Forced Expiratory Volume: Measure of the maximum amount of air that can be expelled in a given number of seconds during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination . It is usually given as FEV followed by a subscript indicating the number of seconds over which the measurement is made, although it is sometimes given as a percentage of forced vital capacity.Vital Capacity: The volume of air that is exhaled by a maximal expiration following a maximal inspiration.Spirometry: Measurement of volume of air inhaled or exhaled by the lung.Respiratory Function Tests: Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.Asthma: A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).Bronchial Provocation Tests: Tests involving inhalation of allergens (nebulized or in dust form), nebulized pharmacologically active solutions (e.g., histamine, methacholine), or control solutions, followed by assessment of respiratory function. These tests are used in the diagnosis of asthma.Bronchodilator Agents: Agents that cause an increase in the expansion of a bronchus or bronchial tubes.Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive: A disease of chronic diffuse irreversible airflow obstruction. Subcategories of COPD include CHRONIC BRONCHITIS and PULMONARY EMPHYSEMA.Lung Diseases, Obstructive: Any disorder marked by obstruction of conducting airways of the lung. AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION may be acute, chronic, intermittent, or persistent.Administration, Inhalation: The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.Methacholine Chloride: A quaternary ammonium parasympathomimetic agent with the muscarinic actions of ACETYLCHOLINE. It is hydrolyzed by ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE at a considerably slower rate than ACETYLCHOLINE and is more resistant to hydrolysis by nonspecific CHOLINESTERASES so that its actions are more prolonged. It is used as a parasympathomimetic bronchoconstrictor agent and as a diagnostic aid for bronchial asthma. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1116)Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Peak Expiratory Flow Rate: Measurement of the maximum rate of airflow attained during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination. Common abbreviations are PEFR and PFR.Albuterol: A short-acting beta-2 adrenergic agonist that is primarily used as a bronchodilator agent to treat ASTHMA. Albuterol is prepared as a racemic mixture of R(-) and S(+) stereoisomers. The stereospecific preparation of R(-) isomer of albuterol is referred to as levalbuterol.Forced Expiratory Flow Rates: The rate of airflow measured during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination.Maximal Midexpiratory Flow Rate: Measurement of rate of airflow over the middle half of a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination (from the 25 percent level to the 75 percent level). Common abbreviations are MMFR and FEF 25%-75%.Bronchoconstrictor Agents: Agents causing the narrowing of the lumen of a bronchus or bronchiole.Bronchoconstriction: Narrowing of the caliber of the BRONCHI, physiologically or as a result of pharmacological intervention.Asthma, Exercise-Induced: Asthma attacks following a period of exercise. Usually the induced attack is short-lived and regresses spontaneously. The magnitude of postexertional airway obstruction is strongly influenced by the environment in which exercise is performed (i.e. inhalation of cold air during physical exertion markedly augments the severity of the airway obstruction; conversely, warm humid air blunts or abolishes it).Lung Volume Measurements: Measurement of the amount of air that the lungs may contain at various points in the respiratory cycle.Bronchial Hyperreactivity: Tendency of the smooth muscle of the tracheobronchial tree to contract more intensely in response to a given stimulus than it does in the response seen in normal individuals. This condition is present in virtually all symptomatic patients with asthma. The most prominent manifestation of this smooth muscle contraction is a decrease in airway caliber that can be readily measured in the pulmonary function laboratory.Residual Volume: The volume of air remaining in the LUNGS at the end of a maximal expiration. Common abbreviation is RV.Dyspnea: Difficult or labored breathing.Airway Obstruction: Any hindrance to the passage of air into and out of the lungs.Maximal Expiratory Flow Rate: The airflow rate measured during the first liter expired after the first 200 ml have been exhausted during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination. Common abbreviations are MEFR, FEF 200-1200, and FEF 0.2-1.2.Total Lung Capacity: The volume of air contained in the lungs at the end of a maximal inspiration. It is the equivalent to each of the following sums: VITAL CAPACITY plus RESIDUAL VOLUME; INSPIRATORY CAPACITY plus FUNCTIONAL RESIDUAL CAPACITY; TIDAL VOLUME plus INSPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME plus functional residual capacity; or tidal volume plus inspiratory reserve volume plus EXPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME plus residual volume.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Pulmonary Emphysema: Enlargement of air spaces distal to the TERMINAL BRONCHIOLES where gas-exchange normally takes place. This is usually due to destruction of the alveolar wall. Pulmonary emphysema can be classified by the location and distribution of the lesions.Cystic Fibrosis: An autosomal recessive genetic disease of the EXOCRINE GLANDS. It is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the CYSTIC FIBROSIS TRANSMEMBRANE CONDUCTANCE REGULATOR expressed in several organs including the LUNG, the PANCREAS, the BILIARY SYSTEM, and the SWEAT GLANDS. Cystic fibrosis is characterized by epithelial secretory dysfunction associated with ductal obstruction resulting in AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION; chronic RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS; PANCREATIC INSUFFICIENCY; maldigestion; salt depletion; and HEAT PROSTRATION.Respiration Disorders: Diseases of the respiratory system in general or unspecified or for a specific respiratory disease not available.Scopolamine Derivatives: Analogs or derivatives of scopolamine.Bronchitis: Inflammation of the large airways in the lung including any part of the BRONCHI, from the PRIMARY BRONCHI to the TERTIARY BRONCHI.Airway Resistance: Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow.Nebulizers and Vaporizers: Devices that cause a liquid or solid to be converted into an aerosol (spray) or a vapor. It is used in drug administration by inhalation, humidification of ambient air, and in certain analytical instruments.Pulmonary Ventilation: The total volume of gas inspired or expired per unit of time, usually measured in liters per minute.Sputum: Material coughed up from the lungs and expectorated via the mouth. It contains MUCUS, cellular debris, and microorganisms. It may also contain blood or pus.Anti-Asthmatic Agents: Drugs that are used to treat asthma.Budesonide: A glucocorticoid used in the management of ASTHMA, the treatment of various skin disorders, and allergic RHINITIS.Pulmonary Diffusing Capacity: The amount of a gas taken up, by the pulmonary capillary blood from the alveolar gas, per minute per unit of average pressure of the gradient of the gas across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.Inspiratory Capacity: The maximum volume of air that can be inspired after reaching the end of a normal, quiet expiration. It is the sum of the TIDAL VOLUME and the INSPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME. Common abbreviation is IC.Lung Diseases: Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Ipratropium: A muscarinic antagonist structurally related to ATROPINE but often considered safer and more effective for inhalation use. It is used for various bronchial disorders, in rhinitis, and as an antiarrhythmic.Respiratory Mechanics: The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.Ethanolamines: AMINO ALCOHOLS containing the ETHANOLAMINE; (-NH2CH2CHOH) group and its derivatives.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Bronchi: The larger air passages of the lungs arising from the terminal bifurcation of the TRACHEA. They include the largest two primary bronchi which branch out into secondary bronchi, and tertiary bronchi which extend into BRONCHIOLES and PULMONARY ALVEOLI.Dust: Earth or other matter in fine, dry particles. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Exercise Tolerance: The exercise capacity of an individual as measured by endurance (maximal exercise duration and/or maximal attained work load) during an EXERCISE TEST.Functional Residual Capacity: The volume of air remaining in the LUNGS at the end of a normal, quiet expiration. It is the sum of the RESIDUAL VOLUME and the EXPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME. Common abbreviation is FRC.Respiratory Sounds: Noises, normal and abnormal, heard on auscultation over any part of the RESPIRATORY TRACT.Beclomethasone: An anti-inflammatory, synthetic glucocorticoid. It is used topically as an anti-inflammatory agent and in aerosol form for the treatment of ASTHMA.Aerosols: Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.Maximal Expiratory Flow-Volume Curves: Curves depicting MAXIMAL EXPIRATORY FLOW RATE, in liters/second, versus lung inflation, in liters or percentage of lung capacity, during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination. Common abbreviation is MEFV.Respiratory Muscles: These include the muscles of the DIAPHRAGM and the INTERCOSTAL MUSCLES.Bronchiectasis: Persistent abnormal dilatation of the bronchi.Cough: A sudden, audible expulsion of air from the lungs through a partially closed glottis, preceded by inhalation. It is a protective response that serves to clear the trachea, bronchi, and/or lungs of irritants and secretions, or to prevent aspiration of foreign materials into the lungs.Breath Tests: Any tests done on exhaled air.Bronchospirometry: Spirometric technique in which the volume of air breathed in the right and left lung is recorded separately.Blood Volume: Volume of circulating BLOOD. It is the sum of the PLASMA VOLUME and ERYTHROCYTE VOLUME.Emphysema: A pathological accumulation of air in tissues or organs.Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Terbutaline: A selective beta-2 adrenergic agonist used as a bronchodilator and tocolytic.Fenoterol: An adrenergic beta-2 agonist that is used as a bronchodilator and tocolytic.Pneumonectomy: The excision of lung tissue including partial or total lung lobectomy.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Adrenal Cortex HormonesExercise Test: Controlled physical activity which is performed in order to allow assessment of physiological functions, particularly cardiovascular and pulmonary, but also aerobic capacity. Maximal (most intense) exercise is usually required but submaximal exercise is also used.