A Kinase Anchor Proteins: A structurally-diverse family of intracellular-signaling adaptor proteins that selectively tether specific protein kinase A subtypes to distinct subcellular sites. They play a role in focusing the PROTEIN KINASE A activity toward relevant substrates. Over fifty members of this family exist, most of which bind specifically to regulatory subunits of CYCLIC AMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE TYPE II such as CAMP PROTEIN KINASE RIIALPHA or CAMP PROTEIN KINASE RIIBETA.Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase RIIbeta Subunit: A type II cAMP-dependent protein kinase regulatory subunit that plays a role in confering CYCLIC AMP activation of protein kinase activity. It has a lower affinity for cAMP than the CYCLIC-AMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE RIIALPHA SUBUNIT. Binding of this subunit by A KINASE ANCHOR PROTEINS may play a role in the cellular localization of type II protein kinase A.Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase RIIalpha Subunit: A type II cAMP-dependent protein kinase regulatory subunit that plays a role in confering CYCLIC AMP activation of protein kinase activity. It has a higher affinity for cAMP than that of the CYCLIC-AMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE RIIBETA SUBUNIT. Binding of this subunit by A KINASE ANCHOR PROTEINS may play a role in the cellular localization of type II protein kinase A.Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases: A group of enzymes that are dependent on CYCLIC AMP and catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues on proteins. Included under this category are two cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase subtypes, each of which is defined by its subunit composition.Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing: A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymesCarrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Type II: A cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase subtype primarily found in particulate subcellular fractions. They are tetrameric proteins that contain two catalytic subunits and two type II-specific regulatory subunits.Salivary alpha-Amylases: A subclass of alpha-amylase ISOENZYMES that are secreted into SALIVA.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Seminal Plasma Proteins: Proteins found in SEMEN. Major seminal plasma proteins are secretory proteins from the male sex accessory glands, such as the SEMINAL VESICLES and the PROSTATE. They include the seminal vesicle-specific antigen, an ejaculate clotting protein; and the PROSTATE-SPECIFIC ANTIGEN, a protease and an esterase.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases: Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.MAP Kinase Signaling System: An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Protein Kinases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Peptidomimetics: Compounds that are designed to mimic the 3D structure of a natural peptide or protein.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)DNA Damage: Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.Dictionaries, MedicalDictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.Glycosylphosphatidylinositols: Compounds containing carbohydrate or glycosyl groups linked to phosphatidylinositols. They anchor GPI-LINKED PROTEINS or polysaccharides to cell membranes.Endocytosis: Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Jurkat Cells: A CELL LINE derived from human T-CELL LEUKEMIA and used to determine the mechanism of differential susceptibility to anti-cancer drugs and radiation.Caveolae: Endocytic/exocytic CELL MEMBRANE STRUCTURES rich in glycosphingolipids, cholesterol, and lipid-anchored membrane proteins that function in ENDOCYTOSIS (potocytosis), transcytosis, and SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Caveolae assume various shapes from open pits to closed vesicles. Caveolar coats are composed of CAVEOLINS.Nystatin: Macrolide antifungal antibiotic complex produced by Streptomyces noursei, S. aureus, and other Streptomyces species. The biologically active components of the complex are nystatin A1, A2, and A3.Gleditsia: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE that contains gleditsiosides (triterpenoid SAPONINS).Protein Kinase C: An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases: A CALMODULIN-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of proteins. This enzyme is also sometimes dependent on CALCIUM. A wide range of proteins can act as acceptor, including VIMENTIN; SYNAPSINS; GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE; MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS; and the MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p277)Mevinphos: An organophosphate cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an insecticide.Immunological Synapses: The interfaces between T-CELLS and ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS. Supramolecular organization of proteins takes place at these synapses involving various types of immune cells. Immunological synapses can have several functions including LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION; enhancing, balancing, or terminating signaling; or directing cytokine secretion.G-Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase 2: A ubiquitously expressed G-protein-coupled receptor kinase subtype that has specificity for the agonist-occupied form of BETA-ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS. It may play an essential role in regulating myocardial contractile response.G-Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinases: A family of serine-threonine kinases that are specific for G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS. They are regulatory proteins that play a role in G-protein-coupled receptor densensitization.beta-Adrenergic Receptor Kinases: G-protein-coupled receptor kinases that mediate agonist-dependent PHOSPHORYLATION and desensitization of BETA-ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS.G-Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase 5: A G-protein-coupled receptor kinase subtype that is primarily expressed in the MYOCARDIUM and may play a role in the regulation of cardiac functions.G-Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase 3: A ubiquitously expressed G-protein-coupled receptor kinase subtype that has specificity for the agonist-occupied form of BETA-ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS and a variety of other G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS. Although it is highly homologous to G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTOR KINASE 2, it is not considered to play an essential role in regulating myocardial contractile response.Mitochondrial Proteins: Proteins encoded by the mitochondrial genome or proteins encoded by the nuclear genome that are imported to and resident in the MITOCHONDRIA.Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3: A glycogen synthase kinase that was originally described as a key enzyme involved in glycogen metabolism. It regulates a diverse array of functions such as CELL DIVISION, microtubule function and APOPTOSIS.Glycogen Synthase Kinases: A class of protein-serine-threonine kinases that was originally found as one of the three types of kinases that phosphorylate GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE. Glycogen synthase kinases along with CA(2+)-CALMODULIN DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES and CYCLIC AMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES regulate glycogen synthase activity.Glycogen Synthase: An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of D-glucose from UDPglucose into 1,4-alpha-D-glucosyl chains. EC 188.8.131.52.GlycogenPolymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Alice in Wonderland Syndrome: Neurological condition characterized by disturbances in VISUAL PERCEPTION, most often of BODY SCHEMA, TIME PERCEPTION and HALLUCINATIONS. It is associated with MIGRAINE, infections (e.g., INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS), FEVER, EPILEPSY, and other neurological and psychiatric disorders.Haplotypes: The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.
The type and the localization of cAMP-dependent protein kinase regulate transmission of cAMP signals to the nucleus in cortical and cerebellar granule cells. (1/496)cAMP signals are received and transmitted by multiple isoforms of cAMP-dependent protein kinases, typically determined by their specific regulatory subunits. In the brain the major regulatory isoform RIIbeta and the RII-anchor protein, AKAP150 (rat) or 75 (bovine), are differentially expressed. Cortical neurons express RIIbeta and AKAP75; conversely, granule cerebellar cells express predominantly RIalpha and RIIalpha. Cortical neurons accumulate PKA catalytic subunit and phosphorylated cAMP responsive element binding protein very efficiently into nuclei upon cAMP induction, whereas granule cerebellar cells fail to do so. Down-regulation of RIIbeta synthesis by antisense oligonucleotides inhibited cAMP-induced nuclear signaling in cortical neurons. Expression in cerebellar granule cells of RIIbeta and AKAP75 genes by microinjection of specific expression vectors, markedly stimulated cAMP-induced transcription of the lacZ gene driven by a cAMP-responsive element promoter. These data indicate that the composition of PKA in cortical and granule cells underlies the differential ability of these cells to transmit cAMP signals to the nucleus. (+info)
Cloning and characterization of a cDNA encoding an A-kinase anchoring protein located in the centrosome, AKAP450. (2/496)A combination of protein kinase A type II (RII) overlay screening, database searches and PCR was used to identify a centrosomal A-kinase anchoring protein. A cDNA with an 11.7 kb open reading frame was characterized and found to correspond to 50 exons of genomic sequence on human chromosome 7q21-22. This cDNA clone encoded a 3908 amino acid protein of 453 kDa, that was designated AKAP450 (DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank accession No. AJ131693). Sequence comparison demonstrated that the open reading frame contained a previously characterized cDNA encoding Yotiao, as well as the human homologue of AKAP120. Numerous coiled-coil structures were predicted from AKAP450, and weak homology to pericentrin, giantin and other structural proteins was observed. A putative RII-binding site was identified involving amino acid 2556 of AKAP450 by mutation analysis combined with RII overlay and an amphipatic helix was predicted in this region. Immunoprecipitation of RII from RIPA-buffer extracts of HeLa cells demonstrated co-precipitation of AKAP450. By immunofluorecent labeling with specific antibodies it was demonstrated that AKAP450 localized to centrosomes. Furthermore, AKAP450 was shown to co-purify in centrosomal preparations. The observation of two mRNAs and several splice products suggests additional functions for the AKAP450 gene. (+info)
Association of the type 1 protein phosphatase PP1 with the A-kinase anchoring protein AKAP220. (3/496)The cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase (PKA) and the type 1 protein phosphatase (PP1) are broad-specificity signaling enzymes with opposing actions that catalyze changes in the phosphorylation state of cellular proteins. Subcellular targeting to the vicinity of preferred substrates is a means of restricting the specificity of each enzyme  . Compartmentalization of the PKA holoenzyme is mediated through association of the regulatory subunits with A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs), whereas a diverse family of phosphatase-targeting subunits directs the location of the PP1 catalytic subunit (PP1c)  . Here, we demonstrate that the PKA-anchoring protein, AKAP220, binds PP1c with a dissociation constant (KD) of 12.1 +/- 4 nM in vitro. Immunoprecipitation of PP1 from cell extracts resulted in a 10.4 +/- 3.8-fold enrichment of PKA activity. AKAP220 co-purified with PP1c by affinity chromatography on microcystin sepharos Immunocytochemical analysis demonstrated that the kinase, the phosphatase and the anchoring protein had distinct but overlapping staining patterns in rat hippocampal neurons. Collectively, these results provide the first evidence that AKAP220 is a multivalent anchoring protein that maintains a signaling scaffold of PP1 and the PKA holoenzyme. (+info)
NH2-Terminal targeting motifs direct dual specificity A-kinase-anchoring protein 1 (D-AKAP1) to either mitochondria or endoplasmic reticulum. (4/496)Subcellular localization directed by specific targeting motifs is an emerging theme for regulating signal transduction pathways. For cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), this is achieved primarily by its association with A-kinase-anchoring proteins (AKAPs). Dual specificity AKAP1, (D-AKAP1) binds to both type I and type II regulatory subunits and has two NH2-terminal (N0 and N1) and two COOH-terminal (C1 and C2) splice variants (. J. Biol. Chem. 272:8057). Here we report that the splice variants of D-AKAP1 are expressed in a tissue-specific manner with the NH2-terminal motifs serving as switches to localize D-AKAP1 at different sites. Northern blots showed that the N1 splice is expressed primarily in liver, while the C1 splice is predominant in testis. The C2 splice shows a general expression pattern. Microinjecting expression constructs of D-AKAP1(N0) epitope-tagged at either the NH2 or the COOH terminus showed their localization to the mitochondria based on immunocytochemistry. Deletion of N0(1-30) abolished mitochondrial targeting while N0(1-30)-GFP localized to mitochondria. Residues 1-30 of N0 are therefore necessary and sufficient for mitochondria targeting. Addition of the 33 residues of N1 targets D-AKAP1 to the ER and residues 1-63 fused to GFP are necessary and sufficient for ER targeting. Residues 14-33 of N1 are especially important for targeting to ER; however, residues 1-33 alone fused to GFP gave a diffuse distribution. N1(14-33) thus serves two functions: (a) it suppresses the mitochondrial-targeting motif located within residues 1-30 of N0 and (b) it exposes an ER-targeting motif that is at least partially contained within the N0(1-30) motif. This represents the first example of a differentially targeted AKAP and adds an additional level of complexity to the PKA signaling network. (+info)
Characterization of a novel giant scaffolding protein, CG-NAP, that anchors multiple signaling enzymes to centrosome and the golgi apparatus. (5/496)A novel 450-kDa coiled-coil protein, CG-NAP (centrosome and Golgi localized PKN-associated protein), was identified as a protein that interacted with the regulatory region of the protein kinase PKN, having a catalytic domain homologous to that of protein kinase C. CG-NAP contains two sets of putative RII (regulatory subunit of protein kinase A)-binding motif. Indeed, CG-NAP tightly bound to RIIalpha in HeLa cells. Furthermore, CG-NAP was coimmunoprecipitated with the catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), when one of the B subunit of PP2A (PR130) was exogenously expressed in COS7 cells. CG-NAP also interacted with the catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase 1 in HeLa cells. Immunofluorescence analysis of HeLa cells revealed that CG-NAP was localized to centrosome throughout the cell cycle, the midbody at telophase, and the Golgi apparatus at interphase, where a certain population of PKN and RIIalpha were found to be accumulated. These data indicate that CG-NAP serves as a novel scaffolding protein that assembles several protein kinases and phosphatases on centrosome and the Golgi apparatus, where physiological events, such as cell cycle progression and intracellular membrane traffic, may be regulated by phosphorylation state of specific protein substrates. (+info)
Regulation of NMDA receptors by an associated phosphatase-kinase signaling complex. (6/496)Regulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor activity by kinases and phosphatases contributes to the modulation of synaptic transmission. Targeting of these enzymes near the substrate is proposed to enhance phosphorylation-dependent modulation. Yotiao, an NMDA receptor-associated protein, bound the type I protein phosphatase (PP1) and the adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase (PKA) holoenzyme. Anchored PP1 was active, limiting channel activity, whereas PKA activation overcame constitutive PP1 activity and conferred rapid enhancement of NMDA receptor currents. Hence, yotiao is a scaffold protein that physically attaches PP1 and PKA to NMDA receptors to regulate channel activity. (+info)
Conservation and function of a bovine sperm A-kinase anchor protein homologous to mouse AKAP82. (7/496)Protein kinase A regulates sperm motility through the cAMP-dependent phosphorylation of proteins. One mechanism to direct the activity of the kinase is to localize it near its protein substrates through the use of anchoring proteins. A-Kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs) act by binding the type II regulatory subunit of protein kinase A and tethering it to a cellular organelle or cytoskeletal element. We showed previously that mAKAP82, the major protein of the fibrous sheath of the mouse sperm flagellum, is an AKAP. The available evidence indicates that protein kinase A is compartmentalized to the fibrous sheath by binding mAKAP82. To characterize AKAP82 in bovine sperm, a testicular cDNA library was constructed and used to isolate a clone encoding bAKAP82, the bovine homologue. Sequence analysis showed that the primary structure of bAKAP82 was highly conserved. In particular, the amino acid sequence corresponding to the region of mAKAP82 responsible for binding the regulatory subunit of protein kinase A was identical in the bull. Bovine AKAP82 was present in both epididymal and ejaculated sperm and was localized to the entire principal piece of the flagellum, the region in which the fibrous sheath is located. Finally, bAKAP82 bound the regulatory subunit of protein kinase A. These data support the idea that bAKAP82 functions as an anchoring protein for the subcellular localization of protein kinase A in the flagellum. (+info)
mAKAP: an A-kinase anchoring protein targeted to the nuclear membrane of differentiated myocytes. (8/496)The compartmentalization of second messenger-activated protein kinases contributes to the fidelity of hormone-mediated signal transduction events. For example, the cAMP-dependent protein kinase is tethered at specific intracellular locations through association with A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs). We now report the cloning of mAKAP, an anchoring protein found predominantly in heart, skeletal muscle and brain, and whose expression is induced in neonatal ventriculocytes by treatment with hypertrophic stimuli. mAKAP is targeted to the nuclear membrane of differentiated myocytes. Analysis of mAKAP-green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion constructs revealed that nuclear membrane targeting is conferred by two regions of the protein, between residues 772-915 and 915-1065, which contain spectrin-like repeat sequences. Heterologous expression of the mAKAP targeting sequences displaced the endogenous anchoring protein from the nuclear membrane, demonstrating that mAKAP targeting is saturable. Collectively, these data suggest that a domain containing spectrin-like repeats mediates targeting of the anchoring protein mAKAP and the cAMP-dependent protein kinase holoenzyme to the nuclear membrane in response to differentiation signals. (+info)
TY - JOUR. T1 - Protein kinase A-anchoring inhibitor peptides arrest mammalian sperm motility. AU - Vijayaraghavan, Srinivasan. AU - Goueli, Said A.. AU - Davey, Michael. AU - Carr, Daniel. PY - 1997/2/21. Y1 - 1997/2/21. N2 - Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) is anchored at specific subcellular sites through the interaction of the regulatory subunit (R) with protein kinase A-anchoring proteins (AKAPs) via an amphipathic helix binding motif. Synthetic peptides containing this amphipathic helix domain competitively disrupt PKA binding to AKAPs and cause a loss of PKA modulation of cellular responses. In this report we use S-Ht31, a cell-permeant anchoring inhibitor peptide, to study the role of PKA anchoring in sperm. Our analysis of three species of mammalian sperm detected three isoforms of PKA (RIIα, RIIβ, and RIβ) and one 110-kDa AKAP. The addition of S-Ht31 to bovine caudal epididymal sperm inhibits motility in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. A control peptide, ...
