A class of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of a nucleotide and water to a nucleoside and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.-.
A glycoprotein enzyme present in various organs and in many cells. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of a 5'-ribonucleotide to a ribonucleoside and orthophosphate in the presence of water. It is cation-dependent and exists in a membrane-bound and soluble form. EC 3.1.3.5.
A calcium-activated enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP to yield AMP and orthophosphate. It can also act on ADP and other nucleoside triphosphates and diphosphates. EC 3.6.1.5.
Cytidine (dihydrogen phosphate). A cytosine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2', 3' or 5' position.
A species of halophilic archaea found in the Dead Sea.
Pyrimidines with a RIBOSE and phosphate attached that can polymerize to form DNA and RNA.
A disease of cats and mink characterized by a marked inflammation of adipose tissue and the deposition of "ceroid" pigment in the interstices of the adipose cells. It is believed to be caused by feeding diets containing too much unsaturated fatty acid and too little vitamin E. (Merck Veterinary Manual, 5th ed; Stedman, 25th ed)
A condition of inadequate circulating red blood cells (ANEMIA) or insufficient HEMOGLOBIN due to premature destruction of red blood cells (ERYTHROCYTES).
5'-Uridylic acid. A uracil nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2', 3' or 5' position.
Adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2'-, 3'-, or 5'-position.
A group of hydrolases which catalyze the hydrolysis of monophosphoric esters with the production of one mole of orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.
A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.
A group of enzymes within the class EC 3.6.1.- that catalyze the hydrolysis of diphosphate bonds, chiefly in nucleoside di- and triphosphates. They may liberate either a mono- or diphosphate. EC 3.6.1.-.
A nucleoside that is composed of ADENINE and D-RIBOSE. Adenosine or adenosine derivatives play many important biological roles in addition to being components of DNA and RNA. Adenosine itself is a neurotransmitter.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.
Proteins found in any species of archaeon.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A large multisubunit complex that plays an important role in the degradation of most of the cytosolic and nuclear proteins in eukaryotic cells. It contains a 700-kDa catalytic sub-complex and two 700-kDa regulatory sub-complexes. The complex digests ubiquitinated proteins and protein activated via ornithine decarboxylase antizyme.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Animals having a vertebral column, members of the phylum Chordata, subphylum Craniata comprising mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fishes.
A phosphoric diester hydrolase that removes 5'-nucleotides from the 3'-hydroxy termini of 3'-hydroxy-terminated OLIGONUCLEOTIDES. It has low activity towards POLYNUCLEOTIDES and the presence of 3'-phosphate terminus on the substrate may inhibit hydrolysis.
Solutions or mixtures of toxic and nontoxic substances elaborated by snake (Ophidia) salivary glands for the purpose of killing prey or disabling predators and delivered by grooved or hollow fangs. They usually contain enzymes, toxins, and other factors.

Nucleotidases are a class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of nucleotides into nucleosides and phosphate groups. Nucleotidases play important roles in various biological processes, including the regulation of nucleotide concentrations within cells, the salvage pathways for nucleotide synthesis, and the breakdown of nucleic acids during programmed cell death (apoptosis).

There are several types of nucleotidases that differ in their substrate specificity and subcellular localization. These include:

1. Nucleoside monophosphatases (NMPs): These enzymes hydrolyze nucleoside monophosphates (NMPs) into nucleosides and inorganic phosphate.
2. Nucleoside diphosphatases (NDPs): These enzymes hydrolyze nucleoside diphosphates (NDPs) into nucleoside monophosphates (NMPs) and inorganic phosphate.
3. Nucleoside triphosphatases (NTPs): These enzymes hydrolyze nucleoside triphosphates (NTPs) into nucleoside diphosphates (NDPs) and inorganic phosphate.
4. 5'-Nucleotidase: This enzyme specifically hydrolyzes the phosphate group from the 5' position of nucleoside monophosphates, producing nucleosides.
5. Pyrophosphatases: These enzymes hydrolyze pyrophosphates into two phosphate groups and play a role in regulating nucleotide metabolism.

Nucleotidases are widely distributed in nature and can be found in various tissues, organs, and biological fluids, including blood, urine, and cerebrospinal fluid. Dysregulation of nucleotidase activity has been implicated in several diseases, such as cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and infectious diseases.

5'-Nucleotidase is an enzyme that is found on the outer surface of cell membranes, including those of liver cells and red blood cells. Its primary function is to catalyze the hydrolysis of nucleoside monophosphates, such as adenosine monophosphate (AMP) and guanosine monophosphate (GMP), to their corresponding nucleosides, such as adenosine and guanosine, by removing a phosphate group from the 5' position of the nucleotide.

Abnormal levels of 5'-Nucleotidase in the blood can be indicative of liver or bone disease. For example, elevated levels of this enzyme in the blood may suggest liver damage or injury, such as that caused by hepatitis, cirrhosis, or alcohol abuse. Conversely, low levels of 5'-Nucleotidase may be associated with certain types of anemia, including aplastic anemia and paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria.

Medical professionals may order a 5'-Nucleotidase test to help diagnose or monitor the progression of these conditions. It is important to note that other factors, such as medication use or muscle damage, can also affect 5'-Nucleotidase levels, so results must be interpreted in conjunction with other clinical findings and diagnostic tests.

Apyrase is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of nucleoside triphosphates (like ATP or GTP) to nucleoside diphosphates (like ADP or GDP), releasing inorganic phosphate in the process. It can also hydrolyze nucleoside diphosphates to nucleoside monophosphates, releasing inorganic pyrophosphate.

This enzyme is widely distributed in nature and has been found in various organisms, including bacteria, plants, and animals. In humans, apyrases are present in different tissues, such as the brain, platelets, and red blood cells. They play essential roles in several biological processes, including signal transduction, metabolism regulation, and inflammatory response modulation.

There are two major classes of apyrases: type I (also known as nucleoside diphosphate kinase) and type II (also known as NTPDase). Type II apyrases have higher substrate specificity for nucleoside triphosphates, while type I apyrases can hydrolyze both nucleoside tri- and diphosphates.

In the medical field, apyrases are sometimes used in research to study platelet function or neurotransmission, as they can help regulate purinergic signaling by controlling extracellular levels of ATP and ADP. Additionally, some studies suggest that apyrase activity might be involved in certain pathological conditions, such as atherosclerosis, thrombosis, and neurological disorders.

Cytidine monophosphate (CMP) is a nucleotide that consists of a cytosine molecule attached to a ribose sugar molecule, which in turn is linked to a phosphate group. It is one of the four basic building blocks of RNA (ribonucleic acid) along with adenosine monophosphate (AMP), guanosine monophosphate (GMP), and uridine monophosphate (UMP). CMP plays a critical role in various biochemical reactions within the body, including protein synthesis and energy metabolism.

I apologize for any confusion, but "Haloferax volcanii" is not a medical term or concept. It is actually a species of archaea (single-celled microorganisms) that is commonly found in extremely salty environments, such as salt lakes and salt mines. The name "Haloferax volcanii" refers to the fact that this organism is halophilic (salt-loving) and was first isolated from a volcanic site.

Here is a brief scientific definition of "Haloferax volcanii":

Haloferax volcanii is a species of halophilic archaea belonging to the family Haloferacaceae. It is a rod-shaped, motile organism that is commonly found in hypersaline environments such as salt lakes and salt mines. The optimum growth temperature for H. volcanii is around 45°C, and it can tolerate a wide range of salinities (up to 3 M NaCl). It has a relatively large genome (around 4 Mb) that contains many genes involved in DNA repair and stress response, making it well-adapted to life in extreme environments. H. volcanii is also known for its ability to form stable triparental mating structures, which are used in genetic studies of archaea.

Pyrimidine nucleotides are organic compounds that play crucial roles in various biological processes, particularly in the field of genetics and molecular biology. They are the building blocks of nucleic acids, which include DNA and RNA, and are essential for the storage, transmission, and expression of genetic information within cells.

Pyrimidine is a heterocyclic aromatic organic compound similar to benzene and pyridine, containing two nitrogen atoms at positions 1 and 3 of the six-member ring. Pyrimidine nucleotides are derivatives of pyrimidine, which contain a phosphate group, a pentose sugar (ribose or deoxyribose), and one of three pyrimidine bases: cytosine (C), thymine (T), or uracil (U).

* Cytosine is present in both DNA and RNA. It pairs with guanine via hydrogen bonding during DNA replication and transcription.
* Thymine is exclusively found in DNA, where it pairs with adenine through two hydrogen bonds.
* Uracil is a pyrimidine base that replaces thymine in RNA molecules and pairs with adenine via two hydrogen bonds during RNA transcription.

