5-Methylcytosine: A methylated nucleotide base found in eukaryotic DNA. In ANIMALS, the DNA METHYLATION of CYTOSINE to form 5-methylcytosine is found primarily in the palindromic sequence CpG. In PLANTS, the methylated sequence is CpNpGp, where N can be any base.Cytosine: A pyrimidine base that is a fundamental unit of nucleic acids.Deamination: The removal of an amino group (NH2) from a chemical compound.DNA Methylation: Addition of methyl groups to DNA. DNA methyltransferases (DNA methylases) perform this reaction using S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE as the methyl group donor.Thymine DNA Glycosylase: An enzyme that removes THYMINE and URACIL bases mispaired with GUANINE through hydrolysis of their N-glycosidic bond. These mispaired nucleotides generally occur through the hydrolytic DEAMINATION of 5-METHYLCYTOSINE to thymine.Methylation: Addition of methyl groups. In histo-chemistry methylation is used to esterify carboxyl groups and remove sulfate groups by treating tissue sections with hot methanol in the presence of hydrochloric acid. (From Stedman, 25th ed)DNA (Cytosine-5-)-Methyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group from S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE to the 5-position of CYTOSINE residues in DNA.Sulfites: Inorganic salts of sulfurous acid.ThymineDNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Osmium: Osmium. A very hard, gray, toxic, and nearly infusible metal element, atomic number 76, atomic weight 190.2, symbol Os. (From Dorland, 28th ed)DNA Glycosylases: A family of DNA repair enzymes that recognize damaged nucleotide bases and remove them by hydrolyzing the N-glycosidic bond that attaches them to the sugar backbone of the DNA molecule. The process called BASE EXCISION REPAIR can be completed by a DNA-(APURINIC OR APYRIMIDINIC SITE) LYASE which excises the remaining RIBOSE sugar from the DNA.DNA-Cytosine Methylases: Methylases that are specific for CYTOSINE residues found on DNA.Pentoxyl: 5-Hydroxymethyl-6-methyl- 2,4-(1H,3H)-pyrimidinedione. Uracil derivative used in combination with toxic antibiotics to lessen their toxicity; also to stimulate leukopoiesis and immunity. Synonyms: pentoksil; hydroxymethylmethyluracil.Dioxygenases: Non-heme iron-containing enzymes that incorporate two atoms of OXYGEN into the substrate. They are important in biosynthesis of FLAVONOIDS; GIBBERELLINS; and HYOSCYAMINE; and for degradation of AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS.Adenine: A purine base and a fundamental unit of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES.N-Glycosyl Hydrolases: A class of enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond of nitrogen-linked sugars.CpG Islands: Areas of increased density of the dinucleotide sequence cytosine--phosphate diester--guanine. They form stretches of DNA several hundred to several thousand base pairs long. In humans there are about 45,000 CpG islands, mostly found at the 5' ends of genes. They are unmethylated except for those on the inactive X chromosome and some associated with imprinted genes.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.DNA Restriction Enzymes: Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.Dinucleoside Phosphates: A group of compounds which consist of a nucleotide molecule to which an additional nucleoside is attached through the phosphate molecule(s). The nucleotide can contain any number of phosphates.Oligodeoxyribonucleotides: A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.Epigenesis, Genetic: A genetic process by which the adult organism is realized via mechanisms that lead to the restriction in the possible fates of cells, eventually leading to their differentiated state. Mechanisms involved cause heritable changes to cells without changes to DNA sequence such as DNA METHYLATION; HISTONE modification; DNA REPLICATION TIMING; NUCLEOSOME positioning; and heterochromatization which result in selective gene expression or repression.DNA Modification Methylases: Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They are responsible for producing a species-characteristic methylation pattern, on either adenine or cytosine residues, in a specific short base sequence in the host cell's own DNA. This methylated sequence will occur many times in the host-cell DNA and remain intact for the lifetime of the cell. Any DNA from another species which gains entry into a living cell and lacks the characteristic methylation pattern will be recognized by the restriction endonucleases of similar specificity and destroyed by cleavage. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms.Methyltransferases: A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of a methyl group from one compound to another. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.1.1.Nanopores: Small holes of nanometer dimensions in a membrane, that can be used as single molecule detectors. The pores can be biological or synthetic.Nucleic Acid Denaturation: Disruption of the secondary structure of nucleic acids by heat, extreme pH or chemical treatment. Double strand DNA is "melted" by dissociation of the non-covalent hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. Denatured DNA appears to be a single-stranded flexible structure. The effects of denaturation on RNA are similar though less pronounced and largely reversible.Deoxycytidine Monophosphate: Deoxycytidine (dihydrogen phosphate). A deoxycytosine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the deoxyribose moiety in the 2'-,3'- or 5- positions.Azacitidine: A pyrimidine analogue that inhibits DNA methyltransferase, impairing DNA methylation. It is also an antimetabolite of cytidine, incorporated primarily into RNA. Azacytidine has been used as an antineoplastic agent.UracilDeoxyribonuclease (Pyrimidine Dimer): An enzyme which catalyzes an endonucleolytic cleavage near PYRIMIDINE DIMERS to produce a 5'-phosphate product. The enzyme acts on the damaged DNA strand, from the 5' side of the damaged site.Epigenomics: The systematic study of the global gene expression changes due to EPIGENETIC PROCESSES and not due to DNA base sequence changes.Endodeoxyribonucleases: A group of enzymes catalyzing the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA. They include members of EC 3.1.21.-, EC 3.1.22.-, EC 3.1.23.- (DNA RESTRICTION ENZYMES), EC 3.1.24.- (DNA RESTRICTION ENZYMES), and EC 3.1.25.-.DNA Repair: The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.GuanineDeoxyribonuclease HpaII: One of the Type II site-specific deoxyribonucleases (EC 3.1.21.4). It recognizes and cleaves the sequences C/CGG and GGC/C at the slash. HpaII is from Haemophilus parainfluenzae. Several isoschizomers have been identified. EC 3.1.21.-.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Gardner Syndrome: A variant of ADENOMATOUS POLYPOSIS COLI caused by mutation in the APC gene (GENES, APC) on CHROMOSOME 5. It is characterized by not only the presence of multiple colonic polyposis but also extracolonic ADENOMATOUS POLYPS in the UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT; the EYE; the SKIN; the SKULL; and the FACIAL BONES; as well as malignancy in organs other than the GI tract.Genome: The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.Cytidine: A pyrimidine nucleoside that is composed of the base CYTOSINE linked to the five-carbon sugar D-RIBOSE.Base Pair Mismatch: The presence of an uncomplimentary base in double-stranded DNA caused by spontaneous deamination of cytosine or adenine, mismatching during homologous recombination, or errors in DNA replication. Multiple, sequential base pair mismatches lead to formation of heteroduplex DNA; (NUCLEIC ACID HETERODUPLEXES).Photochemical Processes: Chemical reactions effected by light.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Zygote: The fertilized OVUM resulting from the fusion of a male and a female gamete.Oligonucleotides: Polymers made up of a few (2-20) nucleotides. In molecular genetics, they refer to a short sequence synthesized to match a region where a mutation is known to occur, and then used as a probe (OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES). (Dorland, 28th ed)
(1/489) Base pairing of anhydrohexitol nucleosides with 2,6-diaminopurine, 5-methylcytosine and uracil asbase moiety.

