6-Ketoprostaglandin F1 alpha: The physiologically active and stable hydrolysis product of EPOPROSTENOL. Found in nearly all mammalian tissue.Alligators and Crocodiles: Large, long-tailed reptiles, including caimans, of the order Loricata.Prostaglandins F: (9 alpha,11 alpha,13E,15S)-9,11,15-Trihydroxyprost-13-en-1-oic acid (PGF(1 alpha)); (5Z,9 alpha,11,alpha,13E,15S)-9,11,15-trihydroxyprosta-5,13-dien-1-oic acid (PGF(2 alpha)); (5Z,9 alpha,11 alpha,13E,15S,17Z)-9,11,15-trihydroxyprosta-5,13,17-trien-1-oic acid (PGF(3 alpha)). A family of prostaglandins that includes three of the six naturally occurring prostaglandins. All naturally occurring PGF have an alpha configuration at the 9-carbon position. They stimulate uterine and bronchial smooth muscle and are often used as oxytocics.Dinoprost: A naturally occurring prostaglandin that has oxytocic, luteolytic, and abortifacient activities. Due to its vasocontractile properties, the compound has a variety of other biological actions.Thromboxane B2: A stable, physiologically active compound formed in vivo from the prostaglandin endoperoxides. It is important in the platelet-release reaction (release of ADP and serotonin).Epoprostenol: A prostaglandin that is a powerful vasodilator and inhibits platelet aggregation. It is biosynthesized enzymatically from PROSTAGLANDIN ENDOPEROXIDES in human vascular tissue. The sodium salt has been also used to treat primary pulmonary hypertension (HYPERTENSION, PULMONARY).Prostaglandins: A group of compounds derived from unsaturated 20-carbon fatty acids, primarily arachidonic acid, via the cyclooxygenase pathway. They are extremely potent mediators of a diverse group of physiological processes.Deuterium: Deuterium. The stable isotope of hydrogen. It has one neutron and one proton in the nucleus.Lingual Frenum: MUCOUS MEMBRANE extending from floor of mouth to the under-surface of the tongue.Reptiles: Cold-blooded, air-breathing VERTEBRATES belonging to the class Reptilia, usually covered with external scales or bony plates.Testosterone: A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.Keto AcidsWest Indies: Islands lying between southeastern North America and northern South America, enclosing the Caribbean Sea. They comprise the Greater Antilles (CUBA; DOMINICAN REPUBLIC; HAITI; JAMAICA; and PUERTO RICO), the Lesser Antilles (ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA and the other Leeward Islands, BARBADOS; MARTINIQUE and the other Windward Islands, NETHERLANDS ANTILLES; VIRGIN ISLANDS OF THE UNITED STATES, BRITISH VIRGINI ISLANDS, and the islands north of Venezuela which include TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO), and the BAHAMAS. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1330)Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Boidae: A family of snakes comprising the boas, anacondas, and pythons. They occupy a variety of habitats through the tropics and subtropics and are arboreal, aquatic or fossorial (burrowing). Some are oviparous, others ovoviviparous. Contrary to popular opinion, they do not crush the bones of their victims: their coils exert enough pressure to stop a prey's breathing, thus suffocating it. There are five subfamilies: Boinae, Bolyerinae, Erycinae, Pythoninae, and Tropidophiinae. (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, p315-320)Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Thromboxane A2: An unstable intermediate between the prostaglandin endoperoxides and thromboxane B2. The compound has a bicyclic oxaneoxetane structure. It is a potent inducer of platelet aggregation and causes vasoconstriction. It is the principal component of rabbit aorta contracting substance (RCS).Thromboxanes: Physiologically active compounds found in many organs of the body. They are formed in vivo from the prostaglandin endoperoxides and cause platelet aggregation, contraction of arteries, and other biological effects. Thromboxanes are important mediators of the actions of polyunsaturated fatty acids transformed by cyclooxygenase.Thromboxane-A Synthase: An enzyme found predominantly in platelet microsomes. It catalyzes the conversion of PGG(2) and PGH(2) (prostaglandin endoperoxides) to thromboxane A2. EC 5.3.99.5.Receptors, Thromboxane: Cell surface proteins that bind THROMBOXANES with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Some thromboxane receptors act via the inositol phosphate and diacylglycerol second messenger systems.Receptors, Thromboxane A2, Prostaglandin H2: A subclass of eicosanoid receptors that have specificity for THROMBOXANE A2 and PROSTAGLANDIN H2.Platelet Aggregation: The attachment of PLATELETS to one another. This clumping together can be induced by a number of agents (e.g., THROMBIN; COLLAGEN) and is part of the mechanism leading to the formation of a THROMBUS.Prostaglandin Endoperoxides, Synthetic: Synthetic compounds that are analogs of the naturally occurring prostaglandin endoperoxides and that mimic their pharmacologic and physiologic activities. They are usually more stable than the naturally occurring compounds.15-Hydroxy-11 alpha,9 alpha-(epoxymethano)prosta-5,13-dienoic Acid: A stable prostaglandin endoperoxide analog which serves as a thromboxane mimetic. Its actions include mimicking the hydro-osmotic effect of VASOPRESSIN and activation of TYPE C PHOSPHOLIPASES. (From J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1983;224(1): 108-117; Biochem J 1984;222(1):103-110)Nifedipine: A potent vasodilator agent with calcium antagonistic action. It is a useful anti-anginal agent that also lowers blood pressure.Iothalamic Acid: A contrast medium in diagnostic radiology with properties similar to those of diatrizoic acid. It is used primarily as its sodium and meglumine (IOTHALAMATE MEGLUMINE) salts.Vascular Resistance: The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.Glomerular Filtration Rate: The volume of water filtered out of plasma through glomerular capillary walls into Bowman's capsules per unit of time. It is considered to be equivalent to INULIN clearance.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Plethysmography, Impedance: Recording changes in electrical impedance between electrodes placed on opposite sides of a part of the body, as a measure of volume changes in the path of the current. (Stedman, 25th ed)Cardiac Output: The volume of BLOOD passing through the HEART per unit of time. It is usually expressed as liters (volume) per minute so as not to be confused with STROKE VOLUME (volume per beat).Cardiography, Impedance: A type of impedance plethysmography in which bioelectrical impedance is measured between electrodes positioned around the neck and around the lower thorax. It is used principally to calculate stroke volume and cardiac volume, but it is also related to myocardial contractility, thoracic fluid content, and circulation to the extremities.Umbilical Arteries: Specialized arterial vessels in the umbilical cord. They carry waste and deoxygenated blood from the FETUS to the mother via the PLACENTA. In humans, there are usually two umbilical arteries but sometimes one.Authorship: The profession of writing. Also the identity of the writer as the creator of a literary production.Knowledge Bases: Collections of facts, assumptions, beliefs, and heuristics that are used in combination with databases to achieve desired results, such as a diagnosis, an interpretation, or a solution to a problem (From McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed).Single Umbilical Artery: Congenital abnormality where one, instead of the