RecName: Full=A-kinase anchor protein 13; Short=AKAP-13;AltName: Full=Protein kinase A-anchoring protein 13;AltName: Full=Breast cancer nuclear receptor-binding auxiliary protein;AltName: Full=Human thyroid-anchoring protein 31;AltName: Full=Guanine nucleotide exchange factor Lbc;AltName: Full=AKAP-Lbc;AltName: Full=P47;AltName: Full=Lymphoid blast crisis oncogene; Short=LBC oncogene;AltName: Full=Non-oncogenic Rho GTPase-specific GTP exchange ...
The beta 2 adrenergic receptor (beta 2AR) undergoes desensitization by a process involving its phosphorylation by both protein kinase A (PKA) and G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs). The protein kinase A-anchoring protein AKAP79 influences beta 2AR phosphorylation by complexing PKA with the receptor at the membrane. Here we show that AKAP79 also regulates the ability of GRK2 to phosphorylate agonist-occupied receptors. In human embryonic kidney 293 cells, overexpression of AKAP79 enhances agonist-induced phosphorylation of both the beta 2AR and a mutant of the receptor that cannot be phosphorylated by PKA (beta 2AR/PKA-). Mutants of AKAP79 that do not bind PKA or target to the beta 2AR markedly inhibit phosphorylation of beta 2AR/PKA-. We show that PKA directly phosphorylates GRK2 on serine 685. This modification increases Gbeta gamma subunit binding to GRK2 and thus enhances the ability of the kinase to translocate to the membrane and phosphorylate the receptor. Abrogation of the ...
cAMP signals are locally amplified by scaffold proteins (A Kinase Anchor Proteins, AKAPs) that tether cAMP-dependent Protein Kinase A (PKA) to discrete cellular locations. Here we hypothesized that mitochondrial anchoring of PKA promotes survival in muscle cells. We identified AKAP121 as the major mitochondrial AKAP in cardiomyocytes and aortic smooth muscle cells. In response to pressure overload, cardiac AKAP121 levels were significantly reduced, inducing marked mitochondrial dysfunction, DNA damage and activation of the DNA repair machinery. To test the role of AKAP121 in the modulation of cell survival, we synthesized peptides (AK-in) containing AKAP121 mitochondrial targeting domain but lacking its PKA binding motif, in order to competitively displace the endogenous AKAP121/PKA complex from mitochondria. Sequence-scrambled peptides were synthetized and used as controls (S). 24 hours after administration, FITC-conjugated AK-in peptides co-localized with mitochondria at confocal microscopy; ...
CRC is the third leading cause of mortality in men and women worldwide . Most of the cancer-related deaths in CRC patients are as a result of early spread of cancer cells or due to reoccurrence post-surgical interventions . Alterations in some key regulatory molecules involved in cell cycle, apoptosis and EMT pathways have been proposed in the initiation of carcinogenesis . In this context, efforts are being made to identify and characterize tumor associated molecules for development of therapeutic targets for cancer treatment. A unique class of tumor associated antigens called cancer testis (CT) antigens has been reported in various malignancies and have been shown to be associated with tumor growth and metastasis . Only few CT antigens with abundant expression, namely sperm associated antigen (SPAG9) and AKAP4 have been shown to be associated with CRC [5, 10]. In this study, we examined the involvement of AKAP4 in various malignant properties at phenotype and molecular level of ...
MSSGRRRGSAPWHSFSRFFAPRSPSRDKEEEEEERPGTSPPPAPGRSAASVENEPMSTSQKKENVLSSEA 1 - 70 VKIRQSEDKRNHAEKPVTLPVQEDPKKAYDLSSSTSDTKIGESDRQPKESFFQFLGNLFNISGKSSLGEA 71 - 140 KQSSFKDDQDKTEKDLQNPSDHHEDGIKREREIFSGSLRTQTHPTEEQDSNSSELSDAFSLDTTQDSDQE 141 - 210 TTNLLKQIDGKPEKPSVTYATYRGPRHIGKYLKQQTGLATVNTLDRENESSDSSTNRHIDPGSEIEAGVL 211 - 280 PLLLSASTDSSMKGNLLEGPLEDSDCSKTSFNKENSLTNNPELQNIASSNNLLNKNAWGSIERNRSSPSS 281 - 350 VTNSSYDGESDSQHHLSCEPVSQTNRNLVCSALLTGSNHRKVPCSPDFQRVTTTENTIKENSTVMSNRTL 351 - 420 VQREELVEPQGPAISDFSCSKSDGSDTTEQESTNLPSPNKSIRHEHLQLPESECSDKQTIDSSSKQAATH 421 - 490 TNIIALQRHAVTDTEFVNEGKRLSAQDSQKNVAVREIRRETESASAGESIASSHVKAPEDKIESLPKDTD 491 - 560 QYFETKAKKLDFRSHDKIPHIRMNKKDLASLNYISESAVVASLGNENAPELKFELNRSHISETPLDSESP 561 - 630 QQAEVSPDAKTSLSLDCKKLNFSISPPTFVSGVGMLSKLDIPDLMNEGSPVPIETGNVNIVGISYQPRKC 631 - 700 KEENVKNHVEAAGRKSPPPSFCLEYTSAIFEFKEVLSNSEKCQVLPGSEASGPHLTGLELLSFDSGNLSK 701 - 770 DCSSILSQDPNRVELVSSNTKANMSIIEKSDSLSLEAKTANIVSKAEIDGQNNVLVESHSGRGKTISLSK 771 - 840 ...
Akap10 (untagged) - Mouse A kinase (PRKA) anchor protein 10 (Akap10), nuclear gene encoding mitochondrial protein, (10ug), 10 µg.
Complete information for AKAP5 gene (Protein Coding), A-Kinase Anchoring Protein 5, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
FUNCTION: [Summary is not available for the mouse gene. This summary is for the human ortholog.] The A-kinase anchor proteins (AKAPs) are a group of structurally diverse proteins, which have the common function of binding to the regulatory subunit of protein kinase A (PKA) and confining the holoenzyme to discrete locations within the cell. This gene encodes a member of the AKAP family. The encoded protein is highly expressed in various brain regions and cardiac and skeletal muscle. It is specifically localized to the sarcoplasmic reticulum and nuclear membrane, and is involved in anchoring PKA to the nuclear membrane or sarcoplasmic reticulum. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
Protein kinase A (PKA) is targeted to distinct subcellular localizations by specific protein kinase A anchoring proteins (AKAPs). AKAPs are divided into subclasses based on their ability to bind type I or type II PKA or both. Dual-specificity AKAPs were recently reported to have an additional PKA binding determinant called the RI specifier region. A bioinformatic search with the consensus RI specifier region identified a novel AKAP, the splicing factor arginine/serine-rich 17A (SFRS17A). Here, we show by a variety of protein interaction assays that SFRS17A binds both type I and type II PKA in vitro and inside cells, demonstrating that SFRS17A is a dual-specific AKAP. Moreover, immunofluorescence experiments show that SFRS17A colocalizes with the catalytic subunit of PKA as well as the splicing factor SC35 in splicing factor compartments. Using the E1A minigene splicing assay, we found that expression of wild type SFRS17A conferred regulation of E1A alternative splicing, whereas the mutant ...
AKAP7 - AKAP7 (untagged)-Human A kinase (PRKA) anchor protein 7 (AKAP7), transcript variant beta available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
Akap1 - Akap1 (untagged) - Mouse A kinase (PRKA) anchor protein 1 (Akap1), nuclear gene encoding mitochondrial protein, transcript variant 1, (10ug) available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
Homo sapiens A kinase (PRKA) anchor protein (gravin) 12 (AKAP12), transcript variant 1, mRNA. (H00009590-R01) - Products - Abnova
Complete information for AKAP12 gene (Protein Coding), A-Kinase Anchoring Protein 12, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Looking for online definition of A kinase (PRKA) anchor protein 6 in the Medical Dictionary? A kinase (PRKA) anchor protein 6 explanation free. What is A kinase (PRKA) anchor protein 6? Meaning of A kinase (PRKA) anchor protein 6 medical term. What does A kinase (PRKA) anchor protein 6 mean?
Heart failing occurs because of persistent stress towards the myocardium frequently. (1-AR) and G12, activate the tiny G proteins RhoA, which in turn engages both Jun N-terminal proteins kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated proteins kinase (MAPK) kinase cascades (4C6). These research stage toward tension signaling as a significant contributor towards the hypertrophic response. In this issue, del Vescovo et al. describe an intriguing new connection between adrenergic, small GTPase, and cytokine signaling that regulates stress effects on cardiac remodeling (7). del Vescovo and colleagues have identified a robust protein-protein conversation between A-kinase-anchoring protein (AKAP)CLbc and IB kinase (IKK), a crucial regulator of NF-B signaling. Interestingly, AKAP-Lbc is an AKAP that also possesses Rho guanine PP242 nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) activity and acts as a scaffold for multiple kinases involved in cardiomyocyte function (5, 8, 9). In this context, AKAP-Lbc promotes fetal gene ...
Since its inception, the "synaptic tagging hypothesis" has inspired many to search for synaptic tags. However, very few molecules have been proposed as candidates (Frey and Frey, 2008). The nature and identity of PRPs and synaptic tags are under intensive investigations (Frey and Frey, 2008). Two pathway experiments showed that blockade of protein kinase A (PKA) or its interaction with A kinase-anchoring proteins (AKAPs) prevents synaptic capture, suggesting that PKA or its anchoring at active synapses may serve as a synaptic tag for L-LTP (Huang et al., 2006; Young et al., 2006). Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is also implicated as an L-LTP-specific tag (Sajikumar et al., 2007). Studies thus far have been based on the use of pharmacological inhibitors in two-pathway experiments. However, it is necessary to show that these tags are transiently and locally activated in a protein synthesis-independent manner by weak stimulation. In a recent study, NMDA-dependent, ...
We have reported previously the design of a RIAD (RI-anchoring disruptor) peptide that specifically displaces PKA (protein kinase A) type I from the AKAP (A-kinase-anchoring protein) ezrin, which is present in the immunological synapse of T-cells. This increases immune reactivity by reducing the threshold for activation and may prove a feasible approach for improving immune function in patients with cAMP-mediated T-cell dysfunction. However, the use of RIAD in biological systems is restricted by its susceptibility to enzymatic cleavage and, consequently, its short half-life in presence of the ubiquitous serum peptidases. In the present study, carefully selected non-natural amino acids were employed in the design of RIAD analogues with improved stability. The resulting peptidomimetics demonstrated up to 50-fold increased half-lives in serum compared with RIAD, while maintaining similar or improved specificity and potency with respect to disruption of PKA type I-AKAP interactions.. ...
Yotiao is an A-kinase anchoring protein (AKAP) that, in the heart, mediates the formation of a macromolecular complex consisting of the IKs channel (α subunit KCNQ1 and regulatory subunit KCNE1), protein kinase A (PKA), and protein phosphatase 1 (PP1). Mutations that disrupt this complex do not allow the channel to be regulated in response to stress and can cause death. The effects of PKA on the channel can be mimicked by mutation of Ser97 to Asp in the KCNQ1 subunit. Using cells transfected with this mutant form of the channel, Kurokawa et al. demonstrated that interaction with Yotiao increased channel current by slowing channel inactivation in the absence of adenosine 3′,5′-monophosphate (cAMP). This effect of Yotiao on the S97D channel was not blocked by inhibitors of PKA or protein kinase C (PKC), which indicates that Yotiao was not promoting phosphorylation of other sites on the channel. Disruption of the Yotiao interaction by mutation of the KCNQ1 leucine zipper domain blocked the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Single nucleotide polymorphisms alter kinase anchoring and the subcellular targeting of A-kinase anchoring proteins. AU - Donelson Smith, F.. AU - Omar, Mitchell H.. AU - Nygren, Patrick J.. AU - Soughayer, Joseph. AU - Hoshi, Naoto. AU - Lau, Ho Tak. AU - Snyder, Calvin G.. AU - Branon, Tess C.. AU - Ghosh, Debapriya. AU - Langeberg, Lorene K.. AU - Ting, Alice Y.. AU - Santana, Luis Fernando. AU - Ong, Shao En. AU - Navedo, Manuel F. AU - Scott, John D.. PY - 2018/12/4. Y1 - 2018/12/4. N2 - A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs) shape second-messenger signaling responses by constraining protein kinase A (PKA) at precise intracellular locations. A defining feature of AKAPs is a helical region that binds to regulatory subunits (RII) of PKA. Mining patient-derived databases has identified 42 nonsynonymous SNPs in the PKA-anchoring helices of five AKAPs. Solid-phase RII binding assays confirmed that 21 of these amino acid substitutions disrupt PKA anchoring. The most deleterious ...
Biosensors can offer unparalleled insights into the temporal and spatial features of signaling in live cells. The AKAR2 biosensor enables the detection in real time of PKA-catalyzed phosphorylation events in live cells [15,42,43]. We successfully engineered AKAR2 to the N-terminus of AKAP5, providing a biosensor that reports from the local environment, in cis orientation with respect to AKAP5. The FRET-based signal generated from the AKAP5 biosensor displayed a rapid activation in response to beta-adrenergic stimulation. Within less than 10 s the FRET signal, reflecting in situ PKA-catalyzed phosphorylation of AKAP5, reached peak amplitude. PKA-catalyzed phosphorylation of AKAP5 underwent rapid reversal. PCDs confine AKAP5 to the cell membrane, in close proximity to the membrane-embedded adenylylcyclase that generates cyclic AMP. The localization of AKAP5 was highly uniform, decorating the inner leaflet of the cell membrane. AKAP12, in contrast, is sequestered in close proximity to the cell ...
All we need from you is a couple of sentences/bullet points for this gene describing 1) how the protein functions, 2) what pathway it is in (if relevant) and 3) what are its main biological roles, preferably using terms suitable for a general, non-Drosophilist audience. Here is an example: nervy (nvy) is a member of the MTG family of genes that have both nuclear and cytosolic functions. nvy encodes a transcriptional repressor and an A kinase anchoring protein (AKAP). It regulates repulsive axon guidance and functions in Plexin and Notch signaling pathways. For those genes currently lacking a gene snapshot, FlyBase welcomes contributions through our online form (also accessible from the snapshot field of the gene). Feedback on existing Gene Snapshots can be made by clicking on the Contact FlyBase link (also accessible from the bottom of every FlyBase page) and selecting the Gene Snapshots option. ...
A-Kinase (cAMP dPK). A-Kinase (cAMP dPK),. Cyclic AMP dependent protein kinase. A family of enzymes activated by cyclic AMP, which catalyse intracellular phosphorylation reactions.. Protein scaffold complexes are a key mechanism by which a common signaling pathway can serve many different functions. Sequestering a signaling enzyme to a specific subcellular environment not only ensures that the enzyme is near its relevant targets, but also segregates this activity to prevent indiscriminate phosphorylation of other substrates. One family of diverse, well-studied scaffolding proteins are the A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs). These anchoring proteins form multi-protein complexes that integrate cAMP signaling with other pathways and signaling events.. ...
Expression of AKAP4 (AKAP82, CT99, Fsc1, hAKAP82, HI, p82) in lung tissue. Antibody staining with HPA005949 and HPA020046 in immunohistochemistry.
AKAP7 antibody, N-term (A-kinase anchoring protein 7) for IHC-P, WB. Anti-AKAP7 pAb (GTX47526) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Pulsatron Pump LBC3SA-WTC1-GCC - A Plus (A+) Series Chemical Metering Pumps from Pulsafeeder are in Stock at www.PumpCatalog.com - Click to Order!
