The sequence at the 3' end of messenger RNA that does not code for product. This region contains transcription and translation regulating sequences.
The sequence at the 5' end of the messenger RNA that does not code for product. This sequence contains the ribosome binding site and other transcription and translation regulating sequences.
The parts of the messenger RNA sequence that do not code for product, i.e. the 5' UNTRANSLATED REGIONS and 3' UNTRANSLATED REGIONS.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
The extent to which an RNA molecule retains its structural integrity and resists degradation by RNASE, and base-catalyzed HYDROLYSIS, under changing in vivo or in vitro conditions.
Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs, 21-25 nucleotides in length generated from single-stranded microRNA gene transcripts by the same RIBONUCLEASE III, Dicer, that produces small interfering RNAs (RNA, SMALL INTERFERING). They become part of the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX and repress the translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of target RNA by binding to homologous 3'UTR region as an imperfect match. The small temporal RNAs (stRNAs), let-7 and lin-4, from C. elegans, are the first 2 miRNAs discovered, and are from a class of miRNAs involved in developmental timing.
Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
A family of RNA-binding proteins that are homologues of ELAV protein, Drosophila. They were initially identified in humans as the targets of autoantibodies in patients with PARANEOPLASTIC ENCEPHALOMYELITIS. They are thought to regulate GENE EXPRESSION at the post-transcriptional level.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Post-transcriptional biological modification of messenger, transfer, or ribosomal RNAs or their precursors. It includes cleavage, methylation, thiolation, isopentenylation, pseudouridine formation, conformational changes, and association with ribosomal protein.
The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.
Sequences within RNA that regulate the processing, stability (RNA STABILITY) or translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of RNA.
A group of adenine ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each adenine ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.
Nucleic acid sequences involved in regulating the expression of genes.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A heterogeneous-nuclear ribonucleoprotein that has specificity for AU-rich elements found in the 3'-region of mRNA and may play a role in RNA stability. Several isoforms of hnRNP D protein have been found to occur due to alternative mRNA splicing (RNA SPLICING).
Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.
A codon that directs initiation of protein translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) by stimulating the binding of initiator tRNA (RNA, TRANSFER, MET). In prokaryotes, the codons AUG or GUG can act as initiators while in eukaryotes, AUG is the only initiator codon.
The addition of a tail of polyadenylic acid (POLY A) to the 3' end of mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). Polyadenylation involves recognizing the processing site signal, (AAUAAA), and cleaving of the mRNA to create a 3' OH terminal end to which poly A polymerase (POLYNUCLEOTIDE ADENYLYLTRANSFERASE) adds 60-200 adenylate residues. The 3' end processing of some messenger RNAs, such as histone mRNA, is carried out by a different process that does not include the addition of poly A as described here.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
A multiribosomal structure representing a linear array of RIBOSOMES held together by messenger RNA; (RNA, MESSENGER); They represent the active complexes in cellular protein synthesis and are able to incorporate amino acids into polypeptides both in vivo and in vitro. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
A process whereby multiple RNA transcripts are generated from a single gene. Alternative splicing involves the splicing together of other possible sets of EXONS during the processing of some, but not all, transcripts of the gene. Thus a particular exon may be connected to any one of several alternative exons to form a mature RNA. The alternative forms of mature MESSENGER RNA produce PROTEIN ISOFORMS in which one part of the isoforms is common while the other parts are different.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Nucleic acid structures found on the 5' end of eukaryotic cellular and viral messenger RNA and some heterogeneous nuclear RNAs. These structures, which are positively charged, protect the above specified RNAs at their termini against attack by phosphatases and other nucleases and promote mRNA function at the level of initiation of translation. Analogs of the RNA caps (RNA CAP ANALOGS), which lack the positive charge, inhibit the initiation of protein synthesis.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Multicomponent ribonucleoprotein structures found in the CYTOPLASM of all cells, and in MITOCHONDRIA, and PLASTIDS. They function in PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS via GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Enzymes that oxidize certain LUMINESCENT AGENTS to emit light (PHYSICAL LUMINESCENCE). The luciferases from different organisms have evolved differently so have different structures and substrates.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A ZINC FINGER MOTIF containing transcription factor that was originally identified as one of the IMMEDIATE-EARLY PROTEINS. It shuttles between the CYTOPLASM and the CELL NUCLEUS and is involved in destabilization of mRNAs for TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR-ALPHA.
Complexes of RNA-binding proteins with ribonucleic acids (RNA).
The ultimate exclusion of nonsense sequences or intervening sequences (introns) before the final RNA transcript is sent to the cytoplasm.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.
RNA which does not code for protein but has some enzymatic, structural or regulatory function. Although ribosomal RNA (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) and transfer RNA (RNA, TRANSFER) are also untranslated RNAs they are not included in this scope.
Neuromuscular disorder characterized by PROGRESSIVE MUSCULAR ATROPHY; MYOTONIA, and various multisystem atrophies. Mild INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY may also occur. Abnormal TRINUCLEOTIDE REPEAT EXPANSION in the 3' UNTRANSLATED REGIONS of DMPK PROTEIN gene is associated with Myotonic Dystrophy 1. DNA REPEAT EXPANSION of zinc finger protein-9 gene intron is associated with Myotonic Dystrophy 2.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
RNA sequences composed of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES and URACIL NUCLEOTIDES, that are located in the 3'UNTRANSLATED REGIONS of MESSENGER RNA molecules that are rapidly degraded. They are also known as AREs.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal (CODON, TERMINATOR). Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER) complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons (CODONS, NONSENSE).
The process of moving specific RNA molecules from one cellular compartment or region to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A family of ribonucleoproteins that were originally found as proteins bound to nascent RNA transcripts in the form of ribonucleoprotein particles. Although considered ribonucleoproteins they are primarily classified by their protein component. They are involved in a variety of processes such as packaging of RNA and RNA TRANSPORT within the nucleus. A subset of heterogeneous-nuclear ribonucleoproteins are involved in additional functions such as nucleocytoplasmic transport (ACTIVE TRANSPORT, CELL NUCLEUS) of RNA and mRNA stability in the CYTOPLASM.
A process of GENETIC TRANSLATION whereby the formation of a peptide chain is started. It includes assembly of the RIBOSOME components, the MESSENGER RNA coding for the polypeptide to be made, INITIATOR TRNA, and PEPTIDE INITIATION FACTORS; and placement of the first amino acid in the peptide chain. The details and components of this process are unique for prokaryotic protein biosynthesis and eukaryotic protein biosynthesis.
A family of small RNA viruses comprising some important pathogens of humans and animals. Transmission usually occurs mechanically. There are nine genera: APHTHOVIRUS; CARDIOVIRUS; ENTEROVIRUS; ERBOVIRUS; HEPATOVIRUS; KOBUVIRUS; PARECHOVIRUS; RHINOVIRUS; and TESCHOVIRUS.
A superfamily of proteins containing the globin fold which is composed of 6-8 alpha helices arranged in a characterstic HEME enclosing structure.
A family of RNA plant viruses infecting dicotyledons. Transmission is mainly by mechanical inoculation and through propagative plant material. All species elicit formation of multivesicular inclusion bodies. There are at least eight genera: Aureusvirus, Avenavirus, CARMOVIRUS, Dianthovirus, Machlomovirus, Necrovirus, Panicovirus, and TOMBUSVIRUS.
A species of CORONAVIRUS infecting neonatal calves, presenting as acute diarrhea, and frequently leading to death.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.
Proteins that regulate cellular and organismal iron homeostasis. They play an important biological role by maintaining iron levels that are adequate for metabolic need, but below the toxicity threshold.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
An enzyme that catalyzes the acetylation of chloramphenicol to yield chloramphenicol 3-acetate. Since chloramphenicol 3-acetate does not bind to bacterial ribosomes and is not an inhibitor of peptidyltransferase, the enzyme is responsible for the naturally occurring chloramphenicol resistance in bacteria. The enzyme, for which variants are known, is found in both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. EC
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE causing parenterally-transmitted HEPATITIS C which is associated with transfusions and drug abuse. Hepatitis C virus is the type species.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.
