A long-acting derivative of cyclic AMP. It is an activator of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, but resistant to degradation by cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase.
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
A nucleoside that is composed of ADENINE and D-RIBOSE. Adenosine or adenosine derivatives play many important biological roles in addition to being components of DNA and RNA. Adenosine itself is a neurotransmitter.
A cyclic nucleotide derivative that mimics the action of endogenous CYCLIC AMP and is capable of permeating the cell membrane. It has vasodilator properties and is used as a cardiac stimulant. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2'-, 3'-, or 5'-position.
Potent activator of the adenylate cyclase system and the biosynthesis of cyclic AMP. From the plant COLEUS FORSKOHLII. Has antihypertensive, positive inotropic, platelet aggregation inhibitory, and smooth muscle relaxant activities; also lowers intraocular pressure and promotes release of hormones from the pituitary gland.
A potent cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase inhibitor; due to this action, the compound increases cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP in tissue and thereby activates CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE-REGULATED PROTEIN KINASES
A subclass of adenosine A2 receptors found in LEUKOCYTES, the SPLEEN, the THYMUS and a variety of other tissues. It is generally considered to be a receptor for ADENOSINE that couples to the GS, STIMULATORY G-PROTEIN.
Guanosine cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to the sugar moiety in both the 3'- and 5'-positions. It is a cellular regulatory agent and has been described as a second messenger. Its levels increase in response to a variety of hormones, including acetylcholine, insulin, and oxytocin and it has been found to activate specific protein kinases. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A group of enzymes that are dependent on CYCLIC AMP and catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues on proteins. Included under this category are two cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase subtypes, each of which is defined by its subunit composition.
An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the formation of CYCLIC AMP and pyrophosphate from ATP. EC
A methyl xanthine derivative from tea with diuretic, smooth muscle relaxant, bronchial dilation, cardiac and central nervous system stimulant activities. Theophylline inhibits the 3',5'-CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE PHOSPHODIESTERASE that degrades CYCLIC AMP thus potentiates the actions of agents that act through ADENYLYL CYCLASES and cyclic AMP.
A subtype of ADENOSINE RECEPTOR that is found expressed in a variety of tissues including the BRAIN and DORSAL HORN NEURONS. The receptor is generally considered to be coupled to the GI, INHIBITORY G-PROTEIN which causes down regulation of CYCLIC AMP.
An oral retinoid used in the treatment of keratotic genodermatosis, lichen planus, and psoriasis. Beneficial effects have also been claimed in the prophylaxis of epithelial neoplasia. The compound may be teratogenic.
Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or actions of phosphodiesterases.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ADENOSINE to INOSINE with the elimination of AMMONIA.
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of CYCLIC AMP to form adenosine 5'-phosphate. The enzymes are widely distributed in animal tissue and control the level of intracellular cyclic AMP. Many specific enzymes classified under this heading demonstrate additional spcificity for 3',5'-cyclic IMP and CYCLIC GMP.
A protein that has been shown to function as a calcium-regulated transcription factor as well as a substrate for depolarization-activated CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES. This protein functions to integrate both calcium and cAMP signals.
Compounds that specifically inhibit PHOSPHODIESTERASE 4.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.
A subtype of ADENOSINE RECEPTOR that is found expressed in a variety of locations including the BRAIN and endocrine tissues. The receptor is generally considered to be coupled to the GI, INHIBITORY G-PROTEIN which causes down regulation of CYCLIC AMP.
A class of cell surface receptors that prefer ADENOSINE to other endogenous PURINES. Purinergic P1 receptors are widespread in the body including the cardiovascular, respiratory, immune, and nervous systems. There are at least two pharmacologically distinguishable types (A1 and A2, or Ri and Ra).
A phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor with antidepressant properties.
Systems in which an intracellular signal is generated in response to an intercellular primary messenger such as a hormone or neurotransmitter. They are intermediate signals in cellular processes such as metabolism, secretion, contraction, phototransduction, and cell growth. Examples of second messenger systems are the adenyl cyclase-cyclic AMP system, the phosphatidylinositol diphosphate-inositol triphosphate system, and the cyclic GMP system.
An anthracene derivative that disrupts MITOCHONDRIA function and structure and is used for the treatment of DERMATOSES, especially PSORIASIS. It may cause FOLLICULITIS.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of ADP plus AMP from adenosine plus ATP. It can serve as a salvage mechanism for returning adenosine to nucleic acids. EC
A subclass of adenosine A2 receptors found in the CECUM, the COLON, the BLADDER, and a variety of other tissues. It is generally considered to be a low affinity receptor for ADENOSINE that couples to the GS, STIMULATORY G-PROTEIN.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A stable adenosine A1 and A2 receptor agonist. Experimentally, it inhibits cAMP and cGMP phosphodiesterase activity.
One of two major pharmacologically defined classes of adrenergic receptors. The beta adrenergic receptors play an important role in regulating CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, SMOOTH MUSCLE relaxation, and GLYCOGENOLYSIS.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
N-Isopropyl-N-phenyl-adenosine. Antilipemic agent. Synonym: TH 162.
A halogen with the atomic symbol Br, atomic number 36, and atomic weight 79.904. It is a volatile reddish-brown liquid that gives off suffocating vapors, is corrosive to the skin, and may cause severe gastroenteritis if ingested.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of one of the two ester bonds in a phosphodiester compound. EC 3.1.4.
A subclass of ADENOSINE RECEPTORS that are generally considered to be coupled to the GS, STIMULATORY G-PROTEIN which causes up regulation of CYCLIC AMP.
A cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase subfamily that is found predominantly in inflammatory cells and may play a role in the regulation of CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. The enzyme family includes over twenty different variants that occur due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of the mRNA of at least four different genes.
Compounds that selectively bind to and activate ADENOSINE A2 RECEPTORS.
Compounds that selectively bind to and block the activation of ADENOSINE A2 RECEPTORS.
The most common and most biologically active of the mammalian prostaglandins. It exhibits most biological activities characteristic of prostaglandins and has been used extensively as an oxytocic agent. The compound also displays a protective effect on the intestinal mucosa.
An ENTEROTOXIN from VIBRIO CHOLERAE. It consists of two major protomers, the heavy (H) or A subunit and the B protomer which consists of 5 light (L) or B subunits. The catalytic A subunit is proteolytically cleaved into fragments A1 and A2. The A1 fragment is a MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASE. The B protomer binds cholera toxin to intestinal epithelial cells, and facilitates the uptake of the A1 fragment. The A1 catalyzed transfer of ADP-RIBOSE to the alpha subunits of heterotrimeric G PROTEINS activates the production of CYCLIC AMP. Increased levels of cyclic AMP are thought to modulate release of fluid and electrolytes from intestinal crypt cells.
A ring of tissue extending from the scleral spur to the ora serrata of the RETINA. It consists of the uveal portion and the epithelial portion. The ciliary muscle is in the uveal portion and the ciliary processes are in the epithelial portion.
Drugs that selectively bind to and activate beta-adrenergic receptors.
Compounds that bind to and block the stimulation of ADENOSINE A1 RECEPTORS.
The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.
(11 alpha,13E,15S)-11,15-Dihydroxy-9-oxoprost-13-en-1-oic acid (PGE(1)); (5Z,11 alpha,13E,15S)-11,15-dihydroxy-9-oxoprosta-5,13-dien-1-oic acid (PGE(2)); and (5Z,11 alpha,13E,15S,17Z)-11,15-dihydroxy-9-oxoprosta-5,13,17-trien-1-oic acid (PGE(3)). Three of the six naturally occurring prostaglandins. They are considered primary in that no one is derived from another in living organisms. Originally isolated from sheep seminal fluid and vesicles, they are found in many organs and tissues and play a major role in mediating various physiological activities.
The increase in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A type I cAMP-dependent protein kinase regulatory subunit that plays a role in confering CYCLIC AMP activation of protein kinase activity. It has a lower affinity for cAMP than the CYCLIC-AMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE RIBETA SUBUNIT.
A plant genus of the family NELUMBONACEAE. The common name of lotus is also for LOTUS and NYMPHAEA.
Compounds that bind to and stimulate ADENOSINE A1 RECEPTORS.
Purine bases found in body tissues and fluids and in some plants.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Specific enzyme subunits that form the active sites of the type I and type II cyclic-AMP protein kinases. Each molecule of enzyme contains two catalytic subunits.
A potent vasodilator agent that increases peripheral blood flow.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A member of the p300-CBP transcription factor family that was initially identified as a binding partner for CAMP RESPONSE ELEMENT-BINDING PROTEIN. Mutations in CREB-binding protein are associated with RUBINSTEIN-TAYBI SYNDROME.
A dideoxynucleoside compound in which the 3'-hydroxy group on the sugar moiety has been replaced by a hydrogen. This modification prevents the formation of phosphodiester linkages which are needed for the completion of nucleic acid chains. The compound is an inhibitor of HIV replication, acting as a chain-terminator of viral DNA by binding to reverse transcriptase. Its principal side effect is nephrotoxicity. In vivo, dideoxyadenosine is rapidly metabolized to DIDANOSINE (ddI) by enzymatic deamination; ddI is then converted to dideoxyinosine monophosphate and ultimately to dideoxyadenosine triphosphate, the putative active metabolite.
Cell surface proteins that bind cyclic AMP with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The best characterized cyclic AMP receptors are those of the slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. The transcription regulator CYCLIC AMP RECEPTOR PROTEIN of prokaryotes is not included nor are the eukaryotic cytoplasmic cyclic AMP receptor proteins which are the regulatory subunits of CYCLIC AMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A group of compounds with the heterocyclic ring structure of benzo(c)pyridine. The ring structure is characteristic of the group of opium alkaloids such as papaverine. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Compounds that bind to and block the stimulation of PURINERGIC P1 RECEPTORS.
Agents that soften, separate, and cause desquamation of the cornified epithelium or horny layer of skin. They are used to expose mycelia of infecting fungi or to treat corns, warts, and certain other skin diseases.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
A cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase subfamily that is inhibited by the binding of CYCLIC GMP to an allosteric domain found on the enzyme and through phosphorylation by regulatory kinases such as PROTEIN KINASE A and PROTEIN KINASE B. The two members of this family are referred to as type 3A, and type 3B, and are each product of a distinct gene. In addition multiple enzyme variants of each subtype can be produced due to multiple alternative mRNA splicing.
Cell surface proteins that bind PURINES with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The best characterized classes of purinergic receptors in mammals are the P1 receptors, which prefer ADENOSINE, and the P2 receptors, which prefer ATP or ADP.
An enzyme that catalyzes the deamination of AMP to IMP. EC
Drugs that bind to and activate adrenergic receptors.
A purine and a reaction intermediate in the metabolism of adenosine and in the formation of nucleic acids by the salvage pathway.
A group of compounds derived from unsaturated 20-carbon fatty acids, primarily arachidonic acid, via the cyclooxygenase pathway. They are extremely potent mediators of a diverse group of physiological processes.
Compounds that bind to and stimulate PURINERGIC P1 RECEPTORS.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
A glycoprotein enzyme present in various organs and in many cells. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of a 5'-ribonucleotide to a ribonucleoside and orthophosphate in the presence of water. It is cation-dependent and exists in a membrane-bound and soluble form. EC
A positive inotropic cardiotonic agent with vasodilator properties. It inhibits cAMP phosphodiesterase type 3 activity in myocardium and vascular smooth muscle. Milrinone is a derivative of amrinone and has 20-30 times the inotropic potency of amrinone.
Derivatives of BUTYRIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxypropane structure.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
An amine derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of HISTIDINE. It is a powerful stimulant of gastric secretion, a constrictor of bronchial smooth muscle, a vasodilator, and also a centrally acting neurotransmitter.
Nucleotides in which the base moiety is substituted with one or more sulfur atoms.
Inhibitor of phosphodiesterases.
DITERPENES with three LACTONES and a unique tert-butyl group, which are found in GINKGO plants along with BILOBALIDES.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
A family of heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein alpha subunits that activate ADENYLYL CYCLASES.
The predominant form of mammalian antidiuretic hormone. It is a nonapeptide containing an ARGININE at residue 8 and two disulfide-linked cysteines at residues of 1 and 6. Arg-vasopressin is used to treat DIABETES INSIPIDUS or to improve vasomotor tone and BLOOD PRESSURE.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.
The layer of pigment-containing epithelial cells in the RETINA; the CILIARY BODY; and the IRIS in the eye.
Inosine 5'-Monophosphate. A purine nucleotide which has hypoxanthine as the base and one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety.
A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.
Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.
A highly basic, 28 amino acid neuropeptide released from intestinal mucosa. It has a wide range of biological actions affecting the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and respiratory systems and is neuroprotective. It binds special receptors (RECEPTORS, VASOACTIVE INTESTINAL PEPTIDE).
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The clear, watery fluid which fills the anterior and posterior chambers of the eye. It has a refractive index lower than the crystalline lens, which it surrounds, and is involved in the metabolism of the cornea and the crystalline lens. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed, p319)
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
Purine bases related to hypoxanthine, an intermediate product of uric acid synthesis and a breakdown product of adenine catabolism.
A purine base and a fundamental unit of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Single layer of large flattened cells covering the surface of the cornea.
Long convoluted tubules in the nephrons. They collect filtrate from blood passing through the KIDNEY GLOMERULUS and process this filtrate into URINE. Each renal tubule consists of a BOWMAN CAPSULE; PROXIMAL KIDNEY TUBULE; LOOP OF HENLE; DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULE; and KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCT leading to the central cavity of the kidney (KIDNEY PELVIS) that connects to the URETER.
Drugs that selectively bind to and activate alpha adrenergic receptors.
An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.
Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.
2-Chloroadenosine. A metabolically stable analog of adenosine which acts as an adenosine receptor agonist. The compound has a potent effect on the peripheral and central nervous system.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
One of the virulence factors produced by BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS. It is a multimeric protein composed of five subunits S1 - S5. S1 contains mono ADPribose transferase activity.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.
Compounds that selectively bind to and block the activation of ADENOSINE A3 RECEPTORS.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A compound consisting of dark green crystals or crystalline powder, having a bronze-like luster. Solutions in water or alcohol have a deep blue color. Methylene blue is used as a bacteriologic stain and as an indicator. It inhibits GUANYLATE CYCLASE, and has been used to treat cyanide poisoning and to lower levels of METHEMOGLOBIN.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
A powerful vasodilator used in emergencies to lower blood pressure or to improve cardiac function. It is also an indicator for free sulfhydryl groups in proteins.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
A prostaglandin that is a powerful vasodilator and inhibits platelet aggregation. It is biosynthesized enzymatically from PROSTAGLANDIN ENDOPEROXIDES in human vascular tissue. The sodium salt has been also used to treat primary pulmonary hypertension (HYPERTENSION, PULMONARY).
The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.
A series of heterocyclic compounds that are variously substituted in nature and are known also as purine bases. They include ADENINE and GUANINE, constituents of nucleic acids, as well as many alkaloids such as CAFFEINE and THEOPHYLLINE. Uric acid is the metabolic end product of purine metabolism.
A 29-amino acid pancreatic peptide derived from proglucagon which is also the precursor of intestinal GLUCAGON-LIKE PEPTIDES. Glucagon is secreted by PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS and plays an important role in regulation of BLOOD GLUCOSE concentration, ketone metabolism, and several other biochemical and physiological processes. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1511)
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.
A genus of protozoa, formerly also considered a fungus. Its natural habitat is decaying forest leaves, where it feeds on bacteria. D. discoideum is the best-known species and is widely used in biomedical research.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.
Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
The interference in synthesis of an enzyme due to the elevated level of an effector substance, usually a metabolite, whose presence would cause depression of the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.
Drugs that selectively bind to and activate ADENOSINE A3 RECEPTORS.
A set of BACTERIAL ADHESINS and TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL produced by BORDETELLA organisms that determine the pathogenesis of BORDETELLA INFECTIONS, such as WHOOPING COUGH. They include filamentous hemagglutinin; FIMBRIAE PROTEINS; pertactin; PERTUSSIS TOXIN; ADENYLATE CYCLASE TOXIN; dermonecrotic toxin; tracheal cytotoxin; Bordetella LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES; and tracheal colonization factor.
A purine nucleoside that has hypoxanthine linked by the N9 nitrogen to the C1 carbon of ribose. It is an intermediate in the degradation of purines and purine nucleosides to uric acid and in pathways of purine salvage. It also occurs in the anticodon of certain transfer RNA molecules. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The attachment of PLATELETS to one another. This clumping together can be induced by a number of agents (e.g., THROMBIN; COLLAGEN) and is part of the mechanism leading to the formation of a THROMBUS.
The largest family of cell surface receptors involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They share a common structure and signal through HETEROTRIMERIC G-PROTEINS.
A group of compounds that are derivatives of beta- aminoethylbenzene which is structurally and pharmacologically related to amphetamine. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Cell membrane glycoproteins that form channels to selectively pass chloride ions. Nonselective blockers include FENAMATES; ETHACRYNIC ACID; and TAMOXIFEN.
The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.
A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety and found widely in nature.
Contractile activity of the MYOCARDIUM.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) that inhibits the enzyme cyclooxygenase necessary for the formation of prostaglandins and other autacoids. It also inhibits the motility of polymorphonuclear leukocytes.
The decrease in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Cytidine (dihydrogen phosphate). A cytosine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2', 3' or 5' position.
The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.
Rapidly decreasing response to a drug or physiologically active agent after administration of a few doses. In immunology, it is the rapid immunization against the effect of toxic doses of an extract or serum by previous injection of small doses. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
A calcium-activated enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP to yield AMP and orthophosphate. It can also act on ADP and other nucleoside triphosphates and diphosphates. EC
A heat-stable, low-molecular-weight activator protein found mainly in the brain and heart. The binding of calcium ions to this protein allows this protein to bind to cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases and to adenyl cyclase with subsequent activation. Thereby this protein modulates cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP levels.
The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A group of compounds that contain the structure SO2NH2.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
Methods of maintaining or growing biological materials in controlled laboratory conditions. These include the cultures of CELLS; TISSUES; organs; or embryo in vitro. Both animal and plant tissues may be cultured by a variety of methods. Cultures may derive from normal or abnormal tissues, and consist of a single cell type or mixed cell types.
A phosphodiesterase inhibitor that blocks uptake and metabolism of adenosine by erythrocytes and vascular endothelial cells. Dipyridamole also potentiates the antiaggregating action of prostacyclin. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p752)
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
N-(1-Oxobutyl)-cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate)-2'-butanoate guanosine. A derivative of cyclic GMP. It has a higher resistance to extracellular and intracellular phosphodiesterase than cyclic GMP.
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
A sulfur-containing alkyl thionitrite that is one of the NITRIC OXIDE DONORS.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
An antibiotic purine ribonucleoside that readily substitutes for adenosine in the biological system, but its incorporation into DNA and RNA has an inhibitory effect on the metabolism of these nucleic acids.
A pyridine nucleotide that mobilizes CALCIUM. It is synthesized from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) by ADP RIBOSE CYCLASE.
The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
An enzyme that catalyzes the dehydrogenation of inosine 5'-phosphate to xanthosine 5'-phosphate in the presence of NAD. EC
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
Purine or pyrimidine bases attached to a ribose or deoxyribose. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
3-Mercapto-D-valine. The most characteristic degradation product of the penicillin antibiotics. It is used as an antirheumatic and as a chelating agent in Wilson's disease.
A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.
Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
The movement of cells or organisms toward or away from a substance in response to its concentration gradient.
Thiamine dihydrogen phosphate ester. The monophosphate ester of thiamine. Synonyms: monophosphothiamine; vitamin B1 monophosphate.
A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.

