Betaine-Homocysteine S-Methyltransferase: A ZINC metalloenzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group from BETAINE to HOMOCYSTEINE to produce dimethylglycine and METHIONINE, respectively. This enzyme is a member of a family of ZINC-dependent METHYLTRANSFERASES that use THIOLS or selenols as methyl acceptors.Databases, Protein: Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.User-Computer Interface: The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Sequence Analysis, Protein: A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.Computational Biology: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.Methyltransferases: A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of a methyl group from one compound to another. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.1.1.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (NADPH2): A flavoprotein amine oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reversible conversion of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate to 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate. This enzyme was formerly classified as EC 1.1.1.171.5,10-Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (FADH2): An FAD-dependent oxidoreductase found primarily in BACTERIA. It is specific for the reduction of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate to 5-methyltetrahydrofolate. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 1.1.1.68 and 1.1.99.15.Oxidoreductases Acting on CH-NH Group Donors: Enzymes catalyzing the dehydrogenation of secondary amines, introducing a C=N double bond as the primary reaction. In some cases this is later hydrolyzed.Methylenetetrahydrofolate Dehydrogenase (NADP): An NADP-dependent oxidoreductase that catalyses the conversion of 5,10-methyleneterahydrofolate to 5,10-methenyl-tetrahydrofolate. In higher eukaryotes a trifunctional enzyme exists with additional METHENYLTETRAHYDROFOLATE CYCLOHYDROLASE and FORMATE-TETRAHYDROFOLATE LIGASE activity. The enzyme plays an important role in the synthesis of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate, the methyl donor for the VITAMIN B12-dependent remethylation of HOMOCYSTEINE to METHIONINE via METHIONINE SYNTHETASE.Homocysteine: A thiol-containing amino acid formed by a demethylation of METHIONINE.Folic Acid: A member of the vitamin B family that stimulates the hematopoietic system. It is present in the liver and kidney and is found in mushrooms, spinach, yeast, green leaves, and grasses (POACEAE). Folic acid is used in the treatment and prevention of folate deficiencies and megaloblastic anemia.Methylenetetrahydrofolate Dehydrogenase (NAD+)Tetrahydrofolates: Compounds based on 5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolate.5-Methyltetrahydrofolate-Homocysteine S-Methyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of methionine by transfer of a methyl group from 5-methyltetrahydrofolate to homocysteine. It requires a cobamide coenzyme. The enzyme can act on mono- or triglutamate derivatives. EC 2.1.1.13.Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Genome-Wide Association Study: An analysis comparing the allele frequencies of all available (or a whole GENOME representative set of) polymorphic markers in unrelated patients with a specific symptom or disease condition, and those of healthy controls to identify markers associated with a specific disease or condition.Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.Prostate: A gland in males that surrounds the neck of the URINARY BLADDER and the URETHRA. It secretes a substance that liquefies coagulated semen. It is situated in the pelvic cavity behind the lower part of the PUBIC SYMPHYSIS, above the deep layer of the triangular ligament, and rests upon the RECTUM.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Prostatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.Gene Frequency: The proportion of one particular in the total of all ALLELES for one genetic locus in a breeding POPULATION.GermanyBiological Availability: The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.Methionine: A sulfur-containing essential L-amino acid that is important in many body functions.S-Adenosylmethionine: Physiologic methyl radical donor involved in enzymatic transmethylation reactions and present in all living organisms. It possesses anti-inflammatory activity and has been used in treatment of chronic liver disease. (From Merck, 11th ed)Materia Medica: Materials or substances used in the composition of traditional medical remedies. The use of this term in MeSH was formerly restricted to historical articles or those concerned with traditional medicine, but it can also refer to homeopathic remedies. Nosodes are specific types of homeopathic remedies prepared from causal agents or disease products.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Methionine Adenosyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of S-adenosylmethionine from methionine and ATP. EC 2.5.1.6.Luteinizing Hormone: A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Alcohol Deterrents: Substances interfering with the metabolism of ethyl alcohol, causing unpleasant side effects thought to discourage the drinking of alcoholic beverages. Alcohol deterrents are used in the treatment of alcoholism.Adenosylmethionine Decarboxylase: An enzyme that catalyzes the decarboxylation of S-adenosyl-L-methionine to yield 5'-deoxy-(5'-),3-aminopropyl-(1), methylsulfonium salt. It is one of the enzymes responsible for the synthesis of spermidine from putrescine. EC 4.1.1.50.Glycine N-Methyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the METHYLATION of GLYCINE using S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE to form SARCOSINE with the concomitant production of S-ADENOSYLHOMOCYSTEINE.S-Adenosylhomocysteine: 5'-S-(3-Amino-3-carboxypropyl)-5'-thioadenosine. Formed from S-adenosylmethionine after transmethylation reactions.PolyaminesCystathionineSpermidine: A polyamine formed from putrescine. It is found in almost all tissues in association with nucleic acids. It is found as a cation at all pH values, and is thought to help stabilize some membranes and nucleic acid structures. It is a precursor of spermine.Ornithine Decarboxylase: A pyridoxal-phosphate protein, believed to be the rate-limiting compound in the biosynthesis of polyamines. It catalyzes the decarboxylation of ornithine to form putrescine, which is then linked to a propylamine moiety of decarboxylated S-adenosylmethionine to form spermidine.
(1/254) Folate and homocysteine metabolism in copper-deficient rats.

