Influenza A Virus, H10N7 Subtype
Parasitic Diseases, Animal
Communicable Diseases, Emerging
Agricultural Workers' Diseases
Colony Count, Microbial
Bacterial Typing Techniques
Polymerase Chain Reaction
Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field
Real-time monitoring of Escherichia coli O157:H7 adherence to beef carcass surface tissues with a bioluminescent reporter. (1/502)A method for studying bacteria that are attached to carcass surfaces would eliminate the need for exogenous sampling and would facilitate understanding the interaction of potential human food-borne pathogens with food animal tissue surfaces. We describe such a method in which we used a bioluminescent reporter strain of Escherichia coli O157:H7 that was constructed by transformation with plasmid pCGLS1, an expression vector that contains a complete bacterial luciferase (lux) operon. Beef carcass surface tissues were inoculated with the bioluminescent strain, and adherent bacteria were visualized in real time by using a sensitive photon-counting camera to obtain in situ images. The reporter strain was found to luminesce from the tissue surfaces whether it was inoculated as a suspension in buffer or as a suspension in a bovine fecal slurry. With this method, areas of tissues inoculated with the reporter strain could be studied without obtaining, excising, homogenizing, and culturing multiple samples from the tissue surface. Use of the complete lux operon as the bioluminescent reporter eliminated the need to add exogenous substrate. This allowed detection and quantitation of bacterial inocula and rapid evaluation of adherence of a potential human pathogen to tissue surfaces. Following simple water rinses of inoculated carcass tissues, the attachment duration varied with different carcass surface types. On average, the percent retention of bioluminescent signal from the reporter strain was higher on lean fascia-covered tissue (54%) than on adipose fascia-covered tissue (18%) following water washing of the tissues. Bioluminescence and culture-derived viable bacterial counts were highly correlated (r2 = 0.98). Real-time assessment of microbial attachment to this complex menstruum should facilitate evaluation of carcass decontamination procedures and mechanistic studies of microbial contamination of beef carcass tissues. (+info)
Outbreak of Hendra-like virus--Malaysia and Singapore, 1998-1999. (2/502)During September 29, 1998-April 4, 1999, 229 cases of febrile encephalitis (111 [48%] fatal) were reported to the Malaysian Ministry of Health (MOH). During March 13-19, 1999, nine cases of similar encephalitic illnesses (one fatal) and two cases of respiratory illness occurred among abattoir workers in Singapore. Tissue culture isolation identified a previously unknown infectious agent from ill patients. This report summarizes the preliminary epidemiologic and laboratory investigations of these cases, which indicate that a previously unrecognized paramyxovirus related to, but distinct from, the Australian Hendra virus is associated with this outbreak. (+info)
The prevalence of verotoxins, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Salmonella in the feces and rumen of cattle at processing. (3/502)Fecal samples collected from cattle at processing during a 1-year period were tested for verotoxins (VT1, VT2), Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Salmonella. Verotoxins were detected in 42.6% (95% CI, 39.8% to 45.4%), E. coli O157:H7 in 7.5% (95% CI, 6.1% to 9.1%), and Salmonella in 0.08% (95% CI, 0.004% to 0.5%) of the fecal samples. In yearling cattle, the median within-lot prevalence (percentage of positive samples within a lot) was 40% (range, 0% to 100%) for verotoxins and 0% for E. coli O157:H7 (range, 0% to 100%) and Salmonella (range, 0% to 17%). One or more fecal samples were positive for verotoxins in 80.4% (95% CI, 72.8% to 86.4%) of the lots of yearling cattle, whereas E. coli O157:H7 were detected in 33.6% (95% CI, 26.0% to 42.0%) of the lots. In cull cows, the median within-lot prevalence was 50% (range, 0% to 100%) for verotoxins and 0% (range, 0% to 100%) for E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella (range, 0% to 0%). Verotoxins were detected in one or more fecal samples from 78.0% (95% CI, 70.4% to 84.2%) of the lots of cull cows, whereas E. coli O157:H7 were detected in only 6.0% (95% CI, 3.0% to 11.4%) of the lots of cull cows. The prevalence of verotoxins in fecal samples was lower in yearling cattle than in cull cows, whereas the prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 in fecal samples was higher in yearling cattle than in cull cows. The prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 in fecal samples was highest in the summer months. Rumen fill, body condition score, sex, type of cattle (dairy, beef), and distance travelled to the plant were not associated with the fecal prevalence of verotoxins or E. coli O157:H7. The prevalence of verotoxins in fecal samples of cull cows was associated with the source of the cattle. It was highest in cows from the auction market (52%) and farm/ranch (47%) and lowest in cows from the feedlot (31%). In rumen samples, the prevalence of verotoxins was 6.4% (95% CI, 4.2% to 9.4%), and it was 0.8% (95% CI, 0.2% to 2.3%) for E. coli O157:H7, and 0.3% (95% CI, 0.007% to 1.5%) for Salmonella. (+info)
Update: outbreak of Nipah virus--Malaysia and Singapore, 1999. (4/502)During March 1999, health officials in Malaysia and Singapore, in collaboration with Australian researchers and CDC, investigated reports of febrile encephalitic and respiratory illnesses among workers who had exposure to pigs. A previously unrecognized paramyxovirus (formerly known as Hendra-like virus), now called Nipah virus, was implicated by laboratory testing in many of these cases. Febrile encephalitis continues to be reported in Malaysia but has decreased coincident with mass culling of pigs in outbreak areas. No new cases of febrile illness associated with Nipah virus infection have been identified in Singapore since March 19, 1999, when abattoirs were closed. This report summarizes interim findings from ongoing epidemiologic and laboratory investigations in Malaysia and Singapore. (+info)
Presence of Yersinia enterocolitica in tissues of orally-inoculated pigs and the tonsils and feces of pigs at slaughter. (5/502)In order to study the early events associated with infection of swine by Yersinia enterocolitica, 42 five-week-old crossbred piglets were inoculated per os with approximately 10(8) Y. enterocolitica O:3. Groups of 5 animals (and one negative control) were euthanized 30 min, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h following the infection. Palatine tonsils, retropharyngeal and mesenteric lymph nodes, esophagus, duodenum, jejunum, ileum (and Peyer's patches), stomach, liver, spleen and feces (from colon) were collected and analyzed for the presence of Y. enterocolitica by standard bacteriological procedures. Natural infections were also analyzed, as a complementary study, by taking one-gram samples of fecal material and tonsils from 291 pig carcasses less than 3 h after slaughter and culturing them for Y. enterocolitica using a cold enrichment technique. Within 30 min, Yersinia enterocolitica O:3 was already present at most sites. The presence of Y. enterocolitica in the liver of 3 out of 10 animals and also in the spleen of 3 out of 10 piglets, within the first 3 h postinfection, but not at later times (with one exception), probably indicated a transient bacteremia accompanying the initial stages of infection. The tonsils were colonized in most animals (13/20) as the bacteria remained present from 12 to 72 h postinfection, while only 4 out of 20 fecal samples were found to be positive over the same period. Up to 10(4) colony-forming units of Y. enterocolitica per gram of tonsil and fecal material were recovered. Finally, among the 291 animals sampled at the abattoir, a total of 79 were found positive, 70 of the tonsils sampled were positive, and bacteria were recovered in 17 fecal samples. It is therefore suggested that palatine tonsils are the most reliable tissue for the indication of an infection/colonization by Y. enterocolitica O:3 in swine and that the removal of this tissue during the slaughter process should be considered in order to minimize the possibility of contamination of meat products. (+info)