usual two, UMBILICAL ARTERY connects the fetus to the placenta.Ultrasonography, Prenatal: The visualization of tissues during pregnancy through recording of the echoes of ultrasonic waves directed into the body. The procedure may be applied with reference to the mother or the fetus and with reference to organs or the detection of maternal or fetal disease.Umbilical Veins: Venous vessels in the umbilical cord. They carry oxygenated, nutrient-rich blood from the mother to the FETUS via the PLACENTA. In humans, there is normally one umbilical vein.Ultrasonography, Doppler: Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with frequency-shifted ultrasound reflections produced by moving targets (usually red blood cells) in the bloodstream along the ultrasound axis in direct proportion to the velocity of movement of the targets, to determine both direction and velocity of blood flow. (Stedman, 25th ed)Fetal Growth Retardation: The failure of a FETUS to attain its expected FETAL GROWTH at any GESTATIONAL AGE.Placental Circulation: The circulation of BLOOD, of both the mother and the FETUS, through the PLACENTA.Arteries: The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.Fluorescein-5-isothiocyanate: Fluorescent probe capable of being conjugated to tissue and proteins. It is used as a label in fluorescent antibody staining procedures as well as protein- and amino acid-binding techniques.Dextrans: A group of glucose polymers made by certain bacteria. Dextrans are used therapeutically as plasma volume expanders and anticoagulants. They are also commonly used in biological experimentation and in industry for a wide variety of purposes.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Reperfusion Injury: Adverse functional, metabolic, or structural changes in ischemic tissues resulting from the restoration of blood flow to the tissue (REPERFUSION), including swelling; HEMORRHAGE; NECROSIS; and damage from FREE RADICALS. The most common instance is MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.Fluoresceins: A family of spiro(isobenzofuran-1(3H),9'-(9H)xanthen)-3-one derivatives. These are used as dyes, as indicators for various metals, and as fluorescent labels in immunoassays.Arterioles: The smallest divisions of the arteries located between the muscular arteries and the capillaries.Verapamil: A calcium channel blocker that is a class IV anti-arrhythmia agent.Microcirculation: The circulation of the BLOOD through the MICROVASCULAR NETWORK.Thiocyanates: Organic derivatives of thiocyanic acid which contain the general formula R-SCN.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Hemostasis: The process which spontaneously arrests the flow of BLOOD from vessels carrying blood under pressure. It is accomplished by contraction of the vessels, adhesion and aggregation of formed blood elements (eg. ERYTHROCYTE AGGREGATION), and the process of BLOOD COAGULATION.Blood Platelets: Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A: The original member of the family of endothelial cell growth factors referred to as VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTORS. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A was originally isolated from tumor cells and referred to as "tumor angiogenesis factor" and "vascular permeability factor". Although expressed at high levels in certain tumor-derived cells it is produced by a wide variety of cell types. In addition to stimulating vascular growth and vascular permeability it may play a role in stimulating VASODILATION via NITRIC OXIDE-dependent pathways. Alternative splicing of the mRNA for vascular endothelial growth factor A results in several isoforms of the protein being produced.Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors: A family of angiogenic proteins that are closely-related to VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR A. They play an important role in the growth and differentiation of vascular as well as lymphatic endothelial cells.Bleeding Time: Duration of blood flow after skin puncture. This test is used as a measure of capillary and platelet function.Platelet Adhesiveness: The process whereby PLATELETS adhere to something other than platelets, e.g., COLLAGEN; BASEMENT MEMBRANE; MICROFIBRILS; or other "foreign" surfaces.Endothelial Growth Factors: These growth factors are soluble mitogens secreted by a variety of organs. The factors are a mixture of two single chain polypeptides which have affinity to heparin. Their molecular weight are organ and species dependent. They have mitogenic and chemotactic effects and can stimulate endothelial cells to grow and synthesize DNA. The factors are related to both the basic and acidic FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTORS but have different amino acid sequences.Megakaryocytes: Very large BONE MARROW CELLS which release mature BLOOD PLATELETS.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Education, Graduate: Studies beyond the bachelor's degree at an institution having graduate programs for the purpose of preparing for entrance into a specific field, and obtaining a higher degree.History, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Literature, ModernAnthropology: The science devoted to the comparative study of man.Sexology: This discipline concerns the study of SEXUALITY, and the application of sexual knowledge such as sexual attitudes, psychology, and SEXUAL BEHAVIOR. Scope of application generally includes educational (SEX EDUCATION), clinical (SEX COUNSELING), and other settings.Embalming: Process of preserving a dead body to protect it from decay.Faculty: The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in an educational institution.Students: Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.History, 21st Century: Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.Proanthocyanidins: Dimers and oligomers of flavan-3-ol units (CATECHIN analogs) linked mainly through C4 to C8 bonds to leucoanthocyanidins. They are structurally similar to ANTHOCYANINS but are the result of a different fork in biosynthetic pathways.Grape Seed Extract: Exudate from seeds of the grape plant Vitis vinifera, composed of oils and secondary plant metabolites (BIOFLAVONOIDS and polyphenols) credited with important medicinal properties.Anthocyanins: A group of FLAVONOIDS derived from FLAVONOLS, which lack the ketone oxygen at the 4-position. They are glycosylated versions of cyanidin, pelargonidin or delphinidin. The conjugated bonds result in blue, red, and purple colors in flowers of plants.Catechin: An antioxidant flavonoid, occurring especially in woody plants as both (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin (cis) forms.Vaccinium macrocarpon: A plant species of the family VACCINIUM known for the sour fruit which is sometimes used for urinary tract infections.Vitis: A plant genus in the family VITACEAE, order Rhamnales, subclass Rosidae. It is a woody vine cultivated worldwide. It is best known for grapes, the edible fruit and used to make WINE and raisins.Biflavonoids: Dimers (homo and hetero) of FLAVONOIDS.Diospyros: A plant genus of the family EBENACEAE, order Ebenales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida best known for the edible fruit and the antibacterial activity and compounds of the wood.Flavonoids: A group of phenyl benzopyrans named for having structures like FLAVONES.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
(1/645) The cyclo-oxygenase-dependent regulation of rabbit vein contraction: evidence for a prostaglandin E2-mediated relaxation.

