesion, or with spinal cord compression. Histologically, these tumors are encapsulated, highly vascular, and composed of a homogenous pattern of biphasic fusiform-shaped cells that may have a palisaded appearance. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp964-5)Peripheral Nerves: The nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord, including the autonomic, cranial, and spinal nerves. Peripheral nerves contain non-neuronal cells and connective tissue as well as axons. The connective tissue layers include, from the outside to the inside, the epineurium, the perineurium, and the endoneurium.Paresis: A general term referring to a mild to moderate degree of muscular weakness, occasionally used as a synonym for PARALYSIS (severe or complete loss of motor function). In the older literature, paresis often referred specifically to paretic neurosyphilis (see NEUROSYPHILIS). "General paresis" and "general paralysis" may still carry that connotation. Bilateral lower extremity paresis is referred to as PARAPARESIS.Cranial Nerves: Twelve pairs of nerves that carry general afferent, visceral afferent, special afferent, somatic efferent, and autonomic efferent fibers.Brain Stem: The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.Optic Nerve: The 2nd cranial nerve which conveys visual information from the RETINA to the brain. The nerve carries the axons of the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS which sort at the OPTIC CHIASM and continue via the OPTIC TRACTS to the brain. The largest projection is to the lateral geniculate nuclei; other targets include the SUPERIOR COLLICULI and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEI. Though known as the second cranial nerve, it is considered part of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Meningioma: A relatively common neoplasm of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that arises from arachnoidal cells. The majority are well differentiated vascular tumors which grow slowly and have a low potential to be invasive, although malignant subtypes occur. Meningiomas have a predilection to arise from the parasagittal region, cerebral convexity, sphenoidal ridge, olfactory groove, and SPINAL CANAL. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2056-7)Nerve Fibers: Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
(1/125) Properties of conditioned abducens nerve responses in a highly reduced in vitro brain stem preparation from the turtle.

Previous work suggested that the cerebellum and red nucleus are not necessary for the acquisition, extinction, and reacquistion of the in vitro classically conditioned abducens nerve response in the turtle. These findings are extended in the present study by obtaining conditioned responses (CRs) in preparations that received a partial ablation of the brain stem circuitry. In addition to removing all tissue rostral to and including the midbrain and cerebellum, a transection was made just caudal to the emergence of the IXth nerve. Such ablations result in a 4-mm-thick section of brain stem tissue that functionally eliminates the sustained component of the unconditioned response (UR) while leaving only a phasic component. We refer to this region of brain stem tissue caudal to the IXth nerve as the "caudal premotor blink region." Neural discharge was recorded from the abducens nerve following a single shock unconditioned stimulus (US) applied to the ipsilateral trigeminal nerve. When the US was paired with a conditioned stimulus (CS) applied to the posterior eighth, or auditory, nerve using a delay conditioning paradigm, a positive slope of CR acquisition was recorded in the abducens nerve, and CR extinction was recorded when the stimuli were alternated. Resumption of paired stimuli resulted in reacquisition. Quantitative analysis of the CRs in preparations in which the caudal premotor blink region had been removed and those with cerebellar/red nucleus lesions showed that both types of preparations had abnormally short latency CR onsets compared with preparations in which these regions were intact. Preparations with brain stem transections had significantly earlier CR offsets as more CRs terminated as short bursts when compared with intact or cerebellar lesioned preparations. These data suggest that a highly reduced in vitro brain stem preparation from the turtle can be classically conditioned. Furthermore, the caudal brain stem is not a site of acquisition in this reduced preparation, but it contributes to the sustained activity of both the UR and CR. Finally, the unusually short CR onset latencies following lesions to the cerebellum are not further exacerbated by removal of the caudal brain stem. These studies suggest that convergence of CS and US synaptic inputs onto the abducens nerve reflex circuitry may underlie acquisition in this reduced preparation, but that mechanisms that control learned CR timing arise from the cerebellorubral system.  (+info)

(2/125) Discharge profiles of abducens, accessory abducens, and orbicularis oculi motoneurons during reflex and conditioned blinks in alert cats.