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Expiratory Reserve Volume: The extra volume of air that can be expired with maximum effort beyond the level reached at the end of a normal, quiet expiration. Common abbreviation is ERV.Adrenergic beta-Agonists: Drugs that selectively bind to and activate beta-adrenergic receptors.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Metered Dose Inhalers: A small aerosol canister used to release a calibrated amount of medication for inhalation.Respiration: The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).Androstadienes: Derivatives of the steroid androstane having two double bonds at any site in any of the rings.Pneumoconiosis: A diffuse parenchymal lung disease caused by inhalation of dust and by tissue reaction to their presence. These inorganic, organic, particulate, or vaporized matters usually are inhaled by workers in their occupational environment, leading to the various forms (ASBESTOSIS; BYSSINOSIS; and others). Similar air pollution can also have deleterious effects on the general population.Occupational Diseases: Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.Cholinergic Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate CHOLINERGIC RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of ACETYLCHOLINE or cholinergic agonists.Bronchial Spasm: Spasmodic contraction of the smooth muscle of the bronchi.Histamine: An amine derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of HISTIDINE. It is a powerful stimulant of gastric secretion, a constrictor of bronchial smooth muscle, a vasodilator, and also a centrally acting neurotransmitter.Pregnenediones: Unsaturated pregnane derivatives containing two keto groups on side chains or ring structures.Bronchoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the bronchi.Inhalation: The act of BREATHING in.Saline Solution, Hypertonic: Hypertonic sodium chloride solution. A solution having an osmotic pressure greater than that of physiologic salt solution (0.9 g NaCl in 100 ml purified water).Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Leukotriene Antagonists: A class of drugs designed to prevent leukotriene synthesis or activity by blocking binding at the receptor level.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Respiratory Tract Diseasesalpha 1-Antitrypsin Deficiency: Deficiency of the protease inhibitor ALPHA 1-ANTITRYPSIN that manifests primarily as PULMONARY EMPHYSEMA and LIVER CIRRHOSIS.Exhalation: The act of BREATHING out.Bronchial DiseasesAir Pollutants, Occupational: Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Glycopyrrolate: A muscarinic antagonist used as an antispasmodic, in some disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, and to reduce salivation with some anesthetics.Expectorants: Agents that increase mucous excretion. Mucolytic agents, that is drugs that liquefy mucous secretions, are also included here.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Hypersensitivity, Immediate: Hypersensitivity reactions which occur within minutes of exposure to challenging antigen due to the release of histamine which follows the antigen-antibody reaction and causes smooth muscle contraction and increased vascular permeability.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Nedocromil: A pyranoquinolone derivative that inhibits activation of inflammatory cells which are associated with ASTHMA, including eosinophils, neutrophils, macrophages, mast cells, monocytes, and platelets.Adrenergic beta-2 Receptor Agonists: Compounds bind to and activate ADRENERGIC BETA-2 RECEPTORS.Statistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)WeldingEosinophils: Granular leukocytes with a nucleus that usually has two lobes connected by a slender thread of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing coarse, round granules that are uniform in size and stainable by eosin.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Eosinophil Granule Proteins: Proteins found in EOSINOPHIL granules. They are primarily basic proteins that play a role in host defense and the proinflammatory actions of activated eosinophils.Bronchiolitis Obliterans: Inflammation of the BRONCHIOLES leading to an obstructive lung disease. Bronchioles are characterized by fibrous granulation tissue with bronchial exudates in the lumens. Clinical features include a nonproductive cough and DYSPNEA.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Coal MiningQuestionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Lung Transplantation: The transference of either one or both of the lungs from one human or animal to another.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Skin Tests: Epicutaneous or intradermal application of a sensitizer for demonstration of either delayed or immediate hypersensitivity. Used in diagnosis of hypersensitivity or as a test for cellular immunity.Respiratory Therapy: Care of patients with deficiencies and abnormalities associated with the cardiopulmonary system. It includes the therapeutic use of medical gases and their administrative apparatus, environmental control systems, humidification, aerosols, ventilatory support, bronchopulmonary drainage and exercise, respiratory rehabilitation, assistance with cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and maintenance of natural, artificial, and mechanical airways.Glucocorticoids: A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS that affect carbohydrate metabolism (GLUCONEOGENESIS, liver glycogen deposition, elevation of BLOOD SUGAR), inhibit ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secretion, and possess pronounced anti-inflammatory activity. They also play a role in fat and protein metabolism, maintenance of arterial blood pressure, alteration of the connective tissue response to injury, reduction in the number of circulating lymphocytes, and functioning of the central nervous system.Powders: Substances made up of an aggregation of small particles, as that obtained by grinding or trituration of a solid drug. In pharmacy it is a form in which substances are administered. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Methacholine Compounds: A group of compounds that are derivatives of beta-methylacetylcholine (methacholine).Pulmonary Medicine: A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the study of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM. It is especially concerned with diagnosis and treatment of diseases and defects of the lungs and bronchial tree.Breathing Exercises: Therapeutic exercises aimed to deepen inspiration or expiration or even to alter the rate and rhythm of respiration.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Respiratory Hypersensitivity: A form of hypersensitivity affecting the respiratory tract. It includes ASTHMA and RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL.Plethysmography, Whole Body: Measurement of the volume of gas in the lungs, including that which is trapped in poorly communicating air spaces. It is of particular use in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and emphysema. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Anti-Inflammatory Agents: Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.Pulmonary Gas Exchange: The exchange of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood that occurs across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.Inhalation Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.Respiratory Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.Bronchitis, Chronic: A subcategory of CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE. The disease is characterized by hypersecretion of mucus accompanied by a chronic (more than 3 months in 2 consecutive years) productive cough. Infectious agents are a major cause of chronic bronchitis.Respiratory System Agents: Drugs used for their effects on the respiratory system.QuinolinesDrug Administration Schedule: Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Byssinosis: A condition of BRONCHOCONSTRICTION resulting from hypersensitive reaction to inhaled dust during the initial processing of cotton, flax, or hemp in the textile industry. Symptoms include wheezing and tightness in the chest.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Atropine Derivatives: Analogs and derivatives of atropine.Oxygen Inhalation Therapy: Inhalation of oxygen aimed at restoring toward normal any pathophysiologic alterations of gas exchange in the cardiopulmonary system, as by the use of a respirator, nasal catheter, tent, chamber, or mask. (From Dorland, 27th ed & Stedman, 25th ed)Blood Gas Analysis: Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.Air Pollutants: Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Textile Industry: The aggregate business enterprise of manufacturing textiles. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Leukocyte Count: The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.Indans: Aryl CYCLOPENTANES that are a reduced (protonated) form of INDENES.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Ozone: The unstable triatomic form of oxygen, O3. It is a powerful oxidant that is produced for various chemical and industrial uses. Its production is also catalyzed in the ATMOSPHERE by ULTRAVIOLET RAY irradiation of oxygen or other ozone precursors such as VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS and NITROGEN OXIDES. About 90% of the ozone in the atmosphere exists in the stratosphere (STRATOSPHERIC OZONE).Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Respiratory Insufficiency: Failure to adequately provide oxygen to cells of the body and to remove excess carbon dioxide from them. (Stedman, 25th ed)Maximal Voluntary Ventilation: Measure of the maximum amount of air that can be breathed in and blown out over a sustained interval such as 15 or 20 seconds. Common abbreviations are MVV and MBC.Single-Blind Method: A method in which either the observer(s) or the subject(s) is kept ignorant of the group to which the subjects are assigned.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Cromolyn Sodium: A chromone complex that acts by inhibiting the release of chemical mediators from sensitized mast cells. It is used in the prophylactic treatment of both allergic and exercise-induced asthma, but does not affect an established asthmatic attack.Ventilation-Perfusion Ratio: The ratio of alveolar ventilation to simultaneous alveolar capillary blood flow in any part of the lung. (Stedman, 25th ed)Aerosol Propellants: Compressed gases or vapors in a container which, upon release of pressure and expansion through a valve, carry another substance from the container. They are used for cosmetics, household cleaners, and so on. Examples are BUTANES; CARBON DIOXIDE; FLUOROCARBONS; NITROGEN; and PROPANE. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Pregnadienediols: Doubly unsaturated pregnane derivatives with two hydroxy groups substituted anywhere on the rings or side chains.Carbon Monoxide: Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Chlorofluorocarbons: A series of hydrocarbons containing both chlorine and fluorine. These have been used as refrigerants, blowing agents, cleaning fluids, solvents, and as fire extinguishing agents. They have been shown to cause stratospheric ozone depletion and have been banned for many uses.Exercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.Nitrogen Dioxide: Nitrogen oxide (NO2). A highly poisonous gas. Exposure produces inflammation of lungs that may only cause slight pain or pass unnoticed, but resulting edema several days later may cause death. (From Merck, 11th ed) It is a major atmospheric pollutant that is able to absorb UV light that does not reach the earth's surface.Flour: Ground up seed of WHEAT.Allergens: Antigen-type substances that produce immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).Plasma Volume: Volume of PLASMA in the circulation. It is usually measured by INDICATOR DILUTION TECHNIQUES.Thoracotomy: Surgical incision into the chest wall.Agricultural Workers' Diseases: Diseases in persons engaged in cultivating and tilling soil, growing plants, harvesting crops, raising livestock, or otherwise engaged in husbandry and farming. The diseases are not restricted to farmers in the sense of those who perform conventional farm chores: the heading applies also to those engaged in the individual activities named above, as in those only gathering harvest or in those only dusting crops.Tidal Volume: The volume of air inspired or expired during each normal, quiet respiratory cycle. Common abbreviations are TV or V with subscript T.Thoracic Wall: The outer margins of the thorax containing SKIN, deep FASCIA; THORACIC VERTEBRAE; RIBS; STERNUM; and MUSCLES.Plethysmography: Recording of change in the size of a part as modified by the circulation in it.Leukotriene E4: A biologically active principle of SRS-A that is formed from LEUKOTRIENE D4 via a peptidase reaction that removes the glycine residue. The biological actions of LTE4 are similar to LTC4 and LTD4. (From Dictionary of Prostaglandins and Related Compounds, 1990)Walking: An activity in which the body advances at a slow to moderate pace by moving the feet in a coordinated fashion. This includes recreational walking, walking for fitness, and competitive race-walking.Acetates: Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Anhydrides: Chemical compounds derived from acids by the elimination of a molecule of water.Body Height: The distance from the sole to the crown of the head with body standing on a flat surface and fully extended.Stroke Volume: The amount of BLOOD pumped out of the HEART per beat, not to be confused with cardiac output (volume/time). It is calculated as the difference between the end-diastolic volume and the end-systolic volume.Immunoglobulin E: An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).Helium: Helium. A noble gas with the atomic symbol He, atomic number 2, and atomic weight 4.003. It is a colorless, odorless, tasteless gas that is not combustible and does not support combustion. It was first detected in the sun and is now obtained from natural gas. Medically it is used as a diluent for other gases, being especially useful with oxygen in the treatment of certain cases of respiratory obstruction, and as a vehicle for general anesthetics. (Dorland, 27th ed)Respiratory System: The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Pseudomonas Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus PSEUDOMONAS.Hyperventilation: A pulmonary ventilation rate faster than is metabolically necessary for the exchange of gases. It is the result of an increased frequency of breathing, an increased tidal volume, or a combination of both. It causes an excess intake of oxygen and the blowing off of carbon dioxide.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Wood: A product of hard secondary xylem composed of CELLULOSE, hemicellulose, and LIGNANS, that is under the bark of trees and shrubs. It is used in construction and as a source of CHARCOAL and many other products.Thoracoplasty: Surgical removal of ribs, allowing the chest wall to move inward and collapse a diseased lung. (Dorland, 28th ed)Partial Pressure: The pressure that would be exerted by one component of a mixture of gases if it were present alone in a container. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Lung Compliance: The capability of the LUNGS to distend under pressure as measured by pulmonary volume change per unit pressure change. While not a complete description of the pressure-volume properties of the lung, it is nevertheless useful in practice as a measure of the comparative stiffness of the lung. (From Best & Taylor's Physiological Basis of Medical Practice, 12th ed, p562)Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.Theophylline: A methyl xanthine derivative from tea with diuretic, smooth muscle relaxant, bronchial dilation, cardiac and central nervous system stimulant activities. Theophylline inhibits the 3',5'-CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE PHOSPHODIESTERASE that degrades CYCLIC AMP thus potentiates the actions of agents that act through ADENYLYL CYCLASES and cyclic AMP.Thoracoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the pleural cavity.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Metallurgy: The science, art, or technology dealing with processes involved in the separation of metals from their ores, the technique of making or compounding the alloys, the techniques of working or heat-treating metals, and the mining of metals. It includes industrial metallurgy as well as metallurgical techniques employed in the preparation and working of metals used in dentistry, with special reference to orthodontic and prosthodontic appliances. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p494)Radiography, Thoracic: X-ray visualization of the chest and organs of the thoracic cavity. It is not restricted to visualization of the lungs.Oxidants, Photochemical: Compounds that accept electrons in an oxidation-reduction reaction. The reaction is induced by or accelerated by exposure to electromagnetic radiation in the spectrum of visible or ultraviolet light.Isocyanates: Organic compounds that contain the -NCO radical.Oscillometry: The measurement of frequency or oscillation changes.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Physical Exertion: Expenditure of energy during PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. Intensity of exertion may be measured by rate of OXYGEN CONSUMPTION; HEAT produced, or HEART RATE. Perceived exertion, a psychological measure of exertion, is included.
Average values for forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and forced expiratory flow 25-75% ( ... Thoracic, abdominal, or cerebral aneurysms. *Cataracts or recent eye surgery. *Recent thoracic or abdominal surgery ... Forced expiratory volume (time): a generic term indicating the volume of air exhaled under forced conditions in the first t ... Forced expiratory volume (FEV) at timed intervals of 0.5, 1.0 (FEV1), 2.0, and 3.0 seconds, forced expiratory flow 25-75% (FEF ...
Restrictive lung disease
... both forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) are reduced, however, the decline in FVC is ... Diseases restricting lower thoracic/abdominal volume (e.g. obesity, diaphragmatic hernia, or the presence of ascites). Pleural ... Pulmonary function test demonstrates a decrease in the forced vital capacity. In disorders that are intrinsic to the lung ... PULMONARY FUNCTION TESTS A Workshop on Simple Spirometry & Flow Volume Loops. Dr. S. Osborne, Dept. Cellular & Physiological ...
During forced exhalation, as when blowing out a candle, expiratory muscles including the abdominal muscles and internal ... and forced expiratory volume (FEV). These values differ in men and women because men tend to be larger than women. TLC is the ... RV is amount of air left in the lungs after a forced exhalation. The average RV in men is 1200 ml and women 1100 ml. VC is the ... intercostal muscles generate abdominal and thoracic pressure, which forces air out of the lungs. Exhaled air is rich in carbon ...
Forced expiratory volume (FEV) at timed intervals of 0.5, 1.0 (FEV1), 2.0, and 3.0 seconds, forced expiratory flow 25-75% (FEF ... abdominal, or cerebral aneurysms Cataracts or recent eye surgery Recent thoracic or abdominal surgery Nausea, vomiting, or ... "Forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75% of vital capacity and FEV1/forced vital capacity ratio in relation to clinical and ... Forced expiratory maneuvers may aggravate some medical conditions. Spirometry should not be performed when the individual ...
... and contributory factors probably include tidal volume, positive end-expiratory pressure and respiratory rate. There is no ... shearing forces, particularly associated with rapid changes in gas velocity.. The resultant alveolar rupture can lead to ... Boyle's law describes the relationship between the volume of the gas space and the pressure in the gas. ... "South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society (SPUMS) Journal Volume 30 No.4 December 2000. South Pacific Underwater Medicine ...
It is not unusual for DLCO to be reduced out of proportion to forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1). Reduction in DLCO ... Serial abdominal imaging should be performed to assess AML size at 6- to 12-month intervals, at least until trends in growth ... Preservation of lung volumes in the presence of increased interstitial markings is a radiographic hallmark of LAM that helps ... Abnormalities on abdominal imaging, such as renal AML and enlarged lymphatic structures, are also common in LAM. Fat density ...
List of MeSH codes (E01)
... peak expiratory flow rate MeSH E01.370.386.700.660.230 --- forced expiratory volume MeSH E01.370.386.700.660.500 --- maximal ... abdominal MeSH E01.370.376.550.650.655 --- reflex, abnormal MeSH E01.370.376.550.650.655.400 --- reflex, babinski MeSH E01.370. ... forced expiratory flow rates MeSH E01.370.386.700.660.225.500 --- maximal expiratory flow rate MeSH E01.370.386.700.660.225.505 ... expiratory reserve volume MeSH E01.370.386.700.485.750.275.650 --- residual volume MeSH E01.370.386.700.485.750.900 --- vital ...
Respiratory inductance plethysmography
qDEEL quantitative difference of end expiratory lung volume is a change in the level of end expiratory lung volume and may be ... During inhalation, both the thoracic and abdominal cavities simultaneously expand in volume, and thus in girth as well. If ... In the case of a total obstruction, the strong chest muscles force the thorax to expand, pulling the diaphragm upward in what ... The %RCi contribution to Tidal Volume ratio is obtained by dividing the inspired volume in the RC band by the inspired volume ...
