A 20-carbon-chain fatty acid, unsaturated at positions 8, 11, and 14. It differs from arachidonic acid, 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraenoic acid, only at position 5.
Long chain organic acid molecules that must be obtained from the diet. Examples are LINOLEIC ACIDS and LINOLENIC ACIDS.
A plant family of the order Taxales, class Pinopsida, division CONIFEROPHYTA.
FATTY ACIDS in which the carbon chain contains one or more double or triple carbon-carbon bonds.
(2S-(2 alpha,3 beta(1E,3E,5Z,8Z)))-3-(1,3,5,8-Tetradecatetraenyl)oxiranebutanoic acid. An unstable allylic epoxide, formed from the immediate precursor 5-HPETE via the stereospecific removal of a proton at C-10 and dehydration. Its biological actions are determined primarily by its metabolites, i.e., LEUKOTRIENE B4 and cysteinyl-leukotrienes. Alternatively, leukotriene A4 is converted into LEUKOTRIENE C4 by glutathione-S-transferase or into 5,6-di-HETE by the epoxide-hydrolase. (From Dictionary of Prostaglandins and Related Compounds, 1990)
Arachidonic acids are polyunsaturated fatty acids, specifically a type of omega-6 fatty acid, that are essential for human nutrition and play crucial roles in various biological processes, including inflammation, immunity, and cell signaling. They serve as precursors to eicosanoids, which are hormone-like substances that mediate a wide range of physiological responses.
An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class primarily found in PLANTS. It catalyzes reactions between linoleate and other fatty acids and oxygen to form hydroperoxy-fatty acid derivatives.
Enzymes catalyzing the oxidation of arachidonic acid to hydroperoxyarachidonates. These products are then rapidly converted by a peroxidase to hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids. The positional specificity of the enzyme reaction varies from tissue to tissue. The final lipoxygenase pathway leads to the leukotrienes. EC 1.13.11.- .
A condition produced by dietary or metabolic deficiency. The term includes all diseases caused by an insufficient supply of essential nutrients, i.e., protein (or amino acids), vitamins, and minerals. It also includes an inadequacy of calories. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed)
An unsaturated, essential fatty acid. It is found in animal and human fat as well as in the liver, brain, and glandular organs, and is a constituent of animal phosphatides. It is formed by the synthesis from dietary linoleic acid and is a precursor in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes.
Eighteen-carbon essential fatty acids that contain two double bonds.
A lipoxygenase metabolite of ARACHIDONIC ACID. It is a highly selective ligand used to label mu-opioid receptors in both membranes and tissue sections. The 12-S-HETE analog has been reported to augment tumor cell metastatic potential through activation of protein kinase C. (J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1995; 274(3):1545-51; J Natl Cancer Inst 1994; 86(15):1145-51)
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Eicosatetraenoic acids substituted in any position by one or more hydroxy groups. They are important intermediates in a series of biosynthetic processes leading from arachidonic acid to a number of biologically active compounds such as prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes.
Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
Artifactual vesicles formed from the endoplasmic reticulum when cells are disrupted. They are isolated by differential centrifugation and are composed of three structural features: rough vesicles, smooth vesicles, and ribosomes. Numerous enzyme activities are associated with the microsomal fraction. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
20-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acids.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.
A doubly unsaturated fatty acid, occurring widely in plant glycosides. It is an essential fatty acid in mammalian nutrition and is used in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and cell membranes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.
The barrier between capillary blood and alveolar air comprising the alveolar EPITHELIUM and capillary ENDOTHELIUM with their adherent BASEMENT MEMBRANE and EPITHELIAL CELL cytoplasm. PULMONARY GAS EXCHANGE occurs across this membrane.
The mucous membrane lining the RESPIRATORY TRACT, including the NASAL CAVITY; the LARYNX; the TRACHEA; and the BRONCHI tree. The respiratory mucosa consists of various types of epithelial cells ranging from ciliated columnar to simple squamous, mucous GOBLET CELLS, and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
C22-unsaturated fatty acids found predominantly in FISH OILS.
A group of fatty acids, often of marine origin, which have the first unsaturated bond in the third position from the omega carbon. These fatty acids are believed to reduce serum triglycerides, prevent insulin resistance, improve lipid profile, prolong bleeding times, reduce platelet counts, and decrease platelet adhesiveness.
Fats containing one or more double bonds, as from oleic acid, an unsaturated fatty acid.
An oily liquid extracted from the seeds of the safflower, Carthamus tinctorius. It is used as a dietary supplement in the management of HYPERCHOLESTEROLEMIA. It is used also in cooking, as a salad oil, and as a vehicle for medicines, paints, varnishes, etc. (Dorland, 28th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)

8,11,14-Eicosatrienoic acid is a type of fatty acid that contains 20 carbon atoms and three double bonds. The locations of these double bonds are at the 8th, 11th, and 14th carbon atoms, hence the name of the fatty acid. It is an omega-3 fatty acid, which means that the first double bond is located between the third and fourth carbon atoms from the methyl end of the molecule.

This particular fatty acid is not considered to be essential for human health, as it can be synthesized in the body from other fatty acids. It is a component of certain types of lipids found in animal tissues, including beef and lamb. It has been studied for its potential role in various physiological processes, such as inflammation and immune function, but its specific functions and effects on human health are not well understood.

Essential fatty acids (EFAs) are a type of fatty acid that cannot be synthesized by the human body and must be obtained through diet. There are two main types of essential fatty acids: linoleic acid (omega-6) and alpha-linolenic acid (omega-3).

Linoleic acid is found in foods such as vegetable oils, nuts, and seeds, while alpha-linolenic acid is found in foods such as flaxseeds, walnuts, and fatty fish. These essential fatty acids play important roles in the body, including maintaining the fluidity and function of cell membranes, producing eicosanoids (hormone-like substances that regulate various bodily functions), and supporting the development and function of the brain and nervous system.

Deficiency in essential fatty acids can lead to a variety of health problems, including skin disorders, poor growth and development, and increased risk of heart disease. It is important to maintain a balanced intake of both omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids, as excessive consumption of omega-6 relative to omega-3 has been linked to inflammation and chronic diseases.

Taxaceae is not a medical term, but a taxonomic category in botany. It refers to the yew family of coniferous trees and shrubs, which includes several genera such as Taxus (yews), Austrotaxus (New Caledonian yew), and Amentotaxus (Chinese yew).

While not directly related to medical terminology, some species of Taxaceae have medicinal uses. For example, the bark of the Pacific yew (Taxus brevifolia) contains a compound called paclitaxel, which has been developed into a chemotherapy drug used to treat various cancers, including ovarian, breast, and lung cancer.

Therefore, while Taxaceae itself is not a medical term, it is relevant in the context of medical research and pharmacology due to its association with medicinal plants.

Unsaturated fatty acids are a type of fatty acid that contain one or more double bonds in their carbon chain. These double bonds can be either cis or trans configurations, although the cis configuration is more common in nature. The presence of these double bonds makes unsaturated fatty acids more liquid at room temperature and less prone to spoilage than saturated fatty acids, which do not have any double bonds.

Unsaturated fatty acids can be further classified into two main categories: monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). MUFAs contain one double bond in their carbon chain, while PUFAs contain two or more.

Examples of unsaturated fatty acids include oleic acid (a MUFA found in olive oil), linoleic acid (a PUFA found in vegetable oils), and alpha-linolenic acid (an omega-3 PUFA found in flaxseed and fish). Unsaturated fatty acids are essential nutrients for the human body, as they play important roles in various physiological processes such as membrane structure, inflammation, and blood clotting. It is recommended to consume a balanced diet that includes both MUFAs and PUFAs to maintain good health.

Leukotriene A4 (LTA4) is a lipid mediator derived from arachidonic acid, which is released from membrane phospholipids by the action of phospholipase A2. LTA4 is synthesized in the cell through the 5-lipoxygenase pathway and serves as an intermediate in the production of other leukotrienes (LB4, LTC4, LTD4, LTE4) that are involved in inflammation, bronchoconstriction, increased vascular permeability, and recruitment of leukocytes.

Leukotriene A4 is an unstable compound with a short half-life, which can be converted to Leukotriene B4 (LTB4) by the enzyme LTA4 hydrolase or to Leukotriene C4 (LTC4) by the addition of glutathione through the action of LTC4 synthase. These leukotrienes play a significant role in the pathophysiology of asthma, allergies, and other inflammatory diseases.

Arachidonic acids are a type of polyunsaturated fatty acid that is primarily found in the phospholipids of cell membranes. They contain 20 carbon atoms and four double bonds (20:4n-6), with the first double bond located at the sixth carbon atom from the methyl end.

Arachidonic acids are derived from linoleic acid, an essential fatty acid that cannot be synthesized by the human body and must be obtained through dietary sources such as meat, fish, and eggs. Once ingested, linoleic acid is converted to arachidonic acid in a series of enzymatic reactions.

Arachidonic acids play an important role in various physiological processes, including inflammation, immune response, and cell signaling. They serve as precursors for the synthesis of eicosanoids, which are signaling molecules that include prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes. These eicosanoids have diverse biological activities, such as modulating blood flow, platelet aggregation, and pain perception, among others.

However, excessive production of arachidonic acid-derived eicosanoids has been implicated in various pathological conditions, including inflammation, atherosclerosis, and cancer. Therefore, the regulation of arachidonic acid metabolism is an important area of research for the development of new therapeutic strategies.

Lipoxygenase is an enzyme that catalyzes the dioxygenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids containing a cis,cis-1,4-pentadiene structure, forming hydroperoxides. This reaction is important in the biosynthesis of leukotrienes and lipoxins, which are involved in various inflammatory responses and immune functions. There are several isoforms of lipoxygenase found in different tissues and organisms, including arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase, arachidonate 12-lipoxygenase, and arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase.