Rabbit monoclonal antibody raised against a human AKAP8L peptide using ARM Technology. A synthetic peptide of human AKAP8L is used for rabbit immunization.Customer or Abnova will decide on the preferred peptide sequence. (H00026993-K) - Products - Abnova
Sp17 is present in the head and tail of spermatozoa, in the tail it is in the fibrous sheath, which contains AKAP3 and AKAP4. Recombinant AKAP3 and AKAP4 RII binding domains were synthesized as glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion proteins immobilized on glutathione-agarose resin and added to CHAPS extracts of human spermatozoa. Western blots of bound and eluted proteins probed with anti-Sp17 revealed that AKAP3 bound and precipitated a significant level of Sp17 while AKAP4 did not. AKAP4 binds AKAP3 and expression of AKAP3 is reduced in AKAP4 knockout sperm, therefore we tested AKAP4 knockout spermatozoa for Sp17 and found that there was a reduction in the amount of Sp17 expressed when compared to wild type spermatozoa. Co-localization of AKAP3 and Sp17 by immunofluorescence was demonstrated along the length of the principal piece of the flagella.. ...
Scaffolding proteins often bring kinases together with their substrates to facilitate cell signaling. This arrangement is critical for the phosphorylation and regulation of the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channel, a key target of inflammatory mediators such as prostaglandins. The protein kinase A anchoring protein AKAP79/150 organizes a multiprotein complex to position protein kinase A (PKA) and protein kinase C (PKC) in the immediate proximity of TRPV1 channels to enhance phosphorylation efficiency. This arrangement suggests that regulators upstream of the kinases must also be present in the signalosome. Here, we show that AKAP79/150 facilitates a complex containing TPRV1 and adenylyl cyclase (AC). The anchoring of AC to this complex generates local pools of cAMP, shifting the concentration of forskolin required to attenuate capsaicin-dependent TRPV1 desensitization by approximately 100-fold. Anchoring of AC to the complex also sensitizes the channel to activation by ...
Second, the biological response to a second messenger can depend on the scaffolding complex that binds enzymes that synthesize or degrade the second messenger, and effectors (Figure 1B). There are numerous examples of this mode of operation in cells. A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs) are known to localize cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) to different subcellular compartments in the cell, thereby ensuring phosphorylation of PKA targets in the correct cellular vicinity.16 Some AKAPs have also been found to associate with cAMP-hydrolyzing PDE isoforms, thereby providing a mechanism for fine-tuning local cAMP levels and downstream effects of PKA.17 The PDE4D splice variant PDE4D3 binds to muscle-selective AKAP (mAKAP), and this association results in low cAMP levels and prevents PKA activation under basal conditions. Following stimulation of cAMP synthesis, however, PKA is activated and phosphorylates mAKAP. These phosphorylation events result in a more efficient PDE4D3 action, and provides a ...
View Notes - D103 clicker+questions_lecture+16-18 from BIOL 05400 at UC Irvine. A. expression level of AKAPs B. level of adenylyl cyclase activity C. increased cytosolic concentration of cAMP D.
Story ideas from the May 2007 issue of the Journal of Lipid Research include why fish and seafood are better than olive oil and nuts against heart disease; too much cholesterol in a cell organelle can cause heart disease; why Down Syndrome individuals develop Alzheimers disease earlier than the general population; and how lipids anchor proteins on cell membranes.
Expression of AKAP12 (AKAP250, SSeCKS) in bronchus tissue. Antibody staining with HPA006344, HPA056230 and CAB026379 in immunohistochemistry.
Order AKAP5 ELISA Kits for many Reactivities. Human and more. Compare AKAP5 ELISA Kits and find the right product on antibodies-online.com.
Pharmacological Aspects of of PKA with PKI presents cDNA of HA95 and physics of LAP2beta from HA95, although LAPbeta is 2007. reducing years costing in own advice not is the fruit of LAP2beta from HA95; never, binding PKA carrying to A-kinase finding arguments recruits no satellite. background of CDK lot in the character here is LAP2beta computation but adds simultaneously abandon LAP2beta hormone from HA95.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Purification of a regulatory subunit of type II cAMP-dependent protein kinase from Drosophila heads. AU - Inoue, Hiroko. AU - Yoshioka, Tohru. PY - 1997/6/9. Y1 - 1997/6/9. N2 - The cytosolic extract from Drosophila heads was separated using anion-exchange column chromatography. Two types of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), type I and type II, were detected, and type II PKA was found to be a major isozyme. The regulatory subunit of type II PKA (RII) was purified, and only one isoform was observed. The purified protein had an apparent molecular mass of 51 kDa on SDS gel electrophoresis. Partial amino acid sequences of the protein were almost identical with the RIIα subunit of human. Since PKA has been implicated to be especially important for learning and memory in Drosophila, the RII subunit may play an essential role in the regulation of neuronal activity in the brain of Drosophila, and possibly in human.. AB - The cytosolic extract from Drosophila heads was separated using ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Methylation of AKAP12α promoter in lung cancer. AU - Jo, Uk Hyun. AU - Whang, Young Mi. AU - Sung, Jae Sook. AU - Kim, Yeul Hong. PY - 2010/11/1. Y1 - 2010/11/1. N2 - AKAP12α plays an important role in tumour growth suppression by inducing apoptosis. This study investigated whether the promoter methylation of AKAP12α is associated with lung cancer. AKAP12α was down-regulated in lung cancer cells and the reduced protein expression was restored by DNA methyl-transferase inhibitor. AKAP12α promoter was more frequently methylated in tumours than in normal tissues. Furthermore, AKAP12α methylation was found more frequently in the cells of non-relapse patients after surgery than in those of early relapse patients. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that AKAP12α expression is regulated by DNA methylation and that AKAP12α promoter methylation is associated with lung cancer prognosis.. AB - AKAP12α plays an important role in tumour growth suppression by inducing apoptosis. ...
The acquisition of a migratory phenotype is central in processes as diverse as embryo differentiation and tumor metastasis. An early event in this phenomenon is the generation of a nucleus-centrosome-Golgi back to front axis. AKAP350 is a Golgi/centrosome scaffold protein involved in microtubule nucleation. AKAP350 interacts with CIP4, a cdc42 effector that regulates actin dynamics. The present study aimed to characterize the participation of centrosomal AKAP350 in the acquisition of migratory polarity, and the involvement of CIP4 in the pathway. The decrease in total or in centrosomal AKAP350 led to decreased formation of the nucleus-centrosome-Golgi axis and defective cell migration. CIP4 localized at the centrosome. That was enhanced in migratory cells, but inhibited in cells with decreased centrosomal AKAP350. The interference with CIP4 expression or with CIP4/AKAP350 interaction also led to defective cell polarization. Centrosome positioning, but not nuclear movement was affected by loss of ...
Cyclic AMP is a ubiquitous intracellular second messenger involved in the regulation of a wide variety of cellular processes, a majority of which act through the cAMP - protein kinase A (PKA) signalling pathway and involve PKA phosphorylation of specific substrates. PKA phosphorylation events are typically spatially restricted and temporally well controlled. A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs) directly bind PKA and recruit it to specific subcellular loci targeting the kinase activity towards particular substrates, and thereby provide discrete spatiotemporal control of downstream phosphorylation events. AKAPs also scaffold other signalling molecules into multi-protein complexes that function as crossroads between different signalling pathways. Targeting AKAP coordinated protein complexes with high-affinity peptidomimetics or small molecules to tease apart distinct protein-protein interactions (PPIs) therefore offer important means to disrupt binding of specific components of the complex to better
This gene encodes a protein that is involved in glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchor biosynthesis. The GPI-anchor is a glycolipid found on many blood cells and serves to anchor proteins to the cell surface. This protein is an essential component of the multisubunit enzyme, GPI transamidase. GPI transamidase mediates GPI anchoring in the endoplasmic reticulum, by catalyzing the transfer of fully assembled GPI units to proteins. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2012 ...
Compare Alpha-catulin ELISA Kits from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, citations, reviews, and more.
Immediate fixation of LBC samples improves preservation of cellular morphology and reduces air-drying and crush artefacts compared with CP. Cellular components such as cell membranes and chromatin may appear more sharply defined in LBC preparations than in CP as a result of improved cell preservation. Cell sizes appear slightly smaller in LBC preparations than in CP, however overall cellular morphology is unchanged. Tissue architecture in larger cell groups may be better appreciated in CP compared with LBC, however small cellular clusters and tissue fragments are still preserved.. ...
Leading Britains Conversation LBC - talk radio for the UK, letting you have your say on the big issues of the day and affecting London and the UK, with breaking news and opinion.
Who is the Workington man and why is he important? The author of a Conservative think-tank report explains why the party needs to win their votes.
Results In all the 864 protein spots detected, intensity of 55 spots was found to be significantly different (p , 0.05) among the three groups by an analysis of variance (ANOVA). 31 out of the 55 spots were identified by mass spectrometry. The OPLS-DA analysis revealed that the expression profile of the protein spots discriminated the AAV group from the HC group completely and also discriminated the MPA group from the GPA group completely. 13 protein spots were considered as biomarker candidates to distinguish between MPA and GPA. In those, spots whose intensity was higher in MPA than in GPA included actin with various pI values, while a considerable part of spots whose intensity was higher in GPA than MPA were proteins related with the activity of neutrophils. Among the candidate proteins, ROC analysis showed that a combination of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin and a kinase anchor protein 7 isoforms beta had a high diagnostic potential.. ...
Myomegalin has been characterized as a protein with the properties of a scaffold or structural protein that is expressed at high levels in skeletal and cardiac tissue, suggesting an important function in muscle, and which interacts with a cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase . However, the precise function and interactions of this protein, and its five isoforms, have been largely unknown. We here describe how the smallest MMGL isoform, isoform 4, binds to known and predicted PKA targets in the cardiac myocyte, including some sarcomeric proteins, viz. cMyBPC, cTNI, ENO1, ENO3, CARP and COMMD4 (Tables 1 and 2). Moreover, we show that MMGL isoform 4 interacts with two regulatory subunits of PKA (Figure 3). Together these results describe MMGL isoform 4 as a novel sarcomeric AKAP, which, like mAKAP , is involved in assembling a PKA/PDE cAMP signalling module.. In addition to interacting with both types of regulatory subunits, viz. RI and RII, which qualifies MMGL isoform 4 as a dual-specific AKAP ...
A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs) include a family of scaffolding proteins that target protein kinase A (PKA) and other signaling proteins to cellular compartments and thereby confine the activities of the associated proteins to distinct regions within cells. AKAPs bind PKA directly. The interaction is mediated by the dimerization and docking domain of regulatory subunits of PKA and the PKA-binding domain of AKAPs. Analysis of the interactions between the dimerization and docking domain and various PKA-binding domains yielded a generalized motif allowing the identification of AKAPs. Our bioinformatics and peptide array screening approaches based on this signature motif identified GSKIP (glycogen synthase kinase 3beta interaction protein) as an AKAP. GSKIP directly interacts with PKA and GSK3beta (glycogen synthase kinase 3beta). It is widely expressed and facilitates phosphorylation and thus inactivation of GSK3beta by PKA. GSKIP contains the evolutionarily conserved domain of unknown function ...
This gene encodes a protein that is involved in glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchor biosynthesis. The GPI-anchor is a glycolipid found on many blood cells and serves to anchor proteins to the cell surface. This protein is expressed in the endoplasmic reticulum and transfers phosphoethanolamine (EtNP) to the first mannose of the GPI anchor. Two alternatively spliced variants, which encode an identical isoform, have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
Use Bio-Rads PrimePCR assays, controls, templates for your target gene. Every primer pair is optimized, experimentally validated, and performance guaranteed.
Use Bio-Rads PrimePCR assays, controls, templates for your target gene. Every primer pair is optimized, experimentally validated, and performance guaranteed.
Leukaemia & Blood Cancer (LBC) New Zealand is the leading organisation dedicated to supporting patients and their families living with these conditions.
Purified Rho Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor 7 from Creative Biomart. ARHGEF7(ARHGEF7, Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) 7) can be used for N/A.
Top performende anti-Maus rho Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor (GEF) 4 Antikörper für Western Blotting (WB) vergleichen & kaufen.
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
ARHGEF4 overexpression lysate, 0.1 mg. Transient overexpression lysate of Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) 4 (ARHGEF4), transcript variant 1
LARG antibody (Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) 12) for ELISA, WB. Anti-LARG pAb (GTX87286) is tested in Human, Mouse, Rat samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
This gene encodes a member of A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs), a family of functionally related proteins that target protein kinase A to discrete locations within the cell. The encoded protein is localized to mitochondria and interacts with both the type I and type II regulatory subunits of PKA. It has been reported that this protein is important for maintaining heart rate and myocardial contractility through its targeting of protein kinase A. In mouse, defects of this gene lead to cardiac arrhythmias and premature death. In humans, polymorphisms in this gene may be associated with increased risk of arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. [provided by RefSeq, May 2013 ...
Fast delivery of AKAP14 knockout Human Cell Lines for the study of gene function. Created by CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing. Includes matched wildtype control.
Mouse Monoclonal Anti-AKAP13 Antibody (5B7) [DyLight 488]. Validated: WB, ELISA, ICC/IF. Tested Reactivity: Human. 100% Guaranteed.
APCcdh1 Mediates Degradation of the Oncogenic Rho-GEF Ect2 after Mitosis. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Expression of AKAP12 in skeletal muscle tissue. Antibody staining with HPA006344, HPA056230 and CAB026379 in immunohistochemistry.
Crab-eating macaque AKAP13 vectors (from $99), available in lentivirus, AAV, adenovirus, shRNA, CRISPR & many other formats from VectorBuilder.
1. CukkemaneA, SeifertR, KauppUB (2011) Cooperative and uncooperative cyclic-nucleotide-gated ion channels. Trends Biochem Sci 36: 55-64.. 2. KauppUB, NiidomeT, TanabeT, TeradaS, BönigkW, et al. (1989) Primary structure and functional expression from complementary DNA of the rod photoreceptor cyclic GMP-gated channel. Nature 342: 762-766.. 3. LudwigA, ZongX, JeglitschM, HofmannF, BielM (1998) A family of hyperpolarization-activated mammalian cation channels. Nature 393: 587-591.. 4. TakioK, SmithSB, KrebsEG, WalshKA, TitaniK (1982) Primary structure of the regulatory subunit of type II cAMP-dependent protein kinase from bovine cardiac muscle. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 79: 2544-2548.. 5. TakioK, WadeRD, SmithSB, KrebsEG, WalshKA, et al. (1984) Guanosine cyclic 3′,5′-phosphate dependent protein kinase, a chimeric protein homologous with two separate protein families. Biochemistry 23: 4207-4218.. 6. de RooijJ, ZwartkruisFJ, VerheijenMH, CoolRH, NijmanSM, et al. (1998) Epac is a Rap1 ...
Mammalian spermatogenesis is regulated by coordinated gene expression in a spatiotemporal manner. The spatiotemporal regulation of major sperm proteins plays important roles during normal development of the male gamete, of which the underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. A-kinase anchoring protein 3 (AKAP3) is one of the major components of the fibrous sheath of the sperm tail that is formed during spermiogenesis. In the present study, we analyzed the expression of sperm-specific Akap3 and the potential regulatory factors of its protein synthesis during mouse spermiogenesis. Results showed that the transcription of Akap3 precedes its protein synthesis by about 2 wk. Nascent AKAP3 was found to form protein complex with PKA and RNA binding proteins (RBPs), including PIWIL1, PABPC1, and NONO, as revealed by coimmunoprecipitation and protein mass spectrometry. RNA electrophoretic gel mobility shift assay showed that these RBPs bind sperm-specific mRNAs, of which proteins are synthesized
Cholesterol biosynthesis is regulated by transcription factors SREBPs and their escort protein Scap. On sterol depletion, Scap/SREBP complex is transported from endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the Golgi apparatus where SREBP is activated. Under cholesterol sufficient condition, Insigs act as anchor proteins to retain Scap/SREBP in the ER.
GPI transamidase component PIG-T is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PIGT gene. This gene encodes a protein that is involved in glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchor biosynthesis. The GPI-anchor is a glycolipid found on many blood cells and serves to anchor proteins to the cell surface. This protein is an essential component of the multisubunit enzyme, GPI transamidase. GPI transamidase mediates GPI anchoring in the endoplasmic reticulum, by catalyzing the transfer of fully assembled GPI units to proteins. PIGT has been shown to interact with PIGK and GPAA1. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000124155 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000017721 - Ensembl, May 2017 "Human PubMed Reference:". "Mouse PubMed Reference:". Vainauskas S, Menon AK (Apr 2005). "Endoplasmic reticulum localization of Gaa1 and PIG-T, subunits of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol transamidase complex". J Biol Chem. 280 (16): 16402-9. doi:10.1074/jbc.M414253200. PMID 15713669. "Entrez Gene: ...