The discharge profiles of identified abducens, accessory abducens, and orbicularis oculi motoneurons have been recorded extra- and intracellularly in alert behaving cats during spontaneous, reflexively evoked, and classically conditioned eyelid responses. The movement of the upper lid and the electromyographic activity of the orbicularis oculi muscle also were recorded. Animals were conditioned by short, weak air puffs or 350-ms tones as conditioned stimuli (CS) and long, strong air puffs as unconditioned stimulus (US) using both trace and delayed conditioning paradigms. Motoneurons were identified by antidromic activation from their respective cranial nerves. Orbicularis oculi and accessory abducens motoneurons fired an early, double burst of action potentials (at 4-6 and 10-16 ms) in response to air puffs or to the electrical stimulation of the supraorbital nerve. Orbicularis oculi, but not accessory abducens, motoneurons fired in response to flash and tone presentations. Only 10-15% of recorded abducens motoneurons fired a late, weak burst after air puff, supraorbital nerve, and flash stimulations. Spontaneous fasciculations of the orbicularis oculi muscle and the activity of single orbicularis oculi motoneurons that generated them also were recorded. The activation of orbicularis oculi motoneurons during the acquisition of classically conditioned eyelid responses happened in a gradual, sequential manner. Initially, some putative excitatory synaptic potentials were observed in the time window corresponding to the CS-US interval; by the second to the fourth conditioning session, some isolated action potentials appeared that increased in number until some small movements were noticed in eyelid position traces. No accessory abducens motoneuron fired and no abducens motoneuron modified their discharge rate for conditioned eyelid responses. The firing of orbicularis oculi motoneurons was related linearly to lid velocity during reflex blinks but to lid position during conditioned responses, a fact indicating the different neural origin and coding of both types of motor commands. The power spectra of both reflex and conditioned lid responses showed a dominant peak at approximately 20 Hz. The wavy appearance of both reflex and conditioned eyelid responses was clearly the result of the high phasic activity of orbicularis oculi motor units. Orbicularis oculi motoneuron membrane potentials oscillated at approximately 20 Hz after supraorbital nerve stimulation and during other reflex and conditioned eyelid movements. The oscillation seemed to be the result of both intrinsic (spike afterhyperpolarization lasting approximately 50 ms, and late depolarizations) and extrinsic properties of the motoneuronal pool and of the circuits involved in eye blinks.  (+info)

(3/125) Stereotactic radiosurgery for cavernous sinus cavernous hemangioma--case report.

A 40-year-old female presented with cavernous sinus cavernous hemangioma manifesting as left abducens and trigeminal nerve pareses. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a left cavernous sinus tumor. The tumor was partially removed. Histological examination of the specimen confirmed cavernous hemangioma. Radiosurgery was performed using the gamma knife. The tumor markedly decreased in size after radiosurgery and morbidity was avoided. Cavernous sinus cavernous hemangiomas may be difficult to treat surgically due to intraoperative bleeding and cranial nerve injury. Stereotactic radiosurgery can be used either as an adjunct treatment to craniotomy, or as the primary treatment for small cavernous sinus cavernous hemangioma.  (+info)

(4/125) Neuro-Behcet's disease presenting with isolated unilateral lateral rectus muscle palsy.

The authors present the clinical findings of a 30-year-old female and a 29-year-old male who both had isolated unilateral lateral rectus muscle palsy in neuro-Behcet's disease. The clinical feature related to isolated abduscens nerve palsy was identified by CT, systemic assessment and extraocular examination. These patients' constellation of findings appear to be unique: it does not follow any previously reported pattern of ocular manifestations of neuro-Behcet's disease.  (+info)

(5/125) Quantitative analysis of abducens neuron discharge dynamics during saccadic and slow eye movements.

The mechanics of the eyeball and its surrounding tissues, which together form the oculomotor plant, have been shown to be the same for smooth pursuit and saccadic eye movements. Hence it was postulated that similar signals would be carried by motoneurons during slow and rapid eye movements. In the present study, we directly addressed this proposal by determining which eye movement-based models best describe the discharge dynamics of primate abducens neurons during a variety of eye movement behaviors. We first characterized abducens neuron spike trains, as has been classically done, during fixation and sinusoidal smooth pursuit. We then systematically analyzed the discharge dynamics of abducens neurons during and following saccades, during step-ramp pursuit and during high velocity slow-phase vestibular nystagmus. We found that the commonly utilized first-order description of abducens neuron firing rates (FR = b + kE + r, where FR is firing rate, E and are eye position and velocity, respectively, and b, k, and r are constants) provided an adequate model of neuronal activity during saccades, smooth pursuit, and slow phase vestibular nystagmus. However, the use of a second-order model, which included an exponentially decaying term or "slide" (FR = b + kE + r + uE - c), notably improved our ability to describe neuronal activity when the eye was moving and also enabled us to model abducens neuron discharges during the postsaccadic interval. We also found that, for a given model, a single set of parameters could not be used to describe neuronal firing rates during both slow and rapid eye movements. Specifically, the eye velocity and position coefficients (r and k in the above models, respectively) consistently decreased as a function of the mean (and peak) eye velocity that was generated. In contrast, the bias (b, firing rate when looking straight ahead) invariably increased with eye velocity. Although these trends are likely to reflect, in part, nonlinearities that are intrinsic to the extraocular muscles, we propose that these results can also be explained by considering the time-varying resistance to movement that is generated by the antagonist muscle. We conclude that to create realistic and meaningful models of the neural control of horizontal eye movements, it is essential to consider the activation of the antagonist, as well as agonist motoneuron pools.  (+info)

(6/125) Apparent dissociation between saccadic eye movements and the firing patterns of premotor neurons and motoneurons.

