Lipoxygenase: An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class primarily found in PLANTS. It catalyzes reactions between linoleate and other fatty acids and oxygen to form hydroperoxy-fatty acid derivatives.Arachidonate 5-Lipoxygenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of arachidonic acid to yield 5-hydroperoxyarachidonate (5-HPETE) which is rapidly converted by a peroxidase to 5-hydroxy-6,8,11,14-eicosatetraenoate (5-HETE). The 5-hydroperoxides are preferentially formed in leukocytes.Arachidonate 12-Lipoxygenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of arachidonic acid to yield 12-hydroperoxyarachidonate (12-HPETE) which is itself rapidly converted by a peroxidase to 12-hydroxy-5,8,10,14-eicosatetraenoate (12-HETE). The 12-hydroperoxides are preferentially formed in PLATELETS.Lipoxygenase Inhibitors: Compounds that bind to and inhibit that enzymatic activity of LIPOXYGENASES. Included under this category are inhibitors that are specific for lipoxygenase subtypes and act to reduce the production of LEUKOTRIENES.Arachidonate 15-Lipoxygenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of arachidonic acid to yield 15-hydroperoxyarachidonate (15-HPETE) which is rapidly converted to 15-hydroxy-5,8,11,13-eicosatetraenoate (15-HETE). The 15-hydroperoxides are preferentially formed in NEUTROPHILS and LYMPHOCYTES.Arachidonate Lipoxygenases: Enzymes catalyzing the oxidation of arachidonic acid to hydroperoxyarachidonates. These products are then rapidly converted by a peroxidase to hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids. The positional specificity of the enzyme reaction varies from tissue to tissue. The final lipoxygenase pathway leads to the leukotrienes. EC 1.13.11.- .12-Hydroxy-5,8,10,14-eicosatetraenoic Acid: A lipoxygenase metabolite of ARACHIDONIC ACID. It is a highly selective ligand used to label mu-opioid receptors in both membranes and tissue sections. The 12-S-HETE analog has been reported to augment tumor cell metastatic potential through activation of protein kinase C. (J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1995; 274(3):1545-51; J Natl Cancer Inst 1994; 86(15):1145-51)Leukotrienes: A family of biologically active compounds derived from arachidonic acid by oxidative metabolism through the 5-lipoxygenase pathway. They participate in host defense reactions and pathophysiological conditions such as immediate hypersensitivity and inflammation. They have potent actions on many essential organs and systems, including the cardiovascular, pulmonary, and central nervous system as well as the gastrointestinal tract and the immune system.Masoprocol: A potent lipoxygenase inhibitor that interferes with arachidonic acid metabolism. The compound also inhibits formyltetrahydrofolate synthetase, carboxylesterase, and cyclooxygenase to a lesser extent. It also serves as an antioxidant in fats and oils.Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic Acids: Eicosatetraenoic acids substituted in any position by one or more hydroxy groups. They are important intermediates in a series of biosynthetic processes leading from arachidonic acid to a number of biologically active compounds such as prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes.5-Lipoxygenase-Activating Proteins: Scaffolding proteins that play an important role in the localization and activation of 5-LIPOXYGENASE.Arachidonic Acid: An unsaturated, essential fatty acid. It is found in animal and human fat as well as in the liver, brain, and glandular organs, and is a constituent of animal phosphatides. It is formed by the synthesis from dietary linoleic acid and is a precursor in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes.Leukotriene B4: The major metabolite in neutrophil polymorphonuclear leukocytes. It stimulates polymorphonuclear cell function (degranulation, formation of oxygen-centered free radicals, arachidonic acid release, and metabolism). (From Dictionary of Prostaglandins and Related Compounds, 1990)4,5-Dihydro-1-(3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-1H-pyrazol-3-amine: A dual inhibitor of both cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase pathways. It exerts an anti-inflammatory effect by inhibiting the formation of prostaglandins and leukotrienes. The drug also enhances pulmonary hypoxic vasoconstriction and has a protective effect after myocardial ischemia.Arachidonic Acids5,8,11,14-Eicosatetraynoic Acid: A 20-carbon unsaturated fatty acid containing 4 alkyne bonds. It inhibits the enzymatic conversion of arachidonic acid to prostaglandins E(2) and F(2a).Leukotriene A4: (2S-(2 alpha,3 beta(1E,3E,5Z,8Z)))-3-(1,3,5,8-Tetradecatetraenyl)oxiranebutanoic acid. An unstable allylic epoxide, formed from the immediate precursor 5-HPETE via the stereospecific removal of a proton at C-10 and dehydration. Its biological actions are determined primarily by its metabolites, i.e., LEUKOTRIENE B4 and cysteinyl-leukotrienes. Alternatively, leukotriene A4 is converted into LEUKOTRIENE C4 by glutathione-S-transferase or into 5,6-di-HETE by the epoxide-hydrolase. (From Dictionary of Prostaglandins and Related Compounds, 1990)Linoleic Acids: Eighteen-carbon essential fatty acids that contain two double bonds.Eicosanoids: A class of compounds named after and generally derived from C20 fatty acids (EICOSANOIC ACIDS) that includes PROSTAGLANDINS; LEUKOTRIENES; THROMBOXANES, and HYDROXYEICOSATETRAENOIC ACIDS. They have hormone-like effects mediated by specialized receptors (RECEPTORS, EICOSANOID).SRS-A: A group of LEUKOTRIENES; (LTC4; LTD4; and LTE4) that is the major mediator of BRONCHOCONSTRICTION; HYPERSENSITIVITY; and other allergic reactions. Earlier studies described a "slow-reacting substance of ANAPHYLAXIS" released from lung by cobra venom or after anaphylactic shock. The relationship between SRS-A leukotrienes was established by UV which showed the presence of the conjugated triene. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Lipid Peroxides: Peroxides produced in the presence of a free radical by the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids in the cell in the presence of molecular oxygen. The formation of lipid peroxides results in the destruction of the original lipid leading to the loss of integrity of the membranes. They therefore cause a variety of toxic effects in vivo and their formation is considered a pathological process in biological systems. Their formation can be inhibited by antioxidants, such as vitamin E, structural separation or low oxygen tension.Testicular Diseases: Pathological processes of the TESTIS.Flavanones: A group of FLAVONOIDS characterized with a 4-ketone.Lipoxins: Trihydroxy derivatives of eicosanoic acids. They are primarily derived from arachidonic acid, however eicosapentaenoic acid derivatives also exist. Many of them are naturally occurring mediators of immune regulation.Calcimycin: An ionophorous, polyether antibiotic from Streptomyces chartreusensis. It binds and transports CALCIUM and other divalent cations across membranes and uncouples oxidative phosphorylation while inhibiting ATPase of rat liver mitochondria. The substance is used mostly as a biochemical tool to study the role of divalent cations in various biological systems.Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with cyclooxygenase (PROSTAGLANDIN-ENDOPEROXIDE SYNTHASES) and thereby prevent its substrate-enzyme combination with arachidonic acid and the formation of eicosanoids, prostaglandins, and thromboxanes.Indomethacin: A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) that inhibits the enzyme cyclooxygenase necessary for the formation of prostaglandins and other autacoids. It also inhibits the motility of polymorphonuclear leukocytes.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Soybeans: An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.Leukotriene Antagonists: A class of drugs designed to prevent leukotriene synthesis or activity by blocking binding at the receptor level.Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases: Enzyme complexes that catalyze the formation of PROSTAGLANDINS from the appropriate unsaturated FATTY ACIDS, molecular OXYGEN, and a reduced acceptor.Hydroxyurea: An antineoplastic agent that inhibits DNA synthesis through the inhibition of ribonucleoside diphosphate reductase.Leukotriene C4: The conjugation product of LEUKOTRIENE A4 and glutathione. It is the major arachidonic acid metabolite in macrophages and human mast cells as well as in antigen-sensitized lung tissue. It stimulates mucus secretion in the lung, and produces contractions of nonvascular and some VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE. (From Dictionary of Prostaglandins and Related Compounds, 1990)Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Phospholipases A: Phospholipases that hydrolyze one of the acyl groups of phosphoglycerides or glycerophosphatidates.Receptors, Leukotriene: Cell-surface receptors that bind LEUKOTRIENES with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. The leukotriene receptor subtypes have been tentatively named according to their affinities for the endogenous leukotrienes LTB4; LTC4; LTD4; and LTE4.Phospholipases A2: Phospholipases that hydrolyze the acyl group attached to the 2-position of PHOSPHOGLYCERIDES.Caffeic Acids: A class of phenolic acids related to chlorogenic acid, p-coumaric acid, vanillic acid, etc., which are found in plant tissues. It is involved in plant growth regulation.Catechols: A group of 1,2-benzenediols that contain the general formula R-C6H5O2.Linolenic Acids: Eighteen-carbon essential fatty acids that contain three double bonds.Leukocytes: White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).Leukotriene E4: A biologically active principle of SRS-A that is formed from LEUKOTRIENE D4 via a peptidase reaction that removes the glycine residue. The biological actions of LTE4 are similar to LTC4 and LTD4. (From Dictionary of Prostaglandins and Related Compounds, 1990)Blood Platelets: Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.Benzeneacetamides: Compounds based on benzeneacetamide, that are similar in structure to ACETANILIDES.Fatty Acids, Unsaturated: FATTY ACIDS in which the carbon chain contains one or more double or triple carbon-carbon bonds.Reticulocytes: Immature ERYTHROCYTES. In humans, these are ERYTHROID CELLS that have just undergone extrusion of their CELL NUCLEUS. They still contain some organelles that gradually decrease in number as the cells mature. RIBOSOMES are last to disappear. Certain staining techniques cause components of the ribosomes to precipitate into characteristic "reticulum" (not the same as the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM), hence the name reticulocytes.8,11,14-Eicosatrienoic Acid: A 20-carbon-chain fatty acid, unsaturated at positions 8, 11, and 14. It differs from arachidonic acid, 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraenoic acid, only at position 5.Epoxide Hydrolases: Enzymes that catalyze reversibly the formation of an epoxide or arene oxide from a glycol or aromatic diol, respectively.Pyrazoles: Azoles of two nitrogens at the 1,2 positions, next to each other, in contrast with IMIDAZOLES in which they are at the 1,3 positions.Receptors, Leukotriene B4: A class of cell surface leukotriene receptors with a preference for leukotriene B4. Leukotriene B4 receptor activation influences chemotaxis, chemokinesis, adherence, enzyme release, oxidative bursts, and degranulation in polymorphonuclear leukocytes. There are at least two subtypes of these receptors. Some actions are mediated through the inositol phosphate and diacylglycerol second messenger systems.Urbanization: The process whereby a society changes from a rural to an urban way of life. It refers also to the gradual increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas.Oxylipins: Eighteen-carbon cyclopentyl polyunsaturated fatty acids derived from ALPHA-LINOLENIC ACID via an oxidative pathway analogous to the EICOSANOIDS in animals. Biosynthesis is inhibited by SALICYLATES. A key member, jasmonic acid of PLANTS, plays a similar role to ARACHIDONIC ACID in animals.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Cucumis sativus: A creeping annual plant species of the CUCURBITACEAE family. It has a rough succulent, trailing stem and hairy leaves with three to five pointed lobes.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Lipoxygenases: Dioxygenases that catalyze the peroxidation of methylene-interrupted UNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Autacoids: A chemically diverse group of substances produced by various tissues in the body that cause slow contraction of smooth muscle; they have other intense but varied pharmacologic activities.QuinolinesQuinacrine: An acridine derivative formerly widely used as an antimalarial but superseded by chloroquine in recent years. It has also been used as an anthelmintic and in the treatment of giardiasis and malignant effusions. It is used in cell biological experiments as an inhibitor of phospholipase A2.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Peroxides: A group of compounds that contain a bivalent O-O group, i.e., the oxygen atoms are univalent. They can either be inorganic or organic in nature. Such compounds release atomic (nascent) oxygen readily. Thus they are strong oxidizing agents and fire hazards when in contact with combustible materials, especially under high-temperature conditions. The chief industrial uses of peroxides are as oxidizing agents, bleaching agents, and initiators of polymerization. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Vigabatrin: An analogue of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID. It is an irreversible inhibitor of 4-AMINOBUTYRATE TRANSAMINASE, the enzyme responsible for the catabolism of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID. (From Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed)Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Benzoquinones: Benzene rings which contain two ketone moieties in any position. They can be substituted in any position except at the ketone groups.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Cyclooxygenase 2: An inducibly-expressed subtype of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase. It plays an important role in many cellular processes and INFLAMMATION. It is the target of COX2 INHIBITORS.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.5-Lipoxygenase-Activating Protein Inhibitors: Compounds that bind to and inhibit the action of 5-LIPOXYGENASE-ACTIVATING PROTEINS.Indoles: Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number one carbon adjacent to the benzyl portion, in contrast to ISOINDOLES which have the nitrogen away from the six-membered ring.Leukotriene D4: One of the biologically active principles of SRS-A. It is generated from LEUKOTRIENE C4 after partial hydrolysis of the peptide chain, i.e., cleavage of the gamma-glutamyl portion. Its biological actions include stimulation of vascular and nonvascular smooth muscle, and increases in vascular permeability. (From Dictionary of Prostaglandins and Related Compounds, 1990)Receptors, Eicosanoid: Cell surface proteins that bind eicosanoids with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Among the eicosanoid receptors are receptors for the prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes.Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.Platelet Activating Factor: A phospholipid derivative formed by PLATELETS; BASOPHILS; NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and MACROPHAGES. It is a potent platelet aggregating agent and inducer of systemic anaphylactic symptoms, including HYPOTENSION; THROMBOCYTOPENIA; NEUTROPENIA; and BRONCHOCONSTRICTION.Cyclopentanes: A group of alicyclic hydrocarbons with the general formula R-C5H9.Intramolecular Oxidoreductases: Enzymes of the isomerase class that catalyze the oxidation of one part of a molecule with a corresponding reduction of another part of the same molecule. They include enzymes converting aldoses to ketoses (ALDOSE-KETOSE ISOMERASES), enzymes shifting a carbon-carbon double bond (CARBON-CARBON DOUBLE BOND ISOMERASES), and enzymes transposing S-S bonds (SULFUR-SULFUR BOND ISOMERASES). (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 5.3.Prostaglandins: A group of compounds derived from unsaturated 20-carbon fatty acids, primarily arachidonic acid, via the cyclooxygenase pathway. They are extremely potent mediators of a diverse group of physiological processes.Nonheme Iron Proteins: Proteins, usually acting in oxidation-reduction reactions, containing iron but no porphyrin groups. (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1993, pG-10)PyransUmbelliferones: 7-Hydroxycoumarins. Substances present in many plants, especially umbelliferae. Umbelliferones are used in sunscreen preparations and may be mutagenic. Their derivatives are used in liver therapy, as reagents, plant growth factors, sunscreens, insecticides, parasiticides, choleretics, spasmolytics, etc.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.ZymosanDose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Dioctyl Sulfosuccinic Acid: All-purpose surfactant, wetting agent, and solubilizer used in the drug, cosmetics, and food industries. It has also been used in laxatives and as cerumenolytics. It is usually administered as either the calcium, potassium, or sodium salt.Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal: Anti-inflammatory agents that are non-steroidal in nature. In addition to anti-inflammatory actions, they have analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions.They act by blocking the synthesis of prostaglandins by inhibiting cyclooxygenase, which converts arachidonic acid to cyclic endoperoxides, precursors of prostaglandins. Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis accounts for their analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions; other mechanisms may contribute to their anti-inflammatory effects.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Cytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.Prostaglandins E: (11 alpha,13E,15S)-11,15-Dihydroxy-9-oxoprost-13-en-1-oic acid (PGE(1)); (5Z,11 alpha,13E,15S)-11,15-dihydroxy-9-oxoprosta-5,13-dien-1-oic acid (PGE(2)); and (5Z,11 alpha,13E,15S,17Z)-11,15-dihydroxy-9-oxoprosta-5,13,17-trien-1-oic acid (PGE(3)). Three of the six naturally occurring prostaglandins. They are considered primary in that no one is derived from another in living organisms. Originally isolated from sheep seminal fluid and vesicles, they are found in many organs and tissues and play a major role in mediating various physiological activities.Pleurisy: INFLAMMATION of PLEURA, the lining of the LUNG. When PARIETAL PLEURA is involved, there is pleuritic CHEST PAIN.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Pyrazolones: Compounds with a five-membered heterocyclic ring with two nitrogens and a keto OXYGEN. Some are inhibitors of TNF-ALPHA production.Chromatography, Thin Layer: Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet: Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Seeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.Cyclooxygenase 1: A constitutively-expressed subtype of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase. It plays an important role in many cellular processes.CycloheptanesIonophores: Chemical agents that increase the permeability of biological or artificial lipid membranes to specific ions. Most ionophores are relatively small organic molecules that act as mobile carriers within membranes or coalesce to form ion permeable channels across membranes. Many are antibiotics, and many act as uncoupling agents by short-circuiting the proton gradient across mitochondrial membranes.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Eicosapentaenoic Acid: Important polyunsaturated fatty acid found in fish oils. It serves as the precursor for the prostaglandin-3 and thromboxane-3 families. A diet rich in eicosapentaenoic acid lowers serum lipid concentration, reduces incidence of cardiovascular disorders, prevents platelet aggregation, and inhibits arachidonic acid conversion into the thromboxane-2 and prostaglandin-2 families.Monocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Enzyme Induction: An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.