Arachidonate lipoxygenases (ALOXs or ALOXE's) are a group of enzymes that catalyze the dioxygenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as arachidonic acid, to form hydroperoxides. These enzymes play a crucial role in the biosynthesis of various eicosanoids, which are signaling molecules involved in inflammation, immunity, and other physiological processes.

There are several isoforms of ALOXs, including 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX), 12-lipoxygenase (12-LOX), and 15-lipoxygenase (15-LOX), which differ in their substrate specificity and the position of the hydroperoxide group they introduce into the fatty acid. These enzymes are widely distributed in various tissues, including the lungs, liver, and brain, and have been implicated in a variety of diseases, such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, and neurodegenerative disorders.

Inhibition of ALOXs has been explored as a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of these diseases, although the development of selective and safe inhibitors has proven to be challenging.

Deficiency diseases are a group of medical conditions that occur when an individual's diet lacks essential nutrients, such as vitamins and minerals. These diseases develop because the body needs these nutrients to function correctly, and without them, various bodily functions can become impaired, leading to disease.

Deficiency diseases can manifest in many different ways, depending on which nutrient is lacking. For example:

* Vitamin A deficiency can lead to night blindness and increased susceptibility to infectious diseases.
* Vitamin C deficiency can result in scurvy, a condition characterized by fatigue, swollen gums, joint pain, and anemia.
* Vitamin D deficiency can cause rickets in children, a disease that leads to weakened bones and skeletal deformities.
* Iron deficiency can result in anemia, a condition in which the blood lacks adequate healthy red blood cells.

Preventing deficiency diseases involves eating a balanced diet that includes a variety of foods from all the major food groups. In some cases, supplements may be necessary to ensure adequate nutrient intake, especially for individuals who have restricted diets or medical conditions that affect nutrient absorption.

Arachidonic acid is a type of polyunsaturated fatty acid that is found naturally in the body and in certain foods. It is an essential fatty acid, meaning that it cannot be produced by the human body and must be obtained through the diet. Arachidonic acid is a key component of cell membranes and plays a role in various physiological processes, including inflammation and blood clotting.

In the body, arachidonic acid is released from cell membranes in response to various stimuli, such as injury or infection. Once released, it can be converted into a variety of bioactive compounds, including prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes, which mediate various physiological responses, including inflammation, pain, fever, and blood clotting.

Arachidonic acid is found in high concentrations in animal products such as meat, poultry, fish, and eggs, as well as in some plant sources such as certain nuts and seeds. It is also available as a dietary supplement. However, it is important to note that excessive intake of arachidonic acid can contribute to the development of inflammation and other health problems, so it is recommended to consume this fatty acid in moderation as part of a balanced diet.

Linoleic acid is a type of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) that is essential for human health. It is one of the two essential fatty acids, meaning that it cannot be produced by the body and must be obtained through diet.

Linoleic acid is a member of the omega-6 fatty acid family and has a chemical structure with two double bonds at the sixth and ninth carbon atoms from the methyl end of the molecule. It is found in various plant sources, such as vegetable oils (e.g., soybean, corn, safflower, and sunflower oils), nuts, seeds, and whole grains.

Linoleic acid plays a crucial role in maintaining the fluidity and function of cell membranes, producing eicosanoids (hormone-like substances that regulate various bodily functions), and supporting skin health. However, excessive intake of linoleic acid can lead to an imbalance between omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids, which may contribute to inflammation and chronic diseases. Therefore, it is recommended to maintain a balanced diet with appropriate amounts of both omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids.

12-Hydroxy-5,8,10,14-eicosatetraenoic acid (12-HETE) is a type of fatty acid that is produced in the body as a result of the metabolism of arachidonic acid, which is an omega-6 fatty acid that is found in the membranes of cells throughout the body.

12-HETE is synthesized by the enzyme 12-lipoxygenase (12-LOX), which adds a hydroxyl group (-OH) to the twelfth carbon atom of arachidonic acid. This lipid mediator plays a role in various physiological and pathophysiological processes, including inflammation, immune response, and cancer development.

Increased levels of 12-HETE have been found in several diseases, such as atherosclerosis, asthma, and cancer, suggesting that it may contribute to the development and progression of these conditions. However, further research is needed to fully understand the role of 12-HETE in human health and disease.

Fatty acids are carboxylic acids with a long aliphatic chain, which are important components of lipids and are widely distributed in living organisms. They can be classified based on the length of their carbon chain, saturation level (presence or absence of double bonds), and other structural features.

The two main types of fatty acids are:

1. Saturated fatty acids: These have no double bonds in their carbon chain and are typically solid at room temperature. Examples include palmitic acid (C16:0) and stearic acid (C18:0).
2. Unsaturated fatty acids: These contain one or more double bonds in their carbon chain and can be further classified into monounsaturated (one double bond) and polyunsaturated (two or more double bonds) fatty acids. Examples of unsaturated fatty acids include oleic acid (C18:1, monounsaturated), linoleic acid (C18:2, polyunsaturated), and alpha-linolenic acid (C18:3, polyunsaturated).

Fatty acids play crucial roles in various biological processes, such as energy storage, membrane structure, and cell signaling. Some essential fatty acids cannot be synthesized by the human body and must be obtained through dietary sources.

Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETEs) are a type of metabolite produced by the oxidation of arachidonic acid, a polyunsaturated fatty acid that is found in the membranes of cells in the human body. This oxidation process is catalyzed by enzymes called lipoxygenases (LOXs) and cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYP450).

HETEs are biologically active compounds that play a role in various physiological and pathophysiological processes, including inflammation, immune response, and cancer. They can act as signaling molecules, modulating the activity of various cell types, such as leukocytes, endothelial cells, and smooth muscle cells.

There are several different types of HETEs, depending on the position of the hydroxyl group (-OH) attached to the arachidonic acid molecule. For example, 5-HETE, 12-HETE, and 15-HETE are produced by 5-LOX, 12-LOX, and 15-LOX, respectively, while CYP450 can produce 20-HETE.

It's worth noting that HETEs have been implicated in various diseases, such as atherosclerosis, hypertension, and cancer, making them potential targets for therapeutic intervention. However, further research is needed to fully understand their roles and develop effective treatments.

Phospholipids are a major class of lipids that consist of a hydrophilic (water-attracting) head and two hydrophobic (water-repelling) tails. The head is composed of a phosphate group, which is often bound to an organic molecule such as choline, ethanolamine, serine or inositol. The tails are made up of two fatty acid chains.

Phospholipids are a key component of cell membranes and play a crucial role in maintaining the structural integrity and function of the cell. They form a lipid bilayer, with the hydrophilic heads facing outwards and the hydrophobic tails facing inwards, creating a barrier that separates the interior of the cell from the outside environment.

Phospholipids are also involved in various cellular processes such as signal transduction, intracellular trafficking, and protein function regulation. Additionally, they serve as emulsifiers in the digestive system, helping to break down fats in the diet.

Mass spectrometry (MS) is an analytical technique used to identify and quantify the chemical components of a mixture or compound. It works by ionizing the sample, generating charged molecules or fragments, and then measuring their mass-to-charge ratio in a vacuum. The resulting mass spectrum provides information about the molecular weight and structure of the analytes, allowing for identification and characterization.

In simpler terms, mass spectrometry is a method used to determine what chemicals are present in a sample and in what quantities, by converting the chemicals into ions, measuring their masses, and generating a spectrum that shows the relative abundances of each ion type.

Microsomes are subcellular membranous vesicles that are obtained as a byproduct during the preparation of cellular homogenates. They are not naturally occurring structures within the cell, but rather formed due to fragmentation of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) during laboratory procedures. Microsomes are widely used in various research and scientific studies, particularly in the fields of biochemistry and pharmacology.

Microsomes are rich in enzymes, including the cytochrome P450 system, which is involved in the metabolism of drugs, toxins, and other xenobiotics. These enzymes play a crucial role in detoxifying foreign substances and eliminating them from the body. As such, microsomes serve as an essential tool for studying drug metabolism, toxicity, and interactions, allowing researchers to better understand and predict the effects of various compounds on living organisms.

Eicosanoic acids are a type of fatty acid that contains 20 carbon atoms. They can be further classified into subgroups based on the presence and location of double bonds in their chemical structure. The most well-known eicosanoic acids include arachidonic acid (an omega-6 fatty acid with four double bonds), eicosapentaenoic acid (an omega-3 fatty acid with five double bonds), and docosahexaenoic acid (an omega-3 fatty acid with six double bonds). These fatty acids play important roles in various physiological processes, including inflammation, blood clotting, and cell signaling. They can be found in a variety of foods, such as fish, nuts, and seeds, and are also available as dietary supplements.

High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is a type of chromatography that separates and analyzes compounds based on their interactions with a stationary phase and a mobile phase under high pressure. The mobile phase, which can be a gas or liquid, carries the sample mixture through a column containing the stationary phase.

In HPLC, the mobile phase is a liquid, and it is pumped through the column at high pressures (up to several hundred atmospheres) to achieve faster separation times and better resolution than other types of liquid chromatography. The stationary phase can be a solid or a liquid supported on a solid, and it interacts differently with each component in the sample mixture, causing them to separate as they travel through the column.

HPLC is widely used in analytical chemistry, pharmaceuticals, biotechnology, and other fields to separate, identify, and quantify compounds present in complex mixtures. It can be used to analyze a wide range of substances, including drugs, hormones, vitamins, pigments, flavors, and pollutants. HPLC is also used in the preparation of pure samples for further study or use.

