Receptors, Kainic Acid: A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by their affinity for KAINIC ACID.Receptors, AMPA: A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by their affinity for the agonist AMPA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid).Motor Neurons: Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate excitatory amino acid receptors, thereby blocking the actions of agonists.Quinoxalines6-Cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione: A potent excitatory amino acid antagonist with a preference for non-NMDA iontropic receptors. It is used primarily as a research tool.alpha-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic Acid: An IBOTENIC ACID homolog and glutamate agonist. The compound is the defining agonist for the AMPA subtype of glutamate receptors (RECEPTORS, AMPA). It has been used as a radionuclide imaging agent but is more commonly used as an experimental tool in cell biological studies.Kainic Acid: (2S-(2 alpha,3 beta,4 beta))-2-Carboxy-4-(1-methylethenyl)-3-pyrrolidineacetic acid. Ascaricide obtained from the red alga Digenea simplex. It is a potent excitatory amino acid agonist at some types of excitatory amino acid receptors and has been used to discriminate among receptor types. Like many excitatory amino acid agonists it can cause neurotoxicity and has been used experimentally for that purpose.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Excitatory Amino Acid Agonists: Drugs that bind to and activate excitatory amino acid receptors.PennsylvaniaDatabases, Chemical: Databases devoted to knowledge about specific chemicals.Animal Care Committees: Institutional committees established to protect the welfare of animals used in research and education. The 1971 NIH Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals introduced the policy that institutions using warm-blooded animals in projects supported by NIH grants either be accredited by a recognized professional laboratory animal accrediting body or establish its own committee to evaluate animal care; the Public Health Service adopted a policy in 1979 requiring such committees; and the 1985 amendments to the Animal Welfare Act mandate review and approval of federally funded research with animals by a formally designated Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC).Microspheres: Small uniformly-sized spherical particles, of micrometer dimensions, frequently labeled with radioisotopes or various reagents acting as tags or markers.Kosovo: Independence from SERBIA was declared on February 17, 2008.IndianaRobotics: The application of electronic, computerized control systems to mechanical devices designed to perform human functions. Formerly restricted to industry, but nowadays applied to artificial organs controlled by bionic (bioelectronic) devices, like automated insulin pumps and other prostheses.Laminectomy: A surgical procedure that entails removing all (laminectomy) or part (laminotomy) of selected vertebral lamina to relieve pressure on the SPINAL CORD and/or SPINAL NERVE ROOTS. Vertebral lamina is the thin flattened posterior wall of vertebral arch that forms the vertebral foramen through which pass the spinal cord and nerve roots.Spinal Cord: A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.Practice Guidelines as Topic: Directions or principles presenting current or future rules of policy for assisting health care practitioners in patient care decisions regarding diagnosis, therapy, or related clinical circumstances. The guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by the convening of expert panels. The guidelines form a basis for the evaluation of all aspects of health care and delivery.Ethanol: A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Alcoholic Intoxication: An acute brain syndrome which results from the excessive ingestion of ETHANOL or ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Drug Tolerance: Progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, resulting from its continued administration. It should be differentiated from DRUG RESISTANCE wherein an organism, disease, or tissue fails to respond to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should also be differentiated from MAXIMUM TOLERATED DOSE and NO-OBSERVED-ADVERSE-EFFECT LEVEL.Neuronal Plasticity: The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.Central Nervous System Depressants: A very loosely defined group of drugs that tend to reduce the activity of the central nervous system. The major groups included here are ethyl alcohol, anesthetics, hypnotics and sedatives, narcotics, and tranquilizing agents (antipsychotics and antianxiety agents).Meprobamate: A carbamate with hypnotic, sedative, and some muscle relaxant properties, although in therapeutic doses reduction of anxiety rather than a direct effect may be responsible for muscle relaxation. Meprobamate has been reported to have anticonvulsant actions against petit mal seizures, but not against grand mal seizures (which may be exacerbated). It is used in the treatment of ANXIETY DISORDERS, and also for the short-term management of INSOMNIA but has largely been superseded by the BENZODIAZEPINES. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p603)Receptors, GABA-A: Cell surface proteins which bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and contain an integral membrane chloride channel. Each receptor is assembled as a pentamer from a pool of at least 19 different possible subunits. The receptors belong to a superfamily that share a common CYSTEINE loop.Reflex, Righting: The instinctive tendency (or ability) to assume a normal position of the body in space when it has been displaced.Alcohol-Induced Disorders, Nervous System: Acute and chronic neurologic disorders associated with the various neurologic effects of ETHANOL. Primary sites of injury include the brain and peripheral nerves.gamma-Aminobutyric Acid: The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.Encephalitis Virus, Murray Valley: A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE), found in Australia and New Guinea. It causes a fulminating viremia resembling Japanese encephalitis (ENCEPHALITIS, JAPANESE).Nerve Net: A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.Synaptic Vesicles: Membrane-bound compartments which contain transmitter molecules. Synaptic vesicles are concentrated at presynaptic terminals. They actively sequester transmitter molecules from the cytoplasm. In at least some synapses, transmitter release occurs by fusion of these vesicles with the presynaptic membrane, followed by exocytosis of their contents.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Encephalitis, Arbovirus: Infections of the brain caused by arthropod-borne viruses (i.e., arboviruses) primarily from the families TOGAVIRIDAE; FLAVIVIRIDAE; BUNYAVIRIDAE; REOVIRIDAE; and RHABDOVIRIDAE. Life cycles of these viruses are characterized by ZOONOSES, with birds and lower mammals serving as intermediate hosts. The virus is transmitted to humans by the bite of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) or TICKS. Clinical manifestations include fever, headache, alterations of mentation, focal neurologic deficits, and COMA. (From Clin Microbiol Rev 1994 Jan;7(1):89-116; Walton, Brain's Diseases of the Nervous System, 10th ed, p321)Neurotransmitter Agents: Substances used for their pharmacological actions on any aspect of neurotransmitter systems. Neurotransmitter agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation inhibitors, uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.Synaptic Transmission: The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.Aplysia: An opisthobranch mollusk of the order Anaspidea. It is used frequently in studies of nervous system development because of its large identifiable neurons. Aplysiatoxin and its derivatives are not biosynthesized by Aplysia, but acquired by ingestion of Lyngbya (seaweed) species.Receptors, Glutamate: Cell-surface proteins that bind glutamate and trigger changes which influence the behavior of cells. Glutamate receptors include ionotropic receptors (AMPA, kainate, and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors), which directly control ion channels, and metabotropic receptors which act through second messenger systems. Glutamate receptors are the most common mediators of fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the central nervous system. They have also been implicated in the mechanisms of memory and of many diseases.Receptors, Ionotropic Glutamate: A class of ligand-gated ion channel receptors that have specificity for GLUTAMATE. They are distinct from METABOTROPIC GLUTAMATE RECEPTORS which act through a G-protein-coupled mechanism.Glutamic Acid: A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Glutamates: Derivatives of GLUTAMIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the 2-aminopentanedioic acid structure.Platyhelminths: A phylum of acoelomate, bilaterally symmetrical flatworms, without a definite anus. It includes three classes: Cestoda, Turbellaria, and Trematoda.Ganglia: Clusters of multipolar neurons surrounded by a capsule of loosely organized CONNECTIVE TISSUE located outside the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Ganglia, Invertebrate: Clusters of neuronal cell bodies in invertebrates. Invertebrate ganglia may also contain neuronal processes and non-neuronal supporting cells. Many invertebrate ganglia are favorable subjects for research because they have small numbers of functional neuronal types which can be identified from one animal to another.Pimpinella: A plant genus in the family APIACEAE (Umbelliferae) that is used in SPICES and is a source of anethole.Anticonvulsants: Drugs used to prevent SEIZURES or reduce their severity.Pentylenetetrazole: A pharmaceutical agent that displays activity as a central nervous system and respiratory stimulant. It is considered a non-competitive GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID antagonist. Pentylenetetrazole has been used experimentally to study seizure phenomenon and to identify pharmaceuticals that may control seizure susceptibility.Foeniculum: A plant genus of the family APIACEAE used in SPICES.Electroshock: Induction of a stress reaction in experimental subjects by means of an electrical shock; applies to either convulsive or non-convulsive states.Sambucus: A plant genus in the family CAPRIFOLIACEAE known for elderberries.Seizures: Clinical or subclinical disturbances of cortical function due to a sudden, abnormal, excessive, and disorganized discharge of brain cells. Clinical manifestations include abnormal motor, sensory and psychic phenomena. Recurrent seizures are usually referred to as EPILEPSY or "seizure disorder."Anisoles: A group of compounds that are derivatives of methoxybenzene and contain the general formula R-C7H7O.Epilepsy: A disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of paroxysmal brain dysfunction due to a sudden, disorderly, and excessive neuronal discharge. Epilepsy classification systems are generally based upon: (1) clinical features of the seizure episodes (e.g., motor seizure), (2) etiology (e.g., post-traumatic), (3) anatomic site of seizure origin (e.g., frontal lobe seizure), (4) tendency to spread to other structures in the brain, and (5) temporal patterns (e.g., nocturnal epilepsy). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p313)Convulsants: Substances that act in the brain stem or spinal cord to produce tonic or clonic convulsions, often by removing normal inhibitory tone. They were formerly used to stimulate respiration or as antidotes to barbiturate overdose. They are now most commonly used as experimental tools.Receptors, Purinergic P2X: A subclass of purinergic P2 receptors that signal by means of a ligand-gated ion channel. They are comprised of three P2X subunits which can be identical (homotrimeric form) or dissimilar (heterotrimeric form).Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.Pyramidal Cells: Projection neurons in the CEREBRAL CORTEX and the HIPPOCAMPUS. Pyramidal cells have a pyramid-shaped soma with the apex and an apical dendrite pointed toward the pial surface and other dendrites and an axon emerging from the base. The axons may have local collaterals but also project outside their cortical region.Receptors, Purinergic P2X2: A purinergic P2X neurotransmitter receptor involved in sensory signaling of TASTE PERCEPTION, chemoreception, visceral distension and NEUROPATHIC PAIN. The receptor comprises three P2X2 subunits. The P2X2 subunits also have been found associated with P2X3 RECEPTOR subunits in a heterotrimeric receptor variant.Benzothiadiazines: Heterocyclic compounds of a ring with SULFUR and two NITROGEN atoms fused to a BENZENE ring. Members inhibit SODIUM-POTASSIUM-CHLORIDE SYMPORTERS and are used as DIURETICS.Receptors, Purinergic P2X4: A widely distributed purinergic P2X receptor subtype that plays a role in pain sensation. P2X4 receptors found on MICROGLIA cells may also play a role in the mediation of allodynia-related NEUROPATHIC PAIN.Receptors, Purinergic P2X3: A purinergic P2X neurotransmitter receptor involved in sensory signaling of TASTE PERCEPTION, chemoreception, visceral distension, and NEUROPATHIC PAIN. The receptor comprises three P2X3 subunits. The P2X3 subunits are also associated with P2X2 RECEPTOR subunits in a heterotrimeric receptor variant.Receptors, Purinergic P2: A class of cell surface receptors for PURINES that prefer ATP or ADP over ADENOSINE. P2 purinergic receptors are widespread in the periphery and in the central and peripheral nervous system.Schwann Cells: Neuroglial cells of the peripheral nervous system which form the insulating myelin sheaths of peripheral axons.Potassium Channels, Inwardly Rectifying: Potassium channels where the flow of K+ ions into the cell is greater than the outward flow.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Delayed Rectifier Potassium Channels: A group of slow opening and closing voltage-gated potassium channels. Because of their delayed activation kinetics they play an important role in controlling ACTION POTENTIAL duration.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Potassium Channels: Cell membrane glycoproteins that are selectively permeable to potassium ions. At least eight major groups of K channels exist and they are made up of dozens of different subunits.Shal Potassium Channels: A shaker subfamily of potassium channels that participate in transient outward potassium currents by activating at subthreshold MEMBRANE POTENTIALS, inactivating rapidly, and recovering from inactivation quickly.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Ion Channels: Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.Lymphokines: Soluble protein factors generated by activated lymphocytes that affect other cells, primarily those involved in cellular immunity.