Reactive oxygen intermediate-dependent NF-kappaB activation by interleukin-1beta requires 5-lipoxygenase or NADPH oxidase activity. (1/135)

We previously reported that the role of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROIs) in NF-kappaB activation by proinflammatory cytokines was cell specific. However, the sources for ROIs in various cell types are yet to be determined and might include 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) and NADPH oxidase. 5-LOX and 5-LOX activating protein (FLAP) are coexpressed in lymphoid cells but not in monocytic or epithelial cells. Stimulation of lymphoid cells with interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) led to ROI production and NF-kappaB activation, which could both be blocked by antioxidants or FLAP inhibitors, confirming that 5-LOX was the source of ROIs and was required for NF-kappaB activation in these cells. IL-1beta stimulation of epithelial cells did not generate any ROIs and NF-kappaB induction was not influenced by 5-LOX inhibitors. However, reintroduction of a functional 5-LOX system in these cells allowed ROI production and 5-LOX-dependent NF-kappaB activation. In monocytic cells, IL-1beta treatment led to a production of ROIs which is independent of the 5-LOX enzyme but requires the NADPH oxidase activity. This pathway involves the Rac1 and Cdc42 GTPases, two enzymes which are not required for NF-kappaB activation by IL-1beta in epithelial cells. In conclusion, three different cell-specific pathways lead to NF-kappaB activation by IL-1beta: a pathway dependent on ROI production by 5-LOX in lymphoid cells, an ROI- and 5-LOX-independent pathway in epithelial cells, and a pathway requiring ROI production by NADPH oxidase in monocytic cells.  (+info)

Relationship of arachidonic acid metabolizing enzyme expression in epithelial cancer cell lines to the growth effect of selective biochemical inhibitors. (2/135)

Arachidonic acid (AA) metabolizing enzymes are emerging as significant mediators of growth stimulation for epithelial cells. The relative contribution of the various family members of AA metabolizing enzymes to epithelial cancer cell growth is not known. To study this question, we first analyzed a series of epithelial cancer cells to establish the relative frequency of expression for the various enzymes. We analyzed the expression of five AA metabolizing enzymes as well as 5-lipoxygenase activating protein (FLAP) in a panel of human epithelial cancer cell lines (n = 20) using reverse transcription-PCR. From this analysis, we found that cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1), 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX), and FLAP were universally expressed in all cancer cell lines tested. For the remaining enzymes, the expression of COX-2, 12-LOX, and 15-LOX varied among cell lines, 60, 35, and 90%, respectively. Although the pattern of expression varied among the different cell types, all of the enzymes were expressed in all major cancer histologies. Using a panel of selective biochemical AA metabolizing enzyme inhibitors, we then evaluated the effect of these agents on cell lines with known expression status for the AA metabolizing enzymes. For the enzymes that were not universally expressed, growth inhibition by selective biochemical inhibitors did not closely correlate with the expression status of specific enzymes (P > 0.05). For the universally expressed enzymes, the LOX inhibitors were more potent growth inhibitors than the COX inhibitors. The frequent expression of the AA metabolizing enzymes suggests that AA metabolism pathway may be modulated in response to xenobiotic exposure during carcinogenesis. Although establishing a priori AA metabolizing enzyme status was not consistently informative about what AA metabolizing enzyme inhibition would be most growth inhibitory, the frequent inhibition of many epithelial cancers by these biochemical inhibitors opens a new avenue for cancer therapy and intervention in carcinogenesis.  (+info)

