5-Hydroxytryptophan: The immediate precursor in the biosynthesis of SEROTONIN from tryptophan. It is used as an antiepileptic and antidepressant.Tryptophan Hydroxylase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydroxylation of TRYPTOPHAN to 5-HYDROXYTRYPTOPHAN in the presence of NADPH and molecular oxygen. It is important in the biosynthesis of SEROTONIN.Serotonin: A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.Amino Acids, Essential: Amino acids that are not synthesized by the human body in amounts sufficient to carry out physiological functions. They are obtained from dietary foodstuffs.Metabolic Networks and Pathways: Complex sets of enzymatic reactions connected to each other via their product and substrate metabolites.Tryptophan: An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.Fenclonine: A selective and irreversible inhibitor of tryptophan hydroxylase, a rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of serotonin (5-HYDROXYTRYPTAMINE). Fenclonine acts pharmacologically to deplete endogenous levels of serotonin.Intestinal Absorption: Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.Tryptophan Oxygenase: A dioxygenase with specificity for the oxidation of the indoleamine ring of TRYPTOPHAN. It is a LIVER-specific enzyme that is the first and rate limiting enzyme in the kynurenine pathway of TRYPTOPHAN catabolism.Hydroxyindoleacetic AcidBlood-Brain Barrier: Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.Positron-Emission Tomography: An imaging technique using compounds labelled with short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides (such as carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15 and fluorine-18) to measure cell metabolism. It has been useful in study of soft tissues such as CANCER; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; and brain. SINGLE-PHOTON EMISSION-COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY is closely related to positron emission tomography, but uses isotopes with longer half-lives and resolution is lower.Depression: Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.Depressive Disorder, Major: Marked depression appearing in the involution period and characterized by hallucinations, delusions, paranoia, and agitation.Tomography, Emission-Computed: Tomography using radioactive emissions from injected RADIONUCLIDES and computer ALGORITHMS to reconstruct an image.Depressive Disorder: An affective disorder manifested by either a dysphoric mood or loss of interest or pleasure in usual activities. The mood disturbance is prominent and relatively persistent.Fluorodeoxyglucose F18: The compound is given by intravenous injection to do POSITRON-EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY for the assessment of cerebral and myocardial glucose metabolism in various physiological or pathological states including stroke and myocardial ischemia. It is also employed for the detection of malignant tumors including those of the brain, liver, and thyroid gland. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1162)Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Radiopharmaceuticals: Compounds that are used in medicine as sources of radiation for radiotherapy and for diagnostic purposes. They have numerous uses in research and industry. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1161)Benperidol: A butyrophenone with general properties similar to those of HALOPERIDOL. It has been used in the treatment of aberrant sexual behavior. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p567)Cyproheptadine: A serotonin antagonist and a histamine H1 blocker used as antipruritic, appetite stimulant, antiallergic, and for the post-gastrectomy dumping syndrome, etc.Dopa Decarboxylase: One of the AROMATIC-L-AMINO-ACID DECARBOXYLASES, this enzyme is responsible for the conversion of DOPA to DOPAMINE. It is of clinical importance in the treatment of Parkinson's disease.Aromatic-L-Amino-Acid Decarboxylases: An enzyme group with broad specificity. The enzymes decarboxylate a range of aromatic amino acids including dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA DECARBOXYLASE); TRYPTOPHAN; and HYDROXYTRYPTOPHAN.Hydroxytryptophol: 5-Hydroxy-indole-3-ethanol.KynuramineAmino Acyl-tRNA Synthetases: A subclass of enzymes that aminoacylate AMINO ACID-SPECIFIC TRANSFER RNA with their corresponding AMINO ACIDS.Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Dehumanization: The process by which a person or group of persons comes to be regarded or treated as lacking in human qualities.RNA, Transfer: The small RNA molecules, 73-80 nucleotides long, that function during translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) to align AMINO ACIDS at the RIBOSOMES in a sequence determined by the mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). There are about 30 different transfer RNAs. Each recognizes a specific CODON set on the mRNA through its own ANTICODON and as aminoacyl tRNAs (RNA, TRANSFER, AMINO ACYL), each carries a specific amino acid to the ribosome to add to the elongating peptide chains.RNA, Transfer, Amino Acyl: Intermediates in protein biosynthesis. The compounds are formed from amino acids, ATP and transfer RNA, a reaction catalyzed by aminoacyl tRNA synthetase. They are key compounds in the genetic translation process.Tyrosine-tRNA Ligase: An enzyme that activates tyrosine with its specific transfer RNA. EC 6.1.1.1.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
(1/275) Reaction specificity of native and nicked 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine decarboxylase.