Shoulder impingement syndrome in relation to shoulder intensive work. (6/502)OBJECTIVES: To analyse the risk of shoulder impingement syndrome relative to shoulder intensive work. METHODS: A cross sectional study of a historical cohort of 1591 workers employed between 1986 and 1993 at a slaughterhouse or a chemical factory. Workers not doing tasks in slaughtering or meat processing constituted the reference group. Intensity of shoulder work in meat processing tasks was assessed by video based observations. Information on shoulder disorders was collected by questionnaire and by physical examinations. Impingement syndrome was diagnosed when shoulder symptoms had been present for at least 3 months during the past year and there were signs of subacromial impingement in the corresponding shoulder at physical examination. Shoulder function was assessed at the same occasion with the Constant scoring technique. Prevalence of shoulder impingement syndrome was analysed according to job title and cumulative exposure. RESULTS: Prevalence ratio for shoulder impingement syndrome was 5.27 (95% confidence interval (95% CI), 2.09 to 12.26) among currently working and 7.90 (95% CI, 2.94 to 21.18) among former slaughterhouse workers. Transformed model based prevalence ratios according to years in slaughterhouse work showed an overall association between cumulative exposure and risk for shoulder impingement syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: This study supports the hypothesis that shoulder intensive work is a risk factor for impingement syndrome of the shoulder. Despite the historical cohort design healthy worker selection may have influenced the exposure-response relation found. (+info)
Amplified fragment length polymorphism fingerprinting of Pseudomonas strains from a poultry processing plant. (7/502)Molecular typing has been used previously to identify and trace dissemination of pathogenic and spoilage bacteria associated with food processing. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) is a novel DNA fingerprinting technique which is considered highly reproducible and has high discriminatory power. This technique was used to fingerprint 88 Pseudomonas fluorescens and Pseudomonas putida strains that were previously isolated from plate counts of carcasses at six processing stages and various equipment surfaces and environmental sources of a poultry abattoir. Clustering of the AFLP patterns revealed a high level of diversity among the strains. Six clusters (clusters I through VI) were delineated at an arbitrary Dice coefficient level of 0.65; clusters III (31 strains) and IV (28 strains) were the largest clusters. More than one-half (52.3%) of the strains obtained from carcass samples, which may have represented the resident carcass population, grouped together in cluster III. By contrast, 43.2% of the strains from most of the equipment surfaces and environmental sources grouped together in cluster IV. In most cases, the clusters in which carcass strains from processing stages grouped corresponded to the clusters in which strains from the associated equipment surfaces and/or environmental sources were found. This provided evidence that there was cross-contamination between carcasses and the abattoir environment at the DNA level. The AFLP data also showed that strains were being disseminated from the beginning to the end of the poultry processing operation, since many strains associated with carcasses at the packaging stage were members of the same clusters as strains obtained from carcasses after the defeathering stage. (+info)
An outbreak of multidrug-resistant, quinolone-resistant Salmonella enterica serotype typhimurium DT104. (8/502)BACKGROUND: Food-borne salmonella infections have become a major problem in industrialized countries. The strain of Salmonella enterica serotype typhimurium known as definitive phage type 104 (DT104) is usually resistant to five drugs: ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulfonamides, and tetracycline. An increasing proportion of DT104 isolates also have reduced susceptibility to fluoroquinolones. METHODS: The Danish salmonella surveillance program determines the phage types of all typhimurium strains from the food chain, and in the case of suspected outbreaks, five-drug-resistant strains are characterized by molecular methods. All patients infected with five-drug-resistant typhimurium are interviewed to obtain clinical and epidemiologic data. In 1998, an outbreak of salmonella occurred, in which the strain of typhimurium DT104 was new to Denmark. We investigated this outbreak and report here our findings. RESULTS: Until 1997, DT104 infections made up less than 1 percent of all human salmonella infections. The strain isolated from patients in the first community outbreak of DT104 in Denmark, in 1998 was resistant to nalidixic acid and had reduced susceptibility to fluoroquinolones. The outbreak included 25 culture-confirmed cases. Eleven patients were hospitalized, and two died. The molecular epidemiology and data from patients indicated that the primary source was a Danish swine herd. Furthermore, the investigation suggested reduced clinical effectiveness of treatment with fluoroquinolones. CONCLUSIONS: Our investigation of an outbreak of DT104 documented the spread of quinolone-resistant bacteria from food animals to humans; this spread was associated with infections that were difficult to treat. Because of the increase in quinolone resistance in salmonella, the use of fluoroquinolones in food animals should be restricted. (+info)
Swine diseases refer to any illness or infection that affects pigs. These diseases can be caused by a variety of factors, including viruses, bacteria, parasites, fungi, and environmental factors. Swine diseases can range from mild to severe and can affect pigs of all ages and sizes. Some common swine diseases include: 1. Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS) 2. Swine Influenza (Swine Flu) 3. Porcine Circovirus Type 2 (PCV2) 4. Porcine Parvovirus (PPV) 5. Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea (PED) 6. Swine Leukosis Virus (SLV) 7. Porcine Dermatitis and Necrosis Syndrome (PDNS) 8. Porcine Enterotoxemia (PED) 9. Porcine Circovirus Type 1 (PCV1) 10. Porcine Circovirus Type 3 (PCV3) Swine diseases can have significant economic impacts on the pork industry, as well as on animal welfare and public health. Therefore, it is important for veterinarians, farmers, and other stakeholders to be aware of the signs and symptoms of swine diseases and to take appropriate measures to prevent and control their spread.
