The sequence at the 3' end of messenger RNA that does not code for product. This region contains transcription and translation regulating sequences.
The sequence at the 5' end of the messenger RNA that does not code for product. This sequence contains the ribosome binding site and other transcription and translation regulating sequences.
The parts of the messenger RNA sequence that do not code for product, i.e. the 5' UNTRANSLATED REGIONS and 3' UNTRANSLATED REGIONS.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
The extent to which an RNA molecule retains its structural integrity and resists degradation by RNASE, and base-catalyzed HYDROLYSIS, under changing in vivo or in vitro conditions.
Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs, 21-25 nucleotides in length generated from single-stranded microRNA gene transcripts by the same RIBONUCLEASE III, Dicer, that produces small interfering RNAs (RNA, SMALL INTERFERING). They become part of the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX and repress the translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of target RNA by binding to homologous 3'UTR region as an imperfect match. The small temporal RNAs (stRNAs), let-7 and lin-4, from C. elegans, are the first 2 miRNAs discovered, and are from a class of miRNAs involved in developmental timing.
Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
A family of RNA-binding proteins that are homologues of ELAV protein, Drosophila. They were initially identified in humans as the targets of autoantibodies in patients with PARANEOPLASTIC ENCEPHALOMYELITIS. They are thought to regulate GENE EXPRESSION at the post-transcriptional level.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Post-transcriptional biological modification of messenger, transfer, or ribosomal RNAs or their precursors. It includes cleavage, methylation, thiolation, isopentenylation, pseudouridine formation, conformational changes, and association with ribosomal protein.
The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.
Sequences within RNA that regulate the processing, stability (RNA STABILITY) or translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of RNA.
A group of adenine ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each adenine ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.
Nucleic acid sequences involved in regulating the expression of genes.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A heterogeneous-nuclear ribonucleoprotein that has specificity for AU-rich elements found in the 3'-region of mRNA and may play a role in RNA stability. Several isoforms of hnRNP D protein have been found to occur due to alternative mRNA splicing (RNA SPLICING).
Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.
A codon that directs initiation of protein translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) by stimulating the binding of initiator tRNA (RNA, TRANSFER, MET). In prokaryotes, the codons AUG or GUG can act as initiators while in eukaryotes, AUG is the only initiator codon.
The addition of a tail of polyadenylic acid (POLY A) to the 3' end of mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). Polyadenylation involves recognizing the processing site signal, (AAUAAA), and cleaving of the mRNA to create a 3' OH terminal end to which poly A polymerase (POLYNUCLEOTIDE ADENYLYLTRANSFERASE) adds 60-200 adenylate residues. The 3' end processing of some messenger RNAs, such as histone mRNA, is carried out by a different process that does not include the addition of poly A as described here.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
A multiribosomal structure representing a linear array of RIBOSOMES held together by messenger RNA; (RNA, MESSENGER); They represent the active complexes in cellular protein synthesis and are able to incorporate amino acids into polypeptides both in vivo and in vitro. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
A process whereby multiple RNA transcripts are generated from a single gene. Alternative splicing involves the splicing together of other possible sets of EXONS during the processing of some, but not all, transcripts of the gene. Thus a particular exon may be connected to any one of several alternative exons to form a mature RNA. The alternative forms of mature MESSENGER RNA produce PROTEIN ISOFORMS in which one part of the isoforms is common while the other parts are different.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Nucleic acid structures found on the 5' end of eukaryotic cellular and viral messenger RNA and some heterogeneous nuclear RNAs. These structures, which are positively charged, protect the above specified RNAs at their termini against attack by phosphatases and other nucleases and promote mRNA function at the level of initiation of translation. Analogs of the RNA caps (RNA CAP ANALOGS), which lack the positive charge, inhibit the initiation of protein synthesis.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Multicomponent ribonucleoprotein structures found in the CYTOPLASM of all cells, and in MITOCHONDRIA, and PLASTIDS. They function in PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS via GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Enzymes that oxidize certain LUMINESCENT AGENTS to emit light (PHYSICAL LUMINESCENCE). The luciferases from different organisms have evolved differently so have different structures and substrates.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A ZINC FINGER MOTIF containing transcription factor that was originally identified as one of the IMMEDIATE-EARLY PROTEINS. It shuttles between the CYTOPLASM and the CELL NUCLEUS and is involved in destabilization of mRNAs for TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR-ALPHA.
Complexes of RNA-binding proteins with ribonucleic acids (RNA).
The ultimate exclusion of nonsense sequences or intervening sequences (introns) before the final RNA transcript is sent to the cytoplasm.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.
RNA which does not code for protein but has some enzymatic, structural or regulatory function. Although ribosomal RNA (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) and transfer RNA (RNA, TRANSFER) are also untranslated RNAs they are not included in this scope.
Neuromuscular disorder characterized by PROGRESSIVE MUSCULAR ATROPHY; MYOTONIA, and various multisystem atrophies. Mild INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY may also occur. Abnormal TRINUCLEOTIDE REPEAT EXPANSION in the 3' UNTRANSLATED REGIONS of DMPK PROTEIN gene is associated with Myotonic Dystrophy 1. DNA REPEAT EXPANSION of zinc finger protein-9 gene intron is associated with Myotonic Dystrophy 2.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
RNA sequences composed of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES and URACIL NUCLEOTIDES, that are located in the 3'UNTRANSLATED REGIONS of MESSENGER RNA molecules that are rapidly degraded. They are also known as AREs.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal (CODON, TERMINATOR). Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER) complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons (CODONS, NONSENSE).
The process of moving specific RNA molecules from one cellular compartment or region to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A family of ribonucleoproteins that were originally found as proteins bound to nascent RNA transcripts in the form of ribonucleoprotein particles. Although considered ribonucleoproteins they are primarily classified by their protein component. They are involved in a variety of processes such as packaging of RNA and RNA TRANSPORT within the nucleus. A subset of heterogeneous-nuclear ribonucleoproteins are involved in additional functions such as nucleocytoplasmic transport (ACTIVE TRANSPORT, CELL NUCLEUS) of RNA and mRNA stability in the CYTOPLASM.
A process of GENETIC TRANSLATION whereby the formation of a peptide chain is started. It includes assembly of the RIBOSOME components, the MESSENGER RNA coding for the polypeptide to be made, INITIATOR TRNA, and PEPTIDE INITIATION FACTORS; and placement of the first amino acid in the peptide chain. The details and components of this process are unique for prokaryotic protein biosynthesis and eukaryotic protein biosynthesis.
A family of small RNA viruses comprising some important pathogens of humans and animals. Transmission usually occurs mechanically. There are nine genera: APHTHOVIRUS; CARDIOVIRUS; ENTEROVIRUS; ERBOVIRUS; HEPATOVIRUS; KOBUVIRUS; PARECHOVIRUS; RHINOVIRUS; and TESCHOVIRUS.
A superfamily of proteins containing the globin fold which is composed of 6-8 alpha helices arranged in a characterstic HEME enclosing structure.
A family of RNA plant viruses infecting dicotyledons. Transmission is mainly by mechanical inoculation and through propagative plant material. All species elicit formation of multivesicular inclusion bodies. There are at least eight genera: Aureusvirus, Avenavirus, CARMOVIRUS, Dianthovirus, Machlomovirus, Necrovirus, Panicovirus, and TOMBUSVIRUS.
A species of CORONAVIRUS infecting neonatal calves, presenting as acute diarrhea, and frequently leading to death.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.
Proteins that regulate cellular and organismal iron homeostasis. They play an important biological role by maintaining iron levels that are adequate for metabolic need, but below the toxicity threshold.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
An enzyme that catalyzes the acetylation of chloramphenicol to yield chloramphenicol 3-acetate. Since chloramphenicol 3-acetate does not bind to bacterial ribosomes and is not an inhibitor of peptidyltransferase, the enzyme is responsible for the naturally occurring chloramphenicol resistance in bacteria. The enzyme, for which variants are known, is found in both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. EC 2.3.1.28.
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE causing parenterally-transmitted HEPATITIS C which is associated with transfusions and drug abuse. Hepatitis C virus is the type species.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.
The first nucleotide of a transcribed DNA sequence where RNA polymerase (DNA-DIRECTED RNA POLYMERASE) begins synthesizing the RNA transcript.
A RNA-binding protein that binds to polypyriminidine rich regions in the INTRONS of messenger RNAs. Polypyrimidine tract-binding protein may be involved in regulating the ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of mRNAs since its presence on an intronic RNA region that is upstream of an EXON inhibits the splicing of the exon into the final mRNA product.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, sequencing, and information analysis of an RNA SEQUENCE.
A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.
The type species of the genus ALFAMOVIRUS that is non-persistently transmitted by aphids.
A genus in the family TOMBUSVIRIDAE mostly found in temperate regions. Some species infecting legumes (FABACEAE) are reported from tropical areas. Most viruses are soil-borne, but some are transmitted by the fungus Olpidium radicale and others by beetles. Carnation mottle virus is the type species.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
RNA, usually prepared by transcription from cloned DNA, which complements a specific mRNA or DNA and is generally used for studies of virus genes, distribution of specific RNA in tissues and cells, integration of viral DNA into genomes, transcription, etc. Whereas DNA PROBES are preferred for use at a more macroscopic level for detection of the presence of DNA/RNA from specific species or subspecies, RNA probes are preferred for genetic studies. Conventional labels for the RNA probe include radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. RNA probes may be further divided by category into plus-sense RNA probes, minus-sense RNA probes, and antisense RNA probes.
Any codon that signals the termination of genetic translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC). PEPTIDE TERMINATION FACTORS bind to the stop codon and trigger the hydrolysis of the aminoacyl bond connecting the completed polypeptide to the tRNA. Terminator codons do not specify amino acids.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
A genus of plant viruses that infects both monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants. Its organisms are persistently transmitted by aphids, and weeds may provide reservoirs of infection.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE containing several subgroups and many species. Most are arboviruses transmitted by mosquitoes or ticks. The type species is YELLOW FEVER VIRUS.
Ribonucleic acid in plants having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
The different gene transcripts generated from a single gene by RNA EDITING or ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of RNA PRECURSORS.
An increased number of contiguous trinucleotide repeats in the DNA sequence from one generation to the next. The presence of these regions is associated with diseases such as FRAGILE X SYNDROME and MYOTONIC DYSTROPHY. Some CHROMOSOME FRAGILE SITES are composed of sequences where trinucleotide repeat expansion occurs.
Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.
Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.
Synthetic or natural oligonucleotides used in hybridization studies in order to identify and study specific nucleic acid fragments, e.g., DNA segments near or within a specific gene locus or gene. The probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin.
Copies of nucleic acid sequence that are arranged in opposing orientation. They may lie adjacent to each other (tandem) or be separated by some sequence that is not part of the repeat (hyphenated). They may be true palindromic repeats, i.e. read the same backwards as forward, or complementary which reads as the base complement in the opposite orientation. Complementary inverted repeats have the potential to form hairpin loop or stem-loop structures which results in cruciform structures (such as CRUCIFORM DNA) when the complementary inverted repeats occur in double stranded regions.
Elements that are transcribed into RNA, reverse-transcribed into DNA and then inserted into a new site in the genome. Long terminal repeats (LTRs) similar to those from retroviruses are contained in retrotransposons and retrovirus-like elements. Retroposons, such as LONG INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS and SHORT INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS do not contain LTRs.
A multifunctional iron-sulfur protein that is both an iron regulatory protein and cytoplasmic form of aconitate hydratase. It binds to iron regulatory elements found on mRNAs involved in iron metabolism and regulates their translation. Its RNA binding ability and its aconitate hydrolase activity are dependent upon availability of IRON.
Ribonucleic acid in protozoa having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
Pairing of purine and pyrimidine bases by HYDROGEN BONDING in double-stranded DNA or RNA.
Proteins that bind to the 3' polyadenylated region of MRNA. When complexed with RNA the proteins serve an array of functions such as stabilizing the 3' end of RNA, promoting poly(A) synthesis and stimulating mRNA translation.
Selenoproteins are proteins that specifically incorporate SELENOCYSTEINE into their amino acid chain. Most selenoproteins are enzymes with the selenocysteine residues being responsible for their catalytic functions.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Ribonucleic acid in helminths having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
RNA molecules which hybridize to complementary sequences in either RNA or DNA altering the function of the latter. Endogenous antisense RNAs function as regulators of gene expression by a variety of mechanisms. Synthetic antisense RNAs are used to effect the functioning of specific genes for investigative or therapeutic purposes.
A theoretical representative nucleotide or amino acid sequence in which each nucleotide or amino acid is the one which occurs most frequently at that site in the different sequences which occur in nature. The phrase also refers to an actual sequence which approximates the theoretical consensus. A known CONSERVED SEQUENCE set is represented by a consensus sequence. Commonly observed supersecondary protein structures (AMINO ACID MOTIFS) are often formed by conserved sequences.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.
A species of ENTEROVIRUS infecting humans and containing 36 serotypes. It is comprised of all the echoviruses and a few coxsackieviruses, including all of those previously named coxsackievirus B.
Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Plants or plant parts which are harmful to man or other animals.
Ribonucleic acid in fungi having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
A species of GREEN ALGAE. Delicate, hairlike appendages arise from the flagellar surface in these organisms.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
A naturally occurring amino acid in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms. It is found in tRNAs and in the catalytic site of some enzymes. The genes for glutathione peroxidase and formate dehydrogenase contain the TGA codon, which codes for this amino acid.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
An enlarged underground root or stem of some plants. It is usually rich in carbohydrates. Some, such as POTATOES, are important human FOOD. They may reproduce vegetatively from buds.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.
A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.
A large family of RNA helicases that share a common protein motif with the single letter amino acid sequence D-E-A-D (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp). In addition to RNA helicase activity, members of the DEAD-box family participate in other aspects of RNA metabolism and regulation of RNA function.
A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.