Saccadic eye movements result from high-frequency bursts of activity in ocular motoneurons. This phasic activity originates in premotor burst neurons. When the head is restrained, the number of action potentials in the bursts of burst neurons and motoneurons increases linearly with eye movement amplitude. However, when the head is unrestrained, the number of action potentials now increase as a function of the change in the direction of the line of sight during eye movements of relatively similar amplitudes. These data suggest an apparent uncoupling of premotor neuron and motoneuron activity from the resultant eye movement.  (+info)

(7/125) Early components of the human vestibulo-ocular response to head rotation: latency and gain.

To characterize vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) properties in the time window in which contributions by other systems are minimal, eye movements during the first 50-100 ms after the start of transient angular head accelerations ( approximately 1000 degrees /s(2)) imposed by a torque helmet were analyzed in normal human subjects. Orientations of the head and both eyes were recorded with magnetic search coils (resolution, approximately 1 min arc; 1000 samples/s). Typically, the first response to a head perturbation was an anti-compensatory eye movement with zero latency, peak-velocity of several degrees per second, and peak excursion of several tenths of a degree. This was interpreted as a passive mechanical response to linear acceleration of the orbital tissues caused by eccentric rotation of the eye. The response was modeled as a damped oscillation (approximately 13 Hz) of the orbital contents, approaching a constant eye deviation for a sustained linear acceleration. The subsequent compensatory eye movements showed (like the head movements) a linear increase in velocity, which allowed estimates of latency and gain with linear regressions. After appropriate accounting for the preceding passive eye movements, average VOR latency (for pooled eyes, directions, and subjects) was calculated as 8.6 ms. Paired comparisons between the two eyes revealed that the latency for the eye contralateral to the direction of head rotation was, on average, 1.3 ms shorter than for the ipsilateral eye. This highly significant average inter-ocular difference was attributed to the additional internuclear abducens neuron in the pathway to the ipsilateral eye. Average acceleration gain (ratio between slopes of eye and head velocities) over the first 40-50 ms was approximately 1.1. Instantaneous velocity gain, calculated as Veye(t)/Vhead(t-latency), showed a gradual build-up converging toward unity (often after a slight overshoot). Instantaneous acceleration gain also converged toward unity but showed a much steeper build-up and larger oscillations. This behavior of acceleration and velocity gain could be accounted for by modeling the eye movements as the sum of the passive response to the linear acceleration and the active rotational VOR. Due to the latency and the anticompensatory component, gaze stabilization was never complete. The influence of visual targets was limited. The initial VOR was identical with a distant target (continuously visible or interrupted) and in complete darkness. A near visual target caused VOR gain to rise to a higher level, but the time after which the difference between far and near targets emerged varied between individuals.  (+info)

(8/125) Expansion of afferent vestibular signals after the section of one of the vestibular nerve branches.

The anterior branch of N. VIII was sectioned in adult frogs. Two months later the brain was isolated to record in vitro responses in the vestibular nuclei and from the abducens nerves following electric stimulation of the anterior branch of N. VIII or of the posterior canal nerve. Extra- and intracellularly recorded responses from the intact and operated side were compared with responses from controls. Major changes were detected on the operated side: the amplitudes of posterior canal nerve evoked field potentials were enlarged, the number of vestibular neurons with a monosynaptic input from the posterior canal nerve had increased, and posterior canal nerve stimulation recruited stronger abducens nerve responses on the intact side than vice versa. Changes in the convergence pattern of vestibular nerve afferent inputs on the operated side strongly suggest the expansion of posterior canal-related afferent inputs onto part of those vestibular neurons that were deprived of their afferent vestibular input. As a mechanism we suggest reactive synaptogenesis between intact posterior canal afferent fibers and vestibularly deprived second-order vestibular neurons.  (+info)