Pyrimidine nucleotides, along with purine nucleotides (adenine, guanine, and their derivatives), form the fundamental units of nucleic acids, contributing to the structure, function, and regulation of genetic material in living organisms.

Steatitis is a medical term that refers to the inflammation of fatty tissue, also known as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) when it occurs in the liver. It is often caused by the accumulation of large amounts of fat within cells, leading to oxidative stress and an immune response.

Steatitis can occur in various parts of the body, including the abdominal cavity, bone marrow, and other organs. However, when it occurs in the liver, it is often associated with obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes. In severe cases, steatitis in the liver can lead to scarring, cirrhosis, and even liver failure.

Symptoms of steatitis may include fatigue, abdominal pain or discomfort, loss of appetite, weight loss, and nausea. Diagnosis typically involves a combination of physical exam, medical history, imaging studies, and laboratory tests. Treatment options may include lifestyle changes such as diet and exercise, medications to manage underlying conditions, and in some cases, surgery.

Hemolytic anemia is a type of anemia that occurs when red blood cells are destroyed (hemolysis) faster than they can be produced. Red blood cells are essential for carrying oxygen throughout the body. When they are destroyed, hemoglobin and other cellular components are released into the bloodstream, which can lead to complications such as kidney damage and gallstones.

Hemolytic anemia can be inherited or acquired. Inherited forms of the condition may result from genetic defects that affect the structure or function of red blood cells. Acquired forms of hemolytic anemia can be caused by various factors, including infections, medications, autoimmune disorders, and certain medical conditions such as cancer or blood disorders.

Symptoms of hemolytic anemia may include fatigue, weakness, shortness of breath, pale skin, jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), dark urine, and a rapid heartbeat. Treatment for hemolytic anemia depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, blood transfusions, or surgery.

Uridine Monophosphate (UMP) is a nucleotide that is a constituent of RNA (Ribonucleic Acid). It consists of a nitrogenous base called Uridine, linked to a sugar molecule (ribose) and a phosphate group. UMP plays a crucial role in various biochemical reactions within the body, including energy transfer and cellular metabolism. It is also involved in the synthesis of other nucleotides and serves as an important precursor in the production of genetic material during cell division.

Adenosine monophosphate (AMP) is a nucleotide that is the monophosphate ester of adenosine, consisting of the nitrogenous base adenine attached to the 1' carbon atom of ribose via a β-N9-glycosidic bond, which in turn is esterified to a phosphate group. It is an important molecule in biological systems as it plays a key role in cellular energy transfer and storage, serving as a precursor to other nucleotides such as ADP and ATP. AMP is also involved in various signaling pathways and can act as a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.

Phosphoric monoester hydrolases are a class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of phosphoric monoesters into alcohol and phosphate. This class of enzymes includes several specific enzymes, such as phosphatases and nucleotidases, which play important roles in various biological processes, including metabolism, signal transduction, and regulation of cellular processes.

Phosphoric monoester hydrolases are classified under the EC number 3.1.3 by the Nomenclature Committee of the International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (IUBMB). The enzymes in this class share a common mechanism of action, which involves the nucleophilic attack on the phosphorus atom of the substrate by a serine or cysteine residue in the active site of the enzyme. This results in the formation of a covalent intermediate, which is then hydrolyzed to release the products.

Phosphoric monoester hydrolases are important therapeutic targets for the development of drugs that can modulate their activity. For example, inhibitors of phosphoric monoester hydrolases have been developed as potential treatments for various diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and infectious diseases.

Adenosine triphosphatases (ATPases) are a group of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) into adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and inorganic phosphate. This reaction releases energy, which is used to drive various cellular processes such as muscle contraction, transport of ions across membranes, and synthesis of proteins and nucleic acids.

ATPases are classified into several types based on their structure, function, and mechanism of action. Some examples include:

1. P-type ATPases: These ATPases form a phosphorylated intermediate during the reaction cycle and are involved in the transport of ions across membranes, such as the sodium-potassium pump and calcium pumps.
2. F-type ATPases: These ATPases are found in mitochondria, chloroplasts, and bacteria, and are responsible for generating a proton gradient across the membrane, which is used to synthesize ATP.
3. V-type ATPases: These ATPases are found in vacuolar membranes and endomembranes, and are involved in acidification of intracellular compartments.
4. A-type ATPases: These ATPases are found in the plasma membrane and are involved in various functions such as cell signaling and ion transport.

Overall, ATPases play a crucial role in maintaining the energy balance of cells and regulating various physiological processes.

Pyrophosphatases are enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis or cleavage of pyrophosphate (PPi) into two inorganic phosphate (Pi) molecules. This reaction is essential for many biochemical processes, such as energy metabolism and biosynthesis pathways, where pyrophosphate is generated as a byproduct. By removing the pyrophosphate, pyrophosphatases help drive these reactions forward and maintain the thermodynamic equilibrium.

There are several types of pyrophosphatases found in various organisms and cellular compartments, including:

1. Inorganic Pyrophosphatase (PPiase): This enzyme is widely distributed across all kingdoms of life and is responsible for hydrolyzing inorganic pyrophosphate into two phosphates. It plays a crucial role in maintaining the cellular energy balance by ensuring that the reverse reaction, the formation of pyrophosphate from two phosphates, does not occur spontaneously.
2. Nucleotide Pyrophosphatases: These enzymes hydrolyze the pyrophosphate bond in nucleoside triphosphates (NTPs) and deoxynucleoside triphosphates (dNTPs), converting them into nucleoside monophosphates (NMPs) or deoxynucleoside monophosphates (dNMPs). This reaction is important for regulating the levels of NTPs and dNTPs in cells, which are necessary for DNA and RNA synthesis.
3. ATPases and GTPases: These enzymes belong to a larger family of P-loop NTPases that use the energy released from pyrophosphate bond hydrolysis to perform mechanical work or transport ions across membranes. Examples include the F1F0-ATP synthase, which synthesizes ATP using a proton gradient, and various molecular motors like myosin, kinesin, and dynein, which move along cytoskeletal filaments.

Overall, pyrophosphatases are essential for maintaining cellular homeostasis by regulating the levels of nucleotides and providing energy for various cellular processes.

Adenosine is a purine nucleoside that is composed of a sugar (ribose) and the base adenine. It plays several important roles in the body, including serving as a precursor for the synthesis of other molecules such as ATP, NAD+, and RNA.

In the medical context, adenosine is perhaps best known for its use as a pharmaceutical agent to treat certain cardiac arrhythmias. When administered intravenously, it can help restore normal sinus rhythm in patients with paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (PSVT) by slowing conduction through the atrioventricular node and interrupting the reentry circuit responsible for the arrhythmia.

Adenosine can also be used as a diagnostic tool to help differentiate between narrow-complex tachycardias of supraventricular origin and those that originate from below the ventricles (such as ventricular tachycardia). This is because adenosine will typically terminate PSVT but not affect the rhythm of VT.

It's worth noting that adenosine has a very short half-life, lasting only a few seconds in the bloodstream. This means that its effects are rapidly reversible and generally well-tolerated, although some patients may experience transient symptoms such as flushing, chest pain, or shortness of breath.

In the context of medicine and pharmacology, "kinetics" refers to the study of how a drug moves throughout the body, including its absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (often abbreviated as ADME). This field is called "pharmacokinetics."

1. Absorption: This is the process of a drug moving from its site of administration into the bloodstream. Factors such as the route of administration (e.g., oral, intravenous, etc.), formulation, and individual physiological differences can affect absorption.

2. Distribution: Once a drug is in the bloodstream, it gets distributed throughout the body to various tissues and organs. This process is influenced by factors like blood flow, protein binding, and lipid solubility of the drug.

3. Metabolism: Drugs are often chemically modified in the body, typically in the liver, through processes known as metabolism. These changes can lead to the formation of active or inactive metabolites, which may then be further distributed, excreted, or undergo additional metabolic transformations.

4. Excretion: This is the process by which drugs and their metabolites are eliminated from the body, primarily through the kidneys (urine) and the liver (bile).

Understanding the kinetics of a drug is crucial for determining its optimal dosing regimen, potential interactions with other medications or foods, and any necessary adjustments for special populations like pediatric or geriatric patients, or those with impaired renal or hepatic function.

Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) is a chemical compound that plays a crucial role in energy transfer within cells. It is a nucleotide, which consists of a adenosine molecule (a sugar molecule called ribose attached to a nitrogenous base called adenine) and two phosphate groups.