The first nucleotide of a transcribed DNA sequence where RNA polymerase (DNA-DIRECTED RNA POLYMERASE) begins synthesizing the RNA transcript.
A RNA-binding protein that binds to polypyriminidine rich regions in the INTRONS of messenger RNAs. Polypyrimidine tract-binding protein may be involved in regulating the ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of mRNAs since its presence on an intronic RNA region that is upstream of an EXON inhibits the splicing of the exon into the final mRNA product.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, sequencing, and information analysis of an RNA SEQUENCE.
A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.
The type species of the genus ALFAMOVIRUS that is non-persistently transmitted by aphids.
A genus in the family TOMBUSVIRIDAE mostly found in temperate regions. Some species infecting legumes (FABACEAE) are reported from tropical areas. Most viruses are soil-borne, but some are transmitted by the fungus Olpidium radicale and others by beetles. Carnation mottle virus is the type species.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
RNA, usually prepared by transcription from cloned DNA, which complements a specific mRNA or DNA and is generally used for studies of virus genes, distribution of specific RNA in tissues and cells, integration of viral DNA into genomes, transcription, etc. Whereas DNA PROBES are preferred for use at a more macroscopic level for detection of the presence of DNA/RNA from specific species or subspecies, RNA probes are preferred for genetic studies. Conventional labels for the RNA probe include radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. RNA probes may be further divided by category into plus-sense RNA probes, minus-sense RNA probes, and antisense RNA probes.
Any codon that signals the termination of genetic translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC). PEPTIDE TERMINATION FACTORS bind to the stop codon and trigger the hydrolysis of the aminoacyl bond connecting the completed polypeptide to the tRNA. Terminator codons do not specify amino acids.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
A genus of plant viruses that infects both monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants. Its organisms are persistently transmitted by aphids, and weeds may provide reservoirs of infection.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE containing several subgroups and many species. Most are arboviruses transmitted by mosquitoes or ticks. The type species is YELLOW FEVER VIRUS.
Ribonucleic acid in plants having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
The different gene transcripts generated from a single gene by RNA EDITING or ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of RNA PRECURSORS.
An increased number of contiguous trinucleotide repeats in the DNA sequence from one generation to the next. The presence of these regions is associated with diseases such as FRAGILE X SYNDROME and MYOTONIC DYSTROPHY. Some CHROMOSOME FRAGILE SITES are composed of sequences where trinucleotide repeat expansion occurs.
Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.
Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.
Synthetic or natural oligonucleotides used in hybridization studies in order to identify and study specific nucleic acid fragments, e.g., DNA segments near or within a specific gene locus or gene. The probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin.
Copies of nucleic acid sequence that are arranged in opposing orientation. They may lie adjacent to each other (tandem) or be separated by some sequence that is not part of the repeat (hyphenated). They may be true palindromic repeats, i.e. read the same backwards as forward, or complementary which reads as the base complement in the opposite orientation. Complementary inverted repeats have the potential to form hairpin loop or stem-loop structures which results in cruciform structures (such as CRUCIFORM DNA) when the complementary inverted repeats occur in double stranded regions.
Elements that are transcribed into RNA, reverse-transcribed into DNA and then inserted into a new site in the genome. Long terminal repeats (LTRs) similar to those from retroviruses are contained in retrotransposons and retrovirus-like elements. Retroposons, such as LONG INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS and SHORT INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS do not contain LTRs.
A multifunctional iron-sulfur protein that is both an iron regulatory protein and cytoplasmic form of aconitate hydratase. It binds to iron regulatory elements found on mRNAs involved in iron metabolism and regulates their translation. Its RNA binding ability and its aconitate hydrolase activity are dependent upon availability of IRON.
Ribonucleic acid in protozoa having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
Pairing of purine and pyrimidine bases by HYDROGEN BONDING in double-stranded DNA or RNA.
Proteins that bind to the 3' polyadenylated region of MRNA. When complexed with RNA the proteins serve an array of functions such as stabilizing the 3' end of RNA, promoting poly(A) synthesis and stimulating mRNA translation.
Selenoproteins are proteins that specifically incorporate SELENOCYSTEINE into their amino acid chain. Most selenoproteins are enzymes with the selenocysteine residues being responsible for their catalytic functions.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Ribonucleic acid in helminths having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
RNA molecules which hybridize to complementary sequences in either RNA or DNA altering the function of the latter. Endogenous antisense RNAs function as regulators of gene expression by a variety of mechanisms. Synthetic antisense RNAs are used to effect the functioning of specific genes for investigative or therapeutic purposes.
A theoretical representative nucleotide or amino acid sequence in which each nucleotide or amino acid is the one which occurs most frequently at that site in the different sequences which occur in nature. The phrase also refers to an actual sequence which approximates the theoretical consensus. A known CONSERVED SEQUENCE set is represented by a consensus sequence. Commonly observed supersecondary protein structures (AMINO ACID MOTIFS) are often formed by conserved sequences.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.
A species of ENTEROVIRUS infecting humans and containing 36 serotypes. It is comprised of all the echoviruses and a few coxsackieviruses, including all of those previously named coxsackievirus B.
Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Plants or plant parts which are harmful to man or other animals.
Ribonucleic acid in fungi having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
A species of GREEN ALGAE. Delicate, hairlike appendages arise from the flagellar surface in these organisms.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
A naturally occurring amino acid in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms. It is found in tRNAs and in the catalytic site of some enzymes. The genes for glutathione peroxidase and formate dehydrogenase contain the TGA codon, which codes for this amino acid.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
An enlarged underground root or stem of some plants. It is usually rich in carbohydrates. Some, such as POTATOES, are important human FOOD. They may reproduce vegetatively from buds.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.
A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.
A large family of RNA helicases that share a common protein motif with the single letter amino acid sequence D-E-A-D (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp). In addition to RNA helicase activity, members of the DEAD-box family participate in other aspects of RNA metabolism and regulation of RNA function.
A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.
Genes that are introduced into an organism using GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Microsatellite repeats consisting of three nucleotides dispersed in the euchromatic arms of chromosomes.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
A genus of plant viruses in the family FLEXIVIRIDAE, that cause mosaic and ringspot symptoms. Transmission occurs mechanically. Potato virus X is the type species.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.
Sequences found near the 3' end of MESSENGER RNA that direct the cleavage and addition of multiple ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES to the 3' end of mRNA.
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
Any DNA sequence capable of independent replication or a molecule that possesses a REPLICATION ORIGIN and which is therefore potentially capable of being replicated in a suitable cell. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The process of germ cell development in the female from the primordial germ cells through OOGONIA to the mature haploid ova (OVUM).
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Small, linear single-stranded RNA molecules functionally acting as molecular parasites of certain RNA plant viruses. Satellite RNAs exhibit four characteristic traits: (1) they require helper viruses to replicate; (2) they are unnecessary for the replication of helper viruses; (3) they are encapsidated in the coat protein of the helper virus; (4) they have no extensive sequence homology to the helper virus. Thus they differ from SATELLITE VIRUSES which encode their own coat protein, and from the genomic RNA; (=RNA, VIRAL); of satellite viruses. (From Maramorosch, Viroids and Satellites, 1991, p143)
A family of double-stranded RNA-binding proteins that are related to NFATC TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS. In addition to binding to RNA, nuclear factor 90 proteins form heterodimeric complexes that regulate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and may play a role in T-CELL activation.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of RNA. It includes EC 3.1.26.-, EC 3.1.27.-, EC 3.1.30.-, and EC 3.1.31.-.
A form of GENE LIBRARY containing the complete DNA sequences present in the genome of a given organism. It contrasts with a cDNA library which contains only sequences utilized in protein coding (lacking introns).
A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)
The degree of similarity between sequences. Studies of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and NUCLEIC ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY provide useful information about the genetic relatedness of genes, gene products, and species.
