Fatty tissue in the region of the ABDOMEN. It includes the ABDOMINAL SUBCUTANEOUS FAT and the INTRA-ABDOMINAL FAT.
Fatty tissue inside the ABDOMINAL CAVITY, including visceral fat and retroperitoneal fat. It is the most metabolically active fat in the body and easily accessible for LIPOLYSIS. Increased visceral fat is associated with metabolic complications of OBESITY.
That portion of the body that lies between the THORAX and the PELVIS.
Fatty tissue under the SKIN in the region of the ABDOMEN.
Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.
The glyceryl esters of a fatty acid, or of a mixture of fatty acids. They are generally odorless, colorless, and tasteless if pure, but they may be flavored according to origin. Fats are insoluble in water, soluble in most organic solvents. They occur in animal and vegetable tissue and are generally obtained by boiling or by extraction under pressure. They are important in the diet (DIETARY FATS) as a source of energy. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.
Fatty tissue under the SKIN through out the body.
Deposits of ADIPOSE TISSUE throughout the body. The pattern of fat deposits in the body regions is an indicator of health status. Excess ABDOMINAL FAT increases health risks more than excess fat around the hips or thighs, therefore, WAIST-HIP RATIO is often used to determine health risks.
The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.
The amount of fat or lipid deposit at a site or an organ in the body, an indicator of body fat status.
A condition of having excess fat in the abdomen. Abdominal obesity is typically defined as waist circumferences of 40 inches or more in men and 35 inches or more in women. Abdominal obesity raises the risk of developing disorders, such as diabetes, hypertension and METABOLIC SYNDROME X.
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
A noninvasive method for assessing BODY COMPOSITION. It is based on the differential absorption of X-RAYS (or GAMMA RAYS) by different tissues such as bone, fat and other soft tissues. The source of (X-ray or gamma-ray) photon beam is generated either from radioisotopes such as GADOLINIUM 153, IODINE 125, or Americanium 241 which emit GAMMA RAYS in the appropriate range; or from an X-ray tube which produces X-RAYS in the desired range. It is primarily used for quantitating BONE MINERAL CONTENT, especially for the diagnosis of OSTEOPOROSIS, and also in measuring BONE MINERALIZATION.
Radiographic visualization of the body between the thorax and the pelvis, i.e., within the peritoneal cavity.
An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
The measurement around the body at the level of the ABDOMEN and just above the hip bone. The measurement is usually taken immediately after exhalation.
Expected weight of a healthy normal individual based on age, sex, and height. Thus, a malnourished person would weigh less than their ideal body weight.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
The waist circumference measurement divided by the hip circumference measurement. For both men and women, a waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) of 1.0 or higher is considered "at risk" for undesirable health consequences, such as heart disease and ailments associated with OVERWEIGHT. A healthy WHR is 0.90 or less for men, and 0.80 or less for women. (National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, 2004)
Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.
Glucose in blood.
Periodic movement of human settlement from one geographical location to another.
The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.
A nutritional reservoir of fatty tissue found mainly in insects and amphibians.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
Loose connective tissue lying under the DERMIS, which binds SKIN loosely to subjacent tissues. It may contain a pad of ADIPOCYTES, which vary in number according to the area of the body and vary in size according to the nutritional state.
The physical characteristics of the body, including the mode of performance of functions, the activity of metabolic processes, the manner and degree of reactions to stimuli, and power of resistance to the attack of pathogenic organisms.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
Any of the large interior organs in any one of the three great cavities of the body, especially in the abdomen.
Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
Decrease in existing BODY WEIGHT.
A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Leptin serves as a feedback signal from fat cells to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM in regulation of food intake, energy balance, and fat storage.
A group of sporadic, familial and/or inherited, degenerative, and infectious disease processes, linked by the common theme of abnormal protein folding and deposition of AMYLOID. As the amyloid deposits enlarge they displace normal tissue structures, causing disruption of function. Various signs and symptoms depend on the location and size of the deposits.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
A state of insufficient flesh on the body usually defined as having a body weight less than skeletal and physical standards. Depending on age, sex, and genetic background, a BODY MASS INDEX of less than 18.5 is considered as underweight.
Triglycerides are the most common type of fat in the body, stored in fat cells and used as energy; they are measured in blood tests to assess heart disease risk, with high levels often resulting from dietary habits, obesity, physical inactivity, smoking, and alcohol consumption.
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is above certain standard of acceptable or desirable weight. In the scale of BODY MASS INDEX, overweight is defined as having a BMI of 25.0-29.9 kg/m2. Overweight may or may not be due to increases in body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE), hence overweight does not equal "over fat".
A cluster of metabolic risk factors for CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES and TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS. The major components of metabolic syndrome X include excess ABDOMINAL FAT; atherogenic DYSLIPIDEMIA; HYPERTENSION; HYPERGLYCEMIA; INSULIN RESISTANCE; a proinflammatory state; and a prothrombotic (THROMBOSIS) state. (from AHA/NHLBI/ADA Conference Proceedings, Circulation 2004; 109:551-556)
Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.
Generic term for diseases caused by an abnormal metabolic process. It can be congenital due to inherited enzyme abnormality (METABOLISM, INBORN ERRORS) or acquired due to disease of an endocrine organ or failure of a metabolically important organ such as the liver. (Stedman, 26th ed)
A collection of heterogenous conditions resulting from defective LIPID METABOLISM and characterized by ADIPOSE TISSUE atrophy. Often there is redistribution of body fat resulting in peripheral fat wasting and central adiposity. They include generalized, localized, congenital, and acquired lipodystrophy.
Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.
A test to determine the ability of an individual to maintain HOMEOSTASIS of BLOOD GLUCOSE. It includes measuring blood glucose levels in a fasting state, and at prescribed intervals before and after oral glucose intake (75 or 100 g) or intravenous infusion (0.5 g/kg).
Blocking of a blood vessel by fat deposits in the circulation. It is often seen after fractures of large bones or after administration of CORTICOSTEROIDS.
Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Agents that increase energy expenditure and weight loss by neural and chemical regulation. Beta-adrenergic agents and serotoninergic drugs have been experimentally used in patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) to treat obesity.
A 30-kDa COMPLEMENT C1Q-related protein, the most abundant gene product secreted by FAT CELLS of the white ADIPOSE TISSUE. Adiponectin modulates several physiological processes, such as metabolism of GLUCOSE and FATTY ACIDS, and immune responses. Decreased plasma adiponectin levels are associated with INSULIN RESISTANCE; TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS; OBESITY; and ATHEROSCLEROSIS.
The creation of a visual display of the inside of the entire body of a human or animal for the purposes of diagnostic evaluation. This is most commonly achieved by using MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING; or POSITRON EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY.
Polypeptides produced by the ADIPOCYTES. They include LEPTIN; ADIPONECTIN; RESISTIN; and many cytokines of the immune system, such as TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR-ALPHA; INTERLEUKIN-6; and COMPLEMENT FACTOR D (also known as ADIPSIN). They have potent autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine functions.
The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
Lipid infiltration of the hepatic parenchymal cells resulting in a yellow-colored liver. The abnormal lipid accumulation is usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES, either as a single large droplet or multiple small droplets. Fatty liver is caused by an imbalance in the metabolism of FATTY ACIDS.
A diet designed to cause an individual to lose weight.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
The condition of weighing two, three, or more times the ideal weight, so called because it is associated with many serious and life-threatening disorders. In the BODY MASS INDEX, morbid obesity is defined as having a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
The period before MENOPAUSE. In premenopausal women, the climacteric transition from full sexual maturity to cessation of ovarian cycle takes place between the age of late thirty and early fifty.
The consumption of edible substances.
Cells in the body that store FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. WHITE ADIPOCYTES are the predominant type and found mostly in the abdominal cavity and subcutaneous tissue. BROWN ADIPOCYTES are thermogenic cells that can be found in newborns of some species and hibernating mammals.
Fats containing one or more double bonds, as from oleic acid, an unsaturated fatty acid.
The physical measurements of a body.
The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
Unsaturated fats or oils used in foods or as a food.
The physiological period following the MENOPAUSE, the permanent cessation of the menstrual life.
Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
Genetic loci associated with a QUANTITATIVE TRAIT.
The ability to carry out daily tasks and perform physical activities in a highly functional state, often as a result of physical conditioning.
Persons living in the United States of Mexican (MEXICAN AMERICANS), Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, or other Spanish culture or origin. The concept does not include Brazilian Americans or Portuguese Americans.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
A condition in which the death of adipose tissue results in neutral fats being split into fatty acids and glycerol.
Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.
Lipid-protein complexes involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in the body. They are spherical particles consisting of a hydrophobic core of TRIGLYCERIDES and CHOLESTEROL ESTERS surrounded by a layer of hydrophilic free CHOLESTEROL; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and APOLIPOPROTEINS. Lipoproteins are classified by their varying buoyant density and sizes.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the southeastern and eastern areas of the Asian continent.
The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.
Removal and examination of tissue obtained through a transdermal needle inserted into the specific region, organ, or tissue being analyzed.
PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.

Abdominal fat and hip fracture risk in the elderly: the Dubbo Osteoporosis Epidemiology Study. (1/459)

BACKGROUND: Fat mass, which is a major component of body weight, is directly related to bone mineral density and reduced fracture risk. It is not known whether abdominal fat is associated with hip fracture. The present study was designed to examine the association between abdominal fat and hip fracture in women and men aged 60+ years. METHODS: This was a nested case-control study with one fracture case being matched with two controls of the same age. In women 63 cases were matched with 126 controls, and in men 26 cases were matched with 52 controls. Hip fracture was confirmed by X-ray and personal interview. Other measurements included weight, height, body mass index (BMI), abdominal fat, and femoral neck bone density (FNBMD). Conditional logistic regression model was used to analyse data. RESULTS: The odds ratio of hip fracture risk associated with each 10% lower abdominal fat was 1.5 (95% CI, 1.1 to 2.1) in women and 1.2 (95% CI, 0.7 to 2.0) in men. However after adjusting for FNBMD or body weight, the abdominal fat-fracture association was no longer statistically significant. Similarly, body weight and BMI was each significantly associated with hip fracture risk (in women), but after taking with account the effect of FNBMD, the association become statistically non-significant. CONCLUSION: Lower abdominal fat was associated with an increased risk of hip fracture in elderly women, but the association was not independent of FNBMD or weight. The contribution of abdominal fat to hip fracture risk is likely to be modest.  (+info)

Inactivity, exercise, and visceral fat. STRRIDE: a randomized, controlled study of exercise intensity and amount. (2/459)

Despite the importance of randomized, dose-response studies for proper evaluation of effective clinical interventions, there have been no dose-response studies on the effects of exercise amount on abdominal obesity, a major risk factor for metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. One hundred seventy-five sedentary, overweight men and women with mild to moderate dyslipidemia were randomly assigned to participate for 6 mo in a control group or for approximately 8 mo in one of three exercise groups: 1) low amount, moderate intensity, equivalent to walking 12 miles/wk (19.2 km) at 40-55% of peak oxygen consumption; 2) low amount, vigorous intensity, equivalent to jogging 12 miles/wk at 65-80% of peak oxygen consumption; or 3) high amount, vigorous intensity, equivalent to jogging 20 miles/wk (32.0 km). Computed tomography scans were analyzed for abdominal fat. Controls gained visceral fat (8.6 +/- 17.2%; P = 0.001). The equivalent of 11 miles of exercise per week, at either intensity, prevented significant accumulation of visceral fat. The highest amount of exercise resulted in decreased visceral (-6.9 +/- 20.8%; P = 0.038) and subcutaneous (-7.0 +/- 10.8%; P < 0.001) abdominal fat. Significant gains in visceral fat over only 6 mo emphasize the high cost of continued inactivity. A modest exercise program, consistent with recommendations from the Centers for Disease Control/American College of Sports Medicine (CDC/ACSM), prevented significant increases in visceral fat. Importantly, a modest increase over the CDC/ACSM exercise recommendations resulted in significant decreases in visceral, subcutaneous, and total abdominal fat without changes in caloric intake.  (+info)

Increased plasma adiponectin in response to pioglitazone does not result from increased gene expression. (3/459)

Plasma levels of adiponectin are lower in obese and insulin-resistant subjects compared with lean and insulin-sensitive ones. Thiazolidinediones increase plasma adiponectin levels in diabetic subjects, although the mechanism of this increased plasma adiponectin has not been well studied. In the present study, we compared the plasma levels and adipose tissue expression of adiponectin in subjects with normal (NGT) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and also studied the effects of metformin and pioglitazone on plasma and adipose tissue mRNA level of adiponectin in IGT subjects. IGT subjects had lower plasma adiponectin levels compared with NGT subjects, and similarly IGT subjects had lower adiponectin mRNA levels. In contrast, the increased plasma levels of adiponectin in response to pioglitazone were not associated with increased adiponectin expression in adipose tissue. Metformin did not cause any change in plasma or expression levels of adiponectin. Other adipokines were examined, and both pioglitazone and metformin decreased plasma levels of resistin in IGT subjects, and pioglitazone (but not metformin) decreased plasma levels of leptin. These data suggest that pioglitazone increases plasma adiponectin levels by posttranscriptional regulation in contrast to transcriptional regulation of adiponectin in relation to insulin sensitivity in NGT vs. IGT subjects.  (+info)

Rats with steroid-induced polycystic ovaries develop hypertension and increased sympathetic nervous system activity. (4/459)

BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex endocrine and metabolic disorder associated with ovulatory dysfunction, abdominal obesity, hyperandrogenism, hypertension, and insulin resistance. METHODS: Our objectives in this study were (1) to estimate sympathetic-adrenal medullary (SAM) activity by measuring mean systolic blood pressure (MSAP) in rats with estradiol valerate (EV)-induced PCO; (2) to estimate alpha1a and alpha2a adrenoceptor expression in a brain area thought to mediate central effects on MSAP regulation and in the adrenal medulla; (3) to assess hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis regulation by measuring adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone (CORT) levels in response to novel-environment stress; and (4) to measure abdominal obesity, sex steroids, and insulin sensitivity. RESULTS: The PCO rats had significantly higher MSAP than controls, higher levels of alpha1a adrenoceptor mRNA in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), and lower levels of alpha2a adrenoceptor mRNA in the PVN and adrenal medulla. After exposure to stress, PCO rats had higher ACTH and CORT levels. Plasma testosterone concentrations were lower in PCO rats, and no differences in insulin sensitivity or in the weight of intraabdominal fat depots were found. CONCLUSION: Thus, rats with EV-induced PCO develop hypertension and increased sympathetic and HPA-axis activity without reduced insulin sensitivity, obesity, or hyperandrogenism. These findings may have implications for mechanisms underlying hypertension in PCOS.  (+info)

High prevalence of metabolic syndrome among men in Okinawa. (5/459)

We determined the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) in Okinawa from cross-sectional results of an annual physical checkup. We also calculated the homeostasis model assessment ratio (HOMA-R) as an index of insulin resistance, and examined the relationship between HOMA-R and MS. We studied 3,839 men (mean age 49.2 years) and 3,146 women (mean age 50.0 years), a total of 6,985 people aged from 30 to 79 years, who underwent an annual physical checkup in our hospital between May 2003 and March 2004. The diagnosis of MS was based on the criteria in the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III: ATP III). Abdominal circumference was assessed in accordance with the diagnostic criteria of the Japan Society for the Study of Obesity. The prevalence of MS was 30.2% in men and 10.3% in women. Mean HOMA-R significantly increased with an increase in the number of ATP III risk factors. Logistic regression analysis with the independent variables of sex, age, and HOMA-R gave an odds ratio of MS of 3.6 for men, 1.4 for a 10-year age increment, and 2.0 for an elevation of HOMA-R above 1.0.  (+info)

Short-term predictors of abdominal obesity in children. (6/459)

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to examine the short-term tracking of abdominal adiposity in children. METHODS: A total of 918 children (477 boys) aged 6-12 years at baseline were followed-up for 2 years. Central obesity was assessed by waist circumference (WaistC), whereas body fat distribution by waist-to-hip ratio. Maturity was assessed by the Khamis-Roche method. Parental fatness and children's cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) were also evaluated. Multiple and logistic regressions were employed to identify the predictors of BMI and WaistC. RESULTS: Tracking of body fatness and body fat distribution was high (r = 0.69-0.86, P < 0.01). More boys remained obese than girls (P < 0.05), whereas a greater percentage of boys moved to a higher quartile of WaistC after the 2-year follow-up (22.0 vs 14.1%, P < 0.01). Sex, child's maturity and WaistC at baseline, CRF, and maternal BMI explained 76% of the variability in BMI and WaistC at the follow-up (n = 290). Children with high WaistC at baseline and low CRF presented 1.9- and 4.3-fold increased risk of remaining in the upper quartile of WaistC at the follow-up (P < 0.01; n = 552). CONCLUSION: Youth with increased WaistC at baseline and low CRF presented an increased chance of maintaining central obesity at the follow-up. More boys than girls moved into a higher quartile of abdominal obesity during the 2-year follow-up period and this should be taken into account in designing programmes for childhood obesity.  (+info)

Effect of leptin on insulin resistance of muscle--direct or indirect? (7/459)

We examined the effect of leptin on the insulin resistance in skeletal muscles by measuring glucose transport. Male Wistar rats were fed rat chow or high-fat diets for 30 days. Before sacrifice, rats fed high-fat diet were subcutaneously injected with leptin (1 mg/kg b.w.) for 3 days. The glucose transport in epitrochlearis and soleus muscles did not differ in the experimental groups under basal conditions, however these values decreased significantly in the rats fed high-fat diet under insulin stimulation (p<0.01). Leptin treatment recovered the decreased glucose transport in epitrochlearis (p<0.05) and soleus muscles (p=0.08). Triglyceride concentrations in soleus muscles were increased significantly in the rats fed high-fat diet as compared to rats fed chow diet (p<0.01), and were decreased significantly by leptin treatment (p<0.01). The glucose transport was measured under basal conditions and after 60 microU/ml of insulin treatment with or without 50 ng/ml of leptin. Leptin had no direct stimulatory effect on glucose transport under both basal and insulin-stimulated conditions in vitro. These results demonstrate that leptin injection to rats fed high-fat diet recovered impaired insulin responsiveness of skeletal muscles and muscle triglyceride concentrations. However, there was no direct stimulatory effect of leptin on insulin sensitivity of skeletal muscles in vitro.  (+info)

Administration of recombinant human GHRH-1,44-amide for 3 months reduces abdominal visceral fat mass and increases physical performance measures in postmenopausal women. (8/459)

OBJECTIVE: A recent study indicated that twice-daily s.c. administration of a high dose of recombinant human GHRH-1,44-amide (GHRH) for 90 days can alter body composition in healthy older men. No data establish whether this is also true in postmenopausal women. The present study tests the hypothesis that the same GHRH regimen applied in women will: (i) elevate both IGF-I and GH concentrations; and (ii) reduce abdominal visceral fat mass, augment total body water and enhance functional performance. DESIGN: Ten postmenopausal volunteers underwent baseline study and then received 1 mg GHRH twice daily s.c. for 3 months. METHODS: Statistical comparisons were made with pre-intervention baseline data. RESULTS: GHRH administration stimulated: (i) a mean 98 +/- 14% elevation of overnight GH concentrations after administration of the peptide for 1 and 3 months (P < 0.005); (ii) a sustained 71 +/- 3.5% rise in IGF-I concentrations over the interval from 2 weeks to 3 months (P < 0.0012); (iii) a 16 +/- 7% reduction in abdominal visceral fat mass (P = 0.029) and a 14 +/- 5% increase in tri-tiated water space (P < 0.025); (iv) an abbreviation of the times required to walk 30 m (P = 0.015) and ascend two flights of stairs (P = 0.003). Most (70%) subjects experienced local skin reactivity. There were no systemic adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: A 3-month regimen of GHRH supplementation in postmenopausal women can stimulate GH and IGF-I production, reduce abdominal visceral fat and improve selected measures of physical performance, while inducing significant local skin reactivity.  (+info)

Abdominal fat, also known as visceral fat, is the fat that is stored in the abdominal cavity and surrounds the internal organs such as the liver, pancreas, and intestines. It is different from subcutaneous fat, which is the fat located just under the skin, and is often measured using techniques such as CT scans or MRI to assess health risks. Excess abdominal fat has been linked to an increased risk of various health conditions, including type 2 diabetes, heart disease, and stroke.