Genes that are introduced into an organism using GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Microsatellite repeats consisting of three nucleotides dispersed in the euchromatic arms of chromosomes.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
A genus of plant viruses in the family FLEXIVIRIDAE, that cause mosaic and ringspot symptoms. Transmission occurs mechanically. Potato virus X is the type species.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.
Sequences found near the 3' end of MESSENGER RNA that direct the cleavage and addition of multiple ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES to the 3' end of mRNA.
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
Any DNA sequence capable of independent replication or a molecule that possesses a REPLICATION ORIGIN and which is therefore potentially capable of being replicated in a suitable cell. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The process of germ cell development in the female from the primordial germ cells through OOGONIA to the mature haploid ova (OVUM).
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Small, linear single-stranded RNA molecules functionally acting as molecular parasites of certain RNA plant viruses. Satellite RNAs exhibit four characteristic traits: (1) they require helper viruses to replicate; (2) they are unnecessary for the replication of helper viruses; (3) they are encapsidated in the coat protein of the helper virus; (4) they have no extensive sequence homology to the helper virus. Thus they differ from SATELLITE VIRUSES which encode their own coat protein, and from the genomic RNA; (=RNA, VIRAL); of satellite viruses. (From Maramorosch, Viroids and Satellites, 1991, p143)
A family of double-stranded RNA-binding proteins that are related to NFATC TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS. In addition to binding to RNA, nuclear factor 90 proteins form heterodimeric complexes that regulate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and may play a role in T-CELL activation.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of RNA. It includes EC 3.1.26.-, EC 3.1.27.-, EC 3.1.30.-, and EC 3.1.31.-.
A form of GENE LIBRARY containing the complete DNA sequences present in the genome of a given organism. It contrasts with a cDNA library which contains only sequences utilized in protein coding (lacking introns).
A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)
The degree of similarity between sequences. Studies of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and NUCLEIC ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY provide useful information about the genetic relatedness of genes, gene products, and species.
Family of retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (myc) originally isolated from an avian myelocytomatosis virus. The proto-oncogene myc (c-myc) codes for a nuclear protein which is involved in nucleic acid metabolism and in mediating the cellular response to growth factors. Truncation of the first exon, which appears to regulate c-myc expression, is crucial for tumorigenicity. The human c-myc gene is located at 8q24 on the long arm of chromosome 8.
Immature ERYTHROCYTES. In humans, these are ERYTHROID CELLS that have just undergone extrusion of their CELL NUCLEUS. They still contain some organelles that gradually decrease in number as the cells mature. RIBOSOMES are last to disappear. Certain staining techniques cause components of the ribosomes to precipitate into characteristic "reticulum" (not the same as the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM), hence the name reticulocytes.
A plant genus of the family MALVACEAE. Members contain CITRIC ACID; MALATES; ANTHOCYANINS; FLAVONOIDS; GLYCOSIDES; DIETARY FIBER; and LIGNANS. Hibiscus sabdariffa is common constituent of HERBAL TEAS. Hibiscus cannabinus is a source of hemp fiber for TEXTILES.
Factors that are involved in directing the cleavage and POLYADENYLATION of the of MESSENGER RNA near the site of the RNA 3' POLYADENYLATION SIGNALS.
The protoplasm and plasma membrane of plant, fungal, bacterial or archaeon cells without the CELL WALL.
Enzymes that catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of single-stranded regions of DNA or RNA molecules while leaving the double-stranded regions intact. They are particularly useful in the laboratory for producing "blunt-ended" DNA molecules from DNA with single-stranded ends and for sensitive GENETIC TECHNIQUES such as NUCLEASE PROTECTION ASSAYS that involve the detection of single-stranded DNA and RNA.
Nucleotide sequences located at the ends of EXONS and recognized in pre-messenger RNA by SPLICEOSOMES. They are joined during the RNA SPLICING reaction, forming the junctions between exons.
A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.
A plant genus of the family ZINGIBERACEAE, order Zingiberales, subclass Zingiberidae. Elettaria cardamomum (L.) Maton is the source of Cardamom used in SPICES.
A species of the genus FLAVIVIRUS which causes an acute febrile and sometimes hemorrhagic disease in man. Dengue is mosquito-borne and four serotypes are known.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
The proportion of one particular in the total of all ALLELES for one genetic locus in a breeding POPULATION.
A cell line generated from human embryonic kidney cells that were transformed with human adenovirus type 5.
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
The small subunit of the 80s ribosome of eukaryotes. It is composed of the 18S RIBOSOMAL RNA and 32 different RIBOSOMAL PROTEINS.
PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.
Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.
A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.
A genus of the family PICORNAVIRIDAE whose members preferentially inhabit the intestinal tract of a variety of hosts. The genus contains many species. Newly described members of human enteroviruses are assigned continuous numbers with the species designated "human enterovirus".
A RNA-binding protein that is found predominately in the CYTOPLASM. It helps regulate GENETIC TRANSLATION in NEURONS and is absent or under-expressed in FRAGILE X SYNDROME.
A group of simple proteins that yield basic amino acids on hydrolysis and that occur combined with nucleic acid in the sperm of fish. Protamines contain very few kinds of amino acids. Protamine sulfate combines with heparin to form a stable inactive complex; it is used to neutralize the anticoagulant action of heparin in the treatment of heparin overdose. (From Merck Index, 11th ed; Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p692)
... untranslated region 252 bp long. 3' untranslated region 1,129 bp long. 10 splice isoforms that encode good proteins, altogether ... In this same region of the promoter, there is also a TATA-binding factor sequence, which helps in the positioning of RNA ... The protein is highly conserved in the DUF776 region amongst vertebrates, and also at the C-terminus in eukaryotes. Using tools ... 294 (5): 1351-62. doi:10.1006/jmbi.1999.3310. PMID 10600390. Human OSER1 genome location and OSER1 gene details page in the ...
... are untranslated regions in the genome of viruses in the genus Flavivirus. The Flavivirus positive-oriented, ... Untranslated Region of the Dengue Virus Type 2 RNA That Modulate Translation and Replication". Journal of Biological Chemistry ... Untranslated Regions of the Flaviviral Genome". Viruses. 9 (6): 137. doi:10.3390/v9060137. ISSN 1999-4915. PMC 5490814. PMID ... untranslated region". Virus Research. 206: 53-61. doi:10.1016/j.virusres.2015.01.026. PMID 25660582. Chapman, E. G.; Costantino ...
Untranslated regions (UTR) contain hairpin loops. The 3' UTR comprises 123 nucleotides and the 5' UTR comprises 18 nucleotides ... 95 (5): 1595-600. doi:10.1016/j.fertnstert.2010.12.052. PMC 3062633. PMID 21256485. Chung SJ, Armasu SM, Biernacka JM, Anderson ... Secondary structure of c9orf135 5' UTR loop structure of c9orf135 of mRNA 3' UTR loop structure of c9orf135 mRNA It is likely ...
... untranslated region (5' UTR). Exons 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 code for 17, 13, 27, 14, 108 and 134 amino acids, respectively. All ... 28 (7): 1492-5. PMID 11469452. Nagasaka A, Matsue H, Matsushima H, Aoki R, Nakamura Y, Kambe N, Kon S, Uede T, Shimada S ( ... 61 (1): 251-5. doi:10.1016/j.cyto.2012.10.002. PMID 23098767. Samitas K, Zervas E, Xanthou G, Panoutsakopoulou V, Gaga M (Feb ... 61 (3): 713-5. doi:10.1016/j.cyto.2012.12.028. PMID 23384656. Porter JD, Khanna S, Kaminski HJ, Rao JS, Merriam AP, Richmonds ...
... untranslated region of human hsp70 mRNA". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 278 (25): 22350-22356. doi:10.1074/jbc. ... It has been shown that the 216 nucleotide long 5' UTR contains internal ribosome entry site activity. Rubtsova MP, Sizova DV, ... Dmitriev SE, Ivanov DS, Prassolov VS, Shatsky IN (June 2003). "Distinctive properties of the 5'- ...
... untranslated region generated by an alternate exon". J. Biol. Chem. 267 (9): 6188-96. PMID 1556127. Dawson SJ, White LA (1992 ... 1992). "The exon organization of the triple-helical coding regions of the human alpha 1(VI) and alpha 2(VI) collagen genes is ... 14 (1): 113-5. doi:10.1038/ng0996-113. PMID 8782832. S2CID 26173341. Tillet E, Ruggiero F, Nishiyama A, Stallcup WB (1997). " ...
... untranslated region". J. Biol. Chem. 269 (32): 20668-73. PMID 8051167. Imataka H, Mizuno A, Fujii-Kuriyama Y, Hayami M (1994 ... Regions around 10 kb upstream and 1 kb downstream of Klf9 transcription start site contain conserved antioxidant response ... a GC box sequence in the promoter region of the rat P-4501A1 gene". EMBO J. 11 (10): 3663-71. doi:10.1002/j.1460-2075.1992. ... 19 (5): 499-503. doi:10.1007/BF01233255. PMID 8291025. S2CID 45624023. Zhang XL, Zhang D, Michel FJ, Blum JL, Simmen FA, Simmen ...
... untranslated regions of nuoG genes. This gene and the downstream genes probably comprise an operon that encodes various ...
... untranslated region (UTR) of messenger RNA encoding heat shock proteins-though it has been suggested this fact may be due, in ... untranslated region elements essential for preferential heat shock translation". J Biol Chem. 279 (48): 49919-49930. doi: ... Some RNA thermometers are significantly more complex than a single hairpin, as in the case of a region found in CspA mRNA which ... This structural transition can then expose or occlude important regions of RNA such as a ribosome binding site, which then ...
... untranslated region elements essential for preferential heat shock translation". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 279 (48 ... The Hsp90 cis regulatory element is an RNA element (RNA thermometer) found in the 5' UTR of the Drosophila hsp90 mRNA. It is ...
... untranslated region". Life Sciences. 69 (20): 2361-70. doi:10.1016/S0024-3205(01)01322-4. PMID 11681623. Liou JY, Dutschman GE ... 12 (5): 751-64. doi:10.1016/j.str.2004.02.038. PMID 15130468. Appleby TC, Larson G, Cheney IW, Walker H, Wu JZ, Zhong W, Hong Z ... 12 (5): 751-64. doi:10.1016/j.str.2004.02.038. PMID 15130468. Murata D, Endo Y, Obata T, Sakamoto K, Syouji Y, Kadohira M, ... 59 (5): 1181-6. doi:10.1124/mol.59.5.1181. PMID 11306702. Koizumi K, Shimamoto Y, Azuma A, Wataya Y, Matsuda A, Sasaki T, ...
... untranslated region". Life Sciences. 69 (20): 2361-70. doi:10.1016/S0024-3205(01)01322-4. PMID 11681623. Liou JY, Dutschman GE ... "Construction and characterization of a full length-enriched and a 5′-end-enriched cDNA library". Gene. 200 (1-2): 149-56. doi: ... "Characterization of human UMP-CMP kinase enzymatic activity and 5′ ...
The transmembrane region is encoded by 2 exons and the cytoplasmic domain and the 3'-untranslated regions are coded for by two ... untranslated region are contained in one exon. The large extracellular domain of CR1, which has 25 potential N-glycosylation ... This gene is a member of the regulators of complement activation (RCA) family and is located in the 'cluster RCA' region of ... The promoter region lacks a distinct TATA box sequence. The gene is expressed principally on erythrocytes, monocytes, ...
... untranslated region of the gene for heat shock protein Salmonella agsA, they repress translation of this protein by base- ... untranslated region elements essential for preferential heat shock translation". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 279 (48 ... 110 (5): 551-561. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(02)00905-4. PMID 12230973. Bukau B (August 1993). "Regulation of the Escherichia coli ... 278 (5): 555-564. doi:10.1007/s00438-007-0272-7. PMID 17647020. Ahmed R, Duncan RF (November 2004). "Translational regulation ...
Untranslated Region to the germ line cells. Translation can be inhibited by cis regulatory elements in the transcript's 5' and ... untranslated regions of mRNAs in human diseases". Biology of the Cell. 101 (5): 251-62. doi:10.1042/BC20080104. PMID 19275763. ... After the duplication event, the N-terminal region acquired Zn-knuckle domains which are now conserved in invertebrates. ... and arginine methylation in a conserved region of mice, Xenopus and Drosophila Vasa genes. One of main function of Vasa protein ...
... untranslated regions (UTR) are complementary and highly conserved. The S segment encodes two proteins: the nucleoprotein (N) ... despite the fact that the viruses were collected from temporally distinct regions spanning a 10 to 26 year period. This level ... 29 (5): 1051-1077. doi:10.1016/j.femsre.2005.04.012. ISSN 1574-6976. PMC 7110368. PMID 16024128. Juřicová, Z.; Hubálek, Z.; ...
... untranslated region (5'UTR) of CLCN5 is complex and not entirely clarified. Two strong and one weak promoters were predicted to ... It extends over about 170 Kb of genomic DNA, has a coding region of 2,238 bp and consists of 17 exons including 11 coding exons ... Tosetto E, Casarin A, Salviati L, Familiari A, Lieske JC, Anglani F (July 2014). "Complexity of the 5'UTR region of the CLCN5 ... "ATP induces conformational changes in the carboxyl-terminal region of ClC-5". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 286 (8): ...
... untranslated region is shown. Isoform 1, diagramed below, contains a DUF3338 domain, two low complexity regions and a proline ... The factors that are predicted to bind to the promoter region of isoform 2 differ, and twelve of the top twenty predicted ... A total of 556 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been identified in the gene region of INAVA, 96 of which are ... A diagram of the predicted promoter region, with highlighted transcription factor binding sites, is shown to the right. ...
... untranslated region. This gene was originally thought to be one of the two pseudogenes (CGB1 and CGB2) of CGB subunit, however ... 267 (5): 3179-84. PMID 1371113. Policastro PF, Daniels-McQueen S, Carle G, Boime I (1986). "A map of the hCG beta-LH beta gene ... The CGB genes are primarily distinguished by differences in the 5' ...