In the cell, ADP functions as an intermediate in the conversion of energy from one form to another. When a high-energy phosphate bond in ADP is broken, energy is released and ADP is converted to adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which serves as the main energy currency of the cell. Conversely, when ATP donates a phosphate group to another molecule, it is converted back to ADP, releasing energy for the cell to use.

ADP also plays a role in blood clotting and other physiological processes. In the coagulation cascade, ADP released from damaged red blood cells can help activate platelets and initiate the formation of a blood clot.

Archaeal proteins are proteins that are encoded by the genes found in archaea, a domain of single-celled microorganisms. These proteins are crucial for various cellular functions and structures in archaea, which are adapted to survive in extreme environments such as high temperatures, high salt concentrations, and low pH levels.

Archaeal proteins share similarities with both bacterial and eukaryotic proteins, but they also have unique features that distinguish them from each other. For example, many archaeal proteins contain unusual amino acids or modifications that are not commonly found in other organisms. Additionally, the three-dimensional structures of some archaeal proteins are distinct from their bacterial and eukaryotic counterparts.

Studying archaeal proteins is important for understanding the biology of these unique organisms and for gaining insights into the evolution of life on Earth. Furthermore, because some archaea can survive in extreme environments, their proteins may have properties that make them useful in industrial and medical applications.

Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) is a high-energy molecule that stores and transports energy within cells. It is the main source of energy for most cellular processes, including muscle contraction, nerve impulse transmission, and protein synthesis. ATP is composed of a base (adenine), a sugar (ribose), and three phosphate groups. The bonds between these phosphate groups contain a significant amount of energy, which can be released when the bond between the second and third phosphate group is broken, resulting in the formation of adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and inorganic phosphate. This process is known as hydrolysis and can be catalyzed by various enzymes to drive a wide range of cellular functions. ATP can also be regenerated from ADP through various metabolic pathways, such as oxidative phosphorylation or substrate-level phosphorylation, allowing for the continuous supply of energy to cells.

Substrate specificity in the context of medical biochemistry and enzymology refers to the ability of an enzyme to selectively bind and catalyze a chemical reaction with a particular substrate (or a group of similar substrates) while discriminating against other molecules that are not substrates. This specificity arises from the three-dimensional structure of the enzyme, which has evolved to match the shape, charge distribution, and functional groups of its physiological substrate(s).

Substrate specificity is a fundamental property of enzymes that enables them to carry out highly selective chemical transformations in the complex cellular environment. The active site of an enzyme, where the catalysis takes place, has a unique conformation that complements the shape and charge distribution of its substrate(s). This ensures efficient recognition, binding, and conversion of the substrate into the desired product while minimizing unwanted side reactions with other molecules.

Substrate specificity can be categorized as:

1. Absolute specificity: An enzyme that can only act on a single substrate or a very narrow group of structurally related substrates, showing no activity towards any other molecule.
2. Group specificity: An enzyme that prefers to act on a particular functional group or class of compounds but can still accommodate minor structural variations within the substrate.
3. Broad or promiscuous specificity: An enzyme that can act on a wide range of structurally diverse substrates, albeit with varying catalytic efficiencies.

Understanding substrate specificity is crucial for elucidating enzymatic mechanisms, designing drugs that target specific enzymes or pathways, and developing biotechnological applications that rely on the controlled manipulation of enzyme activities.

Erythrocytes, also known as red blood cells (RBCs), are the most common type of blood cell in circulating blood in mammals. They are responsible for transporting oxygen from the lungs to the body's tissues and carbon dioxide from the tissues to the lungs.

Erythrocytes are formed in the bone marrow and have a biconcave shape, which allows them to fold and bend easily as they pass through narrow blood vessels. They do not have a nucleus or mitochondria, which makes them more flexible but also limits their ability to reproduce or repair themselves.

In humans, erythrocytes are typically disc-shaped and measure about 7 micrometers in diameter. They contain the protein hemoglobin, which binds to oxygen and gives blood its red color. The lifespan of an erythrocyte is approximately 120 days, after which it is broken down in the liver and spleen.

Abnormalities in erythrocyte count or function can lead to various medical conditions, such as anemia, polycythemia, and sickle cell disease.

Nucleotides are the basic structural units of nucleic acids, such as DNA and RNA. They consist of a nitrogenous base (adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine or uracil), a pentose sugar (ribose in RNA and deoxyribose in DNA) and one to three phosphate groups. Nucleotides are linked together by phosphodiester bonds between the sugar of one nucleotide and the phosphate group of another, forming long chains known as polynucleotides. The sequence of these nucleotides determines the genetic information carried in DNA and RNA, which is essential for the functioning, reproduction and survival of all living organisms.

The proteasome endopeptidase complex is a large protein complex found in the cells of eukaryotic organisms, as well as in archaea and some bacteria. It plays a crucial role in the degradation of damaged or unneeded proteins through a process called proteolysis. The proteasome complex contains multiple subunits, including both regulatory and catalytic particles.

The catalytic core of the proteasome is composed of four stacked rings, each containing seven subunits, forming a structure known as the 20S core particle. Three of these rings are made up of beta-subunits that contain the proteolytic active sites, while the fourth ring consists of alpha-subunits that control access to the interior of the complex.

The regulatory particles, called 19S or 11S regulators, cap the ends of the 20S core particle and are responsible for recognizing, unfolding, and translocating targeted proteins into the catalytic chamber. The proteasome endopeptidase complex can cleave peptide bonds in various ways, including hydrolysis of ubiquitinated proteins, which is an essential mechanism for maintaining protein quality control and regulating numerous cellular processes, such as cell cycle progression, signal transduction, and stress response.

In summary, the proteasome endopeptidase complex is a crucial intracellular machinery responsible for targeted protein degradation through proteolysis, contributing to various essential regulatory functions in cells.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Electron microscopy (EM) is a type of microscopy that uses a beam of electrons to create an image of the sample being examined, resulting in much higher magnification and resolution than light microscopy. There are several types of electron microscopy, including transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and reflection electron microscopy (REM).

In TEM, a beam of electrons is transmitted through a thin slice of the sample, and the electrons that pass through the sample are focused to form an image. This technique can provide detailed information about the internal structure of cells, viruses, and other biological specimens, as well as the composition and structure of materials at the atomic level.

In SEM, a beam of electrons is scanned across the surface of the sample, and the electrons that are scattered back from the surface are detected to create an image. This technique can provide information about the topography and composition of surfaces, as well as the structure of materials at the microscopic level.

REM is a variation of SEM in which the beam of electrons is reflected off the surface of the sample, rather than scattered back from it. This technique can provide information about the surface chemistry and composition of materials.

Electron microscopy has a wide range of applications in biology, medicine, and materials science, including the study of cellular structure and function, disease diagnosis, and the development of new materials and technologies.

Hydrogen-ion concentration, also known as pH, is a measure of the acidity or basicity of a solution. It is defined as the negative logarithm (to the base 10) of the hydrogen ion activity in a solution. The standard unit of measurement is the pH unit. A pH of 7 is neutral, less than 7 is acidic, and greater than 7 is basic.

In medical terms, hydrogen-ion concentration is important for maintaining homeostasis within the body. For example, in the stomach, a high hydrogen-ion concentration (low pH) is necessary for the digestion of food. However, in other parts of the body such as blood, a high hydrogen-ion concentration can be harmful and lead to acidosis. Conversely, a low hydrogen-ion concentration (high pH) in the blood can lead to alkalosis. Both acidosis and alkalosis can have serious consequences on various organ systems if not corrected.

A cell membrane, also known as the plasma membrane, is a thin semi-permeable phospholipid bilayer that surrounds all cells in animals, plants, and microorganisms. It functions as a barrier to control the movement of substances in and out of the cell, allowing necessary molecules such as nutrients, oxygen, and signaling molecules to enter while keeping out harmful substances and waste products. The cell membrane is composed mainly of phospholipids, which have hydrophilic (water-loving) heads and hydrophobic (water-fearing) tails. This unique structure allows the membrane to be flexible and fluid, yet selectively permeable. Additionally, various proteins are embedded in the membrane that serve as channels, pumps, receptors, and enzymes, contributing to the cell's overall functionality and communication with its environment.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

Molecular weight, also known as molecular mass, is the mass of a molecule. It is expressed in units of atomic mass units (amu) or daltons (Da). Molecular weight is calculated by adding up the atomic weights of each atom in a molecule. It is a useful property in chemistry and biology, as it can be used to determine the concentration of a substance in a solution, or to calculate the amount of a substance that will react with another in a chemical reaction.