cAMP inhibits translation by inducing Ca2+/calmodulin-independent elongation factor 2 kinase activity in IPC-81 cells. (1/1207)

Treatment of IPC-81 cells led to inhibition of protein synthesis, which was accompanied by an increase in the average size of polysomes and a decreased rate of elongation, indicating that it involved inhibition of peptide chain elongation. This inhibition was also associated with increased phosphorylation of elongation factor eEF2 (which inhibits its activity) and enhanced Ca2+/calmodulin-independent activity of eEF2 kinase. Previous work has shown that phosphorylation of eEF2 kinase by cAMP-dependent protein kinase (cAPK) in vitro induces such activator-independent activity, and the present data show that such a mechanism can occur in intact cells to link physiological levels of cAPK activation with inhibition of protein synthesis.  (+info)

Melatonin inhibits release of luteinizing hormone (LH) via decrease of [Ca2+]i and cyclic AMP. (2/1207)

The role of [Ca2+]i and cAMP in transduction of the melatonin inhibitory effect on GnRH-induced LH release from neonatal rat gonadotrophs has been studied, because melatonin inhibits the increase of both intracellular messengers. Treatments increasing Ca2+ influx (S(-) Bay K8644 or KCI) or cAMP concentration (8-bromo-cAMP or 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine) potentiated the GnRH-induced LH release and partially diminished the inhibitory effect of melatonin. Combination of the treatments increasing cAMP and calcium concentrations blocked completely the melatonin inhibition of LH release. The combined treatment with 8-bromo-cAMP and S(-) Bay K8644 also blocked the melatonin inhibition of GnRH-induced [Ca2+]i increase in 89 % of the gonadotrophs, while any of the treatments alone blocked the melatonin effect in about 25 % of these cells. These observations suggest that a cAMP-dependent pathway is involved in regulation of Ca2+ influx by melatonin and melatonin inhibition of LH release may be mediated by the decrease of both messengers.  (+info)