Inflammation causes hyperalgesia, an enhanced sensitivity to noxious stimuli. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1), a thermo-TRP ion channel activated by painful levels of heat, is an important contributor because hyperalgesia is reduced when TRPV1 is either genetically deleted or pharmacologically blocked. Inflammatory mediators such as prostaglandin-E2 or bradykinin cause hyperalgesia by activating cellular kinases that phosphorylate TRPV1, a process that has recently been shown to rely on a scaffolding protein, AKAP79, to target the kinases to TRPV1. Here we use Forster resonance energy transfer, immunoprecipitation, and TRPV1 membrane trafficking experiments to identify a key region on AKAP79, between amino acids 326-336, which is responsible for its interaction with TRPV1. A peptide identical to this domain inhibited sensitization of TRPV1 in vitro, and when covalently linked to a TAT peptide to promote uptake across the cell membrane the peptide inhibited in vivo inflammatory ...
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
We are also trying to understand more about the AQP-AKAP system, in particular we are trying to assemble the AQP2-AKAP18-PKA complex and AQP0-AKAP2-PKA complex for structural studies. Intrinsically disordered regions of proteins are widespread in nature yet the mechanistic roles they play in biology are underappreciated. Such disordered segments can act simply to link functionally coupled structural domains or they can orchestrate enzymatic reactions through a variety of allosteric mechanisms. The regulatory subunits of protein kinase A provide an example of this important phenomenon where functionally defined and structurally conserved domains are connected by intrinsically disordered regions of defined length with limited sequence identity. Our studies show that this seemingly paradoxical amalgam of order and disorder permits fine-tuning of local protein phosphorylation events. The anchoring of PKA by AKAP affords the kinase a sphere of action in which multiple targets can get phosphorylated ...
Phosphatidylinositol N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase subunit A (PIG-A, or phosphatidylinositol glycan, class A) is the catalytic subunit of the phosphatidylinositol N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase enzyme, which in humans is encoded by the PIGA gene. This gene encodes a protein required for synthesis of N-acetylglucosaminyl phosphatidylinositol (GlcNAc-PI), the first intermediate in the biosynthetic pathway of GPI anchor. The GPI anchor is a glycolipid found on many blood cells and serves to anchor proteins to the cell surface. Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria, an acquired hematologic disorder, has been shown to result from mutations in this gene. Alternate splice variants have been characterized. PIGA has been shown for interact with PIGQ. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000165195 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000031381 - Ensembl, May 2017 "Human PubMed Reference:". "Mouse PubMed Reference:". Takeda J, Miyata T, Kawagoe K, Iida Y, Endo Y, Fujita T, Takahashi M, ...
In this issue of Acta Physiologica, Benz et al. study the role of one important protein in the cyclic AMP signaling pathway, the A-kinase anchoring (AKAP)12. The downstream effects stemming from cAMP release are tightly controlled and activate a profusion of signaling pathways. However, many of these different processes function with largely the same major constituent proteins, including adenylate cyclases, kinases, phosphatases, and phosphodiesterases. cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), which is the main intracellular target for cAMP, is widely found in these signaling assemblies, and is present at high concentrations in many tissues, playing varied roles in the regulation of molecular processes. Unexpectedly, despite its ubiquity there are only four isoforms of PKA regulatory subunit with which to impart functional and locational specificity ...
This gene encodes a member of the A-kinase anchoring protein (AKAP) family, a group of functionally related proteins that bind ... "A novel lipid-anchored A-kinase Anchoring Protein facilitates cAMP-responsive membrane events". The EMBO Journal. 17 (8): 2261- ... "Bioinformatic design of A-kinase anchoring protein-in silico: a potent and selective peptide antagonist of type II protein ... A-kinase anchor protein 7 isoform gamma is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the AKAP7 gene. ...
2003). "Amino acid variant in the kinase binding domain of dual-specific A kinase-anchoring protein 2: a disease susceptibility ... "Bioinformatic design of A-kinase anchoring protein-in silico: a potent and selective peptide antagonist of type II protein ... "Bioinformatic design of A-kinase anchoring protein-in silico: a potent and selective peptide antagonist of type II protein ... A-kinase anchor protein 2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the AKAP2 gene. AKAP2 has been shown to interact with ...
"Cypher/ZASP is a novel A-kinase anchoring protein". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 288 (41): 29403-13. doi:10.1074/jbc. ... "Protein-protein interaction of zinc finger LIM domains with protein kinase C". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 271 (49): ... ZASP is a PDZ domain-containing protein. PDZ motifs are modular protein-protein interaction domains consisting of 80-120 amino ... a striated muscle-restricted PDZ and LIM domain-containing protein, binds to alpha-actinin-2 and protein kinase C". The Journal ...
A-kinase anchor protein 8-like is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AKAP8L gene. AKAP8L has been shown to interact ... cloning and characterization of a novel nuclear protein, HA95, homologous to A-kinase anchoring protein 95". Biology of the ... "Entrez Gene: AKAP8L A kinase (PRKA) anchor protein 8-like". Yang JP, Tang H, Reddy TR, Wong-Staal F (Aug 2001). "Mapping the ... neighbor of A-kinase anchoring protein 95 (AKAP95) on chromosome 19p13.11-p13.12 region". Journal of Human Genetics. 45 (1): ...
A-kinase anchor protein 6 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the AKAP6 gene. The A-kinase anchor proteins (AKAPs) are a ... "Cloning and characterization of A-kinase anchor protein 100 (AKAP100). A protein that targets A-kinase to the sarcoplasmic ... "Entrez Gene: AKAP6 A kinase (PRKA) anchor protein 6". Marx, S O; Reiken S; Hisamatsu Y; Jayaraman T; Burkhoff D; Rosemblit N; ... Kapiloff MS, Schillace RV, Westphal AM, Scott JD (1999). "mAKAP: an A-kinase anchoring protein targeted to the nuclear membrane ...
Another protein essential for the SI response is MLPK, a serine-threonine kinase, which is anchored to the plasma membrane from ... Murase, K., H. Shiba, M. Iwano, F. S. Che, M. Watanabe, A. Isogai, and S. Takayama (2004). "A membrane-anchored protein kinase ... The female determinant of the SI response in Brassica, is a transmembrane protein termed SRK, which has an intracellular kinase ... Another stigmatic protein, termed SLG, is highly similar in sequence to the SRK protein, and seems to function as a co-receptor ...
Howlett CJ, Robbins SM (March 2002). "Membrane-anchored Cbl suppresses Hck protein-tyrosine kinase mediated cellular ... "The Cbl proteins are binding partners for the Cool/Pix family of p21-activated kinase-binding proteins". FEBS Lett. 550 (1-3): ... is a mammalian gene encoding the protein CBL which is an E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase involved in cell signalling and protein ... N-terminal tyrosine kinase binding domain (TKB domain): determines the protein which it can bind to RING finger domain motif: ...
Chen L, Marquardt ML, Tester DJ, Sampson KJ, Ackerman MJ, Kass RS (2007). "Mutation of an A-kinase-anchoring protein causes ... Golgi reassembly-stacking proteins are an evolutionarily conserved family of proteins in the Golgi matrix. GRASP65 and GRASP55 ... encoding a transmembrane protein with a presumed role in vesicle-mediated sorting and intracellular protein transport". Am. J. ... The first individual protein component of the matrix was identified in 1995 as Golgin A2 (then called GM130). Since then, many ...
A-kinase anchor protein 5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AKAP5 gene. The A-kinase anchor proteins (AKAPs) are a ... 1995). "Association of protein kinase A and protein phosphatase 2B with a common anchoring protein". Science. 267 (5194): 108- ... "A-kinase anchoring protein 79/150 facilitates the phosphorylation of GABA(A) receptors by cAMP-dependent protein kinase via ... "Localization of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase to the postsynaptic densities by A-kinase anchoring proteins. ...
A-kinase anchor protein 8 is an enzyme that, in humans, is encoded by the AKAP8 gene. The A-kinase anchor proteins (AKAPs) are ... Collas P, Le Guellec K, Taskén K (Dec 1999). "The A-kinase-anchoring protein AKAP95 is a multivalent protein with a key role in ... 2003). "Protein kinase A-anchoring protein AKAP95 interacts with MCM2, a regulator of DNA replication". J. Biol. Chem. 278 (29 ... Collas P, Le Guellec K, Taskén K (2000). "The A-kinase-anchoring protein AKAP95 is a multivalent protein with a key role in ...
A kinase anchor protein 1, mitochondrial is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the AKAP1 gene. The A-kinase anchor proteins ... A-kinase anchor protein 84, and a regulatory subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase and is phosphorylated by its kinase". J. ... A-kinase anchor protein 84, and a regulatory subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase and is phosphorylated by its kinase". J. ... 2000). "Analysis of A-kinase anchoring protein (AKAP) interaction with protein kinase A (PKA) regulatory subunits: PKA isoform ...
A-kinase anchor protein 12, aka AKAP250, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the AKAP12 gene. The A-kinase anchor ... Fan G, Shumay E, Wang H, Malbon CC (2001). "The scaffold protein gravin (cAMP-dependent protein kinase-anchoring protein 250) ... "The scaffold protein gravin (cAMP-dependent protein kinase-anchoring protein 250) binds the beta 2-adrenergic receptor via the ... Piontek J, Brandt R (2003). "Differential and regulated binding of cAMP-dependent protein kinase and protein kinase C ...
A kinase anchor protein 10, mitochondrial is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the AKAP10 gene. The A-kinase anchor ... a novel protein kinase A anchoring protein with a putative RGS domain". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 94 (21): 11184-9. doi: ... a protein kinase A anchoring protein". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 98 (6): 3220-5. doi:10.1073/pnas.051633398. PMC 30634 . ... "Amino acid variant in the kinase binding domain of dual-specific A kinase-anchoring protein 2: a disease susceptibility ...
A-kinase anchor protein 11 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the AKAP11 gene. The A-kinase anchor proteins (AKAPs) are ... "A-kinase anchoring protein AKAP220 binds to glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3beta ) and mediates protein kinase A-dependent ... "A-kinase anchoring protein AKAP220 binds to glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3beta ) and mediates protein kinase A-dependent ... Schillace RV, Scott JD (March 1999). "Association of the type 1 protein phosphatase PP1 with the A-kinase anchoring protein ...
A-kinase anchor protein 4 is a scaffold protein that in humans is encoded by the AKAP4 gene. The A-kinase anchor proteins ( ... Brown PR, Miki K, Harper DB, Eddy EM (June 2003). "A-kinase anchoring protein 4 binding proteins in the fibrous sheath of the ... Brown PR, Miki K, Harper DB, Eddy EM (June 2003). "A-kinase anchoring protein 4 binding proteins in the fibrous sheath of the ... Evidence of tyrosine phosphorylation of a kinase-anchoring protein 3 and valosin-containing protein/p97 during capacitation". ...
Mochly-Rosen D (Apr 1995). "Localization of protein kinases by anchoring proteins: a theme in signal transduction". Science. ... Protein kinase C (PKC) is a family of serine- and threonine-specific protein kinases that can be activated by calcium and the ... Protein kinase C Published version Sarah B Scruggs, Ding Wang, Peipei Ping (13 June 2016). "PRKCE gene encoding protein kinase ... "Characterization of protein kinase C isotype expression in adult rat heart. Protein kinase C-epsilon is a major isotype present ...
It contains a conserved cAMP-dependent protein kinase phosphorylation site. It is believed to play some role in anchoring or ... This pathway consists of agrin, muscle-specific tyrosine kinase (MuSK protein), AChRs and the AChR-clustering protein rapsyn, ... This protein belongs to a family of proteins that are receptor associated proteins of the synapse. ... 43 kDa receptor-associated protein of the synapse (rapsyn) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RAPSN gene. ...
Lea IA, Widgren EE, O'Rand MG (2004). "Association of sperm protein 17 with A-kinase anchoring protein 3 in flagella". Reprod. ... Frayne J, Hall L (2003). "A re-evaluation of sperm protein 17 (Sp17) indicates a regulatory role in an A-kinase anchoring ... Sperm surface protein Sp17 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SPA17 gene. This gene encodes a protein present at the ... Studies in rabbits suggest that in sperm the protein is involved in fertilization by binding to the zona pellucida of the ...
Bernard Abrenica; Mohamed AlShaaban; Michael P Czubryt (May 2009). "The A-kinase anchor protein AKAP121 is a negative regulator ... "Induction of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy by specific knockdown of an a-kinase anchor protein". Journal of molecular and cellular ...
"Centrosomal proteins CG-NAP and kendrin provide microtubule nucleation sites by anchoring gamma-tubulin ring complex". Mol. ... "Entrez Gene: CALM1 calmodulin 1 (phosphorylase kinase, delta)". Takahashi M, Yamagiwa A, Nishimura T, Mukai H, Ono Y (Sep 2002 ... Calmodulin 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CALM1 gene. Calmodulin 1 is the archetype of the family of calcium- ... Gusev NB (2002). "Some properties of caldesmon and calponin and the participation of these proteins in regulation of smooth ...
"Association of protein kinase A and protein phosphatase 2B with a common anchoring protein". Science. 267 (5194): 108-11. doi: ... Calcineurin (CaN) is a calcium and calmodulin dependent serine/threonine protein phosphatase (also known as protein phosphatase ... Giri PR, Higuchi S, Kincaid RL (1991). "Chromosomal mapping of the human genes for the calmodulin-dependent protein phosphatase ... Frey N, Richardson JA, Olson EN (2000). "Calsarcins, a novel family of sarcomeric calcineurin-binding proteins". Proc. Natl. ...
... evolutionarily conserved human gene family encoding proteins with presumptive protein kinase A anchoring function". Genomics. ... LRBA contains key features of both beige/CHS1 and A kinase anchor proteins (AKAPs; see MIM 602449).[supplied by OMIM] GRCh38: ... of a novel lipopolysaccharide-inducible gene with key features of both A kinase anchor proteins and chs1/beige proteins". J ... Lipopolysaccharide-responsive and beige-like anchor protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LRBA gene. Patients ...
15 Nov 1996). "Src tyrosine kinases, Galpha subunits, and H-Ras share a common membrane-anchored scaffolding protein, caveolin ... The protein links integrin subunits to the tyrosine kinase FYN, an initiating step in coupling integrins to the Ras-ERK pathway ... Caveolin 1 has been shown to interact with heterotrimeric G proteins, Src tyrosine kinases (Src, Lyn) and H-Ras, cholesterol, ... Caveolin-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CAV1 gene. The scaffolding protein encoded by this gene is the main ...
The protein becomes activated when binding to receptors capable of protein kinase activity for cellular signaling. TGF-α is a ... As a membrane anchored-growth factor, TGF-α can be cleaved from an integral membrane glycoprotein via a protease. Soluble forms ... When TGF-α binds to EGFR it dimerizes triggering phosphorylation of a protein-tyrosine kinase. The activity of protein-tyrosine ... This protein may act as either a transmembrane-bound ligand or a soluble ligand. This gene has been associated with many types ...
Ulfig N, Chan WY (2003). "Expression of a kinase anchoring protein 79 and synaptophysin in the developing human red nucleus". ... The encoded protein has 313 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 33.845 kDa. The protein is a synaptic vesicle ... Synaptophysin, also known as the major synaptic vesicle protein p38, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SYP gene. ... The exact function of the protein is unknown: it interacts with the essential synaptic vesicle protein synaptobrevin, but when ...
A protein kinase drifting around on the outer chloroplast membrane can use ATP to add a phosphate group to the Toc34 protein, ... which anchors the protein to the outer chloroplast membrane.. Toc159 probably works a lot like Toc34, recognizing proteins ... Toc34 is an integral protein in the outer chloroplast membrane that's anchored into it by its hydrophobic C-terminal tail.[ ... It can be regulated through phosphorylation, but by a different protein kinase than the one that phosphorylates Toc34. Its ...