1. Arachidonic acid (0.01-1 microM) induced relaxation of precontracted rings of rabbit saphenous vein, which was counteracted by contraction at concentrations higher than 1 microM. Concentrations higher than 1 microM were required to induce dose-dependent contraction of vena cava and thoracic aorta from the same animals. 2. Pretreatment with a TP receptor antagonist (GR32191B or SQ29548, 3 microM) potentiated the relaxant effect in the saphenous vein, revealed a vasorelaxant component in the vena cava response and did not affect the response of the aorta. 3. Removal of the endothelium from the venous rings, caused a 10 fold rightward shift in the concentration-relaxation curves to arachidonic acid. Whether or not the endothelium was present, the arachidonic acid-induced relaxations were prevented by indomethacin (10 microM) pretreatment. 4. In the saphenous vein, PGE2 was respectively a 50 and 100 fold more potent relaxant prostaglandin than PGI2 and PGD2. Pretreatment with the EP4 receptor antagonist, AH23848B, shifted the concentration-relaxation curves of this tissue to arachidonic acid in a dose-dependent manner. 5. In the presence of 1 microM arachidonic acid, venous rings produced 8-10 fold more PGE2 than did aorta whereas 6keto-PGF1alpha and TXB2 productions remained comparable. 6. Intact rings of saphenous vein relaxed in response to A23187. Pretreatment with L-NAME (100 microM) or indomethacin (10 microM) reduced this response by 50% whereas concomitant pretreatment totally suppressed it. After endothelium removal, the remaining relaxing response to A23187 was prevented by indomethacin but not affected by L-NAME. 7. We conclude that stimulation of the cyclo-oxygenase pathway by arachidonic acid induced endothelium-dependent, PGE2/EP4 mediated relaxation of the rabbit saphenous vein. This process might participate in the A23187-induced relaxation of the saphenous vein and account for a relaxing component in the response of the vena cava to arachidonic acid. It was not observed in thoracic aorta because of the lack of a vasodilatory receptor and/or the poorer ability of this tissue than veins to produce PGE2.  (+info)