*  Eye movement
... the trochlear nerve, which controls the superior oblique muscle, and the abducens nerve, which controls the lateral rectus ... which is supplied by the trochlear nerve, and the lateral rectus, supplied by the abducens nerve. Three antagonistic pairs of ... Three cranial nerves carry signals from the brain to control the extraocular muscles. Three nerves control the eye muscles. ... The oculomotor nerve (cranial nerve III) supplies the inferior oblique muscle (along with four other eye muscles - superior ...
*  Trochlear nerve
... cranial nerve III and abducens - cranial nerve VI) and the first two branches of the trigeminal nerve (V), Ophthalmic (V1) and ... The trochlear nerve, also called the fourth cranial nerve or cranial nerve IV, is a motor nerve (a somatic efferent nerve) that ... The trochlear nerve is unique among the cranial nerves in several respects: It is the smallest nerve in terms of the number of ... The nuclei of other cranial nerves generally affect ipsilateral structures (for example, the optic nerves - cranial nerves II ...
*  Sixth nerve palsy
... , or abducens nerve palsy, is a disorder associated with dysfunction of cranial nerve VI (the abducens nerve ... The unilateral abducens nerve palsy is the most common of the isolated ocular motor nerve palsies. The nerve dysfunction ... fibers of the seventh cranial nerve wrap around the VIth nerve nucleus, and, if this is also affected, a VIth nerve palsy with ... Abducens nerve palsy is also known to occur with halo orthosis placement.The resultant palsy is identified through loss of ...
*  Abducens nerve
... the sixth cranial nerve, sixth nerve, or simply CNVI. It is a somatic efferent nerve. The abducens nerve leaves the brainstem ... The human abducens nerve is derived from the basal plate of the embryonic pons. The abducens nerve supplies the lateral rectus ... The abducens nerve carries axons of type GSE, general somatic efferent. Damage to the peripheral part of the abducens nerve ... The 39th edition of Gray's Anatomy (2005) also prefers "abducens nerve." The abducens nerve controls the movement of a single ...
*  Idiopathic intracranial hypertension
... the abducens nerve (sixth nerve) is involved. This nerve supplies the muscle that pulls the eye outward. Those with sixth nerve ... More rarely, the oculomotor nerve and trochlear nerve (third and fourth nerve palsy, respectively) are affected; both play a ... The facial nerve (seventh cranial nerve) is affected occasionally -- the result is total or partial weakness of the muscles of ... The increased pressure leads to compression and traction of the cranial nerves, a group of nerves that arise from the brain ...
*  Conjugate gaze palsy
Abducens Nerve Palsy at eMedicine "Barton, J., & Goodwin, J. (2001). Horizontal Gaze Palsy". Medlink.com. Retrieved 2013-07-07 ... Nonselective horizontal gaze palsies are caused by lesions in the Abducens nucleus. This is where the cranial nerve VI leaves ... Lesions anywhere in the abducens nucleus, cranial nerve VI neurons, or interneurons can affect eye movement towards the side of ... The cranial nerve VI also has interneurons connecting to the medial rectus, which controls horizontal eye movement towards from ...
*  Paul Julius Möbius
Münchener mediznische Wochenschrift, 1888 - On congenital facial paralysis of the abducens nerve. Die Basedowsche Krankheit. In ... He is credited for providing a distinction between exogenous and endogenous nerve disorders, and introduced ideas on the ... This is a rare type of palsy associated with paralysis of the cranial nerves VI and VII. This results in the patient having a ...
*  Duane-radial ray syndrome
Absence of the abducens nucleus and nerve (cranial nerve VI) Abnormal eye movement due to the lateral rectus muscle being ... MRI imaging can be used to detect whether the abducens nerve is present. Typically, treatment for this condition requires a ... This results from improper nerve development for eye movement. The following are characteristics of Duane anomaly: Inability to ... innervated by a branch of the oculomotor nerve (cranial nerve III) This is characterized by hand and arm abnormalities. The ...
*  Lateral rectus muscle
It is the only muscle supplied by the abducens nerve, cranial nerve VI. The abducens nerve exits the brainstem from the pons- ... also known as abducens nerve palsy, is a neurological defect that results from a damaged or impaired abducens nerve. This ... Nerves of orbita. Deep dissection. Extrinsic eye muscle. Nerves of orbita. Deep dissection. Extrinsic eye muscle. Nerves of ... Damage to the abducens nerve by trauma can be caused by any type of trauma that causes elevated intracranial pressure; ...
*  Clivus (anatomy)
The abducens nerve (cranial nerve VI) tracks along the clivus during its course. Increased intracranial pressure can trap the ... nerve at this point and cause signs of palsy. Clivus is also the site for chordoma (a rare malignant tumour.) The clivus is an ...
*  Anaesthesia for ocular surgery
The ciliary nerves, ciliary ganglion, oculomotor nerve and abducens nerve are anesthetized in retrobulbar block. As a result, ... O' Brien's block : It is also known as facial nerve trunk block. The block is done at the level of the neck of the mandible ... Facial nerve, which supplies the orbicularis oculi muscle, is blocked in addition for intraocular surgeries. Topical ... van Lint's block : In van Lint's block, the peripheral branches of facial nerve are blocked. This technique causes akinesia of ...