Acute respiratory distress syndrome
"Ventilation with lower tidal volumes as compared with traditional tidal volumes for acute lung injury and the acute respiratory ... Elevated abdominal pressure of any cause is also probably a risk factor for the development of ARDS, particularly during ... Positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) is used in mechanically ventilated patients with ARDS to improve oxygenation. In ARDS, ... ARDS Definition Task Force". JAMA. 307 (23): 2526-33. doi:10.1001/jama.2012.5669. PMID 22797452. Ferguson ND, Fan E, Camporota ...
The ventilator's expiratory valve is opened, and expiratory flow is allowed until the baseline pressure (PEEP) is reached. ... Ventilation with lower Tidal volumes as compared with traditional tidal volumes for acute lung injury and the acute respiratory ... Bach, John Robert; Alba, A S (April 1991). "Intermittent abdominal pressure ventilator in a regimen of noninvasive ventilatory ... forcing exhalation, sometimes termed exsufflation. The first such apparatus was the Bragg-Paul Pulsator. The name of one such ...
In particular, how much a person is able to exhale in one second (called forced expiratory volume (FEV1) as a proportion of how ... This has the effect of decreasing the size of the rib cage, and of pushing the abdominal organs up against the diaphragm which ... the inspiratory reserve volume and expiratory reserve volume are the additional amounts a person is able to forcibly inhale and ... Not all air is expelled from the lungs even after a forced breath out; the remainder of the air is called the residual volume. ...
Bag valve mask
Manual resuscitators have no built-in tidal volume control - the amount of air used to force-inflate the lungs during each ... Positive end-expiratory pressure. Some devices have PEEP valve connectors, for better positive airway pressure ... a b Dörges V, Sauer C, Ocker H, Wenzel V, Schmucker P. Smaller tidal volumes during cardiopulmonary resuscitation: comparison ... Influence of tidal volume on the distribution of gas between the lungs and the stomach in the nonintubated patient receiving ...
In particular, how much a person is able to exhale in one second (called forced expiratory volume (FEV1)) as a proportion of ... branchiostegal lungs and abdominal lungs". Arthropod Structure & Development. 34 (1): 63-87. doi:10.1016/j.asd.2004.11.002.. ... the inspiratory reserve volume and expiratory reserve volume are the additional amounts a person is able to forcibly inhale and ... Not all air is expelled from the lungs even after a forced breath out; the remainder of the air is called the residual volume. ...
Acute respiratory distress syndrome
Positive end-expiratory pressure. Positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) is used in mechanically ventilated people with ... respiratory failure not explained by heart failure or volume overload. *decreased PaO. 2/FiO. 2 ratio (a decreased PaO. 2/FiO. ... ARDS Definition Task Force". JAMA. 307 (23): 2526-33. doi:10.1001/jama.2012.5669. PMC 3408735 . PMID 22797452.. ... Elevated abdominal pressure of any cause is also probably a risk factor for the development of ARDS, particularly during ...
Positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP), which delivers air at a given pressure at the end of the expiratory cycle, can reduce ... A large amount of force is required to cause pulmonary contusion; a person injured with such force is likely to have other ... Cardiac output (the volume of blood pumped by the heart) may be reduced, and hypotension (low blood pressure) is frequently ... Computed tomography (CT scanning) is a more sensitive test for pulmonary contusion, and it can identify abdominal, chest, or ...
Spinal cord injury
Manual abdominal compression is another technique used to increase expiratory flow which later improves coughing. Other ... SCI is present in about 2% of all cases of blunt force trauma. Anyone who has undergone force sufficient to cause a thoracic ... As SCI patients suffer from reduced total lung capacity and tidal volume, physical therapists teach them accessory breathing ... Injuries at the level of T1 to T8 result in inability to control the abdominal muscles. Trunk stability may be affected; even ...
A target tidal volume of 6 mL/kg of predicted body weight (PBW) and a plateau pressure less than 30 cm H2O is recommended for ... High positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP) is recommended for moderate to severe ARDS in sepsis as it opens more lung units ... This forced receptor interaction induces the production of pro-inflammatory chemical signals (cytokines) by T-cells. There are ... A pierced internal organ (free air on abdominal x-ray or CT scan), an abnormal chest x-ray consistent with pneumonia (with ...
At 30 msw (4 bar), 2% by volume oxygen in the lung gas gives a pO2 of 60 millimetres of mercury (80 mbar). At 10 msw (2 bar), ... Positive end-expiratory pressure will generally improve oxygenation. Underwater diving portal Free-diving, for more on the ... After full normal inspiration, the diver fills the mouth with air, with the glottis closed, then opens the glottis and forces ... Attempts to actively expel water from the airway by abdominal thrusts or positioning head downwards should be avoided as they ...
The most posterior air sacs (abdominal and post-thoracic) differ in that the right abdominal air sac is relatively small, lying ... with a tidal volume ranging from 1.2-1.5 L (0.26-0.33 imp gal; 0.32-0.40 US gal). The tidal volume is seen to double resulting ... During expiration, oxygen poor air flows to the anterior air sacs and is expelled by the action of the expiratory muscles. The ... Panting increases evaporative heat (and water) loss from its respiratory surfaces, therefore forcing air and heat removal ...
Maternal physiological changes in pregnancy
... and leads to a decrease in expiratory reserve volume and residual volume. This culminates in a 20% decrease in functional ... Poor posture occurs naturally from the stretching of the woman's abdominal muscles as the fetus grows. These muscles are less ... As measured by a force platform, parameters used to measure postural stability. Adapted from McCrory et al. 2010 ... During pregnancy the plasma volume increases by 40-50% and the red blood cell volume increases only by 20-30%. These ...
... with a tidal volume ranging from 1.2-1.5 L (0.26-0.33 imp gal; 0.32-0.40 US gal). The tidal volume is seen to double ... abdominal and post-thoracic) differ in that the right abdominal air sac is relatively small, lying to the right of the ... During expiration, oxygen poor air flows to the anterior air sacs and is expelled by the action of the expiratory muscles. ... therefore forcing air and heat removal without the loss of metabolic salts. Panting allows the common ostrich to have a ...
Effect of increased abdominal muscle strength on forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume
... and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1). Twenty-five healthy volunteers were assigned randomly to either an ... The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of increased abdominal muscle strength on forced vital capacity (FVC) ... Effect of increased abdominal muscle strength on forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume Phys Ther. 1983 Mar;63(3): ... and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1). Twenty-five healthy volunteers were assigned randomly to either an ...
Spirometry - Wikipedia
Average values for forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and forced expiratory flow 25-75% ( ... Thoracic, abdominal, or cerebral aneurysms. *Cataracts or recent eye surgery. *Recent thoracic or abdominal surgery ... Forced expiratory volume (time): a generic term indicating the volume of air exhaled under forced conditions in the first t ... Forced expiratory volume (FEV) at timed intervals of 0.5, 1.0 (FEV1), 2.0, and 3.0 seconds, forced expiratory flow 25-75% (FEF ...
Association between Plasma Adiponectin Levels and Decline in Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 s in a General Japanese Population:...
Retrospective analysis of the relationship between decline in FEV1 and abdominal circumference in male smokers: The Takahata ... Plasma adiponectin levels were inversely correlated with forced expiratory volume in 1 s per forced vital capacity. Graphs show ... Plasma adiponectin levels were inversely correlated with forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) per forced vital capacity in ... A lower level of forced expiratory volume in 1 second is a risk factor for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in a Japanese ...
OMT for the Prevention and Management of Chronic Constipation and Distal Intestinal Obstructive Syndrome in Cystic Fibrosis: A...
... or forced expiratory volume less than 40%. ... An abdominal examination was performed to assess bowel sounds, ... The survey evaluated participants levels of constipation, diarrhea, abdominal distention, abdominal pain, and steatorrhea.13 ... In patients with irritable bowel syndrome, OMT has been found to decrease abdominal pain, constipation, and diarrhea.11 Müller ... Participants 3, 4, and 5 reported a decrease in abdominal pain severity while being treated. Participant 2 was found to have an ...
Chapter # 2 Spirometry Lecture Flashcards by Pablo Amaya | Brainscape
Chest, abdominal, facial, oral, pain, stress incontinence, dementia, confusion.. 44 Forced Expiratory Volume (FEV1), may be ... On VC criteria for acceptability End Expiratory Volume varies by how many ml?, preciding for how many breaths? ... End-expiratory volume varies by less than 100ml for three preceding breaths. ... When Forced Expiratory Flow (FEF) 25% - 75% may help comfirm airway obstruction? ...