Electrophoresis, polyacrylamide gel (EPG) is a laboratory technique used to separate and analyze complex mixtures of proteins or nucleic acids (DNA or RNA) based on their size and electrical charge. This technique utilizes a matrix made of cross-linked polyacrylamide, a type of gel, which provides a stable and uniform environment for the separation of molecules.

In this process:

1. The polyacrylamide gel is prepared by mixing acrylamide monomers with a cross-linking agent (bis-acrylamide) and a catalyst (ammonium persulfate) in the presence of a buffer solution.
2. The gel is then poured into a mold and allowed to polymerize, forming a solid matrix with uniform pore sizes that depend on the concentration of acrylamide used. Higher concentrations result in smaller pores, providing better resolution for separating smaller molecules.
3. Once the gel has set, it is placed in an electrophoresis apparatus containing a buffer solution. Samples containing the mixture of proteins or nucleic acids are loaded into wells on the top of the gel.
4. An electric field is applied across the gel, causing the negatively charged molecules to migrate towards the positive electrode (anode) while positively charged molecules move toward the negative electrode (cathode). The rate of migration depends on the size, charge, and shape of the molecules.
5. Smaller molecules move faster through the gel matrix and will migrate farther from the origin compared to larger molecules, resulting in separation based on size. Proteins and nucleic acids can be selectively stained after electrophoresis to visualize the separated bands.

EPG is widely used in various research fields, including molecular biology, genetics, proteomics, and forensic science, for applications such as protein characterization, DNA fragment analysis, cloning, mutation detection, and quality control of nucleic acid or protein samples.

The liver is a large, solid organ located in the upper right portion of the abdomen, beneath the diaphragm and above the stomach. It plays a vital role in several bodily functions, including:

1. Metabolism: The liver helps to metabolize carbohydrates, fats, and proteins from the food we eat into energy and nutrients that our bodies can use.
2. Detoxification: The liver detoxifies harmful substances in the body by breaking them down into less toxic forms or excreting them through bile.
3. Synthesis: The liver synthesizes important proteins, such as albumin and clotting factors, that are necessary for proper bodily function.
4. Storage: The liver stores glucose, vitamins, and minerals that can be released when the body needs them.
5. Bile production: The liver produces bile, a digestive juice that helps to break down fats in the small intestine.
6. Immune function: The liver plays a role in the immune system by filtering out bacteria and other harmful substances from the blood.

Overall, the liver is an essential organ that plays a critical role in maintaining overall health and well-being.

A mutation is a permanent change in the DNA sequence of an organism's genome. Mutations can occur spontaneously or be caused by environmental factors such as exposure to radiation, chemicals, or viruses. They may have various effects on the organism, ranging from benign to harmful, depending on where they occur and whether they alter the function of essential proteins. In some cases, mutations can increase an individual's susceptibility to certain diseases or disorders, while in others, they may confer a survival advantage. Mutations are the driving force behind evolution, as they introduce new genetic variability into populations, which can then be acted upon by natural selection.

An encyclopedia is a comprehensive reference work containing articles on various topics, usually arranged in alphabetical order. In the context of medicine, a medical encyclopedia is a collection of articles that provide information about a wide range of medical topics, including diseases and conditions, treatments, tests, procedures, and anatomy and physiology. Medical encyclopedias may be published in print or electronic formats and are often used as a starting point for researching medical topics. They can provide reliable and accurate information on medical subjects, making them useful resources for healthcare professionals, students, and patients alike. Some well-known examples of medical encyclopedias include the Merck Manual and the Stedman's Medical Dictionary.

A group of chordate animals (Phylum Chordata) that have a vertebral column, or backbone, made up of individual vertebrae. This group includes mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fish. Vertebrates are characterized by the presence of a notochord, which is a flexible, rod-like structure that runs along the length of the body during development; a dorsal hollow nerve cord; and pharyngeal gill slits at some stage in their development. The vertebral column provides support and protection for the spinal cord and allows for the development of complex movements and behaviors.

Phosphodiesterase I (PDE1) is an enzyme that belongs to the family of phosphodiesterase enzymes, which are responsible for breaking down cyclic nucleotides, such as cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), into their inactive forms. These cyclic nucleotides act as second messengers in various cellular signaling pathways, and their levels are tightly regulated by the balance between synthesis and degradation by enzymes like PDE1.

PDE1 is further classified into three subtypes: PDE1A, PDE1B, and PDE1C. These subtypes have different expression patterns and functions in various tissues and organs. For example, PDE1 is found in the brain, heart, smooth muscle, and other tissues, where it plays a role in regulating vascular tone, neurotransmission, and other physiological processes.

Inhibition of PDE1 has been explored as a potential therapeutic strategy for various conditions, including cardiovascular diseases, neurological disorders, and erectile dysfunction. However, the development of selective and specific PDE1 inhibitors has proven to be challenging due to the high degree of homology among different PDE subtypes.

Snake venoms are complex mixtures of bioactive compounds produced by specialized glands in snakes. They primarily consist of proteins and peptides, including enzymes, neurotoxins, hemotoxins, cytotoxins, and cardiotoxins. These toxins can cause a variety of pharmacological effects on the victim's body, such as disruption of the nervous system, blood coagulation, muscle function, and cell membrane integrity, ultimately leading to tissue damage and potentially death. The composition of snake venoms varies widely among different species, making each species' venom unique in its toxicity profile.