In the medical field, the term "cattle" refers to large domesticated animals that are raised for their meat, milk, or other products. Cattle are a common source of food and are also used for labor in agriculture, such as plowing fields or pulling carts. In veterinary medicine, cattle are often referred to as "livestock" and may be treated for a variety of medical conditions, including diseases, injuries, and parasites. Some common medical issues that may affect cattle include respiratory infections, digestive problems, and musculoskeletal disorders. Cattle may also be used in medical research, particularly in the fields of genetics and agriculture. For example, scientists may study the genetics of cattle to develop new breeds with desirable traits, such as increased milk production or resistance to disease.
Parasitic diseases in animals refer to infections caused by parasites, which are organisms that live on or inside a host organism and obtain nutrients at the host's expense. These parasites can be protozoa, helminths (worms), or arthropods such as ticks and fleas. Parasitic diseases in animals can have a significant impact on animal health and welfare, as well as on human health if the parasites are zoonotic (able to be transmitted from animals to humans). Examples of parasitic diseases in animals include: - Toxoplasmosis, caused by the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii, which can infect a wide range of animals including cats, dogs, livestock, and wildlife. - Roundworm infections, caused by various species of helminths such as Toxocara canis and Toxascaris leonina, which can infect dogs and cats and can be transmitted to humans. - Tapeworm infections, caused by various species of tapeworms such as Dipylidium caninum and Taenia solium, which can infect dogs, cats, and humans. - Flea-borne diseases, such as plague and typhus, which are caused by bacteria transmitted by fleas that feed on infected animals. Treatment of parasitic diseases in animals typically involves the use of antiparasitic drugs, although in some cases, prevention through vaccination or other measures may be more effective. It is important for veterinarians and animal owners to be aware of the risks of parasitic diseases in animals and to take appropriate measures to prevent and control them.
Coxiella is a genus of bacteria that includes the species Coxiella burnetii, which is the causative agent of Q fever. Q fever is a zoonotic disease that can be transmitted to humans through contact with infected animals or their products, such as milk or urine. The bacteria can also be transmitted through inhalation of contaminated dust or aerosols. Q fever can cause a range of symptoms, including fever, cough, fatigue, and muscle aches. In severe cases, it can lead to pneumonia, hepatitis, and other complications. Treatment typically involves antibiotics, and the disease is preventable through vaccination and proper hygiene practices.
I'm sorry, but "Animal Husbandry" is not typically used in the medical field. Animal husbandry refers to the management and care of domesticated animals, such as cows, sheep, pigs, and chickens, for the purpose of producing food, fiber, or other products. It involves breeding, feeding, housing, and caring for animals to ensure their health and productivity. In the medical field, the term "animal models" is used to refer to animals that are used in research to study human diseases and develop new treatments. These animals are carefully selected and bred to have specific characteristics that make them useful for research purposes. Animal models are used to test the safety and efficacy of new drugs and treatments before they are tested on humans.
Cattle diseases refer to any illness or condition that affects cattle, which are domesticated animals commonly raised for meat, milk, and other products. These diseases can be caused by a variety of factors, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites, and environmental conditions. In the medical field, cattle diseases are typically studied and treated by veterinarians who specialize in animal health. Some common cattle diseases include bovine respiratory disease (BRD), Johne's disease, foot-and-mouth disease, and mastitis. These diseases can have significant economic impacts on farmers and the cattle industry, as they can lead to decreased productivity, increased mortality rates, and the need for costly treatments. To prevent and control cattle diseases, veterinarians and farmers may use a variety of strategies, including vaccination, proper nutrition and hygiene, and the use of antibiotics and other medications when necessary. Additionally, monitoring and surveillance efforts are often implemented to detect and respond to outbreaks of new or emerging diseases.
Dictyocaulus infections, also known as lungworm infections, are parasitic infections caused by the nematode worm Dictyocaulus viviparus. These infections are commonly found in sheep, goats, and cattle, but can also affect other animals such as dogs and cats. The adult worms of Dictyocaulus viviparus live in the lungs of infected animals, where they lay eggs that are coughed up and ingested by the animal. The eggs hatch in the animal's stomach and the larvae migrate to the lungs, where they mature into adult worms. Symptoms of Dictyocaulus infections in animals can include coughing, difficulty breathing, weight loss, and decreased milk production in dairy cattle. In severe cases, the infection can lead to pneumonia, bronchitis, and even death. Treatment for Dictyocaulus infections typically involves the use of anthelmintic drugs to kill the adult worms and prevent the development of new infections. Prevention measures include regular deworming of animals, proper sanitation, and avoiding contact with infected animals or their feces.
Tuberculosis, Bovine, also known as bovine tuberculosis (BTB), is a contagious bacterial disease caused by Mycobacterium bovis that primarily affects cattle and other bovids. The disease can also infect humans who come into contact with infected animals or their products. The symptoms of BTB in cattle can vary, but they may include weight loss, poor appetite, lethargy, and the development of nodules or ulcers on the skin, lymph nodes, or internal organs. In severe cases, the disease can be fatal. BTB is primarily spread through the respiratory route, with infected animals exhaling droplets containing the bacteria into the air. The bacteria can also be transmitted through contaminated milk, meat, or other animal products. The diagnosis of BTB in cattle is typically made through a combination of clinical signs, laboratory testing, and post-mortem examination. Treatment options for BTB in cattle are limited, and the disease is often managed through measures such as quarantine, testing, and culling of infected animals. In addition to its impact on animal health, BTB is also a significant public health concern, as it can be transmitted to humans through the consumption of infected meat or dairy products, or through close contact with infected animals.