Calcium and cAMP are second messengers in the adipokinetic hormone-induced lipolysis of triacylglycerols in Manduca sexta fat body. (3/1207)

We have previously shown that stereospecific hydrolysis of stored triacylglycerol by a phosphorylatable triacylglycerol-lipase is the pathway for the adipokinetic hormone-stimulated synthesis of sn -1, 2-diacylglycerol in insect fat body. The current series of experiments were designed to determine whether cAMP and/or calcium are involved in the signal transduction pathway for adipokinetic hormone in the fat body. After adipokinetic hormone treatment, cAMP-dependent protein kinase activity in the fat body rapidly increased and reached a maximum after 20 min, suggesting that adipokinetic hormone causes an increase in cAMP. Forskolin (0.1 micrometer), an adenylate cyclase activator, induced up to a 97% increase in the secretion of diacylglycerol from the fat body. 8Br-cAMP (a membrane-permeable analog of cAMP) produced a 40% increase in the hemolymph diacylglycerol content. Treatment with cholera toxin, which also stimulates adenylate cyclase, induced up to a 145% increase in diacylglycerol production. Chelation of extracellular calcium produced up to 70% inhibition of the adipokinetic hormone-dependent mobilization of lipids. Calcium-mobilizing agents, ionomycin and thapsigargin, greatly stimulated DG production by up to 130%. Finally, adipokinetic hormone caused a rapid increase of calcium uptake into the fat body. Our findings indicate that the action of adipokinetic hormone in mobilizing lipids from the insect fat body involves both cAMP and calcium as intracellular messengers.  (+info)

The mechanism of action of epidermal growth factor and transforming growth factor alpha on aromatase activity in granulosa cells from polycystic ovaries. (4/1207)

We investigated aromatization and the mechanism of action of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and transforming growth factor alpha (TGFalpha) on oestradiol biosynthesis in freshly prepared granulosa cells from polycystic ovaries. Freshly prepared granulosa cells from polycystic ovaries incubated for only 3 h under basal conditions secreted significantly (P< 0.001) greater amounts of oestradiol-17beta than that of granulosa cells from normal ovaries. 8-Bromo-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (8-Br-cAMP), but not follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) or luteinizing hormone (LH), further enhanced this activity. Both EGF and TGFalpha inhibited gonadotrophinor 8-Br-cAMP-stimulated, but not basal, oestradiol production. LH receptor (LHR) binding, estimated by immunolabelling the bound LH, was significantly (P< 0.001) reduced in granulosa cells from polycystic ovaries when compared with cells from normal ovaries. EGF or TGFalpha significantly reduced the binding in cultured cells from all patient groups (P< 0.05). More interestingly, a further increase of the inhibitory effect was seen in granulosa cells from polycystic ovaries (P < 0.001). In conclusion, granulosa cells from polycystic ovaries contain high levels of basal aromatase activity in vitro, which is probably inherited from the in-vivo condition. EGF and TGFalpha suppress oestradiol synthesis at a step beyond the production of cAMP and also LHR binding with more effect in granulosa cells from polycystic ovaries.  (+info)

Beta2-adrenergic receptor overexpression in the developing mouse heart: evidence for targeted modulation of ion channels. (5/1207)

1. We studied the effect of overexpression of the beta2-adrenergic receptor (beta2-AR) in the heart on ion channel currents in single cells isolated from hearts of fetal and neonatal transgenic and wild-type mice. The beta2-AR transgene construct was under the control of the murine alpha-myosin heavy chain (alpha-MHC) promoter, and ion channel activity was measured at distinct developmental stages using whole-cell and perforated patch clamp techniques. 2. We found no change in L-type Ca2+ channel current (ICa) density in early embryonic stages (E11-13) of beta2-AR transgenic positive (TG+) mice, but significant increases in ICa density in intermediate (E14-16, 152 %) and late (E17-19, 173.7 %) fetal and neonatal (1 day post partum, 161 %) TG+ compared with transgenic negative (TG-) mice. This increase in ICa was accompanied by a negative shift in the peak of the current-voltage relationship in TG+ mice. 3. Transient (< 3 min) or prolonged (16-24 h) exposure of TG- neonatal stage myocytes to 8-Br-cAMP (300 microM) increased ICa density and caused a shift in the current-voltage relationship to a similar extent to that seen in TG+ mice. In TG+ myocytes, 8-Br-cAMP had no effect. Exposure of TG+ cells to Rp-cAMPS reversed both the shift in voltage dependence and reduced the peak current density observed in these myocytes. We concluded from these results that the L-type Ca2+ channel is maximally modulated by cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) in TG+ mice and that the alpha-MHC promoter is functional in the ventricle as early as embryonic day 14. 4. In contrast, we found that slow delayed rectifier K+ channels were not changed significantly at any of the developmental stages studied by the overexpression of beta2-ARs compared with TG- mice. The sensitivity of murine slow delayed rectifier K+ channels to cAMP was tested by both transient and prolonged exposure to 8-Br-cAMP (300 microM), which increased the slow delayed rectifier K+ channel current (IK,s) density to a similar extent in both TG- and TG+ neonatal myocytes. In addition, we found that there was no difference in the concentration dependence of the response of ICa and IK,s to 8-Br-cAMP. 5. Thus, overexpression of the beta2-AR in the heart results in distinct modulation of ICa, but not IK,s, and this is not due to differences in the 8-Br-cAMP sensitivity of the two channels. Instead, these results are consistent with both compartmentalization of beta2-AR-controlled cAMP and distinct localization of L-type Ca2+ and slow delayed rectifier K+ channels. This cAMP is targeted preferentially to the L-type Ca2+ channel and is not accessible to the slow delayed rectifier K+ channel.  (+info)

Diazepam-binding inhibitor33-50 elicits Ca2+ oscillation and CCK secretion in STC-1 cells via L-type Ca2+ channels. (6/1207)

We recently isolated and characterized 86-amino acid CCK-releasing peptide from porcine intestinal mucosa. The sequence of this peptide is identical to that of porcine diazepam-binding inhibitor (DBI). Intraduodenal administration of DBI stimulates the CCK release and elicits pancreatic secretion in rats. In this study we utilized a murine tumor cell line (STC-1 cells) that contains CCK to examine if DBI directly acts on these cells to stimulate CCK release. We investigated the cellular mechanisms responsible for this action. We showed that DBI33-50, a biologically active fragment of DBI1-86, significantly stimulated CCK secretion in STC-1 cells. This action was abolished by Ca2+-free medium. The mean basal intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) was 52 nM in fura 2-loaded STC-1 cells. DBI33-50 (1-1,000 nM) elicited Ca2+ oscillations; DBI33-50 (10 nM) increased the oscillation frequency to 5 cycles/10 min and elicited a net [Ca2+]i increase (peak - basal) to 157 nM. In contrast, bombesin and forskolin caused an initial transient [Ca2+]i followed by a small sustained [Ca2+]i plateau. Withdrawal of extracellular Ca2+ abolished Ca2+ oscillations stimulated by DBI33-50. L-type Ca2+ channel blockers nifedipine and diltiazem (3-10 microM) markedly attenuated DBI-stimulated Ca2+ oscillations. In other cell types L-type Ca2+ channels are activated by cAMP-protein kinase A. DBI33-50 failed to stimulate cAMP formation in STC-1 cells. Similarly, DBI33-50 had no effect on myo-inositol 1,4, 5-trisphosphate concentration ([IP3]), whereas bombesin caused an eightfold increase in [IP3] over basal. In addition, inhibitors of phospholipase C (U-73122), phospholipase A2 (ONO-RS-082), and protein tyrosine kinase (genistein) did not alter the Ca2+ oscillations elicited by DBI33-50. It appears that DBI33-50 acts directly on STC-1 cells to elicit Ca2+ oscillations via the voltage-dependent L-type Ca2+ channels, resulting in the secretion of CCK. Mediation of this action is by intracellular mechanisms independent of the traditional signal transduction pathways, including phospholipase C, phospholipase A2, protein tyrosine kinase, and cAMP systems.  (+info)

Oxytocin-induced Ca2+ responses in human myometrial cells. (7/1207)

Complex spatiotemporal changes in intracellular Ca2+ were monitored in an immortalized human myometrial cell line (PHM1-41) and first-passage human myometrial cells after oxytocin stimulation (1. 0-1000 nM). Laser cytometry revealed intracellular Ca2+ oscillations in both culture systems starting at 1.0 nM, which were followed by repetitive Ca2+ transients by 10-15 min that lasted for at least 90 min. The amplitude of the initial Ca2+ spike was dose dependent, while the frequency of Ca2+ oscillations identified by Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) tended to increase with dose. Removal of oxytocin resulted in termination of oscillations. Analysis of the sources of the Ca2+ involved in oscillations indicated that the major contribution to oscillation frequencies of +info)

Adrenergic control of the ultrarapid delayed rectifier current in canine atrial myocytes. (8/1207)

1. The effects of adrenergic stimulation on the ultrarapid delayed rectifier K+ current (IKur,d) of dog atrial myocytes was studied with patch-clamp methods. 2. Isoproterenol (isoprenaline) increased IKur,d in a concentration-dependent fashion with an EC50 of 7.3 +/- 0.8 nM. The effect of isoproterenol was blocked by propranolol, mimicked by forskolin and 8-bromo-cAMP, and prevented by inhibition of protein kinase A. 3. Phenylephrine (in the presence of propranolol) increased IKur,d with an EC50 of 0.49 +/- 0.06 microM. The effect of phenylephrine was blocked by prazosin, prevented by inhibition of protein kinase C, and mimicked by activation of protein kinase C with phorbol ester. 4. Phenylephrine significantly abbreviated canine atrial action potential duration in the absence of tetraethylammonium (TEA). When TEA was present under both control conditions and in the presence of phenylephrine, phenylephrine failed to alter canine atrial repolarization. 5. We conclude that beta- and alpha-adrenergic stimulation increase IKur,d via protein kinase A and C, respectively, and that the induced changes in IKur,d may play a role in adrenergic control of canine atrial repolarization.  (+info)