A-kinase anchor protein 9. Names. A kinase (PRKA) anchor protein (yotiao) 9. A kinase (PRKA) anchor protein 9. A-kinase anchor ... kinase N-associated protein. protein hyperion. protein kinase A anchoring protein 9. protein phosphatase 1, regulatory subunit ... These signaling proteins include type II protein kinase A, serine/threonine kinase protein kinase N, protein phosphatase 1, ... AKAP9 A-kinase anchoring protein 9 [Homo sapiens] AKAP9 A-kinase anchoring protein 9 [Homo sapiens]. Gene ID:10142 ...
... anchor protein 1 ELISA Kits from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, citations, reviews, and more. ... A kinase (PRKA) anchor protein 1 ELISA Kits. The ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) is a widely used application for ... Your search returned 56 A kinase (PRKA) anchor protein 1 ELISA ELISA Kit across 2 suppliers. ... detecting and quantifying proteins and antigens from various samples. Target-specific ELISA kits are available from a variety ...
Critical role of cAMP-dependent protein kinase anchoring to the L-type calcium channel Cav1.2 via A-kinase anchor protein 150 ... McConnell BK, Popovic Z, Mai N et al (2009) Disruption of protein kinase a interaction with A-kinase-anchoring proteins in the ... Chen L, Kurokawa J, Kass RS (2005) Phosphorylation of the A-kinase-anchoring protein Yotiao contributes to protein kinase A ... Cloning and characterization of A-kinase anchor protein 100 (AKAP100). A protein that targets A-kinase to the sarcoplasmic ...
The A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs) are a group of structurally diverse proteins, which have the common function of binding ... AKAPs act as scaffold proteins wherein they bind PKA and other signaling proteins and physically tether these multi-protein ... "A-kinase-anchoring proteins". Journal of Cell Science. 118 (15): 3217-3220. doi:10.1242/jcs.02416. Schwartz JH (November 2001 ... to the regulatory subunit of protein kinase A (PKA) and confining the holoenzyme to discrete locations within the cell. At ...
Two scaffold proteins, the centrosomal and Golgi N-kinase anchoring protein (CG-NAP; also known as AKAP450) and the DEAD-box ... Centrosomal anchoring of the protein kinase CK1delta mediated by attachment to the large, coiled-coil scaffolding protein CG- ... Because CK1 isoforms are thought to be constitutively active protein kinases, the ability of FAM83 proteins to anchor CK1 ... The FAM83 proteins anchor various isoforms of the constitutively active kinase CK1 to specific subcellular locations. ...
Anchors them to the cytoplasmic face of the mitochondrial outer membrane or allows them to reside in the endoplasmic reticulum ... Differentially targeted protein that binds to type I and II regulatory subunits of protein kinase A. ... Differentially targeted protein that binds to type I and II regulatory subunits of protein kinase A. Anchors them to the ... "Identification of a novel protein kinase A anchoring protein that binds both type I and type II regulatory subunits.". Huang L. ...
View mouse Akap8l Chr17:32321425-32350581 with: sequences, polymorphisms, proteins, references, function, expression
Compare A-kinase anchoring protein 7 ELISA Kits from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, citations, ... A-kinase anchoring protein 7 ELISA Kits. The ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) is a well-established antibody-based ... Human A-kinase anchor protein 7 isoforms alpha and beta, AKAP7 ELISA Kit ... Bovine A-kinase anchor protein 7 isoforms alpha and beta (AKAP7) ELISA Kit ...
Compare A-kinase anchoring protein 10 ELISA Kits from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, citations, ... A-kinase anchoring protein 10 ELISA Kits. The ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) is a well-established antibody-based ... Your search returned 26 A-kinase anchoring protein 10 ELISA ELISA Kit across 5 suppliers. ...
Compare A-kinase anchoring protein 4 ELISA Kits from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, citations, ... A-kinase anchoring protein 4 ELISA Kits. The ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) is a widely used application for ... Your search returned 17 A-kinase anchoring protein 4 ELISA ELISA Kit across 4 suppliers. ... Watch Webinar: How To Get Speed and Depth in your Host Cell Protein (HCP) Analysis ...
... insulin-dependent IRS1 tyrosine phosphorylation in adipocytes by modulating the availability of IRS1 to IR tyrosine kinase. Its ... of a novel male germ cell-specific cGMP-dependent protein kinase-anchoring protein by cGMP-dependent protein kinase Ialpha.". ... of a novel male germ cell-specific cGMP-dependent protein kinase-anchoring protein by cGMP-dependent protein kinase Ialpha.". ... of a novel male germ cell-specific cGMP-dependent protein kinase-anchoring protein by cGMP-dependent protein kinase Ialpha.". ...
Synonyms: A-kinase anchor protein 350 kDa, A-kinase anchor protein 450 kDa, A-kinase anchor protein 9, AKAP 120-like protein, ... AKAP350, a multiply spliced protein kinase A-anchoring protein associated with centrosomes. Schmidt, P.H., Dransfield, D.T., ... Association of immature hypophosphorylated protein kinase cepsilon with an anchoring protein CG-NAP. Takahashi, M., Mukai, H., ... Cloning and characterization of a cDNA encoding an A-kinase anchoring protein located in the centrosome, AKAP450. Witczak, O., ...
Signaling at A-Kinase Anchoring Proteins Organizes Anesthesia-Sensitive Memory in Drosophila. Martin Schwaerzel, Andrea Jaeckel ... Signaling at A-Kinase Anchoring Proteins Organizes Anesthesia-Sensitive Memory in Drosophila ... Signaling at A-Kinase Anchoring Proteins Organizes Anesthesia-Sensitive Memory in Drosophila ... Signaling at A-Kinase Anchoring Proteins Organizes Anesthesia-Sensitive Memory in Drosophila ...
... pathophysiological role as well as highlights the potential benefits of targeting these proteins and their protein-protein ... A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs) and cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDEs) are essential enzymes in the cyclic ... "Roles of A-Kinase Anchoring Proteins and Phosphodiesterases in the Cardiovascular System." J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 5, no. 1: ... Roles of A-Kinase Anchoring Proteins and Phosphodiesterases in the Cardiovascular System. Maria Ercu 1. ...
A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs) directly bind PKA and recruit it to specific subcellular loci targeting the kinase activity ... A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs) directly bind PKA and recruit it to specific subcellular loci targeting the kinase activity ... Here, we will focus on mechanisms for targeting protein-protein interaction, disruptors that modulate down-stream cAMP ... Here, we will focus on mechanisms for targeting protein-protein interaction, disruptors that modulate down-stream cAMP ...
Anchoring, scaffolding and adapter proteins function to enhance the precision and directionality of these signaling events by ... A fundamental role for protein-protein interactions in the organization of signal transduction pathways is evident. ... The cAMP signaling pathway is organized by A-kinase anchoring proteins. This family of proteins assembles enzyme complexes ... Selected A-kinase anchoring protein signaling complexes are highlighted in this minireview. ...
cAMP signals are locally amplified by scaffold proteins (A Kinase Anchor Proteins, AKAPs) that tether cAMP-dependent Protein ... Abstract 1231: Competitive Displacement of A Kinase Anchor Protein 121 From Mitochondria Triggers DNA Damage And Lowers ... Abstract 1231: Competitive Displacement of A Kinase Anchor Protein 121 From Mitochondria Triggers DNA Damage And Lowers ... Abstract 1231: Competitive Displacement of A Kinase Anchor Protein 121 From Mitochondria Triggers DNA Damage And Lowers ...
... which have the common function of binding to the regulatory subunit of protein kinase A (PKA) and confining the holoenzyme to ... The DH domain is associated with guanine nucleotide exchange activation for the Rho/Rac family of small GTP binding proteins, ... Therefore, these isoforms function as scaffolding proteins to coordinate a Rho signaling pathway and, in addition, function as ... The A-kinase anchor proteins (AKAPs) are a group of structurally diverse proteins, ...
... anchor protein 10)*CCDS: 24821, 24821.1*OMIM: CARDIAC CONDUCTION DEFECT, LONGEVITY, A-KINASE ANCHOR PROTEIN 10; AKAP10*Gene ... A kinase (PRKA) anchor protein 10. Synonyms: 1500031L16Rik, B130049N18Rik, D-AKAP2. Gene nomenclature, locus information, and ...
A kinase (PRKA) anchor protein 6 explanation free. What is A kinase (PRKA) anchor protein 6? Meaning of A kinase (PRKA) anchor ... What does A kinase (PRKA) anchor protein 6 mean? ... Looking for online definition of A kinase (PRKA) anchor protein ... A kinase (PRKA) anchor protein 6 , definition of A kinase (PRKA) anchor protein 6 by Medical dictionary https://medical- ... anchor protein 6) AKAP6. A gene on chromosome 14q12 that encodes a member of the structurally diverse A-kinase anchor protein ( ...
Cav1.2 forms a complex with the beta2-adrenergic receptor, the trimeric GS protein, adenyl … ... The cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) regulates a wide array of cellular functions. In brain and heart PKA increases the ... Critical role of cAMP-dependent protein kinase anchoring to the L-type calcium channel Cav1.2 via A-kinase anchor protein 150 ... Here we demonstrate that the A-kinase anchor protein 150 (AKAP150) is critical for PKA-mediated regulation of Cav1.2 in the ...
... Wang, Mojin Sichuan ... Background and AimPreviously study showed that the loss of the control of cAMP-dependent protein kinase A RI (PKA RI)/ A-kinase ... A notably higher level of AKAP10 expression was found in CRC tissues at both mRNA and protein levels. Increased expression of ... anchoring proteins 10 (AKAP10) signaling pathway initiate dysregulation of cellular healthy physiology leading to tumorigenesis ...
... we found that internalization of CD59 was prevented by the protein kinase C inhibitor staurosporine and by the protein kinase A ... Endocytosis of GPI-anchored proteins in human lymphocytes: role of glycolipid-based domains, actin cytoskeleton, and protein ... Endocytosis of GPI-anchored proteins in human lymphocytes: role of glycolipid-based domains, actin cytoskeleton, and protein ... This process, which is regulated by both protein kinase C and A activity, is tightly controlled by the dynamic organization of ...
... protein kinase A anchoring protein 1 explanation free. What is protein kinase A anchoring protein 1? Meaning of protein kinase ... A anchoring protein 1 medical term. What does protein kinase A anchoring protein 1 mean? ... Looking for online definition of protein kinase A anchoring protein 1 in the Medical Dictionary? ... Protein kinase A anchoring protein 1 , definition of protein kinase A anchoring protein 1 by Medical dictionary https://medical ...
The encoded protein binds to type I and type II regulatory subunits of PKA and anchors them to the mitochondrion. This protein ... which have the common function of binding to the regulatory subunit of protein kinase A (PKA) and confining the holoenzyme to ... The A-kinase anchor proteins (AKAPs) are a group of structurally diverse proteins, ... Protein kinase A1; D-AKAP-1; A-kinase anchor protein 149 kDa; protein kinase A anchoring protein 1; spermatid A-kinase anchor ...
- Chen L, Kurokawa J, Kass RS (2005) Phosphorylation of the A-kinase-anchoring protein Yotiao contributes to protein kinase A regulation of a heart potassium channel. (springer.com)
- Regulates insulin-dependent IRS1 tyrosine phosphorylation in adipocytes by modulating the availability of IRS1 to IR tyrosine kinase. (uniprot.org)
- Cyclic AMP is a ubiquitous intracellular second messenger involved in the regulation of a wide variety of cellular processes, a majority of which act through the cAMP - protein kinase A (PKA) signaling pathway and involve PKA phosphorylation of specific substrates. (frontiersin.org)
- Here, we report that the PKA-RII-specific AKAP inhibitory peptide AKAP-IS perturbs the distribution of PKA-RII and diminishes the PKA-dependent phosphorylation of HERG protein. (deepdyve.com)
- The beta 2 adrenergic receptor (beta 2AR) undergoes desensitization by a process involving its phosphorylation by both protein kinase A (PKA) and G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs). (caltech.edu)
- The protein kinase A-anchoring protein AKAP79 influences beta 2AR phosphorylation by complexing PKA with the receptor at the membrane. (caltech.edu)
- It has been proposed that the selective phosphorylation of specific proteins by PKA is achieved in part by the subcellular compartmentalization of PKA ( 2 ). (pnas.org)
- Okadaic acid inhibits many protein phosphatases, including protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) and PP2A, that can reverse PKA-catalyzed phosphorylation. (pnas.org)
- Several other proteins with AKAP domains are known to be phosphorylated ( 9 ), and it was later shown that phosphorylation of the consensus PKA substrate site, Ser-883, in BIG1 was required for its nuclear accumulation after elevation of intracellular cAMP ( 10 ). (pnas.org)
- Protein phosphorylation is controlled dynamically by kinases that add and phosphatases that remove phosphate. (pnas.org)
- However, little is known about the molecular organization of the TRPV1 phosphorylation complex and specifically about scaffolding proteins that position the protein kinase A (PKA) holoenzyme proximal to TRPV1 for effective and selective regulation of the receptor. (elsevier.com)
- As a scaffolding protein for Protein Kinases A and C (PKA and PKC, respectively), AKAP facilitates phosphorylation and sensitization of TRPA1 in ex vivo sensory neuronal preparations. (utsystem.edu)
- Cardiac contractility is regulated by dynamic phosphorylation of sarcomeric proteins by kinases such as cAMP-activated protein kinase A (PKA). (biomedcentral.com)
- Cardiac Myosin Binding Protein-C (cMyBPC) and cardiac troponin I (cTNI) are hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM)-causing sarcomeric proteins which regulate contractility in response to PKA phosphorylation. (biomedcentral.com)
- As phosphorylation could be involved in the regulation of protein complexes, both PfAKAL and Pf14-3-3I phosphorylation was studied using a radiolabel kinase activity assay. (beds.ac.uk)
- Protein phosphorylation is one of the most common post-translational modifications involved in cellular communication. (beds.ac.uk)
- The phosphorylation status of a protein is determined by the balance between the activities of kinases and phosphatases. (beds.ac.uk)
- the interaction with 14-3-3 proteins requires phosphorylation on Thr-735 and, sequesters ABL1 into the cytoplasm. (rcsb.org)
- A fundamental mechanism underlying neuromodulation is the phosphorylation of ion channels by protein kinases ( Levitan and Kaczmarek, 1997 ). (jneurosci.org)
- PIN-mediated auxin transport is critically dependent on phosphorylation by protein kinases ( Barbosa and Schwechheimer, 2014 ). (biologists.org)
- Subsequently, the cytosolic protein p26, a pyrophosphatase, is inhibited by phosphorylation, possibly resulting in arrest of synthesis of molecular building blocks, required for tube elongation. (wikipedia.org)
- A protein kinase is a kinase enzyme that modifies other proteins by chemically adding phosphate groups to them (phosphorylation). (wikipedia.org)
- Phosphorylation usually results in a functional change of the target protein (substrate) by changing enzyme activity, cellular location, or association with other proteins. (wikipedia.org)
- Recent evidence preprinted at BioRxiv suggests widespread protein phosphorylation on multiple non-canonical amino acids, including motifs containing phosphorylated histidine, aspartate, glutamate, arginine and lysine in human HeLa cell extracts. (wikipedia.org)
- Kinases are turned on or off by phosphorylation (sometimes by the kinase itself - cis-phosphorylation/autophosphorylation), by binding of activator proteins or inhibitor proteins, or small molecules, or by controlling their location in the cell relative to their substrates. (wikipedia.org)
- While MAP kinases are serine/threonine-specific, they are activated by combined phosphorylation on serine/threonine and tyrosine residues. (wikipedia.org)
- They won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1992 for their work on phosphorylation and dephosphorylation and how it relates to protein kinase A activity. (wikipedia.org)
- When TGF-α binds to EGFR it dimerizes triggering phosphorylation of a protein-tyrosine kinase. (wikipedia.org)
- PKCε and other PKC isoforms require phosphorylation at sites Threonine-566, Threonine-710, and Serine-729 for kinase maturation. (wikipedia.org)
- Lck thus serves as an instructive example that protein phosphorylation may result in both activation and inhibition. (wikipedia.org)
- Upon phosphorylation, these tyrosines serve as docking domains for SH2 domains containing proteins. (wikipedia.org)
- Studies performed with fusion protein CD25-SCIMP showed its ability to induce calcium release and Erk phosphorylation upon anti-CD25 antibody treatment. (wikipedia.org)
- This relaxation, in turn, relies on removing the stimulus for contraction, which depends on intracellular calcium ion concentrations and is tightly linked with phosphorylation of the light chain of the contractile protein myosin. (wikipedia.org)
- Calcium-binding tyrosine phosphorylation-regulated protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CABYR gene. (wikipedia.org)
- To reach fertilization competence, spermatozoa undergo a series of morphological and molecular maturational processes, termed capacitation, involving protein tyrosine phosphorylation and increased intracellular calcium. (wikipedia.org)
- The type II receptor is a serine/threonine receptor kinase, which catalyzes the phosphorylation of the Type I receptor. (wikipedia.org)
- Recently, it has been discover that ADCY2 can activated by a Raf kinase-mediated serine phosphorylation. (wikipedia.org)