(2/645) Angiotensin II-induced constrictions are masked by bovine retinal vessels.

PURPOSE: To unmask the vasoconstricting effect of angiotensin II (Ang II) on retinal smooth muscle by studying its interaction with endothelium-derived paracrine substances. This study focused specifically on determining the changes in vascular diameter and the release of endothelial-derived vasodilators, nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin (PG) I2, from isolated retinal microvessels. METHODS: Bovine retinal central artery and vein were cannulated, and arterioles and venules were perfused with oxygenated/heparinized physiological salt solution at 37 degrees C. This ex vivo perfused retinal microcirculation model was used to observe the contractile effects of Ang II on arterioles and venules of different diameters. The NO and PGI2 synthase inhibitors, 1-NOARG and flurbiprofen, respectively, were used to unmask Ang II vasoconstriction; the changes in vascular diameters were then measured. Enzyme immunoassays were used to measure the release of cGMP (an index of NO release) and 6-keto-PG-F1alpha (a stable metabolite of PGI2) from isolated bovine retinal vessels. RESULTS: Topically applied Ang II (10(-10) M to 10(-4) M) caused significant (P < 0.05) arteriolar and venular constrictions in a dose-dependent manner, with the smallest retinal arterioles (7+/-0.2 microm luminal diameter) and venules (12+/-2 microm luminal diameter) significantly more sensitive than larger vessels. After the inhibition of endogenous NO and PGI2 synthesis by 1-NOARG and flurbiprofen, respectively, the vasoconstriction effects of Ang II became more pronounced. Again, the smallest vessels tested were significantly more sensitive, and synthesis of endothelial-derived relaxing factor (EDRF), therefore, may be most important in these vessels. Vasoactive doses of Ang II (10(-10) M to 10(-4) M) caused a dose-dependent increase in the release of NO and PGI2 from isolated bovine retinal vessels, indicating that the increase in EDRF may nullify direct Ang II-induced vasoconstriction. Interestingly, intraluminal administration of Ang II caused only vasodilation. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that the retinal vascular endothelium acts as a buffer against the vasoconstricting agent Ang II via release of vasodilators NO and PGI2, and the vasoconstriction effects due to Ang II are most prominent in the smallest diameter vessels.  (+info)

(3/645) Inhibitory effects of copper-aspirin complex on platelet aggregation.

AIM: To study the inhibitory effects of copper-aspirin complex (CuAsp) on platelet aggregation. METHODS: With adenosine diphosphate the effects of CuAsp on platelet aggregation in vitro or in vivo were investigated. Radioimmunoassay and fluorophotometry were used to measure thromboxane B2 (TXB2) generation from platelets, the levels of TXB2 and of 6-keto-PGF1 alpha in plasma and the platelet serotonin release reaction. RESULTS: In vitro, CuAsp inhibited arachidonic acid (AA)-induced aggregation (IC50 = 17 mumol.L-1, 95% confidence limits: 9-33 mumol.L-1), the release of 5-HT (IC50 = 19 mumol.L-1, 95% confidence limits: 10-30 mumol.L-1), and TXB2 generation from platelets (P < 0.05). CuAsp 10 mg.kg-1 i.g. selectively inhibited AA-induced aggregation, and increased the 6-keto-PGF1 alpha concentration in plasma while decreased that of TXB2. CONCLUSION: CuAsp, in vitro or in vivo, shows more potent inhibitory effects on AA-induced aggregation than aspirin (Asp), related to the inhibition of platelet cyclooxygenase and the release of active substances from platelets.  (+info)

(4/645) Prostacyclin synthase gene transfer accelerates reendothelialization and inhibits neointimal formation in rat carotid arteries after balloon injury.

Prostacyclin (PGI2), a metabolite of arachidonic acid, has the vasoprotective effects of vasodilation, anti-platelet aggregation, and inhibition of smooth muscle cell proliferation. We hypothesized that an overexpression of endogenous PGI2 may accelerate the recovery from endothelial damage and inhibit neointimal formation in the injured artery. To test this hypothesis, we investigated in vivo transfer of the PGI2 synthase (PCS) gene into balloon-injured rat carotid arteries by a nonviral lipotransfection method. Seven days after transfection, a significant regeneration of endothelium was observed in the arteries transfected with a plasmid carrying the rat PCS gene (pCMV-PCS), but little regeneration was seen in those with the control plasmid carrying the lacZ gene (pCMV-lacZ) (percent luminal circumference lined by newly regenerated endothelium: 87. 1+/-6.9% in pCMV-PCS-transfected vessels and 6.9+/-0.2% in pCMV-lacZ vessels, P<0.001). BrdU staining of arterial segments demonstrated a significantly lower incorporation in pCMV-PCS-transfected vessels (7. 5+/-0.3% positive nuclei in vessel cells) than in pCMV-lacZ (50. 7+/-9.6%, P<0.01). Moreover, 2 weeks after transfection, the PCS gene transfer resulted in a significant inhibition of neointimal formation (88% reduction in ratio of intima/media areas), whereas medial area was similar among the groups. Arterial segments transfected with pCMV-PCS produced significantly higher levels of 6-keto-PGF1alpha, the main metabolite of PGI2, compared with the segments transfected with pCMV-lacZ (10.2+/-0.55 and 2.1+/-0.32 ng/mg tissue for pCMV-PCS and pCMV-placZ, P<0.001). In conclusion, this study demonstrated that an in vivo PCS gene transfer increased the production of PGI2 and markedly inhibited neointimal formation with accelerated reendothelialization in rat carotid arteries after balloon injury.  (+info)

(5/645) Effects of specific inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 on sodium balance, hemodynamics, and vasoactive eicosanoids.

Conventional nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs inhibit both cyclooxygenase (Cox) isoforms (Cox-1 and Cox-2) and may be associated with nephrotoxicity. The present study was undertaken to assess the renal effects of the specific Cox-2 inhibitor, MK-966. Healthy older adults (n = 36) were admitted to a clinical research unit, placed on a fixed sodium intake, and randomized under double-blind conditions to receive the specific Cox-2 inhibitor, MK-966 (50 mg every day), a nonspecific Cox-1/Cox-2 inhibitor, indomethacin (50 mg t.i.d.), or placebo for 2 weeks. All treatments were well tolerated. Both active regimens were associated with a transient but significant decline in urinary sodium excretion during the first 72 h of treatment. Blood pressure and body weight did not change significantly in any group. The glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was decreased by indomethacin but was not changed significantly by MK-966 treatment. Thromboxane biosynthesis by platelets was inhibited by indomethacin only. The urinary excretion of the prostacyclin metabolite 2,3-dinor-6-keto prostaglandin F1alpha was decreased by both MK-966 and indomethacin and was unchanged by placebo. Cox-2 may play a role in the systemic biosynthesis of prostacyclin in healthy humans. Selective inhibition of Cox-2 by MK-966 caused a clinically insignificant and transient retention of sodium, but no depression of GFR. Inhibition of both Cox isoforms by indomethacin caused transient sodium retention and a decline in GFR. Our data suggest that acute sodium retention by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in healthy elderly subjects is mediated by the inhibition of Cox-2, whereas depression of GFR is due to inhibition of Cox-1.  (+info)