The 5-lipoxygenase-activating protein (FLAP) inhibitor, MK886, induces apoptosis independently of FLAP. (3/135)

The ability of various inhibitors of lipoxygenase (LOX) enzymes and 5-lipoxygenase-activating protein (FLAP) to induce apoptosis has implicated these pathways in the mechanism(s) of this form of cell death. Although FLAP plays an important role in 5-LOX activity, this protein is found at high levels in some cells lacking LOX, suggesting it might mediate other effects. Furthermore, the concentration of MK886, a FLAP inhibitor, required to induce apoptosis is approximately 100-fold more than that required to inhibit LOX, and this compound remains effective in cells lacking LOX. The present study examines the role of FLAP in MK886-induced apoptosis. MK886 induced apoptosis in WSU cells, a human chronic lymphocytic leukaemia cell line that lacks FLAP protein and mRNA, suggesting that this agent is acting independently of FLAP. This conclusion was further supported by the fact that a more specific FLAP inhibitor, MK591, induced only minimal apoptosis in FL5.12 cells, a murine prolymphoid cell line containing FLAP. The role of FLAP was examined more directly by decreasing its expression by more than 50% in FL5.12 cells treated with 10 microM of an antisense oligonucleotide for 48h. This change in FLAP was not accompanied by any increase in apoptosis. Furthermore, FLAP-depleted cells exhibited the same level of apoptosis 8 h after treatment with 10 microM MK886, as did control cells. The increased fluorescence seen in MK886-treated cells loaded with carboxydichlorofluorescein indicates that oxidative reactions are stimulated by this compound, possibly via the release of fatty acids from fatty acid-binding proteins and their subsequent oxidation.  (+info)

Expression of 5-lipoxygenase and 5-lipoxygenase-activating protein in human fetal membranes throughout pregnancy and at term. (4/135)

Lipoxygenase metabolites may be involved in human parturition. 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) catalyses the first steps in the synthesis of leukotrienes from arachidonic acid, and its activity is dependent on 5-LOX activating protein (FLAP). The expression of 5-LOX and FLAP were investigated in fetal membranes to determine whether there are changes with gestational age or at term with the onset of labour. No significant differences were found in the expression of 5-LOX or FLAP mRNA in the amnion at different gestational ages or at term. In the chorion-decidua, 5-LOX mRNA expression was significantly higher in the first trimester of pregnancy than in the second and third trimesters. At term, there was a significant increase in both 5-LOX mRNA and protein expression in the chorion-decidua in the time after labour, compared with the time before labour. The expression of FLAP mRNA was also significantly higher in the chorion-decidua in the first trimester of pregnancy compared with the third trimester, and at term in the time after labour compared with the time before labour. Expression of FLAP protein was not studied, as an antibody is not currently available. These results are consistent with a role for 5-LOX and FLAP in the control of parturition at term, and also suggest an involvement earlier in pregnancy.  (+info)

IL-5 increases expression of 5-lipoxygenase-activating protein and translocates 5-lipoxygenase to the nucleus in human blood eosinophils. (5/135)

Cysteinyl-leukotrienes are potent bronchoconstrictor mediators synthesized by the 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) pathway. Eosinophilopoietic cytokines such as IL-5 enhance cysteinyl-leukotriene synthesis in eosinophils in vitro, mimicking changes in eosinophils from asthmatic patients, but the mechanism is unknown. We hypothesized that IL-5 induces the expression of 5-LO and/or its activating protein FLAP in eosinophils, and that this might be modulated by anti-inflammatory corticosteroids. Compared with control cultures, IL-5 increased the proportion of normal blood eosinophils immunostaining for FLAP (65 +/- 4 vs 34 +/- 4%; p < 0.0001), enhanced immunoblot levels of FLAP by 51 +/- 14% (p = 0.03), and quadrupled ionophore-stimulated leukotriene C4 synthesis from 5.7 to 20.8 ng/106 cells (p < 0.02). IL-5 effects persisted for 24 h and were abolished by cycloheximide and actinomycin D. The proportion of FLAP+ eosinophils was also increased by dexamethasone (p < 0.0001). Neither IL-5 nor dexamethasone altered 5-LO expression, but IL-5 significantly increased 5-LO immunofluorescence localizing to eosinophil nuclei. Compared with normal subjects, allergic asthmatic patients had a greater proportion of circulating FLAP+ eosinophils (46 +/- 6 vs 27 +/- 3%; p < 0.03) and a smaller IL-5-induced increase in FLAP immunoreactivity (p < 0.05). Thus, IL-5 increases FLAP expression and translocates 5-LO to the nucleus in normal blood eosinophils in vitro. This is associated with an enhanced capacity for cysteinyl-leukotriene synthesis and mimics in vivo increases in FLAP expression in eosinophils from allergic asthmatics.  (+info)

Increased cyclooxygenase-2 and 5-lipoxygenase activating protein expression in peritoneal macrophages during ovalbumin immunization of mice and cytosolic phospholipase A(2) activation after antigen challenge. (6/135)

The present study investigates phenotypic and functional differentiation of peritoneal macrophages during ovalbumin-induced subcutaneous immunization of mice. For the first time we show that, in mouse peritoneal macrophages, ovalbumin immunization induces an increase in cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and 5-lipoxygenase activating protein (FLAP) expression whereas it inhibits cytosolic phospholipase A(2) (cPLA2) expression. The study of arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism in peritoneal macrophages from control (cPM) and ovalbumin-immunized (iPM) mice shows that the reduced cPLA2 expression is correlated to a reduced basal AA metabolism, but is not a limiting factor for the opsonized zymosan-, PMA-, or A23187-triggered AA metabolism. We also show that in vitro ovalbumin challenge induces, only in iPM, cPLA2 activation through phosphorylation of serine residues, via a mechanism involving MAP kinases, and through increased intracellular calcium concentrations, leading to eicosanoid production. In parallel, we report that, in peritoneal macrophages, ovalbumin immunization induces the expression of CD23, the low affinity receptor for IgEs known for its involvement in allergic diseases. Thus, the modified expression of the enzymes involved in AA metabolism and the difference of response of cPM and iPM toward the antigen are important elements to understand the underlying mechanisms of ovalbumin-induced allergic responses.  (+info)

Prolonged exposure to lipopolysaccharide inhibits macrophage 5-lipoxygenase metabolism via induction of nitric oxide synthesis. (7/135)

LPS from bacteria can result in the development of sepsis syndrome and acute lung injury. Although acute exposure to endotoxin primes leukocytes for enhanced synthesis of leukotrienes (LT), little is known about the effect of chronic exposure. Therefore, we determined the effect of prolonged LPS treatment on 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) metabolism of arachidonic acid in alveolar macrophages (AM) and in peripheral blood monocytes. Pretreatment of AM with LPS caused time- and dose-dependent suppression of LT synthetic capacity. LPS pretreatment failed to inhibit arachidonic acid (AA) release. The fact that LPS inhibited LT synthesis from endogenous AA more than from exogenous AA suggested an effect on 5-LO-activating protein (FLAP). In addition, an inhibitory effect of LPS treatment on AM 5-LO activity was suggested by cell-free 5-LO enzyme assay. No effect on the expression of either 5-LO or FLAP proteins was observed. New protein synthesis was necessary for LPS-induced reduction of 5-LO metabolism in AM, and immunoblotting demonstrated marked induction of NO synthase (NOS). Inhibition by LPS was reproduced by an NO donor and was abrogated by inhibitors of constitutive and inducible NOS. Compared with AM, peripheral blood monocytes exhibited no suppression by LPS of 5-LO metabolism and no induction of inducible NOS. We conclude that prolonged exposure to LPS impairs AM 5-LO metabolism by NO-mediated suppression of both 5-LO and FLAP function. Because LT contribute to antimicrobial defense, this down-regulation of 5-LO metabolism may contribute to the increased susceptibility to pneumonia in patients following sepsis.  (+info)

In situ amplification of 5-lipoxygenase and 5-lipoxygenase-activating protein in allergic airway inflammation and inhibition by leukotriene blockade. (8/135)

Leukotrienes are important mediators of the eosinophilic influx and mucus hypersecretion in the lungs in a murine model of asthma. We used in situ PCR in this model of human asthma to detect lung mRNA for 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) and 5-LO-activating protein (FLAP), key proteins necessary for leukotriene synthesis. Lung tissue was obtained on day 28 from mice treated with i.p. (days 0 and 14) and intranasal (days 14, 25, 26, and 27) OVA or saline. After fixation, the tissue sections underwent protease- and RNase-free DNase digestion, before in situ RT-PCR using target-specific cDNA amplification. 5-LO and FLAP-specific mRNA was visualized by a digoxigenin detection system, and positive cells were analyzed by morphometry. 5-LO and FLAP-specific mRNA and protein were associated primarily with eosinophils and alveolar macrophages in the airways and pulmonary blood vessels in OVA-sensitized/challenged mice. 5-LO and FLAP protein expression increased on a per-cell basis in alveolar macrophages of OVA-treated mice compared with saline controls. Pulmonary blood vessel endothelial cells were also positive for 5-LO, FLAP mRNA, and protein. 5-LO inhibition significantly decreased 5-LO and FLAP-specific mRNA and protein expression in the lung inflammatory cells and endothelial cells. These studies demonstrate a marked increase in key 5-LO pathway proteins in the allergic lung inflammatory response and an important immunomodulatory effect of leukotriene blockade to decrease 5-LO and FLAP gene expression.  (+info)