Prospective assessment of the risk of postoperative pulmonary complications in patients submitted to upper abdominal surgery
KEY WORDS: abdominal surgery, risk factor, morbidity. ABBREVIATIONS: BMI = body mass index; FEV1/FVC = forced expiratory volume ... Prospective assessment of the risk of postoperative pulmonary complications in patients submitted to upper abdominal surgery. ... Respiratory preparation for abdominal surgery. Med J Aust 1973;1:1300-4 [ Links ]. 2. Dureuil B, Cantineau JP, Desmonts JM. ... Diaphragm function after upper abdominal surgery in humans. Am Rev Respir Dis 1983;7:431-6. [ Links ]. 6. Ford GT, Rosenal TW, ...
Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis | Thorax
Acs0507 Surgical Treatment Of Morbid Obesity 2008
... expiratory reserve volume; FEV1 = forced expiratory volume in one second; FRC 40 = functional residual capacity; FVC = forced ... Abdominal wall retractors and mechan- replacement in patients who weigh more than 250 lb is ical retraction of the abdominal ... which in turn increases intrapleural volume, expiratory reserve volume, functional residual capa- pressure and thereby PAP and ... The decreased expiratory reserve with a distended abdomen resulting from peritonitis and pan- volume implies that many alveolar ...
Retrospective Analysis of the Relationship between Decline in FEV1 and Abdominal Circumference in Male Smokers: the Takahata...
ΔBMI = BMIvisit2 - BMIvisit1; AC, abdominal circumference; BMI, body mass index; FEV1, forced expiratory volume in 1 s. ... FVC, forced vital capacity; FEV1, forced expiratory volume in 1 s. ... BMI, body mass index; FVC, forced vital capacity; FEV1, forced expiratory volume in 1 s. ... predicted forced vital capacity [FVC (%predicted)], and % predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 s [FEV1 (% predicted)] were ...
A Multicenter Randomized Double-blind Clinical Study Evaluated the Safety, Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Characteristics...
Optoelectronic plethysmography to evaluate the effect of posture on breathing kinematics in spinal cord injury: a cross...
... vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in the first second) in sitting and in supine position. Compartmental volumes and ... CLINICAL REHABILITATION IMPACT: Our study suggests that the use of abdominal binders could reproduce in sitting position the ... RESULTS: Supine position increases vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in the first second. This could be due to the ... Phase angle analysis and Konno and Mead diagrams were performed to evaluate if thoracic and abdominal compartments were moving ...
DiVA - Search result
Pulmonary function was evaluated with; forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume during one second (FEV1), peak ... PURPOSE: Girdles and abdominal binders may reduce pain and stabilize the abdominal wall after laparotomy, but a risk for ... Correlation between Abdominal Rectus Diastasis Width and Abdominal Muscle Strength2015In: Digestive Surgery, ISSN 0253-4886, E- ... Operative correction of abdominal rectus diastasis (ARD) reduces pain and improves abdominal wall muscle strength: a randomized ...
Two-Step Laparoscopic Surgery for a Patient with Synchronous Double Cancer of the Colon and Stomach Accompanied by Severe...
On admission, he could not go upstairs (Grade III according to the Hugh-Jones classification) and his forced expiratory volume ... step laparoscopic surgery may be a safe and feasible surgical procedure for high-risk patients with synchronous intra-abdominal ... Laparoscopic treatment strategies for synchronous intra-abdominal malignancies have not yet been standardized. We report a ... His vital capacity was 2530 mL (73.3%) and his forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1.0) was 580 mL (35.9%). Chest ...
Respiratory Management in the Patient with Spinal Cord Injury
The loss of expiratory reserve volume can be explained by the denervation of the abdominal musculature and other muscles ... 1 sec forced expiratory volume (FEV1), and inspiratory capacity (IC) increase with more caudal lesions . As the level of ... increase in muscle tone affects both intercostal and abdominal muscles and results in a decline in the end-expiratory volume ... The reduction in functional residual capacity occurs at the expense of expiratory reserve volume, with a compensatory increase ...
Frontiers | Abdominal Binding Improves Neuromuscular Efficiency of the Human Diaphragm during Exercise | Physiology
... and AB sufficient to increase end-expiratory gastric pressure (Pga,ee) by 5-8 cmH2O at rest. By design, AB increased Pga,ee by ... dynamic operating lung volume and perceptual responses during exercise. In conclusion, AB was associated with isolated and ... dynamic operating lung volume and perceptual responses during exercise. In conclusion, AB was associated with isolated and ... and AB sufficient to increase end-expiratory gastric pressure (Pga,ee) by 5-8 cmH2O at rest. By design, AB increased Pga,ee by ...
Evaluation of Tolerability and Pharmacokinetics of Roflumilast, 250μg and 500μg, as add-on to Standard COPD Treatment to Treat...
Change From Baseline (V0DT) in Pre-bronchodilator Forced Expiratory Volume in First Second (FEV1) to Final Visit of the Down- ... Adverse Events of Interest (AEI) for PK analyses included: headache, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, appetite ... Change From Baseline in Pre-bronchodilator Forced Expiratory Volume in First Second (FEV1) During the Main Period [ Time Frame ... Change From Baseline in Pre-bronchodilator Forced Expiratory Volume in First Second (FEV1) During the Down-Titration Period [ ...
Effect of an elastic girdle on lung function, intra-abdominal pressure, and pain after midline laparotomy: a randomized...
... reduced abdominal muscle support, reduced lung function, and pain when coughing [ 1 - 3 ]. Postoperative … ... Pulmonary function was evaluated with; forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume during one second (FEV1), peak ... Girdles and abdominal binders may reduce pain and stabilize the abdominal wall after laparotomy, but a risk for increased intra ... The effect of abdominal support on functional outcomes in patients following major abdominal surgery: a randomized controlled ...
Sagittal Abdominal Diameter and Risk of Sudden Death in Asymptomatic Middle-Aged Men | Circulation
... forced expiratory volume in 1 second and vital capacity) and found similar results. Taken together, the possible residual ... the abdominal diameter index as measured by the ratio of abdominal diameter over midthigh circumference was positively ... Sagittal Abdominal Diameter and Risk of Sudden Death in Asymptomatic Middle-Aged Men. The Paris Prospective Study I. J.P. ... Abdominal obesity is associated with increased risk of acute coronary events in men. Eur Heart J. 2002; 23: 706-713. ...
Obesity Linked to Decreased Lung Function in Metabolic Syndrome and Diabetes
Internet Scientific Publications
... forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEVI) ≤20%, cardiac disfunction (left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF),20%, new or ... Current Concepts: abdominal aortic aneurysm. N Engl J Med 1993;328:1167-72.. 6. Cruz CP, Drouilhet JC, Southern FN, Eidit JF, ... Abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. Vasc. Surg. 2001;35:335-44.. 7. Justin B.Dimick, James C.Stanley, David A.Axelrod, Andirs ... Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms: predictors for early complications and death. Surgery 1993;114:31-5.. 9. Cinar B, Goksel O ...
JoVE | Peer Reviewed Scientific Video Journal - Methods and Protocols
On admission, he could not go upstairs (Grade III according to the Hugh-Jones classification) and his forced expiratory volume ... Because the abdominal CT scan showed a large amount of intra-abdominal free air, we performed an urgent laparotomy with a ... 11p)and the abdominal aorta(station No. 16a2). The clinical stage was determined to be T3(SS)N2M1(LYM), Stage IV. Gastrectomy ... An abdominal computed tomography( CT)scan revealed 4 lymph node metastases at the infrapyloric nodes(station No. 6)and the ...
At each visit, FVC, forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), peak expiratory flow (PEF) and subdivisions of lung volume ( ... Abdominal volume contribution to tidal volume as an early indicator of respiratory impairment in Duchenne muscular dystrophy. ... While predicted values of forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in 1 s, and peak expiratory flow decline continuously ... of forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and peak expiratory flow (PEF) expressed as ...
Regional chest wall volumes during exercise in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
... tidal volume increased in euvolumic patients by reducing end expiratory abdominal volume while in hyperinflators tidal volume ... Forced Expiratory Volume / physiology. Humans. Lung Volume Measurements. Male. Pressure. Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive ... Pleural, abdominal, and transdiaphragmatic pressures were measured in eight patients. RESULTS: End expiratory chest wall volume ... forced expiratory volume in 1 second 43.6 (11.6)% predicted) and dynamic hyperinflation was tracked breath by breath to test if ...
Anterior surgical correction of thoracolumbar and lumbar scoliosis: efficacy and morbidity
... forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in 1 second pre-operatively and 2 years post-operatively were unchanged. Kim ... Abdominal muscles were repaired in two layers. An intercostal drain was inserted into the chest. Spinal cord monitoring was not ... Go the top of the screen, click on all to see all the issues of SAOJ, select 2012, volume 11 number 4, then click on the ... SA Orthopaedic Journal Summer 2012 volume 11 number 4. Figures 6 to 9 were inadvertently omitted from the article Circular ...
Pulmonary Function in Morbid Obesity: Influence of Sex and Body Distribution | OMICS International
FVC: Forced Vital Capacity; FEV1: First Second Forced Expiratory Volume; RV: Residual Volume;. KCO: DLCO/ Alveolar Ventilation ... In patients with OM it has also been reported that restrictive ventilatory pattern is attributed to increased abdominal volume ... FVC: Forced Vital Capacity; FEV1: First Second Forced Expiratory Volume; RV: Residual Volume; FRC: Functional Respiratory ... FVC: Forced Vital Capacity; FEV1: First Second Forced Expiratory Volume; DLCO: Diffusing Capacity for Carbon Monoxide; KCO: ...
Royal Pharmacy: Travelers diarrhea treatment zithromax wide pills range!
... forced expiratory volume in the superior temporal artery. When a man with hematu - replacing whole prostate is developed. It ... Weighted image shows well or, t. Development of abdominal aortic aneurysm. Eur urol oconnor, d. B. The relationships between ... The primary endpoint was meet at the level of metastatic disease volume high low volume encourage oral intake in relation to ... By the compressed surrounding renal paren - teral amikacin peaks in the volume, and the renal veins is typically clinica a ...
Full text] Association of incidental emphysema with annual lung function decline | COPD
Incidental emphysema quantified using CT scan was significantly associated with a more rapid decline in forced vital capacity ... Multivariable analysis showed that the emphysema group exhibited a faster decline in forced vital capacity (−33.9 versus −18.8 ... Abbreviations: FEV1, forced expiratory volume in 1 second; FVC, forced vital capacity; yr, year; SE, standard error; BMI, body ... Clinical information including age, sex, height, weight, abdominal circumference, smoking status, smoking amount, other ...
Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy as a Good Surgical Alternative in Gastric Volvulus Caused by Diaphragmatic Eventration | OMICS...
Search Results for Sport and Exercise Science/Kinesiology | Human Kinetics
... and forced expiratory volume). ... abdominal girth, and hematocrit) and 5 physical-performance ... In Journal of Aging and Physical Activity Volume 8 (2000): Issue 2 (Jan 2000) ... In Journal of Aging and Physical Activity Volume 10 (2002): Issue 2 (Jan 2002) ... In Journal of Aging and Physical Activity Volume 12 (2004): Issue 1 (Jan 2004) ...
... and a ratio between forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1)/FVC. FVC (%) and FEV1/FVC were compared according to the ... Pulmonary function impairment has a connection with abdominal obesity, type 2 diabetes, and insulin resistance. Sex differences ... Please specify a volume, issue and page OR a volume and page. ... Please specify a volume, issue and page OR a volume and page. ... Please specify a volume, issue and page OR a volume and page. ... Volume 58 , Issue 6 Showing 1-13 articles out of 13 articles ...
Intra-abdominal pressureMusclesTidalAortic AneurysmsCircumferenceAdiposityObesityInspiratory pressureDiaphragmVitalLess than 50Planning for open abdominal surgeryMaximum inspiratoryThoraco-abdominalPressuresResidual volumeVentilationPostoperativePatientsNauseaComputed tomographyChestFunctionalCoughSurgicalAirwayBindersDiscomfortManeuversMeasurementUltrasonographyUpper abdominalFlowsSpirometric parametersPectoralisSurgeryRespiratory functionMidlineCompression
- In September 2009, the patient underwent laparoscopy-assisted sigmoidectomy with D3 lymphadenectomy using four ports and the pneumoperitone method with an intra-abdominal pressure of 8 mmHg. (hindawi.com)
- Girdles and abdominal binders may reduce pain and stabilize the abdominal wall after laparotomy, but a risk for increased intra-abdominal pressure and decreased lung function is also hypothesized. (springermedizin.de)
- Intra-abdominal pressure was measured via an indwelling urinary catheter. (springermedizin.de)
- Intra-abdominal pressure and wound healing were the same in both groups. (springermedizin.de)
- An individually fitted elastic girdle used after midline laparotomy was found to be safe, as this did not affect lung function, coughing, intra-abdominal pressure, or wound healing. (springermedizin.de)
- Indeed, with relaxation of the diaphragm, the intra-abdominal pressure is transmitted to the intrathoracic cavity, promoting compression of the lung parenchyma and resulting in more atelectasis. (beds.ac.uk)
- Expiration is largely passive but can be augmented by the forceful contraction of the muscles of the abdominal wall [ 6 , 8 ]. (hindawi.com)
- However, it is unclear which patients are affected by dynamic hyperinflation and how the respiratory muscles respond to the change in lung volume. (biomedsearch.com)
- Obesity is also associated with compromised lung function, manifested in reduced pulmonary volumes, reduced respiratory muscles strength and endurance, reduced diaphragmatic mobility with increased respiratory work. (pistacch.io)
- This alternates with relaxation of the diaphragm and contraction of the abdominal muscles, reversing the abdominal and thoracic movements. (alpfmedical.info)
- However, with increased ventilatory effort, abdominal wall muscles and muscles of the shoulder girdle also function as accessory respiratory muscles. (alpfmedical.info)
- The painful stimulus triggers spinal reflex responses which result in spasms of the chest and or abdominal wall muscles. (alpfmedical.info)
- These individuals, however, do not present with expiratory flow limitation and reduced respiratory muscles strength. (bvsalud.org)
- The slow VC test, to discover air trapping and thus not underestimate obstruction, should always precede the forced vital capacity (FVC) test as bronchospasm (a sudden constriction of the muscles in the walls of the bronchioles) may be induced in susceptible subjects during the forced test. (personneltoday.com)
- The anterior abdominal muscles engaged by the severity and type 1 diabetes. (cide.edu)
- CONCLUSION: NMES over the pectoralis and abdominal muscles might improve cough capacity and pulmonary function in cervical spinal cord injury with tetraplegia. (yahoo.com)
- This happens due to elastic properties of the lungs, as well as the internal intercostal muscles which lower the rib cage and decrease thoracic volume. (wikipedia.org)
- During forced exhalation, as when blowing out a candle, expiratory muscles including the abdominal muscles and internal intercostal muscles generate abdominal and thoracic pressure, which forces air out of the lungs. (wikipedia.org)
- when tidal volume is precisely measured, as in gas exchange calculation, the symbol TV or V T is used. (wikipedia.org)
- While predicted values of forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in 1 s, and peak expiratory flow decline continuously since childhood, during spontaneous breathing the following parameters become significantly different than normal in sequence: abdominal contribution to tidal volume (lower after 14.8 years), tidal volume (lower after 17.2 years), minute ventilation (lower after 18.1 years) and respiratory rate (higher after 22.1 years). (ersjournals.com)
- During exercise, tidal volume increased in euvolumic patients by reducing end expiratory abdominal volume while in hyperinflators tidal volume increased by increasing end inspiratory abdominal and rib cage volumes. (biomedsearch.com)
- DBEs are an important part of physiotherapy programs for PD patients, and their main goals are to assist both relaxation and removal of secretions, and increase the rib cage mobility and tidal volume so as to increase alveolar ventilation and oxygenation and to reduce physical effort while breathing (12). (thefreelibrary.com)
- General anesthesia usually requires mechanical ventilation, which is traditionally accomplished with constant tidal volumes in volume- or pressure-controlled modes. (beds.ac.uk)
- Experimental studies suggest that the use of variable tidal volumes (variable ventilation) recruits lung tissue, improves pulmonary function and reduces systemic inflammatory response. (beds.ac.uk)
- These changes lead to decreases in tidal volume, forced vital capacity, functional residual capacity, and forced expiratory volume. (alpfmedical.info)
- Low tidal volume (TV) ventilation has been shown to decrease mortality. (cancertherapyadvisor.com)
- This is usually accomplished in VC mode, but PC ventilation is probably equivalent providing tidal volumes are appropriate. (cancertherapyadvisor.com)
- While the respiratory rate and vital capacity does not change in pregnancy, tidal volume, minute ventilation (40%), and minute oxygen uptake (20%) increase, with a resultant decrease in functional residual capacity and residual volume of air as a consequence of the elevated diaphragm. (medscape.com)
- Objective: An accepted fact is that abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) larger than 5.5 cm should undergo elective repair. (elsevier.com)
- Abdominal aortic aneurysms greater than 5 cm diameter or those that grow faster than 1 cm per year have a significantly increased risk of rupture and are indications for elective operative repair. (wikidoc.org)
- The prevalence of abdominal aortic aneurysms among first-degree relatives of patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms ranges from 15-29%, compared with 2% among relatives of controls. (wikidoc.org)
- These factors were associated with reﬂected in bladder pressure, appears to be closely correlated a greater 90-day mortality in a prospective study of 2,075 with sagittal abdominal diameter and waist circumference but patients who underwent GBP at a single institution,6 which not with waist-to-hip ratio (many morbidly obese patients was the basis for the initial proposal of this scoring system. (slideshare.net)
- However, the relationship between abdominal circumference (AC) and decline in FEV 1 has not been elucidated. (medsci.org)
- We hypothesized that excess abdominal circumference (AC), one of the major signs of Mets, is associated with a decline in FEV 1 among smokers. (medsci.org)
- Several observational studies have shown that the sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD), or waist circumference, or waist-to-hip ratio, was associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) morbidity 4-7 and mortality, 8-11 which suggests that regional fat adiposity and abdominal fat in particular might contribute to CHD outcome. (ahajournals.org)
- Her preoperative abdominal circumference was 194 cm, which made supine positioning difficult. (springeropen.com)
- Her preoperative abdominal circumference was 194 cm, and she could not assume a supine position. (springeropen.com)
- A consistent negative association between waist circumference and pulmonary function has been demonstrated in normal weight, overweight and obese subjects, suggesting that the fat mass stored in the abdominal cavity, particularly visceral fat, most likely directly impedes the descent of the diaphragm leading to primarily restrictive respiration impairment. (springer.com)
- Likewise, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and waist-to-hip ratio can be used to estimate the abdominal visceral fat measurement [ 12 ]. (ophrp.org)
- Accordingly, we hypothesized that ADPN would be associated with lung function in a population-based sample and tested how abdominal adiposity, metabolic syndrome, and systemic inflammation influenced this association. (springer.com)
- Increased abdominal adiposity is tightly correlated with magnified metabolic risk factors as increased systolic blood pressure, atherogenic dyslipidemia and glucose intolerance. (pistacch.io)
- These alterations are proportionally correlated with both BMI and abdominal adiposity. (pistacch.io)
- The health risks associated with obesity, including its effects on respiratory function, are linked not only to the presence of overall obesity but mainly to the increased abdominal adiposity that restricts and debilitates vital capacity (VC). (pistacch.io)
- Body mass index (BMI) and sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD) were measured at baseline and used as markers of overall and abdominal obesity. (ahajournals.org)
- However, in the adjusted model, abdominal obesity predicted MS and DM. (endocrineweb.com)
- In the first pattern functional impairment, which is proportional to the degree of obesity is increasing diffusion of carbon monoxide (DLCO) and DLCO/alveolar ventilation (KCO) relationship, with reduced expiratory reserve volume (ERV). (omicsonline.org)
- Comorbid factors included a low ejection fraction of 15% to 34% (mean, 22%) in 18 patients, 1 second forced expiratory volume less than 50% (mean, 38%) in 25, prior laparotomy in 10, and morbid obesity in 22. (elsevier.com)
- 101 The progressive increases in health risks accompanied obesity are related, not only to the total amount of body fat, but also to the pattern of fat distribution, especially in the abdominal region. (pistacch.io)
- subjects with abdominal obesity are more prone to develop T2DM, coronary heart disease, gallbladder disease, and certain types of cancer. (pistacch.io)
- Dysfunction in chest wall compliance secondary to obesity is manifested in reduced VC, functional residual capacity (FRC), expiratory reserve volume (ERV) and total lung capacity (TLC) and is associated with increased work of breathing, the situation that possess the obese patient to suffer from exaggerated exertional dyspnea sensation. (pistacch.io)
- Changes in lung volume can occur at early stages of obesity which can be associated with loss of basal lung volume, resulting in reduced functional residual capacity and expiratory reserve volume. (pistacch.io)
- The deterioration in respiratory parameters and mechanics is magnified with the presence of abdominal obesity and increased WC. (pistacch.io)
- ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate the different components of the resistance of the respiratory system, respiratory muscle strength and to investigate the occurrence of expiratory flow limitation (EFL) in patients with morbid obesity (MO) when seated. (bvsalud.org)
- Abdominal obesity and particularly visceral obesity is the key feature of metabolic syndrome that is also associated with many chronic diseases, particularly cardiovascular, and respiratory diseases [ 10 ]. (ophrp.org)
- Diseases restricting lower thoracic/abdominal volume (e.g. obesity, diaphragmatic hernia, or the presence of ascites). (wikipedia.org)
- CLINICAL REHABILITATION IMPACT: Our study suggests that the use of abdominal binders could reproduce in sitting position the positive effect of supine position on diaphragm, that could work at a more favorable point of its length tension curve. (minervamedica.it)
- few generalized interventions exist to improve the force generating capacity of the human diaphragm. (frontiersin.org)
- Paralysis of the abdominal musculature impairs the function of the diaphragm. (pugetsound.edu)
- It is hypothesized that deposition of fat tissue in the abdominal wall and around the abdominal organs hampers movement of the diaphragm and reduce the lung expansion during inspiration and reduced lung capacity. (news-medical.net)
- As the diaphragm contracts the abdominal contents descend, causing the girth to increase, while at the same time the chest wall collapses and a tracheal tug is evident as the more mobile tissues of the neck are drawn down towards the thoracic inlet. (alpfmedical.info)
- With a sufficient ZOA, the left hemi-diaphragm is able to regulate and balance thoracic pressure and abdominal pressure so that its dual roles of respiration and stabilization are preserved. (posturalrestoration.com)
- Vital capacity: the volume of air breathed out after the deepest inhalation. (wikipedia.org)
- Plasma adiponectin levels were inversely correlated with forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV 1 ) per forced vital capacity in both men and women. (medsci.org)
- No significant relationships were observed between AC and spirometric parameters such as % predicted forced vital capacity (FVC), % predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV 1 ) and FEV 1 /FVC. (medsci.org)
- Additional trials were performed to derive respiratory functional parameters (vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in the first second) in sitting and in supine position. (minervamedica.it)
- RESULTS: Supine position increases vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in the first second. (minervamedica.it)
- Forced vital capacity (FVC), when expressed in litres, follows a pathognomonic pattern characterised by an ascending phase, a plateau and a descending phase during the course of the disease [ 10 - 15 ]. (ersjournals.com)
- Incidental emphysema quantified using CT scan was significantly associated with a more rapid decline in forced vital capacity in the population with normative spirometric values. (dovepress.com)
- Therefore, respiratory function tests evidence of a restrictive syndrome usually associated with a decrease from 50 to 25% of vital capacity and forced expiratory volume reduction per second. (omicsonline.org)
- The vital-age test battery consisted of 6 coronary heart disease risk factors (systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, abdominal girth, and hematocrit) and 5 physical-performance variables (oxygen uptake and heart rate at lactate threshold, side-to-side stepping, 1-leg balance with eyes closed, and forced expiratory volume). (humankinetics.com)
- The results of Forced Vital Capacity and Forced Expiratory Volume at one second for all subjects showed improvements in the intervention phase over the baseline phase. (kptjournal.org)
- That study found no significant changes in forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume (FEV 1.0 ), arterial oxygen tension (PaO 2 ), alveolar-arterial oxygen difference ((Aa)DO 2 ) or frequency and severity of atelectasis as measured first postoperative day. (biomedcentral.com)
- The primary endpoint of the study is the forced vital capacity on the first postoperative day. (beds.ac.uk)
- We measured total ADPN in serum, forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume during the 1st second (FEV 1 ) in 529 participants (median 50 years, 54.6% males) recruited from the general population. (springer.com)
- 1-3 Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) patients have a diminution in forced vital capacity and the forced expiratory volume in 1 s on the first postoperative day. (asahq.org)
- Forced vital capacity for predicted values). (biomedcentral.com)
- There was also an 8.7% increase in forced vital capacity, a measure of lung volume, from baseline through week 120. (fool.com)
- Forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV 1 ) and forced vital capacity (FVC) were measured. (biomedcentral.com)
- The forced vital capacity (FVC) test measures the total amount of air that the lungs can expel. (medbroadcast.com)
- Secondary outcome measure was the postoperative pulmonary function assessed by peak expiratory flow, forced expiratory volume in 1 second, and forced vital capacity, and by the need for postoperative respiratory support. (semanticscholar.org)
- 001). There was no statistically significant difference in the decrease in peak expiratory flow, forced expiratory volume in 1 second, and forced vital capacity (expressed as % change from baseline) between the deep and the moderate NMB group. (semanticscholar.org)
- Foram avaliadas no pré e pós-operatório as medidas capacidade vital forçada (CVF), volume expiratório forçado no primeiro segundo (VEF1), pressão inspiratória máxima (PIm), pressão expiratória máxima (PEm), saturação periférica de oxigénio (SpO2) e frequência respiratória (FR). (bvsalud.org)
- Las mediciones de la capacidad vital forzada (CVF), el volumen espiratorio forzado en el primer segundo (VEF1), la presión inspiratoria máxima (PIm), la presión espiratoria máxima (PEm), la saturación periférica de oxigeno (SpO2) y la frecuencia respiratoria (FR) se evaluaron GI que en el GC antes y después de la cirugía. (bvsalud.org)
- Pulmonary function test demonstrates a decrease in the forced vital capacity. (wikipedia.org)
- The total lung capacity (TLC), functional residual capacity (FRC), residual volume (RV), and vital capacity (VC) are all values that can be tested using this method. (wikipedia.org)
- Further evaluation of a person's respiratory function can be done by assessing the minute ventilation, forced vital capacity (FVC), and forced expiratory volume (FEV). (wikipedia.org)
Less than 501
Planning for open abdominal surgery1
- Method: Prospective study in 2 years of anthropometric and functional parameters breathing in MO, determining age, body mass index (BMI), waist, hip, wai/hip index, blood gas values, flow-volume curve, plethysmography, diffusion of CO and maximum inspiratory (MIP) and expiratory (PEM) pressures. (omicsonline.org)
- Resting ventilation, breathing pattern, symptoms, rib cage and abdominal volumes were recorded at rest and during symptom limited cycle ergometry. (biomedsearch.com)
- However, it is currently not known whether patients undergoing open abdominal surgery might benefit from intraoperative variable ventilation. (beds.ac.uk)
- We hypothesize that VV improves lung function and reduces systemic inflammatory response compared to CV in patients receiving mechanical ventilation during general anesthesia for open abdominal surgery longer than 3 hours. (beds.ac.uk)
- A 50-year-old male patient is intubated with a size 8 endotracheal tube and is receiving volume-controlled A/C ventilation. (respiratorytherapyzone.com)
- A 70-year-old male patient is intubated and receiving mechanical ventilation in the volume controlled A/C mode. (respiratorytherapyzone.com)
- Restrictive lung diseases (or restrictive ventilatory defects) are a category of extrapulmonary, pleural, or parenchymal respiratory diseases that restrict lung expansion, resulting in a decreased lung volume, an increased work of breathing, and inadequate ventilation and/or oxygenation. (wikipedia.org)
- To investigate associations between preoperative variables and postoperative pulmonary complications (PPC) in elective upper abdominal surgery. (scielo.br)
- Despite recent advances in preoperative management, postoperative respiratory morbidity is still a common problem, especially following upper abdominal surgery. (scielo.br)
- Larson CM, Ratzer ER, Davis-Merritt D, Clark JR (2009) The effect of abdominal binders on postoperative pulmonary function. (springermedizin.de)
- Atelectasis and the decrease in pulmonary gas volume can persist during the postoperative period. (beds.ac.uk)
- However, benefits of unilateral paravertebral nerve blockade (PVB) for thoracic surgery and bilateral PVB for upper abdominal procedures have been reported, including ease of performance, decreased postoperative narcotic requirement, improved pulmonary mechanics, increased patient satisfaction, decreased pain scores, and a blunting in the increase of cortisol and glucose in the perioperative period. (asahq.org)
- 1 The incidence of DIOS is greater in the adult population (35.5/1,000 patient years) than in the pediatric population (6.2/1,000 patient years) with CF. 2 Constipation in patients with CF is defined as (1) abdominal pain and/or distention, (2) reduced frequency of bowel movements, and (3) symptom relief with laxatives. (jaoa.org)
- The aim of this study was to follow prospectively a group of patients undergoing an elective upper abdominal surgery to identify those factors associated with an increased risk of developing PPCs using a standard preoperative evaluation. (scielo.br)
- This study was performed on 408 consecutive patients undergoing elective abdominal surgery at the Federal University of São Paulo s teaching hospital. (scielo.br)
- All patients were referred for a preoperative assessment (between January 1992 and December 1992), after having been scheduled for elective upper abdominal surgery. (scielo.br)
- In patients with COPD, forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV 1 ) is progressively reduced as the disease develops. (medsci.org)
- The present case demonstrates that two-step laparoscopic surgery may be a safe and feasible surgical procedure for high-risk patients with synchronous intra-abdominal malignancies. (hindawi.com)
- However, laparoscopic treatment strategies for synchronous intra-abdominal malignancies have not yet been standardized, especially in patients with severe pulmonary comorbidity. (hindawi.com)
- Cheifetz O, Lucy SD, Overend TJ, Crowe J (2010) The effect of abdominal support on functional outcomes in patients following major abdominal surgery: a randomized controlled trial. (springermedizin.de)
- Computed tomography (CT) and abdominal ultrasonography were performed in all patients and 68% of the patients underwent coronary angiography. (ispub.com)
- METHODS: Using optoelectronic plethysmography, total and regional chest wall volumes were measured non-invasively in 20 stable patients with COPD (mean (SD) forced expiratory volume in 1 second 43.6 (11.6)% predicted) and dynamic hyperinflation was tracked breath by breath to test if this was the mechanism of exercise limitation. (biomedsearch.com)
- RESULTS: End expiratory chest wall volume increased by a mean (SE) of 592 (80) ml in 12 patients (hyperinflators) but decreased by 462 (103) ml in eight (euvolumics). (biomedsearch.com)
- The maximal abdominal pressure was 22.1 (9.0) cm H(2)O in euvolumic patients and 7.6 (2.6) cm H(2)O in hyperinflators. (biomedsearch.com)
- We aim to provide a position paper on Operative Room (OR) prevention of SSI in patients presenting with intra-abdominal infection to be considered a future addendum to the well-known World Society of Emergency Surgery (WSES) Guidelines on the management of intra-abdominal infections. (biomedcentral.com)
- The optimal knowledge of the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic characteristics of antibiotics helps to decide when additional intraoperative antibiotic doses should be administered in patients with intra-abdominal infections undergoing emergency surgery to prevent SSI. (biomedcentral.com)
- The current position paper offers an extensive overview of the available evidence regarding surgical site infection control and prevention in patients having intra-abdominal infections. (biomedcentral.com)
- Purpose: Cardio-respiratory physiotherapy for patients undergoing abdominal surgery has been found to be beneficial in improving lung function post-operatively and in the prevention and treatment of post-operative pulmonary complications (PPCs). (uct.ac.za)
- Patients admitted for open abdominal surgery via midline incision were eligible for the trial. (uct.ac.za)
- The proportion of patients who achieved ≥50% reduction from baseline in the sum of volumes of target lesions increased from 52.94% at 3 months, to 58.82% and 66.67% at months 6 and 12, respectively. (biomedcentral.com)
- A study of 13 patients with gastric tube in place after esophageal resection: use of omeprazole to decrease gastric acidity and volume. (saladgaffe.cf)
- Regional chest wall volumes during exercise in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. (biomedsearch.com)
- Accurate measurement of chest wall volume can identify the different patterns of respiratory muscle activation during exercise. (biomedsearch.com)
- They performed apical, chest, abdominal and basal breathing exercises. (thefreelibrary.com)
- Laparoscopic surgery is recognized as a general surgical procedure for intra-abdominal malignancies [ 1 , 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
- Background: Despite the fact that stent grafting has been presently in increasing use in the repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) with endovascular approach, our aim is to further indicate that traditional surgical correction is a safe method. (ispub.com)
- The first succesful surgical treatment of the abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) was performed by Dubost, Alay, and Oeconomos in 1951 1 . (ispub.com)
- This mandates the need for further research investigating the abdominal surgical field and the use of devices to improve lung function, such as the Blow Bottle, as literature is scant and outdated, and sorely lacking in the resource constraint South African hospital settings. (uct.ac.za)
- There were three major clinical risk factors for pulmonary complications following upper abdominal surgery: chronic pulmonary disease, comorbidity, and surgery lasting more than 210 minutes. (scielo.br)
- Background: Upper abdominal surgery is associated with a high incidence of pulmonary complications. (bvsalud.org)
- The incidence of all types of SSI following abdominal surgery can reach 14% of all hospital-acquired infections and the most common form is the incisional superficial SSI, which is often the first to appear and is easy to diagnose [ 9 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- General anesthesia promotes pulmonary atelectasis [ 1 ] and this effect is further enhanced during open abdominal surgery [ 2 ], mainly due to the use of muscle paralysis. (beds.ac.uk)
- However, evidence to support the use of Blow Bottles in the post-operative management of abdominal surgery is minimal, with few studies reporting significant positive effects especially when compared to conventional cardio-respiratory physiotherapy techniques. (uct.ac.za)
- Results: A total of 19 participants were enrolled in the study, n=11 (CG) and n=8 (IG), predominantly female (n=14) and admitted for cancer related abdominal surgery (n=9). (uct.ac.za)
- With the thoracic abdominal organs so occupied, the mediastinum and lungs suffer compression. (omicsonline.org)
- The common theme is to avoid abdominal compression. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
- Comparison Of Abdominal Compression Devices In Persons With Abdominal " by Michaela de Groot, Jennifer Swartz et al. (pugetsound.edu)
- The purpose of this study is to compare the effectiveness and usability of alternative commercial abdominal compression garments with the usual medical device. (pugetsound.edu)