Hexitol nucleic acids (HNAs) with modified bases (5-methylcytosine, 2,6-diaminopurine or uracil) were synthesized. The introduction of the 5-methylcytosine base demonstrates that N -benzoylated 5-methylcytosyl-hexitol occurs as the imino tautomer. The base pairing systems (G:CMe, U:D, T:D and U:A) obey Watson-Crick rules. Substituting hT for hU, hCMefor hC and hD for hA generally leads to increased duplex stability. In a single case, replacement of hC by hCMedid not result in duplex stabilization. This sequence-specific effect could be explained by the geometry of the model duplex used for carrying out the thermal stability study. Generally, polypurine HNA sequences give more stable duplexes with their RNA complement than polypyrimidine HNA sequences. This observation supports the hypothesis that, besides changes in stacking pattern, the difference in conformational stress between purine and pyrimidine nucleosides may contribute to duplex stability. Introduction of hCMeand hD in HNA sequences further increases the potential of HNA to function as a steric blocking agent.  (+info)

(2/489) Relationship between amount of esterase and gene copy number in insecticide-resistant Myzus persicae (Sulzer).

Overproduction of the insecticide-degrading esterases, E4 and FE4, in peach-potato aphids, Myzus persicae (Sulzer), depends on both gene amplification and transcriptional control, the latter being associated with changes in DNA methylation. The structure and function of the aphid esterase genes have been studied but the determination of their copy number has proved difficult, a common problem with gene amplification. We have now used a combination of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and quantitative competitive PCR to determine relative esterase gene copy numbers in aphid clones with different levels of insecticide resistance (R1, R2 and R3). There are approx. 4-fold increases between susceptible, R1, R2 and R3 aphids, reaching a maximum of approx. 80 times more genes in R3; this gives proportionate increases in esterase protein relative to susceptible aphids. Thus there is no overexpression of the amplified genes, in contrast with what was thought previously. For E4 genes, the loss of 5-methylcytosine is correlated with a loss of expression, greatly decreasing the amount of enzyme relative to the copy number.  (+info)

(3/489) DNA methylation is a reversible biological signal.

The pattern of DNA methylation plays an important role in regulating different genome functions. To test the hypothesis that DNA methylation is a reversible biochemical process, we purified a DNA demethylase from human cells that catalyzes the cleavage of a methyl residue from 5-methyl cytosine and its release as methanol. We show that similar to DNA methyltransferase, DNA demethylase shows CpG dinucleotide specificity, can demethylate mdCpdG sites in different sequence contexts, and demethylates both fully methylated and hemimethylated DNA. Thus, contrary to the commonly accepted model, DNA methylation is a reversible signal, similar to other physiological biochemical modifications.  (+info)

(4/489) Identification of differentially methylated sequences in colorectal cancer by methylated CpG island amplification.

CpG island methylation has been linked to tumor suppressor gene inactivation in neoplasia and may serve as a useful marker to clone novel cancer-related genes. We have developed a novel PCR-based method, methylated CpG island amplification (MCA), which is useful for both methylation analysis and cloning differentially methylated genes. Using restriction enzymes that have differential sensitivity to 5-methyl-cytosine, followed by adaptor ligation and PCR amplification, methylated CpG rich sequences can be preferentially amplified. In a model experiment using a probe from exon 1 of the p16 gene, signal was detected from MCA products of a colorectal cancer cell line but not in normal colon mucosa. To identify novel CpG islands differentially methylated in colorectal cancer, we have applied MCA coupled with representational difference analysis to the colon cancer cell line Caco2 as a tester and normal colon mucosa as a driver. Using this strategy, we isolated 33 differentially methylated DNA sequences, including fragments identical to several known genes (PAX6, Versican, alpha-tubulin, CSX, OPT, and rRNA gene). The association of hypermethylation of the clones obtained and transcriptional suppression in colorectal cancer was confirmed by examining the Versican gene, which we found to be silenced in methylated cell lines and reactivated by the methylation inhibitor 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine. We therefore propose that MCA is a useful technique to study methylation and to isolate CpG islands differentially methylated in cancer.  (+info)

(5/489) Growth phase-dependent regulation of Vsr endonuclease may contribute to 5-methylcytosine mutational hot spots in Escherichia coli.

Using rabbit polyclonal antibodies, we have shown that the Dcm cytosine methylase of Escherichia coli is maintained at a constant level during cell growth, while Vsr endonuclease levels are growth phase dependent. Decreased production of Vsr relative to Dcm during the log phase may contribute substantially to the mutability of 5-methylcytosine.  (+info)

(6/489) Impact of C5-cytosine methylation on the solution structure of d(GAAAACGTTTTC)2. An NMR and molecular modelling investigation.

The solution structures of d(GAAAACGTTTTC)2 and of its methylated derivative d(GAAAAMe5CGTTTTC)2 have been determined by NMR and molecular modelling in order to examine the impact of cytosine methylation on the central CpG conformation. Detailed 1H NMR and 31P NMR investigation of the two oligomers includes quantitative NOESY, 2D homonuclear Hartmann-Hahn spectroscopy, double-quantum-filtered COSY and heteronuclear 1H-31P correlation. Back-calculations of NOESY spectra and simulations of double-quantum-filtered COSY patterns were performed to gain accurate information on interproton distances and sugar phase angles. Molecular models under experimental constraints were generated by energy minimization by means of the molecular mechanics program JUMNA. The MORASS software was used to iteratively refine the structures obtained. After methylation, the oligomer still has a B-DNA conformation. However, there are differences in the structural parameters and the thermal stability as compared to the unmethylated molecule. Careful structural analysis shows that after methylation CpG departs from the usual conformation observed in other ACGT tetramers with different surroundings. Subtle displacements of bases, sugars and backbone imposed by the steric interaction of the two methyl groups inside the major groove are accompanied by severe pinching of the minor groove at the C-G residues.  (+info)

(7/489) The role of the Escherichia coli mug protein in the removal of uracil and 3,N(4)-ethenocytosine from DNA.