*  Medial longitudinal fasciculus
It connects the cranial nerve nuclei III (Oculomotor nerve), IV (Trochlear nerve) and VI (Abducens nerve) together, and ... MLF is the main central connection for the oculomotor nerve, trochlear nerve, and abducens nerve. The vertical gaze center is ... nerve about head movements, gait adjustments from the flocculus of the cerebellum, head and neck proprioceptors and foot and ... Vestibulocochlear nerve). It is an integral component of saccadic eye movements as well as vestibulo-ocular and optokinetic ...
*  Vestibulo-ocular reflex
One pathway projects directly to the lateral rectus of eye via the abducens nerve. Another nerve tract projects from the ... There they project and stimulate the lateral rectus of the left eye via the abducens nerve. In addition, by the medial ... From these nuclei, fibers cross to the contralateral cranial nerve VI nucleus (abducens nucleus). There they synapse with 2 ... then excitatory impulses are sent from the semicircular canal on the right side via the vestibular nerve (cranial nerve VIII) ...
*  Vestibulospinal tract
The Deiters' nucleus extends from pontomedullary junction to the level of abducens nerve nucleus in the pons. Lateral ... With this they determined that the superior vestibular nerve plays a larger role in balance than the inferior vestibulo nerve ... This tract is found in the lateral funiculus, a bundle of nerve roots in the spinal cord. The lateral vestibulospinal tract ... "VESTIBULAR NUCLEI AND ABDUCENS NUCLEUS". Medical Neurosciences University of Wisconsin. Archived from the original on November ...
*  Vergence
These are innerved from three cranial nerves: the abducens nerve, the trochlear nerve and the oculomotor nerve. Horizontal ... This action is mediated by the medial rectus muscle, which is innervated by Cranial nerve III. It is a type of vergence eye ... The extraocular muscles may have two types of fiber each with its own nerve supply, hence a dual mechanism.[citation needed] ...
*  Pituitary adenoma
Lateral expansion of a pituitary adenoma can also compress the abducens nerve, causing a lateral rectus palsy. Also, a ... It arises from the compression of the optic nerve by the tumor. The specific area of the visual pathway at which compression by ...
*  Abducens nucleus
The abducens nucleus is the originating nucleus from which the abducens nerve (VI) emerges-a cranial nerve nucleus. This ... The former directly drive the contraction of the ipsilateral lateral rectus muscle via the abducens nerve (sixth cranial nerve ... The abducens nucleus along with the internal genu of the facial nerve make up the facial colliculus, a hump at the caudal end ... Damage to the abducens nerve causes monocular ipsilateral lateral ophthalmoparesis: specifically, loss of the ability to move ...
*  Smile surgery
... but with additional nerve palsies of the affected facial and abducens nerve. Selection of the type of nerve transfer is based ... Optional motor donor nerves are: the masseteric nerve, accessory nerve or hypoglossal nerve. In rare cases when these nerves ... For example, the hypoglossal nerve or masseteric nerve on the affected side can be used as donor nerves. This donor nerve is ... Here the nerve stimulator can be used in identifying the donor motor nerve to the masseter muscle. Once the nerve is identified ...
*  Dorello's canal
... is the bow-shaped bony enclosure surrounding the abducens nerve and the inferior petrosal sinus as the two ... Sixth (abducens) nerve palsy Dorello's canal: a microanatomical study. ...
*  Cranial nerves
... the optic nerve (II), oculomotor nerve (III), trochlear nerve (IV), trigeminal nerve (V), abducens nerve (VI), facial nerve ( ... The oculomotor nerve (III), trochlear nerve (IV) and abducens nerve (VI) coordinate eye movement. Damage to nerves III, IV, or ... The oculomotor nerve (III), trochlear nerve (IV), abducens nerve (VI) and the ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve (V1) ... and trochlear nerve (IV); the pons has the nuclei of the trigeminal nerve (V), abducens nerve (VI), facial nerve (VII) and ...
*  Synkinesis
Abducens (6th nerve), Trochlear (4th nerve), and Oculomotor (3rd nerve). After nerve trauma around the eye, a combination of ... This is an interaction between the abducens nerve and a branch of the oculomotor nerve. Voluntary activation of the abducens ... Moreover, while the abducens and the trochlear nerve each innervate one specific muscle, the oculomotor nerve has many ... As the nerve attempts to recover, nerve miswiring results (see Mechanism of Action below). In patients with severe facial nerve ...
*  Rhombomere
r5 and r6 gives rise to the abducens nerve, and the lower part of r6 and the upper part of r7 gives rise to the petrosal ... The motor nerves form depending on rhombomeric patterns, but each nerve can come from either one rhombomere or a pair of ... The Hox gene also has been shown to play a part in the formation of the cranial motor nerves. The fate of a rhombomere has been ... With mutations in the Hox gene, the cranial motor nerves formed in different locations than normal or simply did not form ...
*  NKX 2-9