FLAP antibody, Internal (arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase-activating protein) for IHC-P, WB. Anti-FLAP pAb (GTX89246) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Complete information for CD2AP gene (Protein Coding), CD2 Associated Protein, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Complete information for NOS1AP gene (Protein Coding), Nitric Oxide Synthase 1 Adaptor Protein, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Initial observations in the late 1980s indicated that an important regulatory step in the biosynthesis of LT in human PMN involves the translocation of 5-LO from the cytosol to a membrane compartment (Rouzer et al., 1985; Rouzer and Samuelsson, 1987). Ca2+ mobilization is required for 5-LO translocation. However, Ca2+ mobilization alone is not sufficient because little 5-LO translocation occurs when unprimed cells are stimulated with agonists such as fMLP or PAF, which induce the mobilization of Ca2+ from intracellular stores and subsequent Ca2+ influx. Since those initial reports, it has been established that 5-LO activation in stimulated human PMN involves the Ca2+-dependent movement of 5-LO from the cytosol to the nuclear envelope in a mechanism not yet completely understood but implicating the membrane protein FLAP (Dixon et al., 1990; Reid et al., 1990). Indeed, it has been clearly established by using FLAP antagonists that FLAP plays an essential role in the translocation of 5-LO in intact ...
BioVision develops and offers a wide variety of products including assay kits, antibodies, recombinant proteins & enzymes, and other innovative research tools for studying Apoptosis, Metabolism, Cell Proliferation, Cellular Stress, Cell Damage and Repair, Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome, Stem Cell Biology, Gene Regulation, Signal Transduction, etc. BioVisions products are currently being sold in more than 60 countries worldwide.
Leukotrienes (LT) are a group of proinflammatory lipid mediators that are implicated in the pathogenesis and progression of atherosclerosis. Here we report that mRNA levels for the three key proteins in LTB4 biosynthesis, namely 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO), 5-LO-activating protein (FLAP), and LTA4 hydrolase (LTA4H), are significantly increased in human atherosclerotic plaque (n = 72) as compared with healthy controls (n = 6). Neither LTC4 synthase nor any of the LT receptors exhibits significantly increased mRNA levels. Immunohistochemical staining revealed abundant expression of 5-LO, FLAP, and LTA4H protein, colocalizing in macrophages of intimal lesions. Human lesion tissue converts arachidonic acid into significant amounts of LTB4, and a selective, tight-binding LTA4H inhibitor can block this activity. Furthermore, expression of 5-LO and LTA4H, but not FLAP, is increased in patients with recent or ongoing symptoms of plaque instability, and medication with warfarin correlates with increased levels ...
Iceland provides a fertile breeding-ground for genetic studies, as the population is relatively isolated making it easy to find genes involved in specific syndromes. The researchers pinned down FLAP by looking for people who had suffered heart disease or stroke. By comparing 700 heart patients with their unaffected relatives they found a region of DNA on chromosome 13 which was common to many of the patients. A further 1600 patients helped them to narrow down the region, pinpointing the FLAP gene.
Inherited mutations in the E6AP gene that block its activity result in Angelmans syndrome, a developmental condition characterized by severe mental retardation in children because the brain is unable to "learn" by adapting its nerve connections to outside stimuli. Other mutations that cause a duplication of the E6AP gene and increased activity are thought to cause some forms of inherited Autism Spectrum Disorder. In other tissues, the genetic program of the Human Papillomavirus produces an E6 viral protein following infection that hijacks the E6AP enzyme to target a different set of cells, not only ensuring the ability of the virus to replicate but causing uncontrolled growth resulting in benign skin tags, warts, or cervical cancer, depending on the site of infection. The Hepatitis C virus exploits a similar strategy to ensure its replication in the liver by expressing a different protein that redirects the function of E6AP, resulting in cirrhosis and liver cancer in the chronically infected ...
A novel gene mutation was found to cause Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) in a young patient. Learn more about the researchers findings today.
Buy alox suspension 170 ml suspension pack online at discounted price. visit 1mg.com to know price, benefits and product information of alox suspension.
Author: Zhao, G. et al.; Genre: Journal Article; Published in Print: 2010; Keywords: Two-dimensional crystallization; Membrane protein; Eukaryotic; Structure; Electron crystallography; Cryo-EM; Title: Two-dimensional crystallization conditions of human leukotriene C4 synthase requiring adjustment of a particularly large combination of specific parameters
In the mid-1960s, Winberg Chai, a young academic and the son of Chinese immigrants, married an Irish-American artist. In Hapa Girl ("hapa" is Hawaiian for "mixed") their daughter tells the story of this loving family as they moved from Southern California to New York to a South Dakota farm by the 1980s. In their new Midwestern home, the family finds itself the object of unwelcome attention, which swiftly escalates to violence. The Chais are suddenly socially isolated and barely able to cope with the tension that arises from daily incidents of racial animosity, including random acts of cruelty. May-lee Chais memoir ends in China, where she arrives just in time to witness a riot and demonstrations. Here she realizes that the rural Americans "fears of change, of economic uncertainty, of racial anxiety, of the unknowable future compared to the known past were the same as Chinas. And I realized finally that it had not been my fault.". ...
As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
ALOX15 Full-Length MS Protein Standard (NP_001131), Labeled with [U- 13C6, 15N4]-L-Arginine and [U- 13C6, 15N2]-L-Lysine, was produced in human 293 cells (HEK293) with fully chemically defined cell culture medium to obtain incorporation efficiency at Creative-Proteomics.
Sebelum ni, ada yang syorkan saya bubuh minyak habbatus sauda`, saya bubuh. Tapi keadaannya tak memuaskan hati, malah nampak semakin teruk. Doktor tak kata apa pun. Cuma suruh minum antibiotik sampai habis. Harapan saya keadaan ini tak melarat sehingga menyebabkan Sofie perlu ke IJN lagi. Yang membuatkan saya bimbang, masa saya berkampung di IJN, ada seorang bayi terpaksa admit semula kerana nanah dah merebak sampai ke dalam. Risaunya saya! Harapnya, Sofie tak perlu menghadapi semua tu lagi. Saya serik melihat Sofie berselirat wayar tah hapa2, saya serik melihat Sofie tinggal di wad bersama abisofie. Sungguh, saya tak sanggup lagi ...
Naona badala ya kuongea siasa kila wakati tunaweza kuelimishana kwenye mammbo muhimu hapa.Hii topic nilishawahi kuituma. Tanzania inakabiliwa na...
The trial achieved its primary efficacy endpoint of demonstrating a reduction in one or more of these key biomarkers. The results showed that at all dose levels DG031 suppressed production of leukotriene B4 (LTB4), the product of the branch of the leukotriene pathway that deCODEs genetics research has linked to increased risk of heart attack. At the highest dose level, DG031 reduced levels of myeloperoxidase (MPO), higher levels of which have been linked to increased risk of heart attack. These effects were dose-dependent. The study also demonstrated that at the highest dose, DG031 lowered levels of sICAM-I, a critical molecule in the activation of inflammatory cells and cell infiltration. There were no serious drug-related adverse events reported in this study, and DG031 was found to be well tolerated.. "Our population genetics work pointed us to the role of the leukotriene pathway and LTB4 in driving the inflammatory process underlying heart attack. DG031 is designed to inhibit the FLAP, or ...
Wakati ugonjwa wa kipindupindu ukiendelea kuwatesa wananchi wa Wilaya ya Mbarali mkoani hapa, ugonjwa huo umepiga hodi ndani ya jiji la Mbeya na hadi leo
Hakan Çebi, Ertuğrul Akşahin, Halil Yalçın Yüksel, Levent Çelebi, Cem Nuri Aktekin, Onur Hapa, Hasan Hilmi Muratlı, Ali Biçimoğlu. ...
Recent human genetic studies suggest that allelic variants of leukotriene pathway genes influence the risk of clinical and subclinical atherosclerosis. We sequenced the promoter, exonic, and splice site regions of ALOX5 and ALOX5AP and then genotyped 7 SNPs in ALOX5 and 6 SNPs in ALOX5AP in 1,552 cases with clinically significant coronary artery disease (CAD) and 1,583 controls from Kaiser Permanente including a subset of participants of the coronary artery risk development in young adults study. A nominally significant association was detected between a promoter SNP in ALOX5 (rs12762303) and CAD in our subset of white/European subjects (adjusted odds ratio per minor allele, log-additive model, 1.32; P = 0.002). In this race/ethnic group, rs12762303 has a minor allele frequency of 15% and is tightly linked to variation at the SP1 variable tandem repeat promoter polymorphism. However, the association between CAD and rs12762303 could not be reproduced in the atherosclerosis risk in communities ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Blog on ALOX12B elisa kit product: The Porcine ALOX12B alox12b (Catalog #MBS7250401) is an ELISA Kit and is intended for research purposes o...
The journalists called upon HAPA to support them in promoting womens role in society. Following the meeting, HAPA issued a statement urging the authorities and the media to back the organisation and to deal more regularly with the problems Mauritanian women face ...
Jamani, kama kuna madoctor humu, naombeni mnijibu hapa. ninaye rafiki yangu ambaye ameoa mwanamke na kwa muda mrefu sasa hawajapa mimba. yule mke ni ndugu...
Use Bio-Rads PrimePCR assays, controls, templates for your target gene. Every primer pair is optimized, experimentally validated, and performance guaranteed.