3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine (Dopa) decarboxylase is a stereospecific pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent alpha-decarboxylase that converts L-aromatic amino acids into their corresponding amines. We now report that reaction of the enzyme with D-5-hydroxytryptophan or D-Dopa results in a time-dependent inactivation and conversion of the PLP coenzyme to pyridoxamine 5'-phosphate and PLP-D-amino acid Pictet-Spengler adducts, which have been identified by high performance liquid chromatography. We also show that the reaction specificity of Dopa decarboxylase toward aromatic amines depends on the experimental conditions. Whereas oxidative deamination occurs under aerobic conditions (Bertoldi, M., Moore, P. S., Maras, B., Dominici, P., and Borri Voltattorni, C. (1996) J. Biol. Chem. 271, 23954-23959; Bertoldi, M., Dominici, P., Moore, P. S., Maras, B., and Borri Voltattorni, C. (1998) Biochemistry 37, 6552-6561), half-transamination and Pictet-Spengler reactions take place under anaerobic conditions. Moreover, we examined the reaction specificity of nicked Dopa decarboxylase, obtained by selective tryptic cleavage of the native enzyme between Lys334 and His335. Although this enzymatic species does not exhibit either decarboxylase or oxidative deamination activities, it retains a large percentage of the native transaminase activity toward D-aromatic amino acids and displays a slow transaminase activity toward aromatic amines. These transamination reactions occur concomitantly with the formation of cyclic coenzyme-substrate adducts. Together with additional data, we thus suggest that native Dopa decarboxylase can exist as an equilibrium among "open," "half-open," and "closed" forms.  (+info)

(2/275) Recovery of locomotion after ventral and ventrolateral spinal lesions in the cat. II. Effects of noradrenergic and serotoninergic drugs.

The effects of serotoninergic and noradrenergic drugs (applied intrathecally) on treadmill locomotion were evaluated in two adult cats subjected to a ventral and ventrolateral spinal lesion (T13). Despite the extensive spinal lesion, severely damaging important descending pathways such as the reticulo- and vestibulospinal tracts, both cats recovered quadrupedal voluntary locomotion. As detailed in a previous paper, the locomotor recovery occurred in three stages defined as early period, when the animal could not walk with its hindlimbs, recovery period, when progressive improvement occurred, and plateau period, when a more stable locomotor performance was observed. At this latter stage, the cats suffered from postural and locomotor deficits, such as poor lateral stability, irregular stepping of the hindlimbs, and inconsistent homolateral fore- and hindlimb coupling. The present study aimed at evaluating the potential of serotoninergic and/or noradrenergic drugs to improve the locomotor abilities in the early and late stages. Both cats were implanted chronically with an intrathecal cannula and electromyographic (EMG) electrodes, which allowed determination, under similar recording conditions, of the locomotor performance pre- and postlesion and comparisons of the effects of different drugs. EMG and kinematic analyses showed that norepinephrine (NE) injected in early and plateau periods improved the regularity of the hindlimb stepping and stabilized the interlimb coupling, permitting to maintain constant locomotion for longer periods of time. Methoxamine, the alpha1-agonist (tested only at the plateau period), had similar effects. In contrast, the alpha2-agonist, clonidine, deteriorated walking. Serotoninergic drugs, such as the neurotransmitter itself, serotonin (5HT), the precursor 5-hydroxytryptophan (5HTP), and the agonist quipazine improved the locomotion by increasing regularity of the hindlimb stepping and by increasing the step cycle duration. In contrast, the 5HT1A agonist 8-hydroxy-dipropylaminotetralin (DPAT) caused foot drag in one of the cats, resulting in frequent stumbling. Injection of combination of methoxamine and quipazine resulted in maintained, regular stepping with smooth movements and good lateral stability. Our results show that the effects of drugs can be integrated to the residual voluntary locomotion and improve some of its postural aspects. However, this work shows clearly that the effects of drugs (such as clonidine) may depend on whether or not the spinal lesion is complete. In a clinical context, this may suggest that different classes of drugs could be used in patients with different types of spinal cord injuries. Possible mechanisms underlying the effect of noradrenergic and serotoninergic drugs on the locomotion after partial spinal lesions are discussed.  (+info)