... nucleotidase, thimidine monophosphate nucleotidase, 5′-AMPase, 5′-AMP nucleotidase, AMP phosphohydrolase, IMP 5′-nucleotidase ... Reis, Julian (1934). "Nucleotidase and its relation to the deamination of nucleotides in the heart and the muscles". Bulletin ... nucleotidase activity can be used as an index of lead poisoning. It is believed that lead induced deficiency of the enzyme in ... Nucleotidase Levels Blood Test. Ecto-5'Nucleotidase is considered a maturation marker for T cells and B cells. This is due to ...
Other names in common use include phosphoadenylate 3′-nucleotidase, 3′-phosphoadenylylsulfate 3′-phosphatase, and 3′(2′),5′- ... Bisphosphate nucleotidase". J. Biol. Chem. 262 (21): 10044-7. PMID 3038862. Lik-Shing Tsang M, Schiff JA (1976). "Properties of ... bisphosphate nucleotidase (EC 3.1.3.7) catalyzes the reaction adenosine 3′,5′-bisphosphate + H2O ⇌ {\displaystyle \ ... Farooqui AA, Balasubramanian AS (1970). "Enzymatic dephosphorylation 3′-phosphoadenosine 5′-phoaphosulfate to adenosine 5′- ...
... pyrimidine nucleotidases. cN-I is a cytosolic nucleotidase(cN) characterized by its affinity toward AMP as its substrate. cN-II ... nucleotidase - NT5C, NT5C1A, NT5C1B, NT5C2, NT5C3 EC 3.1.3.6: 3'-nucleotidase - NT3 5'-Nucleotidases cleave off the phosphate ... nucleotidase. A new class of nucleotidases called IMP-specific 5'-nucleotidase has been recently defined. 5'-Nucleotidases are ... Nucleotidases at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Portal: Biology v t e (EC 3.1.3, ...
... nucleotidase, thymidylate nucleotidase, deoxythymidylic 5′-nucleotidase, deoxythymidylate phosphohydrolase, and dTMPase. ... nucleotidase. Purification and properties of an enzyme found after infection of Bacillus subtilis with phage SP5C". J. Biol. ... The enzyme thymidylate 5′-phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.35) catalyzes the reaction thymidylate + H2O ⇌ {\displaystyle \ ... The systematic name is thymidylate 5′-phosphohydrolase. Other names in common use include thymidylate 5′-nucleotidase, ...
... bisphosphate nucleotidase to give adenosine monophosphate, which can then be recycled into adenosine triphosphate. Adenine ... Bisphosphate nucleotidase". J. Biol. Chem. 262 (21): 10044-7. doi:10.1016/S0021-9258(18)61072-5. PMID 3038862. (Articles ... Adenosine 3',5'-bisphosphate is produced as a product of sulfotransferase enzymes from the donation of a sulfate group from the ... Adenosine 3',5'-bisphosphate is a form of an adenosine nucleotide with two phosphate groups attached to different carbons in ...
... nucleotidase (cN1A; NT5C1A) have been strongly associated with the condition. However, other inflammatory conditions, such as ... 15 (5): 257-272. doi:10.1038/s41584-019-0186-x. PMID 30837708. S2CID 71146208. Machado, P; Dimachkie, MM; Bahron, RJ (October ... The earliest published prevalence was in 2000 and put at 5 per million. A 2017 study in Ireland reported 112 per million. It is ... 27 (5): 591-598. doi:10.1097/WCO.0000000000000129. PMC 4248565. PMID 25159931. Machado, P; Brady, S; Hanna, MG (2013). "Update ...
... nucleotidase, cytosolic IA is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NT5C1A gene. Cytosolic nucleotidases, such as NT5C1A, ... nucleotidase I: characterization and role in nucleoside analog resistance". J. Biol. Chem. 276 (13): 10498-504. doi:10.1074/jbc ... nucleotidase, cytosolic IA". Hunsucker SA, Spychala J, Mitchell BS (2001). "Human cytosolic 5'- ...
... nucleotidase 2 (dNT-2), is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the NT5M gene. This gene encodes a 5' nucleotidase that ... nucleotidase, mitochondrial". Rampazzo C, Gallinaro L, Milanesi E, Frigimelica E, Reichard P, Bianchi V (Jul 2000). "A ... nucleotidases identified in humans, all of which differ in tissue specificity, subcellular location, primary structure and ... nucleotidase, mitochondrial, also known as 5'(3')-deoxyribonucleotidase, mitochondrial (mdN) or deoxy-5'- ...
... nucleotidase or CD73 (cluster of differentiation 73), is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the NT5E gene. CD73 commonly ... nucleotidase, ecto (CD73)". St Hilaire C, Ziegler SG, Markello TC, Brusco A, Groden C, Gill F, et al. (February 2011). "NT5E ... nucleotidase) at the PDBe-KB. This article incorporates text from the United States National Library of Medicine, which is in ... nucleotidase of intact cultured C6 rat glioma cells". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 251 (13): 3900-5. doi:10.1016/S0021- ...
Of the different forms of nucleotidases characterized, this enzyme is unique in its preference for 5'-dNTP. It may be one of ... This gene encodes a nucleotidase that catalyzes the dephosphorylation of the 5' deoxyribonucleotides (dNTP) and 2'(3')-dNTP and ... nucleotidase mRNA levels in blast cells are a prognostic factor in acute myeloid leukemia patients treated with cytarabine". ... nucleotidase mRNA levels in blast cells are a prognostic factor in acute myeloid leukemia patients treated with cytarabine". ...
... nucleotidase as well as of a number of the nucleoside triphosphate and diphosphate-hydrolyzing enzymes of the family of the ... nucleotidase from the electric ray electric lobe. Primary structure and relation to mammalian and procaryotic enzymes". Biochem ... nucleotidase from Torpedo electric organ". Biochemical Journal. 245 (3): 805-810. doi:10.1042/bj2450805. PMC 1148201. PMID ... "Cellular function and molecular structure of ecto-nucleotidases". Purinergic Signal. 8 (3): 437-502. doi:10.1007/s11302-012- ...
... nucleotidase, and phosphodiesterase. The skin of the blue-spotted stingray is often used for drums, such as on the Arab and ...
1995). "Homogeneous pyrimidine nucleotidase from human erythrocytes: enzymic and molecular properties". Biochem. J. 304 (Pt 3 ... 1998). "Pyrimidine nucleotidases from human erythrocyte possess phosphotransferase activities specific for pyrimidine ... nucleotidase (PN-I or P5'NI), and p56, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the NT5C3, or NT5C3A, gene on chromosome 7. ... nucleotidase family and one of the five cytosolic members identified in humans. NTC53 catalyzes the dephosphorylation of the ...
... nucleotidase". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. 33 (1): 101-5. doi:10.1016/0006-3002(59)90502-5. PMID 13651188. Portal: Biology v ... In enzymology, a 5'-acylphosphoadenosine hydrolase (EC 3.6.1.20) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction 5'- ... This enzyme is also called 5-phosphoadenosine hydrolase. This enzyme participates in purine metabolism. Kellerman GM (May 1959 ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is 5'-acylphosphoadenosine acylhydrolase. ...
... nucleotidase and ALP enzymes. With a few exceptions, the optimal test for cholestasis would be elevations of serum bile acid ... nucleotidase as a liver-function test". The Quarterly Journal of Medicine. 36 (144): 457-468. doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.qjmed. ... 447 (5): 566-570. doi:10.1007/s00424-003-1130-z. PMID 12851823. S2CID 35115446. Xiao J, Li Z, Song Y, Sun Y, Shi H, Chen D, ... 47: 1-5. doi:10.1016/j.ejim.2017.06.020. PMID 28669591. Corpechot C, Abenavoli L, Rabahi N, Chrétien Y, Andréani T, Johanet C, ...
... nucleotidase. The nucleoside, adenosine, is then deaminated and hydrolyzed to form hypoxanthine via adenosine deaminase and ... Nelson, David L.; Cox, Michael M.; Lehninger, Albert L. (2008). Lehninger's Principles of Biochemistry (5 ed.). Macmillan. ISBN ... First, the nucleotide will lose its phosphate through 5'- ...
... nucleotidase (CD73) and A2B adenosine receptors". Circulation. 115 (12): 1581-90. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.106.669697. PMID ... 5 (6): e137. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0050137. PMC 2504049. PMID 18578565. Eckle T, Grenz A, Laucher S, Eltzschig HK (October ...
... nucleotidase family". Exp. Parasitol. 122 (4): 318-27. doi:10.1016/j.exppara.2009.04.007. PMID 19393241. B.J. Mans; A.W.H. ... 13 (1): 153-5. doi:10.3201/eid1301.061094. PMC 2725816. PMID 17370534. Rico-Hesse, Rebeca; Dodd, Kimberly A.; Bird, Brian H.; ... 15 (5-6): 570-571. doi:10.1093/jmedent/15.5-6.570. Schlein, Y.; Gunders, A. E. (2009). "Pheromone of Ornithodoros spp. ( ... 5 (10): e1352. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0001352. PMC 3186760. PMID 21991403. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on ...
... nucleotidase. Adenosine constricts the afferent arteriole by binding with high affinity to the A1 receptors a Gi/Go. Adenosine ... nucleotidase (CD73) (Le Hir and Kaissling, 1993). This enzyme catalyzes the dephosphorylation of 5′-AMP or 5′-IMP to adenosine ... nucleotidase (Thomson et al., 2000). Extracellular adenosine activates A1 receptors on vascular afferent arteriolar smooth ... 299 (2): F310-5. doi:10.1152/ajprenal.00149.2010. PMC 2928524. PMID 20462966. Ortiz-Capisano MC, Atchison DK, Harding P, Lasley ...
