8-Bromo Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate: A long-acting derivative of cyclic AMP. It is an activator of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, but resistant to degradation by cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Adenosine: A nucleoside that is composed of ADENINE and D-RIBOSE. Adenosine or adenosine derivatives play many important biological roles in addition to being components of DNA and RNA. Adenosine itself is a neurotransmitter.Bucladesine: A cyclic nucleotide derivative that mimics the action of endogenous CYCLIC AMP and is capable of permeating the cell membrane. It has vasodilator properties and is used as a cardiac stimulant. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Adenosine Monophosphate: Adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2'-, 3'-, or 5'-position.Colforsin: Potent activator of the adenylate cyclase system and the biosynthesis of cyclic AMP. From the plant COLEUS FORSKOHLII. Has antihypertensive, positive inotropic, platelet aggregation inhibitory, and smooth muscle relaxant activities; also lowers intraocular pressure and promotes release of hormones from the pituitary gland.1-Methyl-3-isobutylxanthine: A potent cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase inhibitor; due to this action, the compound increases cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP in tissue and thereby activates CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE-REGULATED PROTEIN KINASESReceptor, Adenosine A2A: A subclass of adenosine A2 receptors found in LEUKOCYTES, the SPLEEN, the THYMUS and a variety of other tissues. It is generally considered to be a receptor for ADENOSINE that couples to the GS, STIMULATORY G-PROTEIN.Cyclic GMP: Guanosine cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to the sugar moiety in both the 3'- and 5'-positions. It is a cellular regulatory agent and has been described as a second messenger. Its levels increase in response to a variety of hormones, including acetylcholine, insulin, and oxytocin and it has been found to activate specific protein kinases. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases: A group of enzymes that are dependent on CYCLIC AMP and catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues on proteins. Included under this category are two cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase subtypes, each of which is defined by its subunit composition.Adenylate Cyclase: An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the formation of CYCLIC AMP and pyrophosphate from ATP. EC 4.6.1.1.Theophylline: A methyl xanthine derivative from tea with diuretic, smooth muscle relaxant, bronchial dilation, cardiac and central nervous system stimulant activities. Theophylline inhibits the 3',5'-CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE PHOSPHODIESTERASE that degrades CYCLIC AMP thus potentiates the actions of agents that act through ADENYLYL CYCLASES and cyclic AMP.Receptor, Adenosine A1: A subtype of ADENOSINE RECEPTOR that is found expressed in a variety of tissues including the BRAIN and DORSAL HORN NEURONS. The receptor is generally considered to be coupled to the GI, INHIBITORY G-PROTEIN which causes down regulation of CYCLIC AMP.Etretinate: An oral retinoid used in the treatment of keratotic genodermatosis, lichen planus, and psoriasis. Beneficial effects have also been claimed in the prophylaxis of epithelial neoplasia. The compound may be teratogenic.Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors: Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or actions of phosphodiesterases.Adenosine Deaminase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ADENOSINE to INOSINE with the elimination of AMMONIA.3',5'-Cyclic-AMP Phosphodiesterases: Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of CYCLIC AMP to form adenosine 5'-phosphate. The enzymes are widely distributed in animal tissue and control the level of intracellular cyclic AMP. Many specific enzymes classified under this heading demonstrate additional spcificity for 3',5'-cyclic IMP and CYCLIC GMP.Nucleotides, CyclicCyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein: A protein that has been shown to function as a calcium-regulated transcription factor as well as a substrate for depolarization-activated CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES. This protein functions to integrate both calcium and cAMP signals.Phosphodiesterase 4 Inhibitors: Compounds that specifically inhibit PHOSPHODIESTERASE 4.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Isoproterenol: Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.Receptor, Adenosine A3: A subtype of ADENOSINE RECEPTOR that is found expressed in a variety of locations including the BRAIN and endocrine tissues. The receptor is generally considered to be coupled to the GI, INHIBITORY G-PROTEIN which causes down regulation of CYCLIC AMP.Receptors, Purinergic P1: A class of cell surface receptors that prefer ADENOSINE to other endogenous PURINES. Purinergic P1 receptors are widespread in the body including the cardiovascular, respiratory, immune, and nervous systems. There are at least two pharmacologically distinguishable types (A1 and A2, or Ri and Ra).Rolipram: A phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor with antidepressant properties.Second Messenger Systems: Systems in which an intracellular signal is generated in response to an intercellular primary messenger such as a hormone or neurotransmitter. They are intermediate signals in cellular processes such as metabolism, secretion, contraction, phototransduction, and cell growth. Examples of second messenger systems are the adenyl cyclase-cyclic AMP system, the phosphatidylinositol diphosphate-inositol triphosphate system, and the cyclic GMP system.Anthralin: An anthracene derivative that disrupts MITOCHONDRIA function and structure and is used for the treatment of DERMATOSES, especially PSORIASIS. It may cause FOLLICULITIS.Adenosine Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of ADP plus AMP from adenosine plus ATP. It can serve as a salvage mechanism for returning adenosine to nucleic acids. EC 2.7.1.20.Receptor, Adenosine A2B: A subclass of adenosine A2 receptors found in the CECUM, the COLON, the BLADDER, and a variety of other tissues. It is generally considered to be a low affinity receptor for ADENOSINE that couples to the GS, STIMULATORY G-PROTEIN.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Adenosine-5'-(N-ethylcarboxamide): A stable adenosine A1 and A2 receptor agonist. Experimentally, it inhibits cAMP and cGMP phosphodiesterase activity.Receptors, Adrenergic, beta: One of two major pharmacologically defined classes of adrenergic receptors. The beta adrenergic receptors play an important role in regulating CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, SMOOTH MUSCLE relaxation, and GLYCOGENOLYSIS.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Phenylisopropyladenosine: N-Isopropyl-N-phenyl-adenosine. Antilipemic agent. Synonym: TH 162.Bromine: A halogen with the atomic symbol Br, atomic number 36, and atomic weight 79.904. It is a volatile reddish-brown liquid that gives off suffocating vapors, is corrosive to the skin, and may cause severe gastroenteritis if ingested.Phosphoric Diester Hydrolases: A class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of one of the two ester bonds in a phosphodiester compound. EC 3.1.4.Receptors, Adenosine A2: A subclass of ADENOSINE RECEPTORS that are generally considered to be coupled to the GS, STIMULATORY G-PROTEIN which causes up regulation of CYCLIC AMP.Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 4: A cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase subfamily that is found predominantly in inflammatory cells and may play a role in the regulation of CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. The enzyme family includes over twenty different variants that occur due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of the mRNA of at least four different genes.Adenosine A2 Receptor Agonists: Compounds that selectively bind to and activate ADENOSINE A2 RECEPTORS.Adenine NucleotidesAdenosine A2 Receptor Antagonists: Compounds that selectively bind to and block the activation of ADENOSINE A2 RECEPTORS.Dinoprostone: The most common and most biologically active of the mammalian prostaglandins. It exhibits most biological activities characteristic of prostaglandins and has been used extensively as an oxytocic agent. The compound also displays a protective effect on the intestinal mucosa.Cholera Toxin: An ENTEROTOXIN from VIBRIO CHOLERAE. It consists of two major protomers, the heavy (H) or A subunit and the B protomer which consists of 5 light (L) or B subunits. The catalytic A subunit is proteolytically cleaved into fragments A1 and A2. The A1 fragment is a MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASE. The B protomer binds cholera toxin to intestinal epithelial cells, and facilitates the uptake of the A1 fragment. The A1 catalyzed transfer of ADP-RIBOSE to the alpha subunits of heterotrimeric G PROTEINS activates the production of CYCLIC AMP. Increased levels of cyclic AMP are thought to modulate release of fluid and electrolytes from intestinal crypt cells.Ciliary Body: A ring of tissue extending from the scleral spur to the ora serrata of the RETINA. It consists of the uveal portion and the epithelial portion. The ciliary muscle is in the uveal portion and the ciliary processes are in the epithelial portion.Adrenergic beta-Agonists: Drugs that selectively bind to and activate beta-adrenergic receptors.Adenosine A1 Receptor Antagonists: Compounds that bind to and block the stimulation of ADENOSINE A1 RECEPTORS.Epinephrine: The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.Prostaglandins E: (11 alpha,13E,15S)-11,15-Dihydroxy-9-oxoprost-13-en-1-oic acid (PGE(1)); (5Z,11 alpha,13E,15S)-11,15-dihydroxy-9-oxoprosta-5,13-dien-1-oic acid (PGE(2)); and (5Z,11 alpha,13E,15S,17Z)-11,15-dihydroxy-9-oxoprosta-5,13,17-trien-1-oic acid (PGE(3)). Three of the six naturally occurring prostaglandins. They are considered primary in that no one is derived from another in living organisms. Originally isolated from sheep seminal fluid and vesicles, they are found in many organs and tissues and play a major role in mediating various physiological activities.Stimulation, Chemical: The increase in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase RIalpha Subunit: A type I cAMP-dependent protein kinase regulatory subunit that plays a role in confering CYCLIC AMP activation of protein kinase activity. It has a lower affinity for cAMP than the CYCLIC-AMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE RIBETA SUBUNIT.Nelumbo: A plant genus of the family NELUMBONACEAE. The common name of lotus is also for LOTUS and NYMPHAEA.Adenosine A1 Receptor Agonists: Compounds that bind to and stimulate ADENOSINE A1 RECEPTORS.Xanthines: Purine bases found in body tissues and fluids and in some plants.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Catalytic Subunits: Specific enzyme subunits that form the active sites of the type I and type II cyclic-AMP protein kinases. Each molecule of enzyme contains two catalytic subunits.Alprostadil: A potent vasodilator agent that increases peripheral blood flow.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.CREB-Binding Protein: A member of the p300-CBP transcription factor family that was initially identified as a binding partner for CAMP RESPONSE ELEMENT-BINDING PROTEIN. Mutations in CREB-binding protein are associated with RUBINSTEIN-TAYBI SYNDROME.Dideoxyadenosine: A dideoxynucleoside compound in which the 3'-hydroxy group on the sugar moiety has been replaced by a hydrogen. This modification prevents the formation of phosphodiester linkages which are needed for the completion of nucleic acid chains. The compound is an inhibitor of HIV replication, acting as a chain-terminator of viral DNA by binding to reverse transcriptase. Its principal side effect is nephrotoxicity. In vivo, dideoxyadenosine is rapidly metabolized to DIDANOSINE (ddI) by enzymatic deamination; ddI is then converted to dideoxyinosine monophosphate and ultimately to dideoxyadenosine triphosphate, the putative active metabolite.Receptors, Cyclic AMP: Cell surface proteins that bind cyclic AMP with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The best characterized cyclic AMP receptors are those of the slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. The transcription regulator CYCLIC AMP RECEPTOR PROTEIN of prokaryotes is not included nor are the eukaryotic cytoplasmic cyclic AMP receptor proteins which are the regulatory subunits of CYCLIC AMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Isoquinolines: A group of compounds with the heterocyclic ring structure of benzo(c)pyridine. The ring structure is characteristic of the group of opium alkaloids such as papaverine. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Purinergic P1 Receptor Antagonists: Compounds that bind to and block the stimulation of PURINERGIC P1 RECEPTORS.Keratolytic Agents: Agents that soften, separate, and cause desquamation of the cornified epithelium or horny layer of skin. They are used to expose mycelia of infecting fungi or to treat corns, warts, and certain other skin diseases.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 3: A cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase subfamily that is inhibited by the binding of CYCLIC GMP to an allosteric domain found on the enzyme and through phosphorylation by regulatory kinases such as PROTEIN KINASE A and PROTEIN KINASE B. The two members of this family are referred to as type 3A, and type 3B, and are each product of a distinct gene. In addition multiple enzyme variants of each subtype can be produced due to multiple alternative mRNA splicing.Receptors, Purinergic: Cell surface proteins that bind PURINES with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The best characterized classes of purinergic receptors in mammals are the P1 receptors, which prefer ADENOSINE, and the P2 receptors, which prefer ATP or ADP.AMP Deaminase: An enzyme that catalyzes the deamination of AMP to IMP. EC 3.5.4.6.Adrenergic Agonists: Drugs that bind to and activate adrenergic receptors.Hypoxanthine: A purine and a reaction intermediate in the metabolism of adenosine and in the formation of nucleic acids by the salvage pathway.Prostaglandins: A group of compounds derived from unsaturated 20-carbon fatty acids, primarily arachidonic acid, via the cyclooxygenase pathway. They are extremely potent mediators of a diverse group of physiological processes.Purinergic P1 Receptor Agonists: Compounds that bind to and stimulate PURINERGIC P1 RECEPTORS.