To investigate the effect of copper deficiency on folate and homocysteine metabolism, we measured plasma, red-cell and hepatic folate, plasma homocysteine and vitamin B-12 concentrations, and hepatic methionine synthase activities in rats. Two groups of male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed semi-purified diets containing either 0. 1 mg (copper-deficient group) or 9.2 mg (control group) of copper per kg. After 6 weeks of dietary treatment, copper deficiency was established as evidenced by markedly decreased plasma and hepatic copper concentrations in rats fed the low-copper diet. Plasma, red-cell, hepatic folate, and plasma vitamin B-12 concentrations were similar in both groups, whereas plasma homocysteine concentrations in the copper-deficient group were significantly higher than in the control group (P<0.05). Copper deficiency resulted in a 21% reduction in hepatic methionine synthase activity as compared to the control group (P<0.01). This change most likely caused the increased hepatic 5-methyltetrahydrofolate and plasma homocysteine concentrations in the copper-deficient group. Our results indicate that hepatic methionine synthase may be a cuproenzyme, and plasma homocysteine concentrations are influenced by copper nutriture in rats. These data support the concept that copper deficiency can be a risk factor for cardiovascular disease.  (+info)

(2/254) Co-ordinate variations in methylmalonyl-CoA mutase and methionine synthase, and the cobalamin cofactors in human glioma cells during nitrous oxide exposure and the subsequent recovery phase.

We investigated the co-ordinate variations of the two cobalamin (Cbl)-dependent enzymes, methionine synthase (MS) and methylmalonyl-CoA mutase (MCM), and measured the levels of their respective cofactors, methylcobalamin (CH3Cbl) and adenosylcobalamin (AdoCbl) in cultured human glioma cells during nitrous oxide exposure and during a subsequent recovery period of culture in a nitrous oxide-free atmosphere (air). In agreement with published data, MS as the primary target of nitrous oxide was inactivated rapidly (initial rate of 0.06 h(-1)), followed by reduction of CH3Cbl (to <20%). Both enzyme activity and cofactor levels recovered rapidly when the cells were subsequently cultured in air, but the recovery was completely blocked by the protein-synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide. During MS inactivation, there was a reduction of cellular AdoCbl and holo-MCM activity (measured in the absence of exogenous AdoCbl) to about 50% of pre-treatment levels. When the cells were transferred to air, both AdoCbl and holo-MCM activity recovered, albeit more slowly than the MS system. Notably, the regain of the holo-MCM and AdoCbl was enhanced rather than inhibited by cycloheximide. These findings confirm irreversible damage of MS by nitrous oxide; hence, synthesis of the enzyme is required to restore its activity. In contrast, restoration of holo-MCM activity is only dependent on repletion of the AdoCbl cofactor. We also observed a synchronous fluctuation in AdoCbl and the much larger hydroxycobalamin pool during the inactivation and recovery phase, suggesting that the loss and repletion of AdoCbl reflect changes in intracellular Cbl homoeostasis. Our data demonstrate that the nitrous oxide-induced changes in MS and CH3Cbl are associated with reversible changes in both MCM holoactivity and the AdoCbl level, suggesting co-ordinate distribution of Cbl cofactors during depletion and repletion.  (+info)

(3/254) Reversal of ethanol-induced hepatic steatosis and lipid peroxidation by taurine: a study in rats.

Alcohol (ethanol) was administered chronically to female Sprague-Dawley rats in a nutritionally adequate, totally liquid diet for 28 days. This resulted in significant hepatic steatosis and lipid peroxidation. When taurine was administered for 2 days following alcohol withdrawal it was found to reduce alcohol-induced lipid peroxidation and completely reversed hepatic steatosis. The reversal of hepatic steatosis was demonstrated both biochemically and histologically. Two days following alcohol withdrawal, the apparent activity of the alcohol-inducible form of cytochrome P450 (CYP2E1) was unchanged although total cytochrome P450 content was increased. In addition, alcohol significantly inhibited hepatic methionine synthase activity and increased homocysteine excretion in urine. Although alcohol did not affect the urinary excretion of taurine (a non-invasive marker of liver damage), levels of serum and hepatic taurine were markedly raised in animals given taurine following their treatment with alcohol, compared to animals given taurine alone. There was evidence of slight bile duct injury in animals treated with alcohol and with alcohol followed by taurine, as indicated by raised serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and cholesterol. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) was also slightly raised. The effects of taurine on reversing hepatic steatosis may be due to the enhanced secretion of hepatic triglycerides. It is suggested that increased bile flow as a result of taurine treatment may have contributed to the removal of lipid peroxides. These in-vivo findings demonstrate for the first time that hepatic steatosis and lipid peroxidation, occurring as a result of chronic alcohol consumption, can be reversed by administration of taurine to rats for 2 days.  (+info)

(4/254) A new class of cobalamin transport mutants (btuF) provides genetic evidence for a periplasmic binding protein in Salmonella typhimurium.