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This cGMP effect on DRG axon branching is specific, because 8-bromoadenosine-3′,5′-cyclic monophosphate (8-Br-cAMP), an equivalent analog to activate the cAMP pathway, did not elicit the same effect (Fig. 1G-I). Neither the distribution nor the average number of branching points changed significantly in the 8-Br-cAMP-treated culture compared with the untreated one (Fig. 1N,P). Furthermore, YC-1, a small molecule that activates the soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) to produce cGMP (Galle et al., 1999), induced branch formation in a dose dependent manner, reaching a similar level as in the 8-Br-cGMP-treated culture (Fig. 1J-L,O,P). Conversely, Zaprinast, an inhibitor that prevents cGMP degradation by phosphodiesterase-5 (Dundore et al., 1993), also induced branching (data not shown).. We further examined several parameters to determine if the in vitro effect reflects the role of cGMP signaling in axon growth or branching. First, neurons from the control cultures had a total length (Lt) of 254 ± ...
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Doherty, P J.; Tsao, J; Schimmer, B P.; Mumby, M C.; and Beavo, J A., Alteration of the regulatory subunit of type 1 camp-dependent protein kinase in mutant y1 adrenal cells resistant to 8-bromoadenosine 3:5-monophosphate. (1982). Subject Strain Bibliography 1982. 2372 ...
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Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is a type C, chronic transforming retrovirus that infects B-lymphocytes and is associated with a long latency period. We studied the transcriptional activation of BLV in primary cells and also examined whether a measurable increase in BLV expression would effect the transcription of host genes. De novo protein synthesis was inhibited by cycloheximide (CHX) for 6 h after initiating peripheral blood leukocyte (PBL) cultures to eliminate Tax-mediated transcription. Under these conditions, transcription of the doubly spliced tax/rex message was predominant and was induced by the addition of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), 8-bromo-cyclic AMP (Br-cAMP) and fetal bovine serum. Serum-induced BLV expression was inhibited in PBL in a dose dependent fashion by the protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor H-89. Host gene expression was classified as labile protein-dependent when transcription was modulated by CHX and protein kinase-mediated when transcription was modulated by PMA, ...
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en] Murine AIDS (MAIDS) is caused by infection with the murine leukemia retrovirus RadLV-Rs and is characterized by T-cell anergy and severe immunodeficiency with increased susceptibilty to several experimental opportunistic infections as observed in HIV infection. T cell anergy is associated with an increase of intracellular cAMP level, triggering a multistep pathway involving activation of PKA type I and resulting in inhibition of proximal TCR signaling. We have reviously demonstrated that blocking PKA type I using the selective inhibitor Rp-8-Br-cAMPS, restores T-cell function in vitro in MAIDS as well as in HIV infection. In the present report, we investigated the effect of parenteral administration of Rp-8-Br-cAMPS in mice with MAIDS. We show that the compound is not toxic and partially restores the ex vivo proliferative responses to anti-CD3 mAb, but that it has no effect on the lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly characterizing ...
The primary reservoir for hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication is believed to be hepatocytes, which are highly polarized with tight junctions (TJ) separating their basolateral and apical domains. HepG2 cells develop polarity over time, resulting in the formation and remodeling of bile canalicular (BC) structures. HepG2 cells expressing CD81 provide a model system to study the effects of hepatic polarity on HCV infection. We found an inverse association between HepG2-CD81 polarization and HCV pseudoparticle entry. As HepG2 cells polarize, discrete pools of claudin-1 (CLDN1) at the TJ and basal/lateral membranes develop, consistent with the pattern of receptor staining observed in liver tissue. The TJ and nonjunctional pools of CLDN1 show an altered association with CD81 and localization in response to the PKA antagonist Rp-8-Br-cyclic AMPs (cAMPs). Rp-8-Br-cAMPs reduced CLDN1 expression at the basal membrane and inhibited HCV infection, supporting a model where the nonjunctional pools of CLDN1 ...
Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) controls the physiological response to many diverse extracellular stimuli. To maintain signal specificity, cAMP-mediated signaling is finely tuned by means of a complex array of proteins that control the spatial and temporal dynamics of the second messenger within the cell. To unravel the way a cell encodes cAMP signals, new biosensors have recently been introduced that allow imaging of the second messenger in living cells with high spatial resolution. The more recent generation of such biosensors exploits the phenomenon of fluorescence resonance energy transfer between the green fluorescent protein- tagged subunits of a chimeric protein kinase A, as the way to visualize and measure the dynamic fluctuations of cAMP. This chapter describes the molecular basis on which such a genetically encoded cAMP sensor relies and the tools and methods required to perform cAMP measurements in living samples.
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R-CMP - R-Cytodine Monophosphate. Looking for abbreviations of R-CMP? It is R-Cytodine Monophosphate. R-Cytodine Monophosphate listed as R-CMP
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Adenosine Monophosphate: Adenylic acid. Adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2-, 3-, or 5-position.
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The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) uses its best efforts to deliver a high quality copy of the Database and to verify that the data contained therein have been selected on the basis of sound scientific judgment. However, NIST makes no warranties to that effect, and NIST shall not be liable for any damage that may result from errors or omissions in the Database ...
There is considerable interest in the possible use of cAMP-elevating agents in the treatment of autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of different cAMP-elevating agents on the T-cell response to type II collagen within the context of collagen-induced arthritis, a murine model of rheumatoid arthritis. Spleen cells or lymph node cells from type-II-collagen-immunized DBA/1 mice were cultured in the presence of type II collagen plus one of five different cAMP-elevating agents: rolipram, forskolin, prostaglandin E2, 8-bromo-cAMP, or cholera toxin. Levels of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), interleukin-4 (IL-4) and IL-5 were measured in culture supernatants by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. All of the cAMP-elevating agents tested were found to profoundly suppress IFN-gamma production in a dose-dependent manner. IL-4 and IL-5 production was slightly up-regulated at low concentrations of the cAMP-elevating agents and was modestly suppressed at
In Schwann cells (SCs), cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) not only induces differentiation into a myelinating SC-related phenotype, but also synergistically enhances the mitogenic action of growth factors such as neuregulin. impairment of SC differentiation and myelin formation but not Krox-20 expression, which indicates an independent mechanism of Krox-20 regulation in response to cAMP. In conclusion, our data supports the idea that the outcome of cAMP signaling in SCs depends on the particular set of effectors activated. Whereas the mitogenic action of cAMP relies exclusively on PKA activity, the differentiating action of cAMP requires a PKA-independent (non-canonical) cAMP-specific pathway that is partially transduced by EPAC. Introduction The ubiquitous second messenger cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is usually a key regulator of metabolic activity, survival, proliferation and differentiation in a wide variety of cell types. In particular, isolated cultured Schwann cells (SCs), ...
In humans, cAMP works by activating protein kinase A (PKA, cAMP-dependent protein kinase), one of the first few kinases discovered. It has four sub-units two catalytic and two regulatory. cAMP binds to the regulatory sub-units.[16] It causes them to break apart from the catalytic sub-units. The Catalytic sub-units make their way in to the nucleus to influence transcription.Further effects mainly depend on cAMP-dependent protein kinase, which vary based on the type of cell. cAMP-dependent pathway is necessary for many living organisms and life processes. Many different cell responses are mediated by cAMP; these include increase in heart rate, cortisol secretion, and breakdown of glycogen and fat. cAMP is essential for the maintenance of memory in the brain, relaxation in the heart, and water absorbed in the kidney.[17] This pathway can activate enzymes and regulate gene expression. The activation of preexisting enzymes is a much faster process, whereas regulation of gene expression is much longer ...
Protein Kinase A-Dependent Derepression of the Human Prodynorphin Gene via Differential Binding to an Intragenic Silencer Element: Induction of the prodynorphin
Toxicokinetic Assessment No specific study has been performed on the absorption/distribution/metabolism/excretion (ADME) of 2‑bromo‑3,3,3‑trifluoropropene (BTP).However, data are currently available from anin vitrovial equilibration method used to determine partition coefficients for blood and tissues andin vivotoxicology studies performed with this substance. 2‑bromo‑3,3,3‑trifluoropropene is a fire extinguisher agent, aclear liquid with a slight yellow tint,with a small molecular weight 174.95 and a Log P value of 2.7. It is very soluble (1000 mg/L).These physicochemical properties suggest that 2‑bromo‑3,3,3‑trifluoropropene will be readily absorbed across biological membranes via all routes. It is expected to have a high bioavailability but lack bioaccumulation properties.2‑Bromo‑3,3,3‑trifluoropropene is highly volatile and boils just below body temperature (recorded boiling point = 34.4°C) therefore it is expected that the inhalation route rather than the dermal ...
For other salt forms please inquire. Lipophilic site-selective cyclic AMP analogue with extremely high selectivity for site B of protein kinase A type II. Acts synergistically with site A activating analogues for selective activation of type II. Metabolic
Intracellular cAMP levels are higher in LDLR-/−p110γ−/− than in LDLR−/−p110γ+/−macrophages.LDLR−/−p110γ+/− and LDLR−/−p110γ−/− BMM
Adenosine monophosphate: | |Adenosine monophosphate| (|AMP|), also known as |5-adenylic acid|, is a |nucleotid... World Heritage Encyclopedia, the aggregation of the largest online encyclopedias available, and the most definitive collection ever assembled.