Family of retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (myc) originally isolated from an avian myelocytomatosis virus. The proto-oncogene myc (c-myc) codes for a nuclear protein which is involved in nucleic acid metabolism and in mediating the cellular response to growth factors. Truncation of the first exon, which appears to regulate c-myc expression, is crucial for tumorigenicity. The human c-myc gene is located at 8q24 on the long arm of chromosome 8.
Immature ERYTHROCYTES. In humans, these are ERYTHROID CELLS that have just undergone extrusion of their CELL NUCLEUS. They still contain some organelles that gradually decrease in number as the cells mature. RIBOSOMES are last to disappear. Certain staining techniques cause components of the ribosomes to precipitate into characteristic "reticulum" (not the same as the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM), hence the name reticulocytes.
A plant genus of the family MALVACEAE. Members contain CITRIC ACID; MALATES; ANTHOCYANINS; FLAVONOIDS; GLYCOSIDES; DIETARY FIBER; and LIGNANS. Hibiscus sabdariffa is common constituent of HERBAL TEAS. Hibiscus cannabinus is a source of hemp fiber for TEXTILES.
Factors that are involved in directing the cleavage and POLYADENYLATION of the of MESSENGER RNA near the site of the RNA 3' POLYADENYLATION SIGNALS.
The protoplasm and plasma membrane of plant, fungal, bacterial or archaeon cells without the CELL WALL.
Enzymes that catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of single-stranded regions of DNA or RNA molecules while leaving the double-stranded regions intact. They are particularly useful in the laboratory for producing "blunt-ended" DNA molecules from DNA with single-stranded ends and for sensitive GENETIC TECHNIQUES such as NUCLEASE PROTECTION ASSAYS that involve the detection of single-stranded DNA and RNA.
Nucleotide sequences located at the ends of EXONS and recognized in pre-messenger RNA by SPLICEOSOMES. They are joined during the RNA SPLICING reaction, forming the junctions between exons.
A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.
A plant genus of the family ZINGIBERACEAE, order Zingiberales, subclass Zingiberidae. Elettaria cardamomum (L.) Maton is the source of Cardamom used in SPICES.
A species of the genus FLAVIVIRUS which causes an acute febrile and sometimes hemorrhagic disease in man. Dengue is mosquito-borne and four serotypes are known.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
The proportion of one particular in the total of all ALLELES for one genetic locus in a breeding POPULATION.
A cell line generated from human embryonic kidney cells that were transformed with human adenovirus type 5.
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
The small subunit of the 80s ribosome of eukaryotes. It is composed of the 18S RIBOSOMAL RNA and 32 different RIBOSOMAL PROTEINS.
PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.
Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.
A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.
A genus of the family PICORNAVIRIDAE whose members preferentially inhabit the intestinal tract of a variety of hosts. The genus contains many species. Newly described members of human enteroviruses are assigned continuous numbers with the species designated "human enterovirus".
A RNA-binding protein that is found predominately in the CYTOPLASM. It helps regulate GENETIC TRANSLATION in NEURONS and is absent or under-expressed in FRAGILE X SYNDROME.
A group of simple proteins that yield basic amino acids on hydrolysis and that occur combined with nucleic acid in the sperm of fish. Protamines contain very few kinds of amino acids. Protamine sulfate combines with heparin to form a stable inactive complex; it is used to neutralize the anticoagulant action of heparin in the treatment of heparin overdose. (From Merck Index, 11th ed; Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p692)
Untranslated Region among Cases of the Same Outbreak from a Single Source. Int J Med Sci 2014; 11(1):60-64. doi:10.7150/ijms. ... Untranslated Region among Cases of the Same Outbreak from a Single Source. Int. J. Med. Sci. 2014, 11 (1), 60-64. DOI: 10.7150/ ... Untranslated Region among Cases of the Same Outbreak from a Single Source. Int J Med Sci 2014; 11(1):60-64. doi:10.7150/ijms. ... Untranslated Region among Cases of the Same Outbreak from a Single Source Shuang Wu1,*, Shingo Nakamoto2,*, Tatsuo Kanda1,*, , ...
RAD51 135G>C genotyping was analyzed by PCR amplification of a 175-bp region around nucleotide 135. This region contained a ... untranslated region of DNA repair gene RAD51 reduces risk of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck and interacts with a ... untranslated region of RAD51 and sporadic endometrial cancer risk in Polish women. Beata Smolarz ... untranslated region of RAD51 and sporadic endometrial cancer risk in Polish women. Polish Journal of Pathology, 62(3), pp.157- ...
... untranslated region of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor NR2A subunit controls efficiency of translation. ... untranslated region of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor NR2A subunit controls efficiency of translation. Journal Article ( ... untranslated region (5-UTR) of the NR2A subunit severely restricts its protein translation in both Xenopus oocytes and in an ... In contrast, the 5-UTR of NR1 does not inhibit translation and is not consrved. Taken together, these findings suggest a ...
... untranslated region. 1,206/1,213 (99.4). 848/851 (99.6). 829C,T. NSP2: N8N. 862/866 (99.5). 652/653 (99.8). ...
... untranslated region, 3′ untranslated region and poly(A) tail. Regulatory regions within the 3′-untranslated region can ... untranslated region also has regulatory functions. Protein factors can either aid or disrupt folding of the region into various ... Five prime untranslated region UTRdb UTRome Barrett, Lucy W.; Fletcher, Sue; Wilton, Steve D. (27 April 2012). "Regulation of ... The 3′-untranslated region plays a crucial role in gene expression by influencing the localization, stability, export, and ...
Search for abbreviations and long forms in lifescience, results along with the related PubMed / MEDLINE information and co-occurring abbreviations.
... untranslated regions exist in the gene.. Molecular analysis of the methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) gene in one patient ... Diagnosis of inborn errors of metabolism within the expanded newborn screening in the Madrid region. JIMD Rep. 2022 Mar. 63 (2 ... was identified in this region. Transfection of wild-type MMADHC rescued the cellular phenotype, and the functional importance ... 4] Two other enzymes involved in sulfur amino acid metabolism have been mapped: 5-methyltetrahydrofolate and L-homocysteine S- ...
... untranslated region stabilized known virulence determinants. Testing of this codon-deoptimized new OPV2 candidate (nOPV2-CD) in ... concentrations showed wide variation by region (not statistically significant), and the Petén and Norte regions showed the ... novel typing scheme consisting of four coding regions and two intergenic regions. A concatenated Bayesian phylogeny that ... Lango and Acholi regions, both of which were experiencing a nutrition state of emergency during this period, had both high and ...
... untranslated region (psbA encoding the D1 protein of photosystem II). The 43 kDa protein, which is present in the stroma and in ... untranslated region was identified that is necessary but not sufficient for binding of stromal proteins. The central protein ... untranslated region. It comprises the Shine-Dalgarno-like GGAG motif and, 7 nucleotides upstream, an endonucleolytic cleavage ... site involved in psbA mRNA degradation in vitro . The mechanistic impacts of this region in relation to RNA-binding proteins ...
... untranslated region promotes pain sensitization in mice. January 11, 2021 ...
3 Untranslated Regions / genetics * 5 Untranslated Regions / genetics * Algorithms * Animals * Artifacts * Computational ... region of the miRNA and evaluating the number and quality of these complementary sites. Rigorous tests using shuffled miRNA ... more than 400 regulatory target genes for the conserved vertebrate miRNAs by identifying mRNAs with conserved pairing to the 5 ...
... untranslated regions. Regulatory features may have evolved after these species split from a common ancestor, with transcriptome ... but also on the gene level by generation or deletion of promoter sequences and 5′ ... Other regions, such as the region containing the spoT gene [57, 58] are contiguous in the C. jejuni genome, but split over two ... The dRNA-seq profiles of the C. jejuni cj1274c-1271c region and the H. pylori hp0777-hp0774 region (+TEX = enriched for TSS, - ...