Intra-abdominal fat, also known as visceral fat, is the fat that is stored within the abdominal cavity and surrounds the internal organs such as the liver, pancreas, and intestines. It's different from subcutaneous fat, which is the fat found just under the skin. Intra-abdominal fat is metabolically active and has been linked to an increased risk of various health conditions, including type 2 diabetes, heart disease, high blood pressure, and stroke. The accumulation of intra-abdominal fat can be influenced by factors such as diet, physical activity, genetics, and age. Waist circumference and imaging tests, such as CT scans and MRIs, are commonly used to measure intra-abdominal fat.

The abdomen refers to the portion of the body that lies between the thorax (chest) and the pelvis. It is a musculo-fascial cavity containing the digestive, urinary, and reproductive organs. The abdominal cavity is divided into several regions and quadrants for medical description and examination purposes. These include the upper and lower abdomen, as well as nine quadrants formed by the intersection of the midline and a horizontal line drawn at the level of the umbilicus (navel).

The major organs located within the abdominal cavity include:

1. Stomach - muscular organ responsible for initial digestion of food
2. Small intestine - long, coiled tube where most nutrient absorption occurs
3. Large intestine - consists of the colon and rectum; absorbs water and stores waste products
4. Liver - largest internal organ, involved in protein synthesis, detoxification, and metabolism
5. Pancreas - secretes digestive enzymes and hormones such as insulin
6. Spleen - filters blood and removes old red blood cells
7. Kidneys - pair of organs responsible for filtering waste products from the blood and producing urine
8. Adrenal glands - sit atop each kidney, produce hormones that regulate metabolism, immune response, and stress response

The abdomen is an essential part of the human body, playing a crucial role in digestion, absorption, and elimination of food and waste materials, as well as various metabolic processes.

Subcutaneous fat in the abdominal area refers to the adipose tissue located beneath the skin and above the abdominal muscles in the stomach region. It is the layer of fat that you can pinch between your fingers. While some level of subcutaneous fat is normal and healthy, excessive amounts can increase the risk of various health conditions such as obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and metabolic disorders.

It's worth noting that there is another type of fat called visceral fat, which is found deeper within the abdominal cavity, surrounding the internal organs. Visceral fat is often referred to as "active" fat because it releases hormones and inflammatory substances that can have a negative impact on health, even if overall body weight is normal. High levels of visceral fat are associated with an increased risk of developing conditions such as metabolic syndrome, heart disease, and certain types of cancer.

While subcutaneous fat is less metabolically active than visceral fat, excessive amounts can still contribute to health problems. Therefore, it's important to maintain a healthy body weight through regular exercise and a balanced diet.

Dietary fats, also known as fatty acids, are a major nutrient that the body needs for energy and various functions. They are an essential component of cell membranes and hormones, and they help the body absorb certain vitamins. There are several types of dietary fats:

1. Saturated fats: These are typically solid at room temperature and are found in animal products such as meat, butter, and cheese, as well as tropical oils like coconut and palm oil. Consuming a high amount of saturated fats can raise levels of unhealthy LDL cholesterol and increase the risk of heart disease.
2. Unsaturated fats: These are typically liquid at room temperature and can be further divided into monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats. Monounsaturated fats, found in foods such as olive oil, avocados, and nuts, can help lower levels of unhealthy LDL cholesterol while maintaining levels of healthy HDL cholesterol. Polyunsaturated fats, found in foods such as fatty fish, flaxseeds, and walnuts, have similar effects on cholesterol levels and also provide essential omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids that the body cannot produce on its own.
3. Trans fats: These are unsaturated fats that have been chemically modified to be solid at room temperature. They are often found in processed foods such as baked goods, fried foods, and snack foods. Consuming trans fats can raise levels of unhealthy LDL cholesterol and lower levels of healthy HDL cholesterol, increasing the risk of heart disease.

It is recommended to limit intake of saturated and trans fats and to consume more unsaturated fats as part of a healthy diet.

Fats, also known as lipids, are a broad group of organic compounds that are insoluble in water but soluble in nonpolar organic solvents. In the body, fats serve as a major fuel source, providing twice the amount of energy per gram compared to carbohydrates and proteins. They also play crucial roles in maintaining cell membrane structure and function, serving as precursors for various signaling molecules, and assisting in the absorption and transport of fat-soluble vitamins.

There are several types of fats:

1. Saturated fats: These fats contain no double bonds between their carbon atoms and are typically solid at room temperature. They are mainly found in animal products, such as meat, dairy, and eggs, as well as in some plant-based sources like coconut oil and palm kernel oil. Consuming high amounts of saturated fats can raise levels of harmful low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol in the blood, increasing the risk of heart disease.
2. Unsaturated fats: These fats contain one or more double bonds between their carbon atoms and are usually liquid at room temperature. They can be further divided into monounsaturated fats (one double bond) and polyunsaturated fats (two or more double bonds). Unsaturated fats, especially those from plant sources, tend to have beneficial effects on heart health by lowering LDL cholesterol levels and increasing high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels.
3. Trans fats: These are unsaturated fats that have undergone a process called hydrogenation, which adds hydrogen atoms to the double bonds, making them more saturated and solid at room temperature. Partially hydrogenated trans fats are commonly found in processed foods, such as baked goods, fried foods, and snack foods. Consumption of trans fats has been linked to increased risks of heart disease, stroke, and type 2 diabetes.
4. Omega-3 fatty acids: These are a specific type of polyunsaturated fat that is essential for human health. They cannot be synthesized by the body and must be obtained through diet. Omega-3 fatty acids have been shown to have numerous health benefits, including reducing inflammation, improving heart health, and supporting brain function.
5. Omega-6 fatty acids: These are another type of polyunsaturated fat that is essential for human health. They can be synthesized by the body but must also be obtained through diet. While omega-6 fatty acids are necessary for various bodily functions, excessive consumption can contribute to inflammation and other health issues. It is recommended to maintain a balanced ratio of omega-3 to omega-6 fatty acids in the diet.

Adipose tissue, also known as fatty tissue, is a type of connective tissue that is composed mainly of adipocytes (fat cells). It is found throughout the body, but is particularly abundant in the abdominal cavity, beneath the skin, and around organs such as the heart and kidneys.

Adipose tissue serves several important functions in the body. One of its primary roles is to store energy in the form of fat, which can be mobilized and used as an energy source during periods of fasting or exercise. Adipose tissue also provides insulation and cushioning for the body, and produces hormones that help regulate metabolism, appetite, and reproductive function.

There are two main types of adipose tissue: white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT). WAT is the more common form and is responsible for storing energy as fat. BAT, on the other hand, contains a higher number of mitochondria and is involved in heat production and energy expenditure.

Excessive accumulation of adipose tissue can lead to obesity, which is associated with an increased risk of various health problems such as diabetes, heart disease, and certain types of cancer.

Subcutaneous fat, also known as hypodermic fat, is the layer of fat found beneath the skin and above the muscle fascia, which is the fibrous connective tissue covering the muscles. It serves as an energy reserve, insulation to maintain body temperature, and a cushion to protect underlying structures. Subcutaneous fat is distinct from visceral fat, which is found surrounding internal organs in the abdominal cavity.

Body fat distribution refers to the way in which adipose tissue (fat) is distributed throughout the body. There are two main types of body fat distribution: android or central/abdominal distribution and gynoid or peripheral distribution.

Android or central/abdominal distribution is characterized by a higher proportion of fat deposited in the abdominal area, surrounding internal organs (visceral fat) and between muscle fibers (intramuscular fat). This pattern is more common in men and is associated with an increased risk of metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and cardiovascular disease.

Gynoid or peripheral distribution is characterized by a higher proportion of fat deposited in the hips, thighs, and buttocks. This pattern is more common in women and is generally considered less harmful to health than android distribution. However, excessive accumulation of body fat, regardless of its distribution, can lead to obesity-related health problems.

It's important to note that body fat distribution can be influenced by various factors, including genetics, hormones, lifestyle, and environmental factors. Assessing body fat distribution is an essential aspect of evaluating overall health and disease risk.

Body composition refers to the relative proportions of different components that make up a person's body, including fat mass, lean muscle mass, bone mass, and total body water. It is an important measure of health and fitness, as changes in body composition can indicate shifts in overall health status. For example, an increase in fat mass and decrease in lean muscle mass can be indicative of poor nutrition, sedentary behavior, or certain medical conditions.

There are several methods for measuring body composition, including:

1. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA): This method uses low-level electrical currents to estimate body fat percentage based on the conductivity of different tissues.
2. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA): This method uses low-dose X-rays to measure bone density and body composition, including lean muscle mass and fat distribution.
3. Hydrostatic weighing: This method involves submerging a person in water and measuring their weight underwater to estimate body density and fat mass.
4. Air displacement plethysmography (ADP): This method uses air displacement to measure body volume and density, which can be used to estimate body composition.

Understanding body composition can help individuals make informed decisions about their health and fitness goals, as well as provide valuable information for healthcare providers in the management of chronic diseases such as obesity, diabetes, and heart disease.

"Adiposity" is a medical term that refers to the condition of having an excessive amount of fat in the body. It is often used to describe obesity or being significantly overweight. Adipose tissue, which is the technical name for body fat, is important for many bodily functions, such as storing energy and insulating the body. However, an excess of adipose tissue can lead to a range of health problems, including heart disease, diabetes, and certain types of cancer.

There are different ways to measure adiposity, including body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and skinfold thickness. BMI is the most commonly used method and is calculated by dividing a person's weight in kilograms by their height in meters squared. A BMI of 30 or higher is considered obese, while a BMI between 25 and 29.9 is considered overweight. However, it's important to note that BMI may not accurately reflect adiposity in some individuals, such as those with a lot of muscle mass.

In summary, adiposity refers to the condition of having too much body fat, which can increase the risk of various health problems.

Abdominal obesity is a type of obesity that is defined by an excessive accumulation of fat in the abdominal region. It is often assessed through the measurement of waist circumference or the waist-to-hip ratio. Abdominal obesity has been linked to an increased risk of various health conditions, including type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and certain types of cancer.

In medical terms, abdominal obesity is also known as central obesity or visceral obesity. It is characterized by the accumulation of fat around internal organs in the abdomen, such as the liver and pancreas, rather than just beneath the skin (subcutaneous fat). This type of fat distribution is thought to be more harmful to health than the accumulation of fat in other areas of the body.

Abdominal obesity can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, lifestyle choices, and certain medical conditions. Treatment typically involves making lifestyle changes, such as eating a healthy diet and getting regular exercise, as well as addressing any underlying medical conditions that may be contributing to the problem. In some cases, medication or surgery may also be recommended.

Obesity is a complex disease characterized by an excess accumulation of body fat to the extent that it negatively impacts health. It's typically defined using Body Mass Index (BMI), a measure calculated from a person's weight and height. A BMI of 30 or higher is indicative of obesity. However, it's important to note that while BMI can be a useful tool for identifying obesity in populations, it does not directly measure body fat and may not accurately reflect health status in individuals. Other factors such as waist circumference, blood pressure, cholesterol levels, and blood sugar levels should also be considered when assessing health risks associated with weight.

Photon Absorptiometry is a medical technique used to measure the absorption of photons (light particles) by tissues or materials. In clinical practice, it is often used as a non-invasive method for measuring bone mineral density (BMD). This technique uses a low-energy X-ray beam or gamma ray to penetrate the tissue and then measures the amount of radiation absorbed by the bone. The amount of absorption is related to the density and thickness of the bone, allowing for an assessment of BMD. It can be used to diagnose osteoporosis and monitor treatment response in patients with bone diseases. There are two types of photon absorptiometry: single-photon absorptiometry (SPA) and dual-photon absorptiometry (DPA). SPA uses one energy level, while DPA uses two different energy levels to measure BMD, providing more precise measurements.

Abdominal radiography, also known as a KUB (kidneys, ureters, bladder) X-ray, is a medical imaging technique used to examine the abdominal cavity. It involves using ionizing radiation to produce images of the internal structures of the abdomen, including the bones, organs, and soft tissues.

The procedure typically involves the patient lying down on a table while a specialized X-ray machine captures images of the abdomen from different angles. The images produced can help doctors diagnose and monitor a variety of conditions, such as kidney stones, intestinal obstructions, and abnormalities in the spine or other bones.

Abdominal radiography is a quick, painless, and non-invasive procedure that requires little preparation on the part of the patient. However, it does involve exposure to radiation, so it is typically only used when necessary and when other imaging techniques are not appropriate.

Body Mass Index (BMI) is a measure used to assess whether a person has a healthy weight for their height. It's calculated by dividing a person's weight in kilograms by the square of their height in meters. Here is the medical definition:

Body Mass Index (BMI) = weight(kg) / [height(m)]^2

According to the World Health Organization, BMI categories are defined as follows:

* Less than 18.5: Underweight
* 18.5-24.9: Normal or healthy weight
* 25.0-29.9: Overweight
* 30.0 and above: Obese

It is important to note that while BMI can be a useful tool for identifying weight issues in populations, it does have limitations when applied to individuals. For example, it may not accurately reflect body fat distribution or muscle mass, which can affect health risks associated with excess weight. Therefore, BMI should be used as one of several factors when evaluating an individual's health status and risk for chronic diseases.

Waist circumference is a measurement of the distance around a person's waist. It is typically taken at the narrowest point between the bottom of the ribcage and the top of the hips, also known as the natural waist. This measurement is used as an indicator of abdominal obesity and health status. A high waist circumference (generally 35 inches or more for women and 40 inches or more for men) is associated with an increased risk of conditions such as type 2 diabetes, heart disease, and stroke. It is often used in conjunction with other measures like blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), and cholesterol levels to assess overall health.

"Ideal Body Weight" is a term that has been used in medicine to describe an approximate weight range that is considered healthy for a person's height and build. However, it's important to note that there is no universally accepted definition of "Ideal Body Weight," and different methods can yield different results.

One commonly used method to estimate Ideal Body Weight is the Hamwi method, which suggests the following formulae:

* For men: IBW = 106 pounds for the first 5 feet of height + 6 pounds for each additional inch over 5 feet.
* For women: IBW = 100 pounds for the first 5 feet of height + 5 pounds for each additional inch over 5 feet.

Another method is the Devine formula, which takes into account a person's frame size and suggests the following formulae:

* For men with small frames: IBW = (height in inches - 60) x 13.2
* For men with medium frames: IBW = (height in inches - 60) x 12.8
* For men with large frames: IBW = (height in inches - 60) x 12.3
* For women with small frames: IBW = (height in inches - 60) x 10.9
* For women with medium frames: IBW = (height in inches - 60) x 10.5
* For women with large frames: IBW = (height in inches - 60) x 9.8

It's important to note that these methods are only estimates and may not be accurate for everyone, especially those who have a significant amount of muscle mass or body fat. Ultimately, the most important factor is to maintain a healthy body composition, with a balance between lean muscle mass and body fat, rather than focusing solely on achieving a specific Ideal Body Weight.

Body weight is the measure of the force exerted on a scale or balance by an object's mass, most commonly expressed in units such as pounds (lb) or kilograms (kg). In the context of medical definitions, body weight typically refers to an individual's total weight, which includes their skeletal muscle, fat, organs, and bodily fluids.

Healthcare professionals often use body weight as a basic indicator of overall health status, as it can provide insights into various aspects of a person's health, such as nutritional status, metabolic function, and risk factors for certain diseases. For example, being significantly underweight or overweight can increase the risk of developing conditions like malnutrition, diabetes, heart disease, and certain types of cancer.

It is important to note that body weight alone may not provide a complete picture of an individual's health, as it does not account for factors such as muscle mass, bone density, or body composition. Therefore, healthcare professionals often use additional measures, such as body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and blood tests, to assess overall health status more comprehensively.

Waist-hip ratio (WHR) is a measurement of the proportion of fat distribution around the waist and hips. It's calculated by dividing the circumference of the waist by the circumference of the hips. A higher waist-hip ratio indicates an increased risk for obesity-related health conditions, such as cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Generally, a healthy WHR is considered to be less than 0.9 for men and less than 0.8 for women.

Insulin resistance is a condition in which the body's cells become less responsive to insulin, a hormone produced by the pancreas that regulates blood sugar levels. In response to this decreased sensitivity, the pancreas produces more insulin to help glucose enter the cells. However, over time, the pancreas may not be able to keep up with the increased demand for insulin, leading to high levels of glucose in the blood and potentially resulting in type 2 diabetes, prediabetes, or other health issues such as metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Insulin resistance is often associated with obesity, physical inactivity, and genetic factors.