36 (6): 787-795. doi:10.1016/0042-6989(95)00176-X. Imamachi et al. : The Non-NMDA Glutamate Receptor Antagonist CNQX Augments ... CNQX (6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione) is a competitive AMPA/kainate receptor antagonist. Its chemical formula is C9H4N4O4 ...
List of MeSH codes (D03)
2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-8-chloro-3-methyl-5-phenyl-1h-3-benzazepin-7-ol MeSH D03.438.079.800 --- 2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-7,8-dihydroxy-1- ... quinolizin-2-ol, 2-ethyl-1,3,4,6,7,11b-hexahydro-3-isobutyl-9,10-dimethoxy- MeSH D03.438.834.775 --- sparteine MeSH D03.438. ... 5-amino-3-((5-nitro-2-furyl)vinyl)-1,2,4-oxadiazole MeSH D03.383.129.462.580.400 --- 4-chloro-7-nitrobenzofurazan MeSH D03.383. ... 5-amino-3-((5-nitro-2-furyl)vinyl)-1,2,4-oxadiazole MeSH D03.383.312.649.290 --- fanft MeSH D03.383.312.649.308 --- furagin ...
6-Cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione | VWR
Learn more about 6-Cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione. We enable science by offering product choice, services, process ... DuPont™ Tyvek® Micro-Clean® 2-1-2 Coveralls for Controlled Environments Coated on both sides with blue polymeric resin. Sterile ...https://us.vwr.com/store/category/6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2-3-dione/11783293
GABA is the Main Neurotransmitter Released from Mossy Fiber Terminals in the Developing Rat Hippocampus | SpringerLink
Owens DF, Kriegstein AR (2002) Is there more to GABA than synaptic inhibition? Nature Rev Neurosci 3:715-727CrossRefGoogle ... Lanthorn TH, Ganong AH, Cotman CW (1984) 2-Amino-4-phosphonobutyrate selectively blocks mossy fiber-CA3 responses in guinea pig ... Kamiya H, Shinozaki H, Yamamoto C (1996) Activation of metabotropic glutamate receptor type 2/3 suppresses transmission at rat ...https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-0-387-09622-3_6
Transient expansion of synaptically connected dendritic spines upon induction of hippocampal long-term potentiation | PNAS
3 C and D ). The amplitude of the Ca2+ transients in nonexpanding spines was 8.9 ± 1.3% (n = 59), similar to the 8.4 ± 1.0% ... 3 E and F ). The lack of variation and slow time course of the Ca2+ transients in the nonexpanding spines suggest that they ... 3 A and B ). The average peak Ca2+ transient in expanding spines (50.4 ± 3.8%, n = 25) was significantly greater than that in ... 2D ).. To explore why only a small fraction of spines expanded, we imaged in the same spine both expansion and postsynaptic Ca ...https://www.pnas.org/content/101/47/16665?ijkey=494bf8eb3d6acc984e846c38137bee1a4d5d43cb&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha
Receptive field properties of starburst cholinergic amacrine cells in the rabbit retina. - PubMed - NCBI
Eur J Neurosci. 1995 Nov 1;7(11):2308-21.. Receptive field properties of starburst cholinergic amacrine cells in the rabbit ... In darkness the cells displayed a tonic inward current that could be blocked by 100 microM APB and 2 microM CNQX. ... Light responses were completely suppressed during application of 100 microM D,L-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyric acid (APB), ... 1995 Nov 1;7(11):2308-21. Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't ...https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8563980?dopt=Abstract
JSTX-3 also prevented motor neuron death induced by the agonist, AMPA (5 μm), although not quite as effectively as 5 μm CNQX ( ... 3. JSTX-3, an inhibitor of Ca2+-permeable AMPA receptors, prevented motor neuron death induced by both AMPA and the G93A SOD-1 ... 7. Glutathione ethyl ester failed to protect motor neurons from toxicity of G93A SOD-1. A, 1 mmglutathione ethyl ester (GSH EE ... 7 A). However, inclusion of 1 mm glutathione ethyl ester in the culture medium had no significant effect on the viability of ...http://www.jneurosci.org/content/18/23/9673
Frontiers | Developmental Changes in the Inhibition of Glycinergic Synaptic Currents by Niflumic Acid in Hypoglossal...