(6/645) In vitro prostanoid release from spinal cord following peripheral inflammation: effects of substance P, NMDA and capsaicin.

1. Spinal prostanoids are implicated in the development of thermal hyperalgesia after peripheral injury, but the specific prostanoid species that are involved are presently unknown. The current study used an in vitro spinal superfusion model to investigate the effect of substance P (SP), N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA), and capsaicin on multiple prostanoid release from dorsal spinal cord of naive rats as well as rats that underwent peripheral injury and inflammation (knee joint kaolin/carrageenan). 2. In naive rat spinal cords, PGE2 and 6-keto-PGF1alpha, but not TxB2, levels were increased after inclusion of SP, NMDA, or capsaicin in the perfusion medium. 3. Basal PGE2 levels from spinal cords of animals that underwent 5-72 h of peripheral inflammation were elevated relative to age-matched naive cohorts. The time course of this increase in basal PGE2 levels coincided with peripheral inflammation, as assessed by knee joint circumference. Basal 6-keto-PGF1alpha levels were not elevated after injury. 4. From this inflammation-evoked increase in basal PGE2 levels, SP and capsaicin significantly increased spinal PGE2 release in a dose-dependent fashion. Capsaicin-evoked increases were blocked dose-dependently by inclusion of S(+) ibuprofen in the capsaicin-containing perfusate. 5. These data suggest a role for spinal PGE2 and NK-1 receptor activation in the development of hyperalgesia after injury and demonstrate that this relationship is upregulated in response to peripheral tissue injury and inflammation.  (+info)

(7/645) Effects of dl-3-n-butylphthalide on production of TXB2 and 6-keto-PGF1 alpha in rat brain during focal cerebral ischemia and reperfusion.

AIM: To study the effects of dl-3-n-butylphthalide (NBP) on the changes of thromboxane B2 (TXB2) and 6-keto-PGF1 alpha (6-keto-PGF1 alpha) contents in hippocampus, striatum, and cerebral cortex of rats subjected to focal cerebral ischemia followed by reperfusion. METHODS: Focal cerebral ischemia was induced by inserting a nylon suture into intracranial segment of internal carotid artery from external carotid artery and blockade of the origin of middle cerebral artery. For reperfusion, the suture was pulled out to restore the blood flow to the ischemic brain. Determination of TXB2 and 6-keto-PGF1 alpha was performed by RIA method. RESULTS: Reperfusion following focal cerebral ischemia resulted in increases in TXB2 at 5 min and 6-keto-PGF1 alpha at 30 min and a decrease in the ratio of epoprostenol (PGI2)/thromboxane A2 (TXA2) (6-keto-PGF1 alpha/TXB2) at 5 min in hippocampus, striatum, and cerebral cortex. NBP 10 mg.kg-1 reduced the content of TXB2 without decreasing effect on 6-keto-PGF1 alpha. NBP 20 mg.kg-1 reduced both TXB2 and 6-keto-PGF1 alpha in lesser extent than aspirin (Asp, 20 mg.kg-1). NBP 20 or 10 mg.kg-1 elevated the ratio of PGI2/TXA2 after reperfusion, but Asp 20 mg.kg-1 did not increase the ratio except in striatum at 5 min after reperfusion. CONCLUSION: NBP increases the ratio of PGI2/TXA2 which may have beneficial effects on the impaired microcirculation in postischemic brain tissues.  (+info)

(8/645) Effects of recombinant human endothelial-derived interleukin-8 on hemorrhagic shock in rats.

AIM: To study the effects of recombinant human endothelial-derived interleukin-8 (IL-8) on hemorrhagic shock. METHODS: A profound hemorrhagic shock in rats was produced by exsanguination from femoral artery with mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) maintained at 5.32 kPa for 90 min. After transfusion, IL-8 250 micrograms.kg-1 was i.v. injected. Plasma endothelin-1 (ET-1) and 6 ketoprostaglandin F1 alpha (6-KPGF1 alpha) contents were determined with radioimmunoassay. RESULTS: After i.v. IL-8, the MABP in IL-8 group was elevated obviously (P < 0.01), the rat survival 2 h after infusion was increased (P < 0.05). During profound shock the plasma ET-1 levels were higher (21 +/- 4 vs 8.2 +/- 1.8 ng.L-1, P < 0.01) and the plasma 6-KPGF1 alpha contents lower than those in normal rats (107 +/- 12 vs 157 +/- 11 ng.L-1, P < 0.01). IL-8 remarkably reduced the plasma ET-1 levels (10 +/- 4 ng.L-1, P < 0.01) and enhanced plasma 6-KPGF1 alpha contents (368 +/- 16 ng.L-1, P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: IL-8 has beneficial antishock effects.  (+info)