Campylobacter coli is a type of bacteria that belongs to the Campylobacter genus. It is a common cause of foodborne illness and is often found in raw or undercooked poultry, meat, and eggs. Infection with Campylobacter coli can cause symptoms such as diarrhea, abdominal pain, fever, and nausea. In severe cases, it can lead to complications such as sepsis, meningitis, and Guillain-Barré syndrome. Treatment typically involves supportive care and antibiotics to help the body fight off the infection.
In the medical field, animal welfare refers to the provision of appropriate care and treatment to animals to ensure their physical and mental well-being. This includes ensuring that animals are provided with adequate nutrition, shelter, and medical care, as well as being treated with respect and compassion. Animal welfare is an important consideration in veterinary medicine, as veterinarians are responsible for the health and well-being of animals. In addition, animal welfare is also important in research, where animals are often used as test subjects. In these cases, it is important to ensure that animals are treated humanely and that their welfare is protected. Overall, animal welfare is a fundamental principle in the medical field, and it is important to ensure that animals are treated with the care and respect they deserve.
Campylobacter is a genus of bacteria that are commonly found in the environment, particularly in soil, water, and the feces of animals. In humans, Campylobacter can cause a type of food poisoning called campylobacteriosis, which is typically caused by consuming contaminated food or water. Campylobacteriosis is a common bacterial infection that affects the gastrointestinal tract. Symptoms of campylobacteriosis can include diarrhea, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, fever, and headache. In severe cases, the infection can lead to more serious complications, such as sepsis or Guillain-Barré syndrome. Campylobacter bacteria are typically spread through contaminated food or water, or through contact with infected animals or their feces. The bacteria can survive in the environment for long periods of time, and can be difficult to eliminate from surfaces or objects. Prevention of campylobacteriosis involves practicing good hygiene, such as washing hands thoroughly after using the bathroom or handling raw meat, and cooking food to a safe temperature. In some cases, antibiotics may be prescribed to treat the infection.
"Communicable Diseases, Emerging" refers to infectious diseases that have recently emerged or re-emerged in a population, and for which there is limited understanding or experience in controlling or preventing their spread. These diseases can be caused by new pathogens, changes in the behavior of existing pathogens, or changes in the environment or population dynamics that facilitate their transmission. Emerging communicable diseases can pose a significant public health threat, as they can rapidly spread and cause widespread illness, death, and social disruption. Examples of emerging communicable diseases include Ebola, Zika virus, SARS, and COVID-19. The emergence of these diseases is often linked to factors such as globalization, urbanization, deforestation, climate change, and the movement of people and animals across borders. To control and prevent the spread of emerging communicable diseases, public health officials and healthcare providers must work together to identify and track outbreaks, develop and implement effective prevention and control measures, and provide education and resources to the public. This requires ongoing surveillance, research, and collaboration among healthcare professionals, government agencies, and international organizations.
In the medical field, "Sheep Diseases" refers to a group of illnesses and infections that affect sheep, which are domesticated ruminant mammals. These diseases can be caused by various agents, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. Some common sheep diseases include: 1. Scrapie: a fatal neurodegenerative disease caused by a prion protein. 2. Bluetongue: a viral disease that affects the mouth and tongue of sheep and other ruminants. 3. Foot-and-mouth disease: a highly contagious viral disease that affects the mouth, feet, and udder of sheep and other cloven-hoofed animals. 4. Pneumonia: a respiratory disease caused by bacteria or viruses that can be fatal in severe cases. 5. Eimeriosis: a parasitic disease caused by coccidia that affects the digestive system of sheep. 6. Johne's disease: a chronic bacterial infection that affects the digestive system of sheep and other ruminants. 7. Coccidiosis: a parasitic disease caused by coccidia that affects the digestive system of sheep. 8. Anthrax: a bacterial disease that can affect the skin, respiratory system, and digestive system of sheep. 9. Leptospirosis: a bacterial disease that can affect the kidneys and liver of sheep. 10. Brucellosis: a bacterial disease that can affect the reproductive system of sheep and other ruminants. Prevention and control of sheep diseases are essential to maintain the health and productivity of sheep populations. This can be achieved through vaccination, proper nutrition, hygiene, and management practices.
Echinococcosis is a parasitic infection caused by the tapeworms of the genus Echinococcus. The infection occurs when the eggs of the tapeworm are ingested by a host, typically a mammal, and then develop into adult tapeworms in the host's digestive system. The adult tapeworms lay eggs that are excreted in the host's feces, which can then be ingested by another host, completing the life cycle of the parasite. Echinococcosis can affect humans and other animals, including dogs, sheep, and cattle. The infection can cause a range of symptoms, depending on the location and severity of the infection. In humans, the most common form of echinococcosis is cystic echinococcosis, which occurs when the tapeworm eggs develop into cysts in the liver, lungs, or other organs. Other forms of echinococcosis include alveolar echinococcosis, which affects the liver and lungs, and polycystic echinococcosis, which affects the brain and spinal cord. Echinococcosis is diagnosed through imaging tests, such as ultrasound or CT scans, and through the detection of the parasite's eggs in the host's feces or blood. Treatment for echinococcosis typically involves the use of anti-parasitic medications, surgery to remove cysts or other affected organs, or a combination of both. Prevention of echinococcosis involves avoiding contact with infected animals and their feces, and proper disposal of animal waste.
Occupational diseases are illnesses or injuries that are caused by exposure to hazards or conditions in the workplace. These hazards or conditions can include chemicals, dusts, fumes, radiation, noise, vibration, and physical demands such as repetitive motions or awkward postures. Occupational diseases can affect various systems in the body, including the respiratory system, skin, eyes, ears, cardiovascular system, and nervous system. Examples of occupational diseases include asbestosis, silicosis, coal workers' pneumoconiosis, carpal tunnel syndrome, and hearing loss. Occupational diseases are preventable through proper safety measures and regulations in the workplace. Employers are responsible for providing a safe and healthy work environment for their employees, and workers have the right to report hazards and seek medical attention if they experience any symptoms related to their work.