FIGURE 6. FIGURE 6. Niflumic acid did not change the ratio of IPSCs at pair-pulse stimulation. (A,B) Traces of glycinergic ... FIGURE 2. FIGURE 2. Effect of NFA on sIPSCs recorded from "neonatal" HMs. (A) Trace of continuous whole-cell recording of ... FIGURE 3. FIGURE 3. Effect of NFA on sIPSCs in "juvenile" HMs. (A) Representative traces of sIPSCs whole-cell recordings in ... Figure 2 illustrates the effect of NFA on the MN in neonatal slice (P3) at Vhold = -70 mV. Addition of NFA caused decrease in ...https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fnmol.2018.00416/full
6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione. APV. 2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid. 4-DAMP. 4-diphenylacetoxy-N-methylpiperidine. MLA. ... 11-[[[2-diethylamino-O-methyl]-1-piperidinyl]acetyl]-5,11-dihydrol-6H-pyridol[2,3-b][1,4]benzodiazepine-6-one. ACSF. artificial ... The effects of soman and PB on GABAergic transmission were inhibited by the m2 receptor antagonist 11-[[[2-diethylamino-O- ... O-ethylS-[2(diisopropylamino)ethyl]methylphosphonothioate. QX-314. N-(2,6-dimethylphenylcarbamoylmethyl)triethylammonium ...http://jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/304/1/254
3, B and C).. Activation of α1 Adrenergic Receptors Decreases the Frequency of sIPSCs and mIPSCs. We next tested the effects of ... 7, A and B). In another two cells, 50 μM phenylephrine still increased the firing rate (from 3.64 to 6.02 Hz in one cell and ... 7. Effect of phenylephrine on the firing rate of labeled PVN neurons in the presence of synaptic blockade. A, original tracings ... 3. Effect of phenylephrine on the frequency of mEPSCs in labeled PVN neurons. A, raw tracings showing mEPSCs during control, ...http://jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/316/2/733
Mechanisms of Reversible GABAA Receptor Plasticity after Ethanol Intoxication | Journal of Neuroscience
2A,B). In contrast, the Ihold potentiation by EtOH (100 mm) was lost as early as 1 h after EtOH intoxication, but gradually ... 7C). At 1 h after a single EtOH dose, DZ potentiation of Itonic was unaffected, but maximal decreases occurred at 2 d after ... Figure 7. Time course of changes in diazepam sensitivity of synaptic and tonic GABAAR-currents after EtOH treatment. A, Traces ... Figure 2. Changes in acute EtOH sensitivity of synaptic and tonic GABAAR-currents after EtOH intoxication. A, Traces are ...http://www.jneurosci.org/content/27/45/12367.long
6, C and D). The EC50 for increased SCOs frequency was 2.33 μM (1.30-4.18 μM, 95% CI), and the IC50 value for 4-AP attenuation ... 6A, traces 3-6) with an EC50 of 1.76 μM (1.21 to 2.54 μM; 95% CI). Unlike either kainate or pilocarpine, 4-AP produced a long- ... 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione. DIV. days in vitro. FLIPR. fluorescent imaging plate reader. FWHM. full width at half ... 6. 4-AP alters Ca2+ dynamics and SCO in 10 DIV HN cultures. (A) Representative traces of 4-AP-triggered Ca2+ responses in HN ...http://molpharm.aspetjournals.org/content/87/4/595
Phylogenetic analysis of ionotropic L-glutamate receptor genes in the Bilateria, with special notes on Aplysia californica |...