*  Prostacyclin
12 (9): 470-6. doi:10.1002/bms.1200120905. PMID 2996649. Johnson, Roy A.; Lincoln, Frank H.; Nidy, Eldon G.; Schneider, William ... Prostacyclin, which has a half-life of 42 seconds, is broken down into 6-keto-PGF1, which is a much weaker vasodilator. As ... PGI2 is derived from the ω-6 arachidonic acid. PGI3 is derived from the ω-3 EPA. Prostacyclin can be synthesized from the ... 6-ketoprostaglandin F1.alpha., prostaglandin I1, and prostaglandin I3". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 100 (24): ...
*  List of MeSH codes (D10)
15-hydroxy-11 alpha,9 alpha-(epoxymethano)prosta-5,13-dienoic acid MeSH D10.251.355.255.100.637.100 --- prostaglandins a MeSH ... 15-hydroxy-11 alpha,9 alpha-(epoxymethano)prosta-5,13-dienoic acid MeSH D10.251.355.255.550.100 --- prostaglandins a MeSH ... alpha-linolenic acid MeSH D10.251.355.450.450 --- gamma-linolenic acid MeSH D10.251.355.840 --- sorbic acid MeSH D10.251. ... alpha-linolenic acid MeSH D10.251.355.310.640.425 --- gamma-linolenic acid MeSH D10.251.355.325 --- fatty acids, ...
*  List of MeSH codes (D23)
15-hydroxy-11 alpha,9 alpha-(epoxymethano)prosta-5,13-dienoic acid MeSH D23.469.050.175.725.740 --- prostaglandins a MeSH ... 15-hydroxy-11 alpha,9 alpha-(epoxymethano)prosta-5,13-dienoic acid MeSH D23.469.700.645 --- prostaglandins a, synthetic MeSH ... transforming growth factor alpha MeSH D23.348.479.992.720 --- transforming growth factor beta MeSH D23.348.479.996 --- wnt ... transforming growth factor alpha MeSH D23.348.900.720 --- transforming growth factor beta MeSH D23.469.050.050 --- angiotensins ...
6-keto Prostaglandin F1alpha-d4 from Cayman Chemical  6-keto Prostaglandin F1alpha-d4 from Cayman Chemical
... ,PGF1α-d4 contains 4 deuterium atoms at the 3, 3', 4, and 4' positions. It ... 8-iso-13,14-dihydro-15-keto Prostaglandin F2alpha from Cayman Chemical. 6. Prostaglandin D2 from Cayman Chemical. 7. ... Anti-6-keto Prostaglandin F1 alpha (EIA Antiserum) Antibody, Unconjugated from Cayman Chemical. 2. 15(S)-15-methyl ... 6 bottle (70 mm) rotisserie + shaker tray available for simultaneous use. Includes linear and orbital shaker trays, 4 extra ...
more infohttp://www.bio-medicine.org/biology-products/6-keto-Prostaglandin-F1alpha-d4-from-Cayman-Chemical-4549-1/
The role of prostaglandins in hepatic resection.  The role of prostaglandins in hepatic resection.
Next Document: Application of an alpha-sidechain length-specific monoclonal antibody to immunoaffinity purification.... ... 6-Ketoprostaglandin F1 alpha / metabolism. Aged. Alprostadil / metabolism, pharmacology*. Dinoprostone / metabolism. Female. ... In the control group, both 6-keto PF1 alpha and PGE2 showed only a slight increase both during and after the operation. ... 0/Lipid Peroxides; 363-24-6/Dinoprostone; 54397-85-2/Thromboxane B2; 57576-52-0/Thromboxane A2; 58962-34-8/6-Ketoprostaglandin ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/role-prostaglandins-in-hepatic-resection/8171069.html
Involvement of prostaglandin E receptor EP3 subtype and prostacyclin IP receptor in decreased acid response in damaged stomach.  Involvement of prostaglandin E receptor EP3 subtype and prostacyclin IP receptor in decreased acid response in damaged stomach.
3474249 - Pre partum milk fat secretion and concentrations of progestins, prostaglandin f2 alpha .... 25466189 - One-pot ... 6-Ketoprostaglandin F1 alpha / analysis, metabolism. Animals. Bicyclo Compounds / pharmacology. Cyclooxygenase 1 / metabolism. ... Mucosal levels of PGE(2) and 6-keto PGF(1a) increased after exposure to TC in all groups of mice. In conclusion, the decrease ... 58962-34-8/6-Ketoprostaglandin F1 alpha; 81-24-3/Taurocholic Acid; EC 1.14.99.-/Ptgs2 protein, mouse; EC 1.14.99.1/ ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Involvement-prostaglandin-E-receptor-EP3/17928639.html
Technetium
      - Technetium 99m
     Summary Report | CureHunter  Technetium - Technetium 99m Summary Report | CureHunter
Technetium 99m (m=metastable) which is the decay product of Molybdenum 99, has a half-life of about 6 hours and is used ... Technetium 99m (m=metastable) which is the decay product of Molybdenum 99, has a half-life of about 6 hours and is used ...
more infohttp://www.curehunter.com/public/keywordSummaryD013667-Technetium-Technetium-99m.do
Prostacyclin - Wikipedia  Prostacyclin - Wikipedia
12 (9): 470-6. doi:10.1002/bms.1200120905. PMID 2996649. Johnson, Roy A.; Lincoln, Frank H.; Nidy, Eldon G.; Schneider, William ... Prostacyclin, which has a half-life of 42 seconds, is broken down into 6-keto-PGF1, which is a much weaker vasodilator. As ... PGI2 is derived from the ω-6 arachidonic acid. PGI3 is derived from the ω-3 EPA. Prostacyclin can be synthesized from the ... 6-ketoprostaglandin F1.alpha., prostaglandin I1, and prostaglandin I3". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 100 (24): ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prostacyclin