Leukotrienes, the biologically active metabolites of arachidonic acid, have been implicated in a variety of inflammatory responses, including asthma, arthritis and psoriasis. Recently a compound, MK-886, has been described that blocks the synthesis of leukotrienes in intact activated leukocytes, but has little or no effect on enzymes involved in leukotriene synthesis, including 5-lipoxygenase, in cell-free systems. A membrane protein with a high affinity for MK-886 and possibly representing the cellular target for MK-886 has been isolated from rat and human leukocytes. Here, we report the isolation of a complementary DNA clone encoding the MK-886-binding protein. We also demonstrate that the expression of both the MK-886-binding protein and 5-lipoxygenase is necessary for leukotriene synthesis in intact cells. Because the MK-886-binding protein seems to play a part in activating this enzyme in cells, it is termed the five-lipoxygenase activating protein (FLAP ...
15-Lipoxygenase-2 (ALOX15B), an oxidoreductase in the metabolism of arachidonic acid, is a functional tumor suppressor whose expression is reduced in a variety of human cancers. To determine the roles of ALOX15B in carcinogenesis, we generated transgenic mice with ALOX8, the murine homolog of ALOX15B, knocked out. ALOX8 expression at mRNA level was abolished in homozygous knockout mice and reduced to half of wild type in heterozygous knockout mice. Its observed that homozygous female ALOX8 knockout mice are infertile but male ALOX8 knockout mice are fertile. Increased incidence of tumor as uni or multimass was found in the lung, prostate and in the mesentery region of homozygous and heterozygous ALOX8 knockout mice, when compared with little mate wild type mice. Histological evaluations showed an increase in secondary tumors and inflammation in different tissues like lung and large intestine in mice with ALOX8 knocked out. The transgenic mice could be a good model to study the role of ...
To study the association between pulmonary function and the SNPs in the ALOX5AP gene in a healthy and general population, the predicted values for forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1; FEV1_%PRED) and the proportion of the FVC exhaled in the first second (FEV1/FVC; FEV1/FVC_PRED) in the KARE database were used. The 662 subjects with asthma, chronic lung disease (pneumoconiosis and silicosis), tuberculosis, or a previous diagnosis of respiratory-related. disease were excluded. In addition, 4553 subjects Selleckchem Rucaparib without diagnosis, treatment, FEV1, FEV1/FVC, height and smoking status information were also excluded. Therefore, 3627 subjects without respiratory disease were included and defined as a healthy population in this study. The average age of this population was 52.4 ± 8.9. The specific characteristics of Ansan and Ansung cohorts are described in Table 1. Total subjects including healthy population and with respiratory diseases or no information on medical history ...
LTB4R2 - LTB4R2 (GFP-tagged) - Human leukotriene B4 receptor 2 (LTB4R2), transcript variant 2 available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
Sequence variants and/or copy number variants (deletions/duplications) within the ALOX15 gene will be detected with >99% sensitivity. Variants classified as unknown significance (VUS), likely pathogenic, or pathogenic will be reported. Benign and lik...
Kuna baadhi ya wadau walitaka kufahamu zaidi habari ya mafua ya nguruwe, napenda kumshukuru mdau wa blogu hii Dr Faustine ambaye ni Mtanzania na pia mtaalamu halisi wa matatizo yanayosababishwa na vimelea ( Consultant Microbiologist) ambaye anafanya kazi Center of Disease Control (CDC), ambao Makao makuu yao yapo Atlanta, USA. Na ndiyo wasemaji wakuu wa magonjwa yote ya milipuko na yale yanayosababishwa na vimelea duniani kwa kutoa ufafanuzi huu hapa chini ...
Title: Imbalance Between Leukotriene Synthesis and Catabolism Contributes to the Pathogenesis of Allergic Diseases. VOLUME: 3 ISSUE: 4. Author(s): Masafumi Zaitsu. Affiliation:Department of Pediatrics,Faculty of Medicine, Saga University, 5-1-1 Nabeshima, Saga City 849-8501, Saga, Japan.. Keywords:Dipeptidases, gamma-glutamyl leukotrienase, stem cell factor, lipopolysaccharide, 5-lipoxygenase. Abstract: Recently, there has been great progress in elucidating the biochemistry of the arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism. The abnormal production of leukotrienes (LTs), due to the unbalanced-regulation of synthesizing and catabolizing enzymes, is probably induced by many bioactive substances, including Th2 cell-derived cytokines. Imbalances in these processes may play an important role in allergic reactions and other inflammatory diseases, thus making them potentially prime therapeutic targets for these diseases. Further studies on the regulation of LT-synthesis and catabolism are therefore required to ...
We investigated the interaction of human PMNs with human vascular tissue to determine the extent to which cellular activation state was involved in PMN-induced vascular responsiveness. We determined that both unactivated and activated PMNs induced a cell number-dependent vasocontraction in HUV, the nature of which was dependent on the activation state of the cells. The vasoconstrictor response observed for unactivated PMNs was endothelium-independent, was due to soluble factor(s) in the cell supernatant and was partially blocked by an inhibitor of leukotriene biosynthesis. For the activated PMNs, the response was endothelium-dependent, was not due to a soluble factor and was linearly related to their activation state.. One of the most interesting findings of this study was that both unactivated and activated PMNs contracted HUV but that their respective responses were quite different in nature. Treatment of HUV with unactivated PMNs had no significant effect on the response to serotonin, which ...
Hayo yamesemwa leo na Mkurugenzi wa huduma na Ukunga na Uuguzi kutoka Wizara ya Afya, Maendeleo ya Jamii, Jinsia, Wazee na Watoto Bi. Ziada Sellah wakati akifungua semina fupi kwa niaba ya Mganga mkuu wa Serikali ambapo semina hiyo iliwashirikisha Wizara ya afya, Ofisi ya Rais-TAMISEMI,wakufunzi wa vyuo na Chama cha Wakunga Tanzania (TAMA) kwenye hospitali ya Benjamin Mkapa jijini hapa ...
Lx.ua - сайт лучших предложений квартир посуточно в Украине, Киев, Львов, Одесса, Донецк, Харьков. Жилье посуточно, дома посуточно, хостел, апарт-отель, курорт ЮБК, Крым, Карпаты.
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the redox state of a cell have been implicated in several signal transduction cascades including those that regulate cell proliferation. Specifically, signaling by several growth factors, including epidermal growth factor (EGF), produces a transient increase in ROS. One effect of increases in ROS is the inactivation of tyrosine phosphatases. Pani et al. found that the redox status of cells in culture was different in sparse and dense cultures (sparse cultures have more ROS than dense cultures) and that this difference correlated with whether the cells exhibited contact inhibition. Dense cultures had lower levels of the active [guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-bound] form of the small GTPase Rac-1. Treatment of sparse cultures with drugs to inhibit leukotriene biosynthesis decreased the levels of ROS to those measured in dense cultures, suggesting that Rac-1 may stimulate leukotriene biosynthesis as a mechanism to increase ROS in sparsely cultured cells. The authors ...
Thank you for your interest in spreading the word about Clinical Science.. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. We do not capture any email address.. ...
Human 12/15-lipoxygenase (ALOX15) catalyzes the oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. We previously reported that a common haplotype of the ALOX15 gene is associated with higher prevalence of coronary artery calcification in a cohort of middle-aged African-Americans. This haplotype was uniquely tagged by a promoter variant (rs2255888). We carried out an in vitro characterization of this promoter variant to further investigate regulatory mechanisms of the ALOX15 gene. We evaluated the activity of ALOX15 variant A-carrying and wild type G-carrying promoter haplotypes using a luciferase assay. We demonstrated a 65% higher activity of the A-carrying promoter haplotype as compared to the G-carrying promoter haplotype. Using mass-spectrometry and electrophoretic mobility shift assay we showed that vimentin, a structural protein, specifically binds to both A-carrying and G-carrying promoter haplotypes in vitro. However, the A ...
In molecular biology the PLAT domain is a protein domain that is found in a variety of membrane or lipid associated proteins. It is called the PLAT (Polycystin-1, Lipoxygenase, Alpha-Toxin) domain or LH2 (Lipoxygenase homology) domain. The known structure of pancreatic lipase shows this domain binds to procolipase Pfam PF01114, which mediates membrane association. This domain is found in a variety of membrane or lipid associated proteins. It forms a beta-sandwich composed of two β-sheets of four β-strands each. ALOX12; ALOX12B; ALOX12P2; ALOX15; ALOX15B; ALOX5; ALOXE3; LIPC; LIPG; LOXHD1; LPL; PKD1; PKD1L1; PKD1L2; PKD1L3; PKDREJ; PNLIP; PNLIPRP1; PNLIPRP2; PNLIPRP3; RAB6IP1; van Tilbeurgh H, Egloff MP, Martinez C, Rugani N, Verger R, Cambillau C (April 1993). "Interfacial activation of the lipase-procolipase complex by mixed micelles revealed by X-ray crystallography". Nature. 362 (6423): 814-20. doi:10.1038/362814a0. PMID 8479519. Bateman A, Sandford R (1999). "The PLAT domain: a new piece ...
Description: Quantitativesandwich ELISA kit for measuring Rat Arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase (Alox5) in samples from serum, plasma, cell culture supernates, tissue homogenates. Now available in a cost efficient pack of 5 plates of 96 wells each, conveniently packed along with the other reagents in 5 separate kits ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
All Applicants Must: - Successfully pass the College Admissions Test with a minimum overall score of 502 and meet with an Admissions Representative Standard Admission: - Alberta high school diploma or equivalent verified by transcript or DAR. Mature Admission: Students must meet ALL of the following criteria: - Out of school for one year - Be at least 18 years of age prior to admission - Thirty-three credits towards an Alberta high school diploma or equivalent, verified by transcript or DAR OR an overall score of 502 on the College Aptitude Test. Out of Province Admission: - Out of province applicant must meet the above admission requirements, however be 19 years of age prior to admission ...
Ago H, Kanaoka Y, Irikura D, Lam BK, Shimamura T, Austen KF, Miyano M. Crystal structure of a human membrane protein involved in cysteinyl leukotriene biosynthesis. Nature. 2007 Aug 02; 448(7153):609-12 ...