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.5'-Nucleotidase: A glycoprotein enzyme present in various organs and in many cells. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of a 5'-ribonucleotide to a ribonucleoside and orthophosphate in the presence of water. It is cation-dependent and exists in a membrane-bound and soluble form. EC 3.1.3.5.Milrinone: A positive inotropic cardiotonic agent with vasodilator properties. It inhibits cAMP phosphodiesterase type 3 activity in myocardium and vascular smooth muscle. Milrinone is a derivative of amrinone and has 20-30 times the inotropic potency of amrinone.Butyrates: Derivatives of BUTYRIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxypropane structure.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Histamine: An amine derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of HISTIDINE. It is a powerful stimulant of gastric secretion, a constrictor of bronchial smooth muscle, a vasodilator, and also a centrally acting neurotransmitter.Thionucleotides: Nucleotides in which the base moiety is substituted with one or more sulfur atoms.4-(3-Butoxy-4-methoxybenzyl)-2-imidazolidinone: Inhibitor of phosphodiesterases.Ginkgolides: DITERPENES with three LACTONES and a unique tert-butyl group, which are found in GINKGO plants along with BILOBALIDES.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gs: A family of heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein alpha subunits that activate ADENYLYL CYCLASES.Arginine Vasopressin: The predominant form of mammalian antidiuretic hormone. It is a nonapeptide containing an ARGININE at residue 8 and two disulfide-linked cysteines at residues of 1 and 6. Arg-vasopressin is used to treat DIABETES INSIPIDUS or to improve vasomotor tone and BLOOD PRESSURE.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Inosine NucleotidesProtein Kinase C: An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.Pigment Epithelium of Eye: The layer of pigment-containing epithelial cells in the RETINA; the CILIARY BODY; and the IRIS in the eye.TritiumInosine Monophosphate: Inosine 5'-Monophosphate. A purine nucleotide which has hypoxanthine as the base and one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety.Parathyroid Hormone: A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.Norepinephrine: Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide: A highly basic, 28 amino acid neuropeptide released from intestinal mucosa. It has a wide range of biological actions affecting the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and respiratory systems and is neuroprotective. It binds special receptors (RECEPTORS, VASOACTIVE INTESTINAL PEPTIDE).Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Aqueous Humor: The clear, watery fluid which fills the anterior and posterior chambers of the eye. It has a refractive index lower than the crystalline lens, which it surrounds, and is involved in the metabolism of the cornea and the crystalline lens. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed, p319)Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Hypoxanthines: Purine bases related to hypoxanthine, an intermediate product of uric acid synthesis and a breakdown product of adenine catabolism.Adenine: A purine base and a fundamental unit of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Endothelium, Corneal: Single layer of large flattened cells covering the surface of the cornea.Kidney Tubules: Long convoluted tubules in the nephrons. They collect filtrate from blood passing through the KIDNEY GLOMERULUS and process this filtrate into URINE. Each renal tubule consists of a BOWMAN CAPSULE; PROXIMAL KIDNEY TUBULE; LOOP OF HENLE; DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULE; and KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCT leading to the central cavity of the kidney (KIDNEY PELVIS) that connects to the URETER.Adrenergic alpha-Agonists: Drugs that selectively bind to and activate alpha adrenergic receptors.Enzyme Induction: An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.Vasodilator Agents: Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.2-Chloroadenosine: 2-Chloroadenosine. A metabolically stable analog of adenosine which acts as an adenosine receptor agonist. The compound has a potent effect on the peripheral and central nervous system.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Pertussis Toxin: One of the virulence factors produced by BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS. It is a multimeric protein composed of five subunits S1 - S5. S1 contains mono ADPribose transferase activity.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Chlorides: Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.Adenosine A3 Receptor Antagonists: Compounds that selectively bind to and block the activation of ADENOSINE A3 RECEPTORS.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Methylene Blue: A compound consisting of dark green crystals or crystalline powder, having a bronze-like luster. Solutions in water or alcohol have a deep blue color. Methylene blue is used as a bacteriologic stain and as an indicator. It inhibits GUANYLATE CYCLASE, and has been used to treat cyanide poisoning and to lower levels of METHEMOGLOBIN.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Nitroprusside: A powerful vasodilator used in emergencies to lower blood pressure or to improve cardiac function. It is also an indicator for free sulfhydryl groups in proteins.Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Epoprostenol: A prostaglandin that is a powerful vasodilator and inhibits platelet aggregation. It is biosynthesized enzymatically from PROSTAGLANDIN ENDOPEROXIDES in human vascular tissue. The sodium salt has been also used to treat primary pulmonary hypertension (HYPERTENSION, PULMONARY).Drug Synergism: The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.Purines: A series of heterocyclic compounds that are variously substituted in nature and are known also as purine bases. They include ADENINE and GUANINE, constituents of nucleic acids, as well as many alkaloids such as CAFFEINE and THEOPHYLLINE. Uric acid is the metabolic end product of purine metabolism.Mice, Inbred C57BLGlucagon: A 29-amino acid pancreatic peptide derived from proglucagon which is also the precursor of intestinal GLUCAGON-LIKE PEPTIDES. Glucagon is secreted by PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS and plays an important role in regulation of BLOOD GLUCOSE concentration, ketone metabolism, and several other biochemical and physiological processes. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1511)Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.Progesterone: The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.Dictyostelium: A genus of protozoa, formerly also considered a fungus. Its natural habitat is decaying forest leaves, where it feeds on bacteria. D. discoideum is the best-known species and is widely used in biomedical research.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate: A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.Blood Platelets: Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Enzyme Repression: The interference in synthesis of an enzyme due to the elevated level of an effector substance, usually a metabolite, whose presence would cause depression of the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.Adenosine A3 Receptor Agonists: Drugs that selectively bind to and activate ADENOSINE A3 RECEPTORS.Virulence Factors, Bordetella: A set of BACTERIAL ADHESINS and TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL produced by BORDETELLA organisms that determine the pathogenesis of BORDETELLA INFECTIONS, such as WHOOPING COUGH. They include filamentous hemagglutinin; FIMBRIAE PROTEINS; pertactin; PERTUSSIS TOXIN; ADENYLATE CYCLASE TOXIN; dermonecrotic toxin; tracheal cytotoxin; Bordetella LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES; and tracheal colonization factor.Inosine: A purine nucleoside that has hypoxanthine linked by the N9 nitrogen to the C1 carbon of ribose. It is an intermediate in the degradation of purines and purine nucleosides to uric acid and in pathways of purine salvage. It also occurs in the anticodon of certain transfer RNA molecules. (Dorland, 28th ed)Muscle, Smooth: Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Platelet Aggregation: The attachment of PLATELETS to one another. This clumping together can be induced by a number of agents (e.g., THROMBIN; COLLAGEN) and is part of the mechanism leading to the formation of a THROMBUS.Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled: The largest family of cell surface receptors involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They share a common structure and signal through HETEROTRIMERIC G-PROTEINS.Phenethylamines: A group of compounds that are derivatives of beta- aminoethylbenzene which is structurally and pharmacologically related to amphetamine. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Chloride Channels: Cell membrane glycoproteins that form channels to selectively pass chloride ions. Nonselective blockers include FENAMATES; ETHACRYNIC ACID; and TAMOXIFEN.Biological Transport, Active: The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.Guanosine Monophosphate: A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety and found widely in nature.Myocardial Contraction: Contractile activity of the MYOCARDIUM.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Indomethacin: A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) that inhibits the enzyme cyclooxygenase necessary for the formation of prostaglandins and other autacoids. It also inhibits the motility of polymorphonuclear leukocytes.Depression, Chemical: The decrease in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Cytidine Monophosphate: Cytidine (dihydrogen phosphate). A cytosine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2', 3' or 5' position.Hydrocarbons, BrominatedDrug Interactions: The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.Tachyphylaxis: Rapidly decreasing response to a drug or physiologically active agent after administration of a few doses. In immunology, it is the rapid immunization against the effect of toxic doses of an extract or serum by previous injection of small doses. (Dorland, 28th ed)Protein Kinases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Apyrase: A calcium-activated enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP to yield AMP and orthophosphate. It can also act on ADP and other nucleoside triphosphates and diphosphates. EC 3.6.1.5.Calmodulin: A heat-stable, low-molecular-weight activator protein found mainly in the brain and heart. The binding of calcium ions to this protein allows this protein to bind to cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases and to adenyl cyclase with subsequent activation. Thereby this protein modulates cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP levels.Nucleotides: The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Sulfonamides: A group of compounds that contain the structure SO2NH2.Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Culture Techniques: Methods of maintaining or growing biological materials in controlled laboratory conditions. These include the cultures of CELLS; TISSUES; organs; or embryo in vitro. Both animal and plant tissues may be cultured by a variety of methods. Cultures may derive from normal or abnormal tissues, and consist of a single cell type or mixed cell types.Dipyridamole: A phosphodiesterase inhibitor that blocks uptake and metabolism of adenosine by erythrocytes and vascular endothelial cells. Dipyridamole also potentiates the antiaggregating action of prostacyclin. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p752)Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Dibutyryl Cyclic GMP: N-(1-Oxobutyl)-cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate)-2'-butanoate guanosine. A derivative of cyclic GMP. It has a higher resistance to extracellular and intracellular phosphodiesterase than cyclic GMP.PhosphoproteinsPhosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.S-Nitroso-N-Acetylpenicillamine: A sulfur-containing alkyl thionitrite that is one of the NITRIC OXIDE DONORS.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Tubercidin: An antibiotic purine ribonucleoside that readily substitutes for adenosine in the biological system, but its incorporation into DNA and RNA has an inhibitory effect on the metabolism of these nucleic acids.Cyclic ADP-Ribose: A pyridine nucleotide that mobilizes CALCIUM. It is synthesized from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) by ADP RIBOSE CYCLASE.Ovary: The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Muscle, Smooth, Vascular: The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.Oocytes: Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.IMP Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the dehydrogenation of inosine 5'-phosphate to xanthosine 5'-phosphate in the presence of NAD. EC 1.1.1.205.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Nucleosides: Purine or pyrimidine bases attached to a ribose or deoxyribose. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Penicillamine: 3-Mercapto-D-valine. The most characteristic degradation product of the penicillin antibiotics. It is used as an antirheumatic and as a chelating agent in Wilson's disease.Adenosine Triphosphatases: A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Chemotaxis: The movement of cells or organisms toward or away from a substance in response to its concentration gradient.Thiamine Monophosphate: Thiamine dihydrogen phosphate ester. The monophosphate ester of thiamine. Synonyms: monophosphothiamine; vitamin B1 monophosphate.