Q fever is a zoonotic disease caused by the bacterium Coxiella burnetii. It is primarily transmitted to humans through inhalation of contaminated dust or aerosols, or through contact with infected animals or their products. The disease can also be transmitted from mother to fetus during pregnancy. Symptoms of Q fever can vary widely and may include fever, headache, fatigue, muscle aches, and cough. In severe cases, the disease can cause pneumonia, hepatitis, and endocarditis. The disease is usually self-limiting and can be treated with antibiotics, but complications can be serious and may require hospitalization. Q fever is found in many parts of the world, including Europe, Asia, Africa, and Australia. It is most commonly associated with sheep and goats, but can also be found in cattle, pigs, and other animals. Humans can become infected through contact with infected animals or their products, or by inhaling contaminated dust or aerosols.
Paramyxoviridae infections refer to a group of viral infections caused by viruses belonging to the Paramyxoviridae family. This family includes a number of important human and animal pathogens, such as measles virus, mumps virus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), and parainfluenza viruses. Paramyxoviridae infections are characterized by the production of small, nonenveloped viruses with a single-stranded RNA genome. These viruses are able to infect a wide range of hosts, including humans, animals, and birds. They are typically transmitted through respiratory droplets or direct contact with infected individuals or surfaces. Symptoms of paramyxoviridae infections can vary depending on the specific virus causing the infection. Common symptoms include fever, cough, runny nose, sore throat, and body aches. In some cases, more severe symptoms may develop, such as pneumonia, bronchitis, or encephalitis. Treatment for paramyxoviridae infections typically involves supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent complications. In some cases, antiviral medications may be used to help control the infection. Vaccines are also available for some of the viruses in this family, such as measles and mumps.
Campylobacter jejuni is a gram-negative, spiral-shaped bacterium that is commonly found in the intestinal tracts of birds and mammals, including humans. It is one of the most common causes of bacterial food poisoning worldwide, and is often transmitted through contaminated food or water. In humans, Campylobacter jejuni can cause a range of symptoms, including diarrhea, abdominal pain, fever, nausea, and vomiting. In some cases, the infection can lead to more serious complications, such as reactive arthritis, Guillain-Barré syndrome, and meningitis. Diagnosis of Campylobacter jejuni typically involves stool culture and identification using specialized laboratory techniques. Treatment typically involves supportive care, such as rehydration and electrolyte replacement, and may also include antibiotics in severe cases. Prevention measures include proper food handling and cooking, as well as avoiding cross-contamination in the kitchen.
Agricultural Workers' Diseases refers to a group of health conditions that are commonly associated with work in agriculture. These conditions can be caused by exposure to various hazards in the agricultural environment, such as pesticides, fertilizers, dust, and other chemicals. Some of the most common Agricultural Workers' Diseases include: 1. Pesticide Poisoning: Exposure to pesticides can cause a range of symptoms, including nausea, vomiting, headaches, dizziness, and in severe cases, respiratory failure. 2. Respiratory Diseases: Agricultural workers are at risk of developing respiratory diseases due to exposure to dust, fumes, and other irritants. These diseases can include asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and silicosis. 3. Skin Diseases: Agricultural workers are also at risk of developing skin diseases due to exposure to pesticides, fertilizers, and other chemicals. These diseases can include dermatitis, eczema, and skin cancer. 4. Heat Stress: Agricultural workers are often exposed to high temperatures and humidity, which can lead to heat stress and heat exhaustion. 5. Musculoskeletal Disorders: Agricultural workers are at risk of developing musculoskeletal disorders due to the physical demands of their work, such as lifting heavy objects and repetitive motions. 6. Infectious Diseases: Agricultural workers are at risk of developing infectious diseases due to exposure to animals and contaminated water sources. These diseases can include tetanus, hepatitis B, and leptospirosis. Overall, Agricultural Workers' Diseases are a significant public health concern, and efforts are being made to reduce exposure to these hazards and improve the health and safety of agricultural workers.
Salmonella infections in animals refer to a group of bacterial infections caused by the Salmonella species, which are commonly found in the intestines of animals such as birds, reptiles, and mammals. These infections can be transmitted to humans through direct contact with infected animals or their environment, or through the consumption of contaminated food products. Salmonella infections in animals can cause a range of clinical signs, depending on the species and strain of the bacteria involved. In some cases, animals may show no signs of illness at all, while in others, they may develop symptoms such as diarrhea, fever, abdominal pain, and loss of appetite. In severe cases, Salmonella infections can lead to systemic illness and even death. In humans, Salmonella infections can also cause a range of symptoms, including fever, diarrhea, abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting. In some cases, the infection can spread to other parts of the body, such as the bloodstream or the joints, leading to more serious complications. Prevention of Salmonella infections in animals involves proper hygiene and sanitation practices, such as regular cleaning and disinfection of animal housing and equipment, proper handling and cooking of food products, and vaccination of animals where appropriate. In humans, prevention involves practicing good hygiene, such as washing hands thoroughly after handling animals or their environment, and avoiding cross-contamination of food and surfaces.
Campylobacter infections are a type of bacterial infection caused by the Campylobacter bacteria. These bacteria are commonly found in the feces of birds and other animals, and can be transmitted to humans through contaminated food or water, or through contact with infected animals or their feces. Symptoms of Campylobacter infections can include diarrhea, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, fever, and headache. In some cases, the infection can also cause more serious complications, such as sepsis or meningitis. Treatment for Campylobacter infections typically involves the use of antibiotics to kill the bacteria. In most cases, the infection can be successfully treated and the symptoms will resolve on their own within a few days to a week. However, in some cases, the infection can be more severe and may require hospitalization. Prevention of Campylobacter infections involves practicing good hygiene, such as washing your hands thoroughly after using the bathroom or handling raw meat, and cooking food thoroughly to kill any bacteria that may be present. It is also important to avoid drinking untreated water and to avoid close contact with animals or their feces.