This report by Pace and colleagues provides new insights into the influence of sex (and sex hormones) on leukotriene synthesis and its inhibition. While the potential of these results to be of clinical relevance is exciting, additional preclinical and clinical studies are needed to define the true clinical impact, which is likely to be complex. For example, Pace et al. focus primarily on inflammatory processes and leukocytes that predominantly generate LTB4. Although a number of inflammatory diseases, including scleroderma lung disease (13), inflammatory bowel disease (6), sickle cell disease (14), and cardiovascular disease (15), are reported to be associated with increased LTB4 levels, there are few, if any, examples in which treatment of these diseases with leukotriene synthesis inhibitors has shown benefit. The diseases in which there is the most information relevant to leukotriene biology are asthma, AERD, and allergic rhinitis, to which cysteinyl leukotrienes are known to contribute. For ...
Cancer Metastasis Rev. 2007 Dec;26(3-4):503-24. Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt; Research Support, U.S. Govt, Non-P.H.S.; Review
Gingerforce modulates the 5-lipoxygenase enzyme. Garlicforce by New Chapter Supports stomach, liver, and intestinal health. Garlicforce Supports blood platelet health and cardiovascular function and Promotes healthy inflammation response.
Actual Singulair side effects submitted by users. Singulair is a leukotriene (loo-koe-TRY-een) inhibitor. Leukotrienes are chemicals your body rele...
Actual Singulair side effects submitted by users. Singulair is a leukotriene (loo-koe-TRY-een) inhibitor. Leukotrienes are chemicals your body rele...
Jumla ya sehemu za mwili zinazohusika na upumuo huitwa mfumo wa upumuaji. Kwa wanyama wenye mapafu hewa inavutwa ndani kupitia mdomo au pua. Hewa hii huitwa pumzi. Kazi hii inatekelezwa kwa njia ya kukaza au kulegea kwa musuli za kiwambo cha tumboni kinachotenganisha tumbo na nafasi ya mapafu. Mabadiliko haya yanabadilisha nafasi ya mapafu na shindikzo ndano yao na kusababisha kuvutwa au kusukumwa kwa hewa. Kwa samaki na wanyama wengine wanaoishi chini ya maji wenye matamvua maji yenye hewa ndani yake inapitishwa kwenye majani ya ngozi zinazofanya matamwua na hewa inapokelewa na vyombo vya damu kupitia ngozi ya matamvua ambayo ni nyembamba sana. Kuna pia wadudu kadhaa kwenye nchi kavu wenye matamvua. Wadudu huwa na mabomba membamba (ing. trachea) yanayoelekea ndani ya miili yao na hewa inaingia hapa; ngozi nyembamba ndani ya mwili inaruhusu kuingia kwa oksijeni mwilini. Wanyama wadogo sana wanatosheleka kupokea oksijeni kupitia ngozi pekee kwa hiyo hawana mapafu wala trachea. Wote wanaotumia ...
Avet Lx found in: Econo Power Manufacturer/Model By Series, AVET LX 6.0:1 (COMPLETE) CASTING REEL Econo Power Manufacturer/Model By Series, AVET LX 6..
This protein is involved in the production of cysteinyl leukotrienes which are involved in inflammation, and AM-679 has anti- ... Part 2: 3-{5-((S)-1-Acetyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-indol-2-ylmethoxy)-3-tert-butylsulfanyl-1-[4-(5-methoxy-pyrimidin-2-yl)-benzyl]-1H- ... Musiyenko, A.; Correa, L.; Stock, N.; Hutchinson, J. H.; Lorrain, D. S.; Bain, G.; Evans, J. F.; Barik, S. (2009). "A Novel 5- ... Lipoxygenase-Activating Protein Inhibitor, AM679, Reduces Inflammation in the Respiratory Syncytial Virus-Infected Mouse Eye". ...
Other lipoxygenases-8-LO, 12-LO and 15-LO-make other eicosanoid-like products. To act, 5-LO uses the nuclear-membrane enzyme 5- ... lipoxygenase-activating protein (FLAP), first to a hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid (HPETE), then to the first leuokotriene, ... They activate phospholipidase to release AA from neuron cell membranes as a free fatty acid. During its short lifespan, free AA ... Lipoxygenase oxidation removes no C=C double bonds, and leads to the LK. After oxidation, the eicosanoids are further modified ...
In molecular biology the MAPEG (Membrane-Associated Proteins in Eicosanoid and Glutathione metabolism) family of proteins are a ... Protein Science. 8 (3): 689-692. doi:10.1110/ps.8.3.689. PMC 2144274 . PMID 10091672. This article incorporates text from the ... "Common structural features of mapeg-a widespread superfamily of membrane associated proteins with highly divergent functions in ... "Crystal structure of a human membrane protein involved in cysteinyl leukotriene biosynthesis". Nature. 448 (7153): 609-612. doi ...
Squalene oxidation activates NF-κB (a protein complex) and consequently increases IL-1α levels. Additionally, squalene ... LTB4 promotes skin inflammation by acting on the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) protein. PPARα ... Milk contains whey protein and hormones such as bovine IGF-1 and precursors of dihydrotestosterone. These components are ... A major mechanism of acne-related skin inflammation is mediated by P. acnes's ability to bind and activate a class of immune ...
"Inhibition of five lipoxygenase activating protein (FLAP) by MK-886 decreases atherosclerosis in apoE/LDLR-double knockout mice ... Jun, Joon-Il; Lau, Lester F. (July 2010). "The matricellular protein CCN1 induces fibroblast senescence and restricts fibrosis ... It may perform this by blocking the 5-lipoxygenase activating protein (FLAP), thus inhibiting 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX), and may ...
"Inhibition of five lipoxygenase activating protein (FLAP) by MK-886 decreases atherosclerosis in apoE/LDLR-double knockout mice ... strong downregulation of CXCR3 expression on activated T cells, and downregulation of matrix metalloproteinase 9 expression ... Examples of 5-LOX inhibitors include drugs, such as meclofenamate sodium and zileuton. Some chemicals found in trace amounts in ... 188 (5): 538-544. doi:10.1164/rccm.201301-0023PP. PMID 23822826. Singh, Rakesh Kumar; Tandon, Ruchi; Dastidar, Sunanda Ghosh; ...
"Protein-protein interaction affinity chromatography of leukotriene C4 synthase". Protein Expr. Purif. 6 (3): 352-6. doi:10.1006 ... This protein is remotely related to microsomal glutathione S-transferase. The MAPEG (Membrane-Associated Proteins in Eicosanoid ... 2000). "Membrane-associated proteins in eicosanoid and glutathione metabolism (MAPEG). A widespread protein superfamily". Am. J ... The protein encoded by this gene, LTC4S (or glutathione S-transferase II) is an enzyme that converts leukotriene A4 and ...
All three leukotrienes then bind at different affinities to two G-protein coupled receptors: CYSLTR1 and CYSLTR2, triggering ... doi:10.1016/b978-0-12-394300-2.00002-8. Haeggström, Jesper Z.; Funk, Colin D. (2011-09-22). "Lipoxygenase and Leukotriene ... stress and chemotherapy induce LTC4 biosynthesis by transcriptionally upregulating and activating the enzyme microsomal ... 5-lipoxygenase-activating protein (FLAP) and LTC4 synthase (LTC4S), which couples glutathione to an LTA4 intermediate.The MRP1 ...
2000). "Membrane-associated proteins in eicosanoid and glutathione metabolism (MAPEG). A widespread protein superfamily". Am. J ... The MAPEG (Membrane-Associated Proteins in Eicosanoid and Glutathione metabolism) family consists of six human proteins, ... This gene encodes a protein that catalyzes the conjugation of leukotriene A4 and reduced glutathione to produce leukotriene C4 ... 161 (2 Pt 2): S20-4. doi:10.1164/ajrccm.161.supplement_1.ltta-5. PMID 10673221. Hillier LD, Lennon G, Becker M, et al. (1997 ...
... and/or 271 by Mitogen-activated protein kinases, S6 kinase, protein kinase A (PKA), protein kinase C, Cdc2, and/or a Ca2+/ ... ALOX5 binds with the F actin-binding protein, coactin-like protein. Based on in vitro studies, this protein binding serves to ... This chemotactic factor stimulation concurrently causes the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) which in ... and Dicer protein. *A PLAT domain within its C2-like domain; this domain, by analogy to other PLAT domain-bearing proteins, may ...
When such cells are activated, arachidonic acid is liberated from cell membrane phospholipids by phospholipase A2, and donated ... The lipoxygenase pathway is active in leukocytes and other immunocompetent cells, including mast cells, eosinophils, ... Leukotrienes act principally on a subfamily of G protein-coupled receptors. They may also act upon peroxisome proliferator- ... activated receptors. Leukotrienes are involved in asthmatic and allergic reactions and act to sustain inflammatory reactions. ...
How FLAP activates 5-lipooxygenase is not completely understood, but there is a physical interaction between the two. FLAP ... It is an integral protein within the nuclear membrane. FLAP is necessary in synthesis of leukotriene, which are lipid mediators ... Leukotrienes, which need the FLAP protein to be made, have an established pathological role in allergic and respiratory ... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ALOX5AP gene. FLAP is necessary for the activation of 5-lipoxygenase and ...
... activate cells by releasing the Gq alpha subunit and pertussis toxin-sensitive Gi alpha subunit from Heterotrimeric G proteins ... and lipoxygenase-derived eicosanoids". Drug Metabolism and Disposition. 39 (2): 180-90. doi:10.1124/dmd.110.035121. PMC 3033693 ... but also bound and was activated by a wide range of peptides, proteins, and other agents. BLT2 may ultimately prove to have ... It activates cells through both its high affinity (Dissociation constant [Kd] of 0.5-1.5 nM) Leukotriene B4 receptor 1 (BLT1 ...
... rho GTPase activating protein 21 ARID5B: encoding protein AT-rich interactive domain-containing protein 5B AS3MT: encoding ... encoding protein Arginine vasopressin-induced protein 1 C10orf118: encoding protein Uncharacterized protein C10orf118 C10orf67 ... WW domain binding protein 1-like ZNF37A: zinc finger protein 37A ZNF438: zinc finger protein 438 The following diseases are ... STAM binding protein like 1 STOX1: encoding protein Storkhead box 1 SUPV3L1: Suv3 like RNA helicase TACC2 encoding protein ...
... cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element-binding protein phosphorylation, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase ... ALOX12 (EC 1.13.11.31), also known as arachidonate 12-lipoxygenase, 12-lipoxygenase, 12S-Lipoxygenase, 12-LOX, and 12S-LOX is a ... Delta12-lipoxygenase, 12Delta-lipoxygenase, C-12 lipoxygenase, leukotriene A4 synthase, and LTA4 synthase. ALOX12, often termed ... Tang K, Finley RL, Nie D, Honn KV (March 2000). "Identification of 12-lipoxygenase interaction with cellular proteins by yeast ...