Blood glucose, also known as blood sugar, is the concentration of glucose in the blood. Glucose is a simple sugar that serves as the main source of energy for the body's cells. It is carried to each cell through the bloodstream and is absorbed into the cells with the help of insulin, a hormone produced by the pancreas.

The normal range for blood glucose levels in humans is typically between 70 and 130 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) when fasting, and less than 180 mg/dL after meals. Levels that are consistently higher than this may indicate diabetes or other metabolic disorders.

Blood glucose levels can be measured through a variety of methods, including fingerstick blood tests, continuous glucose monitoring systems, and laboratory tests. Regular monitoring of blood glucose levels is important for people with diabetes to help manage their condition and prevent complications.

I'm happy to help! However, it looks like there might be a bit of confusion in your question. "Human migration" is not a medical term per se, but rather a sociological or anthropological concept that refers to the large-scale movement of human populations from one area to another.

That being said, human migration can certainly have significant impacts on health and healthcare systems, both for the migrating populations themselves and for the communities they move into. For example, migrants may face language barriers, discrimination, or other challenges that affect their access to care, while also potentially bringing new diseases or health risks into a community.

In summary, while "human migration" is not a medical definition in and of itself, it is an important concept to consider in the context of public health and healthcare delivery.

Anthropometry is the scientific study of measurements and proportions of the human body. It involves the systematic measurement and analysis of various physical characteristics, such as height, weight, blood pressure, waist circumference, and other body measurements. These measurements are used in a variety of fields, including medicine, ergonomics, forensics, and fashion design, to assess health status, fitness level, or to design products and environments that fit the human body. In a medical context, anthropometry is often used to assess growth and development, health status, and disease risk factors in individuals and populations.

A "fat body" is not a medical term that is typically used to describe human anatomy. It is more commonly used in the context of insects and other invertebrates, where it refers to a specialized tissue that functions to store energy in the form of fat.

However, in humans, we do have adipose tissue, which is the medical term for body fat. Adipose tissue is found throughout the body, but is particularly concentrated in certain areas such as the abdomen, hips, and thighs. It serves a variety of functions, including storing energy, insulating the body, and producing hormones that regulate metabolism and appetite.

If you are looking for information on obesity or excess body fat in humans, there are many medical resources available to help you understand these topics better.

Lipids are a broad group of organic compounds that are insoluble in water but soluble in nonpolar organic solvents. They include fats, waxes, sterols, fat-soluble vitamins (such as vitamins A, D, E, and K), monoglycerides, diglycerides, triglycerides, and phospholipids. Lipids serve many important functions in the body, including energy storage, acting as structural components of cell membranes, and serving as signaling molecules. High levels of certain lipids, particularly cholesterol and triglycerides, in the blood are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease.

Insulin is a hormone produced by the beta cells of the pancreatic islets, primarily in response to elevated levels of glucose in the circulating blood. It plays a crucial role in regulating blood glucose levels and facilitating the uptake and utilization of glucose by peripheral tissues, such as muscle and adipose tissue, for energy production and storage. Insulin also inhibits glucose production in the liver and promotes the storage of excess glucose as glycogen or triglycerides.

Deficiency in insulin secretion or action leads to impaired glucose regulation and can result in conditions such as diabetes mellitus, characterized by chronic hyperglycemia and associated complications. Exogenous insulin is used as a replacement therapy in individuals with diabetes to help manage their blood glucose levels and prevent long-term complications.

Subcutaneous tissue, also known as the subcutis or hypodermis, is the layer of fatty connective tissue found beneath the dermis (the inner layer of the skin) and above the muscle fascia. It is composed mainly of adipose tissue, which serves as a energy storage reservoir and provides insulation and cushioning to the body. The subcutaneous tissue also contains blood vessels, nerves, and immune cells that support the skin's functions. This layer varies in thickness depending on the location in the body and can differ significantly between individuals based on factors such as age, genetics, and weight.

The term "body constitution" is often used in traditional systems of medicine, such as Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) and Ayurveda. It refers to the unique combination of physical and psychological characteristics that make up an individual's inherent nature and predisposition to certain health conditions. In TCM, for example, a person's body constitution may be classified as being predominantly hot, cold, damp, or dry, which can influence their susceptibility to certain diseases and their response to treatment. Similarly, in Ayurveda, an individual's constitution is determined by the balance of three fundamental energies or doshas: Vata, Pitta, and Kapha. Understanding a person's body constitution is thought to be essential for developing a personalized approach to healthcare that addresses their unique needs and tendencies. However, it should be noted that this concept is not widely recognized in modern Western medicine.

X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging method that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of the body. These cross-sectional images can then be used to display detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body.

The term "computed tomography" is used instead of "CT scan" or "CAT scan" because the machines take a series of X-ray measurements from different angles around the body and then use a computer to process these data to create detailed images of internal structures within the body.

CT scanning is a noninvasive, painless medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. CT imaging provides detailed information about many types of tissue including lung, bone, soft tissue and blood vessels. CT examinations can be performed on every part of the body for a variety of reasons including diagnosis, surgical planning, and monitoring of therapeutic responses.

In computed tomography (CT), an X-ray source and detector rotate around the patient, measuring the X-ray attenuation at many different angles. A computer uses this data to construct a cross-sectional image by the process of reconstruction. This technique is called "tomography". The term "computed" refers to the use of a computer to reconstruct the images.

CT has become an important tool in medical imaging and diagnosis, allowing radiologists and other physicians to view detailed internal images of the body. It can help identify many different medical conditions including cancer, heart disease, lung nodules, liver tumors, and internal injuries from trauma. CT is also commonly used for guiding biopsies and other minimally invasive procedures.

In summary, X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging technique that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional images of the body. It provides detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body, allowing physicians to diagnose and treat medical conditions.

Viscera is a medical term that refers to the internal organs of the body, specifically those contained within the chest and abdominal cavities. These include the heart, lungs, liver, pancreas, spleen, kidneys, and intestines. In some contexts, it may also refer to the reproductive organs. The term viscera is often used in anatomical or surgical descriptions, and is derived from the Latin word "viscus," meaning "an internal organ."

Lipid metabolism is the process by which the body breaks down and utilizes lipids (fats) for various functions, such as energy production, cell membrane formation, and hormone synthesis. This complex process involves several enzymes and pathways that regulate the digestion, absorption, transport, storage, and consumption of fats in the body.

The main types of lipids involved in metabolism include triglycerides, cholesterol, phospholipids, and fatty acids. The breakdown of these lipids begins in the digestive system, where enzymes called lipases break down dietary fats into smaller molecules called fatty acids and glycerol. These molecules are then absorbed into the bloodstream and transported to the liver, which is the main site of lipid metabolism.

In the liver, fatty acids may be further broken down for energy production or used to synthesize new lipids. Excess fatty acids may be stored as triglycerides in specialized cells called adipocytes (fat cells) for later use. Cholesterol is also metabolized in the liver, where it may be used to synthesize bile acids, steroid hormones, and other important molecules.

Disorders of lipid metabolism can lead to a range of health problems, including obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). These conditions may be caused by genetic factors, lifestyle habits, or a combination of both. Proper diagnosis and management of lipid metabolism disorders typically involves a combination of dietary changes, exercise, and medication.

"Chickens" is a common term used to refer to the domesticated bird, Gallus gallus domesticus, which is widely raised for its eggs and meat. However, in medical terms, "chickens" is not a standard term with a specific definition. If you have any specific medical concern or question related to chickens, such as food safety or allergies, please provide more details so I can give a more accurate answer.

Weight loss is a reduction in body weight attributed to loss of fluid, fat, muscle, or bone mass. It can be intentional through dieting and exercise or unintentional due to illness or disease. Unintentional weight loss is often a cause for concern and should be evaluated by a healthcare professional to determine the underlying cause and develop an appropriate treatment plan. Rapid or significant weight loss can also have serious health consequences, so it's important to approach any weight loss plan in a healthy and sustainable way.

Leptin is a hormone primarily produced and released by adipocytes, which are the fat cells in our body. It plays a crucial role in regulating energy balance and appetite by sending signals to the brain when the body has had enough food. This helps control body weight by suppressing hunger and increasing energy expenditure. Leptin also influences various metabolic processes, including glucose homeostasis, neuroendocrine function, and immune response. Defects in leptin signaling can lead to obesity and other metabolic disorders.

Amyloidosis is a medical condition characterized by the abnormal accumulation of insoluble proteins called amyloid in various tissues and organs throughout the body. These misfolded protein deposits can disrupt the normal function of affected organs, leading to a range of symptoms depending on the location and extent of the amyloid deposition.

There are different types of amyloidosis, classified based on the specific proteins involved:

1. Primary (AL) Amyloidosis: This is the most common form, accounting for around 80% of cases. It results from the overproduction and misfolding of immunoglobulin light chains, typically by clonal plasma cells in the bone marrow. The amyloid deposits can affect various organs, including the heart, kidneys, liver, and nervous system.
2. Secondary (AA) Amyloidosis: This form is associated with chronic inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, tuberculosis, or familial Mediterranean fever. The amyloid fibrils are composed of serum amyloid A protein (SAA), an acute-phase reactant produced during the inflammatory response. The kidneys are commonly affected in this type of amyloidosis.
3. Hereditary or Familial Amyloidosis: These forms are caused by genetic mutations that result in the production of abnormal proteins prone to misfolding and amyloid formation. Examples include transthyretin (TTR) amyloidosis, fibrinogen amyloidosis, and apolipoprotein AI amyloidosis. These forms can affect various organs, including the heart, nerves, and kidneys.
4. Dialysis-Related Amyloidosis: This form is seen in patients undergoing long-term dialysis for chronic kidney disease. The amyloid fibrils are composed of beta-2 microglobulin, a protein that accumulates due to impaired clearance during dialysis. The joints and bones are commonly affected in this type of amyloidosis.

The diagnosis of amyloidosis typically involves a combination of clinical evaluation, imaging studies, and tissue biopsy with the demonstration of amyloid deposition using special stains (e.g., Congo red). Treatment depends on the specific type and extent of organ involvement and may include supportive care, medications to target the underlying cause (e.g., chemotherapy, immunomodulatory agents), and organ transplantation in some cases.

A diet, in medical terms, refers to the planned and regular consumption of food and drinks. It is a balanced selection of nutrient-rich foods that an individual eats on a daily or periodic basis to meet their energy needs and maintain good health. A well-balanced diet typically includes a variety of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, lean proteins, and low-fat dairy products.

A diet may also be prescribed for therapeutic purposes, such as in the management of certain medical conditions like diabetes, hypertension, or obesity. In these cases, a healthcare professional may recommend specific restrictions or modifications to an individual's regular diet to help manage their condition and improve their overall health.

It is important to note that a healthy and balanced diet should be tailored to an individual's age, gender, body size, activity level, and any underlying medical conditions. Consulting with a healthcare professional, such as a registered dietitian or nutritionist, can help ensure that an individual's dietary needs are being met in a safe and effective way.

"Thinness" is not a term that is typically used in medical definitions. However, it generally refers to having a lower than average body weight or low body mass index (BMI) for a person's height. In medical terms, being significantly underweight might be defined as having a BMI of less than 18.5. It's important to note that while low body weight can be a sign of health issues like malnutrition or eating disorders, being thin does not necessarily equate to being healthy. A person's overall health is determined by a variety of factors, including diet, exercise, genetics, and the presence or absence of chronic diseases.

Triglycerides are the most common type of fat in the body, and they're found in the food we eat. They're carried in the bloodstream to provide energy to the cells in our body. High levels of triglycerides in the blood can increase the risk of heart disease, especially in combination with other risk factors such as high LDL (bad) cholesterol, low HDL (good) cholesterol, and high blood pressure.

It's important to note that while triglycerides are a type of fat, they should not be confused with cholesterol, which is a waxy substance found in the cells of our body. Both triglycerides and cholesterol are important for maintaining good health, but high levels of either can increase the risk of heart disease.

Triglyceride levels are measured through a blood test called a lipid panel or lipid profile. A normal triglyceride level is less than 150 mg/dL. Borderline-high levels range from 150 to 199 mg/dL, high levels range from 200 to 499 mg/dL, and very high levels are 500 mg/dL or higher.

Elevated triglycerides can be caused by various factors such as obesity, physical inactivity, excessive alcohol consumption, smoking, and certain medical conditions like diabetes, hypothyroidism, and kidney disease. Medications such as beta-blockers, steroids, and diuretics can also raise triglyceride levels.

Lifestyle changes such as losing weight, exercising regularly, eating a healthy diet low in saturated and trans fats, avoiding excessive alcohol consumption, and quitting smoking can help lower triglyceride levels. In some cases, medication may be necessary to reduce triglycerides to recommended levels.

Medically, 'overweight' is a term used to describe a person whose body weight is greater than what is considered healthy for their height. This excess weight often comes from fat, muscle, bone, or water accumulation. The most commonly used measure to define overweight is the Body Mass Index (BMI), which is calculated by dividing a person's weight in kilograms by the square of their height in meters. A BMI of 25.0 to 29.9 is considered overweight, while a BMI of 30.0 or higher is considered obese. However, it's important to note that BMI doesn't directly measure body fat and may not accurately reflect health status for all individuals, such as athletes with high muscle mass.

Metabolic syndrome, also known as Syndrome X, is a cluster of conditions that increase the risk of heart disease, stroke, and diabetes. It is not a single disease but a group of risk factors that often co-occur. According to the American Heart Association and the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, a person has metabolic syndrome if they have any three of the following five conditions:

1. Abdominal obesity (waist circumference of 40 inches or more in men, and 35 inches or more in women)
2. Triglyceride level of 150 milligrams per deciliter of blood (mg/dL) or greater
3. HDL cholesterol level of less than 40 mg/dL in men or less than 50 mg/dL in women
4. Systolic blood pressure of 130 millimeters of mercury (mmHg) or greater, or diastolic blood pressure of 85 mmHg or greater
5. Fasting glucose level of 100 mg/dL or greater

Metabolic syndrome is thought to be caused by a combination of genetic and lifestyle factors, such as physical inactivity and a diet high in refined carbohydrates and unhealthy fats. Treatment typically involves making lifestyle changes, such as eating a healthy diet, getting regular exercise, and losing weight if necessary. In some cases, medication may also be needed to manage individual components of the syndrome, such as high blood pressure or high cholesterol.

"Energy intake" is a medical term that refers to the amount of energy or calories consumed through food and drink. It is an important concept in the study of nutrition, metabolism, and energy balance, and is often used in research and clinical settings to assess an individual's dietary habits and health status.

Energy intake is typically measured in kilocalories (kcal) or joules (J), with one kcal equivalent to approximately 4.184 J. The recommended daily energy intake varies depending on factors such as age, sex, weight, height, physical activity level, and overall health status.

It's important to note that excessive energy intake, particularly when combined with a sedentary lifestyle, can lead to weight gain and an increased risk of chronic diseases such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. On the other hand, inadequate energy intake can lead to malnutrition, decreased immune function, and other health problems. Therefore, it's essential to maintain a balanced energy intake that meets individual nutritional needs while promoting overall health and well-being.

Metabolic diseases are a group of disorders caused by abnormal chemical reactions in your body's cells. These reactions are part of a complex process called metabolism, where your body converts the food you eat into energy.

There are several types of metabolic diseases, but they most commonly result from:

1. Your body not producing enough of certain enzymes that are needed to convert food into energy.
2. Your body producing too much of certain substances or toxins, often due to a genetic disorder.

Examples of metabolic diseases include phenylketonuria (PKU), diabetes, and gout. PKU is a rare condition where the body cannot break down an amino acid called phenylalanine, which can lead to serious health problems if left untreated. Diabetes is a common disorder that occurs when your body doesn't produce enough insulin or can't properly use the insulin it produces, leading to high blood sugar levels. Gout is a type of arthritis that results from too much uric acid in the body, which can form crystals in the joints and cause pain and inflammation.

Metabolic diseases can be inherited or acquired through environmental factors such as diet or lifestyle choices. Many metabolic diseases can be managed with proper medical care, including medication, dietary changes, and lifestyle modifications.

Lipodystrophy is a medical condition characterized by abnormal distribution or absence of fat (adipose tissue) in the body. It can lead to metabolic complications such as insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus, high levels of fats in the blood (dyslipidemia), and liver disease. There are different types of lipodystrophy, including congenital generalized lipodystrophy, acquired generalized lipodystrophy, and partial lipodystrophy, which can affect different parts of the body and have varying symptoms and causes.

Exercise is defined in the medical context as a physical activity that is planned, structured, and repetitive, with the primary aim of improving or maintaining one or more components of physical fitness. Components of physical fitness include cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular strength, muscular endurance, flexibility, and body composition. Exercise can be classified based on its intensity (light, moderate, or vigorous), duration (length of time), and frequency (number of times per week). Common types of exercise include aerobic exercises, such as walking, jogging, cycling, and swimming; resistance exercises, such as weightlifting; flexibility exercises, such as stretching; and balance exercises. Exercise has numerous health benefits, including reducing the risk of chronic diseases, improving mental health, and enhancing overall quality of life.

A Glucose Tolerance Test (GTT) is a medical test used to diagnose prediabetes, type 2 diabetes, and gestational diabetes. It measures how well your body is able to process glucose, which is a type of sugar.

During the test, you will be asked to fast (not eat or drink anything except water) for at least eight hours before the test. Then, a healthcare professional will take a blood sample to measure your fasting blood sugar level. After that, you will be given a sugary drink containing a specific amount of glucose. Your blood sugar levels will be measured again after two hours and sometimes also after one hour.

The results of the test will indicate how well your body is able to process the glucose and whether you have normal, impaired, or diabetic glucose tolerance. If your blood sugar levels are higher than normal but not high enough to be diagnosed with diabetes, you may have prediabetes, which means that you are at increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes in the future.

It is important to note that a Glucose Tolerance Test should be performed under the supervision of a healthcare professional, as high blood sugar levels can be dangerous if not properly managed.

Fat embolism is a medical condition that occurs when fat globules enter the bloodstream and block small blood vessels (arterioles and capillaries) in various tissues and organs. This can lead to inflammation, tissue damage, and potentially life-threatening complications.

Fat embolism typically occurs as a result of trauma, such as long bone fractures or orthopedic surgeries, where fat cells from the marrow of the broken bone enter the bloodstream. It can also occur in other conditions that cause fat to be released into the circulation, such as pancreatitis, decompression sickness, and certain medical procedures like liposuction.

Symptoms of fat embolism may include respiratory distress, fever, confusion, petechial rash (small purple or red spots on the skin), and a decrease in oxygen levels. In severe cases, it can lead to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and even death. Treatment typically involves supportive care, such as oxygen therapy, mechanical ventilation, and medications to manage symptoms and prevent complications.