... untranslated region that are highly conserved. The RNF128 protein contains a signal peptide. This peptide is cleaved at the RGA ... The ring-H2 region is the most highly conserved region in these alignments and is conserved in mammals, birds, amphibians, ... transmembrane region, and the ring-H2 region. The signal peptide is not conserved in any of the more distant homologs, but is ... untranslated region on RNF128. There are also several areas of the 5' ...
... untranslated regions in its mRNAs. This implies that it does not employ the Shine-Delgarno sequence to initiate protein ... 5 (3): 402-408. doi:10.1111/j.1432-1033.1968.tb00383.x. ISSN 0014-2956. Solomons, J. T. Graham; Johnsen, Ulrike; Schoenheit, ... Whole genome analysis demonstrated that it lacks 5' ...
... untranslated regions) of various mRNAs whose products are involved in iron metabolism. For example, the mRNA of ferritin (an ... untranslated region of human cell division cycle 14A mRNA by a refined microarray-based screening strategy". The Journal of ... untranslated region". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 84 (23): 8478-8482. doi: ... untranslated region". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 270 (51): 30781-30786. doi:10.1074/jbc.270.51.30781. PMID 8530520. N ...
There are untranslated regions at the 5' and 3' ends of the genome. These vary with the 5' end being between 72 and 730 and the ... There are three open reading frames (ORFs). The largest open reading frame lies toward the 5' end of the genome and encodes a ...
... untranslated region contains an internal ribosomal entry site (Type I IRES). Covalently bonded to the 5' UTR is the viral ... untranslated region and encodes its own 3' poly-A tail. The 5' ... The VPg protein that is covalently linked to the 5' end of the ... Upon entry of the genome into the cytoplasm of the host cell, the IRES in the 5' UTR recruits ribosomal subunits (cap- ... Its genome is linear and is 7,293 nucleotides in length with both a 5' and 3' ...
... untranslated regions of mraW genes. These mraW genes likely form operons with immediately downstream ftsI genes, and multiple ... mraW RNAs are consistently in the presumed 5' ...
... untranslated region". J. Biol. Chem. 283 (5): 2543-2553. doi:10.1074/jbc.M707781200. PMID 18055463. ATF5+protein,+human at the ... Al Sarraj J, Vinson C, Thiel G (2005). "Regulation of asparagine synthetase gene transcription by the basic region leucine ... Activating transcription factor 5, also known as ATF5, is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the ATF5 gene. First ... 20 (5): 942-948. doi:10.1016/j.cellsig.2008.01.010. PMID 18276110. Pati D, Meistrich ML, Plon SE (1999). "Human Cdc34 and Rad6B ...
... untranslated regions". Cell. 38 (1): 275-85. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(84)90549-X. PMID 6088070. S2CID 11644830. Yamamoto T, Davis ... Yamamoto T, Bishop RW, Brown MS, Goldstein JL, Russell DW (Jun 1986). "Deletion in cysteine-rich region of LDL receptor impedes ... "Acid-dependent ligand dissociation and recycling of LDL receptor mediated by growth factor homology region". Nature. 326 (6115 ... 76 (5): 865-73. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(94)90361-1. PMID 8124722. S2CID 22137883. Wang X, Sato R, Brown MS, Hua X, Goldstein JL ( ...
... untranslated region". Virus Research. Special Issue: Functions of the ends of positive strand RNA virus genomes. 206: 53-61. ... untranslated regions (UTRs). The 5'UTRs are 95-101 nucleotides long in Dengue virus. There are two conserved structural ... Clyde K, Harris E (2006). "RNA Secondary Structure in the Coding Region of Dengue Virus Type 2 Directs Translation Start Codon ... Terminal Regions of the Dengue Virus Genome". J. Virol. 79 (13): 8303-15. doi:10.1128/JVI.79.13.8303-8315.2005. PMC 1143759. ...
... untranslated regions or within introns. Trans-regulatory elements control the transcription of a distant gene. Promoters ... The DNA material in chromosomes is composed of "coding" and "non-coding" regions. The coding regions are known as genes and ... of conserved DNA represented in non-coding regions. Linkage mapping often identifies chromosomal regions associated with a ... Non-protein coding regions . . . are not related directly to making proteins, [and] have been referred to as "junk" DNA.' The ...
... untranslated region => truncation of transcript. Usually results in failure of the mRNA to contain a 5' cap, leading to less ... The process of cutting, self ligation and re cutting allows the amplification of the flanking regions of DNA without knowing ... Possible mutations: Insertion in a translated region => hybrid protein/truncated protein. Usually causes loss of protein ... DNA sequencing Once the function of the mutated protein has been determined it is possible to sequence/purify/clone the regions ...
... such as untranslated regions, regulatory elements, non-protein-coding genes, and chromosomal structural elements) under ... 比較基因組學(Comparative genomics)對於哺乳類基因組的研究顯示,人類與大約兩億年前就已經分化的各物種相比,有大約5%的比例在人類基因組中保留了下來,其中包含許多的基因與調控序列。而且人類與大多數已知的脊椎動物間,也享有了一些相同的基因 ... 1996, 5 (1): 35-41. PMID 8731380
There is an un-translated region (UTR) at both ends of the picornavirus genome. The 5' UTR is usually longer, being around 500- ... On the other hand, RNA synthesis is hypothesized to occur in this region.3' end NCR of poliovirus is not necessary for negative ... The genome RNA is unusual because it has a protein on the 5' end that is used as a primer for transcription by RNA polymerase. ... a deep cleft formed by around each of the 12 vertices of icosahedrons.The outer surface of the capsid is composed of regions of ...
... untranslated region and bind to the TATA box to activate the transcription of oxidative stress related genes. ... The Pribnow box has a 6 bp region centered around the -10 position and an 8-12 bp sequence around the -35 region that are both ... One study found less than 30% of 1031 potential promoter regions contain a putative TATA box motif in humans.[9] In Drosophila, ... In bacteria, promoter regions may contain a Pribnow box, which serves an analogous purpose to the eukaryotic TATA box. ...
... untranslated region of renin mRNA, thereby regulating renin protein expression.[15] References[edit]. *^ a b c GRCh38: Ensembl ... 2003). "HADHB, HuR, and CP1 bind to the distal 3'-untranslated region of human renin mRNA and differentially modulate renin ... untranslated region of human renin mRNA and differentially modulate renin expression". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 278 ... 21 (5): 566-9. doi:10.1038/nbt810. PMID 12665801.. *. Hendrickson SL, Lautenberger JA, Chinn LW, et al. (2010). "Genetic ...
... flanking region for human acid alpha-glucosidase, detection of an intron in the 5' untranslated leader sequence, definition of ... Acid alpha-glucosidase, also called α-1,4-glucosidase[5] and acid maltase,[6] is an enzyme (EC 3.2.1.20) that helps to break ... 47 (3): 440-5. PMC 1683879. PMID 2203258.. *. Hoefsloot LH, Hoogeveen-Westerveld M, Reuser AJ, Oostra BA (December 1990). " ... Martiniuk F, Mehler M, Tzall S, Meredith G, Hirschhorn R (March 1990). "Sequence of the cDNA and 5'- ...
perinuclear region of cytoplasm. • mitochondrion. • nuclear speck. • cytoplasmic vesicle. • extracellular region. • ... each leading to different transcripts containing one of 8 untranslated 5' exons (I to VIII) spliced to the 3' encoding exon. ... 5 Suppl: 1046-50. doi:10.1038/nn938. PMID 12403983. S2CID 41153456.. *^ Xiong P, Zeng Y, Wu Q, Han Huang DX, Zainal H, Xu X, ... Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), or abrineurin,[5] is a protein[6] that, in humans, is encoded by the BDNF gene.[7][8] ...
L region is an untranslated leader region that gives the signal for packaging of the genome RNA. The 3' end includes 3 regions ... The RNA genome also has terminal noncoding regions, which are important in replication, and internal regions that encode virion ... end includes four regions, which are R, U5, PBS, and L. The R region is a short repeated sequence at each end of the genome ... Env proteins play a role in association and entry of virions into the host cell.[5] Possessing a functional copy of an env gene ...
Mignone, Flavio; Gissi, Carmela; Liuni, Sabino; Pesole, Graziano (2002-02-28). "Untranslated regions of mRNAs". Genome Biology ... doi:10.1186/gb-2010-11-5-206. PMC 2898077. PMID 20441615. *↑ Belyi, V. A.; Levine, A. J.; Skalka, A. M. (22 September 2010). " ... Yu, J. (5 April 2002). "A Draft Sequence of the Rice Genome (Oryza sativa L. ssp. indica)". Science 296 (5565): 79-92. Bibcode: ... ೩.೦ ೩.೧ Gericke, Niklas Markus; Hagberg, Mariana (5 December 2006). "Definition of historical models of gene function and their ...
If an article consists of 10 words (4 in English, untranslated, and 4 which don't seem to make sense) Vicipaedia can afford to ... a formally defined region) and Africa orientalis 'eastern Africa' (some vague area, perhaps accompanied by hand-waving). But I ... or regions). For example, Poetae Confoederationis (poets of the Canadian confederacy) is 811.409971 = 8 Literature / 81 ... Parallel 5 N[fontem recensere]. You may have seen my latest comment in that discussion: if you care to add a source and a few ...
... untranslated regions of viral mRNA. Some viruses (e.g. tobacco mosaic virus (TMV)) have RNA sequences that contain a "leaky" ... This means that 5% of the proteins produced are larger than and different from the others normally produced, which is a form of ... 5] Little is known about the mechanisms involved in the transmission of plant viruses via seeds, although it is known that it ... 5] [6] These processes can occur concurrently or separately depending on the host plant. It is unknown how the virus is able to ...
... untranslated region at +298 and +351 represses BACE1 expression in mouse BV-2 microglial cells". primary. Biochemical and ... SMN1 is located in a telomeric region of human chromosome 5 and also contains SMN2 in a centromeric region. SMN1 and SMN2 are ... A gene called c9orf72 was found to have a hexanucleotide repeat in the non-coding region of the gene in association with ALS ... Methylation of intragenic regions is associated with increased transcription. The group of enzymes responsible for addition of ...
... coding region, 3' UTR, and poly(A) tail. UTR = untranslated region ... This is called RNA interference.[5][6][7]. siRNA[change , change source]. Small interfering RNAs (sometimes called silencing ... A fully processed mRNA includes a 5' cap, 5' UTR, ... It may be between 5 and 500 kilo base pairs long with either ... doi:10.1016/S0014-5793(96)01386-5. PMID 8985176. *↑ Morris KV (2008). http://www.horizonpress.com/rnareg ,chapterurl=. missing ...
And up there in the higher regions of comparison, smiling vanity plays its false game and deceives the happy ones so that they ... H. Martensen By Hans Peter Kofoed-Hansen (1813-1893) that was published in 1856[171] (untranslated) and Martensen mentioned him ... a b c d e f g h i j k l The Western literary messenger, Volume 13, Issue 1-Volume 14, Issue 5, 1850 p. 182 ... 0-253-18239-5. .. CS1 maint: ref=harv (link). *. Kierkegaard, Søren (1978). Two Ages: The Age of Revolution and the Present Age ...
perinuclear region of cytoplasm. • mitochondrion. • nuclear speck. • cytoplasmic vesicle. • extracellular region. • ... each leading to different transcripts containing one of 8 untranslated 5' exons (I to VIII) spliced to the 3' encoding exon. ... 5 Suppl: 1046-50. doi:10.1038/nn938. PMID 12403983.. *^ Xiong P, Zeng Y, Wu Q, Han Huang DX, Zainal H, Xu X, Wan J, Xu F, Lu J ... 20 (5): 621-36. doi:10.1002/hipo.20658. PMID 19499586.. *^ Zeev BB, Bebbington A, Ho G, Leonard H, de Klerk N, Gak E, Vecsler M ...
... untranslated region. Additional splice variants have been described but sequences for the complete transcripts have not been ... Alternative splicing or deletion caused by a translocation event in this paternally-expressed region is responsible for Prader- ... Färber C, Dittrich B, Buiting K, Horsthemke B (1999). "The chromosome 15 imprinting centre (IC) region has undergone multiple ... an expressed gene in the Prader-Willi syndrome critical region". Nat. Genet. 2 (4): 265-9. doi:10.1038/ng1292-265. PMID 1303277 ...
... west of Elephantine in the region of Aswan; the pink vein is typical of granodiorite from this region.[5] ... and it aroused widespread public interest with its potential to decipher this previously untranslated hieroglyphic script. ... 978-0-8109-1572-5. .. *. Ray, J. D. (2007). The Rosetta Stone and the Rebirth of Ancient Egypt. Harvard University Press. ISBN ... 978-2-07-053103-5. .. *. Downs, Jonathan (2008). Discovery at Rosetta: the ancient stone that unlocked the mysteries of Ancient ...
... and small amounts of the flanking untranslated regions and introns are analyzed. Therefore, although these tests are highly ... that represent unique regions of the genome. This method is particularly sensitive for detection of genomic gains or losses ... 5][6] In April 2015 and April 2016, Chinese researchers reported results of basic research to edit the DNA of non-viable human ... has met every 5 years since its inception in 1956. The Society publishes the American Journal of Human Genetics on a monthly ...
... untranslated region (UTR), 486 bp coding sequence and the C-terminus 400 bp 3'-UTR region. The other isoform (IL-15 SSP) has a ... IL-15 is 14-15 kDa glycoprotein encoded by the 34 kb region of chromosome 4q31 in humans, and at the central region of ... Figure 1. IL-15 is 14-15 kDa glycoprotein encoded by the 34 kb region on chromosome 4q31, and by central region of chromosome 8 ... untranslated region, signal peptide, and the coding sequence of the carboxyl terminus of IL-15 participate in its multifaceted ...