Camp Nursing, Camp nursing has its own unique twists: you are charged with the health care of many unknowns and this is where you can come to for answers. How do you... - pg. 7
Anyone have experience with these two locations? Im trying to decide between a group rate at Governors camp vs. paying a bit more for a less crowded
Дофаминовый рецептор D1 - рецептор дофамина, сопряжённый с G-белками, стимулирующий аденилатциклазу и активирующий cAMP-зависимые киназы. В некоторых исследованиях отмечается ассоциация вариантов гена DRD1 с шизофренией, в других корреляции не обнаруживается[1]. Ген дофаминового рецептора D1 был впервые клонирован в 1990 году несколькими группами исследователей[2][3][4]. По результатам клонирования было установлено, что ген состоит из единственного экзона и кодирует белок из 446 аминокислотных остатков. Так же в первичной структуре соответствующего белка ...
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For other salt forms, metabolites or anthraniloyl- cAMP please inquire. Fluorescent cyclic AMP analogue (λ|sub|exc|/sub| 350 nm, λ|sub|em|/sub| 445 nm), suitable for phosphodiesterase studies. The compound shows a decrease in fluorescence when cleaved by
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... cyclic adenosine monophosphate (8-Br-cAMP) is a brominated derivative of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). 8-Br-cAMP is an ... cyclic monophosphate (8-Br-cGMP) 8-Bromoadenosine 3′,5′-cyclic monophosphate at Sigma-Aldrich 8-Bromo Cyclic Adenosine ... activator of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, and it is long-acting because it is resistant to degradation by cyclic AMP ...
... cyclic adp-ribose MeSH D13.695.667.138.180 - adenosine monophosphate MeSH D13.695.667.138.180.080 - adenosine phosphosulfate ... cyclic adp-ribose MeSH D13.695.827.068.180 - adenosine monophosphate MeSH D13.695.827.068.180.080 - adenosine phosphosulfate ... cyclic cmp MeSH D13.695.462.275 - cyclic gmp MeSH D13.695.462.275.325 - dibutyryl cyclic gmp MeSH D13.695.462.300 - cyclic imp ... adenosine diphosphate MeSH D13.695.667.138.124.070 - adenosine diphosphate sugars MeSH D13.695.667. - adenosine ...
Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is a signal molecule whose prevalence is inversely proportional to that of glucose. It ... Colonies that produce β-galactosidase are turned blue by X-gal (5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-β-D-galactoside) which is an ... Botsford, J L; Harman, J G (March 1992). "Cyclic AMP in prokaryotes". Microbiological Reviews. 56 (1): 100-122. doi:10.1128/ ... Montminy, M. (1997). "Transcriptional regulation by cyclic AMP". Annual Review of Biochemistry. 66: 807-822. doi:10.1146/ ...
GPCRs modulate the inhibition of adenylyl cyclase and accumulation of the second messenger, cyclic adenosine monophosphate ( ... 5-Bromo-DMT. *5-MeO-2,N,N-TMT. *5-MeO-4,N,N-TMT ... 7-8,11-14H2,1-3H3/t17-,18+,21-,23+,24-/m1/s1 Y ... 17 (8): 1817-1820. doi:10.1002/jhet.5570170841.. *^ Sheshenev AE, Boltukhina EV, Hii KK (May 2013). "Levonantradol: asymmetric ... 8 (1): E112-7. doi:10.1208/aapsj080113. PMC 2751429. PMID 16584117.. *. Hosking RD, Zajicek JP (July 2008). "Therapeutic ...
A long-acting derivative of cyclic AMP. It is an activator of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, but resistant to degradation ... A2B adenosine receptor promotes mesenchymal stem cell differentiation to osteoblasts and bone formation in vivo. J Biol Chem. ... "8-Bromo Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, ... 8-Bromo Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate, Sodium Salt*8-Bromo Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate, Sodium Salt ...
Calbiochem Adenosine 3ʹ,5ʹ-cyclic Monophosphate, 8-Bromo-, Sodium Salt, CAS 76939-46-3, is a cell-permeable cAMP analog with ... Adenosine 3ʹ,5ʹ-cyclic Monophosphate, 8-Bromo-, Sodium Salt - CAS 76939-46-3 - ... More,, Adenosine 3ʹ,5ʹ-cyclic Monophosphate, 8-Bromo-, Sodium Salt, CAS 76939-46-3, is a cell-permeable cAMP analog with ... Adenosine 3ʹ,5ʹ-cyclic Monophosphate, 8-Bromo-, Sodium Salt - CAS 76939-46-3 - Calbiochem Certificates of Analysis. Title. Lot ...
Cyclic AMP / metabolism * Female * Fibroblasts / cytology * Humans * Insulin-Like Growth Factor I / metabolism* ...
8-bromo cyclic adenosine monophosphate. EIPA. 5-(N-ethyl-N-isopropyl)amiloride. Hb. haemoglobin. Hct. haematocrit. ISO. ... In Proceedings of the International Sablefish Symposium 1983, 83-8, pp. 59-80. Anchorage: Alaska Sea Grant. ... In Proceedings of the International Sablefish Symposium 1983, 83-8, pp. 119-135. Anchorage: Alaska Sea Grant. ... In Advances in Comparative and Environmental Physiology, vol 8, pp. 51-77. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. ...
The secretion of insulin by pancreatic beta-cells is controlled by synergistic interactions of glucose and hormones of the glucagon-related peptide family, of which pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a member. Here we show by simultaneous recording of intracellular calcium …
Membrane-permeable cyclic adenosine monophosphate (8-bromo-cAMP; Sigma-Aldrich, St Louis, MO, USA) was used at 4 mmol l−1. ... 2013). Signal transduction for Schistocerca gregaria ion transport peptide is mediated via both cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP. ... Cyclic AMP-stimulated opening of apical K+ channels also enhances this passive transport, and as a result of overall increases ... Membrane-permeable cAMP, 8-bromo-cAMP, stimulated K+ efflux at the locust ileum relative to saline (Fig. 5A). The K+ efflux ...
R-HSA-2022379 ACE2 hydrolyzes Angiotensin-(1-8) to Angiotensin-(1-7). R-HSA-2022377 Metabolism of Angiotensinogen to ... American heart journal 2008 156(4):752-8, Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 A1075G polymorphism is associated with survival in an ... acute coronary syndromes cohort., American heart journal 2008 156(4):752-8. [PubMed 18926157] ... 8), posterior urethral valves (6), hypertension, essential (2), myocardial infarction (1) ...
8-Bromo Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate / metabolism. Cell Differentiation. Cells, Cultured. Dexamethasone / pharmacology. ... 9613677 - Interleukin-8 and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 production by a human glioblastoma cel.... ...
R-HSA-2022379 ACE2 hydrolyzes Angiotensin-(1-8) to Angiotensin-(1-7). R-HSA-2022377 Metabolism of Angiotensinogen to ... 8), posterior urethral valves (6), hypertension, essential (2), myocardial infarction (1) ...
8-Bromo Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate / pharmacology. Animals. Animals, Newborn. Cells, Cultured. Cholesterol Side-Chain ... 0/Chorionic Gonadotropin; 0/Endocrine Disruptors; 0/Insecticides; 0/Phenols; 23583-48-4/8-Bromo Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate ...
adenosine 3′,5′-cyclic monophosphate, 8-bromo, sodium salt. **Received October 28, 1998. ... injury-induced increases in cyclic AMP and glutamate levels were also significantly reduced by a group II agonist. The ... of group II agonists were markedly attenuated by coadministration of a group II antagonist or a membrane-permeable cyclic AMP ...
Ann Trop Med Parasitol 8 : 85-104.. * Bruce MC, Alano P, Duthie S, Carter R, 1990. Commitment of the malaria parasite ... Plasmodium falciparum gametocyte formation in vitro: its stimulation by phorbol diesters and by 8-bromo cyclic adenosine ... monophosphate. J Protozool 36 : 451-454.. * Pan JX, Mikkelsen RB, Wallach DFH, Asher CR, 1987. Synthesis of a somatostatin-like ...
8. 71,384,274 - 71,395,834 (-). NCBI. GRCm38. GRCm38. mm10. GRCm38. MGSCv37. 8. 73,908,173 - 73,919,700 (-). NCBI. GRCm37. mm9 ... Insulin level QTL 8. 3.3. 0.0063. blood insulin amount (VT:0001560). calculated serum insulin level (CMO:0000359). 16. 1. ... 8-Br-cAMP increases expression. ISO. RGD:1322004. 6480464. 8-Bromo Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate results in increased ... Hepatocarcinoma susceptibility QTL 8. liver integrity trait (VT:0010547). liver tumorous lesion number (CMO:0001068). 16. 1. ...
8-Br-cAMP decreases expression. ISO. RGD:1345486. 6480464. 8-Bromo Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate results in decreased ...
Cyclic-Adenosine Monophosphate. Najmabadi H, Rosenberg LA, Yuan QX, Bhatia N, Albiston AL, Burger H, Bhasin S; Molecular ... 8. Diagnostic Techniques Used in Pediatric Back Pain. Proceedings of the North American Spine Society, annual meeting, 2003. ... 8. Novel Transplantation of Preconditioned Schwann Cells Following Spinal Cord Contusion Injury. Journal of Bone and Joint ... 1. Transcriptional and Posttranscriptional Regulation of Inhibin alpha-Subunit Gene Expression in Rat Sertoli Cells by 8-Bromo- ...
... cyclic adenosine monophosphate (8-Br-cAMP) is a brominated derivative of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). 8-Br-cAMP is an ... cyclic monophosphate (8-Br-cGMP) 8-Bromoadenosine 3′,5′-cyclic monophosphate at Sigma-Aldrich 8-Bromo Cyclic Adenosine ... activator of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, and it is long-acting because it is resistant to degradation by cyclic AMP ...
8. Gründemann D, Gorboulev V, Gambaryan S, Veyhl M, Koepsell H. Drug excretion mediated by a new prototype of polyspecific ... Polar solute transport across the pigmented rabbit conjunctiva: size dependence and the influence of 8-bromo cyclic adenosine ... monophosphate. Pharm Res. 1997;14:1246-1251. [CrossRef] [PubMed]. 32. Miyamoto Y, Tiruppathi C, Ganapathy V, Leibach FH. ... 8 OCT2, 9 and OCT3 10 ; and (b) an energy-dependent secondary active OC+/H+ exchange mechanism that is driven by an inwardly ...
... is a cell-permeable brominated derivative of cAMP that is longer lasting due to a higher resistance to cyclic AMP ... Synonyms: 8 Bromo cAMP, 8 Bromo Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate, 8 Bromo Cyclic AMP, 8 Bromo Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate, Br ... 4aR,6R,7R,7aS)-6-(6-amino-8-bromopurin-9-yl)-2-hydroxy-2-oxo-4a,6,7,7a-tetrahydro-4H-furo[3,2-d][1,3,2]dioxaphosphinin-7-ol ... 8-Bromo-cAMP is reported to enhance the induction of pluripotency in human fibroblast cells and protects neutrophils against ...
cyclic AMP. cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase. protein PdeH. protein PdeL. unclassified drug. 8 bromo cyclic AMP. cyclic AMP. ... Cyclic AMP-dependent pathways mediate the communication between external stimuli and the intracellular signaling machinery, ... Cyclic AMP. Cytoplasm. Exonucleases. Fungal Proteins. Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic. Gene Expression Regulation, ... Exogenous addition of 8-Br-cAMP to the wild type simulated the pdeHD defects in conidiation as well as in planta growth and ...
Cyclic Adenosine 5 -Monophosphate Inhibition of Cyclin D1 ENDOCRINOLOGY Velarde, M. C., Aghajanova, L., Nezhat, C. R., Giudice ... revealed dysregulation of progesterone and/or cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-regulated genes and genes related to ... Human endometrium regenerates on a cyclic basis from candidate stem/progenitors whose genetic programs are yet to be determined ... In 8-Br-cAMP-treated hESF from eutopic endometrium of women with endometriosis, the balance in estradiol (E2) and P4 ...