... untranslated region and N-terminal nsp1 coding sequences. - Texas A&M University (TAMU) Scholar profile, educations, ... SHAPE analysis of the RNA secondary structure of the Mouse Hepatitis Virus 5 ... untranslated region and N-terminal nsp1 coding sequences. Academic Article * ... regions of MHV-A59, BCoV and SARS-CoV were similar despite high sequence divergence. The pattern of SHAPE reactivity of in ...
... untranslated region. Gene. 2001 Aug 8;273(2):163-71. doi: 10.1016/s0378-1119(01)00595-9. Citation on PubMed ... 2013 May;21(5):528-34. doi: 10.1038/ejhg.2012.202. Epub 2012 Sep 19. Citation on PubMed or Free article on PubMed Central ... Genomic structure of human GM3 synthase gene (hST3Gal V) and identification of mRNA isoforms in the 5- ... 1998 Nov 27;273(48):31652-5. doi: 10.1074/jbc.273.48.31652. Citation on PubMed ...
... untranslated region to the translational efficiency of heterologous genes in plant cells ... "Вклад консенсусной 5-нетранслируемой области в эффективность трансляции гетерологичных генов в растительных клетках ... untranslated region (5-UTRs) for most A. thalianas genes with high expression levels range from 80 to 120 bp, with an average ... untranslated region to the translational efficiency of heterologous genes in plant cells. ...
The genetic diversity of heat shock protein 70 gene at promoter and 5 untranslated region in beef cattle ... untranslated region in beef cattle. I. Suhendro - Postgraduate student of Animal Production and Technology, IPB University, ... untranslated region) HSP70 (heat shock protein 70) gene in several beef cattle in Indonesia. A total of 86 blood samples of ... untranslated region) HSP70 (heat shock protein 70) gene in several beef cattle in Indonesia. A total of 86 blood samples of ...
... untranslated region of the GADD45alpha mRNA. This IRES element in the 5-untranslated region of the GADD45alpha mRNA is ... Sequence analysis revealed a potential IRES element in the 5- ...
... untranslated regions, and a few predict only the boundaries of isolated exons. The resulting predictions are often distributed ... where users can examine and compare predictions in regions of interest. If whole-genome prediction sets are not available for a ...
The Drosophila melanogaster genome contains 5 genes that code for soluble guanylyl cyclase subunits. Two of these genes code ... Journal of Insect Science 5 (12), 1-10, (1 April 2005) KEYWORDS: BAY 41-2272, cyclic GMP, ...
A variant located in the 3 untranslated region (UTR) of a gene. ... untranslated region (UTR) of a gene.. 3_prime_UTR_variant. ... splice_region_variant. A sequence variant in which a change has occurred within the region of the splice site, either within 1- ... splice site or splice region: splice_donor_variant, splice_acceptor_variant, splice_region_variant ... region to annotate genome position or search term Select Variants. Your session doesnt have any custom tracks or hub tracks in ...
... untranslated region (5UTR), the hypervariable region 1 (HVR1), non-structural gene 5a (NS5a) and non-structural gene 5b (NS5b ... Region: Region amplified PCR products were generated from four regions on the HCV genome; 5- ... Region. Primer Name. Direction. Position. Subtype. 5-3 NT Sequence for Nested PCR. ... The initial PCR reaction amplifies a region of the HCV genome (External primers). A subsequent PCR reaction amplifies an ...
... untranslated region was amplified by RT-PCR and sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis of 119 viral strains revealed that a majority ... suggesting the prevalence of subtypes in PI beef calves in the region has remained relatively constant. To further investigate ... 28(5):519-528.. Interpretive Summary: Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is an important pathogen of cattle that can lead to ... To determine subtype prevalence, a 283 bp fragment of the 5 ...
... untranslated regions (57,58). Structural proteins include the spike (S), envelope (E), membrane (M) and nucleocapsid (N) (59,60 ... Multiple assays are also widely used, i.e. those targeting a region upstream of the E gene or regions within open reading frame ... The viral genome was initially detected in human clinical samples with primers targeting highly conserved regions of the ... Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) serology in major livestock species in an affected region in Jordan, ...
... untranslated regions (UTRs), whereas self-amplifying RNAs encode not only the antigen but also the viral replication machinery ... untranslated regions (UTRs) and so on); dendritic cell (DC) maturation and migration to secondary lymphoid tissue, which is ... untranslated region (UTR) and the 3′-UTR23 stabilize mRNA and increase protein translation ... CXC chemokine receptor 5 expression defines follicular homing T cells with B cell helper function. J. Exp. Med. 192, 1553-1562 ...
Untranslated Regions Proteins 0.000 description 1 * XPDXVDYUQZHFPV-UHFFFAOYSA-N 5-Dimethylaminonaphthyl-5-sulfonyl chloride ... 229940075615 Bacillus subtilis Drugs 0.000 claims description 5 * 240000008371 Bacillus subtilis Species 0.000 claims ... 229940081969 Saccharomyces cerevisiae Drugs 0.000 claims description 5 * 230000001147 anti-toxic Effects 0.000 claims ... 235000014469 Bacillus subtilis Nutrition 0.000 claims description 5 * 235000003534 Saccharomyces carlsbergensis Nutrition 0.000 ...
... untranslated genome region. Six studies analysed SARS-CoV-2 Ct values at multiple time points for each patient [10, 11, 18,19, ... 5,6]. Although there are many differences between the current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic compared to the SARS-CoV epidemic of 2002, ...
... untranslated regions (UTR) are shown as open boxes. Alternative exons of C2cd6l are shown in red. Alternative exons 13′ and 1′ ... The targeting strategy was to delete 1.6-kb genomic region including exon 1 of the C2cd6 gene (Fig. 2A). In the targeting ... A) Gene structures of C2cd6 and Als2cr11b on Chromosome 1. Coding regions of exons are shown in black boxes. 5′ and 3′ ... The C2CD6 signal is strong at the beginning of the principal piece (at the annulus region) and tappers off toward the end piece ...
... untranslated regions of eukaryotic mRNAs. Update 2002.," Nucleic Acids Res., vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 335-40, Jan. 2002. ... SNPs can be in the coding regions, non-coding regions, and in the intergenic area between two genes [2]-[3]. Although coding ... untranslated regions of mRNAs in human diseases," Biol. Cell, vol. 101, no. 5, pp. 251-262, May 2009. ... "Structural and functional features of eukaryotic mRNA untranslated regions.," Gene, vol. 276, no. 1-2, pp. 73-81, Oct. 2001. ...