No periplasmic binding protein has been demonstrated for the ATP-binding cassette (ABC)-type cobalamin transporter BtuCD. New mutations (btuF) are described that affect inner-membrane transport. The BtuF protein has a signal sequence and resembles the periplasmic binding proteins of several other ABC transporters.  (+info)

(5/254) Molecular basis for methionine synthase reductase deficiency in patients belonging to the cblE complementation group of disorders in folate/cobalamin metabolism.

Methionine synthase reductase (MSR) deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder of folate/cobalamin metabolism leading to hyperhomocysteinemia, hypo- methioninemia and megaloblastic anemia. Deficiency in MSR activity occurs as the result of a defect in the MSR enzyme, which is required for the reductive activation of methionine synthase (MS). MS itself is responsible for the folate/cobalamin-dependent conversion of homo- cysteine to methionine. We have recently cloned the cDNA corresponding to the MSR protein, a novel member of the ferredoxin-NADP(+)reductase (FNR) family of electron transferases. We have used RT-PCR, heteroduplex, single-strand conformation poly- morphism (SSCP) and DNA sequence analyses to reveal 11 mutations in eight patients from seven families belonging to the cblE complementation group of patients of cobalamin metabolism that is defective in the MSR protein. The mutations include splicing defects leading to large insertions or deletions, as well as a number of smaller deletions and point mutations. Apart from an intronic substitution found in two unrelated patients, the mutations appear singular among individuals. Of the eleven, three are nonsense mutations, allowing for the identification of two patients for whom little if any MSR protein should be produced. The remaining eight involve point mutations or in-frame disruptions of the coding sequence and are distributed throughout the coding region, including proposed FMN, FAD and NADPH binding sites. These data demonstrate a unique requirement for MSR in the reductive activation of MS.  (+info)

(6/254) A polymorphism of the methionine synthase gene: association with plasma folate, vitamin B12, homocyst(e)ine, and colorectal cancer risk.

We previously reported (J. Chen et al., Cancer Res., 56: 4862-4864, 1996; J. Ma et al., Cancer Res., 57: 1098-1102, 1997) that a 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphism (677C-->T, ala-->val) was associated with lower risk of colorectal cancer. In this study, we examined the relationship of a polymorphism (2756A-->G, asp-->gly) in the gene (MTR) for methionine synthase, another important enzyme in the same folate/methionine/homocyst(e)ine metabolic pathway, with risk of colorectal cancer among 356 cases and 476 cancer-free controls. The frequency of the homozygous variant genotype (gly/gly) was slightly lower among cases (3%) than controls (5%). The odds ratio for the gly/gly genotype was 0.59 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.27-1.27] compared with those with the homozygous wild type (asp/asp). There were no significant differences in plasma levels of folate, vitamin B12, and homocyst(e)ine (tHcy) among the MTR genotypes, in contrast to the MTHFR polymorphism. However, similar to the interaction observed for the MTHFR polymorphism among men who consumed less than 1 alcoholic drink/day, those with the gly/gly genotype had a lower risk of colorectal cancer with an odds ratio of 0.27 (95% CI, 0.09-0.81) compared with those with the asp/asp genotype. The possible association of the MTR polymorphism with lower risk of colorectal cancer especially among those with low alcohol consumption, in the same direction as for the MTHFR polymorphism, is intriguing. However, our study had limited statistical power because of the low frequency of the MTR variant genotype, which is reflected in the wide CIs. Hence, these findings need to be confirmed in larger populations.  (+info)

(7/254) Heterologous high level expression, purification, and enzymological properties of recombinant rat cobalamin-dependent methionine synthase.

Rat methionine synthase was expressed chiefly as apoenzyme in recombinant baculovirus-infected insect cells (Yamada, K., Tobimatsu, T., and Toraya, T. (1998) Biosci. Biotech. Biochem. 62, 2155-2160). The apoenzyme produced was very unstable, and therefore, after complexation with methylcobalamin, the functional holoenzyme was purified to homogeneity. The specific activity and apparent K(m) values for substrates were in good agreement with those obtained with purified rat liver enzyme. The electronic spectrum of the purified recombinant enzyme resembled that of cob(II)alamin and changed to a methylcobalamin-like one upon incubation of the enzyme with titanium(III) and S-adenosylmethionine. The rate of oxidative inactivation of the enzyme in the absence of S-adenosylmethionine was slower with a stronger reducing agent like titanium(III). The nucleotide moiety, especially the phosphodiester group, was shown to play an important role in the binding of the coenzyme to apoprotein and thus for catalysis. Upon incubation with the apoenzyme in the absence of a reducing agent, cyano- and aquacobalamin were not effective or were effective only slightly in reconstituting holoenzyme. Ethyl- and propylcobalamin formed inactive complexes with apoenzyme, which were converted to holoenzyme by photolytic activation. Adenosylcobalamin was not able to form a complex with apoenzyme, which was convertible to holoenzyme by photoirradiation.  (+info)

(8/254) Characterization and functional expression of cDNAs encoding methionine-sensitive and -insensitive homocysteine S-methyltransferases from Arabidopsis.