... and three prime untranslated region (3' UTR), respectively. These regions are transcribed with the coding region and thus are ... Coding regionsEdit. Main article: Coding region. Coding regions are composed of codons, which are decoded and translated (in ... Untranslated regionsEdit. Main articles: 5' UTR and 3' UTR. Untranslated regions (UTRs) are sections of the mRNA before the ... Shaw G, Kamen R (August 1986), "A conserved AU sequence from the 3' untranslated region of GM-CSF mRNA mediates selective mRNA ...
... coding region, 3' UTR, and poly(A) tail. UTR = untranslated region ... This is called RNA interference.[5][6][7] siRNA[change , change source]. Small interfering RNAs (sometimes called silencing ... doi:10.1016/S0014-5793(96)01386-5. PMID 8985176.. Explicit use of et al. in: ,author=. (help). ... A fully processed mRNA includes a 5' cap, 5' UTR, ... It may be between 5 and 500 kilo base pairs long with either ...
Three prime untranslated regions and microRNAsEdit. Main article: Three prime untranslated region ... Instead of destructive cleavage (by Ago2), miRNAs rather target the 3′ untranslated region (UTR) regions of mRNAs where they ... Three prime untranslated regions (3'UTRs) of messenger RNAs (mRNAs) often contain regulatory sequences that post- ... Conserved regions of HBV DPC HBV I Recruiting Arrowhead Research NCT01872065 BiotechnologyEdit. RNA interference has been used ...
... untranslated region.". Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. 8 (3): 240-4. PMID 8383507.. ... 1999). „Characterization of single-nucleotide polymorphisms in coding regions of human genes.". Nat. Genet. 22 (3): 231-8. PMID ... svi osim 5-HT3) 5-HT1 (A, B, D, E, F) • 5-HT2 (A, B, C) • 5-HT (4, 5A, 6, 7) ... B/W (1, 2) • FF (1, 2) • S • Y (1, 2, 4, 5) • Neuromedin (B, U (1, 2)) • Neurotenzin (1, 2) ...
D. CAPUT, et al., Identification of a common nucleotide sequence in the 3'-untranslated region of mRNA molecules specifying ... ISBN 0-7817-9543-5.. *↑ 7,0 7,1 Sun M, Fink PJ (2007). "A new class of reverse signaling costimulators belongs to the TNF ... 5,0 5,1 Cseh K, Beutler B (September 1989). "Alternative cleavage of the cachectin/tumor necrosis factor propeptide results in ... 5] Tanto a proteína madura coma a forma parcialmente procesada da hormona poden ser segregadas despois da clivaxe do propéptido ...
... untranslated regions (UTR). Often the first exon includes both the 5′-UTR and the first part of the coding sequence, but exons ... ends of the mRNA are marked to differentiate the two untranslated regions (grey). ... for intragenic regions) - alternating with regions which will be expressed - exons."[1] ... The term exon derives from the expressed region and was coined by American biochemist Walter Gilbert in 1978: "The notion of ...
The reviewer prefers the terminology used by Tenny L. Davis, i.e. Tao left untranslated and "immortal" for hsien. (1967:145) ... the region south of the lower Yangzi River), emphasizing the superiority of certain traditions over others, and enhancing their ... Jay Sailey (1978) translated 21 of the 50 chapters: 1, 3, 5, 14-15, 20, 24-26, 30-34, 37, 40, 43-44, 46-47, and 50. In addition ...
... untranslated regions of the rat N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 2A gene , revista = Gene , volume = 295 , número = 1 , páxinas = ... Association between the G1001C polymorphism in the GRIN1 gene promoter region and schizophrenia , revista = Biol. Psychiatry , ... Sequence and analysis of the 5' flanking and 5' ...
In the mornings, sharp pains occur in the abdominal region. If the patient survives more than two weeks, they have a chance of ... Other works of the corpus remained untranslated into English until the resumed publication of the Loeb Classical Library ... The whole corpus is written in Ionic Greek, though the island of Cos was in a region that spoke Doric Greek. ... According to the Hippocratic text, the consumption of wine significantly affects two regions of the body: the head and the ...
This gene contains no introns in either its coding or untranslated sequences. A deletion variant of the α2B adrenergic receptor ... characterisation and identification of several polymorphisms in the promoter region of the human alpha2B-adrenergic receptor ... 38 (5): 681-8. PMID 2172775. Chang AC, Ho TF, Chang NC (Oct 1990). "In vitro amplification by polymerase chain reaction of a ... 12 (5): 807-15. doi:10.1038/oby.2004.97. PMID 15166301. Siitonen N, Lindström J, Eriksson J, Valle TT, Hämäläinen H, Ilanne- ...
... ends of the RNA are the untranslated regions (UTR), that are not translated into proteins but are important to translation and ... A hypervariable region, the hypervariable region 1 (HVR1) can be found on the E2 glycoprotein.[9] HVR1 is flexible and quite ... Alternatively, a frameshift may occur in the Core region to produce an alternate reading frame protein (ARFP).[32] HCV encodes ... "An updated analysis of hepatitis C virus genotypes and subtypes based on the complete coding region". Liver International. 32 ( ...
... untranslated region (UTR), while its 3' UTR plays role in transcript turnover.[22] ... untranslated region of the soybean cytosolic glutamine synthetase β(1) gene contains prokaryotic translation initiation signals ... The C-terminus (helical thong) stabilizes the GS structure by inserting into the hydrophobic region of the subunit across in ... 29 (5): 422-8. doi:10.1007/BF02602912. PMID 2575672. S2CID 36704558.. *^ Brown JR, Masuchi Y, Robb FT, Doolittle WF (June 1994 ...
... untranslated region of encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) RNA has been found in extracts of ascites carcinoma Krebs-2 cells. ... A protein factor that specifically binds to the 5- ... untranslated region of encephalomyocarditis virus RNA FEBS Lett ... untranslated region of encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) RNA has been found in extracts of ascites carcinoma Krebs-2 cells. ... A protein factor that specifically binds to the 5- ... A factor that specifically binds to the 5- ...
... untranslated region of an mRNA in translation regulation during development.. van der Velden AW1, Thomas AA. ... Furthermore, 5 UTR activity, mutations in the 5 UTR, or the occurrence of alternative 5 UTRs have been implicated in the ... During embryonic development, the 5 UTRs of Antp. Ubx RAR beta 2 c-mos and c-myc regulate protein expression in a spatio- ... This review focuses on 5 UTRs whose activity is regulated, the processes during which this regulation occurs, and as far as ...
... untranslated region shapes the integrated stress response. By Shelley R. Starck, Jordan C. Tsai, Keling Chen, Michael Shodiya, ... untranslated region shapes the integrated stress response. By Shelley R. Starck, Jordan C. Tsai, Keling Chen, Michael Shodiya, ... untranslated region shapes the integrated stress response Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from Science ... untranslated region of the thrombopoietin gene. Blood 92, 1091-1096 (1998). pmid:9694695. ...
... untranslated region of mouse mu opioid receptor (MOR) and is required for post-transcriptional regulation.. Song KY1, Choi HS, ... untranslated region (UTR) of the mouse MOR was found to be important for post-transcriptional regulation of the MOR gene in ... untranslated region of mouse mu opioid receptor (MOR) and is required for post-transcriptional regulation ... untranslated region of mouse mu opioid receptor (MOR) and is required for post-transcriptional regulation ...
... untranslated regions (UTRs). Scanning through the 5′UTR requires the adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-dependent RNA helicase ... This −8 nt toeprint was seen with mRNA 5′UTRs of different length, sequence and structure potential. Importantly, the −8 nt ... Impeding scanning through the 5′UTR in this system with elevated magnesium and AMP-PNP (similar to the toeprinting conditions ... We assembled cell-free translation reactions with capped mRNA featuring an extended 5′UTR and used cycloheximide to arrest ...
... untranslated region (5′UTR) in a manner similar to its action to limit the expression of the AD-specific amyloid precursor ... Untranslated-Region-Directed Translation Blockers of the Parkinsons Alpha Synuclein Expression. Sohan Mikkilineni,1 Ippolita ... The Anticholinesterase Phenserine and Its Enantiomer Posiphen as 5′ ... blocked neural SNCA mRNA translation and tested for targeting via its 5′ ...
Ortega JL, Moguel-Esponda S, Potenza C, Conklin CF, Quintana A, Sengupta-Gopalan C (2006) The 3′ untranslated region of a ... Simon B, Sengupta-Gopalan C (2010) The 3′ untranslated region of the two cytosolic glutamine synthetase (GS1) genes in alfalfa ... untranslated region in Cap-independent translation of Turnip Crinkle Virus. J Virol 85:4638-4653PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... untranslated region of the HSP18.2 gene contributes to efficient translation in plant cells. J Biosci Bioeng 95:52-58PubMed ...
... untranslated region (5′UTR), have been shown in a variety of organisms to control the expression levels of these mRNAs in ... untranslated region (5UTR), have been shown in a variety of organisms to control the expression levels of these mRNAs in ... we searched natural cis-regulatory regions in this microorganism using transcriptomic data and bioinformatics analysis. ... we searched natural cis-regulatory regions in this microorganism using transcriptomic data and bioinformatics analysis. ...
The untranslated regions of flavivirus genomes engage in complex interactions with distant upstream genomic sequences, which ... Untranslated Regions Harbor Internal Ribosomal Entry Site Functions. Yutong Song, JoAnn Mugavero, Charles B. Stauft, Eckard ... Untranslated Regions Harbor Internal Ribosomal Entry Site Functions. Yutong Song, JoAnn Mugavero, Charles B. Stauft, Eckard ... Untranslated Regions Harbor Internal Ribosomal Entry Site Functions. Yutong Song, JoAnn Mugavero, Charles B. Stauft, Eckard ...
Untranslated Region of the Cold Shock cspA mRNA of Escherichia coli Kunitoshi Yamanaka, Masanori Mitta, Masayori Inouye ... Untranslated Region of the Cold Shock cspA mRNA of Escherichia coli Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you ... end untranslated region of the mRNA for CspA, the major cold-shock protein of Escherichia coli, in cold-shock adaptation. J. ... untranslated region (5′-UTR), and its stability has been shown to play a major role in cold shock induction of CspA. The 5′-UTR ...
Untranslated Region of the VEGF Gene Is Associated With Diabetic Retinopathy in Type 2 Diabetes. ... Untranslated Region of the VEGF Gene Is Associated With Diabetic Retinopathy in Type 2 Diabetes ... Untranslated Region of the VEGF Gene Is Associated With Diabetic Retinopathy in Type 2 Diabetes ... Untranslated Region of the VEGF Gene Is Associated With Diabetic Retinopathy in Type 2 Diabetes ...
... untranslated region (UTR). Among them, G(−1,877)A appeared to be rare and was not analyzed further. The remaining five ... untranslated region (UTR) and 3′UTR of the VEGF gene, genotype distribution of the C(−634)G polymorphism differed significantly ... Untranslated Region of the VEGF Gene Is Associated With Diabetic Retinopathy in Type 2 Diabetes. ... Untranslated Region of the VEGF Gene Is Associated With Diabetic Retinopathy in Type 2 Diabetes ...
We report the presence of a homology in the 5untranslated region (UTR) of the messenger RNA encoding C9orf72 with the iron ... Untranslated Region. We propose novel small molecule therapies for ALS and FTD based on the strategy of screening and ... Untranslated Region of the C9orf72 mRNA Exhibits a Phylogenetic Alignment to the Cis-Aconitase Iron-Responsive Element; Novel ... Untranslated Region of the C9orf72 mRNA Exhibits a Phylogenetic Alignment to the Cis-Aconitase Iron-Responsive Element; Novel ...
... untranslated region (UTR).. Case 1. A 32-year-old woman was evaluated for chronic thrombocytopenia, platelet counts ranging ... untranslated region of ANKRD26 gene is associated with inherited thrombocytopenia: a report of two new families. ... Thrombocytopenia-associated mutations in the ANKRD26 regulatory region induce MAPK hyperactivation. J Clin Invest 124(2):580- ... 5.. Pippucci T, Savoia A, Perrotta S, Pujol-Moix N, Noris P, Castegnaro G, Pecci A, Gnan C, Punzo F, Marconi C, Gherardi S, ...
... regions (3 and 5 UTRs) with sequence elements that are essential for the regulation of gene expression. A systematic search ... untranslated regions and their instability in MSI-H colorectal cancer Oncogene. 2001 Nov 8;20(51):7472-7. doi: 10.1038/sj.onc. ... Messenger RNA contains untranslated 3 and 5 regions (3 and 5 UTRs) with sequence elements that are essential for the ... or 5 location. Several long repeats were identified however to be monomorphic and we postulate that their conservation may be ...
The 3′-untranslated region (3′-UTR) of mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) RNA regulates the replication of and transcription from the ... The 3′-untranslated region of the coronavirus RNA is required for subgenomic mRNA transcription from a defective interfering ... Heterogeneous Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein A1 Binds to the 3′-Untranslated Region and Mediates Potential 5′-3′-End Cross Talks of ... Heterogeneous Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein A1 Binds to the 3′-Untranslated Region and Mediates Potential 5′-3′-End Cross Talks of ...
... untranslated region variants in whole genome sequence data from 15,708 individuals. View ORCID ProfileNicola Whiffin, View ... untranslated region variants in whole genome sequence data from 15,708 individuals Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a ... untranslated region variants in whole genome sequence data from 15,708 individuals ... untranslated region variants in whole genome sequence data from 15,708 individuals ...
... untranslated region in a polyamine-independent way. H Van Steeg, C T M Van Oostrom, H M Hodemaekers, L Peters, A A M Thomas ... untranslated region in a polyamine-independent way Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from Biochemical ... untranslated region (5′ UTR) of the ODC mRNA of different species is rather unusual in length and GC content, and may therefore ... untranslated region in a polyamine-independent way ... untranslated region in a polyamine-independent way. H Van Steeg ...