Derivatives of cyclic adenosine 3′:5′-monophosphate also increased the number of alpha-Btx receptor sites, whereas dibutyryl ... cyclic guanosine 3′:5′-monophosphate, but not 8-bromo-cyclic guanosine 3′:5′-monophosphate, had the opposite effect. The ... These results show that the synthesis of the neuronal alpha-Btx receptor is regulated by membrane depolarization, cyclic ... Regulation of alpha-bungarotoxin receptor accumulation in chick retina cultures: effects of membrane depolarization, cyclic ...
Adenosine phosphate. approved, investigational, nutraceutical. unknown. product of. Details. DB01954. Rolipram. investigational ... Monophosphate. experimental. unknown. Details. DB03606. (S)-Rolipram. experimental. unknown. inhibitor. Details. ... cAMP-specific 3,5-cyclic phosphodiesterase 4B. Details. Name. cAMP-specific 3,5-cyclic phosphodiesterase 4B. Synonyms. *3.1 ... 3,5-cyclic-AMP phosphodiesterase activity / cAMP binding / ion channel binding / metal ion binding ...
... role of cyclic adenosine 5-monophosphate-dependent protein kinase and protein kinase C.. J Rousell, E B Haddad, J C Mak, B L ... role of cyclic adenosine 5-monophosphate-dependent protein kinase and protein kinase C.. J Rousell, E B Haddad, J C Mak, B L ... role of cyclic adenosine 5-monophosphate-dependent protein kinase and protein kinase C.. J Rousell, E B Haddad, J C Mak, B L ... Beta-Adrenoceptor-medicated down-regulation of M2 muscarinic receptors: role of cyclic adenosine 5-monophosphate-dependent ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Role of steroidogenic-factor 1 in basal and 3,5-cyclic adenosine monophosphate- ... Role of steroidogenic-factor 1 in basal and 3,5-cyclic adenosine monophosphate-mediated regulation of cytochrome P450 side- ... Role of steroidogenic-factor 1 in basal and 3,5-cyclic adenosine monophosphate-mediated regulation of cytochrome P450 side- ... Role of steroidogenic-factor 1 in basal and 3,5-cyclic adenosine monophosphate-mediated regulation of cytochrome P450 side- ...
Petrei, A. H. & Tybout, J., Jan 1 1985, In : World Development. 13, 8, p. 949-967 19 p.. Research output: Contribution to ... Galvez, J. & Tybout, J., Jan 1 1985, In : World Development. 13, 8, p. 969-994 26 p.. Research output: Contribution to journal ... De Melo, J., Pascale, R. & Tybout, J., Jan 1 1985, In : World Development. 13, 8, p. 995-1015 21 p.. Research output: ... Rim, P. B. & Runt, J. P., Jan 1 1985, In : Journal of Applied Polymer Science. 30, 4, p. 1545-1552 8 p.. Research output: ...
... cyclic adenosine monophosphate) (R&D Systems), and 3,7-dihydro-1-methyl-3-(2-methylpropyl)-1H-purine-2,6-dione (Sigma-Aldrich) ... Tissue engineering strategies are currently under development to regenerate or replace injured lungs (5-8). Because of the ... 8Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY 10032, USA. ... 8Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY 10032, USA. ...
8, artikkel-id 28608. Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert). Abstract [en]. Background: Despite global recognition that ... 8, artikkel-id 28608Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published Abstract [en]. Background: Despite global recognition ... 60, nr 8, s. 1307-1312Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert). Abstract [en] ... from women with and without endometriosis decidualized with the use of E2P or 8-bromo-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). ...
... cyclic monophosphate (8-Br-cGMP; 0.1 mM). Growth arrest was accompanied by down-regulation of c-Myc protein and mRNA following ... cyclic monophosphate (8-Br-cAMP; 0.1 mM) and 8-bromoguanosine-3′5′- ... Heparin, 8-Br-cAMP or 8-Br-cGMP also suppressed c-myc, but this occurred later, after 24-48 h, and was also observed following ... or the cyclic nucleotide analogues, 8-bromo-adenosine-3′5′- ...
... benzylamino-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (BA-cAMP) and 8-bromocyclic adenosine monophosphate (Br-cAMP) were both used and are ... 1 hour pulses of cAMP induced rhythm advances for two cycles; the rhythm was unaffected when using non-cyclic AMP analog. This ...
  • The loss in receptor number at 24 hr was mimicked with the use of forskolin and the cAMP analogue 8-bromo-cAMP, indicating a cAMP-mediated mechanism. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Chronic (24 hr) treatment with 8-bromo-cAMP also had no effect on m2 muscarinic receptor mRNA, whereas forskolin caused a 50% reduction in the steady state levels of m2 mRNA that could be only partially blocked by the cAMP-dependent protein kinase inhibitor H-8 and the protein kinase C inhibitor GF 109203X. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Conversely, the forskolin- and 8-bromo-cAMP-induced down-regulation was only partially inhibited and unaffected by these inhibitors, respectively. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Isoproterenol increased dependent manner, with significant effects at concentrations as low as 10 nmol/L. The effects of isoproterenol were reversible by washout or by the addition of propranolol (1 μmol/L). Isoproterenol's effects were mimicked by the direct adenylate cyclase stimulator, forskolin, and by the membrane-permeable form of cAMP, 8-bromo cAMP. (hku.hk)
  • In the presence of agents known to raise intracellular levels of adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (noradrenaline, 8-bromo-cAMP and a combination of forskolin and rolipram) the slope of the relation between P(K) and U was no longer significant, so that P(K) was no longer flow dependent. (elsevier.com)
  • Pretreatment with either 8-bromo-cAMP or forskolin results in augmentation of subsequent LHRH-induced secretion without affecting baseline secretion. (elsevier.com)
  • If the cells are exposed simultaneously to forskolin and OAG, but not 8-bromo-cAMP and OAG, the augmentation is dampened. (elsevier.com)
  • The adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP)-mediated secretagogues, prostaglandin E 2 , forskolin, and 8-bromo-cAMP, evoked activity of an outwardly rectifying Cl channel in previously quiet cell-attached membrane patches. (elsevier.com)
  • Application of capsaicin (100 μM) attenuated vectorial anion transport, estimated as short-circuit currents (I SC ), before and after stimulation by forskolin (10 μM) with concomitant reduction of cytosolic cyclic AMP (cAMP) levels. (fujita-hu.ac.jp)
  • In an Ussing-type chamber system, the Isc changes induced by the cAMP analogue 8-bromo-cAMP and an adenylyl cyclase activator forskolin in isolated human ciliary processes were assessed. (bvsalud.org)
  • Dose-dependently, 8-bromo-cAMP (10 nmol/L-30 µmol/L) or forskolin (10 nmol/L-3 µmol/L) increased Isc across the ciliary processes with an increase in negative potential difference on the non-pigmented epithelium (NPE) side of the tissue. (bvsalud.org)
  • 0 and 3 h for those implanted into the amygdala), these animals received microinfusions of SKF38393 (7.5 mug/side), SCH23390 (0.5 mug/side), norepinephrine (0.3 mug/side), timolol (0.3 mug/side), 8-OH-DPAT (2.5 mug/side), NAN-190 (2.5 mug/side), forskolin (0.5 mug/side), KT5720 (0.5 mug/side) or 8-Br-cAMP (1.25 mug/side). (bvsalud.org)
  • When given 3 or 6 h post-training, 8-Br-cAMP, forskolin, SKF38393, norepinephrine and NAN-190 caused memory facilitation, while KT5720, SCH23390, timolol and 8-OH-DPAT caused retrograde amnesia. (bvsalud.org)
  • Treatment of striatal astrocytes with the β-adrenergic agonist, isoproterenol, or with agents which directly increased intracellular cAMP (forskolin or 8-bromo-cAMP) elevated levels of PPE mRNA. (northwestern.edu)
  • Culture of rat astrocytes in the presence of 10 μM forskolin, isoproterenol, a nonselective β-adrenergic agonist, or 8-bromo-cyclic AMP increased transiently in a time-dependent manner the levels of G(iα2) and G(iα3) mRNAs as measured by northern blot analysis. (uthscsa.edu)
  • Spleen cells or lymph node cells from type-II-collagen-immunized DBA/1 mice were cultured in the presence of type II collagen plus one of five different cAMP-elevating agents: rolipram, forskolin, prostaglandin E2, 8-bromo-cAMP, or cholera toxin. (ox.ac.uk)
  • 2. Rat anterior pituitary tissue responded in vitro to growth hormone releasing hormone, forskolin, 8-Bromo-cyclic adenosine 3'5'-monophosphate (8-Br-cyclic AMP) and an L-Ca(2+) channel opener (BAY K8644) with concentration-dependent increases GH release which were readily inhibited by corticosterone and dexamethasone. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Infusion of 8-bromo-adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (8-Br-cAMP), 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine, or forskolin produced a significant increase in the release of DA. (bocsci.com)
  • Agents known to open gap junctions, including 8-Br-cAMP and forskolin (analogue and activator of the cAMP 2nd messenger system respectively) augmented the antidromic population spike and uncovered fast oscillations in the extracellular field. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Finally, the transcriptional repression of the CSRh element was mimicked by treatment with forskolin, 8-bromo-cAMP, and 3- isobutyl-1-methylxanthine or by overexpression of the catalytic SUBunit of protein kinase A. Together, these data suggest that protein kinase A activity is a critical factor that regulates fgfr3 gene expression in the proliferative or prehypertrophic compartment of the epiphyseal growth plate. (uthscsa.edu)
  • Rat collagenase-dispersed testicular interstitial cells (TICs) were incubated with evodiamine (0 to 10 -4 mol/L) in the presence or absence of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), forskolin, 8-bromo-adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate (8-Br-cAMP), or steroidogenic precursors (including 25hydroxycholesterol, pregnenolone, progesterone, 17α- hydroxyprogesterone, and androstenedione) at 34°C for 1 hour. (elsevier.com)
  • Characterization of maxi-K-channels in bovine trabecular meshwork and their activation by cyclic guanosine monophosphate. (arvojournals.org)
  • PURPOSE: Electrophysiological characterization of trabecular meshwork cells and investigation of their response to elevation of cytosolic cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP). (arvojournals.org)
  • Cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) is a cyclic nucleotide derived from guanosine triphosphate (GTP). (chemchart.com)
  • Relaxation of the rat thoracic aorta with adenosine triphosphate, thrombin, and/or trypsin was associated with increased levels of cyclic guanosine monophosphate in both time- and concentration-dependent manners. (ahajournals.org)
  • In contrast, sodium nitroprusside-induced relaxation and/or increased levels of cyclic guanosine monophosphate were unaltered by nordihydroguaiaretic acid, eicosatetraynoic acid, bromophenacyl bromide, and removal of extracellular calcium. (ahajournals.org)
  • After incubation of intact tissue with 32P-orthophosphate, the patterns of protein phosphorylation caused by adenosine triphosphate, thrombin, and trypsin were indistinguishable from those of acetylcholine, sodium nitroprusside and 8-bromo cyclic guanosine monophosphate. (ahajournals.org)