Plants synthesize S-methylmethionine (SMM) from S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet), and methionine (Met) by a unique reaction and, like other organisms, use SMM as a methyl donor for Met synthesis from homocysteine (Hcy). These reactions comprise the SMM cycle. Two Arabidopsis cDNAs specifying enzymes that mediate the SMM --> Met reaction (SMM:Hcy S-methyltransferase, HMT) were identified by homology and authenticated by complementing an Escherichia coli yagD mutant and by detecting HMT activity in complemented cells. Gel blot analyses indicate that these enzymes, AtHMT-1 and -2, are encoded by single copy genes. The deduced polypeptides are similar in size (36 kDa), share a zinc-binding motif, lack obvious targeting sequences, and are 55% identical to each other. The recombinant enzymes exist as monomers. AtHMT-1 and -2 both utilize l-SMM or (S,S)-AdoMet as a methyl donor in vitro and have higher affinities for SMM. Both enzymes also use either methyl donor in vivo because both restore the ability to utilize AdoMet or SMM to a yeast HMT mutant. However, AtHMT-1 is strongly inhibited by Met, whereas AtHMT-2 is not, a difference that could be crucial to the control of flux through the HMT reaction and the SMM cycle. Plant HMT is known to transfer the pro-R methyl group of SMM. This enabled us to use recombinant AtHMT-1 to establish that the other enzyme of the SMM cycle, AdoMet:Met S-methyltransferase, introduces the pro-S methyl group. These opposing stereoselectivities suggest a way to measure in vivo flux through the SMM cycle.  (+info)