... untranslated region of mRNA. William J. TUXWORTH Jr, Atif N. SAGHIR, Laura S. SPRUILL, Donald R. MENICK, Paul J. McDERMOTT ... untranslated region). The activity of eIF4E was modified in primary cultures of adult cardiocytes using adenoviral gene ... The insertion of G+C-rich repeats into the 5´-UTR doubled the predicted amount of secondary structure and was sufficient to ... Regulation of protein synthesis by eIF4E phosphorylation in adult cardiocytes: the consequence of secondary structure in the 5 ...
untranslated region. ORF. open reading frame. GFP. green fluorescent protein. uORF. upstream open reading frame. CRHR. ... Untranslated Region. Guoheng Xu, Cristina Rabadan-Diehl, Maria Nikodemova, Peter Wynn, Joachim Spiess and Greti Aguilera ... Untranslated Region. Guoheng Xu, Cristina Rabadan-Diehl, Maria Nikodemova, Peter Wynn, Joachim Spiess and Greti Aguilera ... Untranslated Region. Guoheng Xu, Cristina Rabadan-Diehl, Maria Nikodemova, Peter Wynn, Joachim Spiess and Greti Aguilera ...
... untranslated region of ANKRD26 gene is associated with inherited thrombocytopenia: a report of two new families. Zeitschrift:. ... untranslated region of ANKRD26 gene is associated with inherited thrombocytopenia: a report of two new families ... Thrombocytopenia-associated mutations in the ANKRD26 regulatory region induce MAPK hyperactivation. J Clin Invest 124(2):580- ... 5. Pippucci T, Savoia A, Perrotta S, Pujol-Moix N, Noris P, Castegnaro G, Pecci A, Gnan C, Punzo F, Marconi C, Gherardi S, ...
... untranslated region of the human α-galactosidase gene on enzyme activity, and their frequencies in Portuguese caucasians. ... untranslated region of exon 1, respectively g.1150G>A, g.1168G>A, g.1170C>T. The g.1150A allele is associated with increased ... The α-galactosidase gene (GLA) has three single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the 5′ ... Effect of single-nucleotide polymorphisms of the 5′ ...
... untranslated region (UTR). Introns in 5UTRs differ from those in coding regions and 3UTRs with respect to nucleotide ... Hong X, Scofield DG, Lynch M: Intron size, abundance, and distribution within untranslated regions of genes. Mol Biol Evol. ... untranslated regions in carcinogenesis. Biochem Soc Trans. 2008, 36: 708-711. 10.1042/BST0360708.PubMedView ArticleGoogle ... Structural and functional features of eukaryotic mRNA untranslated regions. Gene. 2001, 276: 73-81. 10.1016/S0378-1119(01)00674 ...
Binding of the 50-untranslated region of coronavirus.pdf. 676.95 kB. Adobe PDF. View/Open. ... untranslated region (5-UTR) of SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV) RNA as bait against a human cDNA library derived from HeLa cells, ... untranslated region of coronavirus RNA to zinc finger CCHC-type and RNA-binding motif 1 enhances viral replication and ... untranslated region of coronavirus RNA to zinc finger CCHC-type and RNA-binding motif 1 enhances viral replication and ...
... untranslated regions (5′-UTR) of eCGβ was identified in previous study [10]. The objective of the present study was to ... untranslated regions (5′-UTR) of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) genes and the serum eCG levels. ... untranslated regions of equine chorionic gonadotropin genes and serum equine chorionic gonadotropin levels ... untranslated regions of equine chorionic gonadotropin genes and serum equine chorionic gonadotropin levels. ...
... untranslated region of SETDB2 in the IgE locus on human chromosome 13q14 ... untranslated region of SETDB2 in the IgE locus on human chromosome 13q14 ... untranslated region of SETDB2 in the IgE locus on human chromosome 13q14 ... Wellcome Centre for Human Genetics awarded funding for the next 5 years ...
... untranslated regions (5UTRs), which have undergone stochastic elongation during evolution and potentially included an ... untranslated region is unrelated to organismal complexity ... From: The plausible reason why the length of 5 ...
... untranslated region (UTR) of the nucleoprotein (NP) gene. This extra sequence, TCCCAC, is highly conserved and has been found ... Following deletion of six nucleotides in the 5′-UTR of the NP gene of NDV strain NA-1, the virulence of the rNA-1(−) ... untranslated region of the nucleoprotein gene of Newcastle disease virus NA-1 decreases virulence ... From: The deletion of an extra six nucleotides in the 5′ - ... have an extra six nucleotides in the 5′- ...
... untranslated region. This diagramatic structure shows a typical human protein coding mRNA including the untranslated regions ( ... "The five prime untranslated region (5 UTR), can contain elements for controlling gene expression by way of regulatory elements ... The start codon is almost always preceded by an untranslated region 5 UTR. ... The codon ATG both codes for methionine and serves as an initiation site: the first ATG in an mRNAs coding region is where ...
... untranslated region of enteroviral genomic RNA. Together they form a unique fingerprint. * Sort by ... Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Structure of the 5= ...
  • The role of the 5' untranslated region of an mRNA in translation regulation during development. (nih.gov)
  • The canonical translation initiation pathway begins with cap-dependent attachment of the small ribosomal subunit (SSU) to the messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) followed by an energy-dependent, sequential 'scanning' of the 5′ untranslated regions (UTRs). (mdpi.com)
  • An aptamer that blocks eIF4A in an inactive state away from mRNA inhibited translation of capped mRNA with the moderately structured β-globin sequences in the 5′UTR but not that of an mRNA with a poly(A) sequence as the 5′UTR. (mdpi.com)
  • By contrast, the nonhydrolysable ATP analogue β,γ-imidoadenosine 5′-triphosphate (AMP-PNP) inhibited translation irrespective of the 5′UTR sequence, suggesting that complexes that contain ATP-binding proteins in their ATP-bound form can obstruct and/or actively block progression of ribosome recruitment and/or scanning on mRNA. (mdpi.com)
  • Pertinent to this, we identified that the well-tolerated anticholinesterase, phenserine, blocked neural SNCA mRNA translation and tested for targeting via its 5 ′ untranslated region (5 ′ UTR) in a manner similar to its action to limit the expression of the AD-specific amyloid precursor protein (APP). (hindawi.com)
  • The mRNA for CspA, a major cold shock protein in Escherichia coli , contains an unusually long (159 bases) 5′ untranslated region (5′-UTR), and its stability has been shown to play a major role in cold shock induction of CspA. (asm.org)
  • The 5′-UTR of the cspA mRNA has a negative effect on its expression at 37°C but has a positive effect upon cold shock. (asm.org)
  • It was found that none of the deletion mutations had significant effects on the stability of mRNA at both 37 and 15°C. However, two mutations (Δ56-86 and Δ86-117) caused a substantial increase of β-galactosidase activity at 37°C, indicating that the deleted regions contain a negative cis element(s) for translation. (asm.org)
  • Furthermore, it was shown that the 14-base downstream box located 12 bases downstream of the translation initiation codon of the cspA mRNA, which is partially complementary to a region, called anti-downstream box, of 16S rRNA ( 30 ), plays an important role in efficient translation at low temperature ( 6 , 21 ). (asm.org)
  • The 5′ untranslated region (5′ UTR) of the ODC mRNA of different species is rather unusual in length and GC content, and may therefore be involved in translational control of ODC protein synthesis. (biochemj.org)
  • Our results show that the intact 5′ UTR of rat ODC mRNA, which is 303 nt in length, is a potent inhibitor of translation. (biochemj.org)
  • The short open reading frame (ORF) present in the 5′ UTR of rat ODC mRNA does not contribute to the observed inhibitory effect on translation efficiency in vitro . (biochemj.org)
  • At low polyamine concentration the efficiency of translation in vitro of intact ODC mRNA is not relatively increased compared with that of an ODC mRNA having a truncated 5′ UTR or with that of control globin mRNA. (biochemj.org)
  • From this we conclude that the well-documented negative feedback control of intracellular polyamines on ODC expression is not regulated by effects of polyamines on the secondary structure of the 5′ UTR of ODC mRNA. (biochemj.org)
  • In contrast, overexpression of the eIF4E kinase Mnk1 [MAP (mitogen-activated protein) kinase signal-integrating kinase 1] was sufficient to increase the translational efficiency of either reporter mRNA, independent of the amount of secondary structure in their respective 5´-UTRs. (biochemj.org)
  • The influence of an upstream open reading frame (ORF) in the 5′-untranslated region (UTR) of the mRNA on corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor type 1 (CRHR1) translation was studied in constructs containing the 5′-UTR of CRHR1, with or without an ATG-to-ATA mutation in the upstream ORF, and the main ORF of luciferase or CRHR1. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The study shows that the upstream AUG in 5′-UTR of CRHR1 mRNA inhibits receptor expression by inhibiting mRNA translation and suggests the short open reading frame in the 5′-UTR plays a role in regulating translation of the CRH receptor. (aspetjournals.org)
  • They can bind to complimentary regions on mRNA and prevent their translation and reduce the stability. (news-medical.net)
  • 5'-UTR as the name suggests, are sequences which are not translated, and they lie adjacent to the coding regions in mRNA. (news-medical.net)
  • Although functions of all the 5'-UTRs are not known, many of them have been found to regulate translation or mRNA stability through different mechanisms. (news-medical.net)
  • Here, transfer RNAs (tRNAs) bind on one end to specific codons (three-base region) in the mRNA and bind on the other end to the amino acids specified by that codon, and thus place the amino acids in the correct sequence in the growing polypeptide according to the template (sequence of nucleotides) provided by the mRNA (Alberts et al. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • This modification is critical for recognition and proper attachment of mRNA to the ribosome, as well as protection from 5' exonucleases. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • In addition to being protein-coding, portions of coding regions may serve as regulatory sequences in the pre-mRNA as exonic splicing enhancers or exonic splicing silencers. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • A fully processed mRNA includes a 5' cap, 5' UTR, coding region, 3' UTR, and poly(A) tail. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Untranslated regions (UTRs) are sections of the mRNA before the start codon and after the stop codon that are not translated, termed the five prime untranslated region (5' UTR) and three prime untranslated region (3' UTR), respectively. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • These regions are transcribed with the coding region and thus are exonic as they are present in the mature mRNA. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Several roles in gene expression have been attributed to the untranslated regions, including mRNA stability, mRNA localization, and translational efficiency. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Proteins that bind to either the 3' or 5' UTR may affect translation by influencing the ribosome's ability to bind to the mRNA. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • In molecular genetics, the three prime untranslated region (3′-UTR) is the section of messenger RNA (mRNA) that immediately follows the translation termination codon. (wikipedia.org)
  • Several regions of the mRNA molecule are not translated into a protein including the 5' cap, 5' untranslated region, 3′ untranslated region and poly(A) tail. (wikipedia.org)
  • Regulatory regions within the 3′-untranslated region can influence polyadenylation, translation efficiency, localization, and stability of the mRNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • The 3′-UTR also has silencer regions which bind to repressor proteins and will inhibit the expression of the mRNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, poly(A) tail bound PABP interacts with proteins associated with the 5' end of the transcript, causing a circularization of the mRNA that promotes translation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The 3′-UTR of mRNA has a great variety of regulatory functions that are controlled by the physical characteristics of the region. (wikipedia.org)
  • This region of the mRNA transcript can range from 60 nucleotides to about 4000. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the 5' UTR, the cloverleaf structure of domain (stem-loop) I is important for viral replication [2,3] while domains II to VI encompass the internal ribosome entry site (IRES) which directs translation of the mRNA by internal ribosome binding [4]. (medcraveonline.com)
  • Shortly after the start of transcription, the 5' end of the mRNA being synthesized is bound by a cap-synthesizing complex associated with RNA polymerase . (wikidoc.org)
  • Using HCT116 cells transfected with full-length vegf mRNA, full-length vegf mRNA with mutations of H9D and L14E, mutated vegf mRNAs lacking untranslated regions (UTRs), and 5'UTR mutated between nt 591 and nt 746, we found that vegf 5'UTR resided an anti-apoptotic activity against chemotherapy independently of VEGF165. (omicsdi.org)
  • While constructing a plasmid vector for transfection of trypanosome cells, we serendipitously discovered that in vivo expression of dsRNA of the α-tubulin mRNA 5′ untranslated region (5′ UTR) led to multinucleated cells with striking morphological alterations and a specific block of cytokinesis. (pnas.org)
  • Low levels of monocistronic clpP mRNA and accumulation of intron-containing clpP transcripts in the chlorotic leaves suggest competition between the clpP 5′-UTR in the chimeric transcript and the native clpP pre-mRNA (ratio 16:1) for an mRNA maturation factor. (elsevier.com)
  • Here, we identified thirteen potent APP translation blockers that acted selectively towards the uniquely configured iron-responsive element (IRE) RNA stem loop in the 5′ untranslated region (UTR) of APP mRNA. (elsevier.com)
  • These agents were 10-fold less inhibitory of 5′UTR sequences of the related prion protein (PrP) mRNA. (elsevier.com)
  • However, the 5'-UTRs of the testis transcripts were significantly longer than that found on the SV mRNA (416-646 nucleotides compared with only 23 nucleotides for the SV). (elsevier.com)
  • We investigated 5' UTR mRNA variants of the mouse Gli1 oncogene, which is the terminal transcriptional effector of the Hedgehog (HH) signaling pathway. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Moreover, the alternative Gli1 5' UTRs had an impact on translational capacity, with the shorter and the exon 1B-skipped mRNA variants being most effective. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The unique region of the UTRs recognizes a 9.5‐ and a 6‐kb MAP‐2 transcript in poly(A) + mRNA isolated from human MSN cells, and PCR analysis demonstrated that each unique UTR is contained in multiple high‐ and low‐molecular‐weight MAP‐2 transcripts. (elsevier.com)
  • Asc1p specifically interacts with the mRNA-binding protein Scp160 ( 4 , 5 ) and has been shown to be required for the interaction of Scp160p with the ribosome, suggesting a role for Asc1p as an adapter protein, bringing specific mRNAs, translation factors, and the ribosome in proximity ( 8 ). (mcponline.org)