Dietary fats, also known as fatty acids, are a major nutrient that the body needs for energy and various functions. They are an essential component of cell membranes and hormones, and they help the body absorb certain vitamins. There are several types of dietary fats:

1. Saturated fats: These are typically solid at room temperature and are found in animal products such as meat, butter, and cheese, as well as tropical oils like coconut and palm oil. Consuming a high amount of saturated fats can raise levels of unhealthy LDL cholesterol and increase the risk of heart disease.
2. Unsaturated fats: These are typically liquid at room temperature and can be further divided into monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats. Monounsaturated fats, found in foods such as olive oil, avocados, and nuts, can help lower levels of unhealthy LDL cholesterol while maintaining levels of healthy HDL cholesterol. Polyunsaturated fats, found in foods such as fatty fish, flaxseeds, and walnuts, have similar effects on cholesterol levels and also provide essential omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids that the body cannot produce on its own.
3. Trans fats: These are unsaturated fats that have been chemically modified to be solid at room temperature. They are often found in processed foods such as baked goods, fried foods, and snack foods. Consuming trans fats can raise levels of unhealthy LDL cholesterol and lower levels of healthy HDL cholesterol, increasing the risk of heart disease.

It is recommended to limit intake of saturated and trans fats and to consume more unsaturated fats as part of a healthy diet.

Linoleic acid is an essential polyunsaturated fatty acid, specifically an omega-6 fatty acid. It is called "essential" because our bodies cannot produce it; therefore, it must be obtained through our diet. Linoleic acid is a crucial component of cell membranes and is involved in the production of prostaglandins, which are hormone-like substances that regulate various bodily functions such as inflammation, blood pressure, and muscle contraction.

Foods rich in linoleic acid include vegetable oils (such as soybean, corn, and sunflower oil), nuts, seeds, and some fruits and vegetables. It is important to maintain a balance between omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids in the diet, as excessive consumption of omega-6 fatty acids can contribute to inflammation and other health issues.

Chromatography, gas (GC) is a type of chromatographic technique used to separate, identify, and analyze volatile compounds or vapors. In this method, the sample mixture is vaporized and carried through a column packed with a stationary phase by an inert gas (carrier gas). The components of the mixture get separated based on their partitioning between the mobile and stationary phases due to differences in their adsorption/desorption rates or solubility.

The separated components elute at different times, depending on their interaction with the stationary phase, which can be detected and quantified by various detection systems like flame ionization detector (FID), thermal conductivity detector (TCD), electron capture detector (ECD), or mass spectrometer (MS). Gas chromatography is widely used in fields such as chemistry, biochemistry, environmental science, forensics, and food analysis.

I am not aware of a widely recognized or established medical term called "Blood-Air Barrier." It is possible that you may be referring to a concept or phenomenon that goes by a different name, or it could be a term that is specific to certain context or field within medicine.

In general, the terms "blood" and "air" refer to two distinct and separate compartments in the body, and there are various physiological barriers that prevent them from mixing with each other under normal circumstances. For example, the alveolar-capillary membrane in the lungs serves as a barrier that allows for the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the air in the alveoli and the blood in the capillaries, while preventing the two from mixing together.

If you could provide more context or clarify what you mean by "Blood-Air Barrier," I may be able to provide a more specific answer.

Respiratory mucosa refers to the mucous membrane that lines the respiratory tract, including the nose, throat, bronchi, and lungs. It is a specialized type of tissue that is composed of epithelial cells, goblet cells, and glands that produce mucus, which helps to trap inhaled particles such as dust, allergens, and pathogens.

The respiratory mucosa also contains cilia, tiny hair-like structures that move rhythmically to help propel the mucus and trapped particles out of the airways and into the upper part of the throat, where they can be swallowed or coughed up. This defense mechanism is known as the mucociliary clearance system.

In addition to its role in protecting the respiratory tract from harmful substances, the respiratory mucosa also plays a crucial role in immune function by containing various types of immune cells that help to detect and respond to pathogens and other threats.

An encyclopedia is a comprehensive reference work containing articles on various topics, usually arranged in alphabetical order. In the context of medicine, a medical encyclopedia is a collection of articles that provide information about a wide range of medical topics, including diseases and conditions, treatments, tests, procedures, and anatomy and physiology. Medical encyclopedias may be published in print or electronic formats and are often used as a starting point for researching medical topics. They can provide reliable and accurate information on medical subjects, making them useful resources for healthcare professionals, students, and patients alike. Some well-known examples of medical encyclopedias include the Merck Manual and the Stedman's Medical Dictionary.

Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is a type of long-chain omega-3 fatty acid that is essential for human health. It is an important structural component of the phospholipid membranes in the brain and retina, and plays a crucial role in the development and function of the nervous system. DHA is also involved in various physiological processes, including inflammation, blood pressure regulation, and immune response.

DHA is not produced in sufficient quantities by the human body and must be obtained through dietary sources or supplements. The richest dietary sources of DHA are fatty fish such as salmon, mackerel, and sardines, as well as algae and other marine organisms. DHA can also be found in fortified foods such as eggs, milk, and juice.

Deficiency in DHA has been linked to various health issues, including cognitive decline, vision problems, and cardiovascular disease. Therefore, it is recommended that individuals consume adequate amounts of DHA through diet or supplementation to maintain optimal health.

Omega-3 fatty acids are a type of polyunsaturated fats that are essential for human health. The "omega-3" designation refers to the location of a double bond in the chemical structure of the fatty acid, specifically three carbon atoms from the end of the molecule.

There are three main types of omega-3 fatty acids: eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA). EPA and DHA are primarily found in fatty fish, such as salmon, mackerel, and sardines, as well as in algae. ALA is found in plant sources, such as flaxseeds, chia seeds, walnuts, and some vegetable oils.

Omega-3 fatty acids have been shown to have numerous health benefits, including reducing inflammation, lowering the risk of heart disease, improving brain function, and supporting eye health. They are also important for fetal development during pregnancy and breastfeeding. It is recommended that adults consume at least 250-500 milligrams of combined EPA and DHA per day, although higher intakes may be beneficial for certain conditions. ALA can be converted to EPA and DHA in the body, but this process is not very efficient, so it is important to consume preformed EPA and DHA from dietary sources or supplements.

Unsaturated fats are a type of fat that are primarily found in liquid form at room temperature. They are called "unsaturated" because their chemical structure contains one or more double bonds between the carbon atoms, making them less saturated with hydrogen atoms than saturated fats.

There are two main types of unsaturated fats: monounsaturated and polyunsaturated. Monounsaturated fats contain a single double bond in their chemical structure, while polyunsaturated fats contain multiple double bonds.

Unsaturated fats are generally considered to be healthier than saturated fats because they can help lower levels of harmful cholesterol in the blood and reduce the risk of heart disease. Foods that are high in unsaturated fats include vegetable oils, nuts, seeds, avocados, and fish.

It's important to note that while unsaturated fats are generally healthier than saturated fats, they are still high in calories and should be consumed in moderation as part of a balanced diet. Additionally, some types of polyunsaturated fats, such as trans fats, can actually increase the risk of heart disease and other health problems, so it's important to choose sources of unsaturated fats carefully.

Safflower oil is a vegetable oil that is extracted from the seeds of the safflower plant (Carthamus tinctorius). It is primarily composed of unsaturated fatty acids, with a high concentration of linoleic acid (an omega-6 fatty acid) and a smaller amount of oleic acid (an omega-9 fatty acid).

Safflower oil has been used in traditional medicine for its potential health benefits, such as improving heart health, reducing inflammation, and promoting skin health. It is also commonly used as a cooking oil due to its high smoke point and light flavor. However, it is important to note that safflower oil should be consumed in moderation, as excessive intake of omega-6 fatty acids can contribute to inflammation and other health issues.