... and a partial loss of the glossopharyngeal and facial motor nerves. However, the somatic hypoglossal and abducens motor nerves ... The trigeminal nerve is not affected in the double knockout mouse embryos, indicating that cell fate alteration is limited to ... Cell lineage analysis of Nkx 2.9 and Nkx 2.2 double knockout (deficient) mouse embryos shows that cranial nerve alterations are ... Disturbance of Nkx 2.9 and Nkx 2.2 in mouse embryos results in the total loss of the spinal accessory and vagal motor nerves, ...
*  Index of anatomy articles
... abducens nerve abducens nucleus abducent abducent nerve abduction accessory bone accessory cuneate nucleus accessory nerve ... cranial cranial autonomic ganglia cranial bone cranial nerve ganglia cranial nerve lesion cranial nerve nuclei cranial nerves ... palatine canal greater palatine foramen greater palatine nerve greater petrosal nerve greater superficial petrosal nerve ... neocerebellum neocortex neonatal neopallium neospinothalamic axon neostriatum nephron nerve of the pterygoid canal nerve nerve ...
*  Hydrocephalus
... such as abducens nerve palsy and vertical gaze palsy (Parinaud syndrome due to compression of the quadrigeminal plate, where ... which is thought to reflect the distribution of nerve damage to the brain. However, the severity of hydrocephalus can differ ...
*  Cranial nerve nucleus
... motor Abducens nucleus (VI) - motor Trigeminal motor nucleus (V) - motor Main trigeminal nucleus (V) - sensory (fine touch and ... All the nuclei except that of the trochlear nerve (CN IV) supply nerves of the same side of the body. In general, motor nuclei ... in the brain stem that is associated with one or more cranial nerves. Axons carrying information to and from the cranial nerves ... This area is a bit below the autonomic motor nuclei, and includes the nucleus ambiguus, facial nerve nucleus, as well as the ...
*  Intracranial hypertension syndrome
... and headache with occasional abducens nerve paresis, absence of a space-occupying lesion or ventricular enlargement, and normal ...
What does abducens nerve diseases mean?  What does abducens nerve diseases mean?
Meaning of abducens nerve diseases. What does abducens nerve diseases mean? Information and translations of abducens nerve ... Definition of abducens nerve diseases in the Definitions.net dictionary. ... Abducens Nerve Diseases. Diseases of the sixth cranial (abducens) nerve or its nucleus in the pons. The nerve may be injured ... What does abducens nerve diseases mean?. Definitions for abducens nerve diseases. Here are all the possible meanings and ...
more infohttp://www.definitions.net/definition/abducens%20nerve%20diseases
What does abducens nerve injury mean?  What does abducens nerve injury mean?
Meaning of abducens nerve injury. What does abducens nerve injury mean? Information and translations of abducens nerve injury ... Definition of abducens nerve injury in the Definitions.net dictionary. ... Abducens Nerve Injury. Traumatic injury to the abducens, or sixth, cranial nerve. Injury to this nerve results in lateral ... Definitions for abducens nerve injury. Here are all the possible meanings and translations of the word abducens nerve injury.. ...
more infohttp://www.definitions.net/definition/abducens%20nerve%20injury
Intracranial melanocytic meningeal tumours and melanosis oculi: case report and literature review | BMC Cancer | Full Text  Intracranial melanocytic meningeal tumours and melanosis oculi: case report and literature review | BMC Cancer | Full Text
A 20 year-old Caucasian male presented to our department with incomplete left abducens nerve palsy; neuroradiological ... Five days after surgery the patient developed a marked diplopia, pain in the eye and a third cranial nerve palsy. An urgent CT ... He presented with a two year history of diplopia, of subacute onset, due to a left sixth cranial nerve palsy. Neurological ... A 20-year-old man presented with a left sixth cranial nerve deficit; general examination documented only congenital melanosis ...
more infohttps://bmccancer.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2407-12-220
Cranial Neuropathies | StayWell Health Library | Main  Cranial Neuropathies | StayWell Health Library | Main
When nerves in the brain or brainstem are affected, it is called cranial neuropathy. The cranial nerves are those that arise ... but those nerves can be damaged by injury or an illness such as diabetes. Neuropathy is a disorder that causes nerve damage and ... Exactly how your body and your movement are affected depends on where in the body the damaged nerves are located. ... Cranial Neuropathies What are cranial neuropathies? Nerves power your entire body, ...
more infohttp://www.lifebridgehealth.org/Main/HealthLibrary.aspx?iid=134_48
Trochlear nerve - Biology-Online Dictionary  Trochlear nerve - Biology-Online Dictionary
This cranial nerve works together with the cranial nerve III (oculomotor nerve) and the cranial nerve VI (abducens nerve) in ... One of the cranial nerves is the trochlear nerve, which is also referred to as the fourth cranial nerve or cranial nerve IV (CN ... Cranial nerves are paired nerves that emerge from the brain and the brainstem. They supply the motor pathways between organs in ... The trochlear nerve is the pair of nerves that innervates the superior oblique muscle (i.e. the fusiform muscle originating in ...
more infohttps://www.biology-online.org/dictionary/Fourth_cranial_nerve
Abducens nerve - Wikipedia  Abducens nerve - Wikipedia