  • Here we predict more than 400 regulatory target genes for the conserved vertebrate miRNAs by identifying mRNAs with conserved pairing to the 5' region of the miRNA and evaluating the number and quality of these complementary sites. (
  • The Drosophila melanogaster genome contains 5 genes that code for soluble guanylyl cyclase subunits. (
  • SNPs can be in the coding regions, non-coding regions, and in the intergenic area between two genes [ 2 ]-[ 3 ]. (
  • British Library EThOS: The structure and expression of genes encoding the small subunit of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase in Phaseolus vulgaris L. (
  • The structure and expression of genes encoding the small subunit of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase in Phaseolus vulgaris L. (
  • These rbcS genes show very high nucleotide sequence homologies in the coding regions for both the transit peptide and the mature polypeptide. (
  • The nucleotide sequences for the 5' - and 3' -untranslated regions of these genes which were present in the cDNA clones showed far more divergence. (
  • To characterize the nucleotide sequences obtained from this study, we analyzed the 5′ UTR and VP1 genes of all SAFV isolates to determine the extent of homology among the genes and those documented in the GenBank database by using MEGA software ( 14 ). (
  • Genes of red blood cell groups are highly polymorphic and the distribution of allelic frequencies in these systems varies between different regions of the world. (
  • Our efficiency-corrected scoring model identifies 910 loss-of-function variants for BRCA1/2 , including 151 variants in the noncoding part of the genes such as the 5′ untranslated regions. (
  • Examples of splicing events that were found to modulate transporter expression across individuals include alternate 5 prime untranslated regions (5' UTRs) in the genes ABCC5 and ABCA8. (
  • Based on the sequence logo information from the 5' untranslated region of other Bacteroidales ribosomal protein genes, we conclude that our findings are relevant to all members of this order. (
  • For this reason, many researchers prefer to evaluate only the coding regions of an organism (i.e. the exome), or in the alternative, a set of specific genes or sequences of interest. (
  • These observations show that the IGF-I genes in four classes of vertebrates have similar overall structures with regard to their common coding regions, but differ significantly in their 5′ and 3′ regions. (
  • Phage M has the smallest known Leviviridae genome to date and has the typical genome organization with maturation, coat and replicase genes in the 5′ to 3′ direction. (
  • The genome codes a large open reading frame (ORF), which is flanked by 5'-untranslated region (5'UTR) and 3'UTR. (
  • Both the genomes and transcriptomes of Epsilonproteobacteria are highly variable, both at the genome level by combining and division of multicistronic operons, but also on the gene level by generation or deletion of promoter sequences and 5′ untranslated regions. (
  • SHAPE technology was used to analyze RNA secondary structure of the 5' most 474 nts of the MHV-A59 genome encompassing the minimal 5' cis-acting region required for defective interfering RNA replication. (
  • The resulting predictions are often distributed through web portals such as the University of California Santa Cruz genome browser ( ), where users can examine and compare predictions in regions of interest. (
  • The initial PCR reaction amplifies a region of the HCV genome (External primers). (
  • The 5′ and 3′ untranslated regions were obtained by nested PCR with combined specific primers and henipavirus-specific degenerate primers as described ( 8 ), and the exact sequences of the 5′ and 3′ genome termini were determined by rapid amplification of cDNA ends. (
  • By introducing base substitutions at guide RNA target regions in the genome, CRISPR-Cas9-based base editors provide the possibility for evaluating a large number of variants in their genomic context. (
  • Applying this strategy to assess variants in both coding and noncoding regions of the genome could have a direct impact on the interpretation of cancer variants. (
  • The newly developed CRISPR-Cas9 system is a way to directly introduce mutations in both coding and noncoding regions in the genome [ 8 , 9 ]. (
  • To test this hypothesis we sequenced single genome template derived amplicons (SGA) of env and pol regions of HIV-1. (
  • The nOPV2 candidate strains include different combinations of 5 distinct modified regions of the Sabin-2 genome, including changes to the RNA sequence in the 5' untranslated region of polio genome (5' UTR), the capsid protein coding region (P1), the non-structural protein 2C, and the polymerase 3D. (
  • [18] The genome has the usual 5′ methylated cap and a 3′ polyadenylated tail . (
  • The 5' methylated cap and 3' polyadenylated tail allows the positive-sense RNA genome to be directly translated by the host cell's ribosome on viral entry . (
  • The 5' un-translated region (5'UTR) of HCV is the most highly conserved region of the virus genome, making this region ideal target for HCV RNA amplification-based detection assays. (
  • Additional target to determine the genotypes of HCV is the non-structural (NS) 5B region of the viral genome. (
  • Phylogenetic analyses of the nucleotide sequences of the E coding region in the genome of isolated viruses demonstrate that several genotypes exist within each of the DENV types, DENV1C4 [19]. (
  • The sequenced Covid-19 genome from a South African patient had about three point mutations (changes) of interest, Aspartic acid to Glycine, Proline to Leucin and a point mutation in the 5' untranslated region. (
  • Some programs also predict 5′ untranslated regions, and a few predict only the boundaries of isolated exons. (
  • In addition to sequences within the 3′-UTR, the physical characteristics of the region, including its length and secondary structure, contribute to translation regulation. (
  • However, variability can also be introduced at the gene level, e.g. by generation of alternative transcription start sites, promoter recognition sequences or alterations in the 5′ untranslated regions affecting folding or stability. (
  • SHAPE analysis of the RNA secondary structure of the Mouse Hepatitis Virus 5' untranslated region and N-terminal nsp1 coding sequences. (
  • In some PCR reactions multiple sequences have identical nucleotide sequences, for example if five PCR products have identical sequences a 5 will be found in this column. (
  • One of the rbcS cDNA clones contained two regions of intronic sequences, the first lying between the codons for the 2nd and 3rd amino acids of the mature polypeptide and the second lying between the codons for the 47th and 48th amino acids of the mature polypeptide. (
  • CBE-induced RNA edits occur in both protein-coding and non-protein-coding sequences and generate missense, nonsense, splice site, and 5' and 3' untranslated region mutations. (
  • Nucleotide sequences of 12.4 kb of contiguous genomic sequence from the 5$\sp\prime$-end of the gene and 4.8 kb of the cDNAs were determined. (
  • In other preferred embodiments, the oligonucleotides are specifically hybridizable with a transcription initiation site, a translation initiation site, 5'-untranslated sequences, 3'-untranslated sequences, and intron/exon junction of influenza virus mRNAs. (
  • Nucleotide substitutions or insertions into the loop region of the U5-IR stem also decrease the efficiency of reverse transcription, suggesting that these sequences may specifically interact with reverse transcriptase. (
  • By transiently transfecting XTC-2 cells and microinjecting Xenopus embryos with reporter gene constructs containing serial deletions of 5'-flanking MARCKS sequences, we identified a 124-base pair minimal promoter that was critical for promoter activity. (
  • The base sequences of both genotypes varied at certain locations in both the 5'UTR and NS5B regions however NS5B region sequences displayed higher heterogeneity. (
  • Our Whole Exome Sequencing (WES) service seeks to capture the coding sequences and the associated 5′ and 3′ untranslated regions (i.e. the expanded exome). (
  • Intriguingly, exon 1-encoded 5′-untranslated region sequences are highly conserved, while the coding sequences at the 3′ end of the same exon are less conserved. (
  • Similarities in protein sequences and RNA secondary structures at the 3′ untranslated region place phage M together with phages specific for IncP, IncC and IncH, but not IncF plasmid-encoded pili. (
  • numbering of exons and intron/exon boundaries largely as determined by Zhang , with their exon 5 split by an additional intron. (
  • Coding regions, intron-exon boundaries, and untranslated regions were sequenced by standard techniques. (
  • LoxP sites were inserted to flank exon 2, including part of the 5' untranslated region, the start codon and sequence encoding 171 amino acids, including the cytoplasmic tail, transmembrane region and part of the N-deacetylase domain. (