cAMP inhibits translation by inducing Ca2+/calmodulin-independent elongation factor 2 kinase activity in IPC-81 cells. (1/1207)

Treatment of IPC-81 cells led to inhibition of protein synthesis, which was accompanied by an increase in the average size of polysomes and a decreased rate of elongation, indicating that it involved inhibition of peptide chain elongation. This inhibition was also associated with increased phosphorylation of elongation factor eEF2 (which inhibits its activity) and enhanced Ca2+/calmodulin-independent activity of eEF2 kinase. Previous work has shown that phosphorylation of eEF2 kinase by cAMP-dependent protein kinase (cAPK) in vitro induces such activator-independent activity, and the present data show that such a mechanism can occur in intact cells to link physiological levels of cAPK activation with inhibition of protein synthesis.  (+info)

Melatonin inhibits release of luteinizing hormone (LH) via decrease of [Ca2+]i and cyclic AMP. (2/1207)

The role of [Ca2+]i and cAMP in transduction of the melatonin inhibitory effect on GnRH-induced LH release from neonatal rat gonadotrophs has been studied, because melatonin inhibits the increase of both intracellular messengers. Treatments increasing Ca2+ influx (S(-) Bay K8644 or KCI) or cAMP concentration (8-bromo-cAMP or 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine) potentiated the GnRH-induced LH release and partially diminished the inhibitory effect of melatonin. Combination of the treatments increasing cAMP and calcium concentrations blocked completely the melatonin inhibition of LH release. The combined treatment with 8-bromo-cAMP and S(-) Bay K8644 also blocked the melatonin inhibition of GnRH-induced [Ca2+]i increase in 89 % of the gonadotrophs, while any of the treatments alone blocked the melatonin effect in about 25 % of these cells. These observations suggest that a cAMP-dependent pathway is involved in regulation of Ca2+ influx by melatonin and melatonin inhibition of LH release may be mediated by the decrease of both messengers.  (+info)