Polyradiculoneuropathy is a medical condition that affects the peripheral nervous system, which is responsible for transmitting signals from the brain and spinal cord to the rest of the body. It is characterized by inflammation and damage to the nerve roots, which can lead to pain, weakness, and numbness in the affected areas. There are several types of polyradiculoneuropathy, including acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (AIDP), chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP), and hereditary polyradiculoneuropathy. AIDP is the most common type and is typically caused by an autoimmune response, while CIDP is a chronic condition that can be caused by an autoimmune response or an underlying medical condition. Hereditary polyradiculoneuropathy is a genetic disorder that is passed down from parents to children. Treatment for polyradiculoneuropathy depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the symptoms. In some cases, medications such as corticosteroids or immunosuppressants may be used to reduce inflammation and slow the progression of the disease. Physical therapy and other supportive measures may also be recommended to help manage symptoms and improve function.
I'm sorry, but "Abattoirs" is not typically used in the medical field. It is a term that refers to facilities where animals are slaughtered for food. In the medical field, the term "slaughterhouse" may be used to describe a similar type of facility, but it is not commonly used in this context. If you have a specific medical question or concern, I would be happy to try to help you. Please let me know how I can assist you.
In the medical field, "Colony Count, Microbial" refers to the process of counting the number of colonies of microorganisms that have grown on a culture plate. This is a common laboratory technique used to determine the concentration or density of microorganisms in a sample. To perform a colony count, a sample is typically taken from a patient or an environmental source and then cultured on a nutrient-rich agar plate. The plate is incubated for a specific period of time to allow the microorganisms to grow and form colonies. The colonies are then counted and the results are expressed in colony-forming units (CFUs) per milliliter or per gram of the original sample. The colony count can be used to diagnose infections caused by microorganisms, to monitor the effectiveness of antimicrobial treatments, and to assess the quality of food and water. It is an important tool in the field of microbiology and is used in a variety of settings, including hospitals, laboratories, and research facilities.
Bacterial typing techniques are methods used to identify and classify bacteria based on their characteristics, such as their shape, size, and genetic makeup. These techniques are important in the medical field because they help healthcare professionals to identify the specific type of bacteria causing an infection and to determine the most effective treatment for that infection. There are several different bacterial typing techniques, including: 1. Serotyping: This technique involves identifying the specific proteins on the surface of bacteria, called antigens, which can be used to distinguish one strain of bacteria from another. 2. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE): This technique involves separating bacterial DNA into fragments of different sizes using an electric field, and then comparing the patterns of these fragments to determine the genetic relatedness of different strains of bacteria. 3. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST): This technique involves sequencing specific regions of bacterial DNA and comparing the sequences to determine the genetic relatedness of different strains of bacteria. 4. Antibiotic susceptibility testing: This technique involves testing bacteria to determine their sensitivity to different antibiotics, which can help healthcare professionals to choose the most effective treatment for a particular infection. Overall, bacterial typing techniques are important tools in the diagnosis and treatment of bacterial infections, and they play a critical role in the development of new antibiotics and other treatments for bacterial diseases.
In the medical field, "chickens" typically refers to the domesticated bird species Gallus gallus domesticus. Chickens are commonly raised for their meat, eggs, and feathers, and are also used in research and as pets. In veterinary medicine, chickens can be treated for a variety of health conditions, including diseases such as avian influenza, Newcastle disease, and fowl pox. They may also require treatment for injuries or trauma, such as broken bones or cuts. In human medicine, chickens are not typically used as a source of treatment or therapy. However, some research has been conducted using chicken cells or proteins as models for human diseases or as potential sources of vaccines or other medical interventions.
Pneumonia is a respiratory infection that affects the lungs. It is caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungi, and can be acute or chronic. Symptoms of pneumonia include cough, fever, chest pain, difficulty breathing, and fatigue. Pneumonia can be treated with antibiotics, antiviral medication, or antifungal medication, depending on the cause of the infection. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary.
Escherichia coli (E. coli) infections refer to illnesses caused by the bacterium Escherichia coli. E. coli is a common type of bacteria that is found in the gut of humans and animals. Most strains of E. coli are harmless and even beneficial to our health, but some strains can cause illness. E. coli infections can be classified into several types, including: 1. Foodborne illness: This type of infection occurs when a person consumes contaminated food or water that contains E. coli bacteria. Symptoms may include diarrhea, abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting. 2. Urinary tract infection (UTI): E. coli bacteria can enter the urinary tract through the urethra and cause an infection. Symptoms may include a strong, persistent urge to urinate, pain or burning during urination, and cloudy or strong-smelling urine. 3. Bloodstream infection (sepsis): In rare cases, E. coli bacteria can enter the bloodstream and cause a serious infection called sepsis. Symptoms may include fever, chills, rapid heartbeat, and confusion. 4. Infections in other parts of the body: E. coli bacteria can also cause infections in other parts of the body, such as the abdomen, skin, and joints. Treatment for E. coli infections typically involves antibiotics, although some strains of E. coli are becoming resistant to antibiotics. Prevention measures include proper hand hygiene, safe food handling and preparation, and avoiding contaminated water.
In the medical field, the term "animal feed" typically refers to the food and other substances that are provided to animals for their nutrition and health. This can include a variety of different types of feed, such as grains, hay, silage, concentrates, and supplements, depending on the type of animal and its specific nutritional needs. Animal feed is an important aspect of animal husbandry and veterinary medicine, as it can have a significant impact on the health and productivity of animals. Proper nutrition is essential for maintaining optimal health and preventing a range of health problems, such as malnutrition, obesity, and digestive disorders. In addition to providing essential nutrients, animal feed can also be used to prevent or treat certain health conditions. For example, feed supplements containing vitamins and minerals can help to prevent deficiencies, while feed additives containing probiotics or prebiotics can help to promote gut health and prevent digestive problems. Overall, animal feed plays a critical role in the health and well-being of animals, and is an important consideration for veterinarians, farmers, and other animal care professionals.