  • It revealed the organization of the promoter region, the exon/intron structure for parts of the gene, and the presence of alternative splicing for an exon that codes for a highly acidic domain in the globular amino-terminal propeptide. (
  • Eight distinct MFRP mutations were found in 10/21 families (47.6%), five of which are novel including a deletion spanning the 5' untranslated region and the first coding part of exon 1. (
  • We identified additional sequence variation in the DJ-1 gene, including a polymorphism in the coding region in exon 5 (R98Q), three polymorphisms in the 5′ untranslated region (exon 1A/1B), and two polymorphisms in intronic regions (IVS1 and IVS5). (
  • a. extension/truncation of an exon, b. cassette exons in which an exon is present in one transcript but absent in an isoform of the transcript, c. alternating exons that are used in alternative transcripts in a mutually exclusive manner, and d. intron retention in which a nucleotide region is used as an exon in a transcript while it is an intron in an alternative transcript. (
  • Cassette exon, alternating exon, and intron retention can be further characterised as 'complex' or 'simple' depending on whether the 5' or/and 3' flanking exons also undergo modifications. (
  • On average the length for the 3′-UTR in humans is approximately 800 nucleotides, while the average length of 5'-UTRs is only about 200 nucleotides. (
  • The mean G+C percentage of the 5'-UTR in warm-blooded vertebrates is about 60% as compared to only 45% for 3′-UTRs. (
  • This is important because an inverse correlation has been observed between the G+C% of 5' and 3′-UTRs and their corresponding lengths. (
  • The UTRs that are GC-poor tend to be longer than those located in GC-rich genomic regions. (
  • Based on alignment results was defined motive in 5'-UTRs, as a new regulatory element, which could potentially provide highly efficient expression and synthesis of the target product in plants. (
  • It was demonstrated that consensus sequence of 5'-UTRs increased accumulation of the bi-reporter protein more than 25%, by that acting as a potential positive regulatory element on translational efficiency. (
  • The DNA insert contains only the protein coding sequence (from start codon to stop codon) of a complete gene (or cDNA) without the 5' and 3' untranslated regions (UTRs), or introns. (
  • It has been proposed that the length of 5' UTRs is selectively neutral and evolves under a process of stochastic destruction and recruitment of core promoter elements, combined with selection against the premature initiation of translation. (
  • It has been concluded that some of 5'-UTRs mediate more efficiently translation of their respective messages. (
  • RNA transcript carrying both protein-coding capacity and activity as functional non-coding RNA via 5′ and 3′ untranslated regions (UTRs). (
  • 26% of S. pyogenes transcript 5' untranslated regions (UTRs) were longer than 60 nt. (
  • The gene encoding GPR3 is intronless within the coding region, contains at least one intron in the 5'-untranslated region, and has been localized to chromosome 1p34.3. (
  • Minn and colleagues identified an insulin splice variant in isolated human pancreatic islets of nondiabetic donors that retains 26 bp of intron 1 and thereby changes the 5' untranslated region. (
  • The Xenopus MARCKS gene was similar to those of other species, except that a second intron interrupted the 5'- untranslated region. (
  • An important biological role for the 5'-UTR of NR2A is further suggested by the unusually high level of sequence conservation between species. (
  • Secondary structure predictions for 5' regions of MHV-A59, BCoV and SARS-CoV were similar despite high sequence divergence. (
  • Sequence analysis revealed a potential IRES element in the 5'-untranslated region of the GADD45alpha mRNA. (
  • The insert contains 99 nucleotides of 5' untranslated sequence and coding regions for a signal peptide of 18 amino acids and the first 379 amino acids of the mature protein. (
  • We have found a previously undescribed full-length L1-BT element inserted in the 5'-genomic sequence of the Agouti gene in Normande cattle which promotes the over-expression of alternative transcripts. (
  • Overlapping mouse cDNA clones for the col11a2 gene were prepared that cover the entire coding sequence together with the 5$\sp\prime$ untranslated region. (
  • When gaps are found between the alignments, the appropriate region of genomic sequence is searched against the missing mRNA, first using a very low-stringency BLAST and, if the BLAST fails to find a hit, using DotView functions to locate the alignment. (
  • Using PCR with sequence-specific primers to amplify portions of the C. merolae bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) that contained gap regions of interest, and then sequencing the resulting subclones, we have reduced the number of gaps between contigs from 46 to zero (Figure 1 ). (
  • These data indicate that the reverse transcription initiation complex and RNA packaging apparatus are influenced by the same region of RSV RNA and that each process is differentially sensitive to changes in sequence and/or secondary structure. (
  • This study includes sequence analysis of the DJ-1 gene in addition to assaying the 14,082-bp deletion spanning exons 1 to 5, previously identified in a Dutch kindred, in 89 EOPD cases. (
  • The rest of the modifications aim to stabilize the genetic sequence against reversion in either the 5' UTR or capsid regions. (
  • Eukaryotic mRNAs are headed by a stretch of noncoding sequence, the 5' untranslated region (UTR). (
  • In addition to amino acid homology, there is remarkable interspecies conservation in the nucleotide sequence of the 5' and 3' untranslated regions of the C mRNA. (
  • ζ has no sequence similarity to the CD3 chains and the localization of the human ζ gene to the centromeric region of chromosome 1 underscores the fact that it is a distinct genetic component of the TCR. (
  • The sequence gene model can be confirmed by EST records GI:13698172, GI:13689118, GI:13684254, GI:3102337, GI:114073046 (the last EST contains also the poly(A) region). (
  • In this study, we identified a novel bifunctional RNA that is transcribed from insulin receptor substrate-1 ( Irs-1 ) gene with full-length 5′UTR sequence (FL- Irs-1 mRNA). (
  • The FL- Irs-1 5′UTR contains a partial complementary sequence to Rb mRNA, which is a critical factor for myogenic differentiation. (
  • 2) Gateway® entry clones are constructed based on the Accession DNA sequence, and only have CDS region. (
  • Nucleotide sequence analysis of 5'UTR and NS5B region were performed to identify viral genotypes of 40 HCV infected patients attending Gastroenterology Clinic, HTAA Kuantan Pahang. (
  • Sequence variations were analyzed in both regions, NS5B region demonstrated greater genetic variability in its sequence than 5'UTR. (
  • The sequence contained a 5 untranslated region of 341 bases, a long open reading frame coding for a polyprotein of 3,011 amino acids, and a 3 untranslated region of about 27 bases. (
  • Here it is demonstrated that the 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) of the NR2A subunit severely restricts its protein translation in both Xenopus oocytes and in an in vitro translation system. (
  • Several regions of the mRNA molecule are not translated into a protein including the 5' cap, 5' untranslated region, 3′ untranslated region and poly(A) tail. (
  • In this work we characterized two proteins, of 43 and 47 kDa, which bind to the spinach psbA mRNA 5' untranslated region (psbA encoding the D1 protein of photosystem II). (
  • The 'central protein binding element' ranges from nucleotide -49 to -9 of the psbA mRNA 5' untranslated region. (
  • How to cite (IEEE): I. Suhendro, J. Jakaria, and R. Noor, "The genetic diversity of heat shock protein 70 gene at promoter and 5' untranslated region in beef cattle," Journal of the Indonesian Tropical Animal Agriculture , vol. 46, no. 2, pp. 136-144, Jun. (
  • How to cite (Vancouver): Suhendro I, Jakaria J, Noor R. The genetic diversity of heat shock protein 70 gene at promoter and 5' untranslated region in beef cattle. (
  • SNP}, abstract = {This study was aimed to identify genetic diversity in the promoter area and 5' UTR (untranslated region) HSP70 (heat shock protein 70) gene in several beef cattle in Indonesia. (
  • This IRES element in the 5'-untranslated region of the GADD45alpha mRNA is functional in mediating As3+-induced translation of the GADD45alpha protein in a dicistronic reporter gene activity assay. (
  • The first report of the successful use of in vitro transcribed (IVT) mRNA in animals was published in 1990, when reporter gene mRNAs were injected into mice and protein production was detected 5 . (
  • As nsSNPs alter the amino acids in their corresponding protein, it could have deleterious effects on the structure and function [ 5 ]-[ 6 ]. (
  • Fisher's exact testing revealed significant relationships between the minor T allele of LDL receptor related protein 5 ( LRP5 ) rs3736228 and the prevalence of knee/hip OA and osteoporosis. (
  • The regions of RNA that code for protein are called exons (Figure 1). (