Weight gain is defined as an increase in body weight over time, which can be attributed to various factors such as an increase in muscle mass, fat mass, or total body water. It is typically measured in terms of pounds or kilograms and can be intentional or unintentional. Unintentional weight gain may be a cause for concern if it's significant or accompanied by other symptoms, as it could indicate an underlying medical condition such as hypothyroidism, diabetes, or heart disease.

It is important to note that while body mass index (BMI) can be used as a general guideline for weight status, it does not differentiate between muscle mass and fat mass. Therefore, an increase in muscle mass through activities like strength training could result in a higher BMI, but this may not necessarily be indicative of increased health risks associated with excess body fat.

The liver is a large, solid organ located in the upper right portion of the abdomen, beneath the diaphragm and above the stomach. It plays a vital role in several bodily functions, including:

1. Metabolism: The liver helps to metabolize carbohydrates, fats, and proteins from the food we eat into energy and nutrients that our bodies can use.
2. Detoxification: The liver detoxifies harmful substances in the body by breaking them down into less toxic forms or excreting them through bile.
3. Synthesis: The liver synthesizes important proteins, such as albumin and clotting factors, that are necessary for proper bodily function.
4. Storage: The liver stores glucose, vitamins, and minerals that can be released when the body needs them.
5. Bile production: The liver produces bile, a digestive juice that helps to break down fats in the small intestine.
6. Immune function: The liver plays a role in the immune system by filtering out bacteria and other harmful substances from the blood.

Overall, the liver is an essential organ that plays a critical role in maintaining overall health and well-being.

Anti-obesity agents are medications that are used to treat obesity and overweight. They work by reducing appetite, increasing feelings of fullness, decreasing fat absorption, or increasing metabolism. Some examples of anti-obesity agents include orlistat, lorcaserin, phentermine, and topiramate. These medications are typically used in conjunction with diet and exercise to help people lose weight and maintain a healthy body weight. It's important to note that these medications can have side effects and should be used under the close supervision of a healthcare provider.

Adiponectin is a hormone that is produced and secreted by adipose tissue, which is another name for body fat. This hormone plays an important role in regulating metabolism and energy homeostasis. It helps to regulate glucose levels, break down fatty acids, and has anti-inflammatory effects.

Adiponectin is unique because it is exclusively produced by adipose tissue, and its levels are inversely related to body fat mass. This means that lean individuals tend to have higher levels of adiponectin than obese individuals. Low levels of adiponectin have been associated with an increased risk of developing various metabolic disorders, such as insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease.

Overall, adiponectin is an important hormone that plays a crucial role in maintaining metabolic health, and its levels may serve as a useful biomarker for assessing metabolic risk.

Whole Body Imaging (WBI) is a diagnostic technique that involves obtaining images of the entire body or significant portions of it, typically for the purpose of detecting abnormalities such as tumors, fractures, infections, or other diseases. This can be achieved through various imaging modalities including:

1. Whole Body Computed Tomography (WBCT): This is a series of CT scans taken from head to toe to create detailed cross-sectional images of the body. It's often used in trauma situations to identify internal injuries.

2. Whole Body Magnetic Resonance Imaging (WBMRI): This uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce detailed images of the body's internal structures. It's particularly useful for detecting soft tissue abnormalities.

3. Positron Emission Tomography - Computed Tomography (PET-CT): This combines PET and CT scans to create detailed, 3D images of the body's functional processes, such as metabolism or blood flow. It's often used in cancer diagnosis and staging.

4. Whole Body Bone Scan: This uses a small amount of radioactive material to highlight areas of increased bone turnover, which can indicate conditions like fractures, tumors, or infections.

5. Whole Body PET: Similar to WBMRI, this uses positron emission tomography to create detailed images of the body's metabolic processes, but it doesn't provide the same level of anatomical detail as PET-CT.

It's important to note that while WBI can be a powerful diagnostic tool, it also involves higher doses of radiation (in the case of WBCT and Whole Body Bone Scan) and greater costs compared to single or limited area imaging studies. Therefore, its use is typically reserved for specific clinical scenarios where the benefits outweigh the risks and costs.

Adipokines are hormones and signaling molecules produced by adipose tissue, which is composed of adipocytes (fat cells) and stromal vascular fraction (SVF) that includes preadipocytes, fibroblasts, immune cells, and endothelial cells. Adipokines play crucial roles in various biological processes such as energy metabolism, insulin sensitivity, inflammation, immunity, angiogenesis, and neuroendocrine regulation.

Some well-known adipokines include:

1. Leptin - regulates appetite, energy expenditure, and glucose homeostasis
2. Adiponectin - improves insulin sensitivity, reduces inflammation, and has anti-atherogenic properties
3. Resistin - impairs insulin sensitivity and is associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes
4. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) - contributes to chronic low-grade inflammation in obesity, insulin resistance, and metabolic dysfunction
5. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) - involved in the regulation of energy metabolism, immune response, and inflammation
6. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) - associated with cardiovascular risk by impairing fibrinolysis and promoting thrombosis
7. Visfatin - has insulin-mimetic properties and contributes to inflammation and insulin resistance
8. Chemerin - regulates adipogenesis, energy metabolism, and immune response
9. Apelin - involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis, cardiovascular function, and fluid balance
10. Omentin - improves insulin sensitivity and has anti-inflammatory properties

The dysregulation of adipokine production and secretion is associated with various pathological conditions such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), cancer, and neurodegenerative disorders.

In a medical context, "meat" generally refers to the flesh of animals that is consumed as food. This includes muscle tissue, as well as fat and other tissues that are often found in meat products. However, it's worth noting that some people may have dietary restrictions or medical conditions that prevent them from consuming meat, so it's always important to consider individual preferences and needs when discussing food options.

It's also worth noting that the consumption of meat can have both positive and negative health effects. On the one hand, meat is a good source of protein, iron, vitamin B12, and other essential nutrients. On the other hand, consuming large amounts of red and processed meats has been linked to an increased risk of heart disease, stroke, and certain types of cancer. Therefore, it's generally recommended to consume meat in moderation as part of a balanced diet.

A cross-sectional study is a type of observational research design that examines the relationship between variables at one point in time. It provides a snapshot or a "cross-section" of the population at a particular moment, allowing researchers to estimate the prevalence of a disease or condition and identify potential risk factors or associations.

In a cross-sectional study, data is collected from a sample of participants at a single time point, and the variables of interest are measured simultaneously. This design can be used to investigate the association between exposure and outcome, but it cannot establish causality because it does not follow changes over time.

Cross-sectional studies can be conducted using various data collection methods, such as surveys, interviews, or medical examinations. They are often used in epidemiology to estimate the prevalence of a disease or condition in a population and to identify potential risk factors that may contribute to its development. However, because cross-sectional studies only provide a snapshot of the population at one point in time, they cannot account for changes over time or determine whether exposure preceded the outcome.

Therefore, while cross-sectional studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying potential associations between variables, further research using other study designs, such as cohort or case-control studies, is necessary to establish causality and confirm any findings.

Fatty liver, also known as hepatic steatosis, is a medical condition characterized by the abnormal accumulation of fat in the liver. The liver's primary function is to process nutrients, filter blood, and fight infections, among other tasks. When excess fat builds up in the liver cells, it can impair liver function and lead to inflammation, scarring, and even liver failure if left untreated.

Fatty liver can be caused by various factors, including alcohol consumption, obesity, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), viral hepatitis, and certain medications or medical conditions. NAFLD is the most common cause of fatty liver in the United States and other developed countries, affecting up to 25% of the population.

Symptoms of fatty liver may include fatigue, weakness, weight loss, loss of appetite, nausea, abdominal pain or discomfort, and jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes). However, many people with fatty liver do not experience any symptoms, making it essential to diagnose and manage the condition through regular check-ups and blood tests.

Treatment for fatty liver depends on the underlying cause. Lifestyle changes such as weight loss, exercise, and dietary modifications are often recommended for people with NAFLD or alcohol-related fatty liver disease. Medications may also be prescribed to manage related conditions such as diabetes, high cholesterol, or metabolic syndrome. In severe cases of liver damage, a liver transplant may be necessary.

A diet that is reduced in calories or portion sizes, often specifically designed to help a person achieve weight loss. A reducing diet typically aims to create a caloric deficit, where the body takes in fewer calories than it uses, leading to a reduction in body fat stores and overall body weight. These diets may also focus on limiting certain types of foods, such as those high in sugar or unhealthy fats, while encouraging increased consumption of fruits, vegetables, lean proteins, and whole grains. It is important to consult with a healthcare professional before starting any reducing diet to ensure it is safe, appropriate, and nutritionally balanced for the individual's needs.

Energy metabolism is the process by which living organisms produce and consume energy to maintain life. It involves a series of chemical reactions that convert nutrients from food, such as carbohydrates, fats, and proteins, into energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP).

The process of energy metabolism can be divided into two main categories: catabolism and anabolism. Catabolism is the breakdown of nutrients to release energy, while anabolism is the synthesis of complex molecules from simpler ones using energy.

There are three main stages of energy metabolism: glycolysis, the citric acid cycle (also known as the Krebs cycle), and oxidative phosphorylation. Glycolysis occurs in the cytoplasm of the cell and involves the breakdown of glucose into pyruvate, producing a small amount of ATP and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH). The citric acid cycle takes place in the mitochondria and involves the further breakdown of pyruvate to produce more ATP, NADH, and carbon dioxide. Oxidative phosphorylation is the final stage of energy metabolism and occurs in the inner mitochondrial membrane. It involves the transfer of electrons from NADH and other electron carriers to oxygen, which generates a proton gradient across the membrane. This gradient drives the synthesis of ATP, producing the majority of the cell's energy.

Overall, energy metabolism is a complex and essential process that allows organisms to grow, reproduce, and maintain their bodily functions. Disruptions in energy metabolism can lead to various diseases, including diabetes, obesity, and neurodegenerative disorders.

Morbid obesity is a severe form of obesity, defined by a body mass index (BMI) of 40 or higher or a BMI of 35 or higher in the presence of at least one serious obesity-related health condition, such as diabetes, high blood pressure, or sleep apnea. It is called "morbid" because it significantly increases the risk of various life-threatening health problems and reduces life expectancy.

Morbid obesity is typically associated with significant excess body weight, often characterized by a large amount of abdominal fat, that can strain the body's organs and lead to serious medical complications, such as:

* Type 2 diabetes
* High blood pressure (hypertension)
* Heart disease
* Stroke
* Sleep apnea and other respiratory problems
* Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)
* Osteoarthritis
* Certain types of cancer, such as breast, colon, and endometrial cancer

Morbid obesity can also have significant negative impacts on a person's quality of life, including mobility issues, difficulty with daily activities, and increased risk of mental health problems, such as depression and anxiety. Treatment for morbid obesity typically involves a combination of lifestyle changes, medication, and in some cases, surgery.

Medical Definition:

"Risk factors" are any attribute, characteristic or exposure of an individual that increases the likelihood of developing a disease or injury. They can be divided into modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Modifiable risk factors are those that can be changed through lifestyle choices or medical treatment, while non-modifiable risk factors are inherent traits such as age, gender, or genetic predisposition. Examples of modifiable risk factors include smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diet, while non-modifiable risk factors include age, sex, and family history. It is important to note that having a risk factor does not guarantee that a person will develop the disease, but rather indicates an increased susceptibility.

Premenopause is not a formal medical term, but it's often informally used to refer to the time period in a woman's life leading up to menopause. During this stage, which can last for several years, hormonal changes begin to occur in preparation for menopause. The ovaries start to produce less estrogen and progesterone, which can lead to various symptoms such as irregular periods, hot flashes, mood swings, and sleep disturbances. However, it's important to note that not all women will experience these symptoms.

The official medical term for the stage when a woman's period becomes irregular and less frequent, but hasn't stopped completely, is perimenopause. This stage typically lasts from two to eight years and ends with menopause, which is defined as the point when a woman has not had a period for 12 consecutive months. After menopause, women enter postmenopause.

The medical definition of "eating" refers to the process of consuming and ingesting food or nutrients into the body. This process typically involves several steps, including:

1. Food preparation: This may involve cleaning, chopping, cooking, or combining ingredients to make them ready for consumption.
2. Ingestion: The act of taking food or nutrients into the mouth and swallowing it.
3. Digestion: Once food is ingested, it travels down the esophagus and enters the stomach, where it is broken down by enzymes and acids to facilitate absorption of nutrients.
4. Absorption: Nutrients are absorbed through the walls of the small intestine and transported to cells throughout the body for use as energy or building blocks for growth and repair.
5. Elimination: Undigested food and waste products are eliminated from the body through the large intestine (colon) and rectum.

Eating is an essential function that provides the body with the nutrients it needs to maintain health, grow, and repair itself. Disorders of eating, such as anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa, can have serious consequences for physical and mental health.

Adipocytes are specialized cells that comprise adipose tissue, also known as fat tissue. They are responsible for storing energy in the form of lipids, particularly triglycerides, and releasing energy when needed through a process called lipolysis. There are two main types of adipocytes: white adipocytes and brown adipocytes. White adipocytes primarily store energy, while brown adipocytes dissipate energy as heat through the action of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1).

In addition to their role in energy metabolism, adipocytes also secrete various hormones and signaling molecules that contribute to whole-body homeostasis. These include leptin, adiponectin, resistin, and inflammatory cytokines. Dysregulation of adipocyte function has been implicated in the development of obesity, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease.

Unsaturated fats are a type of fat that are primarily found in liquid form at room temperature. They are called "unsaturated" because their chemical structure contains one or more double bonds between the carbon atoms, making them less saturated with hydrogen atoms than saturated fats.

There are two main types of unsaturated fats: monounsaturated and polyunsaturated. Monounsaturated fats contain a single double bond in their chemical structure, while polyunsaturated fats contain multiple double bonds.

Unsaturated fats are generally considered to be healthier than saturated fats because they can help lower levels of harmful cholesterol in the blood and reduce the risk of heart disease. Foods that are high in unsaturated fats include vegetable oils, nuts, seeds, avocados, and fish.

It's important to note that while unsaturated fats are generally healthier than saturated fats, they are still high in calories and should be consumed in moderation as part of a balanced diet. Additionally, some types of polyunsaturated fats, such as trans fats, can actually increase the risk of heart disease and other health problems, so it's important to choose sources of unsaturated fats carefully.

"Body size" is a general term that refers to the overall physical dimensions and proportions of an individual's body. It can encompass various measurements, including height, weight, waist circumference, hip circumference, blood pressure, and other anthropometric measures.

In medical and public health contexts, body size is often used to assess health status, risk factors for chronic diseases, and overall well-being. For example, a high body mass index (BMI) may indicate excess body fat and increase the risk of conditions such as diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. Similarly, a large waist circumference or high blood pressure may also be indicators of increased health risks.

It's important to note that body size is just one aspect of health and should not be used as the sole indicator of an individual's overall well-being. A holistic approach to health that considers multiple factors, including diet, physical activity, mental health, and social determinants of health, is essential for promoting optimal health outcomes.

Cholesterol is a type of lipid (fat) molecule that is an essential component of cell membranes and is also used to make certain hormones and vitamins in the body. It is produced by the liver and is also obtained from animal-derived foods such as meat, dairy products, and eggs.

Cholesterol does not mix with blood, so it is transported through the bloodstream by lipoproteins, which are particles made up of both lipids and proteins. There are two main types of lipoproteins that carry cholesterol: low-density lipoproteins (LDL), also known as "bad" cholesterol, and high-density lipoproteins (HDL), also known as "good" cholesterol.

High levels of LDL cholesterol in the blood can lead to a buildup of cholesterol in the walls of the arteries, increasing the risk of heart disease and stroke. On the other hand, high levels of HDL cholesterol are associated with a lower risk of these conditions because HDL helps remove LDL cholesterol from the bloodstream and transport it back to the liver for disposal.

It is important to maintain healthy levels of cholesterol through a balanced diet, regular exercise, and sometimes medication if necessary. Regular screening is also recommended to monitor cholesterol levels and prevent health complications.

Fatty acids are carboxylic acids with a long aliphatic chain, which are important components of lipids and are widely distributed in living organisms. They can be classified based on the length of their carbon chain, saturation level (presence or absence of double bonds), and other structural features.

The two main types of fatty acids are:

1. Saturated fatty acids: These have no double bonds in their carbon chain and are typically solid at room temperature. Examples include palmitic acid (C16:0) and stearic acid (C18:0).
2. Unsaturated fatty acids: These contain one or more double bonds in their carbon chain and can be further classified into monounsaturated (one double bond) and polyunsaturated (two or more double bonds) fatty acids. Examples of unsaturated fatty acids include oleic acid (C18:1, monounsaturated), linoleic acid (C18:2, polyunsaturated), and alpha-linolenic acid (C18:3, polyunsaturated).

Fatty acids play crucial roles in various biological processes, such as energy storage, membrane structure, and cell signaling. Some essential fatty acids cannot be synthesized by the human body and must be obtained through dietary sources.

Skeletal muscle, also known as striated or voluntary muscle, is a type of muscle that is attached to bones by tendons or aponeuroses and functions to produce movements and support the posture of the body. It is composed of long, multinucleated fibers that are arranged in parallel bundles and are characterized by alternating light and dark bands, giving them a striped appearance under a microscope. Skeletal muscle is under voluntary control, meaning that it is consciously activated through signals from the nervous system. It is responsible for activities such as walking, running, jumping, and lifting objects.

"Sex factors" is a term used in medicine and epidemiology to refer to the differences in disease incidence, prevalence, or response to treatment that are observed between males and females. These differences can be attributed to biological differences such as genetics, hormones, and anatomy, as well as social and cultural factors related to gender.

For example, some conditions such as autoimmune diseases, depression, and osteoporosis are more common in women, while others such as cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancer are more prevalent in men. Additionally, sex differences have been observed in the effectiveness and side effects of various medications and treatments.

It is important to consider sex factors in medical research and clinical practice to ensure that patients receive appropriate and effective care.

Regression analysis is a statistical technique used in medicine, as well as in other fields, to examine the relationship between one or more independent variables (predictors) and a dependent variable (outcome). It allows for the estimation of the average change in the outcome variable associated with a one-unit change in an independent variable, while controlling for the effects of other independent variables. This technique is often used to identify risk factors for diseases or to evaluate the effectiveness of medical interventions. In medical research, regression analysis can be used to adjust for potential confounding variables and to quantify the relationship between exposures and health outcomes. It can also be used in predictive modeling to estimate the probability of a particular outcome based on multiple predictors.