*  Methionine synthase
Betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000116984 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl ... Zhu H, Wicker NJ, Shaw GM, Lammer EJ, Hendricks K, Suarez L, Canfield M, Finnell RH (March 2003). "Homocysteine remethylation ... Methionine synthase also known as MS, MeSe, MetH is responsible for the regeneration of methionine from homocysteine. In humans ... Methionine synthase catalyzes the final step in the regeneration of methionine(Met) from homocysteine(Hcy). The overall ...
*  MTRR (gene)
Chronic homocysteine elevation increases s-adenosyl-L-homocysteine levels, consequently inhibiting methyltransferase activity ... Prenatal diagnosis of this condition is possible using [14C] methyltetrahydrofolate. Mutation analysis in native chorionic ... Homocysteine, a sulfur based amino acid is the main product of methionine demethylation. Elevated homocysteine is an ... A major product of methionine demethylation is homocysteine. Remethylation of homocysteine occurs via a cobalamin dependent ...
*  MTRR
... may refer to: 5-methyltetrahydrofolate-homocysteine methyltransferase reductase, a human gene Memory Type Range Registers ...
*  Methylcobalamin
... vitamer is one of two active coenzymes used by vitamin B12-dependent enzymes and is the specific vitamin B12 form used by 5- ... methyltetrahydrofolate-homocysteine methyltransferase (MTR), also known as methionine synthase.[citation needed] ...
*  MTR (disambiguation)
Canada 5-Methyltetrahydrofolate-homocysteine methyltransferase, or Methionine synthase, an enzyme responsible for the ...
*  Chromosome 1 (human)
Protein arginine methyltransferase 6 PSRC1: Proline/serine-rich coiled-coil protein 1 RAD54L: RAD54-like RAP1A (1p13) RBM15 ( ... 11 (5): 206. doi:10.1186/gb-2010-11-5-206. PMC 2898077 . PMID 20441615. "Statistics & Downloads for chromosome 1". HUGO Gene ... 5-azacytidine type, common, fra(1)(q12) GAS5 (1q25) GBA: glucosidase, beta; acid (includes glucosylceramidase) (gene for ... 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (NADPH) MUL1: Mitochondrial E3 ubiquitin protein ligase 1 MUTYH (1p34): mutY homolog ( ...
*  Chromosome 5 (human)
Changes to chromosome 5 include an extra segment of the short (p) or long (q) arm of the chromosome in each cell (partial ... Chromosome 5 spans about 181 million base pairs (the building blocks of DNA) and represents almost 6% of the total DNA in cells ... Chromosome 5 is the 5th largest human chromosome, yet has one of the lowest gene densities. This is partially explained by ... Chromosome 5 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans. People normally have two copies of this chromosome. ...
*  Methyltransferase
SAM is converted to S-Adenosyl homocysteine (SAH) during this process. The breaking of the SAM-methyl bond and the formation of ... Methanol, methyl tetrahydrofolate, mono-, di-, and trimethylamine, methanethiol, methyltetrahydromethanopterin, and ... These types include protein methyltransferases, DNA/RNA methyltransferases, natural product methyltransferases, and non-SAM ... Examples include: Catechol-O-methyl transferase DNA methyltransferase Histone methyltransferase 5-Methyltetrahydrofolate- ...
*  5-Methyltetrahydropteroyltriglutamate-homocysteine S-methyltransferase
"Transfer of the methyl group from N5-methyltetrahydrofolates to homocysteine in Escherichia coli" (Free full text). Biochem. J ... Other names in common use include tetrahydropteroyltriglutamate methyltransferase, homocysteine methylase, methyltransferase, ... homocysteine methyltransferase, cobalamin-independent methionine synthase, methionine synthase (cobalamin-independent), and ... Homocysteine is coordinated to a zinc ion, as initially suggested by spectroscopy and mutagenesis . Pejchal, Robert; Ludwig, ...
*  Vitamin B12
Other cobalamin-requiring methyltransferase enzymes are also known in bacteria, such as Me-H4-MPT, coenzyme M methyltransferase ... The active metabolite of vitamin B12 is required for the methylation of homocysteine in the production of methionine, which is ... Methyltransferases Methyl (-CH3) group transfers between two molecules. These use MeB12 (methylcobalamin) form of the vitamin. ... MTR, also known as methionine synthase, is a methyltransferase enzyme, which uses the MeB12 and reaction type 2 to transfer a ...
*  List of MeSH codes (D08)
... betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase MeSH D08.811.913.555.500.250 --- catechol O-methyltransferase MeSH D08.811.913.555. ... histamine N-methyltransferase MeSH D08.811.913.555.500.625 --- homocysteine S-methyltransferase MeSH D08.811.913.555.500.645 ... histone-lysine n-methyltransferase MeSH D08.811.913.555.500.800.650 --- o-6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase MeSH D08.811. ... protein o-methyltransferase MeSH D08.811.913.555.500.800.800.700 --- protein d-aspartate-l-isoaspartate methyltransferase MeSH ...
*  Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase
... that homocysteine can also be converted to methionine by the folate-independent enzyme betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase ( ... and recommended supplementation of methyltetrahydrofolate to potentially prevent and treat dementia (along with depression). A ... 677TT (but not 677CC/CT) individuals with lower plasma folate levels are at risk for elevated plasma homocysteine levels. In ... It does not result in thermolabile MTHFR and does not appear to affect homocysteine levels. It does, however, affect the ...
*  Methylation