Calcium and cAMP are second messengers in the adipokinetic hormone-induced lipolysis of triacylglycerols in Manduca sexta fat body. (3/1207)

We have previously shown that stereospecific hydrolysis of stored triacylglycerol by a phosphorylatable triacylglycerol-lipase is the pathway for the adipokinetic hormone-stimulated synthesis of sn -1, 2-diacylglycerol in insect fat body. The current series of experiments were designed to determine whether cAMP and/or calcium are involved in the signal transduction pathway for adipokinetic hormone in the fat body. After adipokinetic hormone treatment, cAMP-dependent protein kinase activity in the fat body rapidly increased and reached a maximum after 20 min, suggesting that adipokinetic hormone causes an increase in cAMP. Forskolin (0.1 micrometer), an adenylate cyclase activator, induced up to a 97% increase in the secretion of diacylglycerol from the fat body. 8Br-cAMP (a membrane-permeable analog of cAMP) produced a 40% increase in the hemolymph diacylglycerol content. Treatment with cholera toxin, which also stimulates adenylate cyclase, induced up to a 145% increase in diacylglycerol production. Chelation of extracellular calcium produced up to 70% inhibition of the adipokinetic hormone-dependent mobilization of lipids. Calcium-mobilizing agents, ionomycin and thapsigargin, greatly stimulated DG production by up to 130%. Finally, adipokinetic hormone caused a rapid increase of calcium uptake into the fat body. Our findings indicate that the action of adipokinetic hormone in mobilizing lipids from the insect fat body involves both cAMP and calcium as intracellular messengers.  (+info)

The mechanism of action of epidermal growth factor and transforming growth factor alpha on aromatase activity in granulosa cells from polycystic ovaries. (4/1207)

We investigated aromatization and the mechanism of action of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and transforming growth factor alpha (TGFalpha) on oestradiol biosynthesis in freshly prepared granulosa cells from polycystic ovaries. Freshly prepared granulosa cells from polycystic ovaries incubated for only 3 h under basal conditions secreted significantly (P< 0.001) greater amounts of oestradiol-17beta than that of granulosa cells from normal ovaries. 8-Bromo-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (8-Br-cAMP), but not follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) or luteinizing hormone (LH), further enhanced this activity. Both EGF and TGFalpha inhibited gonadotrophinor 8-Br-cAMP-stimulated, but not basal, oestradiol production. LH receptor (LHR) binding, estimated by immunolabelling the bound LH, was significantly (P< 0.001) reduced in granulosa cells from polycystic ovaries when compared with cells from normal ovaries. EGF or TGFalpha significantly reduced the binding in cultured cells from all patient groups (P< 0.05). More interestingly, a further increase of the inhibitory effect was seen in granulosa cells from polycystic ovaries (P < 0.001). In conclusion, granulosa cells from polycystic ovaries contain high levels of basal aromatase activity in vitro, which is probably inherited from the in-vivo condition. EGF and TGFalpha suppress oestradiol synthesis at a step beyond the production of cAMP and also LHR binding with more effect in granulosa cells from polycystic ovaries.  (+info)

Beta2-adrenergic receptor overexpression in the developing mouse heart: evidence for targeted modulation of ion channels. (5/1207)

1. We studied the effect of overexpression of the beta2-adrenergic receptor (beta2-AR) in the heart on ion channel currents in single cells isolated from hearts of fetal and neonatal transgenic and wild-type mice. The beta2-AR transgene construct was under the control of the murine alpha-myosin heavy chain (alpha-MHC) promoter, and ion channel activity was measured at distinct developmental stages using whole-cell and perforated patch clamp techniques. 2. We found no change in L-type Ca2+ channel current (ICa) density in early embryonic stages (E11-13) of beta2-AR transgenic positive (TG+) mice, but significant increases in ICa density in intermediate (E14-16, 152 %) and late (E17-19, 173.7 %) fetal and neonatal (1 day post partum, 161 %) TG+ compared with transgenic negative (TG-) mice. This increase in ICa was accompanied by a negative shift in the peak of the current-voltage relationship in TG+ mice. 3. Transient (< 3 min) or prolonged (16-24 h) exposure of TG- neonatal stage myocytes to 8-Br-cAMP (300 microM) increased ICa density and caused a shift in the current-voltage relationship to a similar extent to that seen in TG+ mice. In TG+ myocytes, 8-Br-cAMP had no effect. Exposure of TG+ cells to Rp-cAMPS reversed both the shift in voltage dependence and reduced the peak current density observed in these myocytes. We concluded from these results that the L-type Ca2+ channel is maximally modulated by cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) in TG+ mice and that the alpha-MHC promoter is functional in the ventricle as early as embryonic day 14. 4. In contrast, we found that slow delayed rectifier K+ channels were not changed significantly at any of the developmental stages studied by the overexpression of beta2-ARs compared with TG- mice. The sensitivity of murine slow delayed rectifier K+ channels to cAMP was tested by both transient and prolonged exposure to 8-Br-cAMP (300 microM), which increased the slow delayed rectifier K+ channel current (IK,s) density to a similar extent in both TG- and TG+ neonatal myocytes. In addition, we found that there was no difference in the concentration dependence of the response of ICa and IK,s to 8-Br-cAMP. 5. Thus, overexpression of the beta2-AR in the heart results in distinct modulation of ICa, but not IK,s, and this is not due to differences in the 8-Br-cAMP sensitivity of the two channels. Instead, these results are consistent with both compartmentalization of beta2-AR-controlled cAMP and distinct localization of L-type Ca2+ and slow delayed rectifier K+ channels. This cAMP is targeted preferentially to the L-type Ca2+ channel and is not accessible to the slow delayed rectifier K+ channel.  (+info)

Diazepam-binding inhibitor33-50 elicits Ca2+ oscillation and CCK secretion in STC-1 cells via L-type Ca2+ channels. (6/1207)

We recently isolated and characterized 86-amino acid CCK-releasing peptide from porcine intestinal mucosa. The sequence of this peptide is identical to that of porcine diazepam-binding inhibitor (DBI). Intraduodenal administration of DBI stimulates the CCK release and elicits pancreatic secretion in rats. In this study we utilized a murine tumor cell line (STC-1 cells) that contains CCK to examine if DBI directly acts on these cells to stimulate CCK release. We investigated the cellular mechanisms responsible for this action. We showed that DBI33-50, a biologically active fragment of DBI1-86, significantly stimulated CCK secretion in STC-1 cells. This action was abolished by Ca2+-free medium. The mean basal intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) was 52 nM in fura 2-loaded STC-1 cells. DBI33-50 (1-1,000 nM) elicited Ca2+ oscillations; DBI33-50 (10 nM) increased the oscillation frequency to 5 cycles/10 min and elicited a net [Ca2+]i increase (peak - basal) to 157 nM. In contrast, bombesin and forskolin caused an initial transient [Ca2+]i followed by a small sustained [Ca2+]i plateau. Withdrawal of extracellular Ca2+ abolished Ca2+ oscillations stimulated by DBI33-50. L-type Ca2+ channel blockers nifedipine and diltiazem (3-10 microM) markedly attenuated DBI-stimulated Ca2+ oscillations. In other cell types L-type Ca2+ channels are activated by cAMP-protein kinase A. DBI33-50 failed to stimulate cAMP formation in STC-1 cells. Similarly, DBI33-50 had no effect on myo-inositol 1,4, 5-trisphosphate concentration ([IP3]), whereas bombesin caused an eightfold increase in [IP3] over basal. In addition, inhibitors of phospholipase C (U-73122), phospholipase A2 (ONO-RS-082), and protein tyrosine kinase (genistein) did not alter the Ca2+ oscillations elicited by DBI33-50. It appears that DBI33-50 acts directly on STC-1 cells to elicit Ca2+ oscillations via the voltage-dependent L-type Ca2+ channels, resulting in the secretion of CCK. Mediation of this action is by intracellular mechanisms independent of the traditional signal transduction pathways, including phospholipase C, phospholipase A2, protein tyrosine kinase, and cAMP systems.  (+info)