  • Thus, the present study supports the hypothesis that relaxation induced by adenosine triphosphate, thrombin, and trypsin is mediated through the formation of an endothelial factor which elevates cyclic guanosine monophosphate levels and causes cyclic guanosine monophosphate-dependent protein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of myosin light chain. (ahajournals.org)
  • Gastric blood flow responses to topical application of acid, capsaicin, nitrovasodilators, misoprostol, 8-bromo-cyclic guanosine monophosphate, and 8-bromo-cyclic adenosine monophosphate were measured by laser Doppler flowmetry using an ex vivo gastric chamber preparation. (lixghtiislland16.ga)
  • In addition, the effects of intracavernous injection of the nitric oxide-releasing substance, nitroprusside, and bromocyclic adenosine monophosphate (AMP) and bromocyclic guanosine monophosphate (GMP) were also studied. (slippercottage.co.uk)
  • These results show that the synthesis of the neuronal alpha-Btx receptor is regulated by membrane depolarization, cyclic nucleotides, and Ca2+ in a fashion analogous to the regulation of muscle acetylcholine receptor. (jneurosci.org)
  • Consequently both cyclic nucleotides reduce the free Ca in the myoplasm and promote relaxation, but by different mechanisms. (deepdyve.com)
  • Removal of the endothelium abolished adenosine triphosphate-, thrombin-, and trypsin-induced relaxation and the associated increased levels of cyclic nucleotides. (ahajournals.org)
  • Indomethacin, a cyclooxygenase inhibitor, potentiated relaxation to these agents, whereas the increased levels of cyclic nucleotides due to adenosine triphosphate were unaltered. (ahajournals.org)
  • Bromophenacyl bromide, a phospholipase A2 inhibitor, decreased relaxation due to adenosine triphosphate, thrombin, and trypsin and the associated increased levels of cyclic nucleotides. (ahajournals.org)
  • Removal of extracellular calcium, which also presumably inhibits phospholipase A2, prevented the elevated levels of cyclic nucleotides and the inhibitory effects of adenosine triphosphate and trypsin on contraction. (ahajournals.org)
  • EtOH stimulates BBEC CBF through cyclic nucleotide kinase activation. (elsevier.com)
  • These results indicate that cyclic nucleotide-dependent changes in g(j) may contribute to the inotropic effects of these agents. (elsevier.com)
  • 8- benzylamino-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (BA-cAMP) and 8-bromocyclic adenosine monophosphate (Br-cAMP) were both used and are both membrane permeable cAMP analogs that are potent stimulators of cAMP-dependant protein kinases. (coursehero.com)
  • A2B adenosine receptor promotes mesenchymal stem cell differentiation to osteoblasts and bone formation in vivo. (harvard.edu)
  • The neuroprotective effects of group II agonists were markedly attenuated by coadministration of a group II antagonist or a membrane-permeable cyclic AMP analog and were additive to those provided by an N -methyl- d -aspartate receptor antagonist or a selective group I mGluR antagonist. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Derivatives of cyclic adenosine 3′:5′-monophosphate also increased the number of alpha-Btx receptor sites, whereas dibutyryl cyclic guanosine 3′:5′-monophosphate, but not 8-bromo-cyclic guanosine 3′:5′-monophosphate, had the opposite effect. (jneurosci.org)
  • Since dibutyryl-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (DBcAMP) has previously been reported to modulate membrane receptor expression in lymphocytes and certain macrophage-like cell lines, we examined its effects on EA binding and phagocytosis by C3H/HeJ macrophages. (elsevier.com)
  • The failure of H-8 to inhibit cAMP analog effects on GABAA receptor function was most likely due to the presence of ATP inside the synaptoneurosomes, because H-8 inhibition of protein kinase A was reduced in the presence of ATP. (muscimol.xyz)
  • We also found that the inhibitory effect of stress on mossy fiber LTP was obviated by the adenosine A 1 receptor antagonist 8-cyclopentyl-1,3,-dipropylxanthine, the non-specific phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitor 3-isobutyl-methylxanthine, and the specific PDE4 inhibitor 4-(3-butoxy-4-methoxyphenyl)methyl-2-imidazolidone. (elsevier.com)
  • These results suggest that the inhibition of mossy fiber LTP by acute stress treatment seems originating from a corticosterone-induced sustained increase in the PDE4 activity to accelerate the metabolism of cAMP to adenosine, in turn triggering an adenosine A 1 receptor-mediated impairment of transmitter release machinery. (elsevier.com)
  • Fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 gene transcription is suppressed by cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate. (uthscsa.edu)
  • Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 gene transcription is suppressed by cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate. (uthscsa.edu)
  • Neither isoproterenol (a β-agonist) nor 8-bromo cAMP could elicit this response. (biologists.org)
  • When BBEC were preincubated with 100 mM EtOH for 24 h, the stimulation of PKA by isoproterenol or 8-bromo-cAMP was abrogated. (elsevier.com)
  • Sasaguri, Toshiyuki 1985-02-01 00:00:00 1 To investigate the vasodilator actions of nitroglycerine and isoprenaline, the effects of these agents, dibutyryl cyclic AMP (db cyclic AMP) and 8‐bromo cyclic GMP (8‐Br cyclic GMP) on intact muscle tissue, and of cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP on skinned muscle of the rabbit mesenteric artery were investigated. (deepdyve.com)
  • 8-Bromo-cAMP is reported to enhance the induction of pluripotency in human fibroblast cells and protects neutrophils against TNF-α-induced apoptosis. (peprotech.com)
  • JEG-3 cells, a transformed progesterone-producing line of trophoblastic origin, accumulate mRNAs for cytochrome P450scc (the mitochondrial cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme), adrenodoxin, and the fos oncogene when stimulated with 8-bromo-cyclic AMP. (elsevier.com)
  • Endometrial stromal cells were isolated and cultured, and then were induced to decidualize by 0.5 mM 8-Br-cAMP for 15 days. (bvsalud.org)
  • In summary, the expression of alpha;avbeta;b3 integrin increased in stromal cells in vitro decidualized by 8-Br-cAMP and this up-regulation of alpha v beta3 integrin expression during decidualization might influence on human implantation. (bvsalud.org)
  • Incubation with the cAMP analog 8-bromo-cAMP (8BrcAMP) increased the number of collagenase-staining cells in a dose-dependent manner (ED 05 = 2.5 x 10 -4 M), but to a lower level than PTH, with the maximal effect producing about 15% positive cells. (nyu.edu)
  • In cells challenged with 8-bromo-cyclic AMP, the level of G(iα2) mRNA level was maximal after 1 h of culture, while the maximal for G(iα3) mRNA was reached after 6 h of culture. (uthscsa.edu)
  • 5 In intact muscle tissues, the effects of nitroglycerine or 8‐Br cyclic GMP on the amount of Ca stored in cells were estimated from the caffeine‐induced contraction in Ca‐free solution. (deepdyve.com)
  • When the effects of isoprenaline or db cyclic AMP were observed, both agents inhibited the caffeine‐induced contraction but the accumulation of Ca into cells was greater than the control. (deepdyve.com)
  • TGFα, T 4 , and 8-Br-cAMP each caused protein kinase A (PKA) II serine phosphorylation, whereas phosphorylation of PKA-II was not seen in cells treated with EGF or 8-chloro-cyclic adenosine monophosphate. (elsevier.com)
  • Cells exposed to 8-Br-cAMP also inhibited TGFα-stimulated c-fos expression. (elsevier.com)
  • Calcium-independent potentiation of insulin release by cyclic AMP in single beta-cells. (ox.ac.uk)
  • How does cyclic AMP potentiate insulin secretion from pancreatic islet beta-cells? (ox.ac.uk)
  • The intestinal stem cells were matured into intestinal epithelial cells by treatment with 8-bromo-cyclic adenosine monophosphate and 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine, which activate cAMP signaling. (intestinalcellnews.com)
  • To this end, granulosa cells were stimulated for 4h with FSH (15 ng/ml, NIDDK-oFSH-20) or 8-Bromo-cAMP (8 Br-cAMP, 1 mM) in serum-free medium containing either 1.8 mM Ca 2+ or no added Ca 2+ with 100 μM EGTA or 100 μ CoCl 2 . (elsevier.com)
  • The foregoing two agonists augmented 4-h progesterone production by cultured granulosa cells by 1.8 ± 0.11 and 1.6 ± 0.16-fold, respectively (P ≤ 0.001 for FSH and P ≤ 0.01 for 8 Br-cAMP). (elsevier.com)
  • Extracellular Ca 2+ withdrawal suppressed FSH (and 8 Br-cAMP)-driven progesterone production over 4 h to basal levels but did not alter FSH-stimulated cAMP accumulation by granulosa cells. (elsevier.com)
  • In summary, uptake of extracellular Ca 2+ by porcine granulosa cells significantly potentiates transactivation of the endogenously expressed and exogenously transfected P450scc gene by FSH and 8 Br-cAMP. (elsevier.com)
  • In the present study, we used the whole cell configuration of the patch-clamp technique to investigate the biophysical properties and 8-bromo-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (8Br-cAMP) modulation of these splice variants expressed in tsA201 cells in the presence of the beta(1)-subunit. (ulaval.ca)
  • Human endometrial stromal cells isolated from hysterectomy specimens were decidualized with 8-bromo-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (8-br-cAMP) and P in the presence or absence of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) at various concentrations. (fertstertforum.com)
  • Prolactin production was induced in HESCs in response to 8-br-cAMP and P. Dihydrotestosterone further enhanced the secretion of PRL in cells treated with 8-br-cAMP plus P. The effect of DHT was blocked by the antiandrogen flutamide. (fertstertforum.com)
  • kinodyl injection Treatment of animals and preparation for competition: one injection every 3 days for 9-12 days.Preventive and pre-stress: ATP injection(Adenosine Tri-Phosphate) is utilized in the Kreb's Cycle - which physiologically is one of the key providers of energy to muscle and other cells, especially during strenuous endurance work. (slippercottage.co.uk)
  • Adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an enzyme complex that detects the AMP:ATP ratio as the signal of energy shortage [18].When the AMPK metabolic switch is activated by high AMP levels (and low ATP levels), the body is triggered into fat burning, ketosis (turning protein into fuel), improved insulin response, and increased glucose uptake by cells. (slippercottage.co.uk)
  • The open probability could be elevated by depolarization, increasing cytosolic calcium, or adding adenosine triphosphate (1 mmol/ l). (arvojournals.org)
  • Adrenal renin in TGR(mREN2)27 is stimulated by 8-bromo-cAMP (8-Br-cAMP), angiotensin II (ANGII), and calcium. (mdc-berlin.de)
  • Adenosine 3ʹ,5ʹ-cyclic Monophosphate, 8-Bromo-, Sodium Salt, CAS 76939-46-3, is a cell-permeable cAMP analog with greater resistance to phosphodiesterases. (merckmillipore.com)