Body composition refers to the proportion of different types of tissue in the human body, including fat, muscle, bone, and water. It is an important measure of overall health and can be used to assess changes in weight and body shape over time. In the medical field, body composition is often measured using various techniques such as dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), and skinfold measurements. These methods can provide information about an individual's body fat percentage, lean body mass, and bone density, which can be used to diagnose and monitor a variety of medical conditions, including obesity, osteoporosis, and metabolic disorders.
DNA, Bacterial refers to the genetic material of bacteria, which is a type of single-celled microorganism that can be found in various environments, including soil, water, and the human body. Bacterial DNA is typically circular in shape and contains genes that encode for the proteins necessary for the bacteria to survive and reproduce. In the medical field, bacterial DNA is often studied as a means of identifying and diagnosing bacterial infections. Bacterial DNA can be extracted from samples such as blood, urine, or sputum and analyzed using techniques such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or DNA sequencing. This information can be used to identify the specific type of bacteria causing an infection and to determine the most effective treatment. Bacterial DNA can also be used in research to study the evolution and diversity of bacteria, as well as their interactions with other organisms and the environment. Additionally, bacterial DNA can be modified or manipulated to create genetically engineered bacteria with specific properties, such as the ability to produce certain drugs or to degrade pollutants.
Antibodies, Bacterial are proteins produced by the immune system in response to bacterial infections. They are also known as bacterial antibodies or bacterial immunoglobulins. These antibodies are specific to bacterial antigens, which are molecules found on the surface of bacteria that trigger an immune response. When the immune system detects a bacterial infection, it produces antibodies that bind to the bacterial antigens and mark them for destruction by other immune cells. This helps to neutralize the bacteria and prevent them from causing harm to the body. Bacterial antibodies can be detected in the blood or other bodily fluids using laboratory tests. These tests are often used to diagnose bacterial infections and to monitor the effectiveness of antibiotic treatments.
Bacteria are single-celled microorganisms that are found in almost every environment on Earth, including soil, water, and the human body. In the medical field, bacteria are often studied and classified based on their characteristics, such as their shape, size, and genetic makeup. Bacteria can be either beneficial or harmful to humans. Some bacteria are essential for human health, such as the bacteria that live in the gut and help digest food. However, other bacteria can cause infections and diseases, such as strep throat, pneumonia, and meningitis. In the medical field, bacteria are often identified and treated using a variety of methods, including culturing and identifying bacteria using specialized laboratory techniques, administering antibiotics to kill harmful bacteria, and using vaccines to prevent bacterial infections.
Anti-bacterial agents, also known as antibiotics, are medications that are used to treat bacterial infections. They work by killing or inhibiting the growth of bacteria, thereby preventing the spread of the infection. There are several types of anti-bacterial agents, including: 1. Penicillins: These are the first antibiotics discovered and are effective against a wide range of bacteria. 2. Cephalosporins: These are similar to penicillins and are effective against many of the same types of bacteria. 3. Macrolides: These antibiotics are effective against bacteria that are resistant to other antibiotics. 4. Tetracyclines: These antibiotics are effective against a wide range of bacteria and are often used to treat acne. 5. Fluoroquinolones: These antibiotics are effective against a wide range of bacteria and are often used to treat respiratory infections. It is important to note that antibiotics are only effective against bacterial infections and are not effective against viral infections such as the common cold or flu. Additionally, overuse or misuse of antibiotics can lead to the development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, which can be more difficult to treat.
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- The Brighton Abattoir was a slaughterhouse located in Brighton, Boston. (wikipedia.org)
- The omission of the slaughterhouse, or abattoir, from this narrative leads to questions about the relationships between modernism and death, as Dean engages with one such site and its entanglements with fundamental questions of humanity. (thepowerplant.org)
- The name Abattoir (French for "slaughterhouse") may not suggest a refined dining experience, but the restaurant boasts a hip, low-key atmosphere and compelling cuisine that will please carnivores with adventurous tastes. (nique.net)
- An abattoir is a slaughterhouse. (philipschuessler.com)
Sheep Abattoir Equipment1
- Make sure to check out our cattle abattoir equipment or sheep abattoir equipment for further needs. (hatziioakimidis.gr)
- The standard includes animal welfare requirements from the time animals arrive at the abattoir to the point of slaughter. (rspca.org.au)
- Hatziioakimidis offers pig slaughter lines and pig abattoir equipment with the highest added value to the end-product while improving quality. (hatziioakimidis.gr)
- in cattle at slaughter in Morogoro Municipality abattoir. (bvsalud.org)
- The company Abattoir intends to build an entirely new abattoir in Anderlecht by 2023, in place of the current premises. (brusselstimes.com)
- On February 4, 2023, the Uganda National Public Health Emergency Operations Center was notified of a suspected viral hemorrhagic fever case in a male abattoir worker and meat roaster aged 42 years from Mbarara City, the second largest city in Uganda. (cdc.gov)
- Sheep and lambs in livestock truck being trucked to the works (abattoir) or new farms, New Zealand (NZ). (naturespic.com)
- Cases were linked to six cattle farms and three abattoirs in the affected areas. (cdc.gov)
- Study: This cross-sectional study took place in Sarawak, Malaysia among 11 pig farms, 2 abattoirs, and 3 animal markets in June and July of 2017. (cdc.gov)
- Abattoirs must also comply with the Australian standard for the hygienic production and transport of meat and meat products for human consumption , while poultry processors must comply with the Australian standard for the construction of premises and hygienic production of poultry meat for human consumption . (rspca.org.au)
- During the study period a total of 30;713 cattle were slaughtered and inspected at the abattoir. (bvsalud.org)
- An abattoir is a facility that slaughters animals to produce meat and meat products for human consumption. (rspca.org.au)
- Animal welfare regulation at Australian abattoirs and poultry processors occurs through two main sets of legislation: food safety or meat production legislation and animal welfare legislation. (rspca.org.au)
- This voluntary scheme, which is jointly owned by the Australian Meat Industry Council (AMIC) and the Australian Meat Processor Corporation (AMPC), allows abattoirs to demonstrate compliance with the industry's animal welfare standards through annual audits conducted by AUS-MEAT Limited. (rspca.org.au)
- The abattoir, processing, packing and export facility is proposed to incorporate the latest and most advanced technologies used in meat processing plants, including the incorporation of robotic systems," he said. (beefcentral.com)
- Abattoir Fresh is Nigeria's leading online meat shop. (abattoirfresh.com)
- For example, a former outbreak occurred at an ostrich abattoir in South Africa. (who.int)
- How is animal welfare regulated at Australian abattoirs and poultry processors? (rspca.org.au)
- In Australia, abattoirs and poultry processors are required to be licensed by their state or territory regulatory authority. (rspca.org.au)
- Unlike abattoirs, poultry processors in Australia do not have an equivalent industry-based certification system such as the Australian Animal Welfare Certification System. (rspca.org.au)
- Domestic abattoirs and poultry processors have no requirement for an On-Plant Veterinarian, and animal welfare considerations and auditing frequency vary depending on the jurisdiction. (rspca.org.au)
- This means animal welfare at domestic abattoirs and poultry processors may vary significantly compared with export abattoirs. (rspca.org.au)
- Public Health Unit staff also recalled interviewing in late 2014 at least one other Q fever case who worked at the same abattoir. (who.int)
- Field investigation identified multiple potential risk factors at the abattoir, and the majority (75%) of employees were not vaccinated against Q fever despite this high-risk setting. (who.int)
- Conclusion: This cluster of Q fever in a single abattoir confirms the significance of this zoonotic disease as an occupational hazard among persons working in high-risk environments. (who.int)
- Abattoirs meeting the standard may be eligible to be a part of the Australian livestock processing industry's Australian Animal Welfare Certification System . (rspca.org.au)
- The Australian Government regulates abattoirs exporting product overseas whereas state and territory governments regulate abattoirs supplying only the domestic market. (rspca.org.au)
- Chronological History of Australian abattoirs and meatworks. (australianabattoirs.com)
- The proposal is for an abattoir and rendering facility at 436 Grassy Road Nugara, King Island, on the site of the former Huxley Hill abattoir that operated during 2008. (tas.gov.au)
- By listing your business in the Abattoir Machinery & Equipment Oxley Business directory, you will become visible to these internet users who use search engines to find businesses. (businesslistingnow.com)
- However, identical viruses sometimes were from samples collected 1 month apart, such as SA2557 and SA2626, or 3 months apart, such as SA2199, SA2159, and SA2247, suggesting reintroduction of viruses from the same herd or area into the abattoir at different times. (cdc.gov)
- A spokesman for the abattoir told the Belga press agency, "We will thus be able to operate the current large abattoir area in a more efficient way. (brusselstimes.com)
- In the South African Abattoir Wastewater (SAAW) project multiple high- and low-throughput abattoirs processing different food-producing animals will be sampled. (helsinki.fi)
- AN AMBITIOUS new greenfield export abattoir project has been floated for the Gladstone region in coastal Central Queensland. (beefcentral.com)
- Once your business is listed on Abattoir Machinery & Equipment Oxley Business directory, customers will be able to easily find your name and thereafter locate your website. (businesslistingnow.com)
- Abattoir Machinery & Equipment Oxley Business directory is therefore the only name you can trust if you want your business to grow. (businesslistingnow.com)
- Sorry to say we could not find any listing under Abattoir Machinery & Equipment , Oxley business directory listings. (businesslistingnow.com)
- A comprehensive range of equipment specifically designed for sheep abattoirs from AES Food Equipment ensures top-tier efficiency. (aesfoodequipment.com)
- Reliable abattoir equipment for sheep from AES Food Equipment ensures humane and precise processing. (aesfoodequipment.com)
- A town planning report submitted earlier to Gladstone Regional Council proposes the construction of an abattoir, processing and renewable energy facility on a site on Mt Larcom Station at nearby Aldoga. (beefcentral.com)
- In addition to food safety legislation, abattoirs comply with their state or territory animal welfare legislation. (rspca.org.au)
- Dissolved oxygen concentrations ranged between 0.01 and 4.6 mg L -1 while the highest concentrations of TSS and TS of 1026 and 1071.5 mg L -1 , respectively were obtained at the point of abattoir effluents discharge. (scialert.net)
- Results of analyses revealed impairment in the quality of River Illo by the wash down from the abattoir activities. (scialert.net)
- A pedestrian, right, looks on as this BMW is stalled in the floodwater at Abattoir Road, Port of Spain. (co.tt)
- THE MINISTRY of Works and Transport will continue to pump out the water currently covering parts of Abattoir Road, Port of Spain, until a permanent solution can be achieved. (co.tt)
- Ronald Alfred, deputy permanent secretary and director of Maritime Services at the Ministry of Works and Transport, spoke with Newsday about Abattoir Road on Tuesday. (co.tt)
- Abattoir Road has seen water levels rise to almost impassable levels since last Wednesday, owing to the frequent and sometimes prolonged rain, with water backed up because the drains are clogged. (co.tt)
- Alfred said the main issue was the blockage of drains running along the Eastern Main Road, which carry water across the Priority Bus Route, under the Central Market, to a pumphouse at Abattoir Road. (co.tt)
- les Abattoirs (in French). (wikipedia.org)
- Export abattoirs are required to have an On-Plant Veterinarian (who is an employee of the Department) present during processing, meet standard operating procedures relevant to animal welfare, and have audits at least biannually. (rspca.org.au)
- Abattoir also has a full bar featuring a number of craft beers and a wide selection of wines. (nique.net)
- Les Abattoirs keep approximately 3,880 works and objects of all origins. (wikipedia.org)
- The abattoir will process approximately 900 tonnes of carcasses per year, with a batch rendering capacity of 2,500 kg per batch. (tas.gov.au)
- Official website Wikimedia Commons has media related to Les Abattoirs. (wikipedia.org)
- To find out more about export abattoirs regulation click here . (rspca.org.au)
- Official veterinarians will have unrestricted access to footage from abattoirs and ensure that high welfare standards are being followed. (vegantradejournal.com)
- The aim of this research was to assess the impact of abattoir effluents on River Illo in Ota, Nigeria. (scialert.net)