Anti-11-keto Testosterone (EIA Antiserum) Antibody, Unconjugated from Cayman Chemical  Anti-11-keto Testosterone (EIA Antiserum) Antibody, Unconjugated from Cayman Chemical
Mouse Anti-Human S-100 alpha/beta chain Monoclonal Antibody, Unconjugated, Clone 8B10 from Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Inc.. 11. ... Costar 6 Well Cell Culture Plate, 9.5 cm2, 34.8 mm Diam. Well, Sterile from Sigma-AldrichRabbit Anti-Human ErbB-2, phospho ( ... 6. Mouse Anti-Mouse Glutathione S-transferase M1 (GSTM1) Monoclonal Antibody, Unconjugated from Lifespan Biosciences. 7. Goat ... Anti-6-keto Prostaglandin F1 alpha (EIA Antiserum) Antibody, Unconjugated from Cayman Chemical. 4. Mouse Anti-Amodiaquine ...
more infohttp://www.bio-medicine.org/biology-products/Anti-11-keto-Testosterone--28EIA-Antiserum-29-Antibody--Unconjugated-from-Cayman-Chemical-5452-1/
Intravenous infusion of a selective inhibitor of thromboxane A2 synthetase in man: influence on thromboxane B2 and 6-keto...  Intravenous infusion of a selective inhibitor of thromboxane A2 synthetase in man: influence on thromboxane B2 and 6-keto...
Intravenous infusion of a selective inhibitor of thromboxane A2 synthetase in man: influence on thromboxane B2 and 6-keto- ... prostaglandin F1 alpha levels and platelet aggregation.. Y Yui, R Hattori, Y Takatsu, H Nakajima, A Wakabayashi, C Kawai, N ... Intravenous infusion of a selective inhibitor of thromboxane A2 synthetase in man: influence on thromboxane B2 and 6-keto- ... prostaglandin F1 alpha levels and platelet aggregation.. Y Yui, R Hattori, Y Takatsu, H Nakajima, A Wakabayashi, C Kawai, N ...
more infohttp://circ.ahajournals.org/content/70/4/599
Systemic and renal effects of nifedipine in cyclosporine-associated hypertension. | Hypertension  Systemic and renal effects of nifedipine in cyclosporine-associated hypertension. | Hypertension
Urinary prostacyclin (6-ketoprostaglandin F1 alpha) was suppressed below normal from 2468 +/- 323 ng/d before transplant to ...
more infohttp://hyper.ahajournals.org/content/23/1_Suppl/I220
Fatty Acyl Class [FA Class]  < Lipid Categories (Lipids)  << Lipids & Fats  <<< Compounds of Life  @...  Fatty Acyl Class [FA Class] < Lipid Categories (Lipids) << Lipids & Fats <<< Compounds of Life @...
2010 Jun;51(6):1618. Seyfried TN. et al "Role of glucose and ketone bodies in the metabolic control of experimental brain ... 2003 Oct 6;89(7):1375-82 Godessart N. et al "Prostaglandin H-synthase-2 is the main enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of ...
more infohttp://wellnessadvantage.com/?uid=81510
DI-fusion Enhancement of the endothelial production of prostacyclin by...  DI-fusion Enhancement of the endothelial production of prostacyclin by...
DI-fusion, le Dépôt institutionnel numérique de l'ULB, est l'outil de référencementde la production scientifique de l'ULB.L'interface de recherche DI-fusion permet de consulter les publications des chercheurs de l'ULB et les thèses qui y ont été défendues.
more infohttps://difusion.ulb.ac.be/vufind/Record/ULB-DIPOT:oai:dipot.ulb.ac.be:2013/50221/Details
DI-fusion Cholinergic stimulation of vascular prostacyclin synthesis.  DI-fusion Cholinergic stimulation of vascular prostacyclin synthesis.
DI-fusion, le Dépôt institutionnel numérique de l'ULB, est l'outil de référencementde la production scientifique de l'ULB.L'interface de recherche DI-fusion permet de consulter les publications des chercheurs de l'ULB et les thèses qui y ont été défendues.
more infohttp://difusion.ulb.ac.be/vufind/Record/ULB-DIPOT:oai:dipot.ulb.ac.be:2013/50170/Details
WikiGenes - Umbilical Arteries  WikiGenes - Umbilical Arteries
Moreover, the umbilical artery Resistance Index was significantly correlated with the 6-keto PGF1 alpha/thromboxane B2 ratio ... we show identical effects of IL-4 on TNF-alpha-induced responses to those observed with endothelial cells of foetal origin [33] ... effects of interferon gamma and interleukin 4 on responses of human vascular endothelial cells to tumour necrosis factor alpha. ... Correlation between umbilical artery resistance index, 6 ketoprostaglandin F1 alpha and thromboxane B2 in the fetoplacental ...
more infohttps://www.wikigenes.org/e/mesh/e/5989.html
Calcium entry blockade prevents leakage of macromolecules induced by ischemia-reperfusion in skeletal muscle. | Circulation...  Calcium entry blockade prevents leakage of macromolecules induced by ischemia-reperfusion in skeletal muscle. | Circulation...
