Classification system for assessing impact injury severity developed and published by the American Association for Automotive Medicine. It is the system of choice for coding single injuries and is the foundation for methods assessing multiple injuries or for assessing cumulative effects of more than one injury. These include Maximum AIS (MAIS), Injury Severity Score (ISS), and Probability of Death Score (PODS).
An anatomic severity scale based on the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) and developed specifically to score multiple traumatic injuries. It has been used as a predictor of mortality.
Damage inflicted on the body as the direct or indirect result of an external force, with or without disruption of structural continuity.
Systems for assessing, classifying, and coding injuries. These systems are used in medical records, surveillance systems, and state and national registries to aid in the collection and reporting of trauma.
Accidents on streets, roads, and highways involving drivers, passengers, pedestrians, or vehicles. Traffic accidents refer to AUTOMOBILES (passenger cars, buses, and trucks), BICYCLING, and MOTORCYCLES but not OFF-ROAD MOTOR VEHICLES; RAILROADS nor snowmobiles.
Injuries caused by impact with a blunt object where there is no penetration of the skin.
Specialized hospital facilities which provide diagnostic and therapeutic services for trauma patients.
Traumatic injuries involving the cranium and intracranial structures (i.e., BRAIN; CRANIAL NERVES; MENINGES; and other structures). Injuries may be classified by whether or not the skull is penetrated (i.e., penetrating vs. nonpenetrating) or whether there is an associated hemorrhage.
Acute and chronic (see also BRAIN INJURIES, CHRONIC) injuries to the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, CEREBELLUM, and BRAIN STEM. Clinical manifestations depend on the nature of injury. Diffuse trauma to the brain is frequently associated with DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY or COMA, POST-TRAUMATIC. Localized injuries may be associated with NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HEMIPARESIS, or other focal neurologic deficits.
Injuries incurred during participation in competitive or non-competitive sports.
Penetrating and non-penetrating injuries to the spinal cord resulting from traumatic external forces (e.g., WOUNDS, GUNSHOT; WHIPLASH INJURIES; etc.).
Adverse functional, metabolic, or structural changes in ischemic tissues resulting from the restoration of blood flow to the tissue (REPERFUSION), including swelling; HEMORRHAGE; NECROSIS; and damage from FREE RADICALS. The most common instance is MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
Multiple physical insults or injuries occurring simultaneously.

Outcome after severe head injury treated by an integrated trauma system. (1/79)

OBJECTIVES: To describe outcome after treatment of severe head injury within an integrated trauma system. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of all patients with severe head injury admitted to the Royal London Hospital by the Helicopter Emergency Medical Service (HEMS) between 1991 and 1994. Type of injury was defined on initial computed tomography of the head and outcomes assessed 12 months after injury using the Glasgow outcome score. RESULTS: 6.5% of HEMS patients had long term severe disability (severe disability or persistent vegetative state on the outcome score); 34.5% made a good recovery. CONCLUSIONS: The concern that a large number of severely disabled long term survivors might result as a consequence of this system of trauma management is not confirmed. The case mix of severity of extracranial injuries in these patients makes comparison with other published series difficult, but these data fit the hypothesis that pre-hospital correction of hypoxia and hypotension after head injury improves outcome.  (+info)

Use of abdominal computed tomography in blunt trauma: do we scan too much? (2/79)

OBJECTIVES: To determine what proportion of abdominal computed tomography (CT) scans ordered after blunt trauma are positive and the applicability and accuracy of existing clinical prediction rules for obtaining a CT scan of the abdomen in this setting. SETTING: A leading trauma hospital, affiliated with the University of Ottawa. DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study. PATIENTS AND METHODS: All patients with blunt trauma admitted to hospital over a 1-year period having an Injury Severity Score (ISS) greater than 12 who underwent CT of the abdomen during the initial assessment. Recorded data included age, sex, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score, ISS, type of injuries, number of abdominal CT scans ordered, and scan results. Two clinical prediction rules were found in the literature that identify patients likely to have intra-abdominal injuries. These rules were applied retrospectively to the cohort. The predicted proportion of positive CT scans was compared with the observed proportion, and the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were estimated. RESULTS: Of the 297 patients entered in the study, 109 underwent abdominal CT. The median age was 32 years, 71% were male and the median ISS was 24. In only 36.7% (40 of 109) of scans were findings suggestive of intra-abdominal injuries. Application of one of the clinical prediction rules gave a sensitivity of 93.8% and specificity of 25.5% but excluded 23% of patients because of a GCS score less than 11. The second prediction rule tested could be applied to all patients and was highly sensitive (92.5%) and specific (100.0%). CONCLUSIONS: The assessment of the abdomen in blunt trauma remains a challenge. Accuracy in predicting positive scans in equivocal cases is poor. Retrospective application of an existing clinical prediction rule was found to be highly accurate in identifying patients with positive CT findings. Prospective use of such a rule could reduce the number of CT scans ordered without missing significant injuries.  (+info)

Sequelae after unintentional injuries to children: an exploratory study. (3/79)

GOAL: To determine the frequency and categories of sequelae related to accidental injuries (of all types) in childhood, a prospective follow up study was conducted on a geographically defined population near Paris, France. METHODS: The study concerned all child residents of one health care district, aged under 15 years, and hospitalised in the two public hospitals of the district, and/or transported by mobile emergency units, after an accident, during a one year period (in 1981-82; n = 785). Initial severity was scored using the injury severity score (ISS). Sequelae were defined as established impairments (leading or not to disabilities), identified by physicians, reporting their clinical diagnosis or complaints by the child and/or the family. RESULTS: After a follow up period of 3.6-29.2 months after the accident, six children died and 78 (10%) were lost to follow up. Among the 701 others, 73 (10.4%) presented 80 sequelae, major (limiting daily activities) in 44 children (6.3%), with no gender difference. These increased significantly with age. The main causes of major sequelae were eye injuries and sports related injuries to the limbs. ISS did not correlate well with sequelae, but the maximum abbreviated injury scale appeared to be a better predictor of long term functional prognosis. CONCLUSION: Prospective follow up and population based studies are still needed, especially on children's injuries initially perceived as benign, such as most of the sports related injuries in our study.  (+info)

Trends in incidence of pediatric injury hospitalizations in Pennsylvania. (4/79)

OBJECTIVES: This study analyzed short-term trends in pediatric injury hospitalizations. METHODS: We used a population-based retrospective cohort design to study all children 15 years or younger who were admitted to all acute care hospitals in Pennsylvania with traumatic injuries between 1991 and 1995. RESULTS: Injuries accounted for 9% of all acute hospitalizations for children. Between 1991 and 1995, admissions of children with minor injuries decreased by 29% (P < .001). However, admissions for children with moderate (P = .69) or serious (P = .41) injuries did not change. CONCLUSIONS: Significant declines in pediatric admissions for minor injuries were noted and may reflect both real reductions in injury incidence and changes in admission practices over the period of the study.  (+info)

Intracranial pressure monitoring and outcomes after traumatic brain injury. (5/79)

OBJECTIVE: Uncontrolled intracranial hypertension after traumatic brain injury (TBI) contributes significantly to the death rate and to poor functional outcome. There is no evidence that intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring alters the outcome of TBI. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that insertion of ICP monitors in patients who have TBI is not associated with a decrease in the death rate. DESIGN: Study of case records. METHODS: The data files from the Ontario Trauma Registry from 1989 to 1995 were examined. Included were all cases with an Injury Severity Score (ISS) greater than 12 from the 14 trauma centres in Ontario. Cases identifying a Maximum Abbreviated Injury Scale score in the head region (MAIS head) greater than 3 were selected for further analysis. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to investigate the relationship between ICP and death. RESULTS: Of 9001 registered cases of TBI, an MAIS head greater than 3 was recorded in 5507. Of these patients, 541 (66.8% male, mean age 34.1 years) had an ICP monitor inserted. Their average ISS was 33.4 and 71.7% survived. There was wide variation among the institutions in the rate of insertion of ICP monitors in these patients (ranging from 0.4% to over 20%). Univariate logistic regression indicated that increased MAIS head, ISS, penetrating trauma and the insertion of an ICP monitor were each associated with an increased death rate. However, multivariate analyses controlling for MAIS head, ISS and injury mechanism indicated that ICP monitoring was associated with significantly improved survival (p < 0.015). CONCLUSIONS: ICP monitor insertion rates vary widely in Ontario's trauma hospitals. The insertion of an ICP monitor is associated with a statistically significant decrease in death rate among patients with severe TBI. This finding strongly supports the need for a prospective randomized trial of management protocols, including ICP monitoring, in patients with severe TBI.  (+info)

Patterns of injury among drivers hospitalized in Level-I Trauma Centers: have frontal airbags made a difference? (6/79)