5 (2): 2100219. doi:10.1002/adtp.202100219. S2CID 245865286. Tantra, T; Singh, Y; Patekar, R; Kulkarni, S; Kumar, P; Thareja, S ... 27 (5): 1489-95. doi:10.1016/j.tiv.2013.03.002. PMID 23524101. Chou JY, Robinson JC (July 1977). "Induction of placental ... 5 (4): 817-30. doi:10.1016/s0950-3552(05)80289-5. PMID 1822819. Retrieved 1 May 2016. Lange PH, Millan JL, Stigbrand T, ... doi:10.1186/s40697-015-0066-5. PMC 4538753. PMID 26284153. Mizumori M, Ham M, Guth PH, Engel E, Kaunitz JD, Akiba Y (July 2009 ...
... nucleotidase deficiency--congenital hemolytic anemia with basophilic stippling of erythrocytes". Tidsskrift for den Norske ... nucleotidase deficiency Alcoholism Myelodysplastic syndromes Sideroblastic anemia Congenital dyserythropoietic anemia Primary ... 5 (4): 327-34. doi:10.1002/ajim.4700050409. PMID 6202140. Tkachuk, Douglas C.; Hirschmann, Jan V.; Wintrobe, Maxwell Myer (2007 ... Severe megaloblastic anemia Hemolytic anemia Sickle-cell anemia Pyrimidine 5' ...
... nucleotidase, important for the correct metabolism of DNA and can therefore cause fetal damage. CRC handbook of chemistry and ... nucleotidase activity in workers exposed to lead, mercury or cadmium". Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 55 (3): 247-52. doi: ... At higher pH Pb6(OH)5(NO3) is formed. The cation [Pb6O(OH)6]4+ is unusual in having an oxide ion inside a cluster of 3 face- ... 5 (3): 242. doi:10.1021/je60007a002. Pauley, J. L.; M. K. Testerman (1954). "Basic Salts of Lead Nitrate Formed in Aqueous ...
A nucleotidase is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of a nucleotide, forming a nucleoside and a phosphate ion. ... Inside the cell, nucleotidases may help to maintain energy levels under stress conditions. A cell deprived of oxygen and ... Some nucleotidases function outside the cell, creating nucleosides that can be transported into the cell and used to regenerate ... Nucleotidases are essential for cellular homeostasis, because they are partially responsible for maintaining a balanced ratio ...
... nucleotidase activity via Ca2+-dependent, annexin 2-mediated membrane rearrangement?". Biochemical Society Transactions. 34 (Pt ... 33 (5): 1223-1228. doi:10.1021/bi00171a023. PMID 8110754. Wright JF, Kurosky A, Wasi S (February 1994). "An endothelial cell- ... Identification of the human CHL12/RFCs2-5 complex as a novel PCNA-binding protein". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 277 ( ... doi:10.1016/S0300-9084(02)00027-5. PMID 12628297. Kirshner J, Schumann D, Shively JE (December 2003). "CEACAM1, a cell-cell ...
... nucleotidase of bovine milk fat globule membranes". International Journal of Biochemistry. 21 (4): 401-405. doi:10.1016/0020- ... 55 (5): 1186-1189. doi:10.1016/j.jpba.2011.03.039. PMID 21531521. Hess C, Ritke N, Broecker S, Madea B, Musshoff F (May 2013 ... Only about 5% is excreted as unchanged levamisole. Drug testing of racehorse urine has led to the revelation that among ... This occurs in 0.08-5% of the studied populations. It has been used as an adulterant in cocaine, resulting in serious side ...
... nucleotidase activities in physiological and disease conditions: New perspectives for human health". BioFactors. 31 (2): 77-98 ... 140 (5): 619-630. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2010.02.014. ISSN 0092-8674. PMID 20211132. S2CID 17595456. Peter, C.; Wesselborg, S.; ... 10 (5): 556-566. doi:10.1038/ncb1718. ISSN 1476-4679. PMC 2851549. PMID 18425118. Chekeni, Faraaz B.; Elliott, Michael R.; ... 79 (5): 896-903. doi:10.1189/jlb.1005550. PMID 16641135. S2CID 20869810. Ravichandran, Kodi S.; Lorenz, Ulrike (December 2007 ...
... nucleotidase) in 165 glioblastomas by immunohistochemistry and electronmicroscopic histochemistry". Anticancer Res. 19 (3A): ... 272 (5): 2814-20. doi:10.1074/jbc.272.5.2814. ISSN 0021-9258. PMID 9006922. S2CID 24800195. Talts, J F; Sasaki T; Miosge N; ... 5 (4): 932-5. doi:10.1016/0888-7543(89)90136-5. PMID 2591971. "Entrez Gene: LAMA1 laminin, alpha 1". Utani, A; Nomizu M; Yamada ... Utani A, Nomizu M, Yamada Y (1997). "Fibulin-2 binds to the short arms of laminin-5 and laminin-1 via conserved amino acid ...
Zimmermann H, Zebisch M, Sträter N (September 2012). "Cellular function and molecular structure of ecto-nucleotidases". ... nucleotidase (eN) as well as by APs. In any case, the final product of the hydrolysis cascade is the nucleoside. The Pannexin-1 ... nucleotidase (CD73) (Le Hir and Kaissling, 1993). This enzyme catalyzes the dephosphorylation of 5′-AMP or 5′-IMP to adenosine ... nucleotidase (Thomson et al., 2000). Extracellular adenosine activates A1 receptors on vascular afferent arteriolar smooth ...
... nucleotidase which has been extensively characterized kinetically. The tetrameric enzyme shows aspects of positive homotropic ... 193 (5): 1114-21. doi:10.1128/JB.01146-10. PMC 3067580. PMID 21169481. Cianciotto, Nicholas P (May 2015). "An update on iron ... 9 (5): 1313. doi:10.1128/mBio.01313-18. PMC 6178616. PMID 30301851. Michod RE, Bernstein H, Nedelcu AM (May 2008). "Adaptive ... 10 (5): 841-851. doi:10.2217/fmb.15.21. ISSN 1746-0913. PMC 4461365. PMID 26000653. The Sanford Guide to Antimicrobial Therapy ...
... nucleotidase deficiency, and intraerythrocytic accumulation of pyrimidines". Journal of Clinical Investigation. 58 (4): 926-932 ... 3 (5): 1232-1237. doi:10.2215/CJN.01960408. PMC 4571151. PMID 18614776. McPhee, Stephen J.; Papadakis, Maxine A. (2008-10-31). ... Hemolytic anemia accounts for 5% of all existing anemias. It has numerous possible consequences, ranging from general symptoms ...
... nucleotidase, thimidine monophosphate nucleotidase, 5′-AMPase, 5′-AMP nucleotidase, AMP phosphohydrolase, IMP 5′-nucleotidase ... Reis, Julian (1934). "Nucleotidase and its relation to the deamination of nucleotides in the heart and the muscles". Bulletin ... nucleotidase activity can be used as an index of lead poisoning. It is believed that lead induced deficiency of the enzyme in ... Nucleotidase Levels Blood Test. Ecto-5Nucleotidase is considered a maturation marker for T cells and B cells. This is due to ...
analysis of Drosophila and human 7-methyl GMP-specific nucleotidases Title: Identification of Drosophila and human 7-methyl GMP ... nucleotidase, cytosolic IIIAprovided by HGNC. Primary source. HGNC:HGNC:17820 See related. Ensembl:ENSG00000122643 MIM:606224; ... nucleotidase deficiency: two cases report and literature review]. Li Y, et al. Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi, 2021 Aug 14. PMID ... nucleotidase 3. lupin. pyrimidine 5-nucleotidase 1. uridine 5-monophosphate hydrolase 1. NP_001002009.1. *EC 3.1.3.5 ...
... nucleotidase 1B. Names. autoimmune infertility-related protein. testicular tissue protein Li 1. NP_001002006.1. *EC 3.1.3.5 ... nucleotidase, cytosolic IBprovided by HGNC. Primary source. HGNC:HGNC:17818 See related. Ensembl:ENSG00000185013 MIM:610526; ... nucleotidase-I identifies a new gene related to human autoimmune infertility-related protein. Sala-Newby GB, et al. Biochim ... nucleotidase activity IBA Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor. more info ...
... nucleotidase was investigated in rat liver by biochemical analysis of cell fractions obtained by differential centrifugatio ... Nucleotidase in Rat Liver J Biophys and Biochem Cytol (1958) 4 (4): 373-376. ...
... nucleotidase deficiency?. Our RARE Concierge Services Guides are available to assist you by providing information, resources ... nucleotidase deficiency. Get in touch with RARE Concierge.. Contact RARE Concierge ... nucleotidase deficiency is a rare hereditary hemolytic anemia due to an erythrocyte nucleotide metabolism disorder ... nucleotidase deficiency. Synonyms: P5N deficiency , UMPH1 deficiency , Uridine 5-monophosphate hydrolase deficiency ...
Nucleotidase is a protein produced by the liver. This test measures the amount of this protein in your blood and is used along ... 5 Nucleotidase Test- Why am I having this test? 5′- ...
Phenotype data for mouse gene Nt5dc2. Discover Nt5dc2s significant phenotypes, expression, images, histopathology and more. Data for gene Nt5dc2 is all freely available for download.
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Nucleotidase (5NT) is an intrinsic membrane glycoprotein that is present as an enzyme in a wide variety of mammalian cells. It ... facilitates the hydrolysis of the phosphate group from 5-nucleotides, resulting in corresponding nucleosides. ... Nucleotidase (5NT) is an intrinsic membrane glycoprotein that is present as an enzyme in a wide variety of mammalian cells. [1 ... Nucleotidase (5NT) is an intrinsic membrane glycoprotein that is present as an enzyme in a wide variety of mammalian cells. [1 ...