... the sixth cranial nerve, sixth nerve, or simply CNVI. It is a somatic efferent nerve. The abducens nerve leaves the brainstem ... The human abducens nerve is derived from the basal plate of the embryonic pons. The abducens nerve supplies the lateral rectus ... The abducens nerve carries axons of type GSE, general somatic efferent. Damage to the peripheral part of the abducens nerve ... The 39th edition of Gray's Anatomy (2005) also prefers "abducens nerve." The abducens nerve controls the movement of a single ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abducens_nerve
Abducens nerve - definition of abducens nerve by The Free Dictionary  Abducens nerve - definition of abducens nerve by The Free Dictionary
abducens nerve synonyms, abducens nerve pronunciation, abducens nerve translation, English dictionary definition of abducens ... or n either of the sixth pair of cranial nerves, which supply the lateral rectus muscle of the eye n. either one of the sixth ... Related to abducens nerve: trochlear nerve. abducens nerve. (æbˈdjuːsənz) or abducent nerve. n. (Anatomy) either of the sixth ... abducens, abducent, abducent nerve, nervus abducens, sixth cranial nerve. cranial nerve - any of the 12 paired nerves that ...
more infohttps://www.thefreedictionary.com/abducens+nerve
Abducens nerve diseases - definition of Abducens nerve diseases by The Free Dictionary  Abducens nerve diseases - definition of Abducens nerve diseases by The Free Dictionary
Abducens nerve diseases synonyms, Abducens nerve diseases pronunciation, Abducens nerve diseases translation, English ... dictionary definition of Abducens nerve diseases. or n either of the sixth pair of cranial nerves, which supply the lateral ... rectus muscle of the eye n. either one of the sixth pair of cranial nerves,... ... abducens nerve. (redirected from Abducens nerve diseases). Also found in: Thesaurus, Medical, Encyclopedia. abducens nerve. ( ...
more infohttps://www.thefreedictionary.com/Abducens+nerve+diseases
Abducens nerve | definition of abducens nerve by Medical dictionary  Abducens nerve | definition of abducens nerve by Medical dictionary
... abducens nerve explanation free. What is abducens nerve? Meaning of abducens nerve medical term. What does abducens nerve mean? ... Looking for online definition of abducens nerve in the Medical Dictionary? ... abducens. [ab-du´senz] (L.) abducent.. abducens nerve the sixth cranial nerve; it arises from the pons and supplies the lateral ... abducens nerve. Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Legal, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia.. Related to abducens nerve: trochlear ...
more infohttps://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/abducens+nerve
Definition of ABDUCENS NERVE (Meaning of ABDUCENS NERVE) in the Online Dictionary  Definition of ABDUCENS NERVE (Meaning of ABDUCENS NERVE) in the Online Dictionary
... and antonyms of the term ABDUCENS NERVE in the Online Dictionary. ... ABDUCENS NERVE: Review the definition, meaning, pronunciation, explanation, synonyms, ... n] a small motor nerve supplying the lateral rectus muscle of the eye ...
more infohttp://www.hyperdictionary.com/dictionary/abducens+nerve
Abducens nerve | Radiology Reference Article | Radiopaedia.org  Abducens nerve | Radiology Reference Article | Radiopaedia.org
The abducens nerve is the sixth cranial nerve. It courses from its nucleus located in the dorsal pons to its innervation of the ... Tags: nerve, neuroanatomy, anatomy rewrite, eye, orbit, cranial nerve. Synonyms or Alternate Spellings:*Abducens nerve (CN VI) ... abducens nerve (CN VI). * facial nerve (CN VII) (segments mnemonic , branches mnemonic) * geniculate ganglion * greater ( ... The abducens nerve is the sixth cranial nerve. It courses from its nucleus located in the dorsal pons to its innervation of the ...
more infohttps://radiopaedia.org/articles/abducens-nerve
Cellular schwannoma of the abducens nerve: case report and review of the literature.  Cellular schwannoma of the abducens nerve: case report and review of the literature.
Here, we report the case of a 26-year-old woman who presented with a 6th nerve palsy and was found to have a large tumor at the ... Schwannomas of the abducens nerve are extremely uncommon tumors. ... Schwannomas of the abducens nerve are extremely uncommon tumors ... Abducens Nerve Diseases / pathology*, surgery*. Adult. Brain Stem Neoplasms / pathology. Cranial Nerve Neoplasms / pathology*, ... Here, we report the case of a 26-year-old woman who presented with a 6th nerve palsy and was found to have a large tumor at the ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Cellular-schwannoma-abducens-nerve-case/19200646.html
Oral lichen planus: an unusual cause of facial and abducens nerve paralysis associated with conjunctival and oesophageal...  Oral lichen planus: an unusual cause of facial and abducens nerve paralysis associated with conjunctival and oesophageal...
Oral lichen planus: an unusual cause of facial and abducens nerve paralysis associated with conjunctival and oesophageal ... an unusual cause of facial and abducens nerve paralysis associated with conjunctival and oesophageal involvement. Journal of ...
more infohttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1468-3083.2004.01026.x/references
Paralytic squint due to abducens nerve palsy : a rare consequence of dengue fever | BMC Infectious Diseases | Full Text  Paralytic squint due to abducens nerve palsy : a rare consequence of dengue fever | BMC Infectious Diseases | Full Text