2.Center for Computational ScienceUniversity of MiamiCoral GablesUSA. *3.Department of Computer ScienceUniversity of MiamiCoral ... 2). This is a unique feature of NMDAR: they are the only iGluR subtype with more than one orthologous copy present before the ... 2).. Within vertebrates there are two ancient paralogs with a total of five kainate genes. The three paralogs GRIK_A1-3 form ... 3 Conserved motifs in Aplysia and H. sapiens. Boxed region denotes SYTANLAAFL motif vital for formation of the channel pore and ...https://rd.springer.com/article/10.1186/s12862-016-0871-1
Electrogenic uptake of glutamate and aspartate into glial cells isolated from the salamander (Ambystoma) retina., The Journal...
... cyano‐7‐nitroquinoxaline‐2,3‐dione (CNQX; 20 microMs), and kynurenate (1mM) had no effect on the glutamate‐evoked current. 8. ... dione (CNQX; 20 microMs), and kynurenate (1mM) had no effect on the glutamate‐evoked current. 8. The voltage dependence, cation ... nitroquinoxaline‐2,3‐ ... 2. L‐Glutamate evoked an inward current at membrane potentials ... 2. L‐Glutamate evoked an inward current at membrane potentials between ‐140 and +50 mV. The current was larger at more negative ...https://www.deepdyve.com/lp/wiley/electrogenic-uptake-of-glutamate-and-aspartate-into-glial-cells-B08W4EDkq1?impressionId=5d0703c4a9824&i_medium=docview&i_campaign=references&i_source=references
EPSP - What does EPSP stand for? The Free Dictionary
Abbreviations: CNQX, 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2, 3-dione; DMSO, dimethyl sulfoxide; PBS, phosphate buffered saline; EPSP, ... Would the Department of Finance consider expanding the exclusion in subsection 47(3) so that shares acquired from either an ... Abbreviations: AC, adenylate cyclase; AMPA, a-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionate; AP, action potential; CaM, ...https://acronyms.thefreedictionary.com/EPSP
CNQX - Wikipedia
36 (6): 787-795. doi:10.1016/0042-6989(95)00176-X. Imamachi et al. : The Non-NMDA Glutamate Receptor Antagonist CNQX Augments ... CNQX (6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione) is a competitive AMPA/kainate receptor antagonist. Its chemical formula is C9H4N4O4 ...https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CNQX
Anticonvulsant and neuroprotective effects of Pimpinella anisum in rat brain | BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine |...
1999, 261 (1-2): 1-4.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar. *. Greiner C, Schmidinger A, Hulsmann S, Moskopp D, Wolfer J, Kohling R ... 2003, 133 (1-2): 159-170.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar. *. Baptiste SL, Tang HM, Kuzniecky RI, Devinsky O, French JA, Ludvig ... 2005, 7 (Suppl 3): S25-S28.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar. *. Abramowicz AE, Kass IS, Chambers G, Cottrell JE: Midazolam ... 2006, 392 (1-2): 154-158.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar. Pre-publication history. *. The pre-publication history for this ...https://bmccomplementalternmed.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1472-6882-12-76
Involvement of Cerulospinal Glutamatergic Neurotransmission in Fentanyl-induced Muscular Rigidity in the Rat | Anesthesiology...
Figure 6shows that neither intrathecal administration of NMDA or non-NMDA receptor antagonists nor local application of aCSF to ... Figure 2. Time-course changes in root mean square (RMS) and mean power frequency (MPF) values of electromyographic signals ... Figure 2. Time-course changes in root mean square (RMS) and mean power frequency (MPF) values of electromyographic signals ... Figure 3. Time-course changes in root mean square (RMS) and mean power frequency (MPF) values of electromyographic signals ...http://anesthesiology.pubs.asahq.org/article.aspx?articleid=1948316
GABA Mediated Synaptic Events in Neonatal Rat CA3 Pyramidal Neurons in Vitro: Modulation by NMDA and Non-NMDA Receptors |...