The human thymine-DNA glycosylase has a sequence homolog in Escherichia coli that is described to excise uracils from U.G mismatches (Gallinari, P., and Jiricny, J. (1996) Nature 383, 735-738) and is named mismatched uracil glycosylase (Mug). It has also been described to remove 3,N(4)-ethenocytosine (epsilonC) from epsilonC.G mismatches (Saparbaev, M., and Laval, J. (1998) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 95, 8508-8513). We used a mug mutant to clarify the role of this protein in DNA repair and mutation avoidance. We find that inactivation of mug has no effect on C to T or 5-methylcytosine to T mutations in E. coli and that this contrasts with the effect of ung defect on C to T mutations and of vsr defect on 5-methylcytosine to T mutations. Even under conditions where it is overproduced in cells, Mug has little effect on the frequency of C to T mutations. Because uracil-DNA glycosylase (Ung) and Vsr are known to repair U.G and T.G mismatches, respectively, we conclude that Mug does not repair U.G or T.G mismatches in vivo. A defect in mug also has little effect on forward mutations, suggesting that Mug does not play a role in avoiding mutations due to endogenous damage to DNA in growing E. coli. Cell-free extracts from mug(+) ung cells show very little ability to remove uracil from DNA, but can excise epsilonC. The latter activity is missing in extracts from mug cells, suggesting that Mug may be the only enzyme in E. coli that can remove this mutagenic adduct. Thus, the principal role of Mug in E. coli may be to help repair damage to DNA caused by exogenous chemical agents such as chloroacetaldehyde.  (+info)

(8/489) 5-Methylcytosine distribution and genome organization in triticale before and after treatment with 5-azacytidine.

Triticale (2n=6x=42) is a hybrid plant including rye (R) and wheat (A and B) genomes. Using genomic in situ hybridization with rye DNA as a probe, we found the chromosomes of the R genome were not intermixed with the wheat chromosomes in 85% of nuclei. After treatment of seedlings with low doses of the drug 5-azacytidine (5-AC), leading to hypomethylation of the DNA, the chromosomes became intermixed in 60% of nuclei; the next generation showed intermediate organization. These results correlate with previous data showing that expression of R-genome rRNA genes, normally suppressed, is activated by 5-AC treatment and remains partially activated in the next generation. The distribution of 5-methylcytosine (5-mC) was studied using an antibody to 5-mC. Methylation was detected along the lengths of all chromosomes; there were some chromosome regions with enhanced and reduced methylation, but these were not located at consistent positions, nor were there differences between R and wheat genome chromosomes. After 5-AC treatment, lower levels of methylation were detected. After 5-AC treatment, in situ hybridization with rye genomic DNA sometimes showed micronuclei of rye origin and multiple translocations between wheat and rye chromosomes. Genomic DNA was analysed using methylation-sensitive restriction enzymes and, as probes, two rDNA sequences, two tandemly organised DNA sequences from rye (pSc200 and pSc250), and copia and the gypsy group retrotransposon fragments from rye and wheat. DNA extracted immediately after 5-AC treatment was cut more by methylation-sensitive restriction enzymes than DNA from untreated seedlings. Each probe gave a characteristic restriction fragment pattern, but rye- and wheat-origin probes behaved similarly, indicating that hypomethylation was induced in both genomes. In DNA samples from leaves taken 13-41 days after treatment, RFLP (Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism) patterns were indistinguishable from controls and 5-AC treatments with all probes. Surprising differences in hybridization patterns were seen between DNA from root tips and leaves with the copia-fragment probes.  (+info)