... p21-activated Kinase) Plectin p47PHOX Parvin (actopaxin) Prefoldin p53 PASK (Proline, Alanine rich Ste20 related Kinase) ... Actin-binding proteins (also known as ABP) are proteins that bind to actin. This may mean ability to bind actin monomers, or ... This is a list of actin-binding proteins in alphabetical order. List: 0-9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W x Y Z ... Profilin p185neu Ponticulin Protein kinase C Porin P.IB Prk1p (actin regulating kinase) Radixin (the R of ERM proteins) Rapsyn ...
Leukotriene A4 hydrolase, also known as LTA4H is a human gene.[1][2][3] The protein encoded by this gene is a bifunctional ... Enzymatic conversion into 5,6-dihydroxy-7,9,11,14-eicosatetraenoic acid by mouse liver cytosolic epoxide hydrolase". J. Biol. ... 5,6-epoxyicosa-7,9,11,14-tetraenoate hydrolase. Other names in common use include LTA4 hydrolase, LTA4H, and leukotriene A4 ...
protein homodimerization activity. • dioxygenase activity. • protein binding. • oxidoreductase activity, acting on single ... arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase activity. • metal ion binding. • heme binding. • enzyme binding. • oxidoreductase activity. • ... Allosteric subunit binds a non-substrate, activating FA (e.g., palmitic acid). The allosteric subunit with bound fatty acid ... protein complex. • endoplasmic reticulum membrane. Biological process. • movement of cell or subcellular component. • response ...
Linker of activated T cells, Lymphocyte cytosolic protein 2, MAP2, MAP3K1 MAP4K1, MED28, MST1R, MUC1, Mitogen-activated protein ... "Induced direct binding of the adapter protein Nck to the GTPase-activating protein-associated protein p62 by epidermal growth ... the guanine nucleotide exchange protein Sos and a 75-kDa protein that is a substrate for T cell antigen receptor-activated ... "The protein product of the c-cbl protooncogene is the 120-kDa tyrosine-phosphorylated protein in Jurkat cells activated via the ...
Furthermore, delivering the granule proteins into NETs may keep potentially injurious proteins like proteases from diffusing ... The end result of the process then depends on which NETosis pathway is activated. Suicidal NETosis was first described in a ... The formation of NETs is regulated by the lipoxygenase pathway - during certain forms of activation (including contact with ... tubulin and various other cytoplasmatic proteins are not present in NETs. NETs disarm pathogens with antimicrobial proteins ...
Squalene oxidation activates NF-κB (a protein complex) and consequently increases IL-1α levels.[45] Additionally, squalene ... LTB4 promotes skin inflammation by acting on the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) protein.[45] PPARα ... C. acnes' ability to bind and activate a class of immune system receptors known as toll-like receptors (TLRs), especially TLR2 ... These free radicals likely interfere with the bacterium's metabolism and ability to make proteins.[79][80] Additionally, ...
... p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases, cytosolic phospholipase A2, PI3K/Akt, and protein kinase C beta and epsilon. The ... 12-Lipoxygenase (i.e. ALOX12) to metabolize 5(S)-HETE to 5(S),12(S)-diHETE. The activity of this product has not yet been fully ... HETE family stimulate cells primarily by binding and thereby activating a dedicated G protein-coupled receptor, the ... protein complex to dissociate into its Gαi and Gβγ components with Gβγ appearing to be the component responsible for activating ...
13(S)-HpODE, and 13(S)-HODE directly activate human (but not mouse) GPR132 (G protein coupled receptor 132, also termed G2A) in ... 12-lipoxygenase, and 15-lipoxygenase-2, and selected metabolites of the latter lipoxygenases show no such association.[66][67][ ... 15-Lipoxygenase 1[edit]. 15-lipoxygenase 1 (ALOX15), while best known for converting the 20 carbon polyunsaturated fatty acid, ... 15-lipoxygenase 2[edit]. 15-lipoxygenase type 2 (ALOX15B) strongly prefers arachidonic acid over linoleic acid and in ...
"Inhibition of five lipoxygenase activating protein (FLAP) by MK-886 decreases atherosclerosis in apoE/LDLR-double knockout mice ... "The matricellular protein CCN1 induces fibroblast senescence and restricts fibrosis in cutaneous wound healing". Nature Cell ... It may perform this by blocking the 5-lipoxygenase activating protein (FLAP), thus inhibiting 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX),[1] and ... 3-[3-butylsulfanyl-1-[(4-chlorophenyl)methyl]-5-propan-2-yl-indol-2-yl]-2,2 -dimethyl-propanoic acid ...
BLT2 receptors, similar to BLT1 receptors, are G protein coupled receptors that, when ligand-bound, activate G proteins that ... Finally, 12-lipoxygenase is overexpressed and the mass of 12-HETE is far higher in human prostate cancer than nearby normal ... "Induction of cyclooxygenase-2 by activated Ha-ras oncogene in Rat-1 fibroblasts and the role of mitogen-activated protein ... thereby activating calcium-activated intracellular signaling molecules; it also stimulates cells to activate Extracellular ...
MPTP is able to cross the blood brain barrier and enter acidic lysosomes.[13] MPTP is biologically activated by MAO-B, an ... The active site is a region on an enzyme which a particular protein or substrate can bind to. The active site will only allow ... Substituting equation (5) into equation (4), we have. 0. =. k. 3. [. I. ]. K. m. [. ES. ]. [. S. ]. −. k. −. 3. [. EI. ]. {\ ... At this point, substitute equation (5) and equation (6) into equation (1): ...
... recombinant proteins & enzymes, and other innovative research tools for studying Apoptosis, Metabolism, Cell Proliferation, ... BioVision develops and offers a wide variety of products including assay kits, antibodies, recombinant proteins & enzymes, and ...
How FLAP activates 5-lipooxygenase is not completely understood, but there is a physical interaction between the two. FLAP ... It is an integral protein within the nuclear membrane. FLAP is necessary in synthesis of leukotriene, which are lipid mediators ... Leukotrienes, which need the FLAP protein to be made, have an established pathological role in allergic and respiratory ... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ALOX5AP gene. FLAP is necessary for the activation of 5-lipoxygenase and ...
Scaffolding proteins that play an important role in the localization and activation of 5-LIPOXYGENASE. ... Genetic variation in the lipoxygenase pathway and risk of colorectal neoplasia. Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2013 May; 52(5):437- ... "5-Lipoxygenase-Activating Proteins" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "5-Lipoxygenase-Activating Proteins" by people in Harvard ...
Interestingly, FLAP inhibition induced AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylation in parallel with decreases in hormone- ... 5-Lipoxygenase Activating Protein Signals Adipose Tissue Inflammation and Lipid Dysfunction in Experimental Obesity. Raquel ... Constitutive expression of key components of the 5-LO pathway, as well as leukotriene (LT) receptors, was detected in adipose ... In addition, LTB4, but not LTD4, reduced FFA uptake in primary adipocytes, whereas 5-LO inhibition suppressed isoproterenol- ...
Attenuation of early and late phase allergen-induced bronchoconstriction in asthmatic subjects by a 5-lipoxygenase activating ... Attenuation of early and late phase allergen-induced bronchoconstriction in asthmatic subjects by a 5-lipoxygenase activating ... The effects of pretreatment with BAYx 1005, an inhibitor of leukotriene biosynthesis via antagonism of 5-lipoxygenase ... activating protein, on allergen-induced early and late asthmatic responses has been evaluated. METHODS: Eight atopic subjects ...
The gene encoding 5-lipoxygenase activating protein confers risk of myocardial infarction and stroke. ... A four-marker single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) haplotype in this locus spanning the gene ALOX5AP encoding 5-lipoxygenase ... activating protein (FLAP) is associated with a two times greater risk of myocardial infarction in Iceland. This haplotype also ... Stimulated neutrophils from individuals with myocardial infarction produce more leukotriene B4, a key product in the 5- ...
Association between bcl-xL and 5-lipoxygenase activating protein (FLAP) levels in IL-3-dependent FL5.12 cells. / Biswal, Shyam ... Biswal, SS, Datta, K & Kehrer, JP 2001, Association between bcl-xL and 5-lipoxygenase activating protein (FLAP) levels in IL-3 ... Biswal, S. S., Datta, K., & Kehrer, J. P. (2001). Association between bcl-xL and 5-lipoxygenase activating protein (FLAP) ... Association between bcl-xL and 5-lipoxygenase activating protein (FLAP) levels in IL-3-dependent FL5.12 cells. Toxicology. 2001 ...
This protein localizes to the plasma membrane. Inhibitors of its function impede translocation of 5-lipoxygenase from the ... L 663536 results in decreased activity of ALOX5AP protein] 1 Inflammation mediated by chemokine and cytokine signaling pathway ... 2-(4-(quinolin-2-yl-methoxy)phenyl)-2-cyclopentylacetic acid results in decreased activity of ALOX5AP protein] 1 ... This gene encodes a protein which, with 5-lipoxygenase, is required for leukotriene synthesis. Leukotrienes are arachidonic ...
Protein Coding), Arachidonate 5-Lipoxygenase Activating Protein, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs ... Membrane-associated proteins in eicosanoid and glutathione metabolism (MAPEG) * Five-lipoxygenase activating protein signature ... Protein details for ALOX5AP Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot). Protein Symbol:. P20292-AL5AP_HUMAN. Recommended name:. Arachidonate 5 ... Protein Expression for ALOX5AP Gene. See protein expression from ProteomicsDB, MOPED, PaxDb, and MaxQB ...
The association between the gene encoding 5-lipoxygenase activating protein and abdominal aortic aneurysms.. Bisoendial RJ1, ... Leukotrienes (LTs) that derive from the 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) cascade have been implicated in the pathogenesis of abdominal ... Genetic variation in the gene ALOX5AP, encoding arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase-activating protein, have been suggested to increase ...
Because the MK-886-binding protein seems to play a part in activating this enzyme in cells, it is termed the five-lipoxygenase ... A membrane protein with a high affinity for MK-886 and possibly representing the cellular target for MK-886 has been isolated ... Here, we report the isolation of a complementary DNA clone encoding the MK-886-binding protein. We also demonstrate that the ... Recently a compound, MK-886, has been described that blocks the synthesis of leukotrienes in intact activated leukocytes, but ...
Protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1C Homo sapiens 0.237 Show More. Calculated Compound Parent Properties. Mol. Weight. Mol. Weight ... Hematopoietic cell protein-tyrosine phosphatase 70Z-PEP Homo sapiens 0.265 CHEMBL5979 Alkaline phosphatase, tissue-nonspecific ... The two tables below display ChEMBL single-protein targets which are predicted to interact with CHEMBL898. A 1uM and 10 uM cut- ...
ABBREVIATIONS: LT, leukotriene; LO, lipoxygenase; FLAP, 5-LO-activating protein; LTA4H, leukotriene A4 hydrolase; JNJ-26993135 ... in the presence of the accessory 5-LO-activating protein (FLAP). Hydrolysis of LTA4 by the enzyme LTA4 hydrolase (LTA4H) ... may translate to superior therapeutic efficacy versus 5-LO or 5-LO-activating protein inhibitors in LTB4-mediated inflammatory ... LTB4 is able to recruit and activate inflammatory cells, which in turn can cause tissue damage and disease. Elevated levels of ...
Association of 5-lipoxygenase activating protein gene polymorphism and stroke: A study from north east of Iran.. Erfani M1, ... 5-lipoxygenase activating protein (ALOX5AP) is one of these genes. Different studies have provided different relations between ... Association of 5-lipoxygenase activating protein gene polymorphism and stroke: A study from north east of Iran ...
Hsieh M-S, Yu S-C, Hsueh Y-M, Chiu W-T, Lee H-M. Gene Variants of Arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase-activating protein (ALOX5AP) And ... Hsieh, M-S, Yu, S-C, Hsueh, Y-M, Chiu, W-T & Lee, H-M 2008, Gene Variants of Arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase-activating protein ( ... Hsieh, M-S., Yu, S-C., Hsueh, Y-M., Chiu, W-T., & Lee, H-M. (2008). Gene Variants of Arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase-activating ... protein (ALOX5AP) And Risks of Ischemic Stroke in The Taiwanese Population. Clinical Molecular Medicine, 1, 1-5. ...
... β-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 or disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain-containing protein 10. By ... MK-591 treatment did not induce any change in the steady-state levels of amyloid-β precursor protein, ... The 5-lipoxygenase enzyme is widely distributed within the central nervous system and its activity is regulated by the presence ... contrast, it resulted in a significant reduction of the γ-secretase complex, at the protein and message level. Furthermore, in ...
B-Cell Activating Factor (BAFF) Inhibitors Phase I and IND Filed Products. Comparative Analysis. B-Cell Activating Factor (BAFF ... B-Cell Activating Factor (BAFF) Inhibitors Filed and Phase III Products. Comparative Analysis. B-Cell Activating Factor (BAFF) ... B-Cell Activating Factor (BAFF) Inhibitors Assessment by Stage and Route of Administration. B-Cell Activating Factor (BAFF) ... B-Cell Activating Factor (BAFF) Inhibitors Assessment by Stage and Molecule Type. B-Cell Activating Factor (BAFF) Inhibitors ...
... thermophilus leads to robust crystallization of the protein in space group P41212; crystals of these mutant proteins show X-ray ... The crystal structure of the minimized α/β-hydrolase fold protein encoded by the gene TTHA1544 from T. thermophilus HB8 has ... In this study, the Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) vicilin-type 7S seed storage protein was isolated from defatted pine-nut ... HA3, a 70 kDa haemagglutinating protein, is a precursor form of HA3a and HA3b, the subcomponents of Clostridium botulinum type ...
This protein is involved in the production of cysteinyl leukotrienes which are involved in inflammation, and AM-679 has anti- ... Part 2: 3-{5-((S)-1-Acetyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-indol-2-ylmethoxy)-3-tert-butylsulfanyl-1-[4-(5-methoxy-pyrimidin-2-yl)-benzyl]-1H- ... Musiyenko, A.; Correa, L.; Stock, N.; Hutchinson, J. H.; Lorrain, D. S.; Bain, G.; Evans, J. F.; Barik, S. (2009). "A Novel 5- ... Lipoxygenase-Activating Protein Inhibitor, AM679, Reduces Inflammation in the Respiratory Syncytial Virus-Infected Mouse Eye". ...
Lipoxygenase (5‐LOX) catalyses two steps in thebiosynthesis of leukotrienes (LTs), lipid mediators of inflammation derived from ... lipoxygenaseactivating protein homodimer in human neutrophils: evidence for a role in leukotriene biosynthesis. Biochemical ... Lipoxygenaseactivating protein stimulates the utilization of arachidonic acid by 5lipoxygenase. European Journal of ... Lipoxygenaseactivating protein inhibitors for inflammatory diseases. Trends in Pharmacological Sciences 29: 72-78. ...
Membrane translocation of 15-lipoxygenase in hematopoietic cells is calcium-dependent and activates the oxygenase activity of ... Requirement for protein synthesis. J. Biol. Chem. 1977, 252, 1408-1413. [Google Scholar] ... Tumor-associated macrophages mediate immunosuppression in the renal cancer microenvironment by activating the 15-lipoxygenase-2 ... In contrast to PGE2 and PGD2, 15(S)-HETE and 11(R)-HETE are activated by 15-PGDH-mediated oxidation to 15-oxo-ETE and 11-oxo- ...
B cell specific activating protein B זE ??ٓI ] ʈ q ABSAP bacterial artificial chromosome ׋ېl F ́ABAC ... regulator of G protein signaling G ^ p N V O i ` B n ߈ q ARGS ... mitogen activated protein kinase MAP L i [ [ mitotic cycle L ... phosphatidyl-ethanolamine binding protein z X t @ ` W G ^ m [ A ~ ^ p N APEPB ... sphingolipid activator protein X t B S A N ` x [ ^ [ ^ p N ASAP ... GTPase activating protein GTP A [ [ ^ p N AGAP guanylate ...
... and/or 271 by Mitogen-activated protein kinases, S6 kinase, protein kinase A (PKA), protein kinase C, Cdc2, and/or a Ca2+/ ... ALOX5 binds with the F actin-binding protein, coactin-like protein. Based on in vitro studies, this protein binding serves to ... This chemotactic factor stimulation concurrently causes the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) which in ... and Dicer protein. *A PLAT domain within its C2-like domain; this domain, by analogy to other PLAT domain-bearing proteins, may ...
mitogen-activated protein kinase. MEK. mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase. MK2. MAPKAP kinase 2. FLAP. 5-lipoxygenase ... Furthermore, monophosphorothioate analogs of cAMP, which activate protein kinase A (PKA), also inhibited LT biosynthesis and 5- ... protein kinase A. KT-5720. [9R,10S,12S]-2,3,9,10,11,12-hexahydro-10-hydroxy-9-methyl-1-oxo-9,12-epoxy-1H-diindolo[1,2,3-fg:3,2, ... platelet-activating factor. fMLP. N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine. TNF-α. tumor necrosis factor-α. GM-CSF. granulocyte- ...
5lipoxygenase-activating protein. HN. human neutrophil. MN. murine neutrophil. MSM. murine spleen membrane. HM. human monocyte ... platelet-activating factor) G-protein-coupled chemotactic factor receptors. In vivo, after oral administration, CP-195543 ... leukotriene B4, 5(S),12(R)-dihydroxy,6-cis,8,10-trans,14-cis-eicosatetraenoic acid. 5-LO. 5-lipoxygenase. FLAP. ...
  • Cyclooxygenase action on EPA (with 5 double bonds) leads to the series-3 thromboxanes (TXA3, TXB3. (wikipedia.org)
  • Omega 3 fatty acids inhibit tumor growth by a number of mechanisms including suppression of COX-2 expression and, for EPA at least, the alternative substrate produces different cyclooxygenase (PGE 3 ) and lipoxygenase (LTB 5 ) products that have anti-inflammatory and anticancer effects. (hindawi.com)
  • TGF-β1-induced astrocyte migration was potentiated by LTD 4 , but attenuated by the 5-LOX inhibitor zileuton and the CysLT 1 R antagonist montelukast. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Lipoxygenases (LOXs) are a family of non-heme iron dioxygenases that are involved in the production and metabolism of fatty acid hydroperoxidases. (genecards.org)
  • 2008) The role of diacylglyceride generation by phospholipase D and phosphatidic acid phosphatase in the activation of 5‐lipoxygenase in polymorphonuclear leukocytes. (els.net)
  • A single base-pair change (A→T), and the ensuing alteration of one amino acid (glutamic acid replaced by valine) in the β chain of hemoglobin (Hb), a protein only expressed in erythrocytes, nevertheless causes a multiorgan disease with many complex pathophysiologic mechanisms ( Figure 1 ). (bloodjournal.org)
  • The level of proinflammatory cytokines, IL-lβ, IL-12, and IL-6, and of a 5-lipoxygenase eicosanoid, 5-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (5-HETE), was also increased. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In an embodiment, administering the analogs or derivatives of carotenoids embodied herein to a subject may control or affect the bioavailability of 5-LO-catalyzed eicosanoid metabolites. (google.es)
  • Incubation of adipose tissue with 5-LO products resulted in NF-κB activation and augmented secretion of proinflammatory adipokines such as MCP-1, IL-6, and TNF-α. (jimmunol.org)
  • Activated Transcription Factor 3 in Association with Histone Deacetylase 6 Negatively Regulates MicroRNA 199a2 Transcription by Chromatin Remodeling and Reduces Endothelin-1 Expression Mol Cell Biol. (usc.edu)
  • The results demonstrate that DG031 works to correct a biological perturbation caused by genetic risk factors for heart attack the company has identified, and lowers levels of well established biomarkers for risk of heart attack, including C-reactive protein (CRP) and myeloperoxidase (MPO). (decode.com)
  • Monocyte Chemotactic and Activating Factor Is a Potent Histamine-releasing Factor for Human Basophils", The Journal of Experimental Medicine, vol. 175, Feb. 1992, pp. 489-493. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • LTB 4 is able to recruit and activate inflammatory cells, which in turn can cause tissue damage and disease. (aspetjournals.org)
  • 5‐LOX is also involved in the biosynthesis of anti‐inflammatory/pro‐resolving lipoxins. (els.net)
  • TGF-β1-induced astrocyte migration is, at least in part, mediated by enhanced endogenous CysLTs through activating CysLT 1 R. These findings indicate that the interaction between the cytokine TGF-β1 and the pro-inflammatory mediators CysLTs in the regulation of astrocyte function is relevant to glial scar formation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Therefore, the 5-LO would be a promising target for active compounds in the treatment of inflammatory diseases. (innovations-report.com)
  • This cysteine confers different properties to this protein as compared with normal apoAI, including the ability to form disulfide-bonded dimers with other apoAI Milano molecules and other HDL proteins such as apoAII. (ahajournals.org)
  • Supplementation of female blood or leukocytes with 5α-dihydrotestosterone abolished the observed sex differences. (jci.org)