Kemp, J.A., Foster, A.C., Leeson,P.D., Priestley, T., Tridgett, R., Iversen, L.L. and Woodruff, G.N. (1988). 7-Chlorokynurenic ... Harris, M.K and Miller, J.R. (1989). CNQX (6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxalone-2,3-elione) antagonizes NMDA-evoked (3H)GABA release from ... Neuman, R.S., Ben-Ari, Y., Gho, M. and Cherubini, E. (1988a). Blockage of excitatory synaptic transmission by 6-cyano-7- ... nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX) in the hippocampus in vitro. Neurosci. Lett. 92, 64-68.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ...https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4684-5769-8_18
Quantal Release of ATP in Mouse Cortex | JGP
3 C; τdecay 8.9 ± 1.6 and 16.8 ± 2.5 ms, n = 5). The time constants of rise and decay of mEPSCs were not affected by CNQX (50 ... 2, B and C). When added in the presence of NBQX and d-APV, suramin (10 μM) also reduced the amplitude (by 55 ± 8%, n = 7) and ... 2 A) and suramin (10 μM, Fig. 2 B), which both block most of P2X receptor subtypes (North and Surprenant, 2000). PPADS (3 μM) ... 6 B). The first was single quantal in all 16 cells and had lower release probability and smaller quantal size, similar to the ...http://jgp.rupress.org/content/129/3/257
Food, Food Allergies, and Nutrition sub-cluster 68
8-Hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)-tetralin inhibits food intake in fasted rats by an action at 5-HT1A ... ... Efforts to address the food effect issue led us to explore and discover compounds in series 2 as orally active CRF 1 receptor ... A molecular form known as chicken GnRH II ([His(5) Trp(7) Tyr(8)] GnRH, cGnRH II) is widely distributed in vertebrates, and has ... The effects of the 5-HT1A agonist 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)-tetralin (8-OH-DPAT) on food intake were investigated in food- ...http://www.biomedsearch.com/cluster/49/Food-Food-Allergies-and-Nutrition/sub-68-p9.html
A Novel Variant of Ionotropic Glutamate Receptor Regulates Somatostatin Secretion From δ-Cells of Islets of Langerhans
In this study, we showed that δ-cells express GluR4c-flip, a newly identified splicing variant of GluR4, an (RS)-α-amino-3- ... The glutamate-dependent somatostatin secretion was Ca2+ dependent and blocked by 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione. ...https://insights.ovid.com/diab/200407000/00003439-200407000-00015
- In darkness the cells displayed a tonic inward current that could be blocked by 100 microM APB and 2 microM CNQX. (nih.gov)
- KAR competitive antagonist CNQX [6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione] (1-10 µ M) normalized Ca 2+ dynamics to the prekainate pattern. (aspetjournals.org)
- CNQX (6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione) is a competitive AMPA/kainate receptor antagonist. (wikipedia.org)
- CNQX (6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxalone-2,3-elione) antagonizes NMDA-evoked (3H)GABA release from cultured cortical neurons via an inhibitory action at the strychnine-insensitive glycine site. (springer.com)
- The high concentration of actin in dendritic spines led to the proposal that activity-dependent changes in spine shape could modify synaptic efficacy ( 6 , 7 ). (pnas.org)
- Discrete packets of neurotransmitter encased in vesicles are released at synaptic connections with a certain probability (probability of release, P r ) in a tightly regulated fashion ( 1 , 2 ). (pnas.org)
- Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), a serine/threonine protein kinase, is well positioned to serve a role in synaptic function regulation, because it is highly expressed in the brain and is known to phosphorylate multiple synaptic proteins ( 2 ). (pnas.org)
- Accordingly, CaMKII has previously been implicated in the long-lasting frequency-dependent regulation of synaptic function in mammals ( 3 - 9 ), birds ( 10 ), frogs ( 11 ), and invertebrates ( 12 ). (pnas.org)
- Although a postsynaptic role for CaMKII in synaptic function and plasticity has been well demonstrated ( 3 , 4 , 6 , 7 , 13 ), studies of the presynaptic function of this enzyme are scarce. (pnas.org)