  • The results identify TSS for 1,018 antisense transcripts, most with sequences complementary to either the 5'- or 3'-region of a sense mRNA, and confirm the presence of transcripts from all three CRISPR loci, the RNase P and 7S RNAs, all tRNAs and rRNAs and 69 predicted snoRNAs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short non-coding RNAs (∼18-24 nucleotides), which negatively regulate the expression of their target genes by targeting the 3′-untranslated region (3′-UTR) of message RNA (mRNA) to repress translation or accelerate the degradation of the mRNA [ 4 , 5 ]. (portlandpress.com)
  • Of most interest, SNPs (linkage disequilibrium group CEU.12) in the 5′-untranslated region were associated with NT5C2 expression and ara-C sensitivity in HapMap cell lines and with NT5C2 mRNA expression and ara-C sensitivity in diagnostic leukemic blasts from pediatric patients with acute myeloid leukemia. (aspetjournals.org)
  • reverse, 5′gtcctcatgtargccttgtagt3′) were designed based on a conserved domain within synapsin 2 ( syn2 ) mRNA sequences from several species in GenBank. (jneurosci.org)
  • xpression of beta-2 AR in humans is diversified by regulatory polymorphisms in the promotersregion of ADRB2, contributing to inter-individualsvariation in responsiveness to beta-2 agonist-basedsdrugs =-=(13)-=- and possibly to obesity risk (14).sSimilar to human ADRB2, mRNA expression ofsthe porcine homologue is modulated by multiplespolymorphisms in the highly polymorphic 5´ flankingsregion, as evidenced b. (psu.edu)
  • Thus, the 5′ UTR is likely involved both in translation of genomic mRNA and in initiation of plus-strand RNA synthesis through interactions with host and/or viral proteins. (asm.org)
  • To understand the mechanisms regulating COX-2 expression, we examined its posttranscriptional regulation mediated through the AU-rich element (ARE) within the COX-2 mRNA 3′-untranslated region (3′UTR). (rupress.org)
  • We previously identified an AU-rich element (ARE) within the 3′ untranslated region (3′UTR) of COX-2 mRNA that confers posttranscriptional regulation by controlling both mRNA decay and protein translation ( 4 , 5 ). (rupress.org)
  • Cap-dependent ribosomal scanning occurs on the majority of cellular 5' UTRs. (nih.gov)
  • This process is severely hampered on long 5' UTRs, containing AUGs and secondary structure. (nih.gov)
  • During embryonic development, the 5' UTRs of Antp. (nih.gov)
  • Furthermore, 5' UTR activity, mutations in the 5' UTR, or the occurrence of alternative 5' UTRs have been implicated in the progression of various forms of cancer. (nih.gov)
  • This review focuses on 5' UTRs whose activity is regulated, the processes during which this regulation occurs, and as far as known the mechanisms involved. (nih.gov)
  • Rather, eIF2α phosphorylation is required for expression of select mRNAs, such as ATF4 and CHOP, that harbor small upstream open reading frames (uORFs) in their 5′ untranslated regions (5′ UTRs). (sciencemag.org)
  • B and C ) Schematic representation of reporter constructs with wild type and deleted mouse MOR 5′-UTRs. (nih.gov)
  • Here, we studied the effects of inhibiting ATP-dependent translation and eIF4A in cell-free translation and reconstituted initiation reactions programmed with capped mRNAs featuring different 5′UTRs. (mdpi.com)
  • GS 1 gene constructs with and without its 5′ and 3′ UTRs, driven by a constitutive promoter, were agroinfiltrated into tobacco leaves and the tissues were analyzed for both transgene transcript and protein accumulation. (springer.com)
  • Potential regulatory 5′UTRs were identified and filtered based on length, gene function, relative gene counts, and conservation in other organisms. (frontiersin.org)
  • The role of UTR_ZMO0347 and other 5′UTRs gives us insight into the regulatory network of Z. mobilis in response to stress and unlocks new strategies for engineering robust industrial strains as well as for harvesting novel responsive regulatory biological parts for controllable gene expression platforms in this organism. (frontiersin.org)
  • Here we present evidence that the DENV or ZIKV 5′ untranslated regions (5′-UTRs) alone have IRES competence. (asm.org)
  • This conclusion is based, first, on the observation that uncapped monocistronic mRNAs 5′ terminated with the DENV or ZIKV 5′-UTRs can efficiently direct translation of a reporter gene in BHK and C6/36 cells and second, that either 5′-UTR placed between two reporter genes can efficiently induce expression of the downstream gene in BHK cells but not in C6/36 cells. (asm.org)
  • IRES competence of the 5′-UTRs of DENV/ZIKV raises many open questions regarding the biology and control, as well as the evolution, of insect-borne flaviviruses. (asm.org)
  • Messenger RNA contains untranslated 3' and 5' regions (3' and 5' UTRs) with sequence elements that are essential for the regulation of gene expression. (nih.gov)
  • In this study, partial regions of HSP70.1 (3' and 5' untranslated regions (UTRs)) were sequenced in six cattle breeds. (scielo.org.za)
  • This study is the first to investigate the 3' and 5' UTRs of the HSP70.1 gene in Turkish native breeds. (scielo.org.za)
  • On average the length for the 3′-UTR in humans is approximately 800 nucleotides, while the average length of 5'-UTRs is only about 200 nucleotides. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mean G+C percentage of the 5'-UTR in warm-blooded vertebrates is about 60% as compared to only 45% for 3′-UTRs. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is important because an inverse correlation has been observed between the G+C% of 5' and 3′-UTRs and their corresponding lengths. (wikipedia.org)
  • The UTRs that are GC-poor tend to be longer than those located in GC-rich genomic regions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The EV genome is a positive single-stranded RNA molecule of approximately 7,500 nucleotides, comprising a single open reading frame flanked 5' and 3' by untranslated regions (UTRs). (medcraveonline.com)
  • Correct 5′UTR sequences of candidate genes were determined by cap analysis of gene expression and we tested translational ability of the candidate 5′UTRs by reporter assays. (usda.gov)
  • Evaluation of human-derived 5′ untranslated regions (UTRs) indicated that many provided high levels of protein production, supporting their cross-kingdom function. (elsevier.com)
  • Among the viral 5′ UTRs tested, we found the greatest enhancement with the tobacco mosaic virus omega leader. (elsevier.com)
  • An analysis of the 5′ UTRs from the Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotinana benthamiana photosystem I K genes found that they were highly active when truncated to include only the near upstream region, providing a dramatic enhancement of transgene production that exceeded that of the tobacco mosaic virus omega leader. (elsevier.com)
  • Each of these alternatively spliced 5'-UTRs incorporated the SV promoter elements into transcribed sequence, and each contained multiple upstream AUG codons predicted to abolish translation of the major open reading frame. (elsevier.com)
  • Even though alternative splicing also occurs in the 5' and 3' untranslated regions (UTRs) of mRNAs, the understanding of the significance and the regulation of these variations is rather limited. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Abstract: Three unique 5′ untranslated regions (UTRs) have been characterized for human microtubule‐associated protein‐2 (MAP‐2) transcripts. (elsevier.com)
  • All three UTRs shared a common 171‐bp sequence adjacent to the MAP‐2 coding region and then diverged upstream. (elsevier.com)
  • PCR of genomic DNA demonstrated that the 5′ UTRs span multiple exons. (elsevier.com)
  • Most mRNAs have a 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) 10 to 50 nt long (median = 16 nt), but ~20% have 5'-UTRs from 50 to 300 nt long and ~14% are leaderless. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This includes the majority of mRNAs comprising the cohesin and condensin complexes responsible for maintaining genome organization, which are coordinately translated during specific cell cycle phases via their 5' UTRs. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Cellular mRNAs containing a complex 5' UTR or an IRES share an intriguing characteristic: their translational efficiency can be very specifically regulated by their 5' UTR, providing post-transcriptional regulation. (nih.gov)
  • Regulatory RNA regions within a transcript, particularly in the 5′ untranslated region (5′UTR), have been shown in a variety of organisms to control the expression levels of these mRNAs in response to various metabolites or environmental conditions. (frontiersin.org)
  • In MHV-infected cells, six or seven subgenomic mRNAs are transcribed, all of which contain a common leader sequence derived from the 5′ end of the genome, as well as a common 3′ end including a 302- to 305-nucleotide (nt)-long untranslated region (3′-UTR) ( 21 ). (asm.org)
  • We tested the hypothesis that increases in eIF4E activity selectively improve the translational efficiency of mRNAs that have an excessive amount of secondary structure in the 5´-UTR (5´-untranslated region). (biochemj.org)
  • Subsequently, the effects of eIF4E on translational efficiency were assayed following adenoviral-mediated expression of luciferase reporter mRNAs that were either 'stronger' (less structure in the 5´-UTR) or 'weaker' (more structure in the 5´-UTR) with respect to translational efficiency. (biochemj.org)
  • The stability of mRNAs may be controlled by the 5' UTR and/or 3' UTR due to varying affinity for RNA degrading enzymes called ribonucleases and for ancillary proteins that can promote or inhibit RNA degradation. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The IRE is a stem-loop structure within the untranslated regions of mRNAs that encode proteins involved in cellular iron metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • The plastid ribosomal RNA (rrn) operon promoter was fused with DNA segments encoding the leader sequence (5′untranslated region [UTR]) of plastid mRNAs to compare their efficiency in mediating translation of a bacterial protein neomycin phosphotransferase (NPTII) in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) chloroplasts. (elsevier.com)
  • Our review of recent literature, including our own work, reveals that the most dominant and common mechanism is translational silencing, in which specific regulatory proteins or complexes are recruited to cis -acting RNA structures in the untranslated regions of single or multiple mRNAs that code for the inflammatory protein(s). (jimmunol.org)
  • However, it should be mentioned that the cspA promoter contains an AT-rich upstream element ( 25 ) immediately upstream of the −35 region, which is considered to play an important role in efficient transcription initiation at low temperature ( 8 , 11 , 21 ). (asm.org)
  • Among seven common polymorphisms in the promoter region, 5′-untranslated region (UTR) and 3′UTR of the VEGF gene, genotype distribution of the C(−634)G polymorphism differed significantly ( P = 0.011) between patients with ( n = 150) and without ( n = 118) retinopathy, and the C allele was significantly increased in patients with retinopathy compared with those without retinopathy ( P = 0.0037). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Using a screening study, we identified six polymorphisms of the VEGF gene: G(−1,877)A, T(−1,498)C, G(−1,190)A, and G(−1,154)A in the promoter region and C(−634)G and C(−7)T in the 5′-untranslated region (UTR). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • On the other hand, a new C983T nucleotide substitution was identified in this region, and is thought to disrupt the Sp1 -hsp70 promoter binding site. (scielo.org.za)
  • Two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and three P53 binding sites have been found in the RAD51 promoter and 5' untranslated region. (cdc.gov)
  • Microarray analysis was then performed: briefly, 1 µg of sample RNA (vegf 5'-G5) and reference RNA (vegf 5' mut-D5) were converted to cDNA with oligo dT conjugated T7 promoter primer and reverse transcriptase. (omicsdi.org)
  • In the current study a 995 bp fragment consisting of Ramy3D promoter and its 5′ untranslated region was amplified from the genomic DNA of an Iranian rice cultivar ″Nemat″, using polymerase chain reaction. (jpmb-gabit.ir)
  • For in silico characterization, the rice specific consensus sequences of TATA-box and YR Rule motifs were scanned against the cloned fragment sequence using FIMO program and the cis acting elements existing in the promoter region were investigated using PlantCare database. (jpmb-gabit.ir)
  • Interestingly, expression of NPTII from the promoter with the clpP 5′-UTR (0.26% NPTII) caused a mutant (chlorotic) phenotype, whereas plants accumulating approximately 0.8% NPTII from the atpB 5′-UTR were normal green, indicating that the mutant phenotype was independent of NPTII accumulation. (elsevier.com)
  • Structure of the APP promoter and the 5' UTR . (biomedcentral.com)
  • A) Schematic representation of the APP promoter with boxes indicating locations of regulatory regions and the DAPB domain discussed in the text. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Expression from the APP promoter with deletions within the 5'- APP -UTR . (biomedcentral.com)
  • SB: Complex promoter and coding region beta 2-adrenergic receptor haplotypes alter receptor expression and predict in vivo responsiveness. (psu.edu)
  • Identification of novel polymorphisms within the promoter region of the human beta2 adrenergic receptor gene. (psu.edu)
  • The organization and regulation of genes in particular is different from most other eukaryotes, and include non-canonical intron splicing, the existence of unusual upstream promoter regions for many genes, DNA that contains 5-hydroxymethyluracil (replacing 12-70% of thymidine), and a greater reliance on translational - rather than transcriptional - gene regulation 2 . (nature.com)
  • In this same region of the promoter, there is also a TATA-binding factor sequence, which helps in the positioning of RNA polymerase II for transcription. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the 3' UTR region, 13 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and one indel were found, whereas this region was found to be monomorphic among animals of the Holstein Friesian breed. (scielo.org.za)
  • The α-galactosidase gene (GLA) has three single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the 5′ untranslated region of exon 1, respectively g.1150G>A, g.1168G>A, g.1170C>T. The g.1150A allele is associated with increased plasma α-galactosidase (α-Gal) activity in hemizygotes, while the others are regarded as biologically neutral. (ovid.com)
  • An experiment was conducted to study the association between the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 5′-untranslated regions (5′-UTR) of equine chorionic gonadotropin ( eCG ) genes and the serum eCG levels. (ajas.info)
  • This region contains transcription and translation regulating sequences. (ucdenver.edu)
  • As these genes can move and insert themselves in to different regions, they can sometimes enhance, reduce, or totally stop the expression of coding sequences based on where they get inserted. (news-medical.net)