This study describes the injuries of drivers discharged from Level-I Trauma Centers between 1995-1997. Differences in the drivers' injuries and outcomes by airbag deployment status and gender were evaluated using Chi 2 and T-tests. Data on 1,065 drivers (66 with airbags, 423 females) were obtained from the Massachusetts Registry of Motor Vehicle and Trauma Registries. Once admitted to trauma centers, drivers with airbags did not differ from drivers without airbags regarding the number, type, clustering, severity or outcome of their injuries. The only exception was that female drivers sustained more fractures to the upper extremities and less injuries to blood vessels and certain traumatic complications (p < 0.05).  (+info)

Factors influencing pediatric injury in side impact collisions. (7/79)

Side impacts collisions pose a great risk to children in crashes but information about the injury mechanisms is limited. The heights and weights of children vary widely and as a result, the injury patterns may vary across the pediatric age range. This study involves a case series of children in side impact collisions who were identified through Partners for Child Passenger Safety, a large child-focused crash surveillance system. The aim of the current study was to use in-depth crash investigations to identify injury mechanisms to children in side impact collisions. 93 children in 55 side impact crashes were studied. 23% (n = 22) of the children received an AIS > or = 2 (clinically significant) injury. In these 22 children, head (39%), extremity (22%), and abdominal injuries (17%) were the most common significant injuries. The cases revealed that serious injuries occur even in minor crashes. Cases that illustrate body region-specific injury mechanisms are discussed.  (+info)

Who can give a pediatric trauma history for children injured in bicycle crashes? (8/79)

Emergency Departments are important sites for injury surveillance but the quality of data collected has not been evaluated. This prospective cohort study assessed the ability of various respondents to provide circumstantial information following pediatric bicyclist trauma. A semi-structured survey tool was administered in the Emergency Department of a Level One Pediatric Trauma Center for 448 child bicyclists. The injured child provided more complete information when compared to witnesses and Emergency Medical Services personnel. No one respondent type provided the complete history. To obtain thorough injury circumstantial information, multiple respondents should be interviewed utilizing a semi-structured questionnaire.  (+info)

The Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) is a standardized system used by healthcare professionals to classify the severity of traumatic injuries. The scale assigns a score from 1 to 6 to each injury, with 1 indicating minor injuries and 6 indicating maximal severity or currently untreatable injuries.

The AIS scores are based on anatomical location, type of injury, and physiological response to the injury. For example, a simple fracture may be assigned an AIS score of 2, while a life-threatening head injury may be assigned a score of 5 or 6.

The AIS is used in conjunction with other scoring systems, such as the Injury Severity Score (ISS) and the New Injury Severity Score (NISS), to assess the overall severity of injuries sustained in a traumatic event. These scores can help healthcare professionals make informed decisions about patient care, triage, and resource allocation.

The Injury Severity Score (ISS) is a medical scoring system used to assess the severity of trauma in patients with multiple injuries. It's based on the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS), which classifies each injury by body region on a scale from 1 (minor) to 6 (maximum severity).

The ISS is calculated by summing the squares of the highest AIS score in each of the three most severely injured body regions. The possible ISS ranges from 0 to 75, with higher scores indicating more severe injuries. An ISS over 15 is generally considered a significant injury, and an ISS over 25 is associated with a high risk of mortality. It's important to note that the ISS has limitations, as it doesn't consider the number or type of injuries within each body region, only the most severe one.

A wound is a type of injury that occurs when the skin or other tissues are cut, pierced, torn, or otherwise broken. Wounds can be caused by a variety of factors, including accidents, violence, surgery, or certain medical conditions. There are several different types of wounds, including:

* Incisions: These are cuts that are made deliberately, often during surgery. They are usually straight and clean.
* Lacerations: These are tears in the skin or other tissues. They can be irregular and jagged.
* Abrasions: These occur when the top layer of skin is scraped off. They may look like a bruise or a scab.
* Punctures: These are wounds that are caused by sharp objects, such as needles or knives. They are usually small and deep.
* Avulsions: These occur when tissue is forcibly torn away from the body. They can be very serious and require immediate medical attention.

Injuries refer to any harm or damage to the body, including wounds. Injuries can range from minor scrapes and bruises to more severe injuries such as fractures, dislocations, and head trauma. It is important to seek medical attention for any injury that is causing significant pain, swelling, or bleeding, or if there is a suspected bone fracture or head injury.

In general, wounds and injuries should be cleaned and covered with a sterile bandage to prevent infection. Depending on the severity of the wound or injury, additional medical treatment may be necessary. This may include stitches for deep cuts, immobilization for broken bones, or surgery for more serious injuries. It is important to follow your healthcare provider's instructions carefully to ensure proper healing and to prevent complications.

"Trauma severity indices" refer to various scoring systems used by healthcare professionals to evaluate the severity of injuries in trauma patients. These tools help standardize the assessment and communication of injury severity among different members of the healthcare team, allowing for more effective and consistent treatment planning, resource allocation, and prognosis estimation.

There are several commonly used trauma severity indices, including:

1. Injury Severity Score (ISS): ISS is an anatomical scoring system that evaluates the severity of injuries based on the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS). The body is divided into six regions, and the square of the highest AIS score in each region is summed to calculate the ISS. Scores range from 0 to 75, with higher scores indicating more severe injuries.
2. New Injury Severity Score (NISS): NISS is a modification of the ISS that focuses on the three most severely injured body regions, regardless of their anatomical location. The three highest AIS scores are squared and summed to calculate the NISS. This scoring system tends to correlate better with mortality than the ISS in some studies.
3. Revised Trauma Score (RTS): RTS is a physiological scoring system that evaluates the patient's respiratory, cardiovascular, and neurological status upon arrival at the hospital. It uses variables such as Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), systolic blood pressure, and respiratory rate to calculate a score between 0 and 7.84, with lower scores indicating more severe injuries.
4. Trauma and Injury Severity Score (TRISS): TRISS is a combined anatomical and physiological scoring system that estimates the probability of survival based on ISS or NISS, RTS, age, and mechanism of injury (blunt or penetrating). It uses logistic regression equations to calculate the predicted probability of survival.
5. Pediatric Trauma Score (PTS): PTS is a physiological scoring system specifically designed for children under 14 years old. It evaluates six variables, including respiratory rate, oxygen saturation, systolic blood pressure, capillary refill time, GCS, and temperature to calculate a score between -6 and +12, with lower scores indicating more severe injuries.

These scoring systems help healthcare professionals assess the severity of trauma, predict outcomes, allocate resources, and compare patient populations in research settings. However, they should not replace clinical judgment or individualized care for each patient.

Traffic accidents are incidents that occur when a vehicle collides with another vehicle, a pedestrian, an animal, or a stationary object, resulting in damage or injury. These accidents can be caused by various factors such as driver error, distracted driving, drunk driving, speeding, reckless driving, poor road conditions, and adverse weather conditions. Traffic accidents can range from minor fender benders to severe crashes that result in serious injuries or fatalities. They are a significant public health concern and cause a substantial burden on healthcare systems, emergency services, and society as a whole.

Nonpenetrating wounds are a type of trauma or injury to the body that do not involve a break in the skin or underlying tissues. These wounds can result from blunt force trauma, such as being struck by an object or falling onto a hard surface. They can also result from crushing injuries, where significant force is applied to a body part, causing damage to internal structures without breaking the skin.

Nonpenetrating wounds can cause a range of injuries, including bruising, swelling, and damage to internal organs, muscles, bones, and other tissues. The severity of the injury depends on the force of the trauma, the location of the impact, and the individual's overall health and age.

While nonpenetrating wounds may not involve a break in the skin, they can still be serious and require medical attention. If you have experienced blunt force trauma or suspect a nonpenetrating wound, it is important to seek medical care to assess the extent of the injury and receive appropriate treatment.

A Trauma Center is a hospital that has specialized resources and capabilities to provide comprehensive care for severely injured patients. It is a designated facility that has met strict criteria established by the American College of Surgeons (ACS) and/or state or regional trauma systems. These criteria include having a dedicated trauma team, available 24/7, with specially trained healthcare professionals who can promptly assess, resuscitate, operate, and provide critical care to patients suffering from traumatic injuries.

Trauma centers are categorized into levels (I-V), based on the resources and capabilities they offer. Level I trauma centers have the highest level of resources and are capable of providing comprehensive care for all types of traumatic injuries, including conducting research and offering education in trauma care. In contrast, lower-level trauma centers may not have the same extent of resources but still provide essential trauma care services to their communities.

The primary goal of a trauma center is to ensure that severely injured patients receive prompt, high-quality care to minimize the risk of complications, reduce long-term disability, and improve overall outcomes.

Craniocerebral trauma, also known as traumatic brain injury (TBI), is a type of injury that occurs to the head and brain. It can result from a variety of causes, including motor vehicle accidents, falls, sports injuries, violence, or other types of trauma. Craniocerebral trauma can range in severity from mild concussions to severe injuries that cause permanent disability or death.