  • mRNAs have three basic segments, the 5′-untranslated region (5′-UTR), the coding region (CR, which encodes protein), and the 3′-UTR. (
  • The ANN is trained to integrate the features of each recognition element along the 3′untranslated region into a targeting score, reproducing the relative repression fold change of the protein. (
  • Features common to many of the prediction programs are the alignment of the miRNA seed region (2-7 nt starting from the 5′ end) to the 3′untranslated region (3′UTR) of a protein coding gene and the use of evolutionary conservation of miRNA recognition elements (MREs). (
  • and large (L) protein (2,277 aa)-5′ ( Technical Appendix Figure ). (
  • DNA-protein binding studies established Stat3 interaction in the 5′-untranslated γ-globin promoter region. (
  • The overexpression of the 5′UTR markedly reduced Rb mRNA expression, and this reduction was fully dependent on the complementary element and was not compensated by IRS-1 protein. (
  • The untranslated region (UTR) of several mRNA transcripts can also function as a trans-acting regulatory RNA that is independent of the protein-coding functions. (
  • Recessive inheritance of thyroid hormone resistance caused by complete deletion of the protein-coding region of the thyroid hormone receptor-beta gene. (
  • prokaryotic expression and antiserum preparation for major antigenic epitope region of major capsid protein of chinese giant salamander (andrias davidianus) iridovirus]. (
  • objective to express the fusion protein of major antigenic epitope region of major capsid protein (mcp) of chinese giant salamander (andrias davidianus) iridovirus (cgsiv) and prepare the rabbit antiserum. (
  • A single copy of the maturation protein binds to phage RNA [ 5 ] and gets incorporated into capsids along with it. (
  • The human MHC region on chromosome 6 encodes classical and non-classical MHC class I-like proteins, but other non-classical class I-like proteins such as human CD1 and MHC-related protein 1 (MR1) are located outside the MHC region [ 3 , 14 ] at chromosome 1q23 and 1q25 respectively [ 15 ]. (
  • Although MR1 transcripts have been detected in all murine tissues examined, and in a range of human cell lines [ 14 ], cell surface expression of MR1 protein has not been detected in vivo or ex vivo [ 2 , 5 , 11 , 24 ]. (
  • Although more and animals and plants and regulate gene/protein expression more progressions have been made about the through direct complementarity between their 5' region pathogenesis of asthma in recent years, the increasing and the 3' untranslated region of target mRNAs. (
  • We previously identified a single polymorphism in the 3'-untranslated region (UTR) of ASIP that was found at a higher frequency in African-Americans compared with other population groups. (
  • A polymorphism at nucleotide +28 near the base of a potential stem-loop structure within the 5′ untranslated region was significantly associated with vacA transcript level and inflammation. (
  • A single nucleotide polymorphism in the 5' untranslated region of this gene has been associated with mild malaria suceptibility. (
  • 5'-untranslated region (5'UTR), the hypervariable region 1 (HVR1), non-structural gene 5a (NS5a) and non-structural gene 5b (NS5b). (
  • The IRE is a stem-loop structure within the untranslated regions of mRNAs that encode proteins involved in cellular iron metabolism. (
  • Indeed, we showed that a genetic variant in the 5′ UTR of DDX39B reduces translation of DDX39B mRNAs and increases MS risk. (
  • Lidia Vasiljeva Eukaryotic mRNAs are extensively processed to generate functional transcripts, which are 5′ capped, spliced and 3′ polyadenylated. (
  • they bind to the 3′ untranslated region (3′ UTR) of target mRNAs leading to their degradation or the inhibition of mRNA translation ( 6 ). (
  • MicroRNAs (miRNA or miRs) are a class of endogenous, small noncoding RNAs that negatively regulate target gene expression by binding to the 3′-untranslated region (3'UTR) of mRNAs for translational repression or degradation [ 1 , 2 ]. (
  • For example, poly(A) tail bound PABP interacts with proteins associated with the 5' end of the transcript, causing a circularization of the mRNA that promotes translation. (
  • This region of the mRNA transcript can range from 60 nucleotides to about 4000. (
  • In eukaryotic cells, the RNA transcript often contains regions, called introns, that are removed prior to translation. (
  • The transcript was enriched at the 5' untranslated region (UTR) of the locus. (
  • Two transcript variants have been detected which differ in the 5' untranslated region. (
  • The disease is due to a mutation in the histone deacetylase 6 HDAC6 gene (Xp11.3-q13.1) that causes a nucleotide substitution in the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of the HDAC6 transcript. (
  • Mutational analysis of the 5'-UTR implicates secondary structure as the major translational impediment, while the five alternate start codons play minor roles. (
  • However, since RNA folds progressively from the 5' end when synthesised or released from the translational machinery, this may not be the most probable structure. (
  • We also discuss approaches for studying the extent of the translational inhibition specified by structures within the 5' untranslated region. (
  • In molecular genetics, the three prime untranslated region (3′-UTR) is the section of messenger RNA (mRNA) that immediately follows the translation termination codon. (
  • 1%. This study confirmed that nucleotide substitutions of this region are transition mutations in outbreak cases, that insertion was observed only in non-severe cases, and that these nucleotide substitutions were different from those of the sporadic case. (
  • Analysis of UDPSs detected low-prevalence HAV variations in 5 ' UTR, but no specific mutations associated with severity in these outbreak cases. (
  • Mutations in regulatory regions or other untranslated regions are not detected by this test. (
  • Heterozygous deletions, insertions, genetic recombination events, as well as mutations in regulatory regions or other untranslated regions are not detected by this test. (
  • Most methods utilized exogenous vectors to carry cDNAs with mutations as transgenes while inhibiting or deleting the endogenous copy of the target gene [ 5 , 6 , 7 ]. (
  • These strategies could only assay mutations in coding regions and the mutations are not tested in their native genomic context. (
  • Point mutations in MSH6 gene had been related to group of cancers called lynch syndrome which accounts for 3% to 5% of all colorectal cancers. (
  • 13] They investigated a 40 bp variable number tandem repeats (VNTR) located in the 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) of the dopamine transporter gene (DAT1) in ADHD families. (
  • By deletion analysis, an element within the psbA mRNA 5' untranslated region was identified that is necessary but not sufficient for binding of stromal proteins. (
  • the full-length cdna of admif was of 661bp, consisting of 134bp 5'-terminal utr, 348bp open reading frame and 179bp 3'-terminal utr. (
  • This cDNA clone contains the 61 nucleotides of the 5′ untranslated region (UTR) and the 213 nucleotides of 3′ UTR. (
  • The deduced polypeptide of the rice tufA cDNA contains GTP binding domains in its N-terminal region and chloroplast EF-Tu signature regions in the C-terminal region. (
  • Cloning and characterization of the chloroplast elongation factor EF-Tu cDNA of Oryza sativa L. Molecules and cells , 9 (5), 484-490. (
  • The full-length cDNA of the P. americana RPS23 ( PaRPS23 ) was of 615 bp, containing a 5′ untranslated region (UTR) of 116 bp, a 3′ UTR of 67 bp with a poly (A) tail, and an open reading frame of 432 bp encoding a polypeptide of 143 amino acids with the predicted molecular weight of 16.03 kDa and estimated isoelectric point of 10.47 (NCBI accession number: KJ472479). (
  • Corroborating previous observations, we asserted that Toxoplasma 5′ leaders are among the longest of any eukaryote studied thus far, displaying a median length of approximately 800 nucleotides. (
  • We expanded the search space for pathogenic variants by also analyzing variants in 5' untranslated regions that create upstream open-reading frames or disrupt the stop codons of existing upstream open-reading frames. (
  • At that time, treatment strategies were tentative, the unutterable hydroxychloroquine was still en vogue , the multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children ( MIS - C ) as yet unheard of, and nobody knew about Long COVID or variants. (
  • The 3′-UTR often contains regulatory regions that post-transcriptionally influence gene expression. (
  • Regulatory regions within the 3′-untranslated region can influence polyadenylation, translation efficiency, localization, and stability of the mRNA. (
  • The 3′-UTR of mRNA has a great variety of regulatory functions that are controlled by the physical characteristics of the region. (
  • The annotations in this section provide predicted regulatory regions based on various experimental data. (
  • When a variant overlaps an annotation selected here, the consequence term regulatory_region_variant will be assigned. (