"Sex characteristics" refer to the anatomical, chromosomal, and genetic features that define males and females. These include both primary sex characteristics (such as reproductive organs like ovaries or testes) and secondary sex characteristics (such as breasts or facial hair) that typically develop during puberty. Sex characteristics are primarily determined by the presence of either X or Y chromosomes, with XX individuals usually developing as females and XY individuals usually developing as males, although variations and exceptions to this rule do occur.

Medical Definition:

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive diagnostic imaging technique that uses a strong magnetic field and radio waves to create detailed cross-sectional or three-dimensional images of the internal structures of the body. The patient lies within a large, cylindrical magnet, and the scanner detects changes in the direction of the magnetic field caused by protons in the body. These changes are then converted into detailed images that help medical professionals to diagnose and monitor various medical conditions, such as tumors, injuries, or diseases affecting the brain, spinal cord, heart, blood vessels, joints, and other internal organs. MRI does not use radiation like computed tomography (CT) scans.

Unsaturated dietary fats are a type of fat that are primarily found in foods from plants. They are called "unsaturated" because of their chemical structure, which contains one or more double bonds in the carbon chain of the fat molecule. These double bonds can be either monounsaturated (one double bond) or polyunsaturated (multiple double bonds).

Monounsaturated fats are found in foods such as olive oil, avocados, and nuts, while polyunsaturated fats are found in foods such as fatty fish, flaxseeds, and vegetable oils. Unsaturated fats are generally considered to be heart-healthy, as they can help lower levels of harmful cholesterol in the blood and reduce the risk of heart disease.

It is important to note that while unsaturated fats are healthier than saturated and trans fats, they are still high in calories and should be consumed in moderation as part of a balanced diet.

Postmenopause is a stage in a woman's life that follows 12 months after her last menstrual period (menopause) has occurred. During this stage, the ovaries no longer release eggs and produce lower levels of estrogen and progesterone hormones. The reduced levels of these hormones can lead to various physical changes and symptoms, such as hot flashes, vaginal dryness, and mood changes. Postmenopause is also associated with an increased risk of certain health conditions, including osteoporosis and heart disease. It's important for women in postmenopause to maintain a healthy lifestyle, including regular exercise, a balanced diet, and routine medical check-ups to monitor their overall health and manage any potential risks.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Linear Models" is actually a term from the field of statistics and machine learning, rather than medicine. A linear model is a type of statistical model that is used to analyze the relationship between two or more variables. In a linear model, the relationship between the dependent variable (the outcome or result) and the independent variable(s) (the factors being studied) is assumed to be linear, meaning that it can be described by a straight line on a graph.

The equation for a simple linear model with one independent variable (x) and one dependent variable (y) looks like this:

y = β0 + β1*x + ε

In this equation, β0 is the y-intercept or the value of y when x equals zero, β1 is the slope or the change in y for each unit increase in x, and ε is the error term or the difference between the actual values of y and the predicted values of y based on the linear model.

Linear models are widely used in medical research to study the relationship between various factors (such as exposure to a risk factor or treatment) and health outcomes (such as disease incidence or mortality). They can also be used to adjust for confounding variables, which are factors that may influence both the independent variable and the dependent variable, and thus affect the observed relationship between them.

Reference values, also known as reference ranges or reference intervals, are the set of values that are considered normal or typical for a particular population or group of people. These values are often used in laboratory tests to help interpret test results and determine whether a patient's value falls within the expected range.

The process of establishing reference values typically involves measuring a particular biomarker or parameter in a large, healthy population and then calculating the mean and standard deviation of the measurements. Based on these statistics, a range is established that includes a certain percentage of the population (often 95%) and excludes extreme outliers.

It's important to note that reference values can vary depending on factors such as age, sex, race, and other demographic characteristics. Therefore, it's essential to use reference values that are specific to the relevant population when interpreting laboratory test results. Additionally, reference values may change over time due to advances in measurement technology or changes in the population being studied.

Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) are regions of the genome that are associated with variation in quantitative traits, which are traits that vary continuously in a population and are influenced by multiple genes and environmental factors. QTLs can help to explain how genetic variations contribute to differences in complex traits such as height, blood pressure, or disease susceptibility.

Quantitative trait loci are identified through statistical analysis of genetic markers and trait values in experimental crosses between genetically distinct individuals, such as strains of mice or plants. The location of a QTL is inferred based on the pattern of linkage disequilibrium between genetic markers and the trait of interest. Once a QTL has been identified, further analysis can be conducted to identify the specific gene or genes responsible for the variation in the trait.

It's important to note that QTLs are not themselves genes, but rather genomic regions that contain one or more genes that contribute to the variation in a quantitative trait. Additionally, because QTLs are identified through statistical analysis, they represent probabilistic estimates of the location of genetic factors influencing a trait and may encompass large genomic regions containing multiple genes. Therefore, additional research is often required to fine-map and identify the specific genes responsible for the variation in the trait.

Physical fitness is a state of being able to perform various physical activities that require endurance, strength, flexibility, balance, and coordination. According to the American Heart Association (AHA), physical fitness is defined as "a set of attributes that people have or achieve that relates to the ability to perform physical activity."

The AHA identifies five components of physical fitness:

1. Cardiorespiratory endurance: The ability of the heart, lungs, and blood vessels to supply oxygen to muscles during sustained physical activity.
2. Muscular strength: The amount of force a muscle can exert in a single effort.
3. Muscular endurance: The ability of a muscle or group of muscles to sustain repeated contractions or to continue to apply force against an external resistance over time.
4. Flexibility: The range of motion possible at a joint.
5. Body composition: The proportion of fat-free mass (muscle, bone, and organs) to fat mass in the body.

Being physically fit can help reduce the risk of chronic diseases such as heart disease, diabetes, and some types of cancer. It can also improve mental health, increase energy levels, and enhance overall quality of life.

Hispanic Americans, also known as Latino Americans, are individuals in the United States who are of Spanish-speaking origin or whose ancestors came from Spain, Mexico, Cuba, the Caribbean, Central and South America. This group includes various cultures, races, and nationalities. It is important to note that "Hispanic" refers to a cultural and linguistic affiliation rather than a racial category. Therefore, Hispanic Americans can be of any race, including White, Black, Asian, Native American, or mixed races.

Glucose is a simple monosaccharide (or single sugar) that serves as the primary source of energy for living organisms. It's a fundamental molecule in biology, often referred to as "dextrose" or "grape sugar." Glucose has the molecular formula C6H12O6 and is vital to the functioning of cells, especially those in the brain and nervous system.

In the body, glucose is derived from the digestion of carbohydrates in food, and it's transported around the body via the bloodstream to cells where it can be used for energy. Cells convert glucose into a usable form through a process called cellular respiration, which involves a series of metabolic reactions that generate adenosine triphosphate (ATP)—the main currency of energy in cells.

Glucose is also stored in the liver and muscles as glycogen, a polysaccharide (multiple sugar) that can be broken down back into glucose when needed for energy between meals or during physical activity. Maintaining appropriate blood glucose levels is crucial for overall health, and imbalances can lead to conditions such as diabetes mellitus.

Fat necrosis is a medical condition that refers to the death (necrosis) of fat cells, typically due to injury or trauma. This can occur when there is an interruption of blood flow to the area, leading to the death of fat cells and the release of their contents. The affected area may become firm, nodular, or lumpy, and can sometimes be mistaken for a tumor.

Fat necrosis can also occur as a result of pancreatic enzymes leaking into surrounding tissues due to conditions such as pancreatitis. These enzymes can break down fat cells, leading to the formation of calcium soaps that can be seen on imaging studies.

While fat necrosis is not typically a serious condition, it can cause discomfort or pain in the affected area. In some cases, surgical intervention may be necessary to remove the affected tissue.

Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are a class of diseases that affect the heart and blood vessels. They are the leading cause of death globally, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). The term "cardiovascular disease" refers to a group of conditions that include:

1. Coronary artery disease (CAD): This is the most common type of heart disease and occurs when the arteries that supply blood to the heart become narrowed or blocked due to the buildup of cholesterol, fat, and other substances in the walls of the arteries. This can lead to chest pain, shortness of breath, or a heart attack.
2. Heart failure: This occurs when the heart is unable to pump blood efficiently to meet the body's needs. It can be caused by various conditions, including coronary artery disease, high blood pressure, and cardiomyopathy.
3. Stroke: A stroke occurs when the blood supply to a part of the brain is interrupted or reduced, often due to a clot or a ruptured blood vessel. This can cause brain damage or death.
4. Peripheral artery disease (PAD): This occurs when the arteries that supply blood to the limbs become narrowed or blocked, leading to pain, numbness, or weakness in the legs or arms.
5. Rheumatic heart disease: This is a complication of untreated strep throat and can cause damage to the heart valves, leading to heart failure or other complications.
6. Congenital heart defects: These are structural problems with the heart that are present at birth. They can range from mild to severe and may require medical intervention.
7. Cardiomyopathy: This is a disease of the heart muscle that makes it harder for the heart to pump blood efficiently. It can be caused by various factors, including genetics, infections, and certain medications.
8. Heart arrhythmias: These are abnormal heart rhythms that can cause the heart to beat too fast, too slow, or irregularly. They can lead to symptoms such as palpitations, dizziness, or fainting.
9. Valvular heart disease: This occurs when one or more of the heart valves become damaged or diseased, leading to problems with blood flow through the heart.
10. Aortic aneurysm and dissection: These are conditions that affect the aorta, the largest artery in the body. An aneurysm is a bulge in the aorta, while a dissection is a tear in the inner layer of the aorta. Both can be life-threatening if not treated promptly.

It's important to note that many of these conditions can be managed or treated with medical interventions such as medications, surgery, or lifestyle changes. If you have any concerns about your heart health, it's important to speak with a healthcare provider.

Lipoproteins are complex particles composed of multiple proteins and lipids (fats) that play a crucial role in the transport and metabolism of fat molecules in the body. They consist of an outer shell of phospholipids, free cholesterols, and apolipoproteins, enclosing a core of triglycerides and cholesteryl esters.

There are several types of lipoproteins, including:

1. Chylomicrons: These are the largest lipoproteins and are responsible for transporting dietary lipids from the intestines to other parts of the body.
2. Very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDL): Produced by the liver, VLDL particles carry triglycerides to peripheral tissues for energy storage or use.
3. Low-density lipoproteins (LDL): Often referred to as "bad cholesterol," LDL particles transport cholesterol from the liver to cells throughout the body. High levels of LDL in the blood can lead to plaque buildup in artery walls and increase the risk of heart disease.
4. High-density lipoproteins (HDL): Known as "good cholesterol," HDL particles help remove excess cholesterol from cells and transport it back to the liver for excretion or recycling. Higher levels of HDL are associated with a lower risk of heart disease.

Understanding lipoproteins and their roles in the body is essential for assessing cardiovascular health and managing risks related to heart disease and stroke.

The term "Asian Continental Ancestry Group" is a medical/ethnic classification used to describe a person's genetic background and ancestry. According to this categorization, individuals with origins in the Asian continent are grouped together. This includes populations from regions such as East Asia (e.g., China, Japan, Korea), South Asia (e.g., India, Pakistan, Bangladesh), Southeast Asia (e.g., Philippines, Indonesia, Thailand), and Central Asia (e.g., Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan). It is important to note that this broad categorization may not fully capture the genetic diversity within these regions or accurately reflect an individual's specific ancestral origins.

Bone density refers to the amount of bone mineral content (usually measured in grams) in a given volume of bone (usually measured in cubic centimeters). It is often used as an indicator of bone strength and fracture risk. Bone density is typically measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans, which provide a T-score that compares the patient's bone density to that of a young adult reference population. A T-score of -1 or above is considered normal, while a T-score between -1 and -2.5 indicates osteopenia (low bone mass), and a T-score below -2.5 indicates osteoporosis (porous bones). Regular exercise, adequate calcium and vitamin D intake, and medication (if necessary) can help maintain or improve bone density and prevent fractures.

The term "European Continental Ancestry Group" is a medical/ethnic classification that refers to individuals who trace their genetic ancestry to the continent of Europe. This group includes people from various ethnic backgrounds and nationalities, such as Northern, Southern, Eastern, and Western European descent. It is often used in research and medical settings for population studies or to identify genetic patterns and predispositions to certain diseases that may be more common in specific ancestral groups. However, it's important to note that this classification can oversimplify the complex genetic diversity within and between populations, and should be used with caution.

A cohort study is a type of observational study in which a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure are followed up over time to determine the incidence of a specific outcome or outcomes. The cohort, or group, is defined based on the exposure status (e.g., exposed vs. unexposed) and then monitored prospectively to assess for the development of new health events or conditions.

Cohort studies can be either prospective or retrospective in design. In a prospective cohort study, participants are enrolled and followed forward in time from the beginning of the study. In contrast, in a retrospective cohort study, researchers identify a cohort that has already been assembled through medical records, insurance claims, or other sources and then look back in time to assess exposure status and health outcomes.

Cohort studies are useful for establishing causality between an exposure and an outcome because they allow researchers to observe the temporal relationship between the two. They can also provide information on the incidence of a disease or condition in different populations, which can be used to inform public health policy and interventions. However, cohort studies can be expensive and time-consuming to conduct, and they may be subject to bias if participants are not representative of the population or if there is loss to follow-up.

Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 is a metabolic disorder characterized by high blood glucose (or sugar) levels resulting from the body's inability to produce sufficient amounts of insulin or effectively use the insulin it produces. This form of diabetes usually develops gradually over several years and is often associated with older age, obesity, physical inactivity, family history of diabetes, and certain ethnicities.

In Type 2 diabetes, the body's cells become resistant to insulin, meaning they don't respond properly to the hormone. As a result, the pancreas produces more insulin to help glucose enter the cells. Over time, the pancreas can't keep up with the increased demand, leading to high blood glucose levels and diabetes.

Type 2 diabetes is managed through lifestyle modifications such as weight loss, regular exercise, and a healthy diet. Medications, including insulin therapy, may also be necessary to control blood glucose levels and prevent long-term complications associated with the disease, such as heart disease, nerve damage, kidney damage, and vision loss.

A biological marker, often referred to as a biomarker, is a measurable indicator that reflects the presence or severity of a disease state, or a response to a therapeutic intervention. Biomarkers can be found in various materials such as blood, tissues, or bodily fluids, and they can take many forms, including molecular, histologic, radiographic, or physiological measurements.

In the context of medical research and clinical practice, biomarkers are used for a variety of purposes, such as:

1. Diagnosis: Biomarkers can help diagnose a disease by indicating the presence or absence of a particular condition. For example, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a biomarker used to detect prostate cancer.
2. Monitoring: Biomarkers can be used to monitor the progression or regression of a disease over time. For instance, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels are monitored in diabetes patients to assess long-term blood glucose control.
3. Predicting: Biomarkers can help predict the likelihood of developing a particular disease or the risk of a negative outcome. For example, the presence of certain genetic mutations can indicate an increased risk for breast cancer.
4. Response to treatment: Biomarkers can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of a specific treatment by measuring changes in the biomarker levels before and after the intervention. This is particularly useful in personalized medicine, where treatments are tailored to individual patients based on their unique biomarker profiles.

It's important to note that for a biomarker to be considered clinically valid and useful, it must undergo rigorous validation through well-designed studies, including demonstrating sensitivity, specificity, reproducibility, and clinical relevance.

"Genetic crosses" refer to the breeding of individuals with different genetic characteristics to produce offspring with specific combinations of traits. This process is commonly used in genetics research to study the inheritance patterns and function of specific genes.

There are several types of genetic crosses, including:

1. Monohybrid cross: A cross between two individuals that differ in the expression of a single gene or trait.
2. Dihybrid cross: A cross between two individuals that differ in the expression of two genes or traits.
3. Backcross: A cross between an individual from a hybrid population and one of its parental lines.
4. Testcross: A cross between an individual with unknown genotype and a homozygous recessive individual.
5. Reciprocal cross: A cross in which the male and female parents are reversed to determine if there is any effect of sex on the expression of the trait.

These genetic crosses help researchers to understand the mode of inheritance, linkage, recombination, and other genetic phenomena.

A needle biopsy is a medical procedure in which a thin, hollow needle is used to remove a small sample of tissue from a suspicious or abnormal area of the body. The tissue sample is then examined under a microscope to check for cancer cells or other abnormalities. Needle biopsies are often used to diagnose lumps or masses that can be felt through the skin, but they can also be guided by imaging techniques such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI to reach areas that cannot be felt. There are several types of needle biopsy procedures, including fine-needle aspiration (FNA) and core needle biopsy. FNA uses a thin needle and gentle suction to remove fluid and cells from the area, while core needle biopsy uses a larger needle to remove a small piece of tissue. The type of needle biopsy used depends on the location and size of the abnormal area, as well as the reason for the procedure.

Blood pressure is the force exerted by circulating blood on the walls of the blood vessels. It is measured in millimeters of mercury (mmHg) and is given as two figures:

1. Systolic pressure: This is the pressure when the heart pushes blood out into the arteries.
2. Diastolic pressure: This is the pressure when the heart rests between beats, allowing it to fill with blood.

Normal blood pressure for adults is typically around 120/80 mmHg, although this can vary slightly depending on age, sex, and other factors. High blood pressure (hypertension) is generally considered to be a reading of 130/80 mmHg or higher, while low blood pressure (hypotension) is usually defined as a reading below 90/60 mmHg. It's important to note that blood pressure can fluctuate throughout the day and may be affected by factors such as stress, physical activity, and medication use.

A phenotype is the physical or biochemical expression of an organism's genes, or the observable traits and characteristics resulting from the interaction of its genetic constitution (genotype) with environmental factors. These characteristics can include appearance, development, behavior, and resistance to disease, among others. Phenotypes can vary widely, even among individuals with identical genotypes, due to differences in environmental influences, gene expression, and genetic interactions.

... abdominal fat reduction; aerobic exercise; inhibitors of cholesterol synthesis (known as statins); low normal blood glucose ... This causes thinning and the wall balloons allowing gross enlargement to occur, as is common in the abdominal region of the ... they are not composed of fat cells but of accumulations of white blood cells, especially macrophages, that have taken up ...
It has been highly disputed whether or not abdominal exercises have any reducing effect on abdominal fat. The aforementioned ... "The Effect of Abdominal Exercise on Abdominal Fat". Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 25 (9): 2559-64. doi:10.1519 ... Abdomenizer Abdominal fat Chin-up bar Core (anatomy) Crunches Pilates Roman chair Situps Spot reduction Norris, C M (March 1993 ... Lay summary in: "Exercise Important In Reducing Size Of Abdominal Fat Cells". ScienceDaily. August 7, 2006. Iscoe, S (1998). " ...
This is a consequence of intra-abdominal fat. Cows pregnant with twins, older pregnant cows, zebu (Bos indicus) and stabled ... Prolapse of the vagina happens as a consequence of increased pressure in the abdominal cavity of cows. Increased production of ...
Vispute, S. S.; Smith, J. D.; LeCheminant, J. D.; Hurley, K. S. (2011). "The effect of abdominal exercise on abdominal fat". ... Android fat distribution is contrasted with gynoid fat distribution, whereby fat around the hips, thighs, and bottom results in ... However increase in abdominal circumference may be due to increasing in subcutaneous or visceral fat, and it is the visceral ... Testosterone circulation causes fat cells to deposit around the abdominal and gluteofemoral region, whereas in women oestrogen ...
"Abdominal fat and what to do about it". Harvard Health Publications. Harvard Medical School. 2006. Retrieved 5 June 2013. ... Subcutaneous fat is found just beneath the skin, as opposed to visceral fat, which is found in the peritoneal cavity, and can ... Subcutaneous fat is the layer of subcutaneous tissue that is most widely distributed. It is composed of adipocytes, which are ... It is a major site of fat storage in the body. In arthropods, a hypodermis can refer to an epidermal layer of cells that ...
Straker, Lorian Cobra; Jehl, Joseph R. (2017). "Rapid mobilization of abdominal fat in migrating eared grebes". Journal of ... This additional fat is used to power the black-necked grebe's overnight fall migration to its wintering grounds. The fat is ...
... intra-abdominal body fat is related to negative health outcomes independent of total body fat. Intra-abdominal or visceral fat ... Visceral fat, also known as organ fat or intra-abdominal fat, is located inside the peritoneal cavity, packed in between ... "Abdominal fat and what to do about it. Visceral fat more of a health concern than subcutaneous fat". Harvard Health ... Conversely, studies suggest that oily fish consumption is negatively associated with total body fat and abdominal fat ...
A chief risk factor for prediabetes is excess abdominal fat. Obesity increases one's risk for a variety of other medical ... migration from rural to urban areas and a higher susceptibility to accumulate abdominal fat and develop more insulin resistance ... The Latin American populations exhibit a high prevalence of abdominal obesity and metabolic syndrome, similar or even higher ... refers to a cluster of related risk factors for cardiovascular disease that includes abdominal obesity, diabetes, hypertension ...
Eating more proteins or fats can cause Abdominal pain in them. Mixed oxidizer eat a mixture of fat and protein efficient diet. ... Since fast oxidizers oxidize food quickly, they are advised to rely more on fat protein efficient diet. This diet will help ... Fat Protein Efficient Diet: Information extracted from metabolic typing diet explained by Quackwatch. Accessed 9 April 2020. ( ... carbohydrates and fats) which are optimal for one person may not be for a second, and could even be detrimental to them. ...
Visceral fat or abdominal fat (also known as organ fat or intra-abdominal fat) is located inside the abdominal cavity, packed ... visceral fat area). An excess of visceral fat is known as abdominal obesity, or "belly fat", in which the abdomen protrudes ... are specifically designed to measure abdominal volume and abdominal fat. Excess visceral fat is also linked to type 2 diabetes ... "Reduce Abdominal Fat". Archived from the original on 2011-09-28. Retrieved 2009-04-10. Estrogen causes fat to be stored around ...
"Li Xian's bodybuilding to 9% body fat, "present boyfriend" guide the abdominal muscles". Huashang (in Chinese). 6 April 2018. ... Jingyi, Zhang (7 April 2017). "Li Xian practiced 8 abdominal muscles in 45 days and learned sister skills from Shiyue" 李现45天练出 ...
Both long-term exercise programs and anti-obesity medications reduce abdominal fat volume. Self-monitoring of diet, exercise, ... A 2010 study found that dieters who got a full night's sleep lost more than twice as much fat as sleep-deprived dieters. Though ... Unintentional weight loss may result from loss of body fats, loss of body fluids, muscle atrophy, or a combination of these. It ... Symptoms of weight loss from ACS include severe weight loss from muscle rather than body fat, loss of appetite and feeling full ...
Intake of trans fat from industrial oils has been associated with increased abdominal obesity in men and increased weight and ... Kavanagh K, Jones KL, Sawyer J, Kelley K, Carr JJ, Wagner JD, Rudel LL (July 2007). "Trans fat diet induces abdominal obesity ... January 2011). "Effect of trans fatty acid intake on abdominal and liver fat deposition and blood lipids: a randomized trial in ... However, a subsequent response controlled for just abdominal fat across a sample of 91,214 people found that even when ...
"Automated Liver Fat Quantification at Nonenhanced Abdominal CT for Population-based Steatosis Assessment". Radiology. 293 (2): ... Summers' lab has also demonstrated the utility of deep learning for performing automated measurement of muscle, liver fat, ... Pearson, Dave (1 July 2016). "Radiologists sharing more abdominal duties with computers". Health Imaging. Retrieved 22 December ... "Fully Automated Abdominal CT Biomarkers for Type 2 Diabetes Using Deep Learning". Radiology. 304 (1): 85-95. doi:10.1148/radiol ...
Thickness of the rectus abdominis muscle and the abdominal subcutaneous fat tissue Kim, Jungmin; Lim, Hyoseob; Lee, Se Il; Kim ... An abdominal muscle strain, also called a pulled abdominal muscle, is an injury to one of the muscles of the abdominal wall. A ... The rectus abdominis muscle, (Latin: straight abdominal) also known as the "abdominal muscle" or simply the "abs", is a pair of ... Yu Jin (2012). "Thickness of Rectus Abdominis Muscle and Abdominal Subcutaneous Fat Tissue in Adult Women: Correlation with Age ...
August 2018). "Subcutaneous infiltration of carbon dioxide (carboxytherapy) for abdominal fat reduction: A randomized clinical ... It has a necrotizing effect on fat tissue fat cells, stimulate blood flow, improve the skin's elasticity and reduce the ... Carboxytherapy leads to a temporary decrease in subcutaneous fat but has shown to reoccur again after a 28 week period. It can ...
Abdominal fat, specifically visceral fat, is most directly affected by engaging in aerobic exercise. Strength training has been ... Research into the benefits of HIIT have shown that it can be very successful for reducing fat, especially around the abdominal ... and appropriate immune responses are factors that mediate metabolism in relation to abdominal fat. Therefore, physical fitness ... Furthermore, when compared to continuous moderate exercise, HIIT proves to burn more calories and increase the amount of fat ...
Significant overlying abdominal fat can also create an environment that encourages bacterial and fungal growth. Obesity can ... an abdominoplasty in which excess fat and skin from the region are removed; an escutheonectomy in which the pad of fat just ... While rare, it can include an abnormally large pubic fat pad and firm tissue that pulls the penis inward. While not every obese ... Bryan Voelzke and his colleagues emphasized the need to tack the suprapubic fat pad to the periosteum of the symphysis pubis as ...
... this is particularly the case for people whose fat is situated predominantly in the abdominal region. Overweight people are ...
The ABSI uses the waist circumference to take into account the distribution of fat, especially the proportion of abdominal fat ... A high ABSI appears to correspond to a higher proportion of central obesity, or abdominal fat. In a sample of Americans in the ... "Body Fat and Fat-Free Mass and All-Cause Mortality". Obesity Research. 12 (7): 1042-1049. doi:10.1038/oby.2004.131. PMID ... A criticism of BMI is that it does not distinguish between muscle and fat mass and so may be elevated in people with increased ...
... size (waist circumference) is an indicator of abdominal obesity. Excess abdominal fat is a risk factor for developing ... It measures the proportion by which fat is distributed around the torso. Waist-hip ratios of 0.7 for women and 0.9 for men have ... Abdominal obesity Alvinolagnia Belly dance Body modification Human body Midriff Navel Rib removal Waist-hip ratio Waist-to- ...
HIIT, particularly running, is a time-efficient strategy in decreasing abdominal and visceral fat-mass deposits. A 2021 ... Maillard, Pereira, Boisseau (Feb 2018). "Effect of High-Intensity Interval Training on Total, Abdominal and Visceral Fat Mass: ... "Comparable Effects of High-Intensity Interval Training and Prolonged Continuous Exercise Training on Abdominal Visceral Fat ... The study found that seven sessions of HIIT over a 2-week period improved whole body fat oxidation and the capacity for ...
Tissue biopsy using subcutaneous abdominal fat tissue aspiration is typically used as it is safe and sensitive. It is also ...
Olsen KE, Sletten K, Westermark P (1998). "Extended analysis of AL-amyloid protein from abdominal wall subcutaneous fat biopsy ...
... which reduces intra-abdominal fat. It improves lipid profile, glucose tolerance, and waist measurement, and is therefore ... It enhances the sensitivity of insulin receptors on the surface of muscle and fat cells and activates genes that reduce the ... making fat cells more responsive to insulin by binding to their PPAR receptors Agents that modulate sirtuins (called STAC - ...
While the fat returned somewhat to the treated area, most of the increased fat occurred in the abdominal area. Visceral fat - ... While the suctioned fat cells are permanently gone, after a few months overall body fat generally returned to the same level as ... and Long-Term Effects of Abdominal Lipectomy on Weight and Fat Mass in Females: A Systematic Review". Obesity Surgery. 25 (10 ... "Fat Redistribution Following Suction Lipectomy: Defense of Body Fat and Patterns of Restoration". Obesity. 19 (7): 1388-95. doi ...
... and Long-Term Effects of Abdominal Lipectomy on Weight and Fat Mass in Females: A Systematic Review". Obesity Surgery. 25 (10 ... This treatment has also been cleared for the treatment of the upper arm, back fat, bra fat, banana roll, submental area, and ... to reduce fat, sometimes in combination with injections. Fat is sometimes removed from one location to another on a person in ... along with bra fat, back fat, underneath the buttocks, and upper arm. In 2010, Zerona, another low-level laser treatment, was ...
"Abdominal fat and what to do about it". Archived from the original on 2011-09-28. Retrieved 2007-06-18. "Why men store fat in ... Estrogen increases fat storage in the body, which results in more fat stored in the female body. Body fat percentage guidelines ... But exercising reduces fat throughout the body, and where fat is stored depends on hormones. Liposuction is surgery commonly ... Estrogen causes fat to be stored in the buttocks, thighs, and hips in females. When females reach menopause and the estrogen ...
Trial 2 enrolled participants who underwent surgical removal of abdominal wall fat (abdominoplasty) and had moderate to severe ... controlled studies of participants who had undergone bunion surgery or abdominal surgery. Participants administered oliceridine ...
God forbade the abdominal fat of cattle (in Leviticus 3:3), but permitted it in the case of beasts. God forbade consuming the ... This is indicated by Leviticus 7:24, which says, "And the fat of that which dies of itself (נְבֵלָה‎, nebeilah) and the fat of ...
An abdominal wall fat pad biopsy is the removal of a small part of the abdominal wall fat pad for laboratory study of the ... Amyloidosis - abdominal wall fat pad biopsy; Abdominal wall biopsy; Biopsy - abdominal wall fat pad ... An abdominal wall fat pad biopsy is the removal of a small part of the abdominal wall fat pad for laboratory study of the ... A needle is placed through the skin and into the fat pad under the skin. A small piece of the fat pad is removed with the ...
Visceral fat (or abdominal fat) is body fat which is stored within the abdominal cavity. It wraps around your vital organs ... But what about abdominal fat?. Abdominal fat contributes to risk of diabetes and hypertension, and with these being the most ... Abdominal fat, Type 2 diabetes. What is the relationship between kidney function and abdominal fat?. Posted on 10th June 2016 ... aimed to examine the relationship between kidney function and abdominal fat; the researchers wanted to discover if abdominal ...
Older people with abdominal fat weak muscles have a risk of developing mobility problems according to a recent study led by a ... "Abdominal fat is more common in men. In women, the fat tends to accumulate around the thighs and hips, but more fat also ... "Abdominal fat is more common in men. In women, the fat tends to accumulate around the thighs and hips, but more fat also ... Abdominal fat riskier for older people. Sao Paulo [Brazil], September 5 (ANI): Older people with abdominal fat, weak muscles ...
... any xenoestrogens in large enough amounts can trigger your body to hold onto abdominal fat (aka - stubborn belly fat ). ... 2004-2023 Truth About Abs .com - Six Pack Abdominal Exercises, Flat Ab Workouts, How to Lose Belly Fat Fitness and Diet ... In fact, read this article to see how 3 specific veggies can help you to fight abdominal fat by counteracting xenoestrogens. ... Does Canned Food and Bottled Water Increase Your Abdominal Fat Through Hidden Chemicals? ...
... Magn ... Keywords: abdominal; adipose tissue; deep learning; fully convolutional networks; segmentation; water-fat MRI. ... and compared using the water-fat MRI data. Data of the study Tellus with 90 scans from a single center was used for a 10-fold ... in multicenter water-fat MRI scans of the abdomen was investigated, using 2 different neural network architectures. ...
... Learn about HIV, its treatment, and how to take ... Drug that reduces abdominal fat in HIV patients also may reduce fat in liver. ... "Tesamorelins ability to reduce liver fat in conjunction with the reduction of abdominal fat may be clinically important for ... the MGH team originally planned to further investigate tesamorelins effects on abdominal fat with a secondary focus on fat in ...
The fat composition of food not only influences cholesterol levels and the risk of cardiovascular disease but also governs ... where the fat will be stored in the body, say researchers. ... Sat fat linked to increased levels of dangerous abdominal fat. ... Related tags Nutrition Saturated fat Fat The fat composition of food not only influences cholesterol levels and the risk of ... Writing in Diabetes, ​the Swedish team found those consuming the saturated fat muffins accumulated more abdominal fat and less ...
... but the nature of the association between weight and disordered metabolism has been confused because fat mass and its ... Can you be large and not obese? The distinction between body weight, body fat, and abdominal fat in occupational standards ... Weight, fat, and regional fat placement, specifically in the abdominal site, may each have distinctly different associations ... The body fat standards assessed by circumference-based equations are 20-26% and 30-36%, for various age groups of men and women ...
A placebo-controlled, dose-ranging study of a growth hormone releasing factor in HIV-infected patients with abdominal fat ... on abdominal fat accumulation, metabolic and safety parameters in HIV-infected patients with central fat accumulation.. Design ... The primary outcome was change in abdominal fat, assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and cross-sectional computerized ... We therefore assessed the effect of TH9507, a growth hormone releasing factor (GRF) analog on abdominal fat accumulation and ...
Fortunately, there are some basic things you can do to improve abdominal exercise technique and make your abdominal training ... Avoid These Frustrating Abdominal Training Mistakes By Using These Simple Effective Techniques!. October 14, 2010. By Mandy ... Learning to use and perform abdominal exercises correctly is more challenging than many people think. Most people who exercise ... regularly perform some abdominal exercises, but ab exercises are often performed incorrectly or inefficiently. ...
Fat necrosis of abdominal pannus following caesarean section in a woman with morbid obesity ... Fat necrosis of abdominal pannus following caesarean section in a woman with morbid obesity ... Fat necrosis of abdominal pannus following caesarean section in a woman with morbid obesity ...
Abdominal Fat Loss Balch Springs TX - Ways to Combine Strength Training And Fat burning. Abdominal Fat Loss, Uncategorized ... As we pointed out previously, the best approach of abdominal fat loss in Balch Springs TX is to incorporate fat burning ... Integrating this abdominal fat loss in Balch Springs TX with cardio is an excellent means to improve fat burning. ... They might even suggest some exercises for abdominal fat loss in Balch Springs TX to do in addition to the ones well talk ...
It is the product obtained by separating the bone and meat from the bony part coming from the back of the chicken breast.. ...
Abdominal obesity was defined as waist circumference,=102 cm for men and ,=88 cm for women. Body fat (percent total body weight ... Age- and sex-specific body fat cut-offs were used to define excess body fat. Cigarettes smoked per day were assessed by self- ... smoking may favour abdominal body fat accumulation. To our knowledge, no population-based studies have assessed the ... We assessed the association between cigarette smoking and waist circumference, body fat, and body-mass index. METHODS: Height, ...
Abdominal Fat. Posted on février 20, 2016. by Like eliminating abdominal and corporal fat Which is the function of its organism ... These obese people, often try to eliminate fashionable the extra abdominal fat through diets and taking the miraculous tablets ... Also we will see as the sport helps its physicist to burn abdominal fat. ... to burn abdominal fat or of any other part of its body? Numerous people want to lose excessively greasy corporal, since a ...
Visceral fat not only causes your waistline to expand, but its also linked to many health problems. Here are tips to attack it ... Located in the abdominal cavity, this "visceral" fat - as opposed to the bodys subcutaneous fat, which you can pinch between ... "The upper subcutaneous fat may be as bad as the visceral fat." An example is a roll of fat on the torso around the bra line; ... Besides wrecking your waistline, the problem with abdominal fat is that its cells pump out chemicals that promote disease. "Fat ...
Abdominal Visceral Fat A. August 28, 2022. by Rumbo Exipure, a weight loss supplement, has been shown to increase metabolic ... This type of fat has been studied by scientists for decades. They believed there was one type of fat. But, today we know there ... Brown fat in the body plays a vital role in promoting metabolism and burning calories. It is a type fat that supports ... Exipure is a diet supplement that helps you burn belly fat naturally. It has powerful ingredients to balance the cortisol ...
Pizza: High in calories, harmful fats, and processed carbs. If ingested in large quantities, it may promote abdominal fat.. ... Fried foods: Theyre heavy in calories and harmful fats. They may aid in the development of inflammation and abdominal obesity. ... They contribute to abdominal fat due to their high sugar and calorie content.. ... Alcohol: Alcohol is abundant in calories and may cause abdominal fat storage if eaten in large quantities.. ...
... Wearing a waist trainer will help you lose weight. Come to our website to inquiry now. ... How does abdominal hip fat lose weight?. People working in office buildings experience a problem of sitting for a long time, ... At the same time, the accumulation of fat on the buttocks causes the buttocks to swell, which in turn becomes a loose buttock. ... and a large accumulation of abdominal fat. ... Home / News / Industry News / How does abdominal hip fat lose ...
Burn Abdominal Fat Fast. Author: admin Published Date: April 17, 2023 Burn belly fat fast takes time and dedication. It is ... Here are some tips to burn abdominal fat fast haran to drop the kilos, as soon as possible. 1. Eat five to six small meals a ... Burn belly fat fast requires commitment and dedication. Use the tips from this article and meets its goals of burning abdominal ... This will help you to remember that you are trying to burn abdominal fat and you have to eat more slowly. 3. Dont lose sight ...
The battle of the bulge around the abdominal area is a common struggle for many individuals. While regular exercise and a ... Visceral Fat. Abdominal fat can be divided into two main types: subcutaneous fat and visceral fat. Subcutaneous fat lies just ... Visceral fat, on the other hand, is the fat that accumulates around the organs in the abdominal cavity and poses a greater ... Understanding Abdominal Fat. Before diving into the superfoods, its important to understand the different types of abdominal ...
Subcutaneous fat necrosis of the newborn (SFNN) is an uncommon disorder characterized by firm, erythematous nodules and plaques ... Subcutaneous Fat Necrosis of the Newborn * 2003/viewarticle/brain-belly-connection-abdominal-fat-linked-lower-brain- ... The Brain-Belly Connection: Is Abdominal Fat Linked to Lower Brain Volume? 0.25 CME / LOC / MOC Credit / CE Credits education ... The cause of subcutaneous fat necrosis of the newborn (SFNN) is not known. Hypothermia is a common antecedent. The brown fat of ...
It is covered by a layer of fat in some people, a reason why the abs are not visible. Just like the other muscle groups in the ... most people are interested to work hard for the much desired visibility of the abdominal muscles or the abs. ... have their abdominal muscles behind the layer of abdominal fat and what they have to do is to burn that layer of abdominal fat ... Burpee burns fats not only in the abdominal area, but also in the whole body. According to Mens Fitness, the person performs ...
People living in France, Norway, and Sweden were the thinnest, while those living in Greece and Spain were the fattest. ... study of nearly 500,000 men and women age 25 to 70 years living in 10 European countries found a reduced risk of abdominal ... The Mediterranean Diet Cuts Abdominal Fat. The Mediterranean Diet Cuts Abdominal Fat. by Team FitRx ...
Small quantities of trans fat exist in nature, but most are made for the food system by adding hydrogen to unsaturated fats to ... Some claim that high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) in SSBs is the main contributor to visceral fat, but most research suggests ... If eaten with other high-sugar foods and beverages, this may increase daily calorie consumption and visceral fat (8Trusted ... that HFCS and regular sugar (sucrose) both cause weight gain by providing excessive calories, not by storing fat. ...
To burn all those llantitas, I leave this routine and exercises that you can do to burn that extra fat that you have in your ... Abdominal fat is the one we hate the most when we put on a dress, pants and suddenly we lose our love handles. ... Here we write and showing images 10 best exercises to burn abdominal fat. 1. The step of the bear. The step of the bear or bear ... Abdominal fat is the one we hate the most when we put on a dress, pants and suddenly we lose our love handles. ...
It is well know that extra weight in the abdominal region increases the risk of diabetes, stroke and heart disease. Now it ... Abdominal Fat Increases Risk for Alzheimers Disease. Posted byAmy March 28, 2008. March 28, 2008. ... Individuals who maintained a healthy weight but carried extra fat in the abdominal region were 1.9 times more likely to develop ... It is important to remember that you cant "spot reduce". So, the best way to lose that abdominal weight is to follow the same ...
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A study found that giving overweight people a strain of probiotic as part of a milk drink led to reductions in abdominal fat ... Can a probiotic reduce abdominal fat? See what studies are showing, including the latest surprising results, in the Weight ... For details see the Colds and acute respiratory infections section as well as the Bloating, gas, and abdominal pain section of ... A recent study in overweight men and women showed a small decrease in fat among those taking a probiotic for 12 weeks. Other ...
Abdominal migraine tends to affect children and can cause a lot of discomfort. Read this article to learn more about the ... Reducing abdominal fat may help reverse prediabetes. *. Jamais vu, the opposite of déjà vu: Why does the familiar feel ... Abdominal migraine can be difficult to prevent, as its causes are unclear. However, a person may help prevent abdominal ... abdominal migraine can continue into adulthood. Some doctors consider persistent abdominal migraine to be an indication of ...
  • Gait speed declined most in those with abdominal obesity and dynapenia in the ensuing eight years of monitoring. (bignewsnetwork.com)
  • In the participants with abdominal obesity and muscle weakness, we observed a loss of 0.15 m/s in the eight-year period. (bignewsnetwork.com)
  • Hence the concept of dynapenic abdominal obesity, which we've been studying in our research group for several years," Alexandre told Agencia FAPESP. (bignewsnetwork.com)
  • Abdominal obesity was defined as a waist circumference exceeding 102 cm for men and 88 cm for women. (bignewsnetwork.com)
  • An investigation demonstrating that low doses of BPA spur both the formation and growth of fat cells , the two factors that drive obesity in humans (Masumo et al. (truthaboutabs.com)
  • U.S. Army body fat standards may offer practical and reasonable health guidelines suitable for all active Americans that might help stem the increasing prevalence of obesity that is predicted to increase the prevalence of Type 2 diabetes. (nih.gov)
  • Dose-dependent positive association between cigarette smoking, abdominal obesity and body fat: cross-sectional data from a population-based survey. (unil.ch)
  • Sitting obesity-as the name suggests, prolonged sitting can lead to obesity, which is characterized by large hips, strong thighs, and a large accumulation of abdominal fat. (waisttrainerfactory.com)
  • and abdomen due to sedentary fat will continue to accumulate and become sedentary obesity of the lower limbs over time, commonly known as pear obesity. (waisttrainerfactory.com)
  • They may aid in the development of inflammation and abdominal obesity. (mealfacts.com)
  • Processed meats: Bacon, sausage, and deli meat are rich in saturated fat and may lead to belly obesity. (mealfacts.com)
  • A large study of nearly 500,000 men and women age 25 to 70 years living in 10 European countries found a reduced risk of abdominal obesity in people who followed the Mediterranean diet. (fitnessrxformen.com)
  • To identify Alzheimer's risks earlier, researchers assessed the association between brain MRI volumes, as well as amyloid and tau uptake on positron emission tomography (PET) scans, with body mass index (BMI), obesity, insulin resistance and abdominal adipose (fatty) tissue in a cognitively normal midlife population. (awazthevoice.in)
  • Magriplis E, Andrea E, Zampelas A. Nutrition in the Prevention and Treatment of Abdominal Obesity (Second Edition, 2019) The Mediterranean Diet: What it is and its effect on abdominal obesity. (psychologytoday.com)
  • Separate effects of exercise amount and intensity on adipose tissue and skeletal muscle mass in adults with abdominal obesity. (psychologytoday.com)
  • OBJECTIVE: To examine the associations of abdominal fat and obesity with functional limitations and disability in late adulthood. (cims-ops.cz)
  • Excess visceral abdominal adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAT) are key contributors to abdominal obesity, but differ in their structural composition, metabolic activity, and functional significance[ 3 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Abdominal obesity is associated with an increased risk of insulin resistance. (naturalnews.com)
  • The relationship between abdominal fat, obesity, and common mental disorders: Results from the hunt Study. (bvsalud.org)
  • 2 Although the prevalence of abdominal obesity has increased in the United States through 2008, 3 its trend in recent years is unknown. (cdc.gov)
  • Therefore, our objective was to provide recent information about the trends in mean waist circumference and prevalence of abdominal obesity among adults in the United States from 1999 to 2012. (cdc.gov)
  • The overall age-adjusted prevalence of abdominal obesity increased significantly from 46.4% (95% CI, 42.1%-50.8%) in 1999-2000 to 54.2% (95% CI, 51.3%-57.0%) in 2011-2012 ( Table 2 ). (cdc.gov)
  • In contrast, our analyses using data from the same surveys indicate that the prevalence of abdominal obesity is still increasing. (cdc.gov)
  • The body fat standards assessed by circumference-based equations are 20-26% and 30-36%, for various age groups of men and women, respectively, and the upper limits align with threshold values of waist circumference recommended in national health goals. (nih.gov)
  • Measurement of waist circumference and body mass index (BMI) are two conventional methods to determine the abdominal fat and muscle composition. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Despite no differences in body weight or total fat mass, the almond diet significantly reduced abdominal fat mass, waist circumference and leg fat mass compared to the diet with the muffin snack. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The measurement of waist circumference is a popular method to assess abdominal fat. (metabolism.com)
  • Metabolic syndrome is characterized by a large waist circumference (due to excess abdominal fat), hypertension, abnormal fasting plasma glucose or insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Waist circumference is a simple and valuable anthropometric measure of total and intra-abdominal body fat. (cdc.gov)
  • An approach for the automated segmentation of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) in multicenter water-fat MRI scans of the abdomen was investigated, using 2 different neural network architectures. (nih.gov)
  • They were also able to see that over-consumption of saturated fats turned on certain genes in fatty (adipose) tissue, which in turn increased the storage of fat in the abdomen and interfered with insulin regulation. (foodnavigator-usa.com)
  • The purpose of this study is to explore the difference of abdominal fat and muscle composition, especially subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue, in different stages of colorectal cancer (CRC). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Abdominal visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue compartments: association with metabolic risk factors in the Framingham Heart Study. (nature.com)
  • Impact of abdominal visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue on cardiometabolic risk factors: the Jackson Heart Study. (nature.com)
  • Whereas visceral abdominal adipose tissue (VAT) is associated with cardiometabolic risk, there is debate regarding the role of subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAT). The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships of subcutaneous and visceral abdominal fat with carotid atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Further research into the different roles of the two types of abdominal adipose tissue in both men and women is warranted. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The NAFLD group had higher hepatic fat ( P ±0.001) lower skeletal muscle IS ( P = 0.01), hepatic IS ( P = 0.01), and adipose tissue IS ( P = 0.04). (medscape.com)
  • Abdominal circumference may be the common marker of poor fitness habits and of increased risk for metabolic diseases such as diabetes. (nih.gov)
  • If you are worried about your visceral fat levels the waist-to-hip ratio (found by dividing waist width by hip width) can give an indication of total fat as well as the level of visceral fat, however the most accurate measurement of visceral fat is to measure adiponectin levels in the blood. (randox.com)
  • In women, the fat tends to accumulate around the thighs and hips, but more fat also accumulates in the belly after the menopausal hormone drop. (bignewsnetwork.com)
  • and of course, any xenoestrogens in large enough amounts can trigger your body to hold onto abdominal fat ( aka - stubborn belly fat ). (truthaboutabs.com)
  • Turns out, belly fat is not like other fat, and experts say that what should really concern you is its proximity to the major organs in your midsection. (aarp.org)
  • Exipure is a diet supplement that helps you burn belly fat naturally. (inmobiliariarumbo.com)
  • Burn belly fat fast takes time and dedication. (energynanomedconference.com)
  • Also be sure you're fulfilling their nutritional requirements, which is important when you are trying to burn belly fat fast, cut consumption of food often can mean cut nutritional requirements. (energynanomedconference.com)
  • A lot of people who are trying to burn belly fat fast make the huge mistake of drastically reducing calories. (energynanomedconference.com)
  • Burn belly fat fast requires commitment and dedication. (energynanomedconference.com)
  • Candy and sweets: Sugary foods may cause weight gain and belly fat if eaten in excess. (mealfacts.com)
  • Ice cream: Ice cream is heavy in sugar and harmful fats and may cause belly fat if eaten too much. (mealfacts.com)
  • For instance, there are 3 veggies that are uniquely helpful in burning body fat - specifically burning belly fat. (vixendaily.com)
  • Visceral fat is fat surrounding the internal organs deep in the belly. (awazthevoice.in)
  • If you carry extra belly fat, speak with your health care provider to determine a plan that is best for you. (psychologytoday.com)
  • In addition to significantly improving LDL and total cholesterol , snacking on almonds instead of muffins also reduced central adiposity (belly fat), a well-established heart disease risk factor. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Our research found that substituting almonds for a high-carbohydrate snack improved numerous heart health risk factors, including the new finding that eating almonds reduced belly fat,' says Claire Berryman, PhD and lead researcher of the study. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Understanding Abdominal (Belly) Fat. (metabolism.com)
  • Could it be because in nature having adequate amounts of stored fat on the body eg belly fat, is essential for survival in the same way having gasoline in the fuel tank of a car is needed to keep it going? (metabolism.com)
  • Natural News) Having excess belly fat does not only look bad, it is also bad for your health. (naturalnews.com)
  • Isthere 'one trick' to losing belly fat? (healthline.com)
  • Like eliminating abdominal and corporal fat Which is the function of its organism to burn abdominal fat or of any other part of its body? (acsysbiometricscorp.com)
  • Also we will see as the sport helps its physicist to burn abdominal fat. (acsysbiometricscorp.com)
  • Here are some tips to burn abdominal fat fast haran to drop the kilos, as soon as possible. (energynanomedconference.com)
  • This will help you to remember that you are trying to burn abdominal fat and you have to eat more slowly. (energynanomedconference.com)
  • The following are exercises that burn abdominal fat. (healthdigezt.com)
  • This means that whether your doctor tells you that you're underweight, overweight, obese or of a healthy weight, you may be carrying excess visceral fat within your abdominal cavity. (randox.com)
  • These obese people, often try to eliminate fashionable the extra abdominal fat through diets and taking the miraculous tablets, this leads to the disappointment and the disappointment. (acsysbiometricscorp.com)
  • White fat is the fat most people are familiar with - over 73.2% of all Americans carry too much and are classed as either overweight or obese ( CDC, 2017 to 2018 ). (metabolism.com)
  • However, the link between insulin resistance and fat metabolism in abdominally obese individuals is not understood. (naturalnews.com)
  • Hence, WC was a better anthropometric index of fat location than WHR to estimate lipid profile in overweight and obese adult women. (who.int)
  • The UFSCar researchers noted that an accumulation of abdominal fat activates an intense inflammatory cascade, which consumes muscle mass and reduces strength. (bignewsnetwork.com)
  • Visceral fat (or abdominal fat) is body fat which is stored within the abdominal cavity. (randox.com)
  • Living a healthy lifestyle will therefore reduce your chances of visceral fat accumulating in your abdominal cavity. (randox.com)
  • Located in the abdominal cavity, this "visceral" fat - as opposed to the body's subcutaneous fat, which you can pinch between your fingers - is linked to a slew of health problems. (aarp.org)
  • Visceral fat, on the other hand, is the fat that accumulates around the organs in the abdominal cavity and poses a greater health risk. (caramellaapp.com)
  • Quinoa is a versatile ingredient that can be used in various dishes, making it a valuable addition to your diet when aiming to reduce abdominal fat. (caramellaapp.com)
  • Meanwhile, there are steps you can take to help reduce abdominal fat and maintain lean muscle mass as you age in order to protect both your physical and mental well being. (psychologytoday.com)
  • Despite comparable weight gain in the two groups, Risérus and his colleagues found the surplus consumption of saturated fat caused a markedly greater increase in the amount of fat in the liver and abdomen when compared to those consuming polyunsaturated fat. (foodnavigator-usa.com)
  • To burn all those llantitas, I leave this routine and exercises that you can do to burn that extra fat that you have in your abdomen. (natural-lotion.com)
  • One study from Iowa State University, published in the November 2019 edition of Brain, Behavior, and Immunity , found that muscle loss and the accumulation of body fat around the abdomen, which often begin in middle age and continue into advanced age, are associated with a decline in fluid intelligence. (psychologytoday.com)
  • She now returns for her third session of autologous fat grafting breasts augmentation, during which Dr Arthur Tjandra of Elixir de Vie , harvests fat from her abdomen. (elixirdevie.com)
  • Visceral fat is stored primarily around and inside the abdomen. (metabolism.com)
  • The closer fat is to the stomach and abdomen, the greater the chance is that it penetrates under the skin, wrapping itself around the liver, heart, kidneys, pancreas, and other organs. (metabolism.com)
  • Excess fat in the abdomen (called apple shape), particularly when it results in a high waist-to-hip ratio (reflecting a relatively low muscle-to-fat mass ratio), increases risk. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The buildup of abdominal fat fuels inflammation, which consumes muscle mass and reduces muscle strength, while also impairing neural control of the muscles. (bignewsnetwork.com)
  • In designing the current study, the MGH team originally planned to further investigate tesamorelin's effects on abdominal fat with a secondary focus on fat in the liver and muscle, and on markers of inflammation and cardiovascular risk. (health.am)
  • Since we know that liver fat is associated with inflammation in the liver, reducing it may result in less inflammation. (health.am)
  • Now we need to investigate the effects of tesamorelin in patients with the severe form of liver inflammation called nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, which can cause significant damage to liver cells, and examine whether reduced liver fat has other metabolic benefits," he adds. (health.am)
  • If ingested in large quantities, it may promote inflammation and abdominal fat gain. (mealfacts.com)
  • When it comes to abdominal fat reduction, superfoods can be particularly helpful due to their ability to reduce inflammation, boost metabolism, and control appetite. (caramellaapp.com)
  • Omega-3s have been shown to reduce visceral fat by decreasing inflammation and improving insulin sensitivity. (caramellaapp.com)
  • The researchers also found that higher visceral fat measurements are related to an increased burden of inflammation in the brain. (awazthevoice.in)
  • The results may point to visceral fat as a treatment target to modify risk of future brain inflammation and dementia. (awazthevoice.in)
  • Before diving into the superfoods, it's important to understand the different types of abdominal fat and why they are significant for your health. (caramellaapp.com)
  • This is not surprising, since as I mentioned at the beginning of this article, BPA is a known xenoestrogen, and any xenoestrogens can contribute to what's been referred to as 'stubborn abdominal fat' as well as cancer and other health problems. (truthaboutabs.com)
  • This also explains why abdominal fat is seen as 'stubborn fat' that is hard to lose. (metabolism.com)
  • Sao Paulo [Brazil], September 5 (ANI): Older people with abdominal fat, weak muscles have a risk of developing mobility problems, according to a recent study led by a team of international researchers. (bignewsnetwork.com)
  • The findings of the study published in the journal 'Age and Ageing', revealed that the dangerous combination of weak muscles and abdominal fat can lead to a significant loss of gait speed in older people. (bignewsnetwork.com)
  • Our comparative analysis showed loss of gait speed occurring mainly when abdominal fat and weak muscles were associated. (bignewsnetwork.com)
  • Gait speed didn't decline so sharply in older people who had only abdominal fat or only weak muscles," said Tiago da Silva Alexandre, a professor at the Department of Gerontology, Center for Biological and Health Sciences, Federal University of Sao Carlos (CCBS-UFSCar), and last author of a paper on the study. (bignewsnetwork.com)