- Conversely, uridine (at all concentrations tested) had a negligible effect on PPF and basal synaptic transmission, which is mediated primarily by α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors (AMPARs). (biomedcentral.com)
- Synaptic response mediated by the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor (EPSPnmda) was isolated pharmacologically by application of a solution containing non-NMDA receptor antagonist 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (10 μmol/l) and γ-aminobutyric acid A receptor antagonist bicuculline (20 μmol/l). (ncku.edu.tw)
- This effect is maximal at 1 μM Glu and is fully mimicked by a 100 μM concentration of the metabotropic receptor agonist trans -(1 S ,3 R )-1-aminocyclopentane-1,3-dicarboxylic acid. (aspetjournals.org)
- 3. At agonist concentrations less than or equal to 1 mM, kainate receptors, with a 20-pS conductance, did not desensitize. (muscimol.xyz)
- Somatosensory cortex layer 2/3 neurones with pyramidal shaped somata were selected using an infrared differential interference contrast optics, and recordings were made with patch pipettes (4 MΩ) filled with (in mM) 50 KCl, 55 K-gluconate, 10 NaCl, 10 HEPES, 2 MgATP, 0.1 EGTA, pH 7.35. (rupress.org)
- Laser scanning photostimulation revealed that NCAM deletion increased the strength of close-in inhibitory connections to layer 2/3 pyramidal cells of the ACC. (frontiersin.org)
- In this study, we showed that δ-cells express GluR4c-flip, a newly identified splicing variant of GluR4, an (RS)-α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA)-type ionotropic glutamate receptor of rat. (ovid.com)
- The role of (+/-)-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA)-kainate and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) and caudal ventrolateral medulla (CVLM) on the central respiratory drive (CRD)-related activity of splanchnic sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) was examined in rats. (semanticscholar.org)
- Light responses were completely suppressed during application of 100 microM D,L-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyric acid (APB), consistent with activation exclusively through rod bipolar cells (on) and ON-cone bipolar cells. (nih.gov)
- 6,7-Dinitro-quinoxaline-2,3-dion and 6-nitro,7-cyano-quinoxaline-2,3-dion antagonise responses to NMDA in the rat spinal cord via an action at the strychnine-insensitive glycine receptor. (hellobio.com)
- At kainate concentrations greater than or equal to 1 mM, though, kainate receptors desensitized to a low steady-state conductance within approximately 200 ms. Resensitization of all channels required as long as 3 s, which could render kainate receptors inexcitable during high-frequency activation. (muscimol.xyz)
- Uridine was applied at concentrations (3, 30, 300 μM) representing the physiological range present in brain tissue. (biomedcentral.com)
- During learning, two subtypes of iGluR, α-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors (AMPAR) and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDAR), are dynamically regulated postsynaptically in vertebrates. (springer.com)
- 10,11 ] Similarly, glutamate-like immunoreactivity [ 12 ] and NMDA, kainate, and alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid binding sites [ 13 ] are present in the dorsal and ventral horn of the spinal cord. (asahq.org)
- Layer 6 corticothalamic neurons activate a cortical output layer, layer 5a. (stanford.edu)
- Layer 6 corticothalamic neurons are thought to modulate incoming sensory information via their intracortical axons targeting the major thalamorecipient layer of the neocortex, layer 4, and via their long-range feedback projections to primary sensory thalamic nuclei. (stanford.edu)
- However, anatomical reconstructions of individual layer 6 corticothalamic (L6 CT) neurons include examples with axonal processes ramifying within layer 5, and the relative input of the overall population of L6 CT neurons to layers 4 and 5 is not well understood. (stanford.edu)