Nucleotidase (5NT) is an intrinsic membrane glycoprotein that is present as an enzyme in a wide variety of mammalian cells. It ... facilitates the hydrolysis of the phosphate group from 5-nucleotides, resulting in corresponding nucleosides. ... Nucleotidase (5NT) is an intrinsic membrane glycoprotein that is present as an enzyme in a wide variety of mammalian cells. [1 ... Nucleotidase (5NT) is an intrinsic membrane glycoprotein that is present as an enzyme in a wide variety of mammalian cells. [1 ...
Nucleotidase on a self-referral basis to patients in Central and Greater London for over 20 years. Simply walk-in weekdays ...
... nucleotidase (CDBP00001). IdentificationBiological propertiesGene propertiesProtein propertiesExternal linksReferencesXMLShow ...
A. The Role of Nucleotidase Enzymes. B. The Molecular Mechanism of the Mutation. C. The Genetic and Pharmacological ... A. Overview of 5-Nucleotidase Syndrome. B. Genealogy of the Mutation. II. What is 5-Nucleotidase Syndrome?. A. Symptoms of the ... 5-Nucleotidase Syndrome is a rare genetic disorder that affects a small number of people worldwide. It is caused by a mutation ... Treatment Options for 5-Nucleotidase Syndrome. A. Current Treatment Options. B. The Potential of Gene Therapy. C. The Role of ...
Nucleotidase, Cytosolic III (NT5C3), Cat#RPU40006. Rating Required Select Rating. 1 star (worst). 2 stars. 3 stars (average). 4 ... This time period includes the transit time for us to receive your return from the shipper (5 to 10 business days), the time it ... View Our 5-Star Google Review, Select Citations and 4,000+ Citations at Google Scholar. ... UMPH1; PSN1; PN-I; UMPH; P5N-1; p36; cN-III; Pyrimidine 5-nucleotidase 1; Uridine 5-monophosphate hydrolase 1 ...
Nucleotidase (EC 3.1.3.5) is widely distributed in nature. However it could not be detected in rat liver, because of the ... nucleotidase while inhibitor II inhibited both the brain and liver enzymes. Inhibitor II on further purification on CM Sephadex ... nucleotidase brought about modifications in the secondary structure of the inhibitor as seen from the circular dichroism ... nucleotidase inhibitor from rat liver. Indian Journal of Biochemistry & Biophysics, 29 (2). pp. 204-208. ...
... nucleotidase expression in the rat cerebral cortex and hippocampus. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ... nucleotidase expression in the rat cerebral cortex and hippocampus. ... Dive into the research topics of Regional and sex-related differences in modulating effects of female sex steroids on ecto-5- ... Regional and sex-related differences in modulating effects of female sex steroids on ecto-5- ...
... nucleotidase (5-ribonucleotide phosphohydrolase; EC 3.1.3.5, 5-NT) activity. Some of the flavonoids tested inhibit the enzyme ... Myricetin and quercetin were the most potent inhibitors for 5-NT with IC50 values of 1.1 and 1.4 mu M, respectively. Kinetic ... Rutin, naringin, hyperosid, (+/-)catechin, caffeic acid and rosmarinic acid had no inhibitory effect on the 5-NT activity. ... 5-AMP) was determined with 77 mu M at pH 7.45. The differential inhibitory potencies of flavonoids seem to be structurally ...
Calcium Activated Nucleotidase. *Calcium Activated Nucleotidase 1/CANT1. * CD39. *CD39/ENTPD1. * Cdc25 Phosphatase. *Cdc25 ...
... nucleotidase deficiency in two Irish families with a note on the benefit of splenectomy. Clin Lab Haematol. 1981; 3(1):27-34. ... nucleotidase deficiency. Int J Tissue React. 1984; 6(4):351-354. PubMedGoogle Scholar ... nucleotidase following splenectomy due to trauma.68 As there are insufficient data regarding the efficacy and complications of ... nucleotidase is the most common inherited abnormality of nucleotide metabolism causing hemolytic anemia of moderate severity.63 ...
Nucleotidase (CD73): Crystal Form I (Open) in Complex with Adenosine ... Nucleotidase (CD73): Crystal Form I (Open) in Complex with Adenosine within 5.0Å range: probe atom residue distance (Å) B Occ ... Nucleotidase (CD73): Crystal Form I (Open) in Complex with Adenosine, PDB code: 4h2f was solved by N.Straeter, K.M.Knapp, M. ... Nucleotidase (CD73): Crystal Form I (Open) in Complex with Adenosine also contains other interesting chemical elements:. ...
Determination of Serum Nucleotidase with Cytidine Monophosphate as Substrate. Part II: Improvement of the procedure. ... Chromatographische Untersuchung des Substratverhaltens von 8-Brom-adenosin-5-O-triphosphat gegenüber Nucleosiddiphosphatkinase ...
... at 5 years and 25-35% at 10 years. In one third of all patients, bile flow is inadequate following surgery, and these children ...
Substrate-Based Design of Cytosolic Nucleotidase IIIB Inhibitors and Structural Insights into Inhibition Mechanism. ... Synthesis and evaluation as the inhibitors of cNIIIB nucleotidase. ... 7-methylguanosine phosphate-specific 5-nucleotidase B. African clawed frog. 7-methylguanosine phosphate-specific 5- ...
Nucleotidase / deficiency* * Diphosphates / blood * Diphosphonates / therapeutic use* * GPI-Linked Proteins / deficiency ...
5-Nucleotidase syndrome Also known as: 5NT syndrome GARD Summary 5-oxoprolinase deficiency Also known as: Oxoprolinuria due to ... 5-alpha reductase deficiency Also known as: Pseudovaginal perineoscrotal hypospadias PPSH Male pseudohermaphroditism due to 5- ... Also known as: Autosomal dominant intellectual disability 20 Chromosome 5q14.3 deletion syndrome Monosomy 5q14.3 Del(5)(q14.3) ... 5-alpha-oxoprolinase deficiency GARD Summary 5q- syndrome Also known as: 5q deletion syndrome Refractory macrocytic anemia due ...
Therefore, I investigated the distribution of ecto-50-nucleotidase (50-NT), the key enzyme for the production of extracellular ... Therefore, I investigated the distribution of ecto-50-nucleotidase (50-NT), the key enzyme for the production of extracellular ... Therefore, I investigated the distribution of ecto-50-nucleotidase (50-NT), the key enzyme for the production of extracellular ... Therefore, I investigated the distribution of ecto-50-nucleotidase (50-NT), the key enzyme for the production of extracellular ...
... nucleotidase: evidence for two independent structural loci umph-1 and umph-2. ...
... nucleotidase (cluster #1 Of 1), Eukaryotic (22 Compounds) Code:. 5NTD-1-E. Compound Summary. Annotation Type. Substances. ...
... nucleotidase (NT5E, also known as CD73) hydrolyzes extracellular adenosine 5-monophosphate (AMP) to adenosine in nociceptive ... Recombinant mNT5E hydrolyzed AMP in biochemical assays and was inhibited by α,β-methylene-adenosine 5-diphosphate (α,β-me-ADP ... nucleotidase purified after heterologous expression as a tool for drug screening. Drug Dev Res 1998, 45: 269-276. Publisher ... Nucleotidase (CD73) Inhibits Nociception by Hydrolyzing AMP to Adenosine in Nociceptive Circuits. J Neurosci 2010,30(6):2235- ...
... nucleotidase based on an anthraquinone scaffold. / Baqi, Younis; Lee, Sang Yong; Iqbal, Jamshed et al. In: Journal of Medicinal ... nucleotidase based on an anthraquinone scaffold. In: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 2010 ; Vol. 53, No. 5. pp. 2076-2086. ... nucleotidase based on an anthraquinone scaffold. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 2010 Mar 11;53(5):2076-2086. doi: 10.1021/ ... Nucleotidase (eN, CD73) plays a major role in controlling extracellular adenosine levels. eN inhibitors have potential as novel ...
  • Wolff G, Truse R, Decking U. Extracellular Adenosine Formation by Ecto-5'-Nucleotidase (CD73) Is No Essential Trigger for Early Phase Ischemic Preconditioning. (medscape.com)
  • Alternative splicing of human NT5E in cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma produces a negative regulator of ecto-5'-nucleotidase (CD73). (medscape.com)
  • Crystal Structure of the Human Ecto-5'-Nucleotidase (CD73): Insights Into the Regulation of Purinergic Signaling. (atomistry.com)
  • Ecto-5'-nucleotidase (NT5E, also known as CD73) hydrolyzes extracellular adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) to adenosine in nociceptive circuits. (biomedcentral.com)
  • ecto-5′-Nucleotidase (eN, CD73) plays a major role in controlling extracellular adenosine levels. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Cloning of a mouse cytosolic 5'-nucleotidase-I identifies a new gene related to human autoimmune infertility-related protein. (nih.gov)
  • Cytosolic 5′-nucleotidase 1A as a target of circulating autoantibodies in autoimmune diseases. (nature.com)
  • Mutations in this gene are a cause of hemolytic anemia due to uridine 5-prime monophosphate hydrolase deficiency. (nih.gov)
  • A) in NT5C3A associated with hereditary pyrimidine 5'-nucleotidase deficiency: two cases report and literature review]. (nih.gov)
  • A New Homozygous Mutation (c.393-394del TA/c.393-394del TA) in the NT5C3 Gene Associated With Pyrimidine-5'-Nucleotidase Deficiency: A Case Report. (nih.gov)