Oxytocin-induced Ca2+ responses in human myometrial cells. (7/1207)

Complex spatiotemporal changes in intracellular Ca2+ were monitored in an immortalized human myometrial cell line (PHM1-41) and first-passage human myometrial cells after oxytocin stimulation (1. 0-1000 nM). Laser cytometry revealed intracellular Ca2+ oscillations in both culture systems starting at 1.0 nM, which were followed by repetitive Ca2+ transients by 10-15 min that lasted for at least 90 min. The amplitude of the initial Ca2+ spike was dose dependent, while the frequency of Ca2+ oscillations identified by Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) tended to increase with dose. Removal of oxytocin resulted in termination of oscillations. Analysis of the sources of the Ca2+ involved in oscillations indicated that the major contribution to oscillation frequencies of +info)

Adrenergic control of the ultrarapid delayed rectifier current in canine atrial myocytes. (8/1207)

1. The effects of adrenergic stimulation on the ultrarapid delayed rectifier K+ current (IKur,d) of dog atrial myocytes was studied with patch-clamp methods. 2. Isoproterenol (isoprenaline) increased IKur,d in a concentration-dependent fashion with an EC50 of 7.3 +/- 0.8 nM. The effect of isoproterenol was blocked by propranolol, mimicked by forskolin and 8-bromo-cAMP, and prevented by inhibition of protein kinase A. 3. Phenylephrine (in the presence of propranolol) increased IKur,d with an EC50 of 0.49 +/- 0.06 microM. The effect of phenylephrine was blocked by prazosin, prevented by inhibition of protein kinase C, and mimicked by activation of protein kinase C with phorbol ester. 4. Phenylephrine significantly abbreviated canine atrial action potential duration in the absence of tetraethylammonium (TEA). When TEA was present under both control conditions and in the presence of phenylephrine, phenylephrine failed to alter canine atrial repolarization. 5. We conclude that beta- and alpha-adrenergic stimulation increase IKur,d via protein kinase A and C, respectively, and that the induced changes in IKur,d may play a role in adrenergic control of canine atrial repolarization.  (+info)