(3/275) Increased dopaminergic and 5-hydroxytryptaminergic activities in male rat brain following long-term treatment with anabolic androgenic steroids.

1. The effects of treating groups of rats with four different anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) (testosterone, nandrolone, methandrostenolone, and oxymetholone) on 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and dopamine (DA) neurones in different brain regions were examined. The AAS was injected six times with 1 week's interval and the rats were sacrificed 2 days after the final injection. 5-HT and its metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), DA and its metabolites 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA) were measured. The effect on DA and 5-HT synthesis rate was analysed as the accumulation of 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl-alanine (DOPA) and 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), respectively, after inhibition of the amino acid decarboxylase with NSD-1015 (3-hydroxy-benzylhydrazine dihydrochloride). Additionally, the monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity was analysed in the hypothalamus. 2. The DOPAC + HVA/DA ratio was increased in the striatum in all treatment groups. However, the synthesis rate of DA was significantly increased only in the methandrostenolone treated group. 3. The 5-HIAA/5-HT ratio was increased in all treatment groups in the hippocampus, in the frontal cortex in the methandrostenolone-treated animals and in the hypothalamus in the testosterone- and oxymetholone-treated rats, while the 5-HT synthesis rate was not affected by the AAS-treatments. 4. The MAO-A activity was increased in the oxymetholone-treated rats while the other treatment groups were unaffected. The MAO-B activity was not changed. 5. The results indicate that relatively high doses of AAS increase dopaminergic and 5-hydroxytryptaminergic metabolism in male rat brain, probably due to enhanced turnover in these monaminergic systems.  (+info)

(4/275) Local treatments of dorsal raphe nucleus induce changes in serotonergic activity in rat major cerebral arteries.

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Rat major cerebral arteries seem to receive serotonergic fibers originating from the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN), but little is known about their function. The aim of our present work was to establish a functional relationship between this brain stem nucleus and the cerebral blood vessels by studying the effects of several treatments in the DRN on cerebrovascular serotonergic activity. METHODS: Serotonin, clomipramine, 8-OH-DPAT, and WAY-100635 were administered in DRN. A stereotaxically localized electrode allowed the electrical stimulation of this brain stem nucleus. Serotonergic activity was appraised in major cerebral arteries, striatum, and hippocampus from 5-hydroxytryptophan accumulation after aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase inhibition with NSD-1015. RESULTS: Serotonin significantly decreased serotonergic activity in major cerebral arteries and striatum without affecting it in hippocampus. This reduction was blocked by previous injection of WAY-100635 in DRN. Local administration of 8-OH-DPAT or clomipramine elicited an effect similar to that of serotonin, whereas that of WAY-100635 did not modify serotonergic activity in either of the tissues. Electrical stimulation of DRN significantly increased serotonergic activity in major cerebral arteries and striatum but not in hippocampus. CONCLUSIONS: These results confirm the presence of a serotonergic innervation in rat major cerebral arteries functionally related to DRN. 5-HT(1A) receptor activation partly mediates the action of serotonin in DRN. A serotonergic tone acting on these somatodendritic receptors was not clearly found.  (+info)

(5/275) Receptors and neurotransmitters involved in the dual modulation of prolactin release by the serotoninergic system in pregnant and lactating rats.