*  CpG island hypermethylation
University of Melbourne, Coursera Illingworth RS, Bird AP (5 June 2009). "CpG islands-'a rough guide'". FEBS Letters. 583 (11 ... despite the idea of the genome of the cancer cell undergoing a reduction of its 5-methylcytosine content when compared to its ...
*  Bisulfite sequencing
... methylcytosine, giving a map of the true methylation status in the DNA sample. Levels of 5‑hydroxymethylcytosine can also be ... PloS one.2010;5(1):e8888. Yu, M., Hon, G. C., Szulwach, K. E., Song, C., Jin, P., Ren, B., He, C. Tet-assisted bisulfite ... 29 (13): E65-5. doi:10.1093/nar/29.13.e65. PMC 55789 . PMID 11433041. Ehrich M, Zoll S, Sur S, van den Boom D (2007). "A new ... 30 (5): e21. doi:10.1093/nar/30.5.e21. PMC 101257 . PMID 11861926. Tahiliani M, Koh KP, Shen Y, Pastor WA, Bandukwala H, ...
*  5-Methylcytosine
In 5-methylcytosine, a methyl group is attached to the 5th atom in the 6-atom ring (counting counterclockwise from the NH ... In plants, 5-methylcytosine occurs at CpG, CpHpG and CpHpH sequences (where H = A, C or T). In fungi and animals, 5- ... methylcytosine predominantly occurs at CpG dinucleotides. Most eukaryotes methylate only a small percentage of these sites, but ... 5-Methylcytosine is a methylated form of the DNA base cytosine that may be involved in the regulation of gene transcription. ...
*  Tuberculinic acid
It was from this compound that DNA methylation was discovered as it was the first molecule found to contain 5-methylcytosine. ... Johnson, Treat B.; Coghill, Robert D. (1925). "The discovery of 5-methyl-cytosine in tuberculinic acid, the nucleic acid of the ... Wyatt GR (1950). "Occurrence of 5-methylcytosine in nucleic acids". Nature. 166 (4214): 237-238. doi:10.1038/166237b0. PMID ...
*  Epitranscriptomic sequencing
Second, 5-aza-C is introduced to the cells so that it could be incorporated into nascent RNA in place of cytosine. Normally, ... For 5-aza-C, due to a nitrogen substitution in the C5 position of cytosine, the RNA methytransferase enzyme remains covalently ... 31(5): 459-464. Sakurai, M.; et al. (2014). "A biochemical landscape of A-to-I RNA editing in the human brain transcriptome". ... The chimeric oligonucleotide serves as a guide to allow RNase H to cleave the RNA strand precisely at the 5'-end of the ...
*  DNA methylation
5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine (decitabine) is a nucleoside analog that inhibits DNMTs by trapping them in a covalent complex on DNA by ... 90 (5): 785-790. doi:10.2307/3761319. JSTOR 3761319. Si-Yang, Liu; Jian-Qing, Lin; Hong-Long, Wu; Cheng-Cheng, Wang; Shu-Jia, ... Spontaneous deamination of 5-methylcytosine converts it to thymine. This results in a T:G mismatch. Repair mechanisms then ... 31 (5): 274-280. doi:10.1016/j.tig.2015.03.002. Maunakea, Alika K.; Nagarajan, Raman P.; Bilenky, Mikhail; Ballinger, Tracy J ...
*  5-Methylcytidine
... is a modified nucleoside derived from 5-methylcytosine. It is found in ribonucleic acids of animal, plant, and ... Dunn, D. B. (1960). "Isolation of 5-methylcytidine from ribonucleic acid". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. 38: 176-178. doi: ...
*  Deamination
This can occur in vitro through the use of bisulfite, which deaminates cytosine, but not 5-methylcytosine. This property has ... See Base excision repair.] Spontaneous deamination of 5-methylcytosine results in thymine and ammonia. This is the most common ... A DNA polymerase may perform this replacement via nick translation, a terminal excision reaction by its 5'-->3' exonuclease ...
*  Methylation
5-methylcytosine (5-mC) also commonly occurs in various RNA molecules. Recent data strongly suggest that m6A and 5-mC RNA ... This 5-O-methylation affects the flavonoid´s water solubility. Examples are 5-O-methylgenistein, 5-O-methylmyricetin or 5-O- ... Methionine synthase regenerates methionine (Met) from homocysteine (Hcy). The overall reaction transforms 5- ... Walsh, Christopher (2006). "Chapter 5 - Protein Methylation" (PDF). Posttranslational modification of proteins: expanding ...
*  Tet methylcytosine dioxygenase 2
... (TET2) is a human gene. It resides at chromosome 4q24, in a region showing recurrent ... "Entrez Gene: Tet methylcytosine dioxygenase 1". Retrieved September 2012. Check date values in: ,access-date= (help) ... TET2 encodes a protein that catalyzes the conversion of the modified DNA base methylcytosine to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine. ... to its target genes and activates WT1-target genes by converting methylcytosine into 5-hydroxymethylcytosine at the genes' ...
*  Nucleobase
In DNA, the most common modified base is 5-methylcytosine (m5C). In RNA, there are many modified bases, including those ... BIOL2060: Translation "Role of 5' mRNA and 5' U snRNA cap structures in regulation of gene expression" - Research - Retrieved ...
*  CpG site
It was proposed that the CpG deficiency is due to an increased vulnerability of methylcytosines to spontaneously deaminate to ... 57 (5): 1394-400. doi:10.1073/pnas.57.5.1394. PMC 224485 . PMID 5231746. stevens M, Cheng J, Li D, Xi M, Hong C, Maire C, Ligon ... 145 (5): 773-786. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2011.04.024. PMID 21620139. Saxonov S, Berg P, Brutlag DL (2006). "A genome-wide analysis ... CpG should not be confused with GpC, the latter meaning that a guanine is followed by a cytosine in the 5' → 3' direction of a ...
*  Shankar Balasubramanian
6 (5): 435-40. Bibcode:2014NatCh...6..435B. doi:10.1038/nchem.1893. PMID 24755596. Royal Society of Chemistry, 2013. Corday- ... 3 (5): B37. PMID 17582897. Balasubramanian, S (2013). "An interview with Shankar Balasubramanian". Trends in Biochemical ... Booth, M. J.; Marsico, G.; Bachman, M.; Beraldi, D.; Balasubramanian, S. (2014). "Quantitative sequencing of 5-formylcytosine ... 5-hydroxymethylcytosine and 5-methylcytosine. 1998 Glaxo Wellcome Award for Innovative Organic Chemistry 2002 Corday-Morgan ...
*  MBD4
78 (2): 151-5. doi:10.1007/bf00278187. PMID 3338800. Howard JH, Frolov A, Tzeng CW, Stewart A, Midzak A, Majmundar A, Godwin A ... 9 (2): 393-5. doi:10.3892/or.9.2.393. PMID 11836615. Jost JP, Thiry S, Siegmann M (2002). "Estradiol receptor potentiates, in ... Deamination of cytosine (C) to uracil (U) and 5-methylcytosine (5mC) to thymine (T) generates G:U and G:T mismatches, ... doi:10.1016/S0304-3835(02)00043-5. PMID 12430186. Screaton RA, Kiessling S, Sansom OJ, Millar CB, Maddison K, Bird A, Clarke AR ...