Verapamil inhibited the ischemia-reperfusion-induced increase in 6-keto-PGF1 alpha but did not alter the effect of ischemia- ... We simultaneously determined the rate of release of 6-ketoprostaglandin F1 alpha (6-keto-PGF1 alpha) and thromboxane B2 (TXB2) ... Verapamil decreased the baseline values of 6-keto-PGF1 alpha and increased those of TXB2. ...
more infohttp://circres.ahajournals.org/content/66/6/1636
Biosynthesis of prostacyclin in rat cerebral microvessels and the choroid plexus.  - PubMed - NCBI  Biosynthesis of prostacyclin in rat cerebral microvessels and the choroid plexus. - PubMed - NCBI
... and F2 alpha showed that 6-keto-prostaglandin F1 alpha was the major prostaglandin formed in the microvessels, in the larger ... Choroid plexus and intact surface vessels synthesized 6-keto-prostaglandin F1 alpha at 37 and 35 ng/mg protein/10 min, ... Comparison of the synthesis of prostaglandins 6-keto-F1 alpha, E2, ... 6-keto-prostaglandin F1 alpha, was 11 ng/mg protein/10 min. ... the exogenously added prostaglandin endoperoxides to 6-keto-prostaglandin ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7009788?dopt=Abstract
Search Articles | University of Toronto Libraries  Search Articles | University of Toronto Libraries
We report that estrogen acts on estrogen receptor subtype alpha to... SUPEROXIDE , CYCLOOXYGENASE-2 , ROLES , MULTIDISCIPLINARY ... Estrogen Receptor alpha - metabolism , Female , Myocytes, Smooth Muscle - drug effects , Myocytes, Smooth Muscle - cytology , ... 6. Full Text Efficacy and safety of oral treprostinil monotherapy for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension: A ... Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine, ISSN 1747-6348, 06/2017, Volume 11, Issue 6, pp. 491 - 503 ...
more infohttps://query.library.utoronto.ca/index.php/search/q?kw=SubjectTerms:EPOPROSTENOL
Search Articles | University of Toronto Libraries  Search Articles | University of Toronto Libraries
Prostacyclin , Bosentan , Sildenafil , Sarcoidosis , Pulmonary hypertension , STENOSIS , bosentan , prostacyclin , 6-MINUTE ... 6. Full Text Treatment of sarcoidosis-associated pulmonary hypertension: A two-center experience ... European Respiratory Journal, ISSN 0903-1936, 06/2016, Volume 47, Issue 6, pp. 1727 - 1736 ... European Respiratory Journal, ISSN 0903-1936, 1791, Volume 43, Issue 6, pp. 1691 - 1697 ...
more infohttps://query.library.utoronto.ca/index.php/search/q?kw=SubjectTerms:Epoprostenol%20-%20administration%20&%20dosage
Suchergebnis: Johnson, G. P.  Suchergebnis: Johnson, G. P.
6 Johnson, F. M. G.. THE DIFFUSION OF OXYGEN THROUGH SILVER. In: American Chemical Society: Journal of the American Chemical ... Synthesis and characterization of prostacyclin, 6-ketoprostaglandin F1.alpha., prostaglandin I1, and prostaglandin I3. In: ... 6, No. 2 (1958), p. 114-118. Zugang: zum Volltext ähnliche Vorschläge 1958. ...
more infohttp://finden.nationallizenzen.de/Search/Results?lookfor=Johnson%2C%20G.%20P.&type=Author
Prostaglandin 2 biosynthesis and metabolism Pathway Map - PrimePCR | Life Science | Bio-Rad  Prostaglandin 2 biosynthesis and metabolism Pathway Map - PrimePCR | Life Science | Bio-Rad
The latter subsequently catalyzes the reduction of 15-oxo-PGE2 to 15-ketoprostaglandin F2 alpha (15-Keto-PGF2alpha) that is in ... 15-Keto-PGF2 alpha can also be formed from PGF2 alpha via the reaction catalyzed by CBR1 [44] or HPGD [34], [45]. ... There are various ways to form Prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha). One way is by reduction of the PGE2 catalyzed by Carbonyl ... Enzymatic conversion of prostaglandin H2 to prostaglandin F2 alpha by aldehyde reductase from human liver: comparison to the ...
more infohttp://www.bio-rad.com/en-us/prime-pcr-assays/pathway/prostaglandin-2-biosynthesis-metabolism-fm
Inhibition of the Biosynthesis of Prostaglandin E2 By Low-Dose Aspirin: Implications for Adenocarcinoma Metastasis | Cancer...  Inhibition of the Biosynthesis of Prostaglandin E2 By Low-Dose Aspirin: Implications for Adenocarcinoma Metastasis | Cancer...
... is involved in the up-regulation of matrix metalloproteinase-9 in cholangiocarcinoma induced by tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Am ... 6), and are exposed to portal vein concentrations of aspirin constantly, whereas circulating platelets are in the portal ... Figure 6. Aspirin concentration in the different circulation compartments. Aspirin concentration is represented by the density ... Simplified assay for the quantification of 2,3-dinor-6-keto-prostaglandin F1 alpha by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. J ...
more infohttp://cancerpreventionresearch.aacrjournals.org/content/9/11/855.long
  • Technetium 99m (m=metastable) which is the decay product of Molybdenum 99, has a half-life of about 6 hours and is used diagnostically as a radioactive imaging agent. (curehunter.com)