The receptors and neurotransmitter pathways that may participate in the inhibitory action of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT) on prolactin release during late pregnancy and lactation in rats were studied. Administration of the 5HT synthesis inhibitor, p-chlorophenylalanine, to late pregnant rats induced a significant increase in serum prolactin concentrations at 17:00 h on day 19 of pregnancy that was partially blocked by injections of the 5HT precursor, 5-hydroxytryptophan, or the 5HT agonists, 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)-tetralin hydrobromide (S1a), 1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane (S2) and N-(3-chlorophenyl)imidodicarbonimide diamide HCl (S3), but not by RU 24969 (S1b) or 1-meta-(chlorophenyl)-piperazine-2-HCl (S1a-2c). The 5HT neurotoxins, fenfluramine and p-chloroamphetamine, which selectively destroy fine axon serotoninergic fibres but not coarse ones, prevented the increase in circulating prolactin observed at 18:00 h on pro-oestrus and on day 21 of pregnancy, but did not modify serum prolactin concentrations at 17:00 h on day 19 of pregnancy. Administration of the adrenergic antagonists, metoprolol or prazosin, also prevented the stimulatory effects of p-chlorophenylalanine or ketanserin in pregnant rats on day 19 (17:00 h) or on days 10-12 (16:30 h) in lactating rats separated from their litters. Administration of p-chlorophenylalanine to pregnant rats on day 19 reduced dopamine concentrations in the arcuate nucleus and in the anterior hypothalamus and noradrenaline concentrations in the anterior hypothalamus and the suprachiasmatic nucleus. These results indicate that the inhibitory actions of 5HT on prolactin release in pregnant and lactating rats are mediated by S1a, S2a and S3 receptors and by the coarse axon serotoninergic fibres. In addition, the inhibitory actions of 5HT may modulate the action of a stimulatory adrenergic pathway, as well as the concentrations of noradrenaline and dopamine in different hypothalamic areas, which, in turn, particularly arcuate nucleus dopamine, regulate prolactin release.  (+info)

(6/275) Paradoxical actions of the serotonin precursor 5-hydroxytryptophan on the activity of identified serotonergic neurons in a simple motor circuit.

Neurotransmitter synthesis is regulated by a variety of factors, yet the effect of altering transmitter content on the operation of neuronal circuits has been relatively unexplored. We used electrophysiological, electrochemical, and immunohistochemical techniques to investigate the effects of augmenting the serotonin (5-HT) content of identified serotonergic neurons embedded in a simple motor circuit. The dorsal swim interneurons (DSIs) are serotonergic neurons intrinsic to the central pattern generator (CPG) for swimming in the mollusc Tritonia diomedea. As expected, treatment with the serotonin precursor 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) increased the intensity of serotonin immunolabeling and enhanced the potency of synaptic and modulatory actions elicited by the DSIs. It also greatly enhanced the ability of the DSIs to evoke rhythmic CPG activity. After 5-HTP treatment, microvoltammetric measurements indicated an increase in a putative 5-HT electrochemical signal during swim CPG activation. Paradoxically, the spiking activity of the serotonergic neurons decreased to a single burst at the onset of the rhythmic motor program, whereas the overall duration of the episode remained about the same. 5-HTP treatment gradually reduced the rhythmicity of the CPG output. Thus, more serotonin did not result in a more robust swim motor program, suggesting that serotonin synthesis must be kept within certain limits for the circuit to function correctly and indicating that altering neurotransmitter synthesis can have serious consequences for the output of neural networks.  (+info)

(7/275) Use of neurotransmitter precursors for treatment of depression.

Insufficient activity of the neurotransmitters serotonin and norepinephrine is a central element of the model of depression most widely held by neurobiologists today. In the late 1970s and 1980s, numerous studies were performed in which depressed patients were treated with the serotonin precursors L-tryptophan and 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), and the dopamine and norepinephrine precursors tyrosine and L-phenylalanine. This article briefly reviews the published research on the efficacy of neurotransmitter precursors in treating depression, highlights the findings of studies, and discusses issues regarding the interpretation of those findings. The nature of the studies makes it difficult to draw firm conclusions regarding the efficacy of neurotransmitter precursors for treating depression. While there is evidence that precursor loading may be of therapeutic value, particularly for the serotonin precursors 5-HTP and tryptophan, more studies of suitable design and size might lead to more conclusive results. However, the evidence suggests neurotransmitter precursors can be helpful in patients with mild or moderate depression.  (+info)

(8/275) Non-linear membrane properties of sacral sphincter motoneurones in the decerebrate cat.