  • in such a case, the 3' UTR may contain sequences that allow the transcript to be localized to this region for translation. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • In addition to sequences within the 3′-UTR, the physical characteristics of the region, including its length and secondary structure, contribute to translation regulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • In order to investigate the evolutionary diversity and molecular epidemiology in EV-C species, the 5' UTR and VP1 regions were analyzed in 16 clinical isolates from a single public-health laboratory (serving New South Wales, Australia), representing seven types (serotypes/genotypes) in EV-C. Sequences were compared with the 5' UTR and VP1 regions of 183 strains available in GenBank, representing the same seven types. (medcraveonline.com)
  • The expression level of transgenes can be increased by 5′-untranslated region (5′UTR) sequences in certain genes which act as translational enhancers. (usda.gov)
  • Inhibition is sequence-specific in that the nucleotide sequences of the duplex region of the RNA and of a portion of the target gene are identical. (google.com)
  • All primers described in this study were designed based on the NS5B region consensus sequences, which were obtained upon alignment of the data provided by the Los Alamos National Laboratory http://hcv.lanl.gov/content/sequence/HCV/ToolsOutline.html . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Thus, JTR-009 constitutively repressed translation driven by APP 5′UTR sequences. (elsevier.com)
  • Insertions of the transposable element Ac can induce recombination between two highly homologous 5.2-kb direct repeat sequences that flank the p1 gene-coding region. (genetics.org)
  • Following the sample preparation protocol, small RNAs are ligated first at the 3'- and then at the 5'-end to the respective RNA adapters followed by reverse transcription with a set of primers to produce cDNAs with Index sequences at ends. (bireme.br)
  • In addition, TE insertions into gene sequences affect RNA stability and splicing variants [ 4 , 5 ]. (ersjournals.com)
  • Duplications and deletions, as well as inversions, are facilitated by recombination between homologous regions of TE sequences in different parts of the genome. (ersjournals.com)
  • Several host cell proteins have previously been shown to interact with this regulatory region. (asm.org)
  • Although regulatory regions do not code for proteins, they contain promoters and enhancers which can influence the expression of coding genes. (news-medical.net)
  • Coding regions are composed of codons, which are decoded and translated into one (mostly eukaryotes) or several (mostly prokaryotes) proteins by the ribosome. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • the non-structural proteins are encoded in the P2 (2A, 2B and 2C) and P3 (3A, 3B, 3C and 3D polymerase) regions. (medcraveonline.com)
  • Transcript-specific regulation is generally mediated by the interaction of RNA-binding proteins with cognate cis -elements in the untranslated region (UTR) of the target transcripts, causing translational repression ( 1 , 2 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • RACK1 has since been described as an anchoring and translocation-mediating protein for several other cellular proteins, including Ras-GAP, dynamin-1, Src, several integrins ( 14 ), and the cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase PDE 4 D 5 ( 15 ). (mcponline.org)
  • These experiments followed observations that uncapped DENV/ZIKV genomic transcripts, 5′ terminated with pppAN… or GpppAN…, can initiate infections of mammalian (BHK) or mosquito (C6/36) cells. (asm.org)
  • Both genomic regions are predicted to influence TGF-beta activity, and using whole-genome data we showed that the TGF-beta signaling pathway overall is associated with NPG. (plos.org)
  • We also found sequence variants in target sites for DNA methylation (genomic regions that are found be highly methylated in bovine placentas), captured a significant proportion of the variance. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Approximately 35% of human genes contain introns within the 5' untranslated region (UTR). (biomedcentral.com)
  • In summary, these differences suggest that introns in different regions of genes constitute distinct functional classes with unique evolutionary histories. (biomedcentral.com)
  • SNPs in 5′-UTR of eCG genes were screened across 10 horse breeds, including 7 Chinese indigenous breeds and 3 imported breeds using iPLEX chemistry, and the association between the serum eCG levels of 174 pregnant Da'an mares and their serum eCG levels (determined with ELISA) was analyzed. (ajas.info)
  • Also, any structural alterations in these regions, such as translocations, deletions, insertions, or duplications can lead to changes in the interaction between the regulatory elements and coding genes. (news-medical.net)
  • In young leaves, NPTII accumulated at 0.26% and 0.8% of the total soluble leaf protein from genes with the clpP and atpB 5′-UTR, respectively. (elsevier.com)
  • In addition to variants found in splice sites and protein coding genes regulatory variants and those found in DNA methylated regions, explained considerable variation in milk production and fertility traits. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A fragment 12 nucleotides in length in stem loop (SL) II of 237 5′-untranslated region (UTR) visibly reduced survival time and rate in mice was identified by constructing a series of infectious clones harboring chimeric 5′-UTR. (ncku.edu.tw)
  • Its genome is linear and is 7,293 nucleotides in length with both a 5' and 3' untranslated region and encodes its own 3' poly-A tail. (wikipedia.org)
  • The 5′ untranslated region (UTR) in VEE is 45 nucleotides (nt) long, and although its sequence is not conserved among alphaviruses, the sequence predicts a stem-loop structure that is conserved across the Alphavirus genus ( 55 ). (asm.org)
  • A protein factor that specifically binds to the 5'-untranslated region of encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) RNA has been found in extracts of ascites carcinoma Krebs-2 cells. (nih.gov)
  • We identified an intermediate filament protein, vimentin, which bound specifically to the region between -175 and -150 (175-150) of the MOR 5'-UTR. (nih.gov)
  • Scanning through the 5′UTR requires the adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-dependent RNA helicase eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 4A and its efficiency contributes to the specific rate of protein synthesis. (mdpi.com)
  • UTR_ZMO0347 (5′UTR of gene ZMO0347 encoding the RNA binding protein Hfq) was found to down-regulate downstream gene expression under ethanol stress. (frontiersin.org)
  • Efficient synthesis in vitro of ODC protein is obtained when either 172 nt from the 5′-end or 236 nt from the 3′-end of the 5′ UTR are removed. (biochemj.org)
  • A truncated 5′ UTR with a calculated free energy of less than -272 kJ (-65 kcal/mol) is unable to support the synthesis in vitro of ODC protein. (biochemj.org)
  • In a screen based on a yeast three-hybrid system using the 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) of SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV) RNA as bait against a human cDNA library derived from HeLa cells, we found a positive candidate cellular protein, zinc finger CCHC-type and RNA-binding motif 1 (MADP1), to be able to interact with this region of the SARS-CoV genome. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • The RNA-binding domain was mapped to the N-terminal region of MADP1 and the protein binding sequence to stem-loop I of IBV 5'-UTR. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • The coding region, divided into three sub regions (P1, P2 and P3), encompasses a single open reading frame encoding a poly protein. (medcraveonline.com)
  • One of the major findings of the 2007 ENCODE Pilot Project was that "nearly the entire genome may be represented in primary transcripts that extensively overlap and include many non-protein-coding regions. (wikidoc.org)
  • All receptor-like protein tyrosine phosphatases (RPTPs) contain an extracellular region, a single transmembrane segment and at least one intracellular catalytic domain. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In this report, we identified that the TM 5′ untranslated region (UTR) bearing the internal ribosome entry site (IRES) element controls TM protein expression. (elsevier.com)
  • Kalcheva, N & Shafit‐Zagardo, B 1995, ' Three Unique 5′ Untranslated Regions Are Spliced to Common Coding Exons of High‐ and Low‐Molecular‐Weight Microtubule‐Associated Protein‐2 ', Journal of Neurochemistry , vol. 65, no. 4, pp. 1472-1480. (elsevier.com)
  • The protein is highly conserved in the DUF776 region amongst vertebrates, and also at the C-terminus in eukaryotes. (wikipedia.org)
  • 30 predicted Serine phosphorylation sites 5 predicted Threonine phosphorylation sites 3 predicted Tyrosine phosphorylation sites PELE (Protein Secondary Structure Prediction) was used to predict the secondary structure of C20orf111. (wikipedia.org)
  • Covalently bonded to the 5' UTR is the viral protein VPg which aids in viral entry and replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • The VPg protein that is covalently linked to the 5' end of the RNA genome has 2 U's attached to it. (wikipedia.org)
  • Such findings suggest that TEs are intrinsic components of the transcriptional region of protein coding loci with crucial regulatory effects. (ersjournals.com)
  • The GT allele, which contains the consensus intronic dinucleotides at the 5' splice site of intron 1B, favors exon 1B inclusion, while the GC allele, having a weaker 5' splice site sequence, promotes exon 1B skipping. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here, we characterize the sequence variation and haplotype structure of the MEFV 3' gene region (from exon 5 to the 3' UTR) in seven human populations. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Our data, together with the earlier demonstration that the MEFV exon 10 has been subjected to episodic positive selection over primate evolution, provide evidence for an adaptive role of nucleotide variation in this gene region. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In the 5' UTR region, 43 SNPs and three indels were revealed in all of the investigated breeds. (scielo.org.za)
  • Four SNPs were identified in the 5′-UTR of the eCGα gene, and one of them was unique in the indigenous breeds. (ajas.info)
  • There were 2 SNPs detected at the 5′ end of the eCGβ subunit gene, and one of them was only found in the Chinese breeds. (ajas.info)
  • We selected 5 SNPs in the gene (rs1394205, rs2055571, rs11692782, rs1007541, and rs2268361) and performed 2 genetic case-control studies in different populations. (cdc.gov)
  • We found that SNPs in the CDKN2BAS gene region on 9p21 and a highly conserved region with a probable regulatory function on 8q22 were associated with NPG and with optic nerve disease in a second type of glaucoma, exfoliation glaucoma. (plos.org)
  • In addition to identifying novel transcription start sites, we demonstrated that the expression ratio of the Gli1 splice variants in the 5' UTR is regulated by the genotype of the mouse strain analyzed. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this study we hypothesize that variants in some functional classes, such as splice site regions, coding regions, DNA methylated regions and long noncoding RNA will explain more variance in complex traits than others. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We found that sequence variants in splice site regions and synonymous classes captured the greatest proportion of the variance, explaining up to 50% of the variance across all traits. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our results showed that while the 3′UTR functioned in the destabilization of the transcript, the 5′UTR acted as a translation enhancer in plant cells but not in the in vitro translation system. (springer.com)
  • Each of these clones contained a 3'-untranslated region (UTR) and coding region identical to that of the seminal vesicle transcript. (elsevier.com)
  • There are three copies of the APP gene in Down syndrome and the level of APP transcript in the brains of afflicted individuals is increased about 4.5-fold [ 5 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Agalarov SC, Sogorin EA, Shirokikh NE, Spirin AS (2011) Insight into the structural organization of the omega leader of TMV RNA: the role of various regions of the sequence in the formation of a compact structure of the omega RNA. (springer.com)
  • The deleted region contains a 13-base sequence named upstream box (bases 123 to 135), which is highly conserved in cspA , cspB , cspG , and cspI , and is located 11 bases upstream of the Shine-Dalgarno (SD) sequence. (asm.org)
  • Based on this reasoning, the 5′ and 3′ ends of the genome have been proposed to interact during viral RNA replication so that the 3′-end sequence can affect the initiation of RNA synthesis ( 20 ). (asm.org)
  • The transcription start site is the location where transcription starts at the 5'-end of a gene sequence. (wikiversity.org)
  • Normalised luciferase/β-galactosidase luminometric ratios of the GLA 5′UTR sequence variant isoforms c.-10T, c.-12A, c.-30A and c.-44T, expressed as percent of wild-type (WT), in HEK-293, HeLa, HDMEC and Jurkat human cell lines. (cdc.gov)
  • However, the ability of the 5'UTR nucleotide sequence to discriminate virus isolates at the subtype level is controversial, and alternative regions have been proposed for genotyping [ 4 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • B) The sequence of the 5'- APP -UTR from position +1 to +147. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We identified 7 novel mutations by sequence analysis of the NKX2.5-coding region in 26 individuals. (jci.org)
  • We provide evidence that the short 5′ untranslated region (5′-UTR) of DENV or ZIKV genomes can fulfill the function of an internal ribosomal entry site (IRES). (asm.org)
  • The IRES in the intragenic region (IGR) of the insect pathogen cricket paralysis virus (CrPV), on the other hand, is only 189 nt long ( 3 ). (asm.org)
  • Another set of elements that is present in both the 5' and 3′-UTR are iron response elements (IREs). (wikipedia.org)
  • When cells were treated with IL-1β, the IRES activity was suppressed and accompanied by an increased interaction between HuR and TM 5′UTR. (elsevier.com)
  • The 5' untranslated region contains an internal ribosomal entry site (Type I IRES). (wikipedia.org)
  • Upon entry of the genome into the cytoplasm of the host cell, the IRES in the 5' UTR recruits ribosomal subunits (cap-independent mechanism) which starts the translation process. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to 5-fluorouracil treatment, the vegf 5'UTR-expressing tumors did not respond to IFN alpha therapy at all. (omicsdi.org)
  • Keywords: genetic modification Overall design: We established HCT116 clones stably expressing vegf 5'UTR (vegf 5'-G5) and vegf 5'UTR mutated between nt 591 and nt 746 (vegf 5' mut-D5) and implanted into the left and the right flanks of the identical mouse, respectively. (omicsdi.org)
  • G, was found in the 5′ untranslated region (5'UTR) of ADAR1 in the proband and her mother. (ingentium.com)
  • Most of the commercially available genotyping methods are based on the detection of the conserved bases within the 5'UTR region. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Upstream mutation in luciferase constructs increased luciferase activity when transfected into COS-7 or AtT20 cells compared with the native 5′-UTR. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Vimentin interacts with the 5'-untranslated region of mouse mu opioid receptor (MOR) and is required for post-transcriptional regulation. (nih.gov)