The authors detail the first reported case of abducens nerve palsy complicating dengue fever in a previously healthy male from ... the abducens nerve despite its notoriety in cranial neuropathies in a multitude of condition due to its long intracranial ... In a tropical country with endemic dengue infections, dengue related abducens neuropathy may be considered as a differential ... The authors detail the first reported case of abducens nerve palsy complicating dengue fever in a previously healthy male from ...
more infohttps://bmcinfectdis.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2334-12-156
A case of isolated abducens nerve paralysis in maxillofacial trauma - Semantic Scholar  A case of isolated abducens nerve paralysis in maxillofacial trauma - Semantic Scholar
However, he was diagnosed with abducens nerve paralysis after the consultations and analysis and his restriction of movement ... Nervus abducens is a pure motor nerve located in the pons. It retracts the eyeball laterally by stimulating rectus lateralis ... Nervus abducens is a pure motor nerve located in the pons. It retracts the eyeball laterally by stimulating rectus lateralis ... A case of isolated abducens nerve paralysis in maxillofacial trauma. @inproceedings{Keskin2015ACO, title={A case of isolated ...
more infohttps://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/A-case-of-isolated-abducens-nerve-paralysis-in-Keskin-Keskin/1756813e0e84bbdac213d47607d6252b96152bb2
6th Cranial Nerve - Abducens nerve lesions  6th Cranial Nerve - Abducens nerve lesions
... as the abducens nerve supplies the lateral rectus muscle of the eye. The cranial nerves III, IV, and VI and usually tested ... Causes: The exact aetiology of most of the cases of abducens nerve palsies is idiopathic. Research suggests that there may be a ... Below is a list of the acquired forms of abducens nerve palsies: Inflammation, and infections Vascular disorders, including ... In the case of abducens nerve palsy, the patient has a particular difficulty in looking laterally. ...
more infohttp://www.clinicalexams.co.uk/6th-cranial-nerve-abducens-nerve-lesions/
6th Cranial nerve - Tests for the Abducens nerve  6th Cranial nerve - Tests for the Abducens nerve
The use and interpretation of medical examinations to determine the integrity and adequate function the abducens nerve (sixth ... The abducens nerve supplies motor innervation to the lateral rectus ocular muscle, therefor particular attention should be paid ... The use and interpretation of medical examinations to determine the integrity and adequate function the abducens nerve (sixth ... An inability for the patient to look medially may be indicative of a lesion of the trochlear nerve. ...
more infohttp://www.clinicalexams.co.uk/6th-cranial-nerve-tests-for-the-abduscens-nerve/
6th Cranial Nerve Anatomy Amazing Abducens Nerve - anatomy of  6th Cranial Nerve Anatomy Amazing Abducens Nerve - anatomy of
... nerve s 3rd nerve anatomy human anatomy chart sixth cranial nerve palsy cranial nerve nuclei illustration image abducens nerve ... 6th Cranial Nerve Anatomy Amazing Abducens Nerve) over is classed having: 6th cranial nerve,6th cranial nerve double vision,6th ... 6th cranial nerve imaging,6th cranial nerve location,6th cranial nerve mri,6th cranial nerve of frog,6th cranial nerve on mri, ... 6th cranial nerve palsy examination,6th cranial nerve palsy mri protocol,6th cranial nerve palsy stroke,6th cranial nerve palsy ...
more infohttp://getreadyrossvalley.org/6th-cranial-nerve-anatomy/6th-cranial-nerve-anatomy-amazing-abducens-nerve/
Isolated Bilateral Abducens Nerve Palsy Caused by Basilar Artery
Dissecting Aneurysm  Isolated Bilateral Abducens Nerve Palsy Caused by Basilar Artery Dissecting Aneurysm
Isolated Bilateral Abducens Nerve Palsy Caused by Basilar Artery Dissecting Aneurysm. 기저동맥 박리동맥류에 의한 단독 양측외전신경마비 ... Bilateral abducens nerve palsy is mediated mainly by increased intracranial pressure, accompaniment to subarachnoid hemorrhage ... We suggest that basilar artery dissecting aneurysm should be included as a cause of bilateral abducens nerve palsy. Key Words: ... relatively direct involvement of abducens nerve nucleus or its intracranial pathway is unusual case. A 45-year-old male patient ...
more infohttp://jkna.org/journal/view.php?number=6017
Abducens nerve palsy as a postoperative complication of minimally invasive thoracic spine surgery: a case report | BMC Surgery ...  Abducens nerve palsy as a postoperative complication of minimally invasive thoracic spine surgery: a case report | BMC Surgery ...
This case report presents a patient with abducens nerve palsy after minimally invasive surgery for thoracic disc herniation ... In spite of being very rare and multifactorial, uni- or bilateral abducens nerve paralysis carries significant morbidity and ... the physiopathogical features of abducens nerve palsy, and the possible adverse effects of spinal surgery, including minimally ... Axons of the abducens nerve emerge from the ventral aspect of the brain stem at the pontomedullary junction. The nerve runs ...
more infohttps://bmcsurg.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12893-016-0162-1
  • The case is presented in its clinical, neurosurgical and neuropathologic aspects and the literature on 6th nerve schwannomas is reviewed. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The clinical picture does not conform to either dermatome or nerve patterns of distribution. (chiro.org)
  • For example, fractures of the petrous temporal bone can selectively damage the nerve, as can aneurysms of the intracavernous carotid artery. (wikipedia.org)