The formation of Me-CpG is catalyzed by the enzyme DNA methyltransferase. Human DNA has about 80-90% of CpG sites methylated, ... Methionine synthase regenerates methionine (Met) from homocysteine (Hcy). The overall reaction transforms 5- ... methyltetrahydrofolate (N5-MeTHF) into tetrahydrofolate (THF) while transferring a methyl group to Hcy to form Met. Methionine ... This process, catalyzed by enzymes such as caffeoyl-CoA O-methyltransferase, is a key reaction in the biosynthesis of lignols, ...
*  Folate
... homocysteine, in a reaction catalyzed by homocysteine methyltransferase. These reactions are important because a defect in ... Methyl tetrahydrofolate (CH3-THF, or methyl-THF) can be made from methylene-THF by reduction of the methylene group with NADPH ... Increased homocysteine level suggests tissue folate deficiency but homocysteine is also affected by vitamin B12 and vitamin B6 ... homocysteine methyltransferase or a deficiency of B12 may lead to a so-called "methyl-trap" of THF, in which THF converts to a ...
*  Glycine N-methyltransferase
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + sarcosine Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are S-adenosyl methionine and glycine, whereas ... Other names in common use include glycine methyltransferase, S-adenosyl-L-methionine:glycine methyltransferase, and GNMT. This ... In enzymology, a glycine N-methyltransferase (EC 2.1.1.20) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction S-adenosyl-L- ... Pakhomova S, Luka Z, Grohmann S, Wagner C, Newcomer ME (2004). "Glycine N-methyltransferases: a comparison of the crystal ...
*  Homocysteine
... can be recycled into methionine. This process uses N5-methyl tetrahydrofolate as the methyl donor and cobalamin ( ... DNA methyltransferase as an intermediate acceptor in the process of DNA methylation). The adenosine is then hydrolyzed to yield ... Homocysteine MS Spectrum Homocysteine at Lab Tests Online Homocysteine: analyte monograph - The Association for Clinical ... Homocysteine exists at neutral pH values as a zwitterion. Homocysteine is not obtained from the diet. Instead, it is ...
*  S-Adenosyl methionine
This is hydrolysed to homocysteine and adenosine by S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase EC 3.3.1.1 and the homocysteine recycled ... Methyltransferases are also responsible for the addition of methyl groups to the 2' hydroxyls of the first and second ... that use SAM-e as a substrate produce S-adenosyl homocysteine as a product. S-adenosyl homocysteine is a strong negative ... DNA methyltransferase SAM riboswitch List of investigational antidepressants SAM-e, SAMe, SAM, S-Adenosyl-L-methionine, AdoMet ...
*  List of EC numbers (EC 2)
... histamine N-methyltransferase EC 2.1.1.9: thiol S-methyltransferase EC 2.1.1.10: homocysteine S-methyltransferase EC 2.1.1.11: ... betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase EC 2.1.1.6: catechol O-methyltransferase EC 2.1.1.7: nicotinate N-methyltransferase EC ... EC 2.1.1.1: nicotinamide N-methyltransferase EC 2.1.1.2: guanidinoacetate N-methyltransferase EC 2.1.1.3: thetin-homocysteine S ... sterol 24-C-methyltransferase EC 2.1.1.42: luteolin O-methyltransferase EC 2.1.1.43: histone-lysine N-methyltransferase EC 2.1. ...
Alcohol Consumption and Genetic Variation in Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase and 5-Methyltetrahydrofolate-Homocysteine...  Alcohol Consumption and Genetic Variation in Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase and 5-Methyltetrahydrofolate-Homocysteine...
The 2756A,G variant in the gene encoding methionine synthase: its relation with plasma homocysteine levels and risk of coronary ... Gene-environment and gene-gene interaction in the determination of plasma homocysteine levels in healthy middle-aged men. ... Influence of a methionine synthase (D919G) polymorphism on plasma homocysteine and folate levels and relation to risk of ... Polymorphism of the methionine synthase gene: association with homocysteine metabolism and late-onset vascular diseases in the ...
more infohttp://cebp.aacrjournals.org/content/18/9/2453.full
Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (NADPH2)
      - Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase
     Summary Report | CureHunter  Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (NADPH2) - Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Summary Report | CureHunter
A flavoprotein amine oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reversible conversion of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate to 5,10- ... Methyltetrahydrofolate Homocysteine Methyltransferase) 10. Thymidylate Synthase Related Therapies and Procedures. 1. Drug ... 5. Alzheimer Disease (Alzheimer's Disease) 03/01/2004 - "A haplotype of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene is ... Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase; 5,10-Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (NADPH); Methylene Tetrahydrofolate Reductase; ...
more infohttp://www.curehunter.com/public/keywordSummaryD042965-Methylenetetrahydrofolate-Reductase--NADPH2--Methylenetetrahydrofolate-Reductase.do
MTR 5-methyltetrahydrofolate-homocysteine methyltransferase [Homo sapiens (human)] - Gene - NCBI  MTR 5-methyltetrahydrofolate-homocysteine methyltransferase [Homo sapiens (human)] - Gene - NCBI
... methyltetrahydrofolate homocysteine methyltransferase reductase (MTRR) A66G were shown to be positively associatiated with ... This family includes cobalamin-dependent methyltransferases such as methyltetrahydrofolate, corrinoid iron-sulfur protein ... This family includes cobalamin-dependent methyltransferases such as methyltetrahydrofolate, corrinoid iron-sulfur protein ... This family includes cobalamin-dependent methyltransferases such as methyltetrahydrofolate, corrinoid iron-sulfur protein ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gene?Db=gene&Cmd=ShowDetailView&TermToSearch=4548
RCSB PDB - Protein Feature View 