EETS are epoxide eicosatrienoic acid metabolites of arachidonic acid (a straight chain eicosatetraenoic acid, omega-6 fatty ... 14Z-eicosatetraenoic acid. Cytochrome P450 epoxygenases attack these double bonds to form their respective eicosatrienoic acid ... 14Z-eicosatrienoic acid), 8,9-EET (i.e. 8,9-epoxy-5Z,11Z,14Z-eicosatrienoic acid), 11,12-EET (i.e. 11,12-epoxy-5Z,8Z,14Z- ... eicosatrienoic acid), or, as drawn in the attached figure, 14,15-EET (i.e. 14,15-epoxy-5Z,8Z,11Z-eicosatrienoic acid). The ...
18-dihydroxy-eicosatetraenoic acid (5,18-diHETE) or by a Δ6-reductase to form 5-oxo-18-hydroxy-eicosatrienoic acid (5-oxo-18- ... 19-dihydroxy-eicosatetraenoic acid (5,19-diHETE) or by a Δ6 reductase to 5-oxo-19-hydroxy-eicosatrienoic acid (5-oxo-19-HETrE ... Phospholipid-bound arachidonic acid → free arachidonic acid b) Free arachidonic acid + O2 → 5(S)-HpETE c) 5(S)-HpETE → 5(S)- ... and receptors of hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETEs) and oxoeicosatetraenoic acids (oxo-ETEs) derived from arachidonic acid ...
"Addition of eicosapentaenoic acid to gamma-linolenic acid-supplemented diets prevents serum arachidonic acid accumulation in ... Dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (DGLA) is a 20-carbon ω−6 fatty acid. (also called, cis,cis,cis-8,11,14-Eicosatrienoic acid) In ... Essential fatty acid Horrobin, D. F., 1990a. Gamma linolenic acid. Rev. Contemp. Pharmacother. 1, 1-45 Huang, Y.-S. and Mills, ... 1997). "Dietary supplementation with γ-linolenic acid alters fatty acid content and eicosanoid production in healthy humans". J ...
... metabolize arachidonic acid to a set of products (the eicosatrienoic acid epoxides, abbreviated as EETs, which are classified ... Adrenic acid or 7(Z),10(Z),13(Z),16(Z)-docosatetraenoic acid, an abundant fatty acid in the adrenal gland, kidney, vasculature ... However, the CYP epoxygenases also metabolize other omega-6 fatty acids such as linoleic acid and the omega-3 fatty acids, ... 14Z-eicosatetraenoic acid. Certain CYP epoxygenases attack these double bounds to form their respective eicosatrienoic acid ...
sEH converts 17,18-EEQ isomers to 17,18-dihydroxy-eicosatrienoic acid isomers (17,18-diHETEs), 14,15-EEQ isomers to 14,15- ... see 20-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid), i.e. 19-hydroxyhydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid and/or 20-hydroxyeicosatetranoic acid, take ... 13-epoxides isomers termed coronaric acids or isoleukotoxins. They metabolize the omega-3 fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid, ... They metabolize the omega-6 fatty acids arachidonic acid, which possess four double bonds, to 8 different epoxide isomers which ...
Eicosatetraenoic acid, Heptadecane, He1adecanoic acid, methyl ester, Neophytadiene, n-He1adecanoic acid, Oleic Acid, Phytol, ... 15-Octadecatrienoic acid, 9,12-Octadecadienoic acid (Z,Z)-, methyl ester, 9-Nonadecene, Cholesterol, methyl ester, (all Z)- ... Phytol acetate, Stigmastan-3,5-diene, Tetracosanoic acid, methyl ester, Tetradecane, 2,6,10-trimethyl-, Tetradecanoic acid, Z-( ... 17-Octadecynoic acid, 1-Heptatriacotanol, 6,10,14-trimethyl- 2-Pentadecanone, 7,10-He1adecadienoic acid, methyl ester, (Z,Z,Z)- ...
It metabolizes arachidonic acid to the following eicosatrienoic acid epoxides (termed EETs): 5,6-epoxy-8Z,11Z,14Z-EET, 8,9- ... CYP2J2 also metabolizes linoleic acid to 9,10-epoxy octadecenoic acids (also termed vernolic acid, linoleic acid 9:10-oxide, or ... linoleic acid 12,13-oxide, or isoleukotoxin); docosahexaenoic acid to various epoxydocosapentaenoic acids (also termed EDPs); ... see epoxyeicosatrienoic acid, epoxydocosapentaenoic acid, and epoxygenase pages). Vernolic and coronaric acids are potentially ...
Mead acid, i.e. 5Z,8Z,11Z-eicosatrienoic acid, is an ω-9 fatty acid containing three cis double bonds, each located between ... Dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA), 8Z, 11Z,14Z-eicosatrienoic acid is an ω-6 fatty acid with three cis double bonds, each ... Eicosapentaenoic acid-derived counterparts of the Eoxins have not been described. The epoxy eicosatrienoic acids (or EETs)-and ... Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), i.e.i.e. 5Z, 8Z,11Z,14Z,17Z-eicosapentaenoic acid is an ω-3 fatty acid with five cis double bonds ...
12E-eicosatrienoic acid (i.e. 11,12,15-THETA) and 11,14,15-trihydroxy-5Z,8Z,12E-eicosatrienoic acid (i.e., 11,14,15-THETA) by a ... 13E-eicosatetraenoic acid (15(R)-HpETE). Human cells release arachidonic acid (i.e. 5Z,8Z,11Z,14Z-eicosatetraenoic acid) from ... a metabolite of arachidonic acid. Various cell types metabolize arachidonic acid to 15(S)-hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid (15( ... Maas, R. L.; Turk, J; Oates, J. A.; Brash, A. R. (1982). "Formation of a novel dihydroxy acid from arachidonic acid by ...
... sorbic acid MeSH D10.251.355.920 - trans fatty acids MeSH D10.251.400.092 - acetic acids MeSH D10.251.400.092.129 - acetic acid ... fatty acids, omega-6 MeSH D10.251.355.343.249 - gamma-linolenic acid MeSH D10.251.355.343.500 - linoleic acids MeSH D10.251. ... linolenic acids MeSH D10.251.355.310.640.400 - alpha-linolenic acid MeSH D10.251.355.310.640.425 - gamma-linolenic acid MeSH ... oleic acids MeSH D10.251.355.325.600.525 - oleic acid MeSH D10.251.355.325.600.780 - ricinoleic acids MeSH D10.251.355.325.919 ...
... eicosatrienoic acid) and b) hepoxilin B3 (10-hydroxy-11S,12Sepoxy-(5Z,9E,14Z)-eicosatrienoic acid) to trioxlin B3 (10,11,12- ... Since the hepoxilins are metabolites of arachidonic acid, hepoxilin-epoxide hydrolase participates in arachidonic acid ... eicosatrienoic acid, i.e. hepoxilin A3 and H2O, whereas its product is 8,11,12-trihydroxy-(5Z,9E,14Z)-eicosatrienoic acid, i.e ... eicosatrienoic acid. Soluble epoxide hydrolase (i.e. epoxide hydrolase 2 or EH2) sEH also appears to be the hepoxilin hydrolase ...
CAS Registry Number 1783-84-2. Eicosatrienoic acid (eicosatrienoic's, eicosatrienoic acid) has 20 carbons and is an 11,14,17- ... List of saturated fatty acids Carboxylic acid List of carboxylic acids Dicarboxylic acid Simopoulos, Artemis P. (2002). "Omega‐ ... Cervonic acid (or docosahexaenoic acid) has 22 carbons, is found in fish oil, is a 4,7,10,13,16,19-hexa unsaturated fatty acid ... β-eleostearic acid (beta-eleostearic's, beta-eleostearic acid) is a geometric isomer of α- eleostearic acid. IUPAC organization ...
14Z-eicosatrienoic acid) to 15S-hydroperoxy-8Z,11Z,13E-eicosatrienoic acid and 15S-hydroxy-8Z,11Z,13E-eicosatrienoic acid (15S- ... gamma-linolenic acid, arachidonic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid when presented not only as free acids ... By metabolizing the ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, into 17-HpDHA, 17-HDHA, ... By metabolizing ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, into lipoxins and resolvins, ...
... hydroxy-eicosapentaenoic acid, 5(S)-hydroxy-eicosatrienoic acid, 5(S)-hydroxy-eicosadeinoic acid, 5(S)-hydroxy-eicosamonoenoic ... the 5-hydroxy fatty acids which they make or are presented with to 5-oxo fatty acids and rapidly reduce the 5-oxo fatty acids ... acid, 5(S)-hydroxy-octadecadienoic acid, 5(S),15(S)-dihydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, and the 6-trans isomer of leukotriene B4 ( ... 14Z-eicosatetraenoic acid (i.e. 5-(S)-HETE; see 5-HETE) to its 5-keto analog, 5-oxo-eicosatetraenoic acid (i.e. 5-oxo-6S,8Z,11Z ...
In particular, CYP2C9 metabolizes arachidonic acid to the following eicosatrienoic acid epoxide (EETs) stereoisomer sets: 5R,6S ... It likewise metabolizes docosahexaenoic acid to epoxydocosapentaenoic acids (EDPs; primarily 19,20-epoxy-eicosapentaenoic acid ... vernolic acid (also termed leukotoxin) and coronaric acid (also termed isoleukotoxin); these linoleic acid epoxides cause ... see 20-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, epoxyeicosatetraenoic acid, and epoxydocosapentaenoic acid sections on activities and ...
14Z-eicosatrienoic acid): 12S-hydroperoxy-5Z,8Z,10E,14Z-eicosatetraenoic acid → 8R/S-hydroxy-11,12-oxido-5Z,9E,14Z- ... It metabolizes the omega-3 fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA i.e., 4(Z),7(Z),10(Z),13(Z),16(Z),19(Z)-docosahexaenoic acid ... eicosatrienoic acid + 10R/S-hydroxy-11,12-oxido-5Z,8Z,14Z-eicosatrienoic acid Hepoxilins can promote certain inflammation ... 14Z-eicosatetraenoic acid) and O2 (i.e. oxygen) and its product is 12S-hydroperoxy-5Z,8Z,10E,14Z-eicosatetraenoic acid (i.e. ...
14Z-eicosatrienoic acids). However, this activity has not been characterized at the purified protein or gene level and recent ... However, sEH also metabolizes the epoxides of linoleic acid viz., Vernolic acid (leukotoxins) and Coronaric acids ( ... mEH also metabolizes certain epoxides of polyunsaturated fatty acids such as the epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) but its ... 14Z-eicosatrienoic acid) are metabolized to trioxilin A3s (8,11,12-trihydroxy-5Z,9E,14Z-eicosatrienoic acids) and hepoxilins ...
11Z-eicosatrienoic acid (a 5-LO metabolite of mead acid); 5(S)-hydroxy-6E,8Z-octadecadienoic acid and 5(S)-oxo-6E,8Z- ... octadecadienoic acid (5-LO metabolites of sebaleic acid, i.e. 5Z,8Z-octadecadienoic acid); and 5(S)-hydroxy-6E,8Z,11Z,14Z,17Z- ... Eicosanoid receptor 5-Hydroxyicosatetraenoic acid and 5-oxo-eicosatetraenoic acid Niacin receptor 1 GRCh38: Ensembl release 89 ... principal receptor for the 5-Hydroxyicosatetraenoic acid family of carboxy fatty acid metabolites derived from arachidonic acid ...
Human cells synthesize LxA4 and LxB4 by serially metabolizing arachidonic acid (5Z,8Z,11Z,14Z-eicosatrienoic acid) with a) ... 16Z-docosapentaenoic acid or osbond acid) is an isomer of n-3 DPA (clupanodonic acid) differing from the latter fatty acid only ... SPM are metabolites of arachidonic acid (AA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), or n-3 DPA (i.e. 7Z,10Z, ... 16Z-docosapentaenoic acid, also termed osbond acid. Cells metabolize EPA (5Z,8Z,11Z,14Z,17Z-eicosapentaenoic acid) by a ...
12E-eicosatrienoic acid and 13R-hydroxy-14S,15S-epoxy-5Z,8Z,11Z-eicosatrienoic acid ALOX15 appears capable of conducting both ... those derived from the 22-carbon polyunsaturated fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid, and the 18-carbon fatty acid, linoleic acid ... 14Z-eicosatrienoic acid). This two-step metabolic reaction is illustrated below: 5Z,8Z,11Z,14Z-eicosatetraenoic acid + O2 → 12S ... 14Z-eicosatrienoic acid (trioxilin B3 or TrXB3). A third trihydroxy acid, 8,9,12-trihydroxy-5Z,10E,14Z eicosatrienoic acid ( ...
5S-hydroperoxy-eicosatetraenoic acid>5-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid; the 5-oxo-eicosatrienoic and 5-oxo-octadecadienoic acid ... 12-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (S isomer)= 12-hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid (S isomer)>15-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (S ... and oxoeicosatetraenoic acids (oxo-ETEs) derived from arachidonic acid". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular and ... BLT2 (Leukotriene B4 receptor 2) - LTB4R2; the receptor for 12-Hydroxyheptadecatrienoic acid, leukotriene B4, and certain other ...
... which is the precursor to alpha-linolenic acid, gamma-linolenic acid, and eicosatrienoic acid. Two subgroups of desaturases are ... "convert oleic acid (18:1n-9) into linoleic acid (18:2n-6) and α-linolenic acid (18:3n-3)". Linoleic acid (LA) and α-linolenic ... desaturases convert stearic acid into oleic acid. Other desaturases convert oleic acid into linolenic acid, ... synthesized from α-linolenic acid); arachidonic acid and adrenic acid (synthesized from linoleic acid). This is a multi-stage ...
... eicosatrienoic, eicosapentaenoic, and docosahexaenoic acids or omega-6 fatty acids such as linoleic, gamma-linolenic, dihomo- ... Certain fatty acids, including in particular the omega-3 fatty acids, docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acids, have been ... and propionic acids. FFAR1 and FFAR4 are activated by 1) medium-chain fatty acids i.e., fatty acids consisting of 6-12 carbon ... monounsaturated fatty acids such as oleic and palmitoleic acids; and 4) polyunsaturated fatty acids such as the omega-3 fatty ...
14Z-eicosatrienoic acid) and HxB3 (i.e. 10R/S-hydroxy-11,12-oxido-5Z,8Z,14Z-eicosatrienoic acid) likewise activate TRPV1 and ... 14Z-eicosatetraenoic acid (see 20-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid) and 12(S)-hydroperoxy-5Z,8Z,10E,12S,14Z-eicosatetraenoic acid ( ... are metabolites of the omega 3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (for RvE1) or docosahexaenoic acid (for RvD2, NPD1, and Mar1 ... The metabolites of linoleic acid, including 13(S)-hydroxy-9Z,11E-octadecadienoic acid (13(S)-HODE), 13(R)-hydroxy-9Z,11E- ...
The epoxide, 5,6-epoxy-8Z,11Z,14Z-eicosatrienoic acid (5,6-EET) made by the metabolism of arachidonic acid by any one of ... Resolvin D1 (RvD1) and RvD2 (see resolvins) and maresin 1 are metabolites of the omega 3 fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid. They ... 14Z-eicosatrienoic acid) and HxB3 (i.e. 10R/S-hydroxy-11,12-oxido-5Z,8Z,14Z-eicosatrienoic acid) (see Hepoxilin#Pain perception ... 14Z-eicosatetraenoic acid (i.e. 12S-HpETE; see 12-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid) and the hepoxilins (Hx), HxA3 (i.e. 8R/S- ...
... eicosatrienoic, eicosapentaenoic, and docosahexaenoic acids and omega-6 fatty acids such as linoleic, gamma-linolenic, dihomo- ... Various fatty acids, including in particular two omega-3 fatty acids, docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acids, have been ... fatty acids consisting of 6-12 carbon atoms) such as capric and lauric acids; 2) long-chain and very long-chain fatty acids (i. ... the omega hydroxy fatty acid, 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid. Among the fatty acids that activate FFAR1 (and FFAR4), ...
13E-eicosatetraenoic acid 15-epi-LxB4: 5S,14R,15R-trihydroxy-6E,8Z,10E,12E-eicosatrienoic acid Note that the two LXs have their ... Lipoxins are derived enzymatically from arachidonic acid, an ω-6 fatty acid. Structurally, they are defined as arachidonic acid ... which are metabolites of the omega 3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid or docosahexaenoic acid, as well as a range of ... 13E-eicosatetraenoic acid LxB4: 5S,14R,15S-trihydroxy-6E,8Z,10E,12E-eicosatetraenoic acid 15-epi-LxA4: 5S,6R,15R-trihydroxy-7E, ...
14Z-eicosatrienoic acid (12(R)-HETrE) and to a lesser extent 12(S)-hydroxy-5Z,8Z,14Z-eicosatrienoic acid (12(S)-HETrE). The G ... 12-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12-HETE) is a derivative of the 20 carbon polyunsaturated fatty acid, arachidonic acid, ... 14Z-eicosatrienoic acid] refer to a mixture of Diastereomers and⁄or Enantiomers derived from arachidonic acid.) Cultured RINm5F ... 12-oxo-ETE is metabolised by cytosolic NADH-dependent 12-oxoeicosinoid Δ10-reductase to 12-oxo-5Z,8Z,14Z-eicosatrienoic acid ( ...
ALOX5 metabolizes the omega-6 fatty acid, arachidonic acid (AA, i.e. 5Z,8Z,11Z,15Z-eicosatrienoic acid), to 5- ... ALOX5 metabolizes the omega-3 fatty acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, i.e. 4Z,8Z,11Z,14Z,17Z-eiosapentaenoic acid), to 5- ... Mead acid (i.e. 5Z,8Z,11Z-eicosatrienoic acid) is identical to AA except that has a single rather than double bond between its ... ALOX5 acts in series with ALOX15 to metabolize the omega 3 fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, i.e. 4Z,7Z,10Z,13Z,16Z,19Z- ...
IUPAC Standard InChI: InChI=1S/C20H34O2/c1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8-9-10-11-12-13-14-15-16-17-18-19-20(21)22/h6-7,9-10,12-13H,2-5,8,11,14- ...
Gramlich L, Meddings L, Alberda C, Wichansawakun S, Robbins S, Driscoll D, Bistrian B. Essential Fatty Acid Deficiency in 2015 ... A 20-carbon-chain fatty acid, unsaturated at positions 8, 11, and 14. It differs from arachidonic acid, 5,8,11,14- ... "8,11,14-Eicosatrienoic Acid" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH ( ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "8,11,14-Eicosatrienoic Acid" by people in this website by year ...
IUPAC Standard InChI: InChI=1S/C26H48O2Si/c1-7-8-9-10-11-12-13-14-15-16-17-18-19-20-21-22-23-24-25(27)28-29(5,6)26(2,3)4/h14-15 ... cis-5,8,11-Eicosatrienoic acid, tert-butyldimethylsilyl ester. *Formula: C26H48O2Si ...
EETS are epoxide eicosatrienoic acid metabolites of arachidonic acid (a straight chain eicosatetraenoic acid, omega-6 fatty ... 14Z-eicosatetraenoic acid. Cytochrome P450 epoxygenases attack these double bonds to form their respective eicosatrienoic acid ... 14Z-eicosatrienoic acid), 8,9-EET (i.e. 8,9-epoxy-5Z,11Z,14Z-eicosatrienoic acid), 11,12-EET (i.e. 11,12-epoxy-5Z,8Z,14Z- ... eicosatrienoic acid), or, as drawn in the attached figure, 14,15-EET (i.e. 14,15-epoxy-5Z,8Z,11Z-eicosatrienoic acid). The ...
Eicosatrienoic acid (ETE) 20:3 (n-3) all-cis-11,14,17-eicosatrienoic acid ... fatty acids. Smoke point Total[20]. Oleic. acid. (ω-9). Total[20]. α-Linolenic. acid. (ω-3). Linoleic. acid. (ω-6). ω-6:3. ... Desaturases convert oleic acid into linolenic acid the precursor to alpha-linoenic acid, gamma-linolenic acid, and ... Jacaric acid 18:3 (n-6) 8Z,10E,12Z-octadecatrienoic acid α-Eleostearic acid 18:3 (n-5) 9Z,11E,13E-octadeca-9,11,13-trienoic ...
Other fatty acids lacking the three double bonds in the required positions can be oxygenated by COX to hydroperoxy fatty acids ... Unorthodox routes (II): autooxidation and enzymatic oxidation of fatty acids. Polyunsaturated fatty acids derived from membrane ... Semen contains PGs derived from the three fatty acids, dihomogammalinoleic, arachidonic, and eicosapentaenoic acids. The two ... Epoxides of linoleic acid are toxic, whereas epoxides of arachidonic acid (EETs) have a wide range of biological effects (see ...
... conjugated linoleic acid, α-tocopherol and iron, but lower iodine and selenium concentrations in organic milk: a systematic ... eicosatrienoic acid (cis-11,14,17-20 : 3), long-chain FA, medium-chain FA and SCFA (online Supplementary Table S12). ... 4). Overall risk of bias was considered high, but this was mitigated by large effect magnitudes for fourteen of thirty-one ... eleven on sheep milk and dairy products, nine on goat milk and dairy products, two on buffalo milk and dairy products). Data ...
Besides these C18 acids there is a shorter chain compound, sorbic acid. Sorbic acid, or 2,4-hexadienoic acid, was first ... N-6 FATTY ACIDS *Linoleic acid (18:2 n-6) is the most common polyunsaturated fatty acids, in plants and animal tissues. The ... POLYENOIC FATTY ACIDS. These fatty acids (also called polyunsaturated fatty acids, PUFA) have 2 or more cis double bonds which ... was laballenic acid (5,6-octadecadienoic acid) (Bagby MO et al., J Org Chem 1965, 30, 4227). Two C18 allenic acids were ...
Dive into the research topics of Effects of the incubation of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids on platelet lipids and ... Effects of the incubation of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids on platelet lipids and thromboxane release. ...
eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), an ω-3 fatty acid with 5 double bonds; *Arachidonic acid (AA), an ω-6 fatty acid, with 4 double ... "Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA)" EPA (Eicosapentaenoic Acid). In lipid science, Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA), 20:5(n-3), is an omega ... "Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic Acids [FA0305]" Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic Acids. In lipid science, Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic Acids are ... In our body, the omega-3 fatty acid, Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA) may act as a precursor for Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), ...
eicosatrienoic acid. H. 2. O. H. 2. O. 14,15-DiHETrE. O. 2. 11,12-Epoxyeicosatrienoic acid. H. 2. O. H. 2. O. 11,12-DiHETrE. 5- ... Arachidonic acid. O. 2. O. 2. 11H-14,15-EETA. H. 2. O. O. 2. 11,14,15-THETA. H. 2. O. O. 2. 15H-11,12-EETA. H. 2. O. O. 2. 11, ... L-Glutamic acid. 5,6-Epoxytetraene. 15(S)-HPETE. Glutathione. 15(S)-HETE. Oxidized glutathione. H. 2. O. δ-12-Prostaglandin J2 ... 11-Epi-PGF2a. NADP. Thromboxane A2. Prostaglandin E2. Prostaglandin F2a. NADPH. NADP. Prostaglandin A2. Prostaglandin-c2. ...
... arachidonic acid, cyclooxygenase, epoxyeicosatrienoic acid, extravascular lung water, microsomes, pulmonary vein, venous ... These findings parallel those reported for cyclooxygenase inhibition in ECV-induced ALI and suggest that an arachidonic acid ( ... These findings parallel those reported for cyclooxygenase inhibition in ECV-induced ALI and suggest that an arachidonic acid ( ... These findings parallel those reported for cyclooxygenase inhibition in ECV-induced ALI and suggest that an arachidonic acid ( ...
EETs are derived from arachidonic acid via P-450 epoxygenases and are cardioprotective. We tested the hypothesis that sEH ... EETs are derived from arachidonic acid via P-450 epoxygenases and are cardioprotective. We tested the hypothesis that sEH ... EETs are derived from arachidonic acid via P-450 epoxygenases and are cardioprotective. We tested the hypothesis that sEH ... EETs are derived from arachidonic acid via P-450 epoxygenases and are cardioprotective. We tested the hypothesis that sEH ...
With the exception of oleic acid (OLA), cis-monounsaturated FAs, and elaidic acid, the trans isomer of OLA, were poor ... EPA, OLA, linoleic acid (LNA), and the active saliva fraction were potent inhibitors of ADP-induced PA, EPA completely ... Eicosapentanoic acid (EPA) and 8,11,14-eicosatrienoic acid also deaggregated the PAF-induced aggregates. ... Human saliva fractionated by preparative thin layer chromatography (TLC) yielded a fraction that co-migrated with fatty acids ( ...
80 - the cardinal number that is the product of ten and eight
... including epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) and hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids. Here we report that 2-(14,15-epoxyeicosatrienoyl) ... including epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) and hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids. Here we report that 2-(14,15-epoxyeicosatrienoyl) ... including epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) and hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids. Here we report that 2-(14,15-epoxyeicosatrienoyl) ... including epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) and hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids. Here we report that 2-(14,15-epoxyeicosatrienoyl) ...
... docosatrienoic acid which could result from fatty acid elongation following reduction of the 10,11-double bond. Additional ... The most lipophilic metabolite of LTB4 was identified as 10-hydroxy-4,6,12-octadecatrienoic acid which could result from beta- ... These were characterized using fast atom bombardment-mass spectrometry and by chemical degradation using hypochlorous acid as ... The previously identified 10,11-dihydro-LTB4 and 10,11-dihydro-12-epi-LTB4 were observed as well as 20-OH-10,11-dihydro-LTB4, ...
18:3 GAMMA LINOLENIC,12:0 LAURIC,22:0 BEHENIC,16:0 PALMITIC,20:1 EICOSENOIC,24:1 NERVONIC,20:3 EICOSATRIENOIC,8:0 CAPRYLIC,16:1 ... Fatty acid methyl esters/GCMS. FA0014. AOCS Official Method Ba 3-38/ Ac 3-44/Ce 1k-09/Ce 2-66. 18:3 GAMMA LINOLENIC,16:3 ... AOCS Official Method Ce 1i-07/The Lipid Library: Mass Spectrometry of Fatty Acid Derivatives: Preparation of Methyl Esters: www ... 18:3 GAMMA LINOLENIC,12:0 LAURIC,22:0 BEHENIC,20:1 EICOSENOIC,16:0 PALMITIC,20:3 EICOSATRIENOIC,8:0 CAPRYLIC,16:1 PALMITOLEIC, ...
Omega-3 Fatty Acids are a group of fatty acids, which have the first unsaturated bond in the third position from the omega ... 17-eicosatrienoic acid. *Eicosatetraenoic acid (ETA) is a lipid 20:4 (n-3) with the chemical name: all-cis-8,11,14,17- ... Omega-3 Fatty Acids. "Omega-3 Fatty Acids (n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids)" Omega-3 Fatty Acids. In lipid science, Omega-3 ... Fatty Acids and Conjugates [FA01]. ⌊Unsaturated Fatty Acids [FA0103]. ⌊Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFAs). ⌊Omega-3 Fatty ...
99mTc-Dimercaptosuccinic Acid use Technetium Tc 99m Dimercaptosuccinic Acid 99mTc-DMSA use Technetium Tc 99m Dimercaptosuccinic ... 2-Amino-5-phosphonovaleric Acid use 2-Amino-5-phosphonovalerate 2-Amino-6-(1,2,3-trihydroxypropyl)-4(3H)-pteridinone use ... 3-Pyridinecarboxylic acid, 1,4-dihydro-2,6-dimethyl-5-nitro-4-(2-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-, Methyl ester ... 12-S-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic Acid use 12-Hydroxy-5.8,10,14-eicosatetraenoic Acid ...
... octadecanoic acid (11.25%), pentadecane carboxylic acid (10.69%), 9, 12, 15-octadecatrien-1-ol (8.12%) and ethyl palmitate ( ... hexadecanoic acid (12.49%), 2-butanone (14.32%), palmitadehyde (8.36%), 11-octadecenoic acid (5.56%), Z-4-nonadecen-1-ol- ... 7.68%) in the n-hexane fraction, while methanol fraction was observed to have 14 compounds with oleic acid (33.40%), ...
99mTc-Dimercaptosuccinic Acid use Technetium Tc 99m Dimercaptosuccinic Acid 99mTc-DMSA use Technetium Tc 99m Dimercaptosuccinic ... 2-Amino-5-phosphonovaleric Acid use 2-Amino-5-phosphonovalerate 2-Amino-6-(1,2,3-trihydroxypropyl)-4(3H)-pteridinone use ... 3-Pyridinecarboxylic acid, 1,4-dihydro-2,6-dimethyl-5-nitro-4-(2-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-, Methyl ester ... 12-S-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic Acid use 12-Hydroxy-5.8,10,14-eicosatetraenoic Acid ...
99mTc-Dimercaptosuccinic Acid use Technetium Tc 99m Dimercaptosuccinic Acid 99mTc-DMSA use Technetium Tc 99m Dimercaptosuccinic ... 2-Amino-5-phosphonovaleric Acid use 2-Amino-5-phosphonovalerate 2-Amino-6-(1,2,3-trihydroxypropyl)-4(3H)-pteridinone use ... 3-Pyridinecarboxylic acid, 1,4-dihydro-2,6-dimethyl-5-nitro-4-(2-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-, Methyl ester ... 12-S-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic Acid use 12-Hydroxy-5.8,10,14-eicosatetraenoic Acid ...
99mTc-Dimercaptosuccinic Acid use Technetium Tc 99m Dimercaptosuccinic Acid 99mTc-DMSA use Technetium Tc 99m Dimercaptosuccinic ... 2-Amino-5-phosphonovaleric Acid use 2-Amino-5-phosphonovalerate 2-Amino-6-(1,2,3-trihydroxypropyl)-4(3H)-pteridinone use ... 3-Pyridinecarboxylic acid, 1,4-dihydro-2,6-dimethyl-5-nitro-4-(2-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-, Methyl ester ... 12-S-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic Acid use 12-Hydroxy-5.8,10,14-eicosatetraenoic Acid ...
99mTc-Dimercaptosuccinic Acid use Technetium Tc 99m Dimercaptosuccinic Acid 99mTc-DMSA use Technetium Tc 99m Dimercaptosuccinic ... 2-Amino-5-phosphonovaleric Acid use 2-Amino-5-phosphonovalerate 2-Amino-6-(1,2,3-trihydroxypropyl)-4(3H)-pteridinone use ... 3-Pyridinecarboxylic acid, 1,4-dihydro-2,6-dimethyl-5-nitro-4-(2-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-, Methyl ester ... 12-S-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic Acid use 12-Hydroxy-5.8,10,14-eicosatetraenoic Acid ...
99mTc-Dimercaptosuccinic Acid use Technetium Tc 99m Dimercaptosuccinic Acid 99mTc-DMSA use Technetium Tc 99m Dimercaptosuccinic ... 2-Amino-5-phosphonovaleric Acid use 2-Amino-5-phosphonovalerate 2-Amino-6-(1,2,3-trihydroxypropyl)-4(3H)-pteridinone use ... 3-Pyridinecarboxylic acid, 1,4-dihydro-2,6-dimethyl-5-nitro-4-(2-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-, Methyl ester ... 12-S-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic Acid use 12-Hydroxy-5.8,10,14-eicosatetraenoic Acid ...
99mTc-Dimercaptosuccinic Acid use Technetium Tc 99m Dimercaptosuccinic Acid 99mTc-DMSA use Technetium Tc 99m Dimercaptosuccinic ... 2-Amino-5-phosphonovaleric Acid use 2-Amino-5-phosphonovalerate 2-Amino-6-(1,2,3-trihydroxypropyl)-4(3H)-pteridinone use ... 3-Pyridinecarboxylic acid, 1,4-dihydro-2,6-dimethyl-5-nitro-4-(2-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-, Methyl ester ... 12-S-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic Acid use 12-Hydroxy-5.8,10,14-eicosatetraenoic Acid ...
99mTc-Dimercaptosuccinic Acid use Technetium Tc 99m Dimercaptosuccinic Acid 99mTc-DMSA use Technetium Tc 99m Dimercaptosuccinic ... 2-Amino-5-phosphonovaleric Acid use 2-Amino-5-phosphonovalerate 2-Amino-6-(1,2,3-trihydroxypropyl)-4(3H)-pteridinone use ... 3-Pyridinecarboxylic acid, 1,4-dihydro-2,6-dimethyl-5-nitro-4-(2-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-, Methyl ester ... 12-S-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic Acid use 12-Hydroxy-5.8,10,14-eicosatetraenoic Acid ...
99mTc-Dimercaptosuccinic Acid use Technetium Tc 99m Dimercaptosuccinic Acid 99mTc-DMSA use Technetium Tc 99m Dimercaptosuccinic ... 2-Amino-5-phosphonovaleric Acid use 2-Amino-5-phosphonovalerate 2-Amino-6-(1,2,3-trihydroxypropyl)-4(3H)-pteridinone use ... 3-Pyridinecarboxylic acid, 1,4-dihydro-2,6-dimethyl-5-nitro-4-(2-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-, Methyl ester ... 12-S-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic Acid use 12-Hydroxy-5.8,10,14-eicosatetraenoic Acid ...
99mTc-Dimercaptosuccinic Acid use Technetium Tc 99m Dimercaptosuccinic Acid 99mTc-DMSA use Technetium Tc 99m Dimercaptosuccinic ... 2-Amino-5-phosphonovaleric Acid use 2-Amino-5-phosphonovalerate 2-Amino-6-(1,2,3-trihydroxypropyl)-4(3H)-pteridinone use ... 3-Pyridinecarboxylic acid, 1,4-dihydro-2,6-dimethyl-5-nitro-4-(2-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-, Methyl ester ... 12-S-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic Acid use 12-Hydroxy-5.8,10,14-eicosatetraenoic Acid ...
  • The epoxyeicosatrienoic acids or EETs are signaling molecules formed within various types of cells by the metabolism of arachidonic acid by a specific subset of Cytochrome P450 enzymes termed cytochrome P450 epoxygenases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Determination of the role of the EETS in human diseases is made particularly difficult because of the large number of EET-forming epoxygenases, large number of epoxygenase substrates other than arachidonic acid, and the large number of activities, some of which may be pathological or injurious, that the EETs possess. (wikipedia.org)
  • EETS are epoxide eicosatrienoic acid metabolites of arachidonic acid (a straight chain eicosatetraenoic acid, omega-6 fatty acid). (wikipedia.org)
  • Arachidonic acid has 4 cis double bonds (see cis-trans isomerism which are abbreviated with the notation Z in the IUPAC chemical nomenclature used here. (wikipedia.org)
  • for example, cytochrome P450 epoxidases metabolize arachidonic acid to a mixture of 14R,15S-EET and 14S,15R-EET. (wikipedia.org)
  • only a relatively few of the active CYP genes code for EET-forming epoxygenases, i.e. protein enzymes with the capacity to attach atomic oxygen (see allotropes of oxygen#atomic oxygen) to the carbon-carbon double bonds of unsaturated long chain fatty acids such as arachidonic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • The CYP epoxygenases can epoxidize any of the double bounds in arachidonic acid but most of them are relatively selective in that they make appreciable amounts of only one or two EETs with 11,12-EET and 14,15-EET accounting for 67-80% of the product made by the cited CYP epoxidases as well as the main EETs made by mammalian tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • The eicosanoids derived from Arachidonic Acid, may be potentially harmful if excessive amounts build up in the body. (wellnessadvantage.com)
  • In organic chemistry, Leukotrienes are a subclass of organic compounds in the eicosanoids subclass of the fatty acyl class [FA class] within the lipids superclass , consisting of eicosanoids containing a hydroxyl group attached to the aliphatic chain of an arachidonic acid. (wellnessadvantage.com)
  • Leukotrienes may be derived from arachidonic acid by oxidative metabolism through the 5-lipoxygenase pathway. (wellnessadvantage.com)
  • These findings parallel those reported for cyclooxygenase inhibition in ECV-induced ALI and suggest that an arachidonic acid (AA) metabolite of pulmonary cytochrome P-450 activity may mediate the increase in venous admixture of ALI. (elsevierpure.com)
  • EETs are derived from arachidonic acid via P-450 epoxygenases and are cardioprotective. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Arachidonic acid is an essential constituent of cell membranes that is esterified to the sn-2 position of glycerophospholipids and is released from selected phospholipid pools by tightly regulated phospholipase cleavage. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Metabolism of the released arachidonic acid by the cytochrome P450 enzyme system (cP450) generates biologically active compounds, including epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) and hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids. (elsevierpure.com)
  • The identified differential metabolites included arachidonic acid derivatives, omega-3 fatty acids, omega-6 fatty acids, and omega-9 fatty acids that were related to unsaturated fatty acid metabolism, which plays a role in the inflammatory responses. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Gramlich L, Meddings L, Alberda C, Wichansawakun S, Robbins S, Driscoll D, Bistrian B. Essential Fatty Acid Deficiency in 2015: The Impact of Novel Intravenous Lipid Emulsions. (umassmed.edu)
  • In biochemistry and nutrition, a polyunsaturated fat is a fat that contains a polyunsaturated fatty acid (abbreviated PUFA ), which is a subclass of fatty acid characterized by a backbone with two or more carbon-carbon double bonds . (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemical structure of the polyunsaturated fatty acid linoleic acid . (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemical structure of α-linolenic acid (ALA), an essential omega−3 fatty acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • The illustration below shows the omega-6 fatty acid, linoleic acid . (wikipedia.org)
  • Key enzymes are called fatty acid desaturases , which introduce additional double bonds. (wikipedia.org)
  • More importantly, this finding shattered a dogma of the time that held that fatty acids played only structural roles in cells, thus opening the way for discovery of the many other important bioactive fatty acid-derived products. (jci.org)
  • It is said an essential fatty acid for animals. (gerli.com)
  • This fatty acid is available from some seed oils from several plant families. (gerli.com)
  • One of the most abundant metabolites was characterized as 3,7,14-trihydroxy-8,10,16- docosatrienoic acid which could result from fatty acid elongation following reduction of the 10,11-double bond. (wikigenes.org)
  • In nature, Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is a C22- polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) produced by algae, found predominantly in animals who eat algae in their food chain. (wellnessadvocate.com)
  • In our body, Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) , a dietary essential omega-3 fatty acid, found most abundant in the brain and retina, is a major fatty acid component of the neuronal membrane, concentrated in membrane phospholipids at synapses, and in retinal photoreceptors, that may be derived metabolically from EPA. (wellnessadvocate.com)
  • In our body, the omega-3 fatty acid, Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA) may act as a precursor for Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) , prostaglandin-3, thromboxane-3, leukotriene-5 groups, and all eicosanoids, with a broad range of potentially beneficial cardiovascular effects. (wellnessadvocate.com)
  • In lipid science, alpha-Linolenic Acid (ALA) , is an unsaturated omega-3 fatty acid. (wellnessadvocate.com)
  • et al "GPR120 is an omega-3 fatty acid receptor mediating potent anti-inflammatory and insulin-sensitizing effects" Cell. (wellnessadvocate.com)
  • et al "Microalgal biofactories: a promising approach towards sustainable omega-3 fatty acid production" Microb Cell Fact. (wellnessadvocate.com)
  • Membrane proteins implicated in long-chain fatty acid uptake by mammalian cells: CD36, FATP and FABPm. (springer.com)
  • A fatty acid is a subunit of fats, oils, and waxes. (careomnia.com)
  • This trial suggests fish-oil supplementation could mitigate the PM 2.5 -induced inflammatory responses via modulating fatty acid metabolism, providing biological plausibility for the health benefits of fish-oil supplementation against PM 2.5 exposure. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In living organisms, polyunsaturated fatty acids, more than other lipids, are affected by lipid peroxidation , which is the chain of reactions that leads to the oxidative degradation of lipids. (wikipedia.org)
  • In lipid science , Eicosanoids are a subclass of organic compounds in the fatty acyl class [FA class] of the lipids superclass generally derived from unsaturated C20 fatty acids or skeletally related compounds, that have hormone-like effects ( autacoid effects , mediated by specialized eicosanoid receptors ). (wellnessadvantage.com)
  • Your skin barrier becomes weaker and y our skin makes less lipids, fatty acids, vitamins and antioxidants. (dryskinlove.com)
  • Plants produce PUFAs from oleic acid . (wikipedia.org)
  • Desaturases convert oleic acid into linolenic acid the precursor to alpha-linoenic acid , gamma-linolenic acid , and eicosatrienoic acid . (wikipedia.org)
  • et al "Docosahexaenoic acid supplementation of primary rat hippocampal neurons attenuates the neurotoxicity induced by aggregated amyloid beta protein(42) and up-regulates cytoskeletal protein expression" J Nutr Biochem. (wellnessadvocate.com)
  • et al "A role for docosahexaenoic acid-derived neuroprotectin D1 in neural cell survival and Alzheimer disease" J Clin Invest. (wellnessadvocate.com)
  • Fish oil is one of the common dietary supplements, with an abundance of long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids as the active ingredients, including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) [ 7 , 8 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The eicosanoid family encompasses thromboxanes, prostacyclins, leukotrienes, hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETEs), epoxyeicosatrienic acids (EETs), lipoxins, and isoprostanes, the last of which can be generated by nonenzymatic oxidative mechanisms and may serve as markers of oxidative stress in humans. (jci.org)
  • Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) metabolizes epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), primarily 14,15-EET. (elsevierpure.com)
  • These fatty acids (also called polyunsaturated fatty acids, PUFA) have 2 or more cis double bonds which are the most frequently separated from each other by a single methylene group ( methylene-interrupted polyenes ). (gerli.com)
  • Role of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on tumorigenesis. (springer.com)
  • 3D representation of linoleic acid in a bent conformation . (wikipedia.org)
  • Linoleic acid is a typical member of this group. (gerli.com)
  • Linoleic acid ( 18:2 n-6 ) is the most common polyunsaturated fatty acids, in plants and animal tissues. (gerli.com)
  • Linoleic acid is the precursor of all the (n-6) series formed by desaturation and elongation. (gerli.com)
  • Two trans isomers of linoleic acid have been detected in seed oils. (gerli.com)
  • We demonstrate that canine pulmonary microsomes metabolize [1- 14 C]AA to a variety of products, including the cytochrome P-450 metabolites 5,6-, 8,9-, 11,12-, and 14,15-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EET). (elsevierpure.com)
  • P, Cervenka L, Falck JR, Imig JD, Kompanowska-Jezierska E. Combined treatment with epoxyeicosatrienoic acid analog and 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid antagonist provides substantial hypotensive effect in spontaneously hypertensive rats. (uams.edu)
  • Epoxyeicosatrienoic acid analog EET-B attenuates post-myocardial infarction remodeling in spontaneously hypertensive rats. (uams.edu)
  • Epoxyeicosatrienoic acid analogue lowers blood pressure through vasodilation and sodium channel inhibition. (uams.edu)
  • and erucic acid 2-hydroxy-3-phosphonooxypropylester being excluded, and the physiologically tolerable salts, esters, optically active forms, and racemates of said compounds. (justia.com)
  • In fatty acids the carbon atom of the methyl group at the end of the hydrocarbon chain is called the omega carbon because omega is the last letter of the Greek alphabet. (wikipedia.org)
  • Omega-3 fatty acids have a double bond three carbons away from the methyl carbon, whereas omega-6 fatty acids have a double bond six carbons away from the methyl carbon. (wikipedia.org)
  • Herein, topically applied Podocarpus nagi methyl esters (containing 26% 5,11,14 20:3) were incorporated into mouse ear phospholipids, reduced 20:4n-6, and reduced 20:4n-6- and TPA-induced mouse ear edema. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Face oils that contain plant carrier oils are rich in fatty acids, squalene, vitamins and other bioactive compounds. (dryskinlove.com)
  • Polyunsaturated fatty acids in culinary oils undergo oxidative deterioration at temperatures of 150 °C (302 °F). The heating causes a free radical chain reaction, which oxidizes the PUFAs into hydroperoxide , which further decomposes into a complex mixture of secondary products. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some of these fatty acids are the 20-carbon essential Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFAs) AA, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) or DGLA. (wellnessadvantage.com)
  • In lipid science , Omega-3 Fatty Acids , aka ω−3 fatty acids or n−3 fatty acids , are fats in the polyunsaturated fat group (PUFAs) of unsaturated fatty acids , which have the first unsaturated bond in the third position (n-3) from the omega carbon. (wellnessadvocate.com)
  • These nonclassic eicosanoids are generally short-lived, being rapidly converted from epoxides to less active or inactive dihydroxy-eicosatrienoic acids (diHETrEs) by a widely distributed cellular enzyme, Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH), also termed Epoxide hydrolase 2. (wikipedia.org)
  • In our body, Eicosanoids are a family of signaling molecules (hormone-like substances) derived from the oxidation of twenty-carbon Essential Fatty Acids, (EFAs). (wellnessadvantage.com)
  • Changes in dietary fatty acids, specifically the polyunsaturated fatty acids of the ω-3 and ω-6 families and some derived eicosanoids from lipoxygenases, cyclooxygenases, and cytochrome P-450, seem to control the activity of transcription factor families involved in cancer cell proliferation or cell death. (springer.com)
  • Dietary fatty acids and membrane protein function. (springer.com)
  • There are 53 calories in Chicken Broilers Or Fryers Neck Meat And Skin Cooked Fried Batter coming from 24% protein, 11% carbs, 65% fat, and 0% alcohol. (myfooddata.com)
  • Cytochrome P450 epoxygenases attack these double bonds to form their respective eicosatrienoic acid epoxide regioisomers (see structural isomer, section on position isomerism (regioisomerism)) viz. (wikipedia.org)
  • The position of the carbon-carbon double bonds in carboxylic acid chains in fats is designated by Greek letters . (wikipedia.org)
  • The chain reaction mechanism of lipid peroxidation primarily targets polyunsaturated fatty acids due to their multiple double bonds and the presence of reactive hydrogen atoms in the methylene bridges (-CH2-) between these bonds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bergström stated in his 1982 Nobel lecture that, following the structural assignments of the six PGs, "These 20-carbon prostaglandins have cis -double bonds located as in certain essential fatty acids, when counting from the carboxyl. (jci.org)
  • Some other polyunsaturated fatty acids undergo a migration of one of their double bonds which are not again methylene-interrupted and are known as conjugated fatty acids . (gerli.com)
  • Some unusual fatty acids have not the regular structure with a methylene group between two double bonds but are polymethylene-interrupted polyenes (known also as non-methylene-interrupted fatty acids). (gerli.com)
  • Rare fatty acids have allenic double bonds . (gerli.com)
  • Below, as an example, we give the structure of a common polyene of the (n-3) series having the double bonds in the 5, 8, 11, 14, and 17 positions (eicosapentaenoic acid or osbond acid). (gerli.com)
  • Indeed, evidence obtained with isotopically labeled 20-carbon fatty acids incubated with sheep vesicular glands, an abundant source of PGs, confirmed this assumption. (jci.org)
  • Monounsaturated fatty acids are abundant in nature. (careomnia.com)
  • Uptake of long chain fatty acids is regulated by dynamic interaction of FAT/CD36 with cholesterol/sphingolipid enriched microdomains (lipid rafts). (springer.com)
  • The trans monounsaturated C20 species elaidic acid can be prepared in this way. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, in addition to the characterization of 2-14,15-EG's mitogenic activity and signaling mechanism, our study provides the first example that two structurally related biologically active lipid mediators can activate different metalloproteinases and release different EGFR ligands in the same cell type to activate EGFR and stimulate cell proliferation. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Lysophosphatidylic acid (LPA) is known to play a role as intracellular lipid messenger in various tissues and cell types (J. Biol. (justia.com)
  • Knowledge of the mechanisms by which fatty acids control specific gene expression may identify important risk factors for cancer and provide insight into the development of new therapeutic strategies for a better management of whole body lipid metabolism. (springer.com)
  • Secondly you'll find a lipid (fat) profile that shows you the content of saturated, mono-, and polyunsaturated fatty acids. (careomnia.com)
  • Project End cardiovascular lard:( used by enzyme): One of the most possible clinical levels of liver treatment proposes the lipid of other 4-D bronchi which as are to coronary region m. 8,11,14-eicosatrienoic birds 've that one of the strategies Pertaining compromised congestive heart by cytokine( EtOH) may form the recessive press of double-blind word( E-C) complement. (siriuspixels.com)
  • Polyunsaturated fatty acids are precursors to and are derived from polyunsaturated fats , which include drying oils . (wikipedia.org)
  • Our Apple Elixir 5% Vitamin E Face Oil is packed with nutrient-rich plant oils and 8 types of vitamin E - including tocopherols and tocotrienols. (dryskinlove.com)
  • Our Apple Elixir 5% Vitamin E Face Oil is packed with plant seed oils that contain beneficial fatty acids and vitamins that strengthen and repair your skin barrier and promote elasticity. (dryskinlove.com)
  • The essential fatty acids are all omega-3 and -6 methylene-interrupted fatty acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • 5,11,14 20:3 is similar to 20:4n-6 but lacks the internal Δ8 double bond essential for prostaglandin and eicosanoid synthesis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Essential fatty acids: biochemistry, physiology and pathology. (springer.com)
  • Can essential fatty acids reduce the burden of disease(s)? (springer.com)
  • In U. N. DAs (Ed.), Metabolic syndrome pathophysiology: the role of essential fatty acids (pp. 181-200). (springer.com)
  • Prostaglandins Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids, 75 (3), 197-202. (springer.com)
  • Adequate amounts of dietary fat is essential for health, but several of the saturated fatty acids might have health implications for us. (careomnia.com)
  • In the second part, I quote Arthur A. Spector and Hee-Yong Kim's excellent article, Discovery of essential fatty acids . (earthwormexpress.com)
  • The most important fatty acids can be grouped into 2 series with a common structural feature: CH 3 (CH 2 ) x CH=R . x=4 for the (n-6) series and x=1 for the (n-3) series and x=7 for the (n-9) series . (gerli.com)
  • Some rare fatty acids have other structural features. (gerli.com)