- Dolichol kinase catalyzes CTP-mediated phosphorylation of dolichol, the terminal step in de novo dolichyl monophosphate biosynthesis. (wikipedia.org)
- A common example of how scaffolds enhance specificity is a scaffold that binds a protein kinase and its substrate, thereby ensuring specific kinase phosphorylation. (wikipedia.org)
- In three-kinase signaling cascades, scaffolds bind all three kinases, enhancing kinase specificity and restricting signal amplification by limiting kinase phosphorylation to only one downstream target. (wikipedia.org)
- The anchor attachment protein 1 contains an N-terminal signal sequence, 1 cAMP- and cGMP-dependent protein kinase phosphorylation site, 1 leucine zipper pattern, 2 potential N-glycosylation sites, and 8 putative transmembrane domains. (wikipedia.org)
- When a bone morphogenetic protein binds to a receptor (BMP type 1 receptor kinase) it causes SMAD9 to interact with SMAD anchor for receptor activation (SARA).The binding of ligands causes the phosphorylation of the SMAD9 protein and the dissociation from SARA and the association with SMAD4. (wikipedia.org)
- LENG9 is predicted to undergo post-translational modifications such as phosphorylation, N-terminal acetylation, sumoylation, and C-terminal Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor modification. (wikipedia.org)
- LENG9 contains numerous phosphorylation sites distributed in the protein sequence, as show in the diagram to the right. (wikipedia.org)
- Phosphorylation by protein kinase C or binding to calcium-calmodulin inhibits its association with actin and with the plasma membrane, leading to its presence in the cytoplasm. (wikipedia.org)
- Characterization of the phosphorylation sites in the chicken and bovine myristoylated alanine-rich C kinase substrate protein, a prominent cellular substrate for protein kinase C". J. Biol. (wikipedia.org)
- It plays a key role in the inhibition of rhodopsin kinase, a molecule which regulates the phosphorylation of rhodopsin. (wikipedia.org)
- In vitro experiment demonstrated that the interaction inhibited the phosphorylation of this protein by protein kinase C and protein kinase CK2. (wikipedia.org)
- The phosphorylation of these proteins leads to the recruitment of the Neural Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (N-Wasp) to invadopodia, which requires Arp2/3, to activate actin polymerization and thus invadopodia elongation. (wikipedia.org)
- The first component is the cooperative binding and phosphorylation of artemis by the catalytic subunit of the DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PKcs). (wikipedia.org)
- Your search returned 56 A kinase (PRKA) anchor protein 1 ELISA ELISA Kit across 2 suppliers. (biocompare.com)
- These mAKAP6 fl mutant mice possess loxP sites flanking exon 9 of the A kinase (PRKA) anchor protein 6 ( Akap6 ) gene, a scaffold protein located in the nuclear envelope of striated myocytes. (jax.org)
- Alternate splicing of this gene results in at least two isoforms that localize to the centrosome and the Golgi apparatus, and interact with numerous signaling proteins from multiple signal transduction pathways. (nih.gov)
- p>Describes annotations that are concluded from looking at variations or changes in a gene product such as mutations or abnormal levels and includes techniques such as knockouts, overexpression, anti-sense experiments and use of specific protein inhibitors. (uniprot.org)
- We demonstrate that αKAP, a non‐kinase protein encoded by a gene within the gene of α‐CaM kinase II, can target the CaM kinase II holoenzyme to the SR membrane. (embopress.org)
- CaM kinase II orchestrates many cellular functions in response to Ca 2+ ‐based signals, including neurotransmitter synthesis and release, membrane excitability, synaptic plasticity, cell cycle and gene expression (reviewed in Braun and Schulman, 1995 ). (embopress.org)
- We hypothesized that the targeted disruption of the gene for the ubiquitously expressed RIIα subunit would reveal those tissues and signaling events that require anchored PKA. (pnas.org)
- AKAP5 (A-Kinase Anchoring Protein 5) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
- This gene encodes a member of the A-kinase anchor protein family. (nih.gov)
- Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include nucleotide binding and protein kinase A binding . (genecards.org)
- Mutations in each of these genes reduces the abundance of surface protein mRNA and the expression of the corresponding gene products. (mirc-undernet.org)
- A-kinase anchor protein 4 (AKAP4) gene and protein expression was monitored by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), reverse transcription (RT)-PCR and Western blotting in normal colon tissue lysate, normal colon epithelial cells and in colon cancer cell lines viz. (biomedcentral.com)
- Our studies showed that AKAP4 gene and protein expression was expressed in all colon cancer cells while no expression was detectable in normal colon cells. (biomedcentral.com)
- This is the case of A36R of Vaccinia virus, Tir (translocated intimin receptor) of pathogenic E.coli and possibly Citrobacter, CagA (cytotoxin-associated gene A) of H.pylori, or AnkA (ankyrin repeat-containing protein A) of A.phagocytophilum. (rcsb.org)
- p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence. (uniprot.org)
- section indicates the name(s) of the gene(s) that code for the protein sequence(s) described in the entry. (uniprot.org)
- It has been reported that this protein is important for maintaining heart rate and myocardial contractility through its targeting of protein kinase A. In mouse, defects of this gene lead to cardiac arrhythmias and premature death. (jax.org)
- We have previously identified NFAT (nuclear factor of activated T-cells) as a key regulator of insulin gene transcription in pancreatic β-cells that is activated by the calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein phosphatase 2B (calcineurin) in response to increased [Ca 2+ ] i ( 10 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- Mice that lacked the gene for the AKAP150 anchoring protein produced less insulin from beta cells in the islets of Langerhans. (innovations-report.com)
- Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 ( LRRK2 ), a gene mutated in autosomal dominant Parkinson's disease (PD) and a risk locus for sporadic PD [ 1 , 2 ], encodes a large and complex protein ( Figure 1A ) with dual enzymatic function. (portlandpress.com)
- The protein encoded by this gene is involved in the maintenance of Golgi structure and function through its interaction with the integral membrane protein giantin. (genecards.org)
- ACBD3 (Acyl-CoA Binding Domain Containing 3) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
- A-kinase anchor protein 7 isoform gamma is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the AKAP7 gene. (wikipedia.org)
- A-kinase anchor protein 8-like is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AKAP8L gene. (wikipedia.org)
- A-kinase anchor protein 6 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the AKAP6 gene. (wikipedia.org)
- Cbl (named after Casitas B-lineage Lymphoma) is a mammalian gene encoding the protein CBL which is an E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase involved in cell signalling and protein ubiquitination. (wikipedia.org)
- A-kinase anchor protein 5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AKAP5 gene. (wikipedia.org)
- A-kinase anchor protein 8 is an enzyme that, in humans, is encoded by the AKAP8 gene. (wikipedia.org)
- A-kinase anchor protein 11 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the AKAP11 gene. (wikipedia.org)
- A-kinase anchor protein 4 is a scaffold protein that in humans is encoded by the AKAP4 gene. (wikipedia.org)
- An X-linked gene encodes a major human sperm fibrous sheath protein, hAKAP82. (wikipedia.org)
- LIM domain binding 3 (LDB3), also known as Z-band alternatively spliced PDZ-motif (ZASP), is a protein which in humans is encoded by the LDB3 gene. (wikipedia.org)
- Sperm surface protein Sp17 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SPA17 gene. (wikipedia.org)
- This gene encodes a protein present at the cell surface. (wikipedia.org)
- Lipopolysaccharide-responsive and beige-like anchor protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LRBA gene. (wikipedia.org)
- In mouse, this syndrome is reproduced in strains with a mutation in the 'beige' gene that results in proteins lacking the BEACH (beige and CHS1) domain and C-terminal WD repeats. (wikipedia.org)
- Synaptophysin, also known as the major synaptic vesicle protein p38, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SYP gene. (wikipedia.org)
- The exact function of the protein is unknown: it interacts with the essential synaptic vesicle protein synaptobrevin, but when the synaptophysin gene is experimentally inactivated in animals, they still develop and function normally. (wikipedia.org)
- Transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-α) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TGFA gene. (wikipedia.org)
- Protein kinase C epsilon type (PKCε) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PRKCE gene. (wikipedia.org)
- Human PRKCE gene (Ensembl ID: ENSG00000171132) encodes the protein PKCε (Uniprot ID: Q02156), which is 737 amino acids in length with a molecular weight of 83.7 kDa. (wikipedia.org)
- The PKC family of serine-threonine kinases contains thirteen PKC isoforms, and each isoform can be distinguished by differences in primary structure, gene expression, subcellular localization, and modes of activation. (wikipedia.org)
- The protein encoded by this gene is one of the PKC family members. (wikipedia.org)
- Protein kinase C beta type is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PRKCB gene. (wikipedia.org)
- Caveolin-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CAV1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
- The scaffolding protein encoded by this gene is the main component of the caveolae plasma membranes found in most cell types. (wikipedia.org)
- The gene is a tumor suppressor gene candidate and a negative regulator of the Ras-p42/44 MAP kinase cascade. (wikipedia.org)
- Sperm-associated antigen 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SPAG1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
- The protein expressed by this gene is recognized by anti-sperm agglutinating antibodies from an infertile woman. (wikipedia.org)
- Two transcript variants of this gene encode the same protein. (wikipedia.org)
- The protein encoded by this gene is a protein-tyrosine kinase that is predominantly expressed in hemopoietic cell types, and belongs to the Src family of tyrosine kinases. (wikipedia.org)
- HCK has been shown to interact with: ADAM15 BCR gene, Cbl gene, ELMO1, Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor receptor, RAPGEF1, RAS p21 protein activator 1, and RASA3. (wikipedia.org)
- Ephrin A5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the EFNA5 gene. (wikipedia.org)
- Pericentrin (kendrin), also known as PCNT and pericentrin-B (PCNTB), is a protein which in humans is encoded by the PCNT gene on chromosome 21. (wikipedia.org)
- The protein encoded by this gene is expressed in the cytoplasm and centrosome throughout the cell cycle, and to a lesser extent, in the nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
- The catalytic subunit α of protein kinase A is a key regulatory enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PRKACA gene. (wikipedia.org)
- Myotubularin related protein 12 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MTMR12 gene. (wikipedia.org)
- The protein encoded by this gene functions as an adaptor subunit in a complex with an active PtdIns(3)P 3-phosphatase. (wikipedia.org)
- Ras homolog gene family, member B, also known as RHOB, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the RHOB gene. (wikipedia.org)
- Brefeldin A-inhibited guanine nucleotide-exchange protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ARFGEF1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
- The protein encoded by this gene is involved in the activation of ARFs by accelerating replacement of bound GDP with GTP. (wikipedia.org)
- RhoC (Ras homolog gene family, member C) is a small (~21 kDa) signaling G protein (more specifically a GTPase), and is a member of the Rac subfamily of the family Rho family of GTPases. (wikipedia.org)
- Calmodulin 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CALM1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
- Uncharacterized protein C6orf10 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the C6orf10 gene. (wikipedia.org)
- Probable ATP-dependent RNA helicase DDX5 also known as DEAD box protein 5 or RNA helicase p68 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the DDX5 gene. (wikipedia.org)
- This gene encodes a DEAD box protein, which is an RNA-dependent ATPase, and also a proliferation-associated nuclear antigen, specifically reacting with the simian virus 40 tumor antigen. (wikipedia.org)
- Sperm-associated antigen 6 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SPAG6 gene. (wikipedia.org)
- The protein encoded by this gene localizes to the principal piece of the sperm flagellum in association with the fibrous sheath and exhibits calcium-binding when phosphorylated during capacitation. (wikipedia.org)
- Transcript variants of this gene encode multiple protein isoforms. (wikipedia.org)
- Deubiquitinating protein VCIP135 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the VCPIP1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
- Guanine nucleotide-binding protein subunit alpha-13 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GNA13 gene. (wikipedia.org)
- Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene, and a brefeldin A-sensitive association of RII-alpha protein with one of the isoforms has been demonstrated in the Golgi apparatus. (wikipedia.org)
- 43 kDa receptor-associated protein of the synapse (rapsyn) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RAPSN gene. (wikipedia.org)
- Dual specificity protein phosphatase 5 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the DUSP5 gene. (wikipedia.org)
- The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the dual specificity protein phosphatase subfamily. (wikipedia.org)
- Acid-sensing ion channel 2 (ASIC2) also known as amiloride-sensitive cation channel 1, neuronal (ACCN1) or brain sodium channel 1 (BNaC1) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ASIC2 gene. (wikipedia.org)
- The ASIC2 gene is one of the five paralogous genes that encode proteins that form trimeric acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) in mammals. (wikipedia.org)
- This gene encodes a member of the ASIC/ENaC superfamily of proteins. (wikipedia.org)
- Condensin complex subunit 1 also known as chromosome-associated protein D2 (CAP-D2) or non-SMC condensin I complex subunit D2 (NCAPD2) or XCAP-D2 homolog is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NCAPD2 gene. (wikipedia.org)
- DNA replication licensing factor MCM2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MCM2 gene. (wikipedia.org)
- The protein encoded by this gene is one of the highly conserved mini-chromosome maintenance proteins (MCM) that are involved in the initiation of eukaryotic genome replication. (wikipedia.org)
- Serine/threonine-protein kinase N1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PKN1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
- The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the protein kinase C superfamily. (wikipedia.org)
- Cysteine and glycine-rich protein 3 gene codes for the Muscle LIM Protein (MLP) or CSRP3, a small 194 amino acid protein, which is specifically expressed in skeletal muscles and cardiac muscle. (wikipedia.org)
- Dynein intermediate chain 1, axonemal is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DNAI1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
- This gene encodes an intermediate chain dynein, belonging to the large family of motor proteins. (wikipedia.org)
- Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GABRB3 gene. (wikipedia.org)
- Due to alternative splicing, the gene codes for many protein isoforms, all being subunits in the GABAA receptor, a ligand-gated ion channel. (wikipedia.org)
- Pancreatic secretory granule membrane major glycoprotein GP2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GP2 gene. (wikipedia.org)
- Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 1 (Nrf1) also known as nuclear factor erythroid-2-like 1 (NFE2L1) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NFE2L1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
- Casein Kinase 2 was shown to phosphorylate Ser497 of NFE2L1, which attenuates the activity of NFE2L1 on proteasome gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
- PSD-95 (postsynaptic density protein 95) also known as SAP-90 (synapse-associated protein 90) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DLG4 (discs large homolog 4) gene. (wikipedia.org)
- The three copies within the gene have different binding partners, due to amino acid substitutions within the PSD-95 protein and its ligands. (wikipedia.org)
- It is caused by the presence of mutations in both copies of the gene for the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein. (wikipedia.org)
- In humans dolichol kinase is encoded by the DOLK gene. (wikipedia.org)
- Telethonin, also known as Tcap, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TCAP gene. (wikipedia.org)
- Telethonin specifically interacts with the pro-apoptotic protein Siva, suggesting that Telethonin may be involved in the mechanism underlying Coxsackievirus B3 infection in acute and chronic myocarditis Telethonin was also identified to be targeted and regulated by transcriptional activators CLOCK and BMAL1, thus demonstrating that TCAP is a circadian regulated gene. (wikipedia.org)
- Beta-chimaerin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CHN2 gene. (wikipedia.org)
- This gene is a member of the chimerin family and encodes a protein with a phorbol-ester/DAG-type zinc finger, a Rho-GAP domain and an SH2 domain. (wikipedia.org)