  • Hemolytic anemia due to pyrimidine 5′ nucleotidase deficiency is a rare hereditary hemolytic anemia due to an erythrocyte nucleotide metabolism disorder characterized by mild to moderate hemolytic anemia associated with basophilic stippling and the accumulation of high concentrations of pyrimidine nucleotides within the erythrocyte. (globalgenes.org)
  • To diagnose 5-nucleotidase deficiency syndrome, doctors may perform blood and urine tests to measure the levels of purines and their byproducts. (mellaly.com)
  • There is no cure for 5-nucleotidase deficiency syndrome, but there are treatments that can help manage symptoms and prevent complications. (mellaly.com)
  • Scientists have tested gene therapy in animal models of 5-nucleotidase deficiency syndrome and are now exploring the safety and efficacy of the technique in clinical trials. (mellaly.com)
  • Precision medicine, which uses genetic and molecular data to personalize healthcare, may also play a role in the future treatment of 5-nucleotidase deficiency syndrome. (mellaly.com)
  • Living with 5-nucleotidase deficiency syndrome can be challenging, especially for those with severe symptoms. (mellaly.com)
  • Patient support groups and resources can also provide valuable information and emotional support for those affected by 5-nucleotidase deficiency syndrome. (mellaly.com)
  • Patients with 5-nucleotidase deficiency syndrome can benefit from healthy lifestyle habits and patient support groups to manage their symptoms and improve their overall well-being. (mellaly.com)
  • While severe zinc deficiency is rare, mild to moderate deficiency is more common worldwide ( 5 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • In mammalian cells the enzyme is predominantly located in the plasma membrane and its primary role is in the conversion of extracellular nucleotides (e.g. 5'-AMP), which are generally impermeable, to the corresponding nucleoside (e.g. adenosine) which can readily enter most cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Holmes AP, Nunes AR, Cann MJ, Kumar P. Ecto-5'-Nucleotidase, Adenosine and Transmembrane Adenylyl Cyclase Signalling Regulate Basal Carotid Body Chemoafferent Outflow and Establish the Sensitivity to Hypercapnia. (medscape.com)
  • Therefore, I investigated the distribution of ecto-50-nucleotidase (50-NT), the key enzyme for the production of extracellular adenosine. (uaeu.ac.ae)
  • Ecto-5'-nucleotidase (NT5E) is a glycosyl phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored membrane protein that catalyzes the hydrolysis of extracellular AMP to adenosine [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Numerous studies have shown that erythrocyte pyrimidine 5′-nucleotidase activity is significantly lowered in patients with lead poisoning, and that pyrimidine 5′-nucleotidase activity can be used as an index of lead poisoning. (wikipedia.org)
  • The encoded protein is the type 1 isozyme of pyrimidine 5' nucleotidase and catalyzes the dephosphorylation of pyrimidine 5' monophosphates. (nih.gov)
  • The intracellular pyrimidine 5'-nucleotidase NT5C3A is a negative epigenetic factor in interferon and cytokine signaling. (nih.gov)
  • 5′-Nucleotidase (EC 3.1.3.5) is an enzyme which catalyzes the phosphorylytic cleavage of 5′-nucleotides. (wikipedia.org)
  • The enzyme has a wide substrate specificity for nucleotides and has been shown to hydrolyze 5'nucleotides rapidly, ribose-5-phosphate slowly, and other phosphate esters extremely slowly (if at all). (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies of mammalian 5′-nucleotidases have shown that there exist at least four different forms of the 5′-nucleotidase enzyme: one membrane-bound form and three soluble forms. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is due to the fact that the enzyme activity is approximately 10-times higher for peripheral T cells than thymocytes, 5-6 times higher in adult peripheral B cells than fetal B cells, and largely absent in non-T cell and non-B cell lymphocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • 5′-Nucleotidase (5NT) is an intrinsic membrane glycoprotein that is present as an enzyme in a wide variety of mammalian cells. (medscape.com)
  • It is caused by a mutation in the NT5C2 gene, which leads to the loss of the enzyme known as 5-nucleotidase. (mellaly.com)
  • The enzyme 5-nucleotidase is responsible for breaking down and recycling purines, which are building blocks of DNA and RNA. (mellaly.com)
  • The mutation in the NT5C2 gene causes the loss of a specific enzyme called 5-nucleotidase. (mellaly.com)
  • The 5'-nucleotidase (NT5) family of enzyme dephosphorylates non-cyclic nucleoside monophosphates to produce nucleosides and inorganic phosphates. (diva-portal.org)
  • What is 5-Nucleotidase Syndrome? (mellaly.com)
  • 5-Nucleotidase Syndrome is a rare genetic disorder that affects a small number of people worldwide. (mellaly.com)
  • This article will explore the science behind 5-Nucleotidase Syndrome, including its symptoms, causes, treatment, and everyday life. (mellaly.com)
  • 5-Nucleotidase Syndrome is a rare genetic disorder that affects the way our body processes and eliminates waste. (mellaly.com)
  • In addition to AST and ALT, alkaline phosphatase , 5' nucleotidase, and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) are a few of the other enzymes located in the liver. (medicinenet.com)
  • Studies of the soluble form of human ecto-5′-nucleotidase, without a GPI anchor, have shown that the C-terminal domain holds the substrate-binding pocket, and that the aromatic purine motif of the substrate is stacked between two phenylalanine residues. (wikipedia.org)
  • This gene encodes a member of the 5'-nucleotidase family of enzymes that catalyze the dephosphorylation of nucleoside 5'-monophosphates. (nih.gov)
  • The role of ecto-5'-nucleotidase in endothelial dysfunction and vascular pathologies. (medscape.com)
  • 5′-Nucleotidase is a protein produced by the liver. (seekhealthz.com)
  • Inhibitor I inhibited brain 5'-nucleotidase while inhibitor II inhibited both the brain and liver enzymes. (uni-mysore.ac.in)
  • Blood London have been providing 5' Nucleotidase on a self-referral basis to patients in Central and Greater London for over 20 years. (blood.london)
  • 4-7 In the setting of coronary artery disease, several studies have shown the efficacy of magnesium infusion in patients with acute myocardial infarction, 4 vasospastic angina, 5 and unstable angina. (bmj.com)
  • eN inhibitors have potential as novel drugs, for example, for the treatment of cancer. (elsevierpure.com)
  • In the present study, we synthesized and investigated a series of 55 anthraquinone derivatives as potential inhibitors of eN, 11 of which are novel compounds and another 11 of which had previously been described but have now been synthesized by an improved method. (elsevierpure.com)
  • We identified several potent inhibitors of rat eN. (elsevierpure.com)
  • One of the soluble forms appears to be derived from the GPI-anchored ex-5'-nucleotidase and has an extracellular location. (wikipedia.org)
  • Serum levels of 5′-nucleotidase in disease. (medscape.com)
  • The normal range of values for AST (SGOT) is about 5 to 40 units per liter of serum (the liquid part of the blood). (medicinenet.com)
  • SVEVs isolated from lyophilized venoms collected from four different species of snakes ( Agkistrodon contortrix contortrix , Crotalus atrox , Crotalus viridis and Crotalus cerberus oreganus ) were analyzed by mass spectrometry-based proteomic, which allowed the identification of proteins belonging to eight main functional protein classes such as SVMPs, serine proteinases, PLA 2 , LAAO, 5′nucleotidase, C-type lectin, CRISP and Disintegrin. (nature.com)
  • Reduction of 5'-nucleotidase expression or activity may promote metabolic flexibility in type 2 diabetes. (diva-portal.org)
  • 5. Participants should be willing to taper corticosteroid dose per protocol when stable or improving. (who.int)
  • The test may also be referred to as 5'NT Levels Blood Test, CDF73 Levels Blood Test, and Ecto-5'-Nucleotidase Levels Blood Test. (wikipedia.org)
  • J Environ Sci Health B 34(5):829-848. (cdc.gov)
  • siRNA silencing of NT5C2 expression increased palmitate oxidation by 2-fold in the absence and by 8-fold in the presence of 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide 1-beta-D-ribofuranoside. (diva-portal.org)
  • This time period includes the transit time for us to receive your return from the shipper (5 to 10 business days), the time it takes us to process your return once we receive it (3 to 5 business days), and the time it takes your bank to process our refund request (5 to 10 business days). (biomatik.com)
  • 51% had 5 years of schooling, 26% were illiterate, and 15.4% of husbands were illiterate. (who.int)
  • Braun, JS 2010, ' Ecto-5′-nucleotidase-positive cells in the choroid and ciliary body of the rat eye ', Anatomical Record , vol. 293, no. 3, pp. 379-382. (uaeu.ac.ae)

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