*  OGT (gene)
10 (5): 535-9. doi:10.3892/ijmm.10.5.535. PMID 12373287. Reason AJ, Morris HR, Panico M, Marais R, Treisman RH, Haltiwanger RS ... 270 (32): 18961-5. doi:10.1074/jbc.270.32.18961. PMID 7642555. Murphy JE, Hanover JA, Froehlich M, DuBois G, Keen JH (Aug 1994 ... 324 (5929): 930-5. doi:10.1126/science.1170116. PMC 2715015 . PMID 19372391. Konrad RJ, Kudlow JE (Nov 2002). "The role of O- ... Matoba R, Okubo K, Hori N, Fukushima A, Matsubara K (Sep 1994). "The addition of 5'-coding information to a 3'-directed cDNA ...
*  Transition (genetics)
5-Methylcytosine is more prone to transition than unmethylated cytosine, due to spontaneous deamination. This mechanism is ...
*  Tet methylcytosine dioxygenase 1
Ten-eleven translocation methylcytosine dioxygenase 1 (TET1) is a member of the TET family of enzymes that in humans is encoded ... Tet methylcytosine dioxygenase 1". Retrieved 2012-07-26. Coulter JB, O'Driscoll CM, Bressler JP (October 2013). "Hydroquinone ... Liu C, Liu L, Chen X, Shen J, Shan J, Xu Y, Yang Z, Wu L, Xia F, Bie P, Cui Y, Bian XW, Qian C (2013-05-09). "Decrease of 5- ... The conversion of 5-mC to 5-hmC has been proposed as the initial step of active DNA demethylation in mammals. Additionally, ...
*  Protein O-GlcNAc transferase
324 (5929): 930-5. doi:10.1126/science.1170116. PMC 2715015 . PMID 19372391. Protein O-GlcNAc transferase at the US National ... Studies show that O-GlcNAc transferase interacts directly with the Ten eleven translocation 2 (TET2) enzyme, which converts 5- ... methylcytosine to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine and regulates gene transcription. Additionally, increasing levels of OGT for O- ... "Conversion of 5-methylcytosine to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine in mammalian DNA by MLL partner TET1". Science. ...
*  Epigenetics in stem-cell differentiation
As soon as the TSA treatment was stopped, on day 4 the deacetylation was observed and the acetylation recovered on Day-5. The ... Global 5-methylcytosine levels have been measured prior to differentiation and after in vitro differentiation. The global ... H3K4 trimethylation coincides with the time of highest Brachyury gene expression since it only had gene expression on day 5. ... The morphological examination of the third group,' 5 nM TSA' showed the intermediate effect between the control and 10nM-TSA ...
*  DNA
N4-methylcytosine in DNA was described in 1983. In 1985 5-hydroxycytosine was found in the genomes of the Rhizobium phages ... Cytosine modification in DNA by BcnI methylase yields N4-methylcytosine. FEBS Letters 161 (1) 131-134 Swinton D, Hattman S, ... Archived 5 July 2014 at the Wayback Machine. Koltsov proposed that a cell's genetic information was encoded in a long chain of ... 13 (5): 212-20. doi:10.1016/j.tim.2005.03.010. PMID 15866038. Nickle DC, Learn GH, Rain MW, Mullins JI, Mittler JE (January ...
*  Activation-induced cytidine deaminase
4 (5): 452-6. doi:10.1038/ni920. PMID 12692548. Meng FL, Du Z, Federation A, Hu J, Wang Q, Kieffer-Kwon KR, Meyers RM, Amor C, ... 28 (5): 630-8. doi:10.1016/j.immuni.2008.04.002. PMC 2713656 . PMID 18455451. Teng G, Hakimpour P, Landgraf P, Rice A, Tuschl T ... AICDA can deaminate 5-methylcytosine, which can then be replaced with cytosine by base excision repair. AID is believed to ... 28 (5): 621-9. doi:10.1016/j.immuni.2008.03.015. PMC 2430982 . PMID 18450484. Fairfax KA, Gantier MP, Mackay F, Williams BR, ...
*  Methylated DNA immunoprecipitation
30 (5): e21. doi:10.1093/nar/30.5.e21. PMC 101257 . PMID 11861926. Dai Z, Weichenhan D, Wu YZ, et al. (October 2002). "An AscI ... 5 (2): 155-8. doi:10.4161/cc.5.2.2367. PMID 16397413. Zhang X, Yazaki J, Sundaresan A, et al. (September 2006). "Genome-wide ... Also, the size of the fragment affects the binding of 5-methyl-cytidine (5mC) antibody because the antibody needs more than ... A fraction of the input DNA obtained after the sonication step above is labeled with cyanine-5 (Cy5; red) deoxy-cytosine- ...
*  Epigenetics
71 (5): 865-73. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(92)90561-P. PMID 1423634. Chuang LS, Ian HI, Koh TW, Ng HH, Xu G, Li BF (September 1997 ... 302 (1): 5-18. doi:10.1002/jez.b.20002. PMID 14760651. Alvarez-Buylla ER, Chaos A, Aldana M, Benítez M, Cortes-Poza Y, Espinosa ... 5-Methylcytosine performs much like a regular cytosine, pairing with a guanine in double-stranded DNA. However, some areas of ... Retrieved 5 May 2014. "Epigenetic cell memory". Cmol.nbi.dk. Retrieved 26 July 2012. Dodd IB, Micheelsen MA, Sneppen K, Thon G ...
*  Treat Baldwin Johnson
He, together with R.D. Coghill, was the first to discover the existence of 5-Methylcytosine in nature, from tuberculinic acid, ... Nichols Medalists of the American Chemical Society Johnson TB, Coghill RD (1925). "The discovery of 5-methyl-cytosine in ...
*  Marianne Frommer
Frommer's protocol yielded a clear positive display of methylcytosine residues. The PCR products of bisulphite reactions could ... A genomic sequencing protocol that yields a positive display of 5-methylcytosine residues in individual DNA strands. Proc. Natl ...
*  Promoter (genetics)
5: S2. doi:10.1186/1752-0509-5-S1-S2. Shu, J.; Jelinek, J; Chang, H; Shen, L; Qin, T; Chung, W; Oki, Y; Issa, J. P. (2006). " ... Promoters are located near the transcription start sites of genes, on the same strand and upstream on the DNA (towards the 5' ... In humans, DNA methylation occurs at the 5' position of the pyrimidine ring of the cytosine residues within CpG sites to form 5 ... methylcytosines. The presence of multiple methylated CpG sites in CpG islands of promoters causes stable silencing of genes. ...
*  Whole genome bisulfite sequencing
89 (5): 1827-1831. doi:10.1073/pnas.89.5.1827. ISSN 0027-8424. PMC 48546 . PMID 1542678. Clark, S J; Harrison, J; Paul, C L; ... "A genomic sequencing protocol that yields a positive display of 5-methylcytosine residues in individual DNA strands". ...
DNA methylation signatures for breast cancer classification and prognosis | Genome Medicine | Full Text  DNA methylation signatures for breast cancer classification and prognosis | Genome Medicine | Full Text