  • Called SABE and conducted by the University of Sao Paulo's School of Public Health (FSP-USP), the study did not analyse the correlations between abdominal fat, weak muscles and gait speed. (bignewsnetwork.com)
  • Detailing the association between fat accumulation, weak muscles and loss of mobility, Alexandre said that a decrease in subcutaneous fat and an increase in abdominal fat are normal as age increases. (bignewsnetwork.com)
  • If you add some weight to your exercise, as in the case of the farmer's walk, you will make an additional requirement to your muscles, promoting the burning of abdominal fat . (natural-lotion.com)
  • In the world of health and fitness, most people are interested to work hard for the much desired visibility of the abdominal muscles or the abs. (healthdigezt.com)
  • Thus, the exercise strengthens the abdominal muscles, as the person has to use them to maintain balance. (healthdigezt.com)
  • This is another exercise that targets the abdominal muscles, particularly the lower abs. (healthdigezt.com)
  • While push-ups mainly target the chest or perctoralis (also known as pecs) as well as the other muscles of the upper body, the exercise also targets the abdominals, as per Mercola . (healthdigezt.com)
  • Overall, people have their abdominal muscles behind the layer of abdominal fat and what they have to do is to burn that layer of abdominal fat to make the muscles visible. (healthdigezt.com)
  • Flexing chest and abdominal muscles. (bellevueplasticsurgeons.com)
  • 41 year old male underwent VASER Hi Def (VHD) Lipo 360 degrees, with gynecomastia liposuction and gland excision with fat transfer to the upper pectoralis major muscles and deltoid muscles. (bellevueplasticsurgeons.com)
  • But unlike situps, they work only the abdominal muscles. (healthline.com)
  • Crunches build up the abdominal muscles over time, but can cause significant back pain for beginners. (healthline.com)
  • The human study investigated how overfeeding people with saturated or polyunsaturated fats affects fat accumulation and body composition - finding that the overfeeding of these fats has distinctly different effects on liver and visceral fat accumulation. (foodnavigator-usa.com)
  • Weight, fat, and regional fat placement, specifically in the abdominal site, may each have distinctly different associations with diabetes risk. (nih.gov)
  • The only drug to receive FDA approval for reduction of the abdominal fat deposits that develop in some patients receiving antiviral therapy for HIV infection may also reduce the incidence of fatty liver disease in such patients. (health.am)
  • Tesamorelin's ability to reduce liver fat in conjunction with the reduction of abdominal fat may be clinically important for patients with HIV infection who have fatty liver disease along with increased abdominal fat," says Steven Grinspoon, MD, of the MGH Neuroendocrine Unit and Program in Nutrition Metabolism, the study's senior author. (health.am)
  • Between 30 and 40 percent of HIV-infected patients develop nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), often but not always in conjunction with lipodystrophy, the abnormal abdominal fat accumulation that develops in 20 to 30 percent of patients receiving antiretroviral drugs. (health.am)
  • But since several studies suggested a significant incidence of NAFLD in HIV-infected patients, the study's goals were broadened to focus on tesamorelin's ability to reduce fatty deposits in the liver as well as abdominal fat in general. (health.am)
  • The team's data also hinted at a potential explanation for these associations, showing that polyunsaturated fatty acids can affect fat distribution in the body more favourably than saturated fats - probably by regulating increased energy burning and decreased storage of visceral fat. (foodnavigator-usa.com)
  • Byrne CD, Targher G. Ectopic fat, insulin resistance, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: implications for cardiovascular disease. (nature.com)
  • Excess abdominal fat leads to excess free fatty acids in the portal vein, increasing fat accumulation in the liver. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Unhealthy foods Foods high in saturated fats, trans-fatty acids, free sugars or salt (i.e. energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods). (who.int)
  • Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), abdominal subcutaneous fat thickness (SFT) and visceral fat thickness (VFT) were assessed by high-resolution B-mode ultrasonography (US). (biomedcentral.com)
  • In partial correlation coefficient analyses between CIMT and abdominal fat thickness after adjustment for body mass index (BMI), SFT showed a negative correlation with CIMT in men (r = -0.27, p = 0.03). (biomedcentral.com)
  • [ 10 ] In diet controlled adults with T2DM, those with NAFLD (by ultrasound) had greater carotid intima-media thickness (c-IMT) explained by insulin resistance index rather than liver fat. (medscape.com)
  • Objective: To investigate the effects of TH9507, a novel growth hormone releasing factor, on abdominal fat accumulation, metabolic and safety parameters in HIV-infected patients with central fat accumulation. (natap.org)
  • In non-HIV-infected patients [6] and among HIV-infected patients with changes in fat distribution [7], increased waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and central fat accumulation is related to increased metabolic risk indices. (natap.org)
  • Subcutaneous fat necrosis of the newborn usually runs a self-limited course, but it may be complicated by hypercalcemia and other metabolic abnormalities. (medscape.com)
  • Reducing abdominal fat is particularly beneficial given its connection to metabolic syndrome and increased risk for heart disease. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Development of metabolic syndrome depends on distribution as well as amount of fat. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Therefore, even if you have a 'healthy' BMI you may still be carrying excessive visceral fat, and could still be at risk of the health complications associated with it. (randox.com)
  • The study enrolled 48 adult patients who were receiving antiretroviral treatment for HIV and had developed excessive abdominal fat deposits. (health.am)
  • Excessive visceral fat has been linked to various health issues, including heart disease, type 2 diabetes, and certain cancers. (caramellaapp.com)
  • Research from 2016 states that there is no evidence-based treatment for abdominal migraine. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • A study conducted by the University of Chicago and published in 2016 also found that visceral fat behaves differently from subcutaneous fat and resists fat burning (lipolysis). (metabolism.com)
  • In a paper that will appear in the July 23/28 issue of JAMA - a theme issue on HIV/AIDS receiving early online release to coincide with the International AIDS Conference - Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) investigators report that daily injections of tesamorelin significantly reduced fat in the liver without affecting glucose metabolism. (health.am)
  • The assessments also included comprehensive measures of factors related to HIV infection, lipid and glucose metabolism, along with analysis of abdominal fat by CT scan and of liver fat by MR spectroscopy. (health.am)
  • Conclusions: TH9507 reduced truncal fat, improved the lipid profile and did not increase glucose levels in HIV-infected patients with central fat accumulation. (natap.org)
  • Low subcutaneous thigh fat is a risk factor for unfavourable glucose and lipid levels, independently of high abdominal fat. (nature.com)
  • Adolescents and young adults with prediabetes had significantly higher cholesterol levels, systolic blood pressure, abdominal fat and lower insulin sensitivity than those with normal glucose tolerance, which increased their risk of type 2 diabetes and other cardiovascular diseases. (cdc.gov)
  • Led by Ulf Risérus from Uppsala University, Sweden, the study involved feeding healthy adults an additional 750 calories per day in the form of muffins that were made with either polyunsaturated fat (sunflower oil) or saturated fat (palm oil). (foodnavigator-usa.com)
  • However, some adults also experience abdominal migraine. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • However, the majority of children who have abdominal migraine go on to have typical migraine episodes as adults. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Adults retain a small percentage of brown fat around their necks and shoulders. (metabolism.com)
  • [ 12 ] Another study concluded that hepatic fat may be protective against atherosclerosis in 60-year-old adults with T2DM. (medscape.com)
  • Recent studies also suggest that growth hormone levels are reduced in HIV-infected patients, and correlate inversely with excess visceral fat accumulation [8,9]. (natap.org)
  • The researchers looked at data that included measurements of lean muscle, abdominal fat and subcutaneous fat (the type of fat you can see and grab hold of) from more than 4,000 middle-to-older-aged men and women and compared that data to reported changes in fluid intelligence over a six-year period. (psychologytoday.com)
  • Today, many health authorities encourage the use of both BMI and abdominal fat measurements. (metabolism.com)
  • The team measured body fat and the distribution of fat in the body using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scans) before and after the seven week weight gain period, in addition to monitoring lean muscle. (foodnavigator-usa.com)
  • and abdominal and hepatic fat by magnetic resonance imaging/spectroscopy. (medscape.com)
  • Subcutaneous fat necrosis of the newborn (SFNN) is an uncommon disorder characterized by firm, mobile, erythematous nodules and plaques over the trunk, arms, buttocks, thighs, and cheeks of full-term newborns. (medscape.com)
  • The exact pathogenesis of subcutaneous fat necrosis of the newborn (SFNN) is not known. (medscape.com)
  • It is postulated that cold or stress-induced injury to immature fat cells results in the development of solidification and necrosis. (medscape.com)
  • when the PGE1 was discontinued, the subcutaneous fat necrosis of the newborn resolved. (medscape.com)
  • The cause of subcutaneous fat necrosis of the newborn (SFNN) is not known. (medscape.com)
  • Many cases of subcutaneous fat necrosis of the newborn have been reported in newborns who sustained perinatal hypoxic-ischemic injury and were treated by hypothermia to prevent encephalopathy and serious brain injury. (medscape.com)
  • Subcutaneous fat necrosis of the newborn (SFNN) occurs in the first several weeks of life. (medscape.com)
  • The participants ate 750 extra calories per day for seven weeks - all of which came in the form of the muffins made with either polyunsaturated or saturated fat. (foodnavigator-usa.com)
  • Risérus and his team therefore concluded that gaining weight via excess calories from polyunsaturated fat caused more gain in muscle mass, and less body fat than over eating a similar amount of saturated fat. (foodnavigator-usa.com)
  • We begin with a study of the three important principles of calories and the effect that they have in his body at the time of burning fat. (acsysbiometricscorp.com)
  • Brown fat in the body plays a vital role in promoting metabolism and burning calories. (inmobiliariarumbo.com)
  • It is a type fat that supports metabolism and helps to burn calories even when the body is asleep. (inmobiliariarumbo.com)
  • Fried foods: They're heavy in calories and harmful fats. (mealfacts.com)
  • Pizza: High in calories, harmful fats, and processed carbs. (mealfacts.com)
  • Alcohol: Alcohol is abundant in calories and may cause abdominal fat storage if eaten in large quantities. (mealfacts.com)
  • Fast food: Fast food is heavy in harmful fats, calories, and salt. (mealfacts.com)
  • Berries are also relatively low in calories, making them an excellent choice for snacking when you're trying to lose abdominal fat. (caramellaapp.com)
  • Some claim that high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) in SSBs is the main contributor to visceral fat, but most research suggests that HFCS and regular sugar (sucrose) both cause weight gain by providing exce ssive calories, not by storing fat. (formosabakerylawrence.com)
  • A one ounce serving of almonds provides 160 calories and a powerful nutrient package including hunger-fighting protein (6g), filling dietary fiber (4g), 'good' unsaturated fats (13g)3 and vitamins and minerals including vitamin E (35% DV), magnesium (20% DV) and potassium (6% DV), which makes them an ideal fit for heart-healthy, weight-wise diets and an easy way to snack smarter this year. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • At the end of the study period, participants receiving tesamorelin had a significant, modestly sized decrease in liver fat along with the expected reduction in overall abdominal fat. (health.am)
  • In this article, we will explore some of the superfoods that can aid in abdominal fat reduction. (caramellaapp.com)
  • Incorporating these greens into your meals can help reduce calorie intake and support abdominal fat reduction. (caramellaapp.com)
  • Greek yogurt is a protein-packed superfood that can aid in weight loss and abdominal fat reduction. (caramellaapp.com)
  • Research from 2018 suggests that some people may have a genetic predisposition to developing abdominal migraine. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Liver fat and visceral fat seems to contribute to a number of disturbances in metabolism. (foodnavigator-usa.com)
  • In contrast, polyunsaturated fats were found to up-regulate genes that are linked to reduced storage of fat and improved sugar metabolism in the body. (foodnavigator-usa.com)
  • Weight control is an important early intervention in diabetes, but the nature of the association between weight and disordered metabolism has been confused because fat mass and its distribution are only partly associated with increasing body size. (nih.gov)
  • It contains catechins, a type of antioxidant that can boost metabolism and enhance fat oxidation. (caramellaapp.com)
  • While some white fat is absolutely essential for a healthy metabolism, every body has its limits. (metabolism.com)
  • Total body fat was also found to be greater in the saturated fat group, while increases in muscle mass were three times less in participants who ate saturated fat when compared with those consumed polyunsaturated fat. (foodnavigator-usa.com)
  • Whilst excess subcutaneous fat is still unhealthy, many recent and reputable studies such as this large-scale meta-analysis of 2.5 million participants suggest that visceral fat poses a much greater health risk than subcutaneous fat. (metabolism.com)
  • Abdominal fat distribution and functional limitations and disability in a biracial cohort: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. (cims-ops.cz)
  • A previous study in a sample of middle-aged men and women found that higher amounts of subcutaneous abdominal fat are associated with lower levels of subclinical atherosclerosis[ 9 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Among them, patients who had undergone thorough evaluations for carotid atherosclerosis and abdominal SFT and VFT were included in this study. (biomedcentral.com)
  • If the results regarding increased muscle mass following consumption of polyunsaturated fat can be confirmed in our coming studies, it will potentially be interesting for many elderly people, for whom maintaining muscle mass is of great importance in preventing morbidity. (foodnavigator-usa.com)
  • The high protein content helps you feel full, and it also plays a role in preserving lean muscle mass while you lose fat. (caramellaapp.com)
  • Traditionally, BMI (body mass index) has been the go-to yardstick for measuring body fat. (metabolism.com)
  • The syndrome is less common among people who have excess subcutaneous fat around the hips (called pear shape) and a low waist-to-hip ratio (reflecting a higher muscle-to-fat mass ratio). (msdmanuals.com)
  • The NAFLD (n = 23) and non-NAFLD (n = 13) groups were of similar age, sex, glycemic status, body mass index, % body fat and abdominal fat. (medscape.com)
  • In fact, visceral fat has been linked to increased risk of health problems such as type 2 diabetes, heart disease and some cancers. (randox.com)
  • Assessing adiponectin, and therefore visceral fat levels, can help assess risk of CKD, as well as a range of other illnesses such as pre-diabetes, CVD and various cancers. (randox.com)
  • The fat composition of food not only influences cholesterol levels and the risk of cardiovascular disease but also governs where the fat will be stored in the body, say researchers. (foodnavigator-usa.com)
  • It is well know that extra weight in the abdominal region increases the risk of diabetes, stroke and heart disease. (nutritionwithamy.com)
  • Higher amounts of visceral abdominal fat in midlife can raise the risk of Alzheimer's disease, according to a research. (awazthevoice.in)
  • Even though there have been other studies linking BMI with brain atrophy or even a higher dementia risk, no prior study has linked a specific type of fat to the actual Alzheimer's disease protein in cognitively normal people,' said Mahsa Dolatshahi, post-doctoral research fellow with Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology (MIR) at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis. (awazthevoice.in)
  • CONCLUSIONS: Maintaining a healthy body weight and avoiding increases in abdominal fat should be investigated for their potential to reduce the risk of functional limitations and disability in an aging population. (cims-ops.cz)
  • As the fat layer is extremely thin, there is always a risk of going too deep and puncturing internal organs, especially if the surgeon is using powerful device! (elixirdevie.com)
  • The increased health risk of visceral fat is linked to its proximity to the vital organs. (metabolism.com)
  • Visceral fat, on the other hand, cannot be felt in such a way as it is the extra fat stored around our organs. (randox.com)
  • Visceral fat coats some of your internal organs and hangs down like an apron from your large intestine," says gastroenterologist Samuel Klein, chief of the Division of Geriatrics and Nutritional Science at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis. (aarp.org)
  • white, brown, and beige fat , and they are distributed in different parts of the body in different proportions, as either visceral fat (inside the body and organs) or subcutaneous fat (under the skin). (metabolism.com)
  • No matter what your shape or size, you may be carrying excess visceral fat! (randox.com)
  • Regardless of shape or size an individual can be carrying excess visceral fat. (randox.com)
  • Aside from the water, the proteins are the most abundant substance in the body, is the main base, as the protein is so vital the body does not use it to acquire energy when there are sufficient carbohydrates and the fats are present. (acsysbiometricscorp.com)
  • Learning to use and perform abdominal exercises correctly is more challenging than many people think. (virtualfitnesstrainer.com)
  • Most people who exercise regularly perform some abdominal exercises, but ab exercises are often performed incorrectly or inefficiently. (virtualfitnesstrainer.com)
  • One of the best exercises for the abdominals is the side plank. (healthdigezt.com)
  • Along with the aforementioned exercises, total abdominal development is also affected by proper diet and adequate rest. (healthdigezt.com)
  • The only way to attain a flat and muscular stomach is to combine these exercises with a healthy, low-calorie diet and regular fat-burning aerobic exercise . (healthline.com)
  • They contribute to abdominal fat due to their high sugar and calorie content. (mealfacts.com)
  • If eaten with other high-sugar foods and beverages, this may increase daily calorie consumption and visceral fat (8Trusted Source). (formosabakerylawrence.com)
  • The main reason for completed, but invalid, femur scans was panniculus, an "apron" or redundant layer of fat tissue at the lowest portion of the abdominal wall. (cdc.gov)
  • These fats can help reduce visceral fat by improving insulin sensitivity and regulating blood sugar levels. (caramellaapp.com)
  • It is much more difficult to perform liposuction on a slim than a fat person, why? (elixirdevie.com)
  • Video 18: Completion of left-sided 3D abdominal liposuction. (elixirdevie.com)
  • Video 20: Completion of 3D abdominal/torso liposuction, a beautiful hour-glass figure: A Masterpiece! (elixirdevie.com)
  • Video 21: Result of autologous fat grafting breasts augmentation and abdominal liposuction: A Masterpiece! (elixirdevie.com)
  • Your body repairs itself when it sleeps, and is also when the body burns more fat. (energynanomedconference.com)
  • Burpee burns fats not only in the abdominal area, but also in the whole body. (healthdigezt.com)
  • 7 Glasses: A Powerful Method That Burns Abdominal Fat! (truefeed.info)
  • One Reply to "7 Days - 7 Glasses: A Powerful Method That Burns Abdominal Fat! (truefeed.info)
  • However, neither exercise burns fat. (healthline.com)
  • Brown fat is found mainly in babies and plays a key role in providing energy and keeping us warm. (metabolism.com)
  • Subcutaneous fat is not totally harmless, but it poses fewer risks than visceral fat. (metabolism.com)