  • Moreover, since positive-strand RNA synthesis begins from the 5′ end of the genome, and the 3′ end will be the last region of the genome reached by the viral polymerase, the replication signal at the 3′ end likely interacts with signals at the 5′ end to exert its effect on RNA synthesis. (asm.org)
  • T variant in the 5' untranslated region of DNA repair gene RAD51 reduces risk of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck and interacts wi. (cdc.gov)
  • Gallie DR (2002) The 5′-leader of tobacco mosaic virus promotes translation through enhanced recruitment of eIF4F. (springer.com)
  • Kuroda, H & Maliga, P 2002, ' Overexpression of the clpP 5′-untranslated region in a chimeric context causes a mutant phenotype, suggesting competition for a clpP-specific RNA maturation factor in tobacco chloroplasts ', Plant physiology , vol. 129, no. 4, pp. 1600-1606. (elsevier.com)
  • However, cytoplasmic 5′-nucleotidases catalyze dephosphorylation of ara-CMP, thereby reducing the amount of ara-C for conversion to ara-CTP ( Amici and Magni, 2002 ). (aspetjournals.org)
  • Mutations in this region can also lead to creation of initiation codons. (news-medical.net)
  • For example, generation of premature start codons by mutations in 5'-UTR have been shown to create melanoma. (news-medical.net)
  • But the functional characterization of 5'-UTR and their mutations is still incomplete. (news-medical.net)
  • Introns are also non-coding regions, and often mutations and alterations in introns and intronic splice sites do not receive much attention. (news-medical.net)
  • The 3′-untranslated region (3′-UTR) of mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) RNA regulates the replication of and transcription from the viral RNA. (asm.org)
  • Comparison of various MHV DI RNAs showed that all retain various lengths of both the 5′ and 3′ ends of the viral genome ( 34 , 35 , 37 , 43 ). (asm.org)
  • Finally, single nucleotide change from cytosine to uridine at base 158 in this short fragment of 5′-UTR was proven to reduce viral translation and EV71 virulence in mice. (ncku.edu.tw)
  • 5. The method of claim 1 in which the target gene is a viral gene. (google.com)
  • The Modulatory Effects of the Polymorphisms in GLA 5'-Untranslated Region Upon Gene Expression Are Cell-Type Specific. (cdc.gov)
  • Three polymorphisms have been described, but only the single base-pair change in the 5? (ebscohost.com)
  • Mutation and possible recombination in the two regions play significant roles in the evolutionary diversity of EV-C. (medcraveonline.com)
  • Mutation of the follicle-stimulating hormone receptor gene 5'-untranslated region associated with female hypertension. (cdc.gov)
  • The SNP in the 5'-untranslated region of the FSHR gene affects levels of transcriptional activity and is a susceptibility mutation of EH in women. (cdc.gov)
  • Mapping studies of MHV DI RNAs have further revealed that 400 to 859 nt from the 5′ end and 436 nt from the 3′ end of the genome are required for DI RNA replication ( 17 , 29 ). (asm.org)
  • Thus, it stands to reason that the replication signal from the 5′ end and the remaining replication signal (nt 55 to 436) from the 3′ end of the MHV genome are involved in synthesis of the positive-strand RNA. (asm.org)
  • The rest of the genome consists of non-coding RNA, untranslated regions, splice sites and transposable elements. (news-medical.net)
  • These regions can "jump" from one region of the genome to another. (news-medical.net)
  • Although the non-coding region constitutes almost 98% of our genome, they may contain important regulatory factors which control the levels and expression of the 2% of the coding regions. (news-medical.net)
  • A single change (G to A) at nucleotide 3 (nt 3) of the 5′ untranslated region (UTR) of the V3000 genome resulted in a virus (V3043) that was avirulent in mice. (asm.org)
  • The genome of this enveloped virus is a single-stranded, messenger-sense RNA molecule of approximately 11.5 kb ( 24 ), capped at the 5′ end and polyadenylated at the 3′ end. (asm.org)
  • 3' Untranslated Regions" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (ucdenver.edu)
  • Furthermore, hnRNP A1 and PTB, both of which also bind to the complementary strands at the 5′ end of MHV RNA, together mediate the formation of an RNP complex involving the 5′- and 3′-end fragments of MHV RNA in vitro. (asm.org)
  • We report the presence of a homology in the 5'untranslated region (UTR) of the messenger RNA encoding C9orf72 with the iron responsive elements (IRE) that control expression of iron-associated transcripts and predict that this RNA structure may iron-dependently regulate C9orf72 translation. (scirp.org)
  • A 5' cap (also termed an RNA cap, an RNA 7-methylguanosine cap or an RNA m 7 G cap) is a modified guanine nucleotide that has been added to the "front" or 5' end of a eukaryotic messenger RNA shortly after the start of transcription. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Considering the unique tolerance of Zymomonas mobilis to ethanol and the growing interest in engineering microbial strains with enhanced tolerance to industrial inhibitors, we searched natural cis -regulatory regions in this microorganism using transcriptomic data and bioinformatics analysis. (frontiersin.org)
  • The 3′-UTR often contains regulatory regions that post-transcriptionally influence gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • While these repeat expansion length variations may serve to fine-tune regulatory activities of the STR host gene, more than 50 hereditary neurological, neuromuscular and other diseases are associated with expansions in coding and noncoding regions as well as in promoters ( Figure 1 ). (mdpi.com)
  • A functional SNP in the regulatory region of the decay-accelerating factor gene associates with extr. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Some of the elements contained in untranslated regions form a characteristic secondary structure when transcribed into RNA. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Cytosolic 5′-nucleotidase II (NT5C2) is involved in the development of 1-β- d -arabinofuranosylcytosine (ara-C) resistance and has been associated with clinical outcome in patients receiving ara-C-based chemotherapy. (aspetjournals.org)
  • This is a consequence of subtelomeric deletions of the region of chromosome 2 bearing the KAHRP gene ( 11 ). (pnas.org)
  • The deletions resulted in stepwise reductions of CAT activity from 48% (D [70]) to 18% (D [10]) of the wild type value (Fig. 2A , columns 1-5). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Background: Enterovirus 71 (EV71) has emerged as a neuroinvasive virus responsible for several large outbreaks in the Asia-Pacific region while virulence determinant remains unexplored. (ncku.edu.tw)
  • Conclusions: These results presented the first reported virulence determinant in EV71 5′-UTR and first position discovered from unadapted isolates. (ncku.edu.tw)
  • The 5′UTR of the GS 1 gene when placed in front of a reporter gene ( uidA ), showed a 20-fold increase in the level of GUS expression in agroinfiltrated leaves when compared to the same gene construct without the 5′UTR. (springer.com)
  • In this report, a series of cspA-lacZ fusions having a 26- to 32-base deletion in the 5′-UTR were constructed to examine the roles of specific regions within the 5′-UTR in cspA expression. (asm.org)
  • The observation of increased retinal VEGF expression early in diabetic retinopathy ( 5 , 6 ) and the finding in nondiabetic animals that exogenous intraocular VEGF administration can elicit retinal abnormalities resembling diabetic retinopathy ( 7 ) suggest that VEGF may also play a role in the development of the earliest stages of retinopathy. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The effect of the 5′-and 3′-untranslated regions (UTR) of human erythropoietin gene (gEpo) on its expression in mammalian cells was investigated. (kribb.re.kr)
  • Cells transfected with the 5′,3′-UTR-deleted gEpo showed the highest expression, 2.6 times that with wild-type gEpo. (kribb.re.kr)
  • Northern blot analysis indicated that the enhanced expression of 5′,3′-UTR-deleted gEpo might be related with the transcription efficiency. (kribb.re.kr)
  • We found the 5′UTR of cold-regulated 47 gene to be an effective translational enhancer, contributing to stable high-level expression under various conditions. (usda.gov)
  • The 5' untranslated region (UTR) of the APP gene, encompassing 147 base pairs between the transcriptional (+1) and the translational start site, was examined for its role in APP expression. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The 5'-untranslated region (UTR) was here examined for its role in APP expression. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Diamos, AG, Rosenthal, SH & Mason, H 2016, ' 5′ and 3′ untranslated regions strongly enhance performance of Geminiviral replicons in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves ', Frontiers in Plant Science , vol. 7, no. (elsevier.com)
  • Exons encoding the extracellular segment through the intracellular juxtamembrane 'wedge' region are widely spaced, with introns ranging from 9.7 to 303.7 kb. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Analysis of the translation products suggests that the extended 5'-UTR of the testis transcripts regulate both the choice of translation start site and the efficiency of translation in this system. (elsevier.com)
  • Our data suggest that vimentin functions as a repressor of MOR translation, dependent on 175-150 of the MOR 5'-UTR. (nih.gov)
  • Translation of the mouse MOR gene is controlled by 5′UTR-deletion analysis. (nih.gov)
  • The presence of the GS 1 5′UTR in front of the GS 1 coding region allowed for its translation in E. coli suggesting the commonality of the translation initiation mechanism for this gene between plants and bacteria. (springer.com)
  • Dansako T, Kato K, Satoh J, Sekine M, Yoshida K, Shinmyo A (2003) 5′untranslated region of the HSP18.2 gene contributes to efficient translation in plant cells. (springer.com)
  • The genomes of DENV, like the genomes of yellow fever virus (YFV), West Nile fever virus (WNV), or Zika virus (ZIKV), control their translation by a 5′-terminal capping group. (asm.org)
  • They proposed that instead DENV translation is controlled by an interplay between 5′ and 3′ termini. (asm.org)
  • They can also influence translation of coding regions by reducing the access of translational machinery to the coding regions. (news-medical.net)
  • One possible explanation for this phenomenon is that longer regions have a higher probability of possessing more miRNA binding sites that have the ability to inhibit translation. (wikipedia.org)
  • APP blocker-9 (JTR-009), a benzimidazole, reduced the production of toxic Aβ in SH-SY5Y neuronal cells to a greater extent than other well tolerated APP 5′UTR-directed translation blockers, including posiphen, that were shown to limit amyloid burden in mouse models of Alzheimer's disease (AD). (elsevier.com)
  • The 3′-untranslated region (3′-UTR) contains two exclusively linked, polymorphic sites at positions 811 (C/T) and 1125 (G/A), which result in two functional haplotypes: 811C/1125G or 811T/1125A. (springer.com)
  • The conservation of repeats correlated inversely to their length, with longer repeats generally being more polymorphic than shorter repeats, irrespective of 3' or 5' location. (nih.gov)
  • 5. The fungus of claim 2, wherein said polynucleotide of (b) encodes a polypeptide with a lower K m for a substrate compared to a native fungal chitin synthase. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Such neutral processes could account for some of the observed patterns of intron presence [ 5 ], but do not rule out the possibility that adaptive processes are simultaneously contributing to the maintenance of some introns. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Introns in 5'UTRs differ from those in coding regions and 3'UTRs with respect to nucleotide composition, length distribution and density. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 28S, 5.8S, and 18S rRNAs are encoded by a single transcription unit organized into 5 clusters (each has 30-40 repeats) on the 13,14,15,21,and 22 chromosomes . (wikidoc.org)
  • While GC-rich trinucleotide expansions predominate in exonic regions, intronic repeats are composed of 3-6 nucleotide tandems and vary considerably in GC content. (mdpi.com)
  • Plasma of 171 patients with chronic hepatitis C were screened using both a commercial method (LiPA HCV Versant, Siemens, Tarrytown, NY, USA) and different primers targeting the NS5B region for PCR amplification and sequencing analysis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Laboratory validation of two real-time RT-PCR methods with 5'-tailed primers for an enhanced detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus. (bireme.br)
  • Transfection of synthetic α-tubulin 5′ UTR dsRNA, but not of either strand individually, caused the same phenotype. (pnas.org)
  • For each transfection, 10 8 procyclic T. brucei rhodesiense cells, strain Ytat1.1, were washed four times in Cytomix (120 mM KCl/0.15 mM CaCl 2 /10 mM K 2 HPO 4 /25 mM Hepes (pH 7.6)/2 mM EDTA/5 mM MgCl 2 ) and resuspended in 0.5 ml of Cytomix. (pnas.org)
  • These studies suggest that hnRNP A1-PTB interactions provide a molecular mechanism for potential 5′-3′ cross talks in MHV RNA, which may be important for RNA replication and transcription. (asm.org)
  • Phosphorodiamidate morpholino targeting the 5′ untranslated region of the ZIKV RNA inhibits virus replication. (meharryresearch.org)
  • Their propensity to form unusual quadruplex-like, slipped-stranded structures and imperfect hairpins results in an elevated level of DNA replication and repair errors that can lead to STR contractions or expansions [ 4 , 5 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • After removing contaminated DNA by DNaseI treatment, 10 micro grams each of RNA of vegf 5'-G5-derived tumor from 3 individual mice was mixed and prepared for microarray analysis as sample RNA. (omicsdi.org)
  • The reference RNA of vegf 5' mut-D5-derived tumor was arranged in the same manner. (omicsdi.org)
  • The human RPTPρ gene is located on chromosome 20q12-13.1, and the mouse gene is located on a syntenic region of chromosome 2. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Previously, the 5'-untranslated region (UTR) of the mouse MOR was found to be important for post-transcriptional regulation of the MOR gene in neuronal cells. (nih.gov)
  • To identify potential regulators of the mouse MOR gene, we performed affinity column chromatography using 5'-UTR-specific RNA oligonucleotides using neuroblastoma NS20Y cells. (nih.gov)
  • 5′-UTR-deleted, 3′-UTR-deleted, and 5′,3′-UTR-deleted gEpos were transfected into COS-7 cells, and the amount of transiently expressed Epo was measured. (kribb.re.kr)
  • Ligands on the surface of parasitized red cells can bind to a number of endothelial cell receptors, including CD36 ( 1 ), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 ( 2 ), thrombospondin ( 3 ), chondroitin-4-sulfate ( 4 ), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 ( 5 ), E selectin ( 5 ), and platelet/endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 ( 6 ). (pnas.org)
  • Calcein staining showed that JTR-009 did not indirectly change iron uptake in neuronal cells suggesting a direct interaction with the APP 5′UTR. (elsevier.com)
  • However, uncontrolled production of inflammatory products is injurious to host cells and even leads to neoplastic transformation ( 5 ). (jimmunol.org)