1. Responses to pudendal afferent stimulation and depolarizing intracellular current injection were examined in sacral sphincter motoneurones in decerebrate cats. 2. In 16 animals examined, 2-10 s trains of electrical stimulation of pudendal afferents evoked sustained sphincter motoneurone activity lasting from 5 to >50 s after stimulation. The sustained response was observed in: 11 animals in the absence of any drugs; two animals after the intravenous administration of 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP; <= 20 mg kg-1); one animal in which methoxamine was perfused onto the ventral surface of the exposed spinal cord; and two animals following the administration of intravenous noradrenergic agonists. 3. Extracellular and intracellular recordings from sphincter motoneurones revealed that the persistent firing evoked by afferent stimulation could be terminated by motoneurone membrane hyperpolarization during micturition or by intracellular current injection. 4. Intracellular recordings revealed that 22/40 sphincter motoneurones examined displayed a non-linear, steep increase in the membrane potential in response to depolarizing ramp current injection. The mean voltage threshold for this non-linear membrane response was -43 +/- 3 mV. Five of the 22 cells displaying the non-linear membrane response were recorded prior to the administration of 5-HTP; 17 after the intravenous administration of 5-HTP (<= 20 mg kg-1). 5. It is concluded that sphincter motoneurones have a voltage-sensitive, non-linear membrane response to depolarization that could contribute to sustained sphincter motoneurone firing during continence.  (+info)

*  Tryptophan hydroxylase
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*  TPH1
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*  5-Hydroxytryptophan
Pardo, JV (2012). "Mania following addition of hydroxytryptophan to monoamine oxidase inhibitor". General hospital psychiatry. ... 5-HTP is sometimes taken by people coming down from MDMA to relieve post-MDMA dysphoria. As 5-HTP is a necessary precursor for ... 5-HTP is sold over the counter in the United States, Canada, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom as a dietary supplement ... "5-HTP". U.S. National Library of Medicine. Retrieved 7 June 2015. Ma Z, Zhang G, Jenney C, Krishnamoorthy S, Tao R (July 2008 ...
*  Management of depression
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*  Tryptophan
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*  Kathleen Montagu
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*  Night terror
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*  Expanded genetic code
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*  Cardiac fibrosis
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*  Amino acid
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*  Serotonin
Drugs that block 5-HT2C receptors make the body unable to recognize when it is no longer hungry or otherwise in need of ... Except for the 5-HT3 receptor, a ligand-gated ion channel, all other 5-HT receptors are G-protein-coupled receptors (also ... The 5-HTTLPR polymorphism (l/l) causing more serotonin transporters to be formed is also found to be more resilient against ... Serotonin and 5-HIAA are sometimes produced in excess amounts by certain tumors or cancers, and levels of these substances may ...
*  Alpha-Methyltryptamine
"Erowid 5-MeO-AMT Vault : Legal Status". "关于印发《非药用类麻醉药品和精神药品列管办法》的通知" (in Chinese). China Food and Drug Administration. 27 ... The 5-Methoxy analogue, 5-MeO-αMT is schedule 9 in Australia and αMT would be controlled as an analogue of this. As of October ... Prepn: 4-Methyl-αMT 5-Fluoro-αMT 5-MeO-αMT α-Ethyltryptamine α,N-DMT α,N,N-TMT α-Methyl-5-HT The α,α-Dimethyltryptamine (Ro 3- ... 29 (5): 394-397. doi:10.1093/jat/29.5.394. Retrieved October 1, 2013. "Call for ban on drug after reveller's death
*  Chlorcyclizine
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*  6-Pyruvoyltetrahydropterin synthase deficiency
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*  Melatonin
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*  Alpha-Difluoromethyl-DOPA
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*  Griffonia simplicifolia
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*  Neuroendocrine tumor
113 (1): 5-21. