The physiologically active and stable hydrolysis product of EPOPROSTENOL. Found in nearly all mammalian tissue.
A stable, physiologically active compound formed in vivo from the prostaglandin endoperoxides. It is important in the platelet-release reaction (release of ADP and serotonin).
Physiologically active compounds found in many organs of the body. They are formed in vivo from the prostaglandin endoperoxides and cause platelet aggregation, contraction of arteries, and other biological effects. Thromboxanes are important mediators of the actions of polyunsaturated fatty acids transformed by cyclooxygenase.
A prostaglandin that is a powerful vasodilator and inhibits platelet aggregation. It is biosynthesized enzymatically from PROSTAGLANDIN ENDOPEROXIDES in human vascular tissue. The sodium salt has been also used to treat primary pulmonary hypertension (HYPERTENSION, PULMONARY).
(5Z)-(15S)-11 alpha-Hydroxy-9,15-dioxoprostanoate:NAD(P)+ delta(13)-oxidoreductase. An enzyme active in prostaglandin E and F catabolism. It catalyzes the reduction of the double bond at the 13-14 position of the 15-ketoprostaglandins and uses NADPH as cofactor. EC 1.3.1.48.
A group of compounds derived from unsaturated 20-carbon fatty acids, primarily arachidonic acid, via the cyclooxygenase pathway. They are extremely potent mediators of a diverse group of physiological processes.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Increased VASCULAR RESISTANCE in the PULMONARY CIRCULATION, usually secondary to HEART DISEASES or LUNG DISEASES.
A series of progressive, overlapping events, triggered by exposure of the PLATELETS to subendothelial tissue. These events include shape change, adhesiveness, aggregation, and release reactions. When carried through to completion, these events lead to the formation of a stable hemostatic plug.
The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.
Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.
A class of cyclic prostaglandins that contain the 6,9-epoxy bond. Endogenous members of this family are biosynthesized enzymatically from PROSTAGLANDIN ENDOPEROXIDES.

The cyclo-oxygenase-dependent regulation of rabbit vein contraction: evidence for a prostaglandin E2-mediated relaxation. (1/645)

1. Arachidonic acid (0.01-1 microM) induced relaxation of precontracted rings of rabbit saphenous vein, which was counteracted by contraction at concentrations higher than 1 microM. Concentrations higher than 1 microM were required to induce dose-dependent contraction of vena cava and thoracic aorta from the same animals. 2. Pretreatment with a TP receptor antagonist (GR32191B or SQ29548, 3 microM) potentiated the relaxant effect in the saphenous vein, revealed a vasorelaxant component in the vena cava response and did not affect the response of the aorta. 3. Removal of the endothelium from the venous rings, caused a 10 fold rightward shift in the concentration-relaxation curves to arachidonic acid. Whether or not the endothelium was present, the arachidonic acid-induced relaxations were prevented by indomethacin (10 microM) pretreatment. 4. In the saphenous vein, PGE2 was respectively a 50 and 100 fold more potent relaxant prostaglandin than PGI2 and PGD2. Pretreatment with the EP4 receptor antagonist, AH23848B, shifted the concentration-relaxation curves of this tissue to arachidonic acid in a dose-dependent manner. 5. In the presence of 1 microM arachidonic acid, venous rings produced 8-10 fold more PGE2 than did aorta whereas 6keto-PGF1alpha and TXB2 productions remained comparable. 6. Intact rings of saphenous vein relaxed in response to A23187. Pretreatment with L-NAME (100 microM) or indomethacin (10 microM) reduced this response by 50% whereas concomitant pretreatment totally suppressed it. After endothelium removal, the remaining relaxing response to A23187 was prevented by indomethacin but not affected by L-NAME. 7. We conclude that stimulation of the cyclo-oxygenase pathway by arachidonic acid induced endothelium-dependent, PGE2/EP4 mediated relaxation of the rabbit saphenous vein. This process might participate in the A23187-induced relaxation of the saphenous vein and account for a relaxing component in the response of the vena cava to arachidonic acid. It was not observed in thoracic aorta because of the lack of a vasodilatory receptor and/or the poorer ability of this tissue than veins to produce PGE2.  (+info)

Angiotensin II-induced constrictions are masked by bovine retinal vessels. (2/645)

PURPOSE: To unmask the vasoconstricting effect of angiotensin II (Ang II) on retinal smooth muscle by studying its interaction with endothelium-derived paracrine substances. This study focused specifically on determining the changes in vascular diameter and the release of endothelial-derived vasodilators, nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin (PG) I2, from isolated retinal microvessels. METHODS: Bovine retinal central artery and vein were cannulated, and arterioles and venules were perfused with oxygenated/heparinized physiological salt solution at 37 degrees C. This ex vivo perfused retinal microcirculation model was used to observe the contractile effects of Ang II on arterioles and venules of different diameters. The NO and PGI2 synthase inhibitors, 1-NOARG and flurbiprofen, respectively, were used to unmask Ang II vasoconstriction; the changes in vascular diameters were then measured. Enzyme immunoassays were used to measure the release of cGMP (an index of NO release) and 6-keto-PG-F1alpha (a stable metabolite of PGI2) from isolated bovine retinal vessels. RESULTS: Topically applied Ang II (10(-10) M to 10(-4) M) caused significant (P < 0.05) arteriolar and venular constrictions in a dose-dependent manner, with the smallest retinal arterioles (7+/-0.2 microm luminal diameter) and venules (12+/-2 microm luminal diameter) significantly more sensitive than larger vessels. After the inhibition of endogenous NO and PGI2 synthesis by 1-NOARG and flurbiprofen, respectively, the vasoconstriction effects of Ang II became more pronounced. Again, the smallest vessels tested were significantly more sensitive, and synthesis of endothelial-derived relaxing factor (EDRF), therefore, may be most important in these vessels. Vasoactive doses of Ang II (10(-10) M to 10(-4) M) caused a dose-dependent increase in the release of NO and PGI2 from isolated bovine retinal vessels, indicating that the increase in EDRF may nullify direct Ang II-induced vasoconstriction. Interestingly, intraluminal administration of Ang II caused only vasodilation. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that the retinal vascular endothelium acts as a buffer against the vasoconstricting agent Ang II via release of vasodilators NO and PGI2, and the vasoconstriction effects due to Ang II are most prominent in the smallest diameter vessels.  (+info)

Inhibitory effects of copper-aspirin complex on platelet aggregation. (3/645)

AIM: To study the inhibitory effects of copper-aspirin complex (CuAsp) on platelet aggregation. METHODS: With adenosine diphosphate the effects of CuAsp on platelet aggregation in vitro or in vivo were investigated. Radioimmunoassay and fluorophotometry were used to measure thromboxane B2 (TXB2) generation from platelets, the levels of TXB2 and of 6-keto-PGF1 alpha in plasma and the platelet serotonin release reaction. RESULTS: In vitro, CuAsp inhibited arachidonic acid (AA)-induced aggregation (IC50 = 17 mumol.L-1, 95% confidence limits: 9-33 mumol.L-1), the release of 5-HT (IC50 = 19 mumol.L-1, 95% confidence limits: 10-30 mumol.L-1), and TXB2 generation from platelets (P < 0.05). CuAsp 10 mg.kg-1 i.g. selectively inhibited AA-induced aggregation, and increased the 6-keto-PGF1 alpha concentration in plasma while decreased that of TXB2. CONCLUSION: CuAsp, in vitro or in vivo, shows more potent inhibitory effects on AA-induced aggregation than aspirin (Asp), related to the inhibition of platelet cyclooxygenase and the release of active substances from platelets.  (+info)

Prostacyclin synthase gene transfer accelerates reendothelialization and inhibits neointimal formation in rat carotid arteries after balloon injury. (4/645)

Prostacyclin (PGI2), a metabolite of arachidonic acid, has the vasoprotective effects of vasodilation, anti-platelet aggregation, and inhibition of smooth muscle cell proliferation. We hypothesized that an overexpression of endogenous PGI2 may accelerate the recovery from endothelial damage and inhibit neointimal formation in the injured artery. To test this hypothesis, we investigated in vivo transfer of the PGI2 synthase (PCS) gene into balloon-injured rat carotid arteries by a nonviral lipotransfection method. Seven days after transfection, a significant regeneration of endothelium was observed in the arteries transfected with a plasmid carrying the rat PCS gene (pCMV-PCS), but little regeneration was seen in those with the control plasmid carrying the lacZ gene (pCMV-lacZ) (percent luminal circumference lined by newly regenerated endothelium: 87. 1+/-6.9% in pCMV-PCS-transfected vessels and 6.9+/-0.2% in pCMV-lacZ vessels, P<0.001). BrdU staining of arterial segments demonstrated a significantly lower incorporation in pCMV-PCS-transfected vessels (7. 5+/-0.3% positive nuclei in vessel cells) than in pCMV-lacZ (50. 7+/-9.6%, P<0.01). Moreover, 2 weeks after transfection, the PCS gene transfer resulted in a significant inhibition of neointimal formation (88% reduction in ratio of intima/media areas), whereas medial area was similar among the groups. Arterial segments transfected with pCMV-PCS produced significantly higher levels of 6-keto-PGF1alpha, the main metabolite of PGI2, compared with the segments transfected with pCMV-lacZ (10.2+/-0.55 and 2.1+/-0.32 ng/mg tissue for pCMV-PCS and pCMV-placZ, P<0.001). In conclusion, this study demonstrated that an in vivo PCS gene transfer increased the production of PGI2 and markedly inhibited neointimal formation with accelerated reendothelialization in rat carotid arteries after balloon injury.  (+info)

Effects of specific inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 on sodium balance, hemodynamics, and vasoactive eicosanoids. (5/645)

Conventional nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs inhibit both cyclooxygenase (Cox) isoforms (Cox-1 and Cox-2) and may be associated with nephrotoxicity. The present study was undertaken to assess the renal effects of the specific Cox-2 inhibitor, MK-966. Healthy older adults (n = 36) were admitted to a clinical research unit, placed on a fixed sodium intake, and randomized under double-blind conditions to receive the specific Cox-2 inhibitor, MK-966 (50 mg every day), a nonspecific Cox-1/Cox-2 inhibitor, indomethacin (50 mg t.i.d.), or placebo for 2 weeks. All treatments were well tolerated. Both active regimens were associated with a transient but significant decline in urinary sodium excretion during the first 72 h of treatment. Blood pressure and body weight did not change significantly in any group. The glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was decreased by indomethacin but was not changed significantly by MK-966 treatment. Thromboxane biosynthesis by platelets was inhibited by indomethacin only. The urinary excretion of the prostacyclin metabolite 2,3-dinor-6-keto prostaglandin F1alpha was decreased by both MK-966 and indomethacin and was unchanged by placebo. Cox-2 may play a role in the systemic biosynthesis of prostacyclin in healthy humans. Selective inhibition of Cox-2 by MK-966 caused a clinically insignificant and transient retention of sodium, but no depression of GFR. Inhibition of both Cox isoforms by indomethacin caused transient sodium retention and a decline in GFR. Our data suggest that acute sodium retention by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in healthy elderly subjects is mediated by the inhibition of Cox-2, whereas depression of GFR is due to inhibition of Cox-1.  (+info)

In vitro prostanoid release from spinal cord following peripheral inflammation: effects of substance P, NMDA and capsaicin. (6/645)

1. Spinal prostanoids are implicated in the development of thermal hyperalgesia after peripheral injury, but the specific prostanoid species that are involved are presently unknown. The current study used an in vitro spinal superfusion model to investigate the effect of substance P (SP), N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA), and capsaicin on multiple prostanoid release from dorsal spinal cord of naive rats as well as rats that underwent peripheral injury and inflammation (knee joint kaolin/carrageenan). 2. In naive rat spinal cords, PGE2 and 6-keto-PGF1alpha, but not TxB2, levels were increased after inclusion of SP, NMDA, or capsaicin in the perfusion medium. 3. Basal PGE2 levels from spinal cords of animals that underwent 5-72 h of peripheral inflammation were elevated relative to age-matched naive cohorts. The time course of this increase in basal PGE2 levels coincided with peripheral inflammation, as assessed by knee joint circumference. Basal 6-keto-PGF1alpha levels were not elevated after injury. 4. From this inflammation-evoked increase in basal PGE2 levels, SP and capsaicin significantly increased spinal PGE2 release in a dose-dependent fashion. Capsaicin-evoked increases were blocked dose-dependently by inclusion of S(+) ibuprofen in the capsaicin-containing perfusate. 5. These data suggest a role for spinal PGE2 and NK-1 receptor activation in the development of hyperalgesia after injury and demonstrate that this relationship is upregulated in response to peripheral tissue injury and inflammation.  (+info)

Effects of dl-3-n-butylphthalide on production of TXB2 and 6-keto-PGF1 alpha in rat brain during focal cerebral ischemia and reperfusion. (7/645)

AIM: To study the effects of dl-3-n-butylphthalide (NBP) on the changes of thromboxane B2 (TXB2) and 6-keto-PGF1 alpha (6-keto-PGF1 alpha) contents in hippocampus, striatum, and cerebral cortex of rats subjected to focal cerebral ischemia followed by reperfusion. METHODS: Focal cerebral ischemia was induced by inserting a nylon suture into intracranial segment of internal carotid artery from external carotid artery and blockade of the origin of middle cerebral artery. For reperfusion, the suture was pulled out to restore the blood flow to the ischemic brain. Determination of TXB2 and 6-keto-PGF1 alpha was performed by RIA method. RESULTS: Reperfusion following focal cerebral ischemia resulted in increases in TXB2 at 5 min and 6-keto-PGF1 alpha at 30 min and a decrease in the ratio of epoprostenol (PGI2)/thromboxane A2 (TXA2) (6-keto-PGF1 alpha/TXB2) at 5 min in hippocampus, striatum, and cerebral cortex. NBP 10 mg.kg-1 reduced the content of TXB2 without decreasing effect on 6-keto-PGF1 alpha. NBP 20 mg.kg-1 reduced both TXB2 and 6-keto-PGF1 alpha in lesser extent than aspirin (Asp, 20 mg.kg-1). NBP 20 or 10 mg.kg-1 elevated the ratio of PGI2/TXA2 after reperfusion, but Asp 20 mg.kg-1 did not increase the ratio except in striatum at 5 min after reperfusion. CONCLUSION: NBP increases the ratio of PGI2/TXA2 which may have beneficial effects on the impaired microcirculation in postischemic brain tissues.  (+info)

Effects of recombinant human endothelial-derived interleukin-8 on hemorrhagic shock in rats. (8/645)

AIM: To study the effects of recombinant human endothelial-derived interleukin-8 (IL-8) on hemorrhagic shock. METHODS: A profound hemorrhagic shock in rats was produced by exsanguination from femoral artery with mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) maintained at 5.32 kPa for 90 min. After transfusion, IL-8 250 micrograms.kg-1 was i.v. injected. Plasma endothelin-1 (ET-1) and 6 ketoprostaglandin F1 alpha (6-KPGF1 alpha) contents were determined with radioimmunoassay. RESULTS: After i.v. IL-8, the MABP in IL-8 group was elevated obviously (P < 0.01), the rat survival 2 h after infusion was increased (P < 0.05). During profound shock the plasma ET-1 levels were higher (21 +/- 4 vs 8.2 +/- 1.8 ng.L-1, P < 0.01) and the plasma 6-KPGF1 alpha contents lower than those in normal rats (107 +/- 12 vs 157 +/- 11 ng.L-1, P < 0.01). IL-8 remarkably reduced the plasma ET-1 levels (10 +/- 4 ng.L-1, P < 0.01) and enhanced plasma 6-KPGF1 alpha contents (368 +/- 16 ng.L-1, P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: IL-8 has beneficial antishock effects.  (+info)

6-Ketoprostaglandin F1 alpha, also known as prostaglandin H1A, is a stable metabolite of prostaglandin F2alpha (PGF2alpha). It is a type of eicosanoid, which is a signaling molecule made by the enzymatic or non-enzymatic oxidation of arachidonic acid or other polyunsaturated fatty acids. Prostaglandins are a subclass of eicosanoids and have diverse hormone-like effects in various tissues, including smooth muscle contraction, vasodilation, and modulation of inflammation.

6-Ketoprostaglandin F1 alpha is formed by the oxidation of PGF2alpha by 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH), an enzyme that metabolizes prostaglandins and thromboxanes. It has been used as a biomarker for the measurement of PGF2alpha production in research settings, but it does not have any known physiological activity.

Thromboxane B2 (TXB2) is a stable metabolite of thromboxane A2 (TXA2), which is a potent vasoconstrictor and platelet aggregator synthesized by activated platelets. TXA2 has a very short half-life, quickly undergoing spontaneous conversion to the more stable TXB2.

TXB2 itself does not have significant biological activity but serves as a marker for TXA2 production in various physiological and pathophysiological conditions, such as thrombosis, inflammation, and atherosclerosis. It can be measured in blood or other bodily fluids to assess platelet activation and the status of hemostatic and inflammatory processes.

Thromboxanes are a type of lipid compound that is derived from arachidonic acid, a type of fatty acid found in the cell membranes of many organisms. They are synthesized in the body through the action of an enzyme called cyclooxygenase (COX).

Thromboxanes are primarily produced by platelets, a type of blood cell that plays a key role in clotting. Once formed, thromboxanes act as powerful vasoconstrictors, causing blood vessels to narrow and blood flow to decrease. They also promote the aggregation of platelets, which can lead to the formation of blood clots.

Thromboxanes are involved in many physiological processes, including hemostasis (the process by which bleeding is stopped) and inflammation. However, excessive production of thromboxanes has been implicated in a number of pathological conditions, such as heart attacks, strokes, and pulmonary hypertension.

There are several different types of thromboxanes, including thromboxane A2 (TXA2) and thromboxane B2 (TXB2). TXA2 is the most biologically active form and has a very short half-life, while TXB2 is a more stable metabolite that can be measured in the blood to assess thromboxane production.

Epoprostenol is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called prostaglandins. It is a synthetic analog of a natural substance in the body called prostacyclin, which widens blood vessels and has anti-platelet effects. Epoprostenol is used to treat pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), a condition characterized by high blood pressure in the arteries that supply blood to the lungs.

Epoprostenol works by relaxing the smooth muscle in the walls of the pulmonary arteries, which reduces the resistance to blood flow and lowers the pressure within these vessels. This helps improve symptoms such as shortness of breath, fatigue, and chest pain, and can also prolong survival in people with PAH.

Epoprostenol is administered continuously through a small pump that delivers the medication directly into the bloodstream. It is a potent vasodilator, which means it can cause a sudden drop in blood pressure if not given carefully. Therefore, it is usually started in a hospital setting under close medical supervision.

Common side effects of epoprostenol include headache, flushing, jaw pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and muscle or joint pain. More serious side effects can include bleeding, infection at the site of the catheter, and an allergic reaction to the medication.

15-Oxoprostaglandin 13-Reductase is an enzyme that catalyzes the reduction of 15-keto prostaglandins to 13,14-dihydro-15-keto prostaglandins. This enzyme plays a role in the metabolism and deactivation of prostaglandins, which are hormone-like substances that are involved in various physiological processes such as inflammation, blood flow regulation, and labor induction. The reduction of 15-keto prostaglandins to 13,14-dihydro-15-keto prostaglandins by 15-Oxoprostaglandin 13-Reductase results in the loss of biological activity of these prostaglandins.

Prostaglandins are naturally occurring, lipid-derived hormones that play various important roles in the human body. They are produced in nearly every tissue in response to injury or infection, and they have diverse effects depending on the site of release and the type of prostaglandin. Some of their functions include:

1. Regulation of inflammation: Prostaglandins contribute to the inflammatory response by increasing vasodilation, promoting fluid accumulation, and sensitizing pain receptors, which can lead to symptoms such as redness, heat, swelling, and pain.
2. Modulation of gastrointestinal functions: Prostaglandins protect the stomach lining from acid secretion and promote mucus production, maintaining the integrity of the gastric mucosa. They also regulate intestinal motility and secretion.
3. Control of renal function: Prostaglandins help regulate blood flow to the kidneys, maintain sodium balance, and control renin release, which affects blood pressure and fluid balance.
4. Regulation of smooth muscle contraction: Prostaglandins can cause both relaxation and contraction of smooth muscles in various tissues, such as the uterus, bronchioles, and vascular system.
5. Modulation of platelet aggregation: Some prostaglandins inhibit platelet aggregation, preventing blood clots from forming too quickly or becoming too large.
6. Reproductive system regulation: Prostaglandins are involved in the menstrual cycle, ovulation, and labor induction by promoting uterine contractions.
7. Neurotransmission: Prostaglandins can modulate neurotransmitter release and neuronal excitability, affecting pain perception, mood, and cognition.

Prostaglandins exert their effects through specific G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) found on the surface of target cells. There are several distinct types of prostaglandins (PGs), including PGD2, PGE2, PGF2α, PGI2 (prostacyclin), and thromboxane A2 (TXA2). Each type has unique functions and acts through specific receptors. Prostaglandins are synthesized from arachidonic acid, a polyunsaturated fatty acid derived from membrane phospholipids, by the action of cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as aspirin and ibuprofen, inhibit COX activity, reducing prostaglandin synthesis and providing analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic effects.

An encyclopedia is a comprehensive reference work containing articles on various topics, usually arranged in alphabetical order. In the context of medicine, a medical encyclopedia is a collection of articles that provide information about a wide range of medical topics, including diseases and conditions, treatments, tests, procedures, and anatomy and physiology. Medical encyclopedias may be published in print or electronic formats and are often used as a starting point for researching medical topics. They can provide reliable and accurate information on medical subjects, making them useful resources for healthcare professionals, students, and patients alike. Some well-known examples of medical encyclopedias include the Merck Manual and the Stedman's Medical Dictionary.

Pulmonary hypertension is a medical condition characterized by increased blood pressure in the pulmonary arteries, which are the blood vessels that carry blood from the right side of the heart to the lungs. This results in higher than normal pressures in the pulmonary circulation and can lead to various symptoms and complications.

Pulmonary hypertension is typically defined as a mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) greater than or equal to 25 mmHg at rest, as measured by right heart catheterization. The World Health Organization (WHO) classifies pulmonary hypertension into five groups based on the underlying cause:

1. Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH): This group includes idiopathic PAH, heritable PAH, drug-induced PAH, and associated PAH due to conditions such as connective tissue diseases, HIV infection, portal hypertension, congenital heart disease, and schistosomiasis.
2. Pulmonary hypertension due to left heart disease: This group includes conditions that cause elevated left atrial pressure, such as left ventricular systolic or diastolic dysfunction, valvular heart disease, and congenital cardiovascular shunts.
3. Pulmonary hypertension due to lung diseases and/or hypoxia: This group includes chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), interstitial lung disease, sleep-disordered breathing, alveolar hypoventilation disorders, and high altitude exposure.
4. Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH): This group includes persistent obstruction of the pulmonary arteries due to organized thrombi or emboli.
5. Pulmonary hypertension with unclear and/or multifactorial mechanisms: This group includes hematologic disorders, systemic disorders, metabolic disorders, and other conditions that can cause pulmonary hypertension but do not fit into the previous groups.

Symptoms of pulmonary hypertension may include shortness of breath, fatigue, chest pain, lightheadedness, and syncope (fainting). Diagnosis typically involves a combination of medical history, physical examination, imaging studies, and invasive testing such as right heart catheterization. Treatment depends on the underlying cause but may include medications, oxygen therapy, pulmonary rehabilitation, and, in some cases, surgical intervention.

Platelet activation is the process by which platelets (also known as thrombocytes) become biologically active and change from their inactive discoid shape to a spherical shape with pseudopodia, resulting in the release of chemical mediators that are involved in hemostasis and thrombosis. This process is initiated by various stimuli such as exposure to subendothelial collagen, von Willebrand factor, or thrombin during vascular injury, leading to platelet aggregation and the formation of a platelet plug to stop bleeding. Platelet activation also plays a role in inflammation, immune response, and wound healing.

The pulmonary artery is a large blood vessel that carries deoxygenated blood from the right ventricle of the heart to the lungs for oxygenation. It divides into two main branches, the right and left pulmonary arteries, which further divide into smaller vessels called arterioles, and then into a vast network of capillaries in the lungs where gas exchange occurs. The thin walls of these capillaries allow oxygen to diffuse into the blood and carbon dioxide to diffuse out, making the blood oxygen-rich before it is pumped back to the left side of the heart through the pulmonary veins. This process is crucial for maintaining proper oxygenation of the body's tissues and organs.

Blood platelets, also known as thrombocytes, are small, colorless cell fragments in our blood that play an essential role in normal blood clotting. They are formed in the bone marrow from large cells called megakaryocytes and circulate in the blood in an inactive state until they are needed to help stop bleeding. When a blood vessel is damaged, platelets become activated and change shape, releasing chemicals that attract more platelets to the site of injury. These activated platelets then stick together to form a plug, or clot, that seals the wound and prevents further blood loss. In addition to their role in clotting, platelets also help to promote healing by releasing growth factors that stimulate the growth of new tissue.

Prostaglandin I (PGI) is a type of prostaglandin, which is a group of lipid compounds that are synthesized in the body from fatty acids and have various hormonal-like effects in the body. Specifically, PGI is also known as prostacyclin, and it is primarily produced by the endothelial cells that line the interior surface of blood vessels.

PGI has several important functions in the body, including:

1. Vasodilation: PGI causes blood vessels to dilate or widen, which helps to lower blood pressure and improve blood flow.
2. Inhibition of platelet aggregation: PGI inhibits the aggregation or clumping together of platelets in the blood, which helps to prevent blood clots from forming.
3. Anti-inflammatory effects: PGI has anti-inflammatory effects and can help to reduce inflammation in the body.

PGI is synthesized from arachidonic acid, a fatty acid that is released from cell membranes by the action of enzymes called phospholipases. Once arachidonic acid is released, it is converted into prostaglandin H2 (PGH2) by an enzyme called cyclooxygenase (COX). PGH2 is then further metabolized into PGI by the action of another enzyme called prostacyclin synthase.

PGI is rapidly broken down in the body and has a short half-life, which means that its effects are usually localized to the site where it is produced. However, abnormalities in PGI synthesis or activity have been implicated in several diseases, including pulmonary hypertension, atherosclerosis, and cancer.

PGI2 is derived from the ω-6 arachidonic acid. PGI3 is derived from the ω-3 EPA. Prostacyclin can be synthesized from the ... 6 April 2020. Retrieved 22 October 2020. "Flolan- epoprostenol sodium injection, powder, lyophilized, for solution Diluent- ... Even at physiological pH, prostacyclin can rapidly form the inactive hydration product 6-keto-prostaglandin F1α. As mentioned ... Johnson RA, Lincoln FH, Nidy EG, Schneider WP, Thompson JL, Axen U (1978). "Synthesis and characterization of prostacyclin, 6- ...
15-hydroxy-11 alpha,9 alpha-(epoxymethano)prosta-5,13-dienoic acid MeSH D10.251.355.255.100.637.100 - prostaglandins a MeSH ... 15-hydroxy-11 alpha,9 alpha-(epoxymethano)prosta-5,13-dienoic acid MeSH D10.251.355.255.550.100 - prostaglandins a MeSH D10.251 ... alpha-linolenic acid MeSH D10.251.355.450.450 - gamma-linolenic acid MeSH D10.251.355.840 - sorbic acid MeSH D10.251.355.920 - ... alpha-linolenic acid MeSH D10.251.355.310.640.425 - gamma-linolenic acid MeSH D10.251.355.325 - fatty acids, monounsaturated ...
15-hydroxy-11 alpha,9 alpha-(epoxymethano)prosta-5,13-dienoic acid MeSH D23.469.050.175.725.740 - prostaglandins a MeSH D23.469 ... 15-hydroxy-11 alpha,9 alpha-(epoxymethano)prosta-5,13-dienoic acid MeSH D23.469.700.645 - prostaglandins a, synthetic MeSH ... transforming growth factor alpha MeSH D23.348.479.992.720 - transforming growth factor beta MeSH D23.348.479.996 - wnt proteins ... alpha-fetoproteins MeSH D23.101.840.055 - antigens, cd30 MeSH D23.101.840.075 - antigens, tumor-associated, carbohydrate MeSH ...
PGI2 is derived from the ω-6 arachidonic acid. PGI3 is derived from the ω-3 EPA. Prostacyclin can be synthesized from the ... 6 April 2020. Retrieved 22 October 2020. "Flolan- epoprostenol sodium injection, powder, lyophilized, for solution Diluent- ... Even at physiological pH, prostacyclin can rapidly form the inactive hydration product 6-keto-prostaglandin F1α. As mentioned ... Johnson RA, Lincoln FH, Nidy EG, Schneider WP, Thompson JL, Axen U (1978). "Synthesis and characterization of prostacyclin, 6- ...
The increase in plasma 6-keto-prostaglandin F1 alpha concentration was associated with an increase in serum HDL2 cholesterol ... A tendency towards increased plasma 6-keto-prostaglandin F1 alpha concentration and decreased serum thromboxane B2 ...
F1-alpha. *6-ketoprostaglandin_F1alpha. *6-Keto-PGF1a. *6-oxoprostaglandin_F1alpha ...
Anti-8-epi-PGF2 Alpha Polyclonal Antibody. SKU: 8PG00-A100. $265.00. Add to cart ...
Arachidonic acid (AA), an ω-6 fatty acid, with 4 double bonds; *Dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA), an ω-6, with 3 double bonds ...
Transmissibility of live Mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccine strains ts-11 and 6/85 from vaccinated layer pullets to sentinel ... MeSH headings : 6-Ketoprostaglandin F1 alpha / biosynthesis; Animals; Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors / pharmacology; Endotoxemia / ...
161(6 Pt 1): 1528-31[Crossref]. * 87. Respondek M, Weil SR and Huhta JC.: Fetal echocardiography during indomethacin treatment ... Respir Res 2005, 6: 66. * 136. Smith DM and Dou QO.: Green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin inhibits DNA replication and ... J Am Coll Cardiol 1991, 18 (2): 532-6[Crossref]. * 84. Van den Hoff MJ, et al.: Increased cardiac workload by closure of the ... Semin Cancer Biol 2007, 17 (5): 370-6[Crossref]. * 126. Malik A, et al.: DNA degradation by water extract of green tea in the ...
... alpha 1-Antichymotrypsin D12.644.822.750.30 D12.776.645.750.30 alpha 1-Antitrypsin D12.644.822.750.35 D12.776.645.750.35 alpha- ... alpha-Fetoproteins D23.101.840.50 D23.101.140.50 alpha-Linolenic Acid D10.251.355.450.400 alpha-Tocopherol D3.830.219.909. ... 15-Hydroxy-11 alpha,9 alpha-(epoxymethano)prosta-5,13-dienoic Acid D2.737.637.650.500.500 D1.248.497.158.685.750.744.650. ... Steroid 12-alpha-Hydroxylase D8.811.682.690.708.783.730 Steroid 16-alpha-Hydroxylase D8.811.682.690.708.783.737 Steroid 17- ...
... alpha 1-Antichymotrypsin D12.644.822.750.30 D12.776.645.750.30 alpha 1-Antitrypsin D12.644.822.750.35 D12.776.645.750.35 alpha- ... alpha-Fetoproteins D23.101.840.50 D23.101.140.50 alpha-Linolenic Acid D10.251.355.450.400 alpha-Tocopherol D3.830.219.909. ... 15-Hydroxy-11 alpha,9 alpha-(epoxymethano)prosta-5,13-dienoic Acid D2.737.637.650.500.500 D1.248.497.158.685.750.744.650. ... Steroid 12-alpha-Hydroxylase D8.811.682.690.708.783.730 Steroid 16-alpha-Hydroxylase D8.811.682.690.708.783.737 Steroid 17- ...
... alpha 1-Antichymotrypsin D12.644.822.750.30 D12.776.645.750.30 alpha 1-Antitrypsin D12.644.822.750.35 D12.776.645.750.35 alpha- ... alpha-Fetoproteins D23.101.840.50 D23.101.140.50 alpha-Linolenic Acid D10.251.355.450.400 alpha-Tocopherol D3.830.219.909. ... 15-Hydroxy-11 alpha,9 alpha-(epoxymethano)prosta-5,13-dienoic Acid D2.737.637.650.500.500 D1.248.497.158.685.750.744.650. ... Steroid 12-alpha-Hydroxylase D8.811.682.690.708.783.730 Steroid 16-alpha-Hydroxylase D8.811.682.690.708.783.737 Steroid 17- ...
... alpha 1-Antichymotrypsin D12.644.822.750.30 D12.776.645.750.30 alpha 1-Antitrypsin D12.644.822.750.35 D12.776.645.750.35 alpha- ... alpha-Fetoproteins D23.101.840.50 D23.101.140.50 alpha-Linolenic Acid D10.251.355.450.400 alpha-Tocopherol D3.830.219.909. ... 15-Hydroxy-11 alpha,9 alpha-(epoxymethano)prosta-5,13-dienoic Acid D2.737.637.650.500.500 D1.248.497.158.685.750.744.650. ... Steroid 12-alpha-Hydroxylase D8.811.682.690.708.783.730 Steroid 16-alpha-Hydroxylase D8.811.682.690.708.783.737 Steroid 17- ...
... alpha 1-Antichymotrypsin D12.644.822.750.30 D12.776.645.750.30 alpha 1-Antitrypsin D12.644.822.750.35 D12.776.645.750.35 alpha- ... alpha-Fetoproteins D23.101.840.50 D23.101.140.50 alpha-Linolenic Acid D10.251.355.450.400 alpha-Tocopherol D3.830.219.909. ... 15-Hydroxy-11 alpha,9 alpha-(epoxymethano)prosta-5,13-dienoic Acid D2.737.637.650.500.500 D1.248.497.158.685.750.744.650. ... Steroid 12-alpha-Hydroxylase D8.811.682.690.708.783.730 Steroid 16-alpha-Hydroxylase D8.811.682.690.708.783.737 Steroid 17- ...
In parallel, LSB and LSC obviously down-regulated the levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and ... NF-κB inhibitor alpha (IκBα), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), extracellular signal- ... inhibitor of NF-κB alpha (IκBα), c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) p38, extracellular ... 6. Probing tissue transglutaminase mediated vascular smooth muscle cell aging using a novel transamidation-deficient Tgm2-C277S ...
The initial CRP was high; 6 g/dl. SGPT was normal; 40.2 U/L, SGOT was normal; 36 U/L, LDH was normal; 232 U/L, Serum creatinine ... It is augmented by catecholamine release [6,7]. It is a leading finding for the etiology [7]. A several recognizable causes has ... The Alcohol can be monitored by changes in plasma levels of prostanoids such as thromboxane, 6-keto prostaglandin F1 alpha, ... V1-6) with VR; 102 bpm. C. ECG tracing was done within 30 minutes of oxygen inhalation and 42 minutes of B. ECG tracing showing ...
Tumor necrosis factor-alpha - blood. Charakt. formalna: Zagraniczny artyku Charakt. merytoryczna: Praca oryginalna. J zyk ... alpha-2-antiplasmin - analysis. Charakt. formalna: Zagraniczny artyku Charakt. merytoryczna: Praca oryginalna. J zyk publikacji ... 6/87. Autorzy: Beata Zalewska-Szajda, Katarzyna Taranta-Janusz, Sylwia Chojnowska, Napoleon Waszkiewicz, Krzysztof Zwierz, Anna ... Szczeg y: 2007 : T. 82 nr 5-6, s. 408-413. Polskie s owa kluczowe: Oty o - epidemiologia ; Nadwaga ; Wska nik masy cia a ; ...
75; was OLEIC ACID 1963-74; RICINOLEIC ACIDS was see under FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED 1975-87, was RICINOLEIC ACID see under FATTY ACIDS 1963-74; SODIUM RICINOLEATE was see under SCLEROSING SOLUTIONS 1963- ...
F1 alpha, 6-Ketoprostaglandin use 6-Ketoprostaglandin F1 alpha F1 alpha, 6-Oxoprostaglandin use 6-Ketoprostaglandin F1 alpha ... Familial alpha Lipoprotein Deficiency Disease use Hypoalphalipoproteinemias Familial alpha-Lipoprotein Deficiency Disease use ...
F1 alpha use 6-Ketoprostaglandin F1 alpha. 6-Phosphofructo-2-kinase-fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase use Phosphofructokinase-2 ... 3-Keto-5-alpha-Steroid delta-4-Dehydrogenase use Testosterone 5-alpha-Reductase ... 15-Hydroxy-11 alpha,9 alpha-(epoxymethano)prosta-5,13-dienoic Acid ... 2H-Benzo(a)quinolizin-2-ol, 2-Ethyl-1,3,4,6,7,11b-hexahydro-3-isobutyl-9,10-dimethoxy- ...
3-Keto-5-alpha-Steroid delta-4-Dehydrogenase use 3-Oxo-5-alpha-Steroid 4-Dehydrogenase ... 5-alpha-Reductase, Testosterone use 3-Oxo-5-alpha-Steroid 4-Dehydrogenase ... 15-Hydroxy-11 alpha,9 alpha-(epoxymethano)prosta-5,13-dienoic Acid ... 6-Oxoprostaglandin F1 alpha use 6-Ketoprostaglandin F1 alpha 6-Phosphofructo-2-kinase-fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase use ...
3-Keto-5-alpha-Steroid delta-4-Dehydrogenase use 3-Oxo-5-alpha-Steroid 4-Dehydrogenase ... 5-alpha-Reductase, Testosterone use 3-Oxo-5-alpha-Steroid 4-Dehydrogenase ... 15-Hydroxy-11 alpha,9 alpha-(epoxymethano)prosta-5,13-dienoic Acid ... 6-Oxoprostaglandin F1 alpha use 6-Ketoprostaglandin F1 alpha 6-Phosphofructo-2-kinase-fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase use ...
F1 alpha use 6-Ketoprostaglandin F1 alpha. 6-Phosphofructo-2-kinase-fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase use Phosphofructokinase-2 ... 3-Keto-5-alpha-Steroid delta-4-Dehydrogenase use Testosterone 5-alpha-Reductase ... 15-Hydroxy-11 alpha,9 alpha-(epoxymethano)prosta-5,13-dienoic Acid ... 2H-Benzo(a)quinolizin-2-ol, 2-Ethyl-1,3,4,6,7,11b-hexahydro-3-isobutyl-9,10-dimethoxy- ...
F1 alpha use 6-Ketoprostaglandin F1 alpha. 6-Phosphofructo-2-kinase-fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase use Phosphofructokinase-2 ... 3-Keto-5-alpha-Steroid delta-4-Dehydrogenase use Testosterone 5-alpha-Reductase ... 15-Hydroxy-11 alpha,9 alpha-(epoxymethano)prosta-5,13-dienoic Acid ... 2H-Benzo(a)quinolizin-2-ol, 2-Ethyl-1,3,4,6,7,11b-hexahydro-3-isobutyl-9,10-dimethoxy- ...
F1 alpha use 6-Ketoprostaglandin F1 alpha. 6-Phosphofructo-2-kinase-fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase use Phosphofructokinase-2 ... 3-Keto-5-alpha-Steroid delta-4-Dehydrogenase use Testosterone 5-alpha-Reductase ... 15-Hydroxy-11 alpha,9 alpha-(epoxymethano)prosta-5,13-dienoic Acid ... 2H-Benzo(a)quinolizin-2-ol, 2-Ethyl-1,3,4,6,7,11b-hexahydro-3-isobutyl-9,10-dimethoxy- ...
Tags: 1995, 6-Ketoprostaglandin F1 alpha/metabolism, Analysis of Variance, Animals, Arginine Vasopressin/*pharmacology, Blood ...
3-Keto-5-alpha-Steroid delta-4-Dehydrogenase use Testosterone 5-alpha-Reductase ... 15-Hydroxy-11 alpha,9 alpha-(epoxymethano)prosta-5,13-dienoic Acid ... 2,6-Dichlorophenolindophenol use 2,6-Dichloroindophenol 3,5-Cyclic AMP 5-Nucleotidohydrolase use 3,5-Cyclic-AMP ... 6-Phosphofructo-2-Kinase use Phosphofructokinase-2 6-Phosphofructo-2-kinase-fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase use Phosphofructokinase ...
DZUXGQBLFALXCR-CDIPTNKSSA-N prostaglandin F1alpha Chemical compound CCCCC[C@H](O)\C=C\[C@H]1[C@H](O)C[C@H](O)[C@@H]1CCCCCCC(O)= ... Aqueous composition comprising 15-keto-prostaglandin for ophthalmic use US20090062381A1 (en) 2006-03-13. 2009-03-05. Ryu Hirata ... prostaglandin F2-alpha ... Family Cites Families (6). * Cited by examiner, † Cited by ... Aqueous composition comprising 15-keto-prostaglandin for ophthalmic use US20080181867A1 (en) 2006-12-21. 2008-07-31. Novagali ...
  • citation needed] Prostacyclin, which has a half-life of 42 seconds, is broken down into 6-keto-PGF1, which is a much weaker vasodilator. (wikipedia.org)
  • Even at physiological pH, prostacyclin can rapidly form the inactive hydration product 6-keto-prostaglandin F1α. (wikipedia.org)
  • Distribution of prostacyclin synthase, 6-ketoprostaglandin F1 alpha, and 15-hydroxy-prostaglandin dehydrogenase in the normal and persistent ductus arteriosus of the dog. (edu.pl)
  • A tendency towards increased plasma 6-keto-prostaglandin F1 alpha concentration and decreased serum thromboxane B2 concentration was found during the period of regular exercise, but prostaglandin E2 concentrations remained unchanged. (nih.gov)
  • The Alcohol can be monitored by changes in plasma levels of prostanoids such as thromboxane, 6-keto prostaglandin F1 alpha, catecholamines, serotonin, cyclic nucleotides such as cyclic adenosine monophosphate-cAMP, cyclic guanosine monophosphate-cGMP, and platelet aggregation post-alcohol [2]. (lupinepublishers.com)
  • 2018, Article ID 6187245, 6 pp. (edu.pl)
  • The increase in plasma 6-keto-prostaglandin F1 alpha concentration was associated with an increase in serum HDL2 cholesterol concentration in the group taking regular exercise. (nih.gov)
  • Furosemide increases urine 6-keto-prostaglandin F1 alpha. (musc.edu)
  • Although glutathione at concentrations up to 1 mM had no effect on explant function, glutathione did prevent the effects of cadmium on 6-keto-PGF1 alpha. (nih.gov)
  • 36. Effects of norepinephrine infusion on systemic hemodynamics and plasma 6-keto-prostaglandin F1 alpha in normotensive subjects and patients with essential hypertension. (nih.gov)
  • Following two 12-h exposures, 6-keto-PGF1 alpha production by placental explants was 74.8 and 39.9% of unexposed tissue values at 40 and 100 microM cadmium, respectively, with no significant effect on TxB2. (nih.gov)
  • The effect of glutathione on placental TxB2 and 6-keto-PGF1 alpha production was also examined. (nih.gov)
  • Endothelin administration plus nitric oxide inhibition reversed this effect, resulting in an increase in myeloperoxidase and 6-keto-prostaglandin F1alpha. (bvsalud.org)