- Transmembrane emp24 domain-containing protein 10 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TMED10 gene. (wikipedia.org)
- This gene is a member of the EMP24/GP25L/p24 family and encodes a protein with a GOLD domain. (wikipedia.org)
- PTK2 protein tyrosine kinase 2 (PTK2), also known as focal adhesion kinase (FAK), is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the PTK2 gene. (wikipedia.org)
- This gene encodes a cytosolic protein tyrosine kinase that is found concentrated in the focal adhesions that form among cells attaching to extracellular matrix constituents. (wikipedia.org)
- Receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-Β ligand (RANKL), also known as tumor necrosis factor ligand superfamily member 11 (TNFSF11), TNF-related activation-induced cytokine (TRANCE), osteoprotegerin ligand (OPGL), and osteoclast differentiation factor (ODF), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TNFSF11 gene. (wikipedia.org)
- RANKL is an apoptosis regulator gene, a binding partner of osteoprotegerin (OPG), a ligand for the receptor RANK and controls cell proliferation by modifying protein levels of Id4, Id2 and cyclin D1. (wikipedia.org)
- While the function and significance of A kinase anchor protein 11(AKAP11) is presently unknown, AKAP11 is immediately upstream from RANKL for all species that has a RANKL gene. (wikipedia.org)
- GSK3B interacting protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GSKIP gene. (wikipedia.org)
- This gene encodes a protein that is involved as a negative regulator of GSK3-beta in the Wnt signaling pathway. (wikipedia.org)
- Mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 3 also known as SMAD family member 3 or SMAD3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SMAD3 gene. (wikipedia.org)
- A similar screen done in the Caenorhabditis elegans protein SMA (from gene sma for small body size) revealed three genes, Sma-2, Sma-3, and Sma-4, that had similar mutant phenotypes to those of the TGF-B like receptor Daf-4. (wikipedia.org)
- Radial spoke head protein 3 homolog (RSPH3), also known as radial spoke head-like protein 2 (RSHL2), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RSPH3 gene. (wikipedia.org)
- Guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(k) subunit alpha is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GNAI3 gene. (wikipedia.org)
- The protein encoded by this gene presumably functions in GPI anchoring at the GPI transfer step. (wikipedia.org)
- Vpu is an accessory protein that in HIV is encoded by the vpu gene. (wikipedia.org)
- citation needed] Reelin's name comes from the abnormal reeling gait of reeler mice, which were later found to have a deficiency of this brain protein and were homozygous for mutation of the RELN gene. (wikipedia.org)
- It was then demonstrated that the mouse disabled homologue 1 (Dab1) gene is responsible for the phenotypes of these mutant mice, as Dab1 protein was absent (yotari) or only barely detectable (scrambler) in these mutants. (wikipedia.org)
- So CCDS's gene number prediction represents a lower bound on the total number of human protein-coding genes. (wikipedia.org)
- AMY-1-associating protein expressed in testis 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MAATS1 (formerly known as C3orf15) gene. (wikipedia.org)
- Mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 9 also known as SMAD9, SMAD8, and MADH6 is a protein that in humans is enocoded by the SMAD9 gene. (wikipedia.org)
- Leukocyte Receptor Cluster Member 9 (LENG 9) is an uncharacterized protein encoded by the LENG9 gene. (wikipedia.org)
- Myristoylated alanine-rich C-kinase substrate is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MARCKS gene. (wikipedia.org)
- The protein encoded by this gene is a substrate for protein kinase C. It is localized to the plasma membrane and is an actin filament crosslinking protein. (wikipedia.org)
- 1991). "The human myristoylated alanine-rich C kinase substrate (MARCKS) gene (MACS). (wikipedia.org)
- In humans, the recoverin protein is encoded by the RCVRN gene. (wikipedia.org)
- The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the LAR protein-tyrosine phosphatase-interacting protein (liprin) family. (wikipedia.org)
- DNA repair protein XRCC4 also known as X-ray repair cross-complementing protein 4 or XRCC4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the XRCC4 gene. (wikipedia.org)
- Since XRCC4 is the key protein that enables interaction of LigIV to damaged DNA and therefore ligation of the ends, mutations in the XRCC4 gene were found to cause embryonic lethality in mice and developmental inhibition and immunodeficiency in humans. (wikipedia.org)
- DSBs that are not efficiently repaired may result in the loss of important protein coding genes and regulatory sequences required for gene expression necessary for the life of a cell. (wikipedia.org)
- This gene contains eight exons and three mRNA transcript variants, which encode two different protein isoforms. (wikipedia.org)
- This modification increases Gbeta gamma subunit binding to GRK2 and thus enhances the ability of the kinase to translocate to the membrane and phosphorylate the receptor. (caltech.edu)
- An A- kinase anchoring protein is required for Protein kinase A regulatory subunit localization and morphology of actin structures during oogenesis in Drosophila. (nialoasacomhigh.ml)
- Anchoring protein that binds preferentially to the type I regulatory subunit of c-AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA type I) and targets it to distinct subcellular compartments. (uniprot.org)
- RII-binding site, predicted to form an amphipathic helix, could participate in protein-protein interactions with a complementary surface on the R-subunit dimer. (rcsb.org)
- Nonetheless, a reduction in both catalytic (C) subunit protein levels and total kinase activity was observed. (pnas.org)
- The encoded protein binds to the RII-beta regulatory subunit of PKA, and also to protein. (genecards.org)
- This protein has a cell cycle-dependent interaction with the RII subunit of PKA. (wikipedia.org)
- It contains RGS (regulator of G protein signalling) domains, in addition to a PKA-RII subunit-binding domain. (wikipedia.org)
- The catalytic subunit contains the active site, a series of canonical residues found in protein kinases that bind and hydrolyse ATP and a domain to bind the regulatory subunit. (wikipedia.org)
- The Gs alpha subunit of the stimulated G protein complex exchanges GDP for GTP and is released from the complex. (wikipedia.org)
- Once released from their inhibitory Regulatory subunit, the catalytic subunits can go on to phosphorylate a huge number of other proteins in the minimal substrate context Arg-Arg-X-Ser/Thr. (wikipedia.org)
- Below is a list of the steps involved in PKA activation: Cytosolic cAMP increases Two cAMP molecules bind to each PKA regulatory subunit The regulatory subunits move out of the active sites of the catalytic subunits and the R2C2 complex dissociates The free catalytic subunits interact with proteins to phosphorylate Ser or Thr residues. (wikipedia.org)
- The encoded protein contains an RII-binding domain, and is predicted to participate in protein-protein interactions with the R-subunit of the PKA. (wikipedia.org)
- Protein kinase A catalytic subunit (PKA Cα) is a member of the AGC kinase family, and contributes to the control of cellular processes that include glucose metabolism, cell division, and contextual memory. (wikipedia.org)
- CAP-D2 is a subunit of condensin I, a large protein complex involved in chromosome condensation. (wikipedia.org)
- This subunit has been shown to interact with and suppress the transcriptional activity of the cAMP responsive element binding protein 1 (CREB1) in activated T cells. (wikipedia.org)
- The G protein's α subunit, together with the bound GTP, can then dissociate from the β and γ subunits to further affect intracellular signaling proteins or target functional proteins directly depending on the α subunit type (Gαs, Gαi/o, Gαq/11, Gα12/13). (wikipedia.org)
- This enzyme is insensitive to Ca2+/calmodulin, and is stimulated by the G protein beta and gamma subunit complex. (wikipedia.org)
- This subunit has been shown to regulate protein transport from endosomes to the Golgi apparatus and further to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). (wikipedia.org)
- The alpha and beta subunit are similar in structure and both contain the following domains: N-terminus - a bHLH domain for DNA binding central region - Per-ARNT-Sim (PAS) domain, which facilitates heterodimerization C-terminus - recruits transcriptional coregulatory proteins The following are members of the human HIF family: The HIF signaling cascade mediates the effects of hypoxia, the state of low oxygen concentration, on the cell. (wikipedia.org)
- Here we demonstrate that the A-kinase anchor protein 150 (AKAP150) is critical for PKA-mediated regulation of Cav1.2 in the brain. (nih.gov)
- The encoded protein is part of the spliceosome complex and is involved in the regulation of alternate splicing in some mRNA precursors. (nih.gov)
- It is predominantly expressed in cerebral cortex and may anchor the PKA protein at postsynaptic densities (PSD) and be involved in the regulation of postsynaptic events. (genecards.org)
- Interestingly, in the adult heart, it appears that the pleiotropic effects of the mitochondrial fusion proteins, Mfn2 (endoplasmic reticulum-tethering, mitophagy) and OPA1 (cristae remodeling, regulation of apoptosis, and energy production) may play more important roles than their pro-fusion effects. (springer.com)
- Originally thought to have only a structural role, cMyBPC has been shown to play an important role in the regulation of cardiac contractility [ 1 ], for which the N-terminal region of the protein appears to be crucial. (biomedcentral.com)
- In eukaryotic cells, protein kinases are known to play key roles in cell cycle regulation and signaling pathways. (beds.ac.uk)
- Given the function of the sole CrRLK1L protein in a charophycean alga, the possibility of a conserved role in detection and/or regulation of cell wall integrity throughout the Strephtophytes is discussed. (frontiersin.org)
- Our discovery that anchored enzymes contribute to the regulation of cellular events that underlie diabetes may help us to move more rapidly toward new therapies to control this increasingly prevalent metabolic disease," commented John Scott, Edwin G. Krebs-Hilma Speights Professor of Pharmacology at the University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle and an investigator of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute. (innovations-report.com)
- The encoded protein is localized to the sperm flagellum and may be involved in the regulation of sperm motility. (wikipedia.org)
- Protein kinase A has several functions in the cell, including regulation of glycogen, sugar, and lipid metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
- There are two types of CaM kinase: Specialized CaM kinases, such as the myosin light chain kinase that phosphorylates myosin, causing smooth muscles to contract Multifunctional CaM kinases, also collectively called CaM kinase II, which play a role in neurotransmitter secretion, transcription factor regulation, and glycogen metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
- Brains of mice with conditional knockout of Nfe2l1 in neuronal cells showed decreased proteasome activity and accumulation of ubiquitin-conjugated proteins, and down regulation of genes encoding the 20S core and 19S regulatory sub-complexes of the 26S proteasome. (wikipedia.org)
- This protein was shown to be a dendritic cell survival factor and is involved in the regulation of T cell-dependent immune response. (wikipedia.org)
- This protein was shown to activate antiapoptotic kinase AKT/PKB through a signaling complex involving SRC kinase and tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6), which indicated this protein may have a role in the regulation of cell apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
- The linker region between MH1 and MH2 is not just a connector, but also plays a role in protein function and regulation. (wikipedia.org)
- This corona is formed by a dynamic network of resident and temporary proteins implicated in the spindle checkpoint, in MTs anchoring and in the regulation of chromosome behavior. (wikipedia.org)
- But how is response specificity achieved with kinases designed to recognize many substrates? (embopress.org)
- Kinases can be spatially positioned near their substrates at all times, or translocate to their substrates subsequent to activation in order to improve speed and specificity in response to cell stimulation. (embopress.org)
- These all target, with characteristic binding specificity, an ancient protein interaction surface on evolutionarily related but physiologically clearly distinct three MAPKs (JNK, ERK, and p38). (embopress.org)
- Drugs targeting RGS proteins can be divided into five groups: 1) potentiators of endogenous agonist function, 2) potentiators/desensitization blockers of exogenous GPCR agonists, 3) specificity enhancers of exogenous agonists, 4) antagonists of effector signaling by an RGS protein, and 5) RGS agonists. (aspetjournals.org)
- Each FAM83 protein exhibited a distinct pattern of subcellular distribution and colocalized with the CK1 isoform(s) to which it bound. (sciencemag.org)
- This led to the discovery of AKAP18e: an exclusively nuclear isoform that lacks a PKA-anchoring helix. (elsevier.com)
- Isoform vlAKAP: Anchoring protein that mediates the subcellular compartmentation of protein kinase A (PKA). (nih.gov)
- PKA, protein kinase A. ( B ) Western blot analysis of the brainstem lysate witha polyclonal antibody raised against the C-terminal part of the 5-HT 4( a ) receptor isoform. (sciencemag.org)
- PKCε is an isoform of the large PKC family of protein kinases that play many roles in different tissues. (wikipedia.org)
- In aggregate, Raf kinase associates with adenylyl cyclases and is isoform-selective, which includes adenylyl cyclase type 2. (wikipedia.org)
- Targeting proceeds via a mechanism whereby association with the PKA holoenzyme masks a polybasic nuclear localization signal on the anchoring protein. (elsevier.com)
- This led to the hypothesis that the subcellular localization of anchored PKA controls what proteins are regulated by the kinase. (wikipedia.org)
- M-line as well as plasma membrane localization of MLP has also been observed, however, the protein associations mediating this subcellular distribution are currently unknown. (wikipedia.org)
- Biochemical and functional studies have been performed for some of these mutant proteins, and reveal aberrant localization and interaction patterns, leading to impaired molecular and cellular functions. (wikipedia.org)
- Phosphorylates multiple receptor tyrosine kinases and more particularly promotes endocytosis of EGFR , facilitates the formation of neuromuscular synapses through MUSK , inhibits PDGFRB -mediated chemotaxis and modulates the endocytosis of activated B-cell receptor complexes. (rcsb.org)
- Tyrosine kinases (PTK) represent only 10% of all protein kinases, although they are the most important protein kinases. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Targeting key tyrosine kinases (TKs) with TK antibodies and inhibitors has a remarkable achievement in cancer management. (frontiersin.org)
- TK - containing the tyrosine kinases. (wikipedia.org)
- It is a member of the Src family of tyrosine kinases. (wikipedia.org)
- The encoded protein is a member of the FAK subfamily of protein tyrosine kinases that included PYK2, but lacks significant sequence similarity to kinases from other subfamilies. (wikipedia.org)
- PRKCB1 has been shown to interact with RIPK4, beta adrenergic receptor kinase, PDLIM5 and GNB2L1. (wikipedia.org)
- Feronia, also known as FER or protein Sirene, is a recognition receptor kinase found in plants. (wikipedia.org)
- FER plays a significant part in the plant immune system as a receptor kinase which assists in immune signaling within plants, plant growth, and plant reproduction. (wikipedia.org)
- Feronia (FER) is a Arabidopsis malectin-like receptor kinase for binding to the Rapid Alkalinization Factor (RALF) which has been discovered to be linked to the plasma membrane H+-ATPase. (wikipedia.org)
- SMAD9 is a receptor regulated SMAD (R-SMAD) and is activated by bone morphogenetic protein type 1 receptor kinase. (wikipedia.org)
- Cloning and characterization of A-kinase anchor protein 100 (AKAP100). (wikipedia.org)
- Improved diagnosis and treatment of immunologic infertility, as well as identification of proteins for targeted contraception, are dependent on the identification and characterization of relevant sperm antigens. (wikipedia.org)
- Selected A-kinase anchoring protein signaling complexes are highlighted in this minireview. (ovid.com)
- The role of the adaptor proteins that physically link these complexes together for the purposes of ion channel modulation, however, has been little explored. (jneurosci.org)
- It is an integral component of the PCM, which is a centrosome scaffold that anchors microtubule nucleating complexes and other centrosomal proteins. (wikipedia.org)
- In the cytoplasm, MLP is an important scaffold protein, implicated in various cytoskeletal macromolecular complexes, at the sarcomeric Z-line, the costameres, and the microfilaments. (wikipedia.org)
- At the Z-line, MLP interacts with different Z-line components and acts as a scaffold protein promoting the assembly of macromolecular complexes along sarcomeres and actin-based cytoskeleton Moreover, since the Z-line acts as a stretch sensor, MLP is believed to be involved in mechano-signaling processes. (wikipedia.org)
- The significance of this was enhanced by the linked finding in a proteomics study published in Nature (journal), where all three of proteins in baker's yeast with FFAT motifs (Osh1/Swh1, Osh2 and Opi1) were in protein complexes that contain Scs2, the baker's yeast homolog of VAPA and VAPB. (wikipedia.org)