... : Get In-Depth Research with detailed trend Analysis and growth outlook
This cGMP effect on DRG axon branching is specific, because 8-bromoadenosine-3′,5′-cyclic monophosphate (8-Br-cAMP), an equivalent analog to activate the cAMP pathway, did not elicit the same effect (Fig. 1G-I). Neither the distribution nor the average number of branching points changed significantly in the 8-Br-cAMP-treated culture compared with the untreated one (Fig. 1N,P). Furthermore, YC-1, a small molecule that activates the soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) to produce cGMP (Galle et al., 1999), induced branch formation in a dose dependent manner, reaching a similar level as in the 8-Br-cGMP-treated culture (Fig. 1J-L,O,P). Conversely, Zaprinast, an inhibitor that prevents cGMP degradation by phosphodiesterase-5 (Dundore et al., 1993), also induced branching (data not shown).. We further examined several parameters to determine if the in vitro effect reflects the role of cGMP signaling in axon growth or branching. First, neurons from the control cultures had a total length (Lt) of 254 ± ...
36050-29-0 - USCVXWYHYFTCBK-UHFFFAOYSA-N - alpha-Thenoate bromo thymol - Similar structures search, synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information.
Doherty, P J.; Tsao, J; Schimmer, B P.; Mumby, M C.; and Beavo, J A., "Alteration of the regulatory subunit of type 1 camp-dependent protein kinase in mutant y1 adrenal cells resistant to 8-bromoadenosine 3:5-monophosphate." (1982). Subject Strain Bibliography 1982. 2372 ...
Since 2001, Vimax Pills Male Enhancement have been purchased by over million men worldwide. Vimax Pills Male Enhancement is trusted by peoples around the world for its great safety and effectiveness. Rasa jika kita melulum penisDwitasari :).
6,7-Bis(carboxymethoxy)coumarin-4-yl)methyl-adenosine-3,5-cyclic monophosphate(bcmcm-caged camp)/ACM339291519 can be provided in Alfa Chemistry. We are dedicated to provide our customers the best products and services.
Im planning on doing a test prop/npp blast and was wondering if I would need to run an anti progesterone like caber, bromo, or prami. I have human grade caber on hand.
CEMDRX hosts 21 researchers from the Faculty of Science and Technology of the University of Coimbra sharing the use of x-ray diffraction as the main technique to study a wide range of materials, from semiconductors and organic supramolecular compounds to nanostructured intermetallic alloys. X-ray diffraction is complemented with other techniques such as neutron-scattering, muon spin rotation, Mossbauer and other spectroscopic techniques. Researchers are frequent users of large scale facilities such as ESRF, ILL, PSI and ISIS-RAL. CEMDRX is a research centre supported by FCT.
Looking for online definition of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cyclic AMP, cAMP, 3',5'-cAMP) in the Medical Dictionary? cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cyclic AMP, cAMP, 3',5'-cAMP) explanation free. What is cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cyclic AMP, cAMP, 3',5'-cAMP)? Meaning of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cyclic AMP, cAMP, 3',5'-cAMP) medical term. What does cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cyclic AMP, cAMP, 3',5'-cAMP) mean?
Dubai Para Bromo Phenol, Buy High Quality Para Bromo Phenol Products from Dubai Para Bromo Phenol Suppliers and Manufacturers at Dubai Yellow Pages Online
Provide fine chemicals, building blocks and pharmaceutical intermediates. PI-24118 3-Bromo methyl biphenyl (14704-31-5) Synonym: Molecular Formula: C13H11Br Weight: 247.13 CAS No: 14704-31-5 Appearance: Off-white to pink crystalline powder Purity:97.0% FM Point:57-61 °C Order online from laboratory chemical supplier and distributor.
Gentaur molecular products has all kinds of products like :search , Nacala \ 5_ Bromo_ 4_ chloro_ 3_ indolyl_ â_ D_ glucuronide Cyclohexylammonium Salt \ 05646-94 for more molecular products just contact us
More than 70 HR Reps attended Employment and Data Services Hiring Boot Camp held on May 15th at the Gozuieta Business School. Topics ranged from completing the newly issued Form I9 to getting the most from Emorys Recruiting System. Presentations from the Hiring Boot Camp can be viewed online. ...
Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is a type C, chronic transforming retrovirus that infects B-lymphocytes and is associated with a long latency period. We studied the transcriptional activation of BLV in primary cells and also examined whether a measurable increase in BLV expression would effect the transcription of host genes. De novo protein synthesis was inhibited by cycloheximide (CHX) for 6 h after initiating peripheral blood leukocyte (PBL) cultures to eliminate Tax-mediated transcription. Under these conditions, transcription of the doubly spliced tax/rex message was predominant and was induced by the addition of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), 8-bromo-cyclic AMP (Br-cAMP) and fetal bovine serum. Serum-induced BLV expression was inhibited in PBL in a dose dependent fashion by the protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor H-89. Host gene expression was classified as labile protein-dependent when transcription was modulated by CHX and protein kinase-mediated when transcription was modulated by PMA, ...
ค่ายนี้เป็นค่ายระดับมัธยมศึกษา สำหรับเยาวชนที่สนใจการศึกษาต่อในสาขาชีวเคมี. จัดขึ้นเป็นครั้งแรกเมื่อเดือนมกราคม 2558 โดยนิสิตภาควิชาชีวเคมี คณะวิทยาศาสตร์ จุฬาลงกรณ์มหาวิทยาลัย. ชมมิวสิควิดิโอ What is the pathway? ซึ่งจัดทำขึ้นโดยนิสิตภาควิชาชีวเคมี คณะวิทยาศาสตร์ จุฬาลงกรณ์มหาวิทยาลัย. ...
en] Murine AIDS (MAIDS) is caused by infection with the murine leukemia retrovirus RadLV-Rs and is characterized by T-cell anergy and severe immunodeficiency with increased susceptibilty to several experimental opportunistic infections as observed in HIV infection. T cell anergy is associated with an increase of intracellular cAMP level, triggering a multistep pathway involving activation of PKA type I and resulting in inhibition of proximal TCR signaling. We have reviously demonstrated that blocking PKA type I using the selective inhibitor Rp-8-Br-cAMPS, restores T-cell function in vitro in MAIDS as well as in HIV infection. In the present report, we investigated the effect of parenteral administration of Rp-8-Br-cAMPS in mice with MAIDS. We show that the compound is not toxic and partially restores the ex vivo proliferative responses to anti-CD3 mAb, but that it has no effect on the lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly characterizing ...
The primary reservoir for hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication is believed to be hepatocytes, which are highly polarized with tight junctions (TJ) separating their basolateral and apical domains. HepG2 cells develop polarity over time, resulting in the formation and remodeling of bile canalicular (BC) structures. HepG2 cells expressing CD81 provide a model system to study the effects of hepatic polarity on HCV infection. We found an inverse association between HepG2-CD81 polarization and HCV pseudoparticle entry. As HepG2 cells polarize, discrete pools of claudin-1 (CLDN1) at the TJ and basal/lateral membranes develop, consistent with the pattern of receptor staining observed in liver tissue. The TJ and nonjunctional pools of CLDN1 show an altered association with CD81 and localization in response to the PKA antagonist Rp-8-Br-cyclic AMPs (cAMPs). Rp-8-Br-cAMPs reduced CLDN1 expression at the basal membrane and inhibited HCV infection, supporting a model where the nonjunctional pools of CLDN1 ...
Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) controls the physiological response to many diverse extracellular stimuli. To maintain signal specificity, cAMP-mediated signaling is finely tuned by means of a complex array of proteins that control the spatial and temporal dynamics of the second messenger within the cell. To unravel the way a cell encodes cAMP signals, new biosensors have recently been introduced that allow imaging of the second messenger in living cells with high spatial resolution. The more recent generation of such biosensors exploits the phenomenon of fluorescence resonance energy transfer between the green fluorescent protein- tagged subunits of a chimeric protein kinase A, as the way to visualize and measure the dynamic fluctuations of cAMP. This chapter describes the molecular basis on which such a genetically encoded cAMP sensor relies and the tools and methods required to perform cAMP measurements in living samples.
Vintage 1950s full Bromo Seltzer antacid analgesic cobalt blue glass medicine bottle in original box with paper label - for sale at www.ClaudiasBargains.com
Shenzhen OK Biotech Technology Co, .Ltd yog ib tug professional 6-Bromoandrostenedione 38632-00-7 chaw tsim tshuaj paus thiab lub lag luam nrog lub Hoobkas, txais tos kom yuav 6-Bromoandrostenedione 38632-00-7 cov khoom los ntawm peb.
Adenosine Monophosphate: Adenylic acid. Adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2-, 3-, or 5-position.
Safety Data Sheet (SDS) for Eosin Y, certified C.I. 45380 (C0971) also know as Eosin Y CertifiedBronze Bromo ES. Bromo acid J.TS, XL or XX, Eosin yellowish Bromofluorescein, Acid red 87, 2,4,57-Tetrabromofluorescein disodium salt.. CAS #7372-87-1
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) uses its best efforts to deliver a high quality copy of the Database and to verify that the data contained therein have been selected on the basis of sound scientific judgment. However, NIST makes no warranties to that effect, and NIST shall not be liable for any damage that may result from errors or omissions in the Database ...
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) uses its best efforts to deliver a high quality copy of the Database and to verify that the data contained therein have been selected on the basis of sound scientific judgment. However, NIST makes no warranties to that effect, and NIST shall not be liable for any damage that may result from errors or omissions in the Database ...