 - 5-methyltetrahydrofolate--homocysteine S-methyltransferase - Q2RJ67 (Q2RJ67 MOOTA)  RCSB PDB - Protein Feature View - 5-methyltetrahydrofolate--homocysteine S-methyltransferase - Q2RJ67 (Q2RJ67 MOOTA)
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
more infohttp://www.rcsb.org/pdb/protein/Q2RJ67
Potassium in the structure of Structure Of the Pterin-Binding Domain Metr of 5- Methyltetrahydrofolate-Homocysteine...  Potassium in the structure of Structure Of the Pterin-Binding Domain Metr of 5- Methyltetrahydrofolate-Homocysteine...
Structure Of the Pterin-Binding Domain Metr of 5- Methyltetrahydrofolate-Homocysteine Methyltransferase From Bacteroides ... Methyltetrahydrofolate-Homocysteine Methyltransferase From Bacteroides Thetaiotaomicron (pdb code 3k13). This binding sites ... Methyltetrahydrofolate-Homocysteine Methyltransferase From Bacteroides Thetaiotaomicron (pdb 3k13). ... The binding sites of Potassium atom in the structure of Structure Of the Pterin-Binding Domain Metr of 5- ...
more infohttp://potassium.atomistry.com/pdb3k13.html
Inhibition of the mevalonate pathway affects epigenetic regulation in cancer cells.  - PubMed - NCBI  Inhibition of the mevalonate pathway affects epigenetic regulation in cancer cells. - PubMed - NCBI
2015 May;208(5):241-52. doi: 10.1016/j.cancergen.2015.03.008. Epub 2015 Mar 18. Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't ... Subsequently occurring regulatory processes can induce an aberrant stimulation of DNA methyltransferase (DNMT1) as well as ... Karlic H1, Thaler R2, Gerner C3, Grunt T4, Proestling K5, Haider F2, Varga F2. ... 5. Signaling Networks Program, Division of Oncology, Department of Medicine I, Medical University Vienna, Vienna, Austria; ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25978957?dopt=Abstract
Multiplex Genotyping of Allelic Variants of Genes Involved in Metabolizing Antileukemic Drugs | SpringerLink  Multiplex Genotyping of Allelic Variants of Genes Involved in Metabolizing Antileukemic Drugs | SpringerLink
Human thiopurine methyltransferase pharmacogenetics: Gene sequence polymorphisms. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 62, 60-73.CrossRef ... 5.. Adam de Beaumais T., Fakhoury M., et al. 2011. Determinants of mercaptopurine toxicity in paediatric acute lymphoblastic ... 5-methyltetrahydrofolate-homocysteine methyltransferase reductase gene. NR3C1. nuclear receptor subfamily 3 group C member 1 ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1134/S0026893318020036
Oncogenic PI3K promotes methionine dependency in breast cancer cells through the cystine-glutamate antiporter xCT | Science...  Oncogenic PI3K promotes methionine dependency in breast cancer cells through the cystine-glutamate antiporter xCT | Science...
Homocysteine methyltransferase activity in extracts from normal, malignant and embryonic tissue culture cells. Biochem. Biophys ... Homocysteine (Hcy) is a key junction metabolite that lies at the nexus of two pathways involved in methionine (Met) and ... Sulfur amino acid metabolism: Pathways for production and removal of homocysteine and cysteine. Annu. Rev. Nutr. 24, 539-577 ( ... The precursor homocysteine is metabolized either through the methionine cycle to produce methionine or through the ...
more infohttp://stke.sciencemag.org/content/10/510/eaao6604?utm_campaign=toc_signaling_2017-12-19&et_rid=33942989&et_cid=1743530
Chromosome 1 - Wikipedia  Chromosome 1 - Wikipedia
PRMT6: Protein arginine methyltransferase 6. *PSRC1: Proline/serine-rich coiled-coil protein 1 ... doi:10.1186/gb-2010-11-5-206. PMC 2898077. PMID 20441615.. *^ "Statistics & Downloads for chromosome 1". HUGO Gene Nomenclature ... Chromosome 1 spans about 249 million nucleotide base pairs, which are the basic units of information for DNA.[5] It represents ... FRA1J encoding protein Fragile site, 5-azacytidine type, common, fra(1)(q12) ...
more infohttps://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chromosome_1
Chromosome 1 Genes  Chromosome 1 Genes
November 18, 2016 at 5:31 PM Hi my grandson is missing .21-32 near the tip of the short arm of chromosome 1! His other ...
more infohttps://www.news-medical.net/health/Chromosome-1-Genes.aspx
DHFR | Cancer Genetics Web  DHFR | Cancer Genetics Web
... plasma B12 and betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase 2 (BHMT2); and 4) homocysteine and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase ... methyltransferase 3β (DNMT3B), methionine adenosyltransferase I α (MAT1A), MTHFD1, and MTRR (nominal P < .05; adjusted P, not ... and homocysteine) and self-reported alcohol consumption were measured at the baseline. Conditional logistic regression was ... level of erythrocyte folate and plasma homocysteine (tHcy), and genotype of 19bp del-DHFR. Dietary folate intake, erythrocyte ...
more infohttp://www.cancerindex.org/geneweb/DHFR.htm
Overexpression of the PSAT1 Gene in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Is an Indicator of Poor Prognosis  Overexpression of the PSAT1 Gene in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Is an Indicator of Poor Prognosis
... homocysteine S-methyltransferase activity, metal ion binding, methionine synthase activity, methyltransferase activity, protein ... 5. Razak AR, Siu LL, Liu FF. et al. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma: the next challenges. Eur J Cancer. 2010;46:1967-78 ... Kuang-Ming Liao1, Tung-Bo Chao2,3, Yu-Feng Tian4,5, Ching-Yih Lin6,7, Sung-Wei Lee8, Hua-Ying Chuang1, Ti-Chun Chan9, Tzu-Ju ... 5. Department of Health and Nutrition, Chia Nan University of Pharmacy & Science, Tainan, Taiwan. 6. Department of Internal ...
more infohttp://www.jcancer.org/v07p1088.htm
RT² qPCR Primer Assay for Rat Mtr  RT² qPCR Primer Assay for Rat Mtr
5-methyltetrahydrofolate-homocysteine methyltransferase Detailed info. catalyzes the cobalamin-dependent conversion of 5- ... methyltetrahydrofolate and L-homocysteine to tetrahydrofolate and L-methionine [RGD]. Gene Symbol:. UniGene #:. Refseq ...
more infohttp://www.sabiosciences.com/primerinfo.php?pcatn=PPR48403A
Kromosomang 1 (tao) - Wikipedia, ang malayang ensiklopedya  Kromosomang 1 (tao) - Wikipedia, ang malayang ensiklopedya
Ang kromosomang 1 o kulaylawas[1] na 1 (Ingles: Chromosome 1) ang pagtatakda ng pinakamalaking kromosomang pantao. Ang mga tao ay may dalawang mga kopya ng kromosomang 1 gaya ng sa lahat ng mga autosoma na hindi mga kromosomang kasarian. Ang kromosomang 1 ay sumasaklaw sa mga 247 milyong mga nucleotide na mga base na pares na mga pundamental na unit ng impormasyon para sa DNA. [2] It represents about 8% of the total DNA in human cells.[3]. Ang pagtukoy ng mga gene sa bawat kromosoma ay isang aktibong sakop ng henetikong pagsasaliksik. Ang kromosomang 1 ay kasalukuyang pinaniniwalaang may 4,220 gene na lappas sa nakaraang mga hula batay sa sukat nito. [2] Ito ang huling nakumpletong kromosoma na sinekwensiya pagkatapos ng dalawang dekada pagkatapos simulan ang proyektong genome ng tao.. ...
more infohttps://tl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kromosomang_1_
Influence of Oral S-Adenosylmethionine on Plasma 5-Methyltetrahydrofolate, S-Adenosylhomocysteine, Homocysteine and Methionine...  Influence of Oral S-Adenosylmethionine on Plasma 5-Methyltetrahydrofolate, S-Adenosylhomocysteine, Homocysteine and Methionine...
... betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (EC2.1.1.5); (7) methyleneTHF reductase (EC1.1.1.68); (8) AdoMet synthetase (EC2.5.1.6). ... 1995) Plasma homocysteine in acute myocardial infarction: homocysteine-lowering effect of folic acid. J. Intern. Med. 237:381- ... MeTHF-homocysteine methyltransferase (methionine synthase) (EC2.1.1.13); Cbl, cobalamin; CH3-Cbl, methylcobalamin; PLP, ... a key cofactor in homocysteine metabolism, which should be considered in homocysteine lowering strategies for the prevention of ...
more infohttp://jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/282/2/845
KEGG PATHWAY: hsa00270  KEGG PATHWAY: hsa00270
... homocysteine S-methyltransferase [KO:K00544] [EC:2.1.1.5]. 23743 BHMT2; betaine--homocysteine S-methyltransferase 2 [KO:K00547 ... DNMT1; DNA methyltransferase 1 [KO:K00558] [EC:2.1.1.37]. 1788 DNMT3A; DNA methyltransferase 3 alpha [KO:K17398] [EC:2.1.1.37] ... DNMT3B; DNA methyltransferase 3 beta [KO:K17399] [EC:2.1.1.37]. 23382 AHCYL2; adenosylhomocysteinase like 2 [KO:K01251] [EC:3.3 ... methionine-derived homocysteine is used as sulfur source and its condensation product with serine (cystathionine) is converted ...
more infohttps://www.genome.jp/dbget-bin/www_bget?hsa00270
MTRR - PrimePCR Assay and Template | Life Science | Bio-Rad  MTRR - PrimePCR Assay and Template | Life Science | Bio-Rad
5-methyltetrahydrofolate-homocysteine methyltransferase reductase Assay Type: SYBR® Green Assay Design: exonic Application: ... 5-methyltetrahydrofolate-homocysteine methyltransferase reductase Assay Type: Probe Assay Design: exonic Application: Gene ... 5-methyltetrahydrofolate-homocysteine methyltransferase reductase Assay Type: SYBR® Green Assay Design: Intron-spanning ... 5-methyltetrahydrofolate-homocysteine methyltransferase reductase Assay Type: Probe Application: Gene Expression Unique Assay ...
more infohttp://www.bio-rad.com/en-us/prime-pcr-assays/gene/mtrr-human
Anencephaly disease: Malacards - Research Articles, Drugs, Genes, Clinical Trials  Anencephaly disease: Malacards - Research Articles, Drugs, Genes, Clinical Trials
Blood Folate and Homocysteine Levels Following Administration of Folic Acid According to Different Daily Dosing Schedules:a ... 5. nervous system MP:0003631. 10.21. VANGL2 ACHE CELSR1 DACT1 FOLR1 KIF7 ... Chorionic Gonadotropin Beta Subunit 5. 7.53. GeneCards inferred via :. Publications (show sections) ... 5-Methyltetrahydrofolate-Homocysteine Methyltransferase Reductase. 22.56. DISEASES inferred 14 GeneCards inferred via :. ...
more infohttp://www.malacards.org/card/anencephaly
Galectin 5 GAL5 Polyclonal Antibody - Gentaur.com  Galectin 5 GAL5 Polyclonal Antibody - Gentaur.com
Galectin 5 GAL5 Polyclonal Antibody product information; Galectin 5 GAL5 Polyclonal Antibody is available 4 times from supplier ... Galectin 5 GAL5 Polyclonal Antibody. Galectin 5 GAL5 Polyclonal Antibody is available 4 times from Bioma labs. CAU21034 , ... If you buy Antibodies supplied by bioma they should be stored frozen at - 24°C for long term storage and for short term at + 5° ... CAU21034 , Galectin 5 (GAL5) Polyclonal Antibodysize: 10 μg , 220.76 USD. *. Catalog number ...
more infohttps://gentaur.com/prod/galectin-5-gal5-polyclonal-antibody/bioma/2396302520?product=1012490687
Genetic Testing - GPL Blog Source - The Great Plains Laboratory, Inc.  Genetic Testing - GPL Blog Source - The Great Plains Laboratory, Inc.
Betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT) and BHMT2 are the only enzymes that can metabolize betaine. This reaction is ... methyltetrahydrofolate, which is the active form of folate. Mutations in this gene cause the accumulation of homocysteine and a ... The adverse effects of homocysteine accumulation in the body are related to the substitution of homocysteine for methionine in ... The accumulation of homocysteine, which is caused by mutations in this pathway, has been directly linked to oxidative stress ...
more infohttps://www.greatplainslaboratory.com/gpl-blog-source/category/Genetic+Testing