  • 8-Bromo-cAMP is a cell-permeable brominated derivative of cAMP that is longer lasting due to a higher resistance to cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase. (peprotech.com)
  • The capsaicin-induced inhibition of I SC was also observed in the response to 8-bromo-cAMP (1 mM, a cell-permeable cAMP analog) and 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (1 mM, an inhibitor of phosphodiesterases). (fujita-hu.ac.jp)
  • To investigate cyclic AMP (cAMP) involvement in the effects of PACAP on ICC, SQ-22536 (an inhibitor of adenylate cyclase) and cell-permeable 8-bromo-cAMP were used. (bvsalud.org)
  • SQ-22536 decreased the frequency of pacemaker potentials, and cell-permeable 8-bromo-cAMP increased the frequency of pacemaker potentials. (bvsalud.org)
  • It is an activator of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, but resistant to degradation by cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase. (harvard.edu)
  • Obernolte R, Bhakta S, Alvarez R, Bach C, Zuppan P, Mulkins M, Jarnagin K, Shelton ER: The cDNA of a human lymphocyte cyclic-AMP phosphodiesterase (PDE IV) reveals a multigene family. (drugbank.ca)
  • Beta-Adrenoceptor-medicated down-regulation of M2 muscarinic receptors: role of cyclic adenosine 5'-monophosphate-dependent protein kinase and protein kinase C. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Heparin, 8-Br-cAMP or 8-Br-cGMP also suppressed c-myc, but this occurred later, after 24-48 h, and was also observed following arrest by metabolic block. (biochemj.org)
  • 8-bromo-cGMP or carbachol). (elsevier.com)
  • Addition of 8-bromo-cGMP (10(-3) mol/1) stimulated the current to 290 +/- 57% (n = 4) of the original level, charybdotoxin led to a reduction of this current to 156 +/- 28% of the initial value. (arvojournals.org)
  • cGMP acts as a second messenger much like cyclic AMP. (chemchart.com)
  • 8- (4- Chlorophenylthio)guanosine- 3', 5'- cyclic monophosphate, acetoxymethyl ester ( 8-pCPT-cGMP-AM )Cat. (servlab.co.kr)
  • N 2 , 2'- O- Dibutyrylguanosine- 3', 5'- cyclic monophosphate ( DB-cGMP )Cat. (servlab.co.kr)
  • Guanosine- 3', 5'- cyclic monophosphate, acetoxymethyl ester ( cGMP-AM )Cat. (servlab.co.kr)
  • 2'- O- Monobutyrylguanosine- 3', 5'- cyclic monophosphate ( MB-cGMP )Cat. (servlab.co.kr)
  • cAMP is a derivative of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and used for intracellular signal transduction in many different organisms, conveying the cAMP-dependent pathway. (chemchart.com)
  • For example, local anesthetics can affect several subtypes of protein kinase C (PKC), 2,3 adenosine 3′,5′-cyclic monophosphate-dependent kinase (PKA), 4 guanosine triphosphate-binding proteins (G proteins), 5 and many of the various receptors that activate them. (asahq.org)
  • Mechanisms of adenosine triphosphate-, thrombin-, and trypsin-induced relaxation of rat thoracic aorta. (ahajournals.org)
  • The mechanisms by which adenosine triphosphate, thrombin, and trypsin cause relaxation of vascular smooth muscle were investigated. (ahajournals.org)
  • Thrombin and trypsin did not alter cyclic adenosine monophosphate levels, whereas adenosine triphosphate increased cyclic adenosine monophosphate levels after significant relaxation occurred. (ahajournals.org)
  • the rhythm was unaffected when using non-cyclic AMP analog. (coursehero.com)
  • the positive contractile response of 1 μmol/L SNAP persisted, despite the presence of the selective inhibitor of GC 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ, 10 μmol/L) alone, but was completely abolished in the presence of ODQ plus the specific inhibitory cAMP analog Rp-8-CPT-cAMPS (100 μmol/L), as well as by the NO scavenger oxyhemoglobin. (ahajournals.org)
  • In contrast, stress has no effect on synaptic potentiation induced by the non-hydrolysable and membrane-permeable cyclic adenosine 5′-monophosphate (cAMP) analog Sp-8-bromo-cAMPS. (elsevier.com)
  • Nitroglycerine and 8‐Br cyclic GMP showed a stronger inhibitory action on the K‐induced contraction than did isoprenaline and db cyclic AMP. (deepdyve.com)
  • 5. The results provide novel evidence for a role for annexin 1 as a mediator of the inhibitory actions of glucocorticoids on the secretion of GH by the anterior pituitary gland and suggest that its actions are effected at a point distal to the formation of cyclic AMP and Ca(2+) entry. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Exogenous 8-bromo-cyclic AMP (but not 8-bromo-cyclic GMP) inhibits the c-myc responses to ConA and TPA. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Antagonism of cellular uptake of Ca 2+ and other divalent cations via administration of cobalt chloride (100 μM) inhibited FSH and 8 Br-cAMP's stimulation of endogenous (but not exogenous promoter-driven) P450 scc gene expression. (elsevier.com)
  • By contrast, GnRH treatment had no significant effect on exogenous 8-br-cAMP-stimulated P450arom and P450scc gene expression. (ubc.ca)
  • A membrane-permeant precursor of the PKA activator 8-Br-cAMP (Cat. (servlab.co.kr)
  • Membrane-permeant precursor of the PDE-resistant protein kinase A activator Sp-8-Br-cAMPS (Cat. (servlab.co.kr)
  • 8-pCPT, an Epac activator, impairs conditioned place preference based on nucleus accumbens amphetamine in rats. (semanticscholar.org)
  • 8-bromo-cyclic AMP and cholera toxin could mimic the LH stimulated secretion of the carrier protein. (bvsalud.org)
  • Cigarette smoke (CS) contributes to airway remodeling (AR) in asthma partly by dysregulating expression of genes involved in arginine metabolism (AM). Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) modulates expression of enzymes involved in AM, but whether cAMP can counteract the effects of CS on AR in asthma is uncertain. (pcom.edu)
  • A long-acting derivative of cyclic AMP. (harvard.edu)
  • 8-Bromoadenosine 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (8-Br-cAMP) is a brominated derivative of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). (wikipedia.org)
  • Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and ionomycin were ineffective at increasing the transcriptional activity of the collagenase gene, while 8-bromo-cAMP over the range of 2.5 × 10 −4 −10 −3 M could reproduce the PTH effect. (nyu.edu)
  • In the lysed preparation, where the cAMP analogs have direct access to intracellular enzymes, the order of potencies of the cAMP analogs to activate protein kinase A (8-bromo-cAMP greater than CPT-cAMP greater than dibutyryl-cAMP) differed from the order of potencies to inhibit muscimol-induced 36Cl- uptake. (muscimol.xyz)
  • However, a permeant kinase inhibitor, H-8, also failed to inhibit the effect of cAMP analogs on the muscimol response, yet it inhibited protein kinase A activity. (muscimol.xyz)
  • Adenosine monophosphate injections are greatly considered by most nutritionally oriented doctors as worthwhile tactic for fast relief and to remedy the post-herpetic neuralgia, particularly in instances in which unremitting pain occur. (slippercottage.co.uk)
  • 8-Bromo-cAMP, as well as other agents known to elevate intracellular cAMP (i.e., isoproternol plus isobutylmethylxanthine or prostaglandin E 2 ) also corrected the phagocytic defect. (elsevier.com)
  • Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) could activate chloride channels in bovine ciliary body and trigger an increase in the ionic current (short-circuit current, Isc) across the ciliary processes in pigs. (bvsalud.org)
  • 8-Bromo-cAMP-stimulated net HCO 3 - secretion, whereas secretion fell with time in control tubules. (elsevier.com)
  • Schuster, VL 1985, ' Cyclic adenosine monophosphate-stimulated bicarbonate secretion in rabbit cortical collecting tubules ', Journal of Clinical Investigation , vol. 75, no. 6, pp. 2056-2064. (elsevier.com)
  • Ouabain and 8-Bromo-cAMP (0.5 micromol/L) markedly increased atrial ET-1 secretion, which was blocked by H-89 and by PD98059 (30 micromol/L), an inhibitor of extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK) without changing ouabain-induced atrial dynamics. (bvsalud.org)
  • Evodiamine 10 -4 mol/L also decreased 8-Br-cAMP- and androstenedione-stimulated testosterone secretion. (elsevier.com)
  • Adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) participates in the regulation of numerous cellular functions, including the Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase (sodium pump). (bvsalud.org)
  • Human chorionic gonadotropin and 8-bromo cyclic adenosine monophosphate promote an acute increase in cytochrome P450scc and adrenodoxin messenger RNAs in cultured human. (naver.com)
  • This activates protein kinase A (PKA), leading to phosphorylation of protein targets, including the cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB). (aspetjournals.org)
  • Both cyclic AMP with cyclic AMP‐PK and cyclic GMP with cyclic GMP‐PK inhibit the phosphorylation of myosin. (deepdyve.com)
  • Detectable amounts of collagenase mRNA were not apparent until 2 h of PTH treatment, showed the greatest abundance at 4 h, and declined to approximately 30% of maximum by 8 h. (nyu.edu)
  • These results suggest that cyclic AMP enhanced G(iα2) and G(iα3) mRNA expression by both transcriptional and posttranscriptional mechanisms, with an increase of G(iα) mRNA stability as one of the major checkpoints. (uthscsa.edu)
  • 8-Br-cAMP significantly stimulates active renin and prorenin release, as well as Ren-2d mRNA. (mdc-berlin.de)
  • We studied the effects of cyclic AMP (cAMP) on HCO 3 - transport by rabbit cortical collecting tubules perfused in vitro. (elsevier.com)
  • This study was undertaken to establish an in vitro model system for human decidualization using 8-bromo-cAMP and to investigate the characteristics of stromal integrin expression in vitro by 8-Br-cAMP. (bvsalud.org)
  • Membrane-permeant precursor of the second messenger cyclic AMP. (servlab.co.kr)
  • Extremely membrane-permeant precursor of the specific Epac agonist 8-Br-2'-O-Me-cAMP. (servlab.co.kr)
  • 8-Bromo Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (harvard.edu)
  • The effect of Cl(-) channel (10 µmol/L niflumic acid and 1 mmol/L 4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (DIDS)), K(+) channel (10 mmol/L tetraethylammonium chloride (TEA)), or Na(+) channel blockers (1 mmol/L amiloride) on 8-bromo-cAMP-induced Isc change was also studied. (bvsalud.org)
  • Extracellular Ca 2+ deprivation inhibited the stimulatory effect of FSH (and 8 Br-cAMP) on P450 scc promoter-luciferase reporter expression to 58 ± 30% (and 58 ± 23%), and restrained endogenous P450 scc message accumulation to 86 ± 15% (and 96 ±18%) of the value in Ca 2+ -containing control. (elsevier.com)
  • Adenosine is an endogenous nucleoside and is chemically described as 6-amino-9-beta-D-ribofuranosyl-9-H-purine. (slippercottage.co.uk)
  • For this, sucrose intake test, immunohistochemistry for 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling staining, and Western blot analysis for brain-derived neurotrophic factor, cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element binding protein, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase were conducted. (nih.gov)