There is considerable interest in the possible use of cAMP-elevating agents in the treatment of autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of different cAMP-elevating agents on the T-cell response to type II collagen within the context of collagen-induced arthritis, a murine model of rheumatoid arthritis. Spleen cells or lymph node cells from type-II-collagen-immunized DBA/1 mice were cultured in the presence of type II collagen plus one of five different cAMP-elevating agents: rolipram, forskolin, prostaglandin E2, 8-bromo-cAMP, or cholera toxin. Levels of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), interleukin-4 (IL-4) and IL-5 were measured in culture supernatants by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. All of the cAMP-elevating agents tested were found to profoundly suppress IFN-gamma production in a dose-dependent manner. IL-4 and IL-5 production was slightly up-regulated at low concentrations of the cAMP-elevating agents and was modestly suppressed at
In Schwann cells (SCs), cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) not only induces differentiation into a myelinating SC-related phenotype, but also synergistically enhances the mitogenic action of growth factors such as neuregulin. impairment of SC differentiation and myelin formation but not Krox-20 expression, which indicates an independent mechanism of Krox-20 regulation in response to cAMP. In conclusion, our data supports the idea that the outcome of cAMP signaling in SCs depends on the particular set of effectors activated. Whereas the mitogenic action of cAMP relies exclusively on PKA activity, the differentiating action of cAMP requires a PKA-independent (non-canonical) cAMP-specific pathway that is partially transduced by EPAC. Introduction The ubiquitous second messenger cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is usually a key regulator of metabolic activity, survival, proliferation and differentiation in a wide variety of cell types. In particular, isolated cultured Schwann cells (SCs), ...
In humans, cAMP works by activating protein kinase A (PKA, cAMP-dependent protein kinase), one of the first few kinases discovered. It has four sub-units two catalytic and two regulatory. cAMP binds to the regulatory sub-units.[16] It causes them to break apart from the catalytic sub-units. The Catalytic sub-units make their way in to the nucleus to influence transcription.Further effects mainly depend on cAMP-dependent protein kinase, which vary based on the type of cell. cAMP-dependent pathway is necessary for many living organisms and life processes. Many different cell responses are mediated by cAMP; these include increase in heart rate, cortisol secretion, and breakdown of glycogen and fat. cAMP is essential for the maintenance of memory in the brain, relaxation in the heart, and water absorbed in the kidney.[17] This pathway can activate enzymes and regulate gene expression. The activation of preexisting enzymes is a much faster process, whereas regulation of gene expression is much longer ...
Protein Kinase A-Dependent Derepression of the Human Prodynorphin Gene via Differential Binding to an Intragenic Silencer Element: Induction of the prodynorphin
For other salt forms please inquire. Lipophilic site-selective cyclic AMP analogue with extremely high selectivity for site B of protein kinase A type II. Acts synergistically with site A activating analogues for selective activation of type II. Metabolic
Intracellular cAMP levels are higher in LDLR-/−p110γ−/− than in LDLR−/−p110γ+/−macrophages.LDLR−/−p110γ+/− and LDLR−/−p110γ−/− BMM
Adenosine monophosphate: | |Adenosine monophosphate| (|AMP|), also known as |5-adenylic acid|, is a |nucleotid... World Heritage Encyclopedia, the aggregation of the largest online encyclopedias available, and the most definitive collection ever assembled.
Camp Nursing, Camp nursing has its own unique twists: you are charged with the health care of many unknowns and this is where you can come to for answers. How do you... - pg. 7
Anyone have experience with these two locations? Im trying to decide between a group rate at Governors camp vs. paying a bit more for a less crowded
Дофаминовый рецептор D1 - рецептор дофамина, сопряжённый с G-белками, стимулирующий аденилатциклазу и активирующий cAMP-зависимые киназы. В некоторых исследованиях отмечается ассоциация вариантов гена DRD1 с шизофренией, в других корреляции не обнаруживается[1]. Ген дофаминового рецептора D1 был впервые клонирован в 1990 году несколькими группами исследователей[2][3][4]. По результатам клонирования было установлено, что ген состоит из единственного экзона и кодирует белок из 446 аминокислотных остатков. Так же в первичной структуре соответствующего белка ...
Zhonglan Industry is the top manufacturer, supplier of Kojic acid cas 501-30-4 in China. Quality assured. ISO9001:2005, CE certified. SGS report. Sample
5-adenosine monophosphate Regular Sellers, 5-adenosine monophosphate Manufacturers, 5-adenosine monophosphate Exporters, 5-adenosine monophosphate Wholesalers, 5-adenosine monophosphate Distributors - Global B2B marketplace, portal. International Business to Business Marketplace. Send targeted trade leads, post trade offers, find new business partners. Thousands of companies, trade offers. Product Showrooms, Suppliers, Business News, Business Keywords, More. Get a free Business Website at Global B2B Directory.
For other salt forms, metabolites or anthraniloyl- cAMP please inquire. Fluorescent cyclic AMP analogue (λ|sub|exc|/sub| 350 nm, λ|sub|em|/sub| 445 nm), suitable for phosphodiesterase studies. The compound shows a decrease in fluorescence when cleaved by
Hoteller i nærheden af Blackbury Camp, Colyton: Se anmeldelser, billeder og gode tilbud på hoteller i nærheden af Colyton på TripAdvisor.
... cyclic adenosine monophosphate (8-Br-cAMP) is a brominated derivative of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). 8-Br-cAMP is an ... cyclic monophosphate (8-Br-cGMP) 8-Bromoadenosine 3′,5′-cyclic monophosphate at Sigma-Aldrich 8-Bromo Cyclic Adenosine ... activator of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, and it is long-acting because it is resistant to degradation by cyclic AMP ...
... cyclic adp-ribose MeSH D13.695.667.138.180 --- adenosine monophosphate MeSH D13.695.667.138.180.080 --- adenosine ... cyclic adp-ribose MeSH D13.695.827.068.180 --- adenosine monophosphate MeSH D13.695.827.068.180.080 --- adenosine ... cyclic cmp MeSH D13.695.462.275 --- cyclic gmp MeSH D13.695.462.275.325 --- dibutyryl cyclic gmp MeSH D13.695.462.300 --- ... cyclic adp-ribose MeSH D13.695.827.708.070.125.600 --- poly adenosine diphosphate ribose MeSH D13.695.827.708.260 --- cytidine ...
Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is a signal molecule whose prevalence is inversely proportional to that of glucose. It ... Colonies that produce β-galactosidase are turned blue by X-gal (5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-β-D-galactoside) which is an ... Botsford, J L; Harman, J G (March 1992). "Cyclic AMP in prokaryotes". Microbiological Reviews. 56 (1): 100-122. ISSN 0146-0749 ... Montminy, M. (1997). "Transcriptional regulation by cyclic AMP". Annual Review of Biochemistry. 66: 807-822. doi:10.1146/ ...
8-bromo cyclic adenosine monophosphate. EIPA. 5-(N-ethyl-N-isopropyl)amiloride. Hb. haemoglobin. Hct. haematocrit. ISO. ... In Proceedings of the International Sablefish Symposium 1983, 83-8, pp. 59-80. Anchorage: Alaska Sea Grant. ... In Proceedings of the International Sablefish Symposium 1983, 83-8, pp. 119-135. Anchorage: Alaska Sea Grant. ... In Advances in Comparative and Environmental Physiology, vol 8, pp. 51-77. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. ...
Membrane-permeable cyclic adenosine monophosphate (8-bromo-cAMP; Sigma-Aldrich, St Louis, MO, USA) was used at 4 mmol l−1. ... 2013). Signal transduction for Schistocerca gregaria ion transport peptide is mediated via both cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP. ... Cyclic AMP-stimulated opening of apical K+ channels also enhances this passive transport, and as a result of overall increases ... Membrane-permeable cAMP, 8-bromo-cAMP, stimulated K+ efflux at the locust ileum relative to saline (Fig. 5A). The K+ efflux ...
R-HSA-2022379 ACE2 hydrolyzes Angiotensin-(1-8) to Angiotensin-(1-7). R-HSA-2022377 Metabolism of Angiotensinogen to ... American heart journal 2008 156(4):752-8, Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 A1075G polymorphism is associated with survival in an ... acute coronary syndromes cohort., American heart journal 2008 156(4):752-8. [PubMed 18926157] ... 8), posterior urethral valves (6), hypertension, essential (2), myocardial infarction (1) ...
8-Bromo Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate / metabolism. Cell Differentiation. Cells, Cultured. Dexamethasone / pharmacology. ... 9613677 - Interleukin-8 and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 production by a human glioblastoma cel.... ...
R-HSA-2022379 ACE2 hydrolyzes Angiotensin-(1-8) to Angiotensin-(1-7). R-HSA-2022377 Metabolism of Angiotensinogen to ... 8), posterior urethral valves (6), hypertension, essential (2), myocardial infarction (1) ...
8-Bromo Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate / pharmacology. Animals. Animals, Newborn. Cells, Cultured. Cholesterol Side-Chain ... 0/Chorionic Gonadotropin; 0/Endocrine Disruptors; 0/Insecticides; 0/Phenols; 23583-48-4/8-Bromo Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate ...
... cyclic monophosphate (8CPT-2Me-cAMP), which activates Epac, but not PKA, both in vitro and in vivo. Using this analogue, we ... Therefore, through rational drug design we have developed a novel cAMP analogue, 8-(4-chloro-phenylthio)-2-O-methyladenosine-3 ...
adenosine 3′,5′-cyclic monophosphate, 8-bromo, sodium salt. **Received October 28, 1998. ... injury-induced increases in cyclic AMP and glutamate levels were also significantly reduced by a group II agonist. The ... of group II agonists were markedly attenuated by coadministration of a group II antagonist or a membrane-permeable cyclic AMP ...
Ann Trop Med Parasitol 8 : 85-104.. * Bruce MC, Alano P, Duthie S, Carter R, 1990. Commitment of the malaria parasite ... Plasmodium falciparum gametocyte formation in vitro: its stimulation by phorbol diesters and by 8-bromo cyclic adenosine ... monophosphate. J Protozool 36 : 451-454.. * Pan JX, Mikkelsen RB, Wallach DFH, Asher CR, 1987. Synthesis of a somatostatin-like ...
8. 71,384,274 - 71,395,834 (-). NCBI. GRCm38. GRCm38. mm10. GRCm38. MGSCv37. 8. 73,908,173 - 73,919,700 (-). NCBI. GRCm37. mm9 ... Insulin level QTL 8. 3.3. 0.0063. blood insulin amount (VT:0001560). calculated serum insulin level (CMO:0000359). 16. 1. ... 8-Br-cAMP increases expression. ISO. RGD:1322004. 6480464. 8-Bromo Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate results in increased ... Hepatocarcinoma susceptibility QTL 8. liver integrity trait (VT:0010547). liver tumorous lesion number (CMO:0001068). 16. 1. ...
Adenosine phosphate. approved, investigational, nutraceutical. unknown. product of. Details. DB01954. Rolipram. investigational ... Monophosphate. experimental. unknown. Details. DB03606. (S)-Rolipram. experimental. unknown. inhibitor. Details. ... cAMP-specific 3,5-cyclic phosphodiesterase 4B. Details. Name. cAMP-specific 3,5-cyclic phosphodiesterase 4B. Synonyms. *3.1 ... 3,5-cyclic-AMP phosphodiesterase activity / cAMP binding / ion channel binding / metal ion binding ...
Cyclic-Adenosine Monophosphate. Najmabadi H, Rosenberg LA, Yuan QX, Bhatia N, Albiston AL, Burger H, Bhasin S; Molecular ... 8. Diagnostic Techniques Used in Pediatric Back Pain. Proceedings of the North American Spine Society, annual meeting, 2003. ... 8. Novel Transplantation of Preconditioned Schwann Cells Following Spinal Cord Contusion Injury. Journal of Bone and Joint ... 1. Transcriptional and Posttranscriptional Regulation of Inhibin alpha-Subunit Gene Expression in Rat Sertoli Cells by 8-Bromo- ...
... is a cell-permeable brominated derivative of cAMP that is longer lasting due to a higher resistance to cyclic AMP ... Synonyms: 8 Bromo cAMP, 8 Bromo Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate, 8 Bromo Cyclic AMP, 8 Bromo Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate, Br ... 4aR,6R,7R,7aS)-6-(6-amino-8-bromopurin-9-yl)-2-hydroxy-2-oxo-4a,6,7,7a-tetrahydro-4H-furo[3,2-d][1,3,2]dioxaphosphinin-7-ol ... 8-Bromo-cAMP is reported to enhance the induction of pluripotency in human fibroblast cells and protects neutrophils against ...
... cyclic adenosine monophosphate (8-Br-cAMP) is a brominated derivative of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). 8-Br-cAMP is an ... cyclic monophosphate (8-Br-cGMP) 8-Bromoadenosine 3′,5′-cyclic monophosphate at Sigma-Aldrich 8-Bromo Cyclic Adenosine ... activator of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, and it is long-acting because it is resistant to degradation by cyclic AMP ...
8. Gründemann D, Gorboulev V, Gambaryan S, Veyhl M, Koepsell H. Drug excretion mediated by a new prototype of polyspecific ... Polar solute transport across the pigmented rabbit conjunctiva: size dependence and the influence of 8-bromo cyclic adenosine ... monophosphate. Pharm Res. 1997;14:1246-1251. [CrossRef] [PubMed]. 32. Miyamoto Y, Tiruppathi C, Ganapathy V, Leibach FH. ... 8 OCT2, 9 and OCT3 10 ; and (b) an energy-dependent secondary active OC+/H+ exchange mechanism that is driven by an inwardly ...
Cyclic Adenosine 5 -Monophosphate Inhibition of Cyclin D1 ENDOCRINOLOGY Velarde, M. C., Aghajanova, L., Nezhat, C. R., Giudice ... revealed dysregulation of progesterone and/or cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-regulated genes and genes related to ... Human endometrium regenerates on a cyclic basis from candidate stem/progenitors whose genetic programs are yet to be determined ... In 8-Br-cAMP-treated hESF from eutopic endometrium of women with endometriosis, the balance in estradiol (E2) and P4 ...
Derivatives of cyclic adenosine 3′:5′-monophosphate also increased the number of alpha-Btx receptor sites, whereas dibutyryl ... cyclic guanosine 3′:5′-monophosphate, but not 8-bromo-cyclic guanosine 3′:5′-monophosphate, had the opposite effect. The ... These results show that the synthesis of the neuronal alpha-Btx receptor is regulated by membrane depolarization, cyclic ... Regulation of alpha-bungarotoxin receptor accumulation in chick retina cultures: effects of membrane depolarization, cyclic ...
Petrei, A. H. & Tybout, J., Jan 1 1985, In : World Development. 13, 8, p. 949-967 19 p.. Research output: Contribution to ... Galvez, J. & Tybout, J., Jan 1 1985, In : World Development. 13, 8, p. 969-994 26 p.. Research output: Contribution to journal ... De Melo, J., Pascale, R. & Tybout, J., Jan 1 1985, In : World Development. 13, 8, p. 995-1015 21 p.. Research output: ... Rim, P. B. & Runt, J. P., Jan 1 1985, In : Journal of Applied Polymer Science. 30, 4, p. 1545-1552 8 p.. Research output: ...
... role of cyclic adenosine 5-monophosphate-dependent protein kinase and protein kinase C.. J Rousell, E B Haddad, J C Mak, B L ... role of cyclic adenosine 5-monophosphate-dependent protein kinase and protein kinase C.. J Rousell, E B Haddad, J C Mak, B L ... role of cyclic adenosine 5-monophosphate-dependent protein kinase and protein kinase C.. J Rousell, E B Haddad, J C Mak, B L ... Beta-Adrenoceptor-medicated down-regulation of M2 muscarinic receptors: role of cyclic adenosine 5-monophosphate-dependent ...
... cyclic adenosine monophosphate) (R&D Systems), and 3,7-dihydro-1-methyl-3-(2-methylpropyl)-1H-purine-2,6-dione (Sigma-Aldrich) ... Tissue engineering strategies are currently under development to regenerate or replace injured lungs (5-8). Because of the ... 8Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY 10032, USA. ... 8Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY 10032, USA. ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Role of steroidogenic-factor 1 in basal and 3,5-cyclic adenosine monophosphate- ... Role of steroidogenic-factor 1 in basal and 3,5-cyclic adenosine monophosphate-mediated regulation of cytochrome P450 side- ... Role of steroidogenic-factor 1 in basal and 3,5-cyclic adenosine monophosphate-mediated regulation of cytochrome P450 side- ... Role of steroidogenic-factor 1 in basal and 3,5-cyclic adenosine monophosphate-mediated regulation of cytochrome P450 side- ...
8, artikkel-id 28608. Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert). Abstract [en]. Background: Despite global recognition that ... 8, artikkel-id 28608Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published Abstract [en]. Background: Despite global recognition ... 60, nr 8, s. 1307-1312Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert). Abstract [en] ... from women with and without endometriosis decidualized with the use of E2P or 8-bromo-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). ...
... cyclic monophosphate (8-Br-cGMP; 0.1 mM). Growth arrest was accompanied by down-regulation of c-Myc protein and mRNA following ... cyclic monophosphate (8-Br-cAMP; 0.1 mM) and 8-bromoguanosine-3′5′- ... Heparin, 8-Br-cAMP or 8-Br-cGMP also suppressed c-myc, but this occurred later, after 24-48 h, and was also observed following ... or the cyclic nucleotide analogues, 8-bromo-adenosine-3′5′- ...
8, p. 3982-3994 13 p.. Research output: Contribution to journal › Article ... 689-696 8 p.. Research output: Contribution to journal › Article ... 649-656 8 p.. Research output: Contribution to journal › Article ... 770-777 8 p.. Research output: Contribution to journal › Article ...
Since dibutyryl-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (DBcAMP) has previously been reported to modulate membrane receptor expression ... Since dibutyryl-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (DBcAMP) has previously been reported to modulate membrane receptor expression ... Since dibutyryl-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (DBcAMP) has previously been reported to modulate membrane receptor expression ... Since dibutyryl-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (DBcAMP) has previously been reported to modulate membrane receptor expression ...
  • the rhythm was unaffected when using non-cyclic AMP analog. (coursehero.com)
  • The capsaicin-induced inhibition of I SC was also observed in the response to 8-bromo-cAMP (1 mM, a cell-permeable cAMP analog) and 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (1 mM, an inhibitor of phosphodiesterases). (fujita-hu.ac.jp)
  • the positive contractile response of 1 μmol/L SNAP persisted, despite the presence of the selective inhibitor of GC 1H-[1,2,xadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ, 10 μmol/L) alone, but was completely abolished in the presence of ODQ plus the specific inhibitory cAMP analog Rp-8-CPT-cAMPS (100 μmol/L), as well as by the NO scavenger oxyhemoglobin. (ahajournals.org)
  • Treatment with ovine FSH (100 ng/ml) increased P450scc mRNA concentrations in a time-dependent fashion, with significant effects on both P450scc mRNA concentrations and progesterone accumulation by 4 h and a maximal increase (8- to 10-fold) at 48 h. (elsevier.com)
  • 8 - 10 Therefore, advances in the understanding the role of EPAC proteins as regulators of cAMP-dependent signaling are critical for further elucidating the mechanism of cAMP signaling. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Nitroglycerine and 8‐Br cyclic GMP showed a stronger inhibitory action on the K‐induced contraction than did isoprenaline and db cyclic AMP. (deepdyve.com)
  • 5. The results provide novel evidence for a role for annexin 1 as a mediator of the inhibitory actions of glucocorticoids on the secretion of GH by the anterior pituitary gland and suggest that its actions are effected at a point distal to the formation of cyclic AMP and Ca(2+) entry. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Therefore, through rational drug design we have developed a novel cAMP analogue, 8-(4-chloro-phenylthio)-2'-O-methyladenosine-3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (8CPT-2Me-cAMP), which activates Epac, but not PKA, both in vitro and in vivo. (nih.gov)
  • These results indicate that cyclic nucleotide-dependent changes in g(j) may contribute to the inotropic effects of these agents. (elsevier.com)
  • The effect of 8-Br-cAMP was tetrodotoxin, Ca2+, and dose dependent and was saturable. (bocsci.com)
  • 22 23 24 25 Recent reports show that under certain conditions, NO donors are able to enhance myocardial contractility, 8 9 and that the basal intracardiac production and release of NO significantly augments the Frank-Starling response in the isolated heart. (ahajournals.org)
  • 1 The most common and versatile second messenger, cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), regulates a striking number of physiological and pathophysiological processes through the signaling networks which interfere with many disease states including inflammatory disorders, immune-deficiencies, and cancer. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • This study was undertaken to establish an in vitro model system for human decidualization using 8-bromo-cAMP and to investigate the characteristics of stromal integrin expression in vitro by 8-Br-cAMP. (bvsalud.org)
  • Cyclic AMP" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (uchicago.edu)
  • Thus, we propose that 8-bromo-cAMP-mediated potentiation of PR transcriptional activity is due, at least in part, to a disruption of the interaction between PR and the corepressors NCoR and SMRT. (duke.edu)