First, methylcytosine residues in the recognition elements of transcription factors block their binding, resulting in reduced ... 10.1007/s00125-007-0916-5.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar. *. Maier S, Olek A: Diabetes: a candidate disease for efficient ... 2005, 5: 471-488. 10.2174/156800905774574011.PubMedGoogle Scholar. *. Szyf M, Pakneshan P, Rabbani SA: DNA methylation and ... 10.1016/S0092-8674(00)81887-5.PubMedGoogle Scholar. *. Zhang Y, Ng HH, Erdjument-Bromage H, Tempst P, Bird A, Reinberg D: ...
more infohttps://genomemedicine.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/gm325
5-Methylcytosine - Wikipedia  5-Methylcytosine - Wikipedia
In 5-methylcytosine, a methyl group is attached to the 5th atom in the 6-atom ring (counting counterclockwise from the NH ... In plants, 5-methylcytosine occurs at CpG, CpHpG and CpHpH sequences (where H = A, C or T). In fungi and animals, 5- ... methylcytosine predominantly occurs at CpG dinucleotides. Most eukaryotes methylate only a small percentage of these sites, but ... 5-Methylcytosine is a methylated form of the DNA base cytosine that may be involved in the regulation of gene transcription. ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/5-Methylcytosine
Urine 5-methylcytosine Quantification Kit (Colorimetric) (ab156903)  Urine 5-methylcytosine Quantification Kit (Colorimetric) (ab156903)
Urine 5-methylcytosine Quantification Kit (Colorimetric) Epigenetic Kits datasheet (ab156903). Abcam offers quality products ... The urinary 5-mC level can be altered by a change of the bodies' turnover of methylated DNA/RNA or alteration of cellular DNA/ ... Urinary excretion of 5-mC including both 5-methyl-2-deoxycytidine and 5-methylcytidine is an indication of a whole body ... A number of studies have indicated that 5-mC excreted in urine has the potential to act as a cancer biomarker, with an ...
more infohttps://www.abcam.com/urine-5-methylcytosine-quantification-kit-colorimetric-ab156903.html
5 methylcytosine Protocols and Video...  '5 methylcytosine' Protocols and Video...
A 5-mC Dot Blot Assay Quantifying the DNA Methylation Level of Chondrocyte Dedifferentiation In Vitro', 'Targeted DNA ... 5 methylcytosine' include 'An Alternative Culture Method to Maintain Hypomethylation of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells Using MEK ... Selective Capture of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine from Genomic DNA', 'Detection of Modified Forms of Cytosine Using Sensitive ... High Sensitivity 5-hydroxymethylcytosine Detection in Balb/C Brain Tissue', 'Determination of DNA Methylation of Imprinted ...
more infohttps://www.jove.com/keyword/5+methylcytosine
DEMETER and REPRESSOR OF SILENCING 1 encode 5-methylcytosine DNA glycosylases | PNAS  DEMETER and REPRESSOR OF SILENCING 1 encode 5-methylcytosine DNA glycosylases | PNAS
In addition to 5-meC paired to guanine, DME and ROS1 also removed thymine from a T·G mismatch located in either CpG or non-CpG ... 5). A DNA duplex with a single 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine (8-OG) paired to cytosine located at the same position as the 5-meC·G ... 5-meC,. 5-methylcytosine;. 8-OG,. 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine;. TDG,. thymine DNA glycosylase;. MBD,. methyl-CpG binding protein; ... 5, lane 4) or ROS1 (Fig. 5, lane 5). As expected, the complex for AtOGG1 (molecular mass = 44 kDa) migrated faster than those ...
more infohttps://www.pnas.org/content/103/18/6853?ijkey=49701a400ea1ff85482fc3ee9d2b32b76d45c7ea&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha
DEMETER and REPRESSOR OF SILENCING 1 encode 5-methylcytosine DNA glycosylases | PNAS  DEMETER and REPRESSOR OF SILENCING 1 encode 5-methylcytosine DNA glycosylases | PNAS
In addition to 5-meC paired to guanine, DME and ROS1 also removed thymine from a T·G mismatch located in either CpG or non-CpG ... 5). A DNA duplex with a single 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine (8-OG) paired to cytosine located at the same position as the 5-meC·G ... 5-meC,. 5-methylcytosine;. 8-OG,. 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine;. TDG,. thymine DNA glycosylase;. MBD,. methyl-CpG binding protein; ... 5, lane 4) or ROS1 (Fig. 5, lane 5). As expected, the complex for AtOGG1 (molecular mass = 44 kDa) migrated faster than those ...
more infohttps://www.pnas.org/content/103/18/6853?ijkey=7647a9c43cadb7fa4bea74daf46700fb8b1f70b1&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha
5-methylcytosine recognition by Arabidopsis thaliana DNA glycosylases DEMETER and DML3.  - PubMed - NCBI  5-methylcytosine recognition by Arabidopsis thaliana DNA glycosylases DEMETER and DML3. - PubMed - NCBI
5-methylcytosine recognition by Arabidopsis thaliana DNA glycosylases DEMETER and DML3.. Brooks SC1, Fischer RL, Huh JH, ... 5-Methylcytosine Recognition by Arabidopsis thaliana DNA Glycosylases DEMETER and DML3. Biochemistry. 2014 Apr 22;53(15):2525- ... 5-Methylcytosine Recognition by Arabidopsis thaliana DNA Glycosylases DEMETER and DML3. Biochemistry. 2014 Apr 22;53(15):2525- ... 5-Methylcytosine Recognition by Arabidopsis thaliana DNA Glycosylases DEMETER and DML3. Biochemistry. 2014 Apr 22;53(15):2525- ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24678721
Anti-5-methylcytosine (5-mC) antibody [5MC-CD] (ab73938) | Abcam  Anti-5-methylcytosine (5-mC) antibody [5MC-CD] (ab73938) | Abcam
Mouse monoclonal 5-methylcytosine (5-mC) antibody [5MC-CD]. Validated in SB, Flow Cyt, ICC/IF. Cited in 18 publication(s). ... It is not 5-methyl Cytosine as part of a CpG dinucleotide. I hope this information has been of help. If you require any further ... Anti-5-methylcytosine (5-mC) antibody [5MC-CD] (FITC) (ab179898) *Anti-5-methylcytosine (5-mC) antibody [5MC-CD] - Azide free ( ... Hi John (Anti 5-mC query) The antigen retrieval that was performed was 15 mins in the pressure cooker in citrate buffer pH 6 ...
more infohttps://www.abcam.com/5-methylcytosine-5-mc-antibody-5mc-cd-ab73938.html
Quantitative Sequencing of 5-Methylcytosine and 5-Hydroxymethylcytosine at Single-Base Resolution | Science  Quantitative Sequencing of 5-Methylcytosine and 5-Hydroxymethylcytosine at Single-Base Resolution | Science
5Bioinformatics Group, Babraham Institute, Cambridge CB22 3AT, UK.. *. 6School of Clinical Medicine, University of Cambridge, ... 5-Methylcytosine can be converted to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) in mammalian DNA by the ten-eleven translocation (TET) ... Selective chemical oxidation of 5hmC to 5-formylcytosine (5fC) enables bisulfite conversion of 5fC to uracil. We demonstrate ... Quantitative Sequencing of 5-Methylcytosine and 5-Hydroxymethylcytosine at Single-Base Resolution ...
more infohttps://science.sciencemag.org/content/336/6083/934.abstract
Characterizing 5-methylcytosine in the mammalian epitranscriptome | Genome Biology | Full Text  Characterizing 5-methylcytosine in the mammalian epitranscriptome | Genome Biology | Full Text
The post-transcriptional modification 5-methylcytosine (m5C) occurs in a wide range of coding and non-coding RNAs. We describe ... However, all m5C sites were confirmed by RIP using a monoclonal antibody raised against m5C (m5C-RIP) (Figure 1B) [45]. m5C-RIP ... a) Bisulfite sequencing, (b) m5C-RIP, (c) Aza-IP and (d) miCLIP can all be used to detect m5C sites. The asterisk in (a) ... A comparison of m 5 C target sites identified by three transcriptome-wide approaches (Additional file1) [[18, 23, 24]]. The ...
more infohttps://genomebiology.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/gb4143
Can 5-methylcytosine analogues with extended alkyl side chains guide DNA methylation? - Chemical Communications (RSC Publishing)  Can 5-methylcytosine analogues with extended alkyl side chains guide DNA methylation? - Chemical Communications (RSC Publishing)
5-Methylcytosine (MeC) is an endogenous modification of DNA that plays a crucial role in DNA-protein interactions, chromatin ... MeC is produced via enzymatic methylation of the C-5 position of cytosine by DNA-methyltransferases (DNMT) which use S- ... 5-Methylcytosine (MeC) is an endogenous modification of DNA that plays a crucial role in DNA-protein interactions, chromatin ... Can 5-methylcytosine analogues with extended alkyl side chains guide DNA methylation? D. Kotandeniya, C. L. Seiler, J. ...
more infohttp://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlelanding/2018/cc/c7cc06867k
5-Methylcytosine content of nuclear DNA during chemical hepatocarcinogenesis and in carcinomas which result.  - PubMed - NCBI  5-Methylcytosine content of nuclear DNA during chemical hepatocarcinogenesis and in carcinomas which result. - PubMed - NCBI
5-Methylcytosine content of nuclear DNA during chemical hepatocarcinogenesis and in carcinomas which result.. Lapeyre JN, ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/454420?dopt=Abstract
DNA Methylation Analysis | Methylated Cytosine: 5-methylcytosine (5-mC) and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC) | T4 Beta...  DNA Methylation Analysis | Methylated Cytosine: 5-methylcytosine (5-mC) and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC) | T4 Beta...
T4 β-glucosyltransferase catalyzes glucose addition to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine but not 5-methylcytosine, allowing ... Detection of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine when coupled with digestion with a restriction enzyme that is sensitive to β-glucosyl-5- ... 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC) is an epigenetic modification (methylated cytosine) that is thought to be a derivative of 5- ... methylcytosine (5-mC). T4 β-glucosyltransferase catalyzes the transfer of glucose from uridine diphosphoglucose (UDP-Glucose) ...
more infohttp://www.clontech.com/US/Products/Cell_Biology_and_Epigenetics/Epigenetics/DNA_Preparation/Cytosine_Methylation_Modification_Enzyme?sitex=10020:22372:US&PEBCL1=DoFghEfNOTLyNuZNn56qGyTLZd&PEBCL1_pses=ZG6E8563D094033B57A24ADA3E46B022206866D35941FCBFAAAA6EBD532311950CAF559C922C30E95997A1BFA728758268B9596856EC5FF62F
The EGFR T790M Mutation Is Acquired through AICDA-Mediated Deamination of 5-Methylcytosine following TKI Treatment in Lung...  The EGFR T790M Mutation Is Acquired through AICDA-Mediated Deamination of 5-Methylcytosine following TKI Treatment in Lung...
Supplementary Figure 5 - Uracil-DNA glycosylase (UDG) hydrolysis assay. *Supplementary Figure 6 - AICDA CRISPR1 and CRISPR2 ... The EGFR T790M Mutation Is Acquired through AICDA-Mediated Deamination of 5-Methylcytosine following TKI Treatment in Lung ... The EGFR T790M Mutation Is Acquired through AICDA-Mediated Deamination of 5-Methylcytosine following TKI Treatment in Lung ... The EGFR T790M Mutation Is Acquired through AICDA-Mediated Deamination of 5-Methylcytosine following TKI Treatment in Lung ...
more infohttp://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/78/24/6728.figures-only
Hydroquinone increases 5-hydroxymethylcytosine formation through ten eleven translocation 1 (TET1) 5-methylcytosine dioxygenase...  Hydroquinone increases 5-hydroxymethylcytosine formation through ten eleven translocation 1 (TET1) 5-methylcytosine dioxygenase...
5-Hydroxymethylcytosine was found enriched at LINE-1 prior to a decrease in both 5-hydroxymethylcytosine and 5-methylcytosine. ... Hydroquinone increases 5-hydroxymethylcytosine formation through ten eleven translocation 1 (TET1) 5-methylcytosine dioxygenase ... Hydroquinone also caused an increase in Ten Eleven Translocation 1 activity and global levels of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine. ... Home » » Hydroquinone increases 5-hydroxymethylcytosine formation through ten eleven translocation 1 (TET1) 5-methylcytosine ...
more infohttps://www.kennedykrieger.org/node/88516
Hyperglycemia affects global 5-methylcytosine and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine in blood genomic DNA through upregulation of SIRT6...  Hyperglycemia affects global 5-methylcytosine and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine in blood genomic DNA through upregulation of SIRT6...
5.. Ronn T, Ling C. DNA methylation as a diagnostic and therapeutic target in the battle against type 2 diabetes. Epigenomics. ... As a well-established epigenetic mark, DNA methylation most often occurs at the 5′-cytosines of CpG dinucleotides [8, 9]. DNA ... Genomic 5-mC contents in peripheral blood leukocytes were independent protective factors for coronary artery disease with a ... Hyperglycemia affects global 5-methylcytosine and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine in blood genomic DNA through upregulation of SIRT6 ...
more infohttps://rd.springer.com/article/10.1186%2Fs13148-019-0660-y
5-Methylcytosine (5-mC) Monoclonal Antibody [33D3] | EpiGentek  5-Methylcytosine (5-mC) Monoclonal Antibody [33D3] | EpiGentek
Background 5-methylcytosine (5-mC) is formed when DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) catalyzes the addition of a methyl group onto ... the 5-carbon of the cytosine ring, an epigenetic process known as DNA methylation . 5-mC is... ... Then incubate with methylcytosine antibody for 1h at RT. After incubation with secondary antibody, developed signal with ECL.. ... Home » Antibodies » Primary Antibodies » DNA Methylation Antibodies » 5-Methylcytosine (5-mC) Monoclonal Antibody [33D3] Quote ...
more infohttps://www.epigentek.com/catalog/methylcytosine-mc-monoclonal-antibody-33d3-p-186.html
Primary Oxidation Radical in X-irradiated 5-Methylcytosine, a Mutagenic Hotspot in DNA. | Radioprotection  Primary Oxidation Radical in X-irradiated 5-Methylcytosine, a Mutagenic Hotspot in DNA. | Radioprotection
43, n° 5. Primary Oxidation Radical in X-irradiated 5-Methylcytosine, a Mutagenic Hotspot in DNA.. A. Krivokapic1, K. Øhman1, E ... 43, n° 5. Hydroxyl radical induced damage to the purine bases of DNA: in vitro studies J. Chim. Phys., Vol. 90 (1993), pp. 881- ... Holes that are formed by ionizing radiation in the base regions of DNA may thus subsequently transfer to m5C.3 Once oxidized; ... To better understand the electronic properties of m5C as a hole trap, and the mechanisms that form the stable end product, the ...
more infohttps://www.radioprotection.org/articles/radiopro/abs/2008/05/000118/000118.html
5-methylcytosine rRNA methyltransferase NSUN4  5-methylcytosine rRNA methyltransferase NSUN4
5-methylcytosine rRNA methyltransferase that probably is involved in mitochondrial ribosome small subunit (SSU) maturation by ...
more infohttps://pharos.nih.gov/idg/targets/Q96CB9
  • Recent advances in the field of epigenetics have identified 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC) as a key factor in the regulation of gene expression, with substantial implications in the study of tissue differentiation, neurological development, and carcinogenesis. (thomassci.com)
  • Using the plant model Arabidopsis thaliana , we identified a total of 39 highly methylated m 5 C sites in predicted structural positions of nuclear tRNAs and 7 m 5 C sites in rRNAs from nuclear, chloroplast and mitochondrial transcriptomes. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Here we characterize 5 members of the RNA 5-methylcytosine family in Arabidopsis and extend the functional characterization of TRDMT1 and NOP2A/OLI2. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Abcam's Urine 5-methylcytosine Quantification Kit (Colorimetric) is a complete set of optimized buffers and reagents to colorimetrically quantify 5-mC in urine using an inhibitory competitive immunoassay method. (abcam.com)
  • It is suggested that urinary 5-mC might be applicable as a biological marker for detecting some types of cancer and monitoring cancer progression after treatment with radiation or demethylation reagents. (abcam.com)
  • By studying a unique family of 5-methylcytosine oxidases, this proposal aims at providing novel reagents for better characterization of the DNA epigenomes and further understanding of their dynamic transitions. (grantome.com)
  • These findings suggest that a function of ROS1 and DME is to initiate erasure of 5-meC through a base excision repair process and provide strong biochemical evidence for the existence of an active DNA demethylation pathway in plants. (pnas.org)
  • Hydroquinone also caused an increase in Ten Eleven Translocation 1 activity and global levels of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine. (kennedykrieger.org)
  • 5-Methyl-2'-deoxycytosine, the most common epigenetic marker of DNA in eukaryotic cells, plays a key role in gene regulation and affects various cellular processes such as development and carcinogenesis. (uni-konstanz.de)
  • We describe transcriptome-wide approaches to capture the global m 5 C RNA methylome. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Yet, to date, no transcriptome-wide identification of m 5 C sites has been undertaken in plants. (beds.ac.uk)
  • b Meta-gene profiles of all m5C locations detected in total poly(A) RNA of ESCs along the rescaled segments 5′ UTR, coding sequence ( CDS ), and 3′ UTR of a normalized mRNA are shown and indicate a peak of m5C at the translational start codon. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Based on the important role of 5-MeC in eukaryotic transcription and the fact that there is little known about the relationship between 5-MeC and gene expression in bacteria Dcm has been recently evaluated for an impact on the composition of the transcriptome. (livingseas.org)
  • Thus the physiology of 5-azaC treated cells is not identical to cells lacking cytosine DNA methyltransferases. (livingseas.org)
  • For example, an elevated level of urinary 5-mC was observed in lung cancer, breast cancer, and leukemia patients with active disease states. (abcam.com)
  • Interestingly the mitochondrial and chloroplast encoded tRNAs were devoid of m 5 C in A. thaliana and this is generally conserved across Plantae . (beds.ac.uk)
  • The original function elucidated for Dcm was in restriction enzyme biology where Dcm promotes the loss of plasmids containing the EcoRII restriction enzyme gene (which cleaves 5′CCWGG3′ sites) and protects cells from post-segregational killing by the EcoRII restriction enzyme [8 9 In addition Dcm protects phage lambda against DNA cleavage when EcoRII is introduced into the cell . (livingseas.org)
  • To better understand the electronic properties of m 5 C as a hole trap, and the mechanisms that form the stable end product, the structure of the initial electron-loss product needs to be determined. (radioprotection.org)
  • It is suitable for detecting total urinary 5-methylcytosine levels, resulting from whole body turnover or degradation of methylated DNA/RNA in urine from humans and animals. (abcam.com)
  • Urinary excretion of 5-mC including both 5-methyl-2-deoxycytidine and 5-methylcytidine is an indication of a whole body turnover or degradation of methylated DNA and RNA. (abcam.com)
  • In summary our data indicate that 5-azacytidine impacts the composition of the bacterial transcriptome and the primary effect is increased gene expression at early stationary phase. (livingseas.org)
  • We also discuss the potential functions of m 5 C in RNA and compare them to 6-methyladenosine modifications. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The regulatory functions of m 5 C modifications in RNA are still not fully understood. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Of these modifications, m 5 C sites in tRNAs are commonly identified in the variable region and anticodon loop. (beds.ac.uk)