  • The 5′UTR of mRNA also acts as regulatory RNA, as we have previously reported that the 5′UTR of VEGF mRNA promotes tumor malignancy by silencing of STAT1 mRNA expression [ 18 ]. (
  • Genomic structure of human GM3 synthase gene (hST3Gal V) and identification of mRNA isoforms in the 5'-untranslated region. (
  • Comparing data from acute and chronic stages, we identified instances of stage-specific alternative TSSs that putatively generate mRNA isoforms with distinct 5′ termini. (
  • Previous studies of the specificity of CBEs have identified off-target DNA edits in mammalian cells 5,6 . (
  • Of 581 p53 SNPs, 420 SNPs are found to be missense or non-synonymous and 435 SNPs are in the 3 prime UTR and 112 SNPs are of every 5 prime UTR from which 16 non synonymous SNPs (nsSNPs) as non-tolerable while PredictSNP package predicted 14 (taking consideration SNP colored green by two or more than 2 analyses is neutral). (
  • By using diverse SNP analysing tools we have found 5 missense SNPs in the 3 crucial amino acids position in the DNA binding domain. (
  • Of these SNPs, 23.2% were located within coding regions. (
  • The 3′-UTR also has silencer regions which bind to repressor proteins and will inhibit the expression of the mRNA. (
  • The mechanistic impacts of this region in relation to RNA-binding proteins are discussed. (
  • Nitrated proteins have also been detected in these samples, revealing that NO is biologically active in regions damaged during neurodegeneration. (
  • It has been suggested that, like CD1, MR1 presents lipid antigens [ 12 , 16 ], but based on structural predictions others have suggested that hydrophilic antigens like proteins are more likely candidates [ 5 , 6 ]. (
  • RAD51 is involved in homologous recombination and repair of double-strand breaks in DNA and DNA cross-links and for the maintenance of chromosome stability [5]. (
  • 5′ and 3′ exonucleases can degrade unprotected RNAs. (
  • Secondary structures within the 5' untranslated regions of messenger RNAs can have profound effects on the efficiency of translation of their messages and thereby on gene expression. (
  • HAV IRES derived from clinical isolates have shown various activities in in vitro cell culture [ 5 , 12 ]. (
  • The three isolates have similar genomic organization to previously described SVA isolates, namely, 5′ untranslated region (UTR), a single open reading frame (ORF), and 3′ UTR. (
  • Resistance to thyroid hormone caused by two mutant thyroid hormone receptors beta, R243Q and R243W, with marked impairment of function that cannot be explained by altered in vitro 3,5,3'-triiodothyroinine binding affinity. (
  • In vitro, miR-214 could sensitize non-resistant colon cancer cells and 5-FU-resistant colon cancer cellsto 5-FU. (
  • In bacteria, transcriptional regulation is commonly mediated via control of transcription initiation by RNA polymerase (RNAP) at the promoter [ 5 ]. (
  • Furthermore, co-transfection experiments with Stat3β demonstrate γ promoter inhibition in a concentration-dependent manner, which was significantly reversed when the cognate Stat3-binding site in the 5′-untranslated region was mutated. (
  • 5]Sunilkumar G, Mohr L, Lopata-Finch E. Developmental and tissue-specific expression of CaMV 35S promoter in cotton as revealed by GFP. (
  • 11]Li A, Chen L L, Ren H Y, Wang X C, Huang R F. Analysis of the essential DNA region for OsEBP-89 promoter in response to methyl jasmonic acid. (
  • The LTRs flanking the coding region contain promoter motifs that drive transcription. (
  • The pCold GST vector includes a 5' untranslated region (5' UTR), translation enhancing element (TEE), his tag, GST tag, and multiple cloning site (MCS) downstream of the cspA promoter. (
  • From epidemiological week 6, starting on 7 February 2021, until 6 March, the number of hospitalizations for COVID-19 in Rio Grande do Sul, the southernmost state of Brazil in the South region, increased from 1738 inpatients to 6995 (3.8-fold). (
  • To address this challenge, we used 5′-end RNA sequencing to genomically assess transcription initiation in both acute and chronic stages of Toxoplasma . (
  • The 5' untranslated region is a major decisive factor for initiation and regulation of translation in the chloroplast. (
  • 388 were coding synonymous, 937 non synonymous, 201 in frame shift, 63 in 3' un-translated region and 347 in 5' un-translated region. (
  • Another set of elements that is present in both the 5' and 3′-UTR are iron response elements (IREs). (
  • No bicistronic mRNA tests were employed at all, no positive control containing known IRES has been used, and neither direct RNA transfection was performed nor T7 polymerase-based cytoplasmic transcription was used to prove the special advantage of Hsp90 5'-UTR is due to IRES. (
  • Overexpression of eIF4E-BP (Fig. 5) reduced the translation of Hsp90 by >95% under normal growth temperature (22-24 °C) whereas during heat shock (36 °C, 15 min) overexpression of eIF4E-BP inhibited Hsp90 IRES activity to ~60% only. (
  • Overexpression of Hsp27 could block miR-214 with an effect on the sensitivity of colon cancer cells to 5-FU. (
  • In the absence of any clinical trial including a sufficient number of patients, the likelihood of an SVR and the optimal treatment schedule remain unknown for the patients infected with HCV genotypes 4, 5 or 6. (
  • antiretroviral therapy (Figure). (
  • Cytoplasmic removal of poly(A) tails by 3′→5′ exonucleases (deadenylation) is the rate-limiting step in mRNA degradation. (
  • No genotype 2, 4, 5 and 6 were found in this study. (
  • In addition to length, the nucleotide composition also differs significantly between the 5' and 3′-UTR. (
  • and (5) omics-analysis for systems biology, providing an insight into the tolerance mechanism and new targets for further manipulations [ 13 ]. (
  • Molecular Biology and Evolution , 25 (5), 801-804. (
  • HT-29 cells were cultured in RPMI-1640 medium(Invitrogen) and LoVo cells in F12 medium(Invitrogen), bothsupplemented with 10% FBS(HyClone) and maintained at 37 °C with 5% CO 2 .Lipofectamine 2000 Reagent (Invitrogen) was used for transfection according to the manufacturer's protocol. (
  • One of these structures, referred to as the U5-IR stem, is located immediately upstream of the 5' end of the primer binding site. (
  • Hepatitis C RNA: Testing for HCV RNA by reverse-transcriptase ¬polymerase-chain reaction (RT-PCR) amplification of the 5' noncoding region was performed on anti-HCV positive samples. (
  • The recognition and removal of the dying cell is mediated by two partially redundant signaling pathways involving CED-1 , CED-6 and CED-7 in one pathway and CED-2 , CED-5 , CED-10 , CED-12 and PSR-1 in the other pathway. (
  • open reading frame is usually flanked by untranslated regions, the 5′-UTR and the 3′-UTR. (
  • Furthermore, we report the identification of the 3' end of the 16S rRNA of Bacteroides ovatus and analyze in detail its ribosomal binding site, thus defining a core region necessary for efficient translation, which we have incorporated into the design of our expression vectors. (
  • The 5'-untranslated region of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor NR2A subunit controls efficiency of translation. (
  • The multigene family encoding the small subunit of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase [EC] in Phaseolus vulgaris L. contains,at least three members. (
  • The remethylation pathway comprises 2 intersecting biochemical pathways and results in the transfer of a methyl group (CH 3 ) to homocysteine from methylcobalamin, which receives its methyl group from S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), from 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (an active form of folic acid), or from betaine (trimethylglycine). (
  • To determine subtype prevalence, a 283 bp fragment of the 5' untranslated region was amplified by RT-PCR and sequenced. (
  • These prevalences are comparable to those reported 10 years earlier in a similar U.S. sample, suggesting the prevalence of subtypes in PI beef calves in the region has remained relatively constant. (
  • The Eastern Mediterranean Region recorded the highest prevalence (2.3%) and the second was the European Region (1.5%) in 2015 [2] (Global Hepatitis Report, 2017). (
  • Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a highly prevalent childhood-onset neuropsychiatric condition, with an estimated worldwide-pooled prevalence of 5 to 12% in school-age children [1, 2] and 2 to 5% in adults. (
  • SAFV RNA was detected in the samples by nested reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) that used primers targeting the 5′ untranslated region (UTR), which generated a 540-bp amplicon ( 9 ). (
  • Reverse Transcription 5. (
  • The sensitivity of Sanger sequencing is over 99% for the detection of nucleotide base changes, small deletions and insertions in the regions analyzed. (
  • Functionally, miR-214 inhibited cell clone formation and cell growth and enhanced 5-FU-inducing cell apoptosis and caspase-3 levels. (

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