- It is subsequently transferred to the nucleus where it forms complexes with other proteins and acts as a transcription factor. (wikipedia.org)
- FAM83 proteins participate in various cellular processes and are characterized by an N-terminal "domain of unknown function" called DUF1669. (sciencemag.org)
- The inhibition of motility by S- Ht31 is reversible but only if calcium is present in the suspension buffer, suggesting a role for PKA anchoring in regulating cellular calcium homeostasis. (elsevier.com)
- Proteins in every cellular compartments had been precipitated with TCA cleaned in acetone and examined by immunoblot using monoclonal antibodies. (mirc-undernet.org)
- Mitogen‐activated protein kinases (MAPK) are broadly used regulators of cellular signaling. (embopress.org)
- ATF6, a membrane-anchored transcription factor from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) that modulates the cellular response to stress as an effector of the unfolded-protein response (UPR), is a key player in the development of tumors of different origin. (exposed-skin-care.net)
- reticulum (ER) can be particularly affected by the presence of mutations in secretory proteins or by dynamic changes in the cellular microenvironment, events which are often encountered in cancers. (exposed-skin-care.net)
- Protein kinases are also found in bacteria and plants, and include the pseudokinase sub-family, which exhibit unusual features including atypical nucleotide binding and weak, or no, catalytic activity and are part of a much larger pseudoenzyme group of 'degraded' enzyme relatives that are found throughout life, where they take an active participation in mechanistic cellular signaling. (wikipedia.org)
- In cell biology, protein kinase A (PKA) is a family of enzymes whose activity is dependent on cellular levels of cyclic AMP (cAMP). (wikipedia.org)
- This kinase has been shown to be involved in many different cellular functions, such as apoptosis, cardioprotection from ischemia, heat shock response, as well as insulin exocytosis. (wikipedia.org)
- This protein kinase has been reported to be involved in many different cellular functions, such as B cell activation, apoptosis induction, endothelial cell proliferation, and intestinal sugar absorption. (wikipedia.org)
- Cell-'Extra-Cellular Matrix' (ECM) adhesions also form mechanical and chemical linkages, but the connection occurs between cellular-matrix and the extra-cellular matrix through a plethora of adhesive proteins that form cohesive functional units. (wikipedia.org)
- Phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase-derived membrane-anchored phosphatidylinositides, such as phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PtdIns(3)P), regulate diverse cellular processes. (wikipedia.org)
- They negatively regulate members of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase superfamily (MAPK/ERK, SAPK/JNK, p38), which are associated with cellular proliferation and differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
- PTK2 is a focal adhesion-associated protein kinase involved in cellular adhesion (how cells stick to each other and their surroundings) and spreading processes (how cells move around). (wikipedia.org)
- This cytosolic kinase has been implicated in diverse cellular roles including cell locomotion, mitogen response and cell survival. (wikipedia.org)
- VRK-1 regulates anchor cell polarity and the timing of anchor cell invasion through the basement membranes separating vulval and somatic gonadal cells during the L3 larval stage. (csic.es)
- In cardiac muscle cells, PKCε regulates muscle contraction through its actions at sarcomeric proteins, and PKCε modulates cardiac cell metabolism through its actions at mitochondria. (wikipedia.org)
- The protein is also a member of a heteromeric secretase complex and regulates the complex's gamma-secretase activity without affecting its epsilon-secretase activity. (wikipedia.org)
- Non-receptor tyrosine-protein kinase that plays a role in many key processes linked to cell growth and survival such as cytoskeleton remodeling in response to extracellular stimuli, cell motility and adhesion, receptor endocytosis, autophagy, DNA damage response and apoptosis. (rcsb.org)
- Receptor-like kinases (RLKs) are regulators of plant development through allowing cells to sense their extracellular environment. (frontiersin.org)
- Fusion proteins are commonly used in order to study signalling ability of proteins with a small extracellular domain hidden for antibody in membrane glycocalix. (wikipedia.org)
- Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are carbohydrate polymers and mostly attached to extracellular matrix proteins to form proteoglycans (hyaluronic acid is a notable exception, see below). (wikipedia.org)
- In the extracellular matrix, especially basement membranes, the multi-domain proteins perlecan, agrin, and collagen XVIII are the main proteins to which heparan sulfate is attached. (wikipedia.org)
- The LysM domain is found in a wide range of microbial extracellular proteins, where the LysM domain is thought to provide an anchoring to extracellular polysaccharides such as peptidoglycan and chitin. (wikipedia.org)
- MethodsThe AKAP10 expression at the mRNA and protein level have been analyzed in colon cancer cell lines, primary CRCs and matched normal mucosa samples, and compared in accordance with specific clinicopathological features of CRC. (diva-portal.org)
- A notably higher level of AKAP10 expression was found in CRC tissues at both mRNA and protein levels. (diva-portal.org)
- We aimed at assessing the predisposition of A-kinase anchoring protein 10 (AKAP10) polymorphism toward acquired repolarization disorders in high-risk vascular surgery patients. (cdc.gov)
- A- Kinase Anchoring Protein 150 Mediates Transient Receptor Potential Family V Type 1 Sensitivity to Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-Bisphosphate. (nialoasacomhigh.ml)
- IRE1 mediates the unconventional splicing of X-box binding protein 1 (budding assay. (exposed-skin-care.net)
- We identified members of the FAM83 family of proteins as partners of CK1 in cells. (sciencemag.org)
- The DH domain is associated with guanine nucleotide exchange activation for the Rho/Rac family of small GTP binding proteins, resulting in the conversion of the inactive GTPase to the active form capable of transducing signals. (creativebiomart.net)
- The receptor also couples to G13 proteins to activate small guanosine triphosphates of the Rho family ( 8 ) ( Fig. 1A ). (sciencemag.org)
- Proteins in the same family were subsequently discovered in the Rosaceae and Plantaginaceae . (wikipedia.org)
- The male component was only recently putatively identified as a member of the "F-box" protein family. (wikipedia.org)
- The regulator of G protein signaling (RGS) proteins form a recently identified protein family, and they strongly modulate the activity of G proteins. (aspetjournals.org)
- The human protein kinase family is divided into the following groups: AGC kinases - containing PKA, PKC and PKG. (wikipedia.org)
- This protein also interacts with all three members of the myozenin family. (wikipedia.org)
- Since then, many other golgin family proteins have been found to be in the Golgi matrix and are associated with the Golgi membranes in a variety of ways. (wikipedia.org)
- Golgi reassembly-stacking proteins are an evolutionarily conserved family of proteins in the Golgi matrix. (wikipedia.org)
- The mammalian 5-HT2A receptor is a subtype of the 5-HT2 receptor that belongs to the serotonin receptor family and is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR). (wikipedia.org)
- RHOB is a member of the Rho GTP-binding protein family. (wikipedia.org)
- Calmodulin 1 is the archetype of the family of calcium-modulated (calmodulin) proteins of which nearly 20 members have been found. (wikipedia.org)
- Also known as WAK, wall-associated kinases are a family of protein kinases that connect the innermost portion of the cell (the cytoplasm) to the cell wall. (wikipedia.org)
- This protein belongs to a family of proteins that are receptor associated proteins of the synapse. (wikipedia.org)
- This kinase is activated by Rho family of small G proteins and may mediate the Rho-dependent signaling pathway. (wikipedia.org)
- PSD-95 is a member of the membrane-associated guanylate kinase (MAGUK) family. (wikipedia.org)
- PSD-95 is the best studied member of the MAGUK-family of PDZ domain-containing proteins. (wikipedia.org)
- Like all MAGUK-family proteins, its basic structure includes three PDZ domains, an SH3 domain, and a guanylate kinase-like domain (GK) connected by disordered linker regions. (wikipedia.org)
- SMAD3 is a member of the SMAD family of proteins. (wikipedia.org)
- It belongs to the SMAD family of proteins. (wikipedia.org)
- Structural basis for the selectivity of the RGS protein, GAIP, for Galphai family members. (wikipedia.org)
- It belongs to the SMAD family of proteins, which belong to the TGFβ superfamily of modulators. (wikipedia.org)
- It is also the name of a protein family, of which MARCKS is the most studied member. (wikipedia.org)
- The adaptor protein VISA further activates the IKK-protein-kinase family members. (wikipedia.org)
- For example, GMAP210 (Golgi Microtubule Associated Protein 210) has an ALPS (Amphipathic Lipid-Packing Sensor) motif in the N-termal 38 amino acids and an ARF1-binding domain called GRAB (Grip-Related Arf-Binding) at the C-terminus. (wikipedia.org)
- DEAD box proteins, characterized by the conserved motif Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp (DEAD), are putative RNA helicases. (wikipedia.org)
- This processing makes the CARD domains available for interaction with the CARD motif of IPS-1/MAVS/VISA/Cardif, a downstream adapter anchored in the mitochondria. (wikipedia.org)
- The LysM domain is named after the Lysin Motif which was the original name given to the sequence motif identified in bacterial proteins. (wikipedia.org)
- Ca 2+ /calmodulin‐dependent protein kinase II (CaM kinase II) is present in a membrane‐bound form that phosphorylates synapsin I on neuronal synaptic vesicles and the ryanodine receptor at skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), but it is unclear how this soluble enzyme is targeted to membranes. (embopress.org)
- CaM kinases - containing the calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases. (wikipedia.org)
- Anchoring, scaffolding and adapter proteins function to enhance the precision and directionality of these signaling events by bringing enzymes together. (ovid.com)
- The cAMP signaling pathway is organized by A-kinase anchoring proteins. (ovid.com)
- Thus, in lymphocytes, as in other cell types, glycolipid-based domains provide sites of integration of signaling pathways involved in GPI-anchored protein endocytosis. (rupress.org)
- We selected most pathways akap1 participated on our site, such as Factors involved in megakaryocyte development and platelet production, G Protein Signaling Pathways, Hemostasis, which may be useful for your reference. (creativebiomart.net)
- Furthermore, compartmentalization of a kinase via an anchoring protein could affect accessibility of the kinase to its second messengers, thereby specifying a preferred receptor signaling route for its activation and/or modulating the amplitude of its basal and stimulated activities. (embopress.org)
- With its RGS domain, it could lead to the interaction to G-alpha proteins, providing a link between the signaling machinery and the downstream kinase (By similarity). (nih.gov)
- We conclude that anchoring of AC by AKAP5 is certainly very important to positive legislation of postsynaptic features including AMPA receptor activity by cAMP-PKA signaling. (healthweeks.com)
- Cells use this posttranslational modification to alter the properties of a great many proteins involved in metabolic, mechanical, and signaling activities. (pnas.org)
- These simple protein‐protein recruitment sites represent a major resource for ancient signaling enzymes to acquire new regulatory roles. (embopress.org)
- Together, these data suggest that PKA anchoring by AKAP150 is essential for the enhancement of TRPV1 function by activation of the PGE 2 /PKA signaling pathway. (elsevier.com)
- In the ER, these events are sensed by specific sensors, which in turn trigger select Rabbit Polyclonal to CPB2 signaling pathways, collectively named the unfolded-protein response (UPR) (1). (exposed-skin-care.net)
- Expression of the fibroblast growth factor-like protein EGL-17 and its receptor EGL-15 is reduced in vrk-1 mutants, suggesting that VRK-1 might act at least partially through activation of FGF signaling. (csic.es)
- We recently reported protein kinase A (PKA) to be part of a macromolecular signaling complex with ezrin and gap junction protein connexin 43 (Cx43) that provides cAMP-mediated control of gap junction communication. (biochemj.org)
- Accumulating evidence suggests that many ion channels reside within a multiprotein complex that contains kinases and other signaling molecules. (jneurosci.org)
- Protein kinase A (PKA)-mediated signaling is a key regulator of brain function. (portlandpress.com)
- Their best known function is to inhibit G protein signaling by accelerating GTP hydrolysis [GTPase activating protein (GAP)] thus turning off G protein signals. (aspetjournals.org)
- The regulator of G protein signaling (RGS) proteins modulate the activity of G proteins in vitro, and evidence is beginning to emerge on their role in vivo as well. (aspetjournals.org)
- The GAP activity explains RGS-mediated inhibition of G protein signaling. (aspetjournals.org)
- ZASP functions to maintain structural integrity of sarcomeres during contraction, and has been shown to be involved in protein kinase A signaling. (wikipedia.org)
- Additionally, upon T cell activation, a fraction of kinase active Lck, translocates from outside of lipid rafts (LR) to inside lipid rafts where it interacts with and activates LR-resident Fyn, which is involved in further downstream signaling activation. (wikipedia.org)
- RALF proteins are found in plants and could be the proteins which make up the signaling portions found within the immune system of plants. (wikipedia.org)
- There have been at least seven other Nobel Prizes awarded for some aspect of G protein-mediated signaling. (wikipedia.org)
- During these diseases, ADCY2 undergoes a super-related pathway where protein kinase A (PKA) activation occurs in glucagon signaling and IP3 signaling. (wikipedia.org)
- Such changes may be able to enhance or inhibit the activation of these signaling proteins. (wikipedia.org)
- The Ste5 scaffold directs mating signaling by catalytically unlocking the Fus3 MAP kinase for activation. (wikipedia.org)
- Insulin-like growth factors can activate mTORC1 through the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK)-Akt/PKB signaling pathway. (wikipedia.org)
- This results in continued activation of mTORC1, allowing for protein synthesis via insulin signaling. (wikipedia.org)
- Furthermore, since insulin is a factor that is secreted by pancreatic beta cells upon glucose elevation in the blood, its signaling ensures that there is energy for protein synthesis to take place. (wikipedia.org)
- Here we hypothesized that mitochondrial anchoring of PKA promotes survival in muscle cells. (ahajournals.org)
- Disruption of the wheel by site-directed mutagenesis abolished tubulin binding and reduced mitochondrial attachment of an MT-GFP fusion protein. (elsevier.com)
- Mitochondrial-Shaping Proteins in Cardiac Health and Disease - the Long and the Short of It! (springer.com)
- Mitochondrial health is critically dependent on the ability of mitochondria to undergo changes in mitochondrial morphology, a process which is regulated by mitochondrial shaping proteins. (springer.com)
- Mitochondria undergo fission to generate fragmented discrete organelles, a process which is mediated by the mitochondrial fission proteins (Drp1, hFIS1, Mff and MiD49/51), and is required for cell division, and to remove damaged mitochondria by mitophagy. (springer.com)
- Mitochondria undergo fusion to form elongated interconnected networks, a process which is orchestrated by the mitochondrial fusion proteins (Mfn1, Mfn2 and OPA1), and which enables the replenishment of damaged mitochondrial DNA. (springer.com)
- Although the mitochondria are arranged differently, emerging data supports a role for the mitochondrial shaping proteins in cardiac health and disease. (springer.com)
- By undergoing fission they generate fragmented discrete mitochondria, a process which is regulated by the mitochondrial fission proteins, dynamic-related peptide-1 (Drp1), human fission protein-1 (hFis1), mitochondrial fission factor (Mff) and mitochondrial dynamics proteins 49 and 51 (MiD49 and 51). (springer.com)
- ROS generated via pharmacologic activation of the mitochondrial potassium-sensitive ATP channel (mitoK(ATP)) and the endogenous G-protein coupled receptor ligand, apelin. (wikipedia.org)
- A strong signal peptide detected in the mitochondrion region (0.788) suggests that the LENG9 protein localizes in the mitochondrial matrix. (wikipedia.org)
- Dodge-Kafka KL, Soughayer J, Pare GC et al (2005) The protein kinase a anchoring protein mAKAP coordinates two integrated cAMP effector pathways. (springer.com)
- Just as our understanding of receptor, G protein, and effector function seemed nearly complete, a new kid appeared on the scene injecting fresh life into the field. (aspetjournals.org)
- Here is a list of the ones found so far: IQGAP1 (IQ-domain GTP-ase Activating Protein): an effector of RhoC to enhance expression of cyclin E and cyclin D1. (wikipedia.org)
- GSKIP directly interacts with PKA and GSK3beta (glycogen synthase kinase 3beta). (uni-regensburg.de)
- ZASP interacts with alpha-actinin-2 through its N-terminal PDZ domain and with protein kinase C via its C-terminal LIM domains. (wikipedia.org)
- The rapsyn protein interacts directly with the AChRs and plays a vital role in agrin-induced clustering of the AChR. (wikipedia.org)
- Its GAP activity interacts with a G protein called Rheb by hydrolyzing the GTP of the active Rheb-GTP complex, converting it to the inactive Rheb-GDP complex. (wikipedia.org)