The injury typically occurs when there is a sudden impact to the head, causing the brain to move within the skull and collide with the inside of the skull. This can result in bruising, bleeding, swelling, or tearing of brain tissue, as well as damage to blood vessels and nerves. In severe cases, the skull may be fractured or penetrated, leading to direct injury to the brain.

Symptoms of craniocerebral trauma can vary widely depending on the severity and location of the injury. They may include headache, dizziness, confusion, memory loss, difficulty speaking or understanding speech, changes in vision or hearing, weakness or numbness in the limbs, balance problems, and behavioral or emotional changes. In severe cases, the person may lose consciousness or fall into a coma.

Treatment for craniocerebral trauma depends on the severity of the injury. Mild injuries may be treated with rest, pain medication, and close monitoring, while more severe injuries may require surgery, intensive care, and rehabilitation. Prevention is key to reducing the incidence of craniocerebral trauma, including measures such as wearing seat belts and helmets, preventing falls, and avoiding violent situations.

A brain injury is defined as damage to the brain that occurs following an external force or trauma, such as a blow to the head, a fall, or a motor vehicle accident. Brain injuries can also result from internal conditions, such as lack of oxygen or a stroke. There are two main types of brain injuries: traumatic and acquired.

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is caused by an external force that results in the brain moving within the skull or the skull being fractured. Mild TBIs may result in temporary symptoms such as headaches, confusion, and memory loss, while severe TBIs can cause long-term complications, including physical, cognitive, and emotional impairments.

Acquired brain injury (ABI) is any injury to the brain that occurs after birth and is not hereditary, congenital, or degenerative. ABIs are often caused by medical conditions such as strokes, tumors, anoxia (lack of oxygen), or infections.

Both TBIs and ABIs can range from mild to severe and may result in a variety of physical, cognitive, and emotional symptoms that can impact a person's ability to perform daily activities and function independently. Treatment for brain injuries typically involves a multidisciplinary approach, including medical management, rehabilitation, and supportive care.

Athletic injuries are damages or injuries to the body that occur while participating in sports, physical activities, or exercise. These injuries can be caused by a variety of factors, including:

1. Trauma: Direct blows, falls, collisions, or crushing injuries can cause fractures, dislocations, contusions, lacerations, or concussions.
2. Overuse: Repetitive motions or stress on a particular body part can lead to injuries such as tendonitis, stress fractures, or muscle strains.
3. Poor technique: Using incorrect form or technique during exercise or sports can put additional stress on muscles, joints, and ligaments, leading to injury.
4. Inadequate warm-up or cool-down: Failing to properly prepare the body for physical activity or neglecting to cool down afterwards can increase the risk of injury.
5. Lack of fitness or flexibility: Insufficient strength, endurance, or flexibility can make individuals more susceptible to injuries during sports and exercise.
6. Environmental factors: Extreme weather conditions, poor field or court surfaces, or inadequate equipment can contribute to the risk of athletic injuries.

Common athletic injuries include ankle sprains, knee injuries, shoulder dislocations, tennis elbow, shin splints, and concussions. Proper training, warm-up and cool-down routines, use of appropriate protective gear, and attention to technique can help prevent many athletic injuries.

Spinal cord injuries (SCI) refer to damage to the spinal cord that results in a loss of function, such as mobility or feeling. This injury can be caused by direct trauma to the spine or by indirect damage resulting from disease or degeneration of surrounding bones, tissues, or blood vessels. The location and severity of the injury on the spinal cord will determine which parts of the body are affected and to what extent.

The effects of SCI can range from mild sensory changes to severe paralysis, including loss of motor function, autonomic dysfunction, and possible changes in sensation, strength, and reflexes below the level of injury. These injuries are typically classified as complete or incomplete, depending on whether there is any remaining function below the level of injury.

Immediate medical attention is crucial for spinal cord injuries to prevent further damage and improve the chances of recovery. Treatment usually involves immobilization of the spine, medications to reduce swelling and pressure, surgery to stabilize the spine, and rehabilitation to help regain lost function. Despite advances in treatment, SCI can have a significant impact on a person's quality of life and ability to perform daily activities.

Reperfusion injury is a complex pathophysiological process that occurs when blood flow is restored to previously ischemic tissues, leading to further tissue damage. This phenomenon can occur in various clinical settings such as myocardial infarction (heart attack), stroke, or peripheral artery disease after an intervention aimed at restoring perfusion.

The restoration of blood flow leads to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inflammatory mediators, which can cause oxidative stress, cellular damage, and activation of the immune system. This results in a cascade of events that may lead to microvascular dysfunction, capillary leakage, and tissue edema, further exacerbating the injury.

Reperfusion injury is an important consideration in the management of ischemic events, as interventions aimed at restoring blood flow must be carefully balanced with potential harm from reperfusion injury. Strategies to mitigate reperfusion injury include ischemic preconditioning (exposing the tissue to short periods of ischemia before a prolonged ischemic event), ischemic postconditioning (applying brief periods of ischemia and reperfusion after restoring blood flow), remote ischemic preconditioning (ischemia applied to a distant organ or tissue to protect the target organ), and pharmacological interventions that scavenge ROS, reduce inflammation, or improve microvascular function.

A Severity of Illness Index is a measurement tool used in healthcare to assess the severity of a patient's condition and the risk of mortality or other adverse outcomes. These indices typically take into account various physiological and clinical variables, such as vital signs, laboratory values, and co-morbidities, to generate a score that reflects the patient's overall illness severity.

Examples of Severity of Illness Indices include the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) system, the Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS), and the Mortality Probability Model (MPM). These indices are often used in critical care settings to guide clinical decision-making, inform prognosis, and compare outcomes across different patient populations.

It is important to note that while these indices can provide valuable information about a patient's condition, they should not be used as the sole basis for clinical decision-making. Rather, they should be considered in conjunction with other factors, such as the patient's overall clinical presentation, treatment preferences, and goals of care.

Multiple trauma, also known as polytrauma, is a medical term used to describe severe injuries to the body that are sustained in more than one place or region. It often involves damage to multiple organ systems and can be caused by various incidents such as traffic accidents, falls from significant heights, high-energy collisions, or violent acts.

The injuries sustained in multiple trauma may include fractures, head injuries, internal bleeding, chest and abdominal injuries, and soft tissue injuries. These injuries can lead to a complex medical situation requiring immediate and ongoing care from a multidisciplinary team of healthcare professionals, including emergency physicians, trauma surgeons, critical care specialists, nurses, rehabilitation therapists, and mental health providers.

Multiple trauma is a serious condition that can result in long-term disability or even death if not treated promptly and effectively.

"Abbreviated Injury Scale". Archived from the original on 6 January 2011. Retrieved 2011-01-23. Abbreviated injury ... Severity of score Abbreviated Injury Score-Code is on a scale of one to six, one being a minor injury and six being maximal ( ... crush injury to the head. The AIS scale is a measurement tool for single injuries. A universally accepted injury aggregation ... A contemporary injury scale". Injury. 37 (12): 1083-1091. doi:10.1016/j.injury.2006.07.009. PMID 17092503 - via www. ...
Abbreviated injury scale MacKenzie EJ, Sacco WJ, Luchter S, et al. (December 2002). "Validating the Functional Capacity Index ... The FCI incorporates ten physical functions and gives each a numerical value on a scale of 0 to 100, with 100 representing no ... Segui-Gomez M, MacKenzie EJ (2003). "Measuring the public health impact of injuries". Epidemiologic Reviews. 25: 3-19. doi: ... Gotschall CS (December 2005). "The Functional Capacity Index, second revision: morbidity in the first year post injury". ...
The ISS is based (see below) upon the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS). To calculate an ISS for an injured person, the body is ... The Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) is an anatomically based consensus-derived global severity scoring system that classifies ... each injury in every body region according to its relative severity on a six-point ordinal scale: Minor Moderate Serious Severe ... Copes, W.S.; H.R. Champion; W.J. Sacco; M.M. Lawnick; S.L. Keast; L.W. Bain (1988). "The Injury Severity Score revisited". The ...
The Abbreviated Injury Scale is an internationally accepted tool for assessing the injury severity of individual injuries. It ... The AAAM has furthered the development and publishes the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS), a widely used description system for ... This combination of clinical, research and administrative backgrounds forms a unique blend of leaders in traffic injury control ... contains no information on injury aggregation. The AIS codebook is protected by copyright. v t e (Articles lacking ...
... the Abbreviated Westmead PTA Scale (AWPTAS) assesses patients with mild traumatic brain injury. Although the GOAT has proved ... An abbreviated version has been developed to assess patients with mild traumatic brain injury, the Abbreviated Westmead PTA ... The WPTAS is suitable for patients with moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury. An abbreviated version of the WPTAS, ... Mandleberg I. A. (1975). "Cognitive recovery after severe head injury: Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale during post-traumatic ...
... is a medical scale used to decide whether patients with minor head injuries should undergo cranial CT scans. It was originally ... The Canadian CT head rule (abbreviated CCTHR or CCHR; also sometimes referred to as the Canadian Computed Tomography Head Rule ... Glasgow Coma Scale score lower than 15 at 2 hours after injury Suspected open or depressed skull fracture Any sign of basal ... did not experience a traumatic brain injury have a Glasgow Coma Scale score of lower than 13, are under the age of 16, has a ...
... which are quantified with an injury severity score on the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS). To assure their blunt trauma ... "The Injury Severity Score: a method for describing patients with multiple injuries and evaluating emergency care". The Journal ... Copes, W.S.; H.R. Champion; W.J. Sacco; M.M. Lawnick; S.L. Keast; L.W. Bain (1988). "The Injury Severity Score revisited". The ... Blunt trauma personal protective equipment (PPE) protects the wearer against injuries caused by blunt impacts. For law ...
... the Abbreviated Westmead PTA Scale (AWPTAS), has been developed to assess patients with mild traumatic brain injury. The WPTAS ... Use of the Westmead PTA scale to monitor recovery of memory after mild head injury. Brain Injury, 18(6), 603-614. Shores, E. A ... The severity of injury is based on the time it takes for an individual to emerge from PTA. The Westmead PTA Scale utilises the ... The WPTAS was designed for patients with closed traumatic brain injury, and subsequent research on the scale has centred on ...
... from the English maximum abbreviated injury score). Based on this standard, serious injuries are defined as scale 3 and more ( ... Non-incapacitating evident injury: Any injury, other than a fatal injury or an incapacitating injury, which is evident to ... An injury for which a person is detained in hospital as an 'in- patient', injury or any of the following injuries whether or ... Incapacitating injury. Any injury, other than a fatal injury, which prevents the injured person from walking, driving or ...
... injury is one with a score of 4+ on the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) Data for specific vehicles can be found on various ... The head injury criterion (HIC) is a measure of the likelihood of head injury arising from an impact. The HIC can be used to ... At a HIC of 1000, there is an 18% probability of a severe head injury, a 55% probability of a serious injury and a 90% ... According to the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety, head injury risk is evaluated mainly on the basis of head injury ...
... may refer to: Abbreviated Injury Scale, an anatomical-based coding system to classify and describe the severity of injuries ... which there is an inability of many cells in the affected genetic male to respond to androgenic hormones Athens Insomnia Scale ...
... abbreviated injury scale MeSH N05.715.360.300.715.500.800.325 - glasgow coma scale MeSH N05.715.360.300.715.500.800.335 - ... glasgow outcome scale MeSH N05.715.360.300.715.500.800.400 - injury severity score MeSH N05.715.360.300.715.550 - nursing ...
... abbreviated injury scale MeSH L01.280.900.968.875.250 - glasgow coma scale MeSH L01.280.900.968.875.260 - glasgow outcome scale ... MeSH L01.280.900.968.875.500 - injury severity score MeSH L01.280.900.984 - nursing records MeSH L01.280.950 - registries MeSH ...
... may refer to: Master of Advanced International Studies Mallya Aditi International School Maximum Abbreviated Injury Scale ... medical professionals to describe the most severe injury that a trauma patient has sustained under the Abbreviated Injury Scale ...
... abbreviated injury scale MeSH N04.452.859.564.800.250 - glasgow coma scale MeSH N04.452.859.564.800.260 - glasgow outcome scale ... relative value scales MeSH N04.452.394 - governing board MeSH N04.452.394.600 - trustees MeSH N04.452.442 - hospital ... MeSH N04.452.859.564.800.500 - injury severity score MeSH N04.452.859.675 - nursing records MeSH N04.452.859.819 - registries ...
... abbreviated injury scale MeSH E05.318.308.940.968.875.250 - glasgow coma scale MeSH E05.318.308.940.968.875.260 - glasgow ... outcome scale MeSH E05.318.308.940.968.875.500 - injury severity score MeSH E05.318.308.940.984 - nursing records MeSH E05.318. ... radiation injuries, experimental MeSH E05.601.123.700 - surface plasmon resonance MeSH E05.601.495.320 - immunoblotting MeSH ...
The Abbreviated Injury Scale and the Glasgow Coma Scale are used commonly to quantify injuries for the purpose of triaging and ... Injury prevention strategies are commonly used to prevent injuries in children, who are a high risk population. Injury ... The healing time of an injury depends on various factors including sex, age, and the severity of injury. The symptoms of injury ... Various scales exist to provide a quantifiable metric to measure the severity of injuries. The value may be used for triaging a ...
The first cohort included patients with blunt multisystem or blunt mechanism traumas with an Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) ... Patients in the third cohort had a blunt single-system injury with an AIS score ≥ 3 in only one AIS body region, with the ... The cohorts are as follows: Blunt multisystem injury with an AIS > 3 in a least two regions of the body Penetrating truncal ... The second cohort was composed of trauma patients with penetrating truncal injuries with an AIS score ≥ 3 in at least one ...
Orthopaedics Abbreviated Injury Scale Harris Hip Score Injury Severity Score Kocher criteria Mirel's Score NACA score Ottawa ...
... training for medical doctors dealing with trauma Revised Trauma Score Injury Severity Score Abbreviated Injury Scale Triage ... When it comes to managing injuries, head and neck injuries require the most care post surgery. Head injuries are one of the ... In medicine, traumatology (from Greek trauma, meaning injury or wound) is the study of wounds and injuries caused by accidents ... Medical traumatology can be defined as the study of specializing in the treatment of wounds and injuries caused by violence or ...
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Abbreviated Injury Scale - Acetabular fracture - Acheiropodia - Achilles ... Orthopedic surgeons use both surgical and nonsurgical means to treat musculoskeletal injuries, sports injuries, degenerative ... Soft tissue injury - Southwick angle - Speed's test - Spina bifida occulta - Spinal curvature - Spinal fracture - Spinal fusion ... Crush injury - Crush syndrome - Cubitus valgus - Cubitus varus - Cunningham shoulder reduction - Currarino syndrome Danis-Weber ...
Articles using abbreviated captions for seismic magnitude, Articles using Mw magnitude scale, Earthquakes in Africa, Natural ... Armand Vervaeck (May 25, 2017). "Earthquake in the Geita region, Tanzania, kills 1 and injuries 18 - May 25, 2017". Earthquake- ...
The Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence - 2nd edition (WASI-II) is a short psychological test that was developed in 2011 ... tests may be used to assess the level of cognitive functioning in individuals with psychiatric illness or brain injury. ... used the point scale concept instead of the age scale, and included a non-verbal performance scale. In the Binet scales (prior ... The non-verbal performance scale was also a critical difference from the Binet scale. The earlier Binet scale had been ...
He had two top-tens, but injuries forced him to exit the ride. He was replaced by multiple drivers, with Dale Shaw running a ... Beginning in 2006, Phoenix abbreviated the 09's schedule even further, switching back and forth between Dodge and Ford. Mike ... Benson was eventually let go from his contract altogether and Ruttman's involvement was scaled back significantly although he ... Purvis made 26 starts, missing one race due to injury, during which he was replaced by Dennis Setzer, and an additional four ...
He compared the abbreviated name to the former Desert Inn resort, also known as "D.I." MGM Mirage began a marketing campaign ... The fire caused $20,000 in damage, but resulted in only minor injuries for guests. Ruffin is a business partner of Donald ... Notable special effects included a full-scale, crewed British Royal Navy sailing ship that sailed nearly the full width of the ... Treasure Island's pirate theme was scaled back during a 2003 project aimed at attracting a more mature audience, in contrast to ...
Alternatively, an abbreviated form of the test has been developed, with only 19 questions. It has shown equally valid results ... 34 Personal injury fears: 2, 16, 21, 23, 29 Generalized anxiety: 1, 3, 4, 18, 20, 22 The preschool SCAS has a maximum score of ... Each question on the test addresses the frequency of certain anxiety symptoms, measured on a 0-3 scale from "never", "sometimes ... The Spence Children's Anxiety Scale (SCAS) is a psychological questionnaire designed to identify symptoms of various anxiety ...
... abbreviated ATS and formally known as the National Triage Scale). The scale has been in use since 1994. The scale consists of 5 ... P1 - Life-threatening injury P2 - Unconscious but breathing P3 - Non-life-threatening injury Dead - No signs of life or non- ... This scale was deprecated in 1999 with the introduction of the Canadian Triage and Acuity Scale (CTAS), which is used across ... In all systems, patients are first assessed for injuries, then, they are categorized based on the severity of those injuries. ...
Togoïmi died in September 2002 in a Libyan hospital from injuries he had received a few days earlier when his truck hit a ... A MDJT remnant continued to fight to on a smaller scale until another agreement was signed in December 2003. This accord ... Movement for Democracy and Justice in Chad (French: Mouvement pour la democratie et la justice au Tchad, abbreviated as MDJT) ...
1/72 scale model of a GoC M34 gun-truck with ZU-23-2 Anti-Aircraft autocannon. O'Ballance, Civil War in Lebanon (1998), p. 90 ... During this incident, he suffered an unspecified injury. He was forced to seek refuge in Jezzine, and finally left Lebanon for ... abbreviated as MLN was added to its name and it is now known as The Guardians of the Cedars Party - Movement of Lebanese ...
The horse present in the early chapters was the size of a normal horse, and the wagon it pulled was scaled to the same size - ... Cluny strikes his poison-barb tail at the father abbot, Mortimer, but Matthias quickly avenges the abbot's injury by dropping ... an abbreviated version of the name Matthias Methuselah Mortimer. The cracked Joseph Bell has been reshaped into two new bells ... In Redwall, the cat is scaled to real life compared to Matthias and Constance the Badger is depicted pulling a cart by herself ...
"Abbreviated Injury Scale". Archived from the original on 6 January 2011. Retrieved 2011-01-23. Abbreviated injury ... Severity of score Abbreviated Injury Score-Code is on a scale of one to six, one being a minor injury and six being maximal ( ... crush injury to the head. The AIS scale is a measurement tool for single injuries. A universally accepted injury aggregation ... A contemporary injury scale". Injury. 37 (12): 1083-1091. doi:10.1016/j.injury.2006.07.009. PMID 17092503 - via www. ...
Classification system for assessing impact injury severity developed and published by the American ... ... ABBREVIATED INJURY SCALE \ɐbɹˈiːvɪˌe͡ɪtɪd ˈɪnd͡ʒəɹi skˈe͡ɪl], \ɐbɹˈiːvɪˌe‍ɪtɪd ˈɪnd‍ʒəɹi skˈe‍ɪl], \ɐ_b_ɹ_ˈiː_v_ɪ__ˌeɪ_t_ɪ_d ˈɪ ... It is the system of choice for coding single injuries and is the foundation for methods assessing multiple injuries or for ... Classification system for assessing impact injury severity developed and published by the American Association for Automotive ...
Comparison of revised Functional Capacity Index scores with Abbreviated Injury Scale 2008 scores in predicting 12-month severe ... Comparison of revised Functional Capacity Index scores with Abbreviated Injury Scale 2008 scores in predicting 12-month severe ... Conclusions Anatomical injury is a predictor of trauma outcome. However, injury severity as described by the FCI does not ... Irrespective of the method used to classify the severity of injury, adding injury severity to the model significantly, but only ...
KTS predicted mortality and need for admission from the ED well when early estimation of the number of serious injuries was ... Defining major trauma using the 2008 Abbreviated Injury Scale. Palmer CS, Gabbe BJ, Cameron PA. Palmer CS, et al. Injury. 2016 ... KTS - Kampala Trauma Score; AIS- Abbreviated Injury Scale; aAIS scores ≥3 were used to calculate serious injuries; ROC - ... KTS - Kampala Trauma Score; AIS - Abbreviated Injury Scale; aAIS scores ≥3 were used to calculate serious injuries; ROC - ...
The Abbreviated Injury Scale with Epidemiologic Modifications (AIS 85-EM) was developed to make it possible to code information ... Title : Improving the sensitivity and specificity of the abbreviated injury scale coding system. Personal Author(s) : Kramer, C ... Improving the sensitivity and specificity of the abbreviated injury scale coding system.. ... Improving the sensitivity and specificity of the abbreviated injury scale coding system. ...
Common Data Element: Abbreviated injury scale (AIS) - Body region category General Details. Basic Attributes. Documentation. ... The Abbreviated Injury Scale, 1990 Revision. Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine. 15-24. 1990. Des Plaines, ... to choose the appropriate value. ... A contemporary injury scale. Injury 2006 37: 1083-1091. Copyright Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine - ...
Injury Severity Score. 25.5 (21.5-35.75). 22 (13.75-27.5). .08. Abbreviated Injury Scale (head and neck). 3.5 (2.75-5). 3 (3-4) ... In the multivariate regression analysis, increasing age and Abbreviated Injury Scale (head and neck) were associated with ... Table 5. Traumatic Brain Injury Subgroup Analysisa Stimulant Positive (n = 18). Stimulant Negative (n = 50). P ... Patients with drug use disorders are at increased risk of motor vehicle collisions and other traumatic injuries.[1-4] After ...
Committee on Injury Scaling, American Association for Automotive Medicine. Abbreviated injury scale, 1985 revision. Arlington ... Based on the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS)--for which severity scores range from 1 (minor) to 6 (most critical) for each ... to complain about soft-tissue injury, and trauma teams are less likely to address these injuries when life-threatening injuries ... For head injuries, the average AIS score was 1.6 for belted persons and 2.6 for unbelted persons; for injuries to the thorax, ...
In 1969, researchers developed the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) to grade the severity of individual injuries. ... yet the actual measurement of injury severity began only 50 years ago. ... Characterization of injury severity is crucial to the scientific study of trauma, ... anatomically based system of grading injuries on an ordinal scale ranging from 1 (minor injury) to 6 (lethal injury). Scales ...
The objective of this study was to determine the effect of differences in subcutaneous fat depth on adult injury patterns in ... Abbreviated Injury Scale * Abdominal Injuries / diagnostic imaging* * Abdominal Injuries / pathology * Abdominal Injuries / ... Increased depth of subcutaneous fat is protective against abdominal injuries in motor vehicle collisions Annu Proc Assoc Adv ... The objective of this study was to determine the effect of differences in subcutaneous fat depth on adult injury patterns in ...
Secondary outcome measures included severity of injury, measured by using the abbreviated injury scale16 and a severity scale ... The abbreviated injury scale: 1990 revision. Illinois:Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine,1990. ... To compare injury rates we used multilevel Poisson regression, with the number of injuries for each child as the dependent ... Injury outcomes for injuries at the level of the family or child, at 24 months follow up, by treatment arm ...
Patients 18 years of age and older with a Glasgow coma scale of 15, hospitalized for a traumatic injury, who reported at least ... validation of the numerical rating scale and of a daily summary of repeated numerical rating scale scores. J Clin Nurs 2019;28: ... environments may reduce pain in patients with acute traumatic injuries, including traumatic brain injuries. We performed a ... GCS, Glasgow Coma Scale; VR, virtual reality.. 2.8.3. Primary and secondary analyses. We used descriptive statistics to ...
abbreviated injury scale. ALOS. average length of stay. AMHP. approved mental health professional ... handover from paramedics) age, time of incident, mechanism, injuries sustained, treatment and trends ...
We evaluated a 4-item version of the 12-item Individual Water Insecurity Experiences (IWISE) Scale for estimating water ... The embodiment of water insecurity: injuries and chronic stress in lowland Bolivia ... As such, an abbreviated, four-item, one-minute HWISE scale (HWISE-4) was developed and shown to have suitable predictive ... Validity of an abbreviated Individual Water Insecurity Experiences (IWISE-4) Scale for measuring the prevalence of water ...
American Association for the Surgery of Trauma-Organ Injury Scale. AAASV. Antibody-associated systemic vasculitis. ... Abbreviated Injury Score. Acute ischemic stroke. AISA. Acquired idiopathic sideroblastic anemia. AIS/ ISS. Abbreviated Injury ...
For each increment in the riding speed of 1 km/h, the odds of a severe injury to child passengers increased by 5% (OR, 1.05; 95 ... Childrens injury data were collected from medical records, and their riding behaviors along with operators demographics were ... and a severe injury (OR, 3.02; 95% CI, 1.19~7.62). Children seated in front of the operator were significantly more likely to ... those who were not wearing a helmet were significantly more likely to have sustained a head/face injury (OR, 3.12; 95% CI, 1.02 ...
All participants further had to achieve an IQ above 85 on the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence69. Three participants ... Participant scans were evaluated by a neuroradiologist and deemed free of significant injuries or conditions. The images were ... Wechsler, D. Wechsler abbreviated scale of intelligence (The Psychological Corporation, San Antonio, TX, 1999). ... Exclusion criteria were history of injury or disease known to affect central nervous system function, including neurological or ...
... and disciplines is essential to advancing the care for traumatic brain injury (TBI). It is thus important that we speak the ... Abbreviated Injury Scale; ISS, Injury Severity Scale. ... traumatic brain injury; GCS, Glasgow Coma Scale; ICP, ... Standardizing data collection in traumatic brain injury Andrew I R Maas 1 , Cynthia L Harrison-Felix, David Menon, P David ... Standardizing data collection in traumatic brain injury Andrew I R Maas et al. J Neurotrauma. 2011 Feb. ...
6 and the severity of injuries were based on the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS)7. ... There is also an emergency room-based injury surveillance system reporting fatal and nonfatal road traffic injuries which could ... with road traffic crashes accounting for a sizeable proportion of injury-related deaths - 24% and 18% of male and female injury ... Traffic injury is a leading cause of premature death in Qatar. Between 2008 and 2010, an average of 220 deaths and 550 serious ...
Each injury is evaluated and assigned an Abbreviated Injury Scale code, which is an anatomic consensus-based global score. The ... The injury severity score-importance and uses. Ann Epidemiol. 1995;5:440-6. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar ... Invasive fungal infections secondary to traumatic injury. Int J Infect Dis. 2017;62:102-11. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar ... Invasive mold infections following combat-related injuries. Clin Infect Dis. 2012;55:1441-9. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar ...
The Injury Severity Score (ISS) measures trauma intensity based on the abbreviated injury scale (AIS). The Patients BD results ... BD can predict the severity of traumatic injury in the elderly. Along with other available factors such as serum lactate, BD ... The Persian version of RIPLS (The Readiness for Inter-Professional Learning Scale) was used to collect data. Data analysis was ... The injury severity score mean had a significant association with the BD level (P,0.001). Also, with increasing BD level, the ...
Abbreviated Injury Scale: not a reliable basis for summation of injury severity in trauma facilities?. Ringdal KG; Skaga NO; ... Defining major trauma using the 2008 Abbreviated Injury Scale.. Palmer CS; Gabbe BJ; Cameron PA. Injury; 2016 Jan; 47(1):109-15 ... 2. Impact of Adapting the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS)-2005 from AIS-1998 on Injury Severity Scores and Clinical Outcome. ... 1. Same Abbreviated Injury Scale Values May Be Associated with Different Risks to Mortality in Trauma Patients: A Cross- ...
The groups were matched regarding Abbreviated Injury Scale 1990, update 1998 (AIS98) head region severity score 3-6. Cases ... Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is increasingly recognized in traumatic brain injury (TBI), but its complications and effect ... Cerebral venous thrombosis in traumatic brain injury: a cause of secondary insults and added mortality ... and Injury Severity Score. Complications and mortality were also assessed in prespecified subgroup analysis according to CVT ...
... to classify the effects of the trauma while using either the abbreviated injury scale (AIS), ISS, or APACHE II to describe the ... Host Response to Injury Large-Scale Collaborative Research P. A genomic storm in critically injured humans. J Exp Med. 2011;208 ... Trauma was defined as all grades of trauma ranging from minor to severe trauma, including isolated traumatic brain injury (TBI ... They found that following severe trauma and burn injury a global reprioritization occurs in ,80% of the cellular functions and ...
Update: Cold Weather Injuries, Active and Reserve Components, U.S. Armed Forces, July 2015-June 2020. ... Responses to the 7-item GAD-7 scale were used to assess anxiety symptoms over the previous 2 weeks; participants with summed ... scale scores ,10 were categorized as having probable GAD.26. Post-traumatic stress symptoms were assessed using the abbreviated ... Investigation of abbreviated 4 and 8 item versions of the PTSD Checklist 5. Psychiatry Res. 2016;239:124-130. ...
Update: Cold Weather Injuries Among the Active and Reserve Components of the U.S. Armed Forces, July 2018-June 2023. ... Responses to the 7-item GAD-7 scale were used to assess anxiety symptoms over the previous 2 weeks; participants with summed ... scale scores ,10 were categorized as having probable GAD.26. Post-traumatic stress symptoms were assessed using the abbreviated ... Investigation of abbreviated 4 and 8 item versions of the PTSD Checklist 5. Psychiatry Res. 2016;239:124-130. ...
Trauma-induced coagulopathy in traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains associated with high rates of complications, unfavorable ... AIS Abbreviated Injury Scale, CENTER-TBI Collaborative European Neurotrauma Effectiveness Research in Traumatic Brain Injury, ... Ability of fibrin monomers to predict progressive hemorrhagic injury in patients with severe traumatic brain injury. Neurocrit ... injury characteristics, medical presentation on admission (Glasgow Coma Scale score, systolic blood pressure, heart rate, ...
  • AIS is one of the most common anatomic scales for traumatic injuries. (
  • CONCLUSIONS: Postacute care following traumatic injuries is essential to recovery. (
  • The sequelae of traumatic injuries frequently require extensive intervention obligating patients to a complicated recovery process devoid of meaningful nutrition. (
  • 18 y) who sustained blunt or penetrating traumatic injuries and received PN as part of their hospitalization. (
  • Improving the sensitivity and specificity of the abbreviated injury scale coding system. (
  • The AIS is the basis for the Injury Severity Score (ISS), which is the most widely used measure of injury severity in patients with trauma. (
  • Although, decisions for individual patients should never be based solely on a statistically derived injury severity score, scoring systems can nonetheless serve to estimate quantitatively the level of acuity of injured patients that are applied to adjustments in hospital outcome assessments. (
  • Injury severity scoring is indispensable in stratifying patients into comparable groups for prospective clinical trials. (
  • In this retrospective cohort study, patients who presented to the UC San Diego Health Trauma Center for injuries from falling at the border wall between 2016 and 2021 were considered. (
  • To discover if there is a significant difference in the pattern and severity of injury sustained during falls in patients who have consumed alcohol and those who have not. (
  • Goal-oriented management of traumatic brain injury (TBI) can save the lives and/or improve the long-term outcome of millions of affected patients worldwide. (
  • Methods: Patients with TIE from 2010-2015 were identified in the NTDB by the Abbreviated Injury Scale. (
  • The demographic and clinical characteristics and hospital outcomes, including hospital length of stay, complications, and mortality, of these patients were further analyzed according to injury mechanism, injury severity score (ISS), and sex. (
  • Mortality is markedly elevated in trauma patients with TIE but is not associated with mechanism of injury. (
  • Patients with at least one Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) ≥3 or AIS 2 injuries within two AIS body regions were included. (
  • Patients were divided into two groups depending on the severity of injury to the head, chest or abdomen. (
  • We aimed to study the impact of these changes on the incidence, pattern, injury severity, and outcome of hospitalized motorcycle-related injured patients in Al-Ain City, United Arab Emirates. (
  • There was a significant reduction in the mortality of hospitalized motorcycle injured patients despite increased anatomical severity of the head injuries. (
  • Motorcycle-related injuries had the highest mortality of hospitalized trauma patients in our city, of whom more than 40% had head injuries [6]. (
  • Hereby we aim to study the impact of the trauma system development on the incidence, injury pattern and severity, and outcome of hospitalized motorcycle injured patients in Al-Ain City, United Arab Emirates. (
  • Patients admitted only for comfort care and those with injuries thought to be terminal and irreversible were excluded from the analysis. (
  • Next, Dr. Trust and his associates conducted a subgroup analysis of 300 patients admitted to the ICU (28%) and 766 (72%) admitted to the surgical ward who had all-system Abbreviated Injury Scale scores of less than 3, no hypotension on admission, and a Glasgow Coma Scale of 14 or greater. (
  • MELBOURNE - "Given the cost and risks associated with a vena cava filter, our data suggest that there is no urgency to insert the filter in patients who can be treated with prophylactic anticoagulation within 7 days after injury," the investigators wrote. (
  • Abstract: Our objective was to analyze the contribution of acute kidney injury (AKI) to the mortality of isolated TBI patients and its associated risk factors. (
  • In the present study, we designed a prospective, randomized, controlled trial to clarify the effect of decompressive craniectomy in severe traumatic brain injury patients with mass lesions. (
  • Methods: Purposive sampling was used to select a sample of 123 patients with mild traumatic brain injury from a tertiary hospital of the southern region. (
  • Understanding why patients return to the emergency department after mild traumatic brain injury within 72 hours. (
  • Quality of return to work in patients with mild traumatic brain injury: A prospective investigation of associations among post-concussion symptoms, neuropsychological functions, working status and stability. (
  • The distribution of injuries by severity, percentage of ED visits that result in admission to the same hospital, and total costs for admitted patients are also presented. (
  • Patients younger than 30 years accounted for 48 percent of all injury-related ED visits, with pediatric patients (younger than 18 years) accounting for over one-quarter of all injury-related ED visits (figure 1). (
  • Across all injuries, seven percent of patients were admitted to the hospital after treatment in the ED. (
  • Injuries with the highest costs for patients treated in the ED and then admitted to the hospital were falls ($9.2 billion), motor vehicle accidents ($5.1 billion), and poisoning ($1.8 billion). (
  • The purpose of this study was to compare the functional outcomes of two groups of patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) with attention to the impact of reduced length of stay (LOS) in the trauma center (TC) and rehabilitation hospital (RH). (
  • From 1991 to 1994, 55 patients, Group 1, with serious TBI (Abbreviated Injury Scale score ≥3) were admitted to a level 1 TC and subsequently transferred to a comprehensive inpatient RH. (
  • METHODS: Using the 2019 Trauma Quality Improvement Program database, we identified GSW patients with Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) = 1-3. (
  • PN patients had higher injury severity scores (ISSs), more intensive care unit days, longer hospitalizations, and increased mortality compared to non-PN patients. (
  • All patients presenting to the Emergency Department (ED) of the Aga Khan University Hospital (AKUH) with a diagnosis of injury as defined in ICD-9 CM were included. (
  • About 87% of patients had sustained blunt injury. (
  • Zurück zum Zitat Banaste N, Caurier B, Bratan F et al (2018) Whole-body CT in patients with multiple traumas: factors leading to missed injury. (
  • Therefore, decisions for individual patients should never be based solely on a statistically derived injury severity score. (
  • Addictive patients who have experienced TBI, for example, revealed an increased risk of re-injury and suicide attempts, as well as a reduced life satisfaction rates and poor clinical outcomes (Bogner & Corrigan, 2013). (
  • Traumatic brain injury (TBI), also known as acquired brain injury, head injury, or brain injury, causes substantial disability and mortality. (
  • Even though these are intended to temporarily incapacitate individuals, it is often encountered that kinetic impact projectiles can cause penetration, severe injuries, permanent disabilities and even mortality. (
  • Falls are the leading cause of injury-related morbidity and mortality worldwide, but fall injury circumstances differ by age. (
  • Falls follow road traffic accidents as the second leading cause of injury-related mortality worldwide (World Health Organization 2014 ). (
  • Among children, fall injury-related mortality is rare, but rates of hospitalization and visits to the emergency department are high (Lee et al. (
  • Measuring firearm injury by mortality underestimates its impact, as most victims survive to discharge. (
  • The ability to predict outcome from trauma (ie, mortality) is perhaps the most fundamental use of injury severity scoring, a use that arises from the patient's and the family's desires to know the prognosis. (
  • In 2016, WHO estimated that the death rate in Afghanistan due to road traffic injuries was 15.1 per 100 000 population, with road traffic crashes accounting for a sizeable proportion of injury-related deaths - 24% and 18% of male and female injury-related fatalities, respectively. (
  • The Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) is an independent, nonprofit scientific and educational organization dedicated to reducing deaths, injuries and property damage from motor vehicle crashes through research and evaluation and through education of consumers, policymakers and safety professionals. (
  • The U.S. Department of Transportation reported that 328 crashes involving school buses, defined as resulting in a fatality, bodily injury requiring immediate medical attention away from the scene, or at least one of the involved vehicles being towed, occurred from 2013 through 2015. (
  • Those unlucky cyclists also endured 63 percent worse head traumas, which the researchers attributed to the fact that SUVs crashes were more than twice as likely to cause 'ground impact' injuries - or, in plain language, to knock cyclists off their bikes completely and onto the pavement, causing a second impact that can be even more damaging than the initial contact with the car itself. (
  • Introduction:] A large number of road users involved in road traffic crashes recover from their injuries, but some of them never recover fully and suffer from some kind of permanent disability. (
  • 1 More Americans aged 1-44 years die from injuries such as motor vehicle crashes, falls, or homicides than from any other cause, including cancer, HIV, or influenza. (
  • Falls and motor vehicle crashes were the most common mechanisms of injury. (
  • Mean age was 46 ± 22y, and the median spine abbreviated injury scale was 3 [2-4]. (
  • The Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) is an anatomical-based coding system created by the Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine to classify and describe the severity of injuries. (
  • The score describes three aspects of the injury using seven numbers written as 12(34)(56).7 Type Location Severity Each number signifies 1- body region 2- type of anatomical structure 3,4- specific anatomical structure 5,6- level 7- Severity of score Abbreviated Injury Score-Code is on a scale of one to six, one being a minor injury and six being maximal (currently untreatable). (
  • Special regard in the examination was given to Glasgow coma scale, a precise anatomical description of injuries, results of investigations and treatment were recorded. (
  • The Abbreviated Injury Scale(AIS) is an anatomical scoring system first introduced in 1969. (
  • A universally accepted injury aggregation function has not yet been proposed, though the injury severity score and its derivatives are better aggregators for use in clinical settings. (
  • Functional capacity index Injury severity score Gennarelli, Thomas A. (
  • We compared clinical and predicted immediate and long term outcomes (as defined by the Abbreviated Injury Score (AIS) and the Functional Capacity Index (pFCI), respectively). (
  • Daarnaast vielen er 17.636 ernstig gewonden met een zogeheten Maximum Abbreviated Injury Score (MAIS) van 2 of meer. (
  • The mean Injury Severity Score (ISS) was 4.99 and there were 8 deaths. (
  • Für schwerstverletzte Patienten mit einem Injury Severity Score (ISS) ≥16 ist gesichert, dass die Ganzkörper-CT (GK-CT) im Vergleich zur selektiven CT-Diagnostik die Mortalität um etwa ein Viertel senkt. (
  • Methods This was an observational study using records with injury dates in 2018 from the registries at both hospitals. (
  • The resulting National Strategy for Prevention and Control of Noncommunicable Diseases 2014-2018 aimed to prevent or delay the onset of NCDs, including road injuries, and related complications, and to improve the management of NCDs, thus enhancing the quality of life of the Afghan population. (
  • Data on accidental fall injuries (hereafter: fall injuries) occurring in January 2015-June 2018 were extracted from the Shenkursk Injury Registry ( N = 1551) and categorized by age group (0-6, 7-17, 18-59, and 60+ years). (
  • Advances in combat casualty care, medical transport, and personal protective equipment led to a greater survivability from wounds, and the US Military Health System subsequently faced a growing number of service members and veterans with injury-related sequelae [ 3 ]. (
  • Purpose This study aimed to investigate the role of neck muscle activity and neck damping characteristics in traumatic brain injury mechanisms. (
  • This biomechanical analysis investigates the different kinds of injury mechanisms leading to traumatic aortic injuries in todays traffic accidents and how the way of traffic participation affects the frequency of those injuries over the years. (
  • We hypothesize that these structural changes influence pelvic fracture injury mechanisms. (
  • Eight cases were examined using in-depth investigation to identify the injury mechanisms. (
  • Results show that traumatic aortic injuries are mainly observed in high-speed accidents with high body deceleration and direct load force to the chest. (
  • While cyclists and pedestrians are known to be at significant risk for severe injuries when exposed to road traffic accidents (RTAs) involving trucks, little is known about RTA injury risk for truck drivers. (
  • The pathology and pathogenesis of injuries caused by lateral impact accidents. (
  • In 1969, researchers developed the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) to grade the severity of individual injuries. (
  • 2019)) that acceleration and ICP of the head play an important role in causing mild and moderate brain injuries. (
  • Assessing outcomes objectively is challenging, but the evolution of injury severity scoring systems with sufficient precision and reproducibility now permits trauma centers to compare their processes and outcomes, facilitating identification of best practices that form the foundations of quality improvement programs. (
  • Blast injury emerged as a primary source of morbidity among US military personnel during the recent conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan, and led to an array of adverse health outcomes. (
  • The present study examined the effects of religion and spirituality practices and beliefs on emotional and psychological outcomes among professional athlete with anterior cruciate ligaments (ACL) injury. (
  • This study will provide evidence to optimize primary decompressive craniectomy application and assess outcomes and risks for mass lesions in severe traumatic brain injury. (
  • Abstract To effectively assess the injury risk of the blunt impact of the SIR-X sponge grenade on the human thorax, in this paper, we used a numerical simulation technique to test the non-lethal kinetic energy projectiles that blunt impact on the Hybrid III 50th dummy model. (
  • or died in the ED). ED visits for injury are described based on the external cause of injury (e.g., falls, transport related, poisoning, burns, drowning, other blunt injuries). (
  • CONCLUSIONS: PN use following traumatic injury is rarely required. (
  • The epidemiology of mild traumatic brain injury: The trondheim MTBI followup study. (
  • The Saudi cohort was younger, the median age being 36 years compared with 50 years, with 51% of injuries caused by road traffic incidents. (
  • The numbers of these injuries were nearly equal among females (55) and males (54), and riders ranged in age from 3 years to 71 years (median: 30 years). (
  • Researchers use multiple independent variables (eg, age, injury severity) to predict the dependent variable (or outcome). (
  • Scope Information about patient demographics, injury location, injury date and time, external causes of injury, injury modifiers, mode of transport, ED/hospital assessment and treatment, final diagnosis, disposition and outcome can be recorded. (
  • Advantages The registry could be used for hospital based injury surveillance, trauma outcome research and public policy interventions. (
  • The IWISE-4 Scale is a suitable, cross-country equivalent instrument for estimating prevalence of water insecurity. (
  • Peak linear acceleration (PLA) and head injury criterion (HIC)-based Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) = 4 brain injury risk were determined and compared across helmets and impact configurations using analysis of variance.Other impact characteristics such as duration, effective liner stiffness, and energy dissipated were also calculated from acceleration data. (
  • Abstract: Introduction: Traumatic injury of the esophagus (TIE) is rare, and the existing literature is limited. (
  • Abstract During the last decades, there has been an increase in the development and use of kinetic energy non-lethal projectiles, mainly because of their ability to neutralise without inflicting serious injuries. (
  • For cases of severe traumatic brain injury, during primary operation, neurosurgeons usually face a dilemma of whether or not to remove the bone flap after mass lesion evacuation. (
  • Severe traumatic brain injury (STBI) is a major cause of death in young adults in developed countries [ 1 ]. (
  • The alcohol group had a higher incidence of head injuries (46 (48%) versus 22 (9%)) with a lower incidence of limb injuries (39 (39%) versus 183 (76%)) than the no alcohol group. (
  • The incidence of motorcycle injuries dropped by 37.1% over the studied period. (
  • The incidence of motorcycle injuries in our city dropped by almost 40% over the last 15 years. (
  • The results indicate that the more serious injuries and fatalities are sustained by those ejected from the car, with ejection occurring most often through the side glass area. (
  • Femoral fractures are an injury commonly seen in the emergency room. (
  • Of the 105 cases for which the mechanism of injury was specified, 100 (95%) involved riders who struck their heads either on the ground or a nearby object after falling from the horse, four (4%) who were kicked or rolled on by the horse after falling from the horse, and one (1%) who fell to the ground after his head struck a pole while riding. (
  • To determine how pattern and severity of injury correlates with blood alcohol concentration. (
  • This study compares the pattern and severity of injury in those that have taken alcohol with those who have not. (
  • The study compares pattern and severity of injury with blood alcohol concentration within the alcohol group. (
  • Alcohol related falls are more often associated with severe craniofacial injury. (
  • These are often associated with severe additional injuries, e.g. the head and a very high overall trauma severity (polytrauma). (
  • Among the 106 survivors of riding-associated TBIs, 84 (79%) had one or more indicators of brain injury severity: 67 (63%) had loss of consciousness, 49 (46%) had posttraumatic amnesia, and 14 (13%) had persistent neurologic sequelae on discharge from the hospital (e.g., seizures or cognitive, hearing, vision, speech, and/or motor impairment). (
  • Since its introduction, by the Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine (AAAM) International Injury Scaling Committee (IISC), the parent organization of the AIS modified the AIS, most recently in 2005 (AIS-2005). (
  • The AIS is monitored by a scaling committee of the Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine. (
  • Introduction A functionally active and well organised electronic trauma registry (ETR) can assist in addressing important issues about the prevention and treatment of injuries at hospital and regional level. (
  • In addition, the treatment of injuries places an enormous burden on hospital emergency departments (EDs) and trauma care systems. (
  • Effective coding systems for example, International Classification of Diseases (ICD-9-CM) and Abbreviated Injury Scaling (AIS) aid in standardisation of the terms, whereas backend spreadsheets and calculators help in storage, collation and analysis of the data. (
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of the US-Mexico border wall height extension on traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) and related costs. (
  • See Pediatric Concussion and Other Traumatic Brain Injuries , a Critical Images slideshow, to help identify the signs and symptoms of TBI, determine the type and severity of injury, and initiate appropriate treatment. (
  • A systematic history and examination permitted calculation of injury severity scores as per abbreviated injury scale update 1998. (
  • In other settings such as automotive design and occupant protection, MAIS is a useful tool for the comparison of specific injuries and their relative severity and the changes in those frequencies that may result from evolving motor vehicle design. (
  • The specific injuries resulting from blasts are numerous. (
  • Injury statistics have found the most common accident situation to be an oblique impact. (
  • Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI, also known as concussion) caused by the head impact is a crucial global public health problem, but the physics of mTBI is still unclear. (
  • However, data regarding head acceleration, ICP, and associated injuries is sparse in ballistic impact literature. (
  • Risk of severe brain injury varied widely between helmets at the standard impact velocity, whereas the common, lower severity impacts produced PLAs associated with concussion. (
  • To study the relationship between severity of injury of the lower limb and severity of injury of the head, thoracic, and abdominal regions in frontal-impact road traffic collisions. (
  • Occupants who sustain a greater severity of injury to the lower limb in a frontal-impact collision are likely to be spared from a greater severity of head injury. (
  • The main observed load vector is from caudal-ventral and from ventral solely, but also force impact from left and right side and in roll-over events with chest compression lead to traumatic aortic injuries. (
  • 2 Non-fatal injuries can have physical and financial consequences that impact the lives of individuals and their families. (
  • Risk of pelvic fracture in side impact collisions was estimated and factors associated with these injuries were identified. (
  • A secondary influence on the injury pattern was the geometrical and stiffness incompatibilities between impact partners that resulted in vehicle deformation and rotation of the vehicle seat. (
  • Methods: A sample of professional athletes (n = 50) with ACL injury and prior to surgery participated in this study. (
  • Thomas P, Frampton R. Injury patterns in side collisions:​ a new look with reference to current test methods and injury criteria. (
  • An AIS-Code of 9 is used to describe injuries for which not enough information is available for more detailed coding, e.g. crush injury to the head. (
  • Since then, it has been revised and updated against survival so that it now provides a reasonably accurate way of ranking the severity of injury. (
  • The ability to predict survival after trauma is perhaps the most fundamental use of injury severity scoring, Furthermore, injury severity scoring can provide objective correlations with resource utiliziation such as length of stay and costs of treatment, as well as inform clinical decisions regarding management of injuries of specific severity. (
  • Catastrophic injuries that make survival unlikely (e.g. (
  • Using existing medical records, we were able to enter data on most variables including mechanism of injuries, burden of severe injuries and quality indicators such as length of stay in ED, injury to arrival delay, as well as generate injury severity and survival probability but missed information such as ethnicity, ED notification. (
  • More recently, physicians suggested that injury severity scoring can provide objective information for end-of-life decision-making and resource allocation. (
  • Severe primary injury and exasperate condition necessitate emergent surgical intervention. (
  • Comparing the past 40 years aortic injuries shift from unprotected car occupants to today's unprotected vulnerable road users like pedestrians, cyclists and motorcyclists. (
  • 001). Conclusion: In order to maintain the quality of return to work in people with mild traumatic brain injury, healthcare professionals should educate them in terms of post-concussion symptoms management and cognitive function promotion before they discharge from the hospitals. (
  • The department is also responsible for managing the prevention and control of road traffic injuries. (
  • COCA is excited to partner with CDC's National Center for Injury Prevention and Control to offer this call series on CDC Guidelines for Prescribing Opioids for Chronic pain. (
  • She is the Deputy Associate Director for Science in the Division of Unintentional Injury Prevention and Control at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (
  • Twelve participants followed a one-day training course in injury coding. (
  • Biomechanical response and injury tolerance of the pelvis in twelve sled side impacts. (
  • Backward likelihood logistic regression models were used to define significant factors affecting the severity of head, chest or abdominal injuries. (
  • Therefore, all injuries to the chest should be regarded as potentially life threatening. (
  • The new Decade of Action for Road Safety 2021-2030 has the ambitious target of preventing at least 50% of road traffic deaths and injuries by 2030. (
  • Ninety per cent of trauma- and injury-related deaths and disabilities occur in low-and middle-income countries (LMICs) [ 12 ]. (
  • Introduction The burden of injury in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) has increased in recent years, but the country has lacked a consistent methodology for collecting injury data. (
  • Perhaps the most important role for injury severity scoring is in trauma care research. (
  • This is attributed to improvements in the trauma care system, including injury prevention and prehospital care. (
  • The aim of this study was to determine the influence of a dedicated training course on the ability of participants to assign correct codes and their inter-observer agreement using the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS98). (
  • Participants completed Brief Cope Inventory (BCI) and Depression Anxiety & Stress Scale (DASS 21). (
  • The most common cause was falls (35.7 percent), followed by being struck by an object (18.3 percent) and motor vehicle injuries (12.5 percent). (
  • A NASS-based investigation of pelvic injury within the motor vehicle crash environment. (
  • Her expertise lies in the area of prescription drug overdose prevention, motor vehicle injury prevention, evaluation, implementation science and evidence-based practice guidelines. (
  • The severity of both limb and head injury is greater and correlates directly with blood alcohol concentration. (
  • Injury estimation employed Head Injury Criterion, Brain Injury Criterion, and maximum principal strain. (
  • The backward likelihood logistic regression model defining independent factors affecting severity of head injuries was highly significant (p =0.01, nagelkerke r square = 0.1) severity of lower limb injuries was the only significant factor (p=0.013) having a negative correlation with head injury (Odds ratio of 0.64 (95% CI: 0.45-0.91). (
  • Ratanalert S. Head injury care towards disease specific certification. (
  • Validation of the Scandinavian guidelines for initial management of minimal, mild and moderate traumatic brain injury in adults. (
  • A systematic review and meta-analysis of return to work after mild traumatic brain injury. (
  • Prediction of work resumption and sustainability up to 1 year after mild traumatic brain injury. (
  • Of injury-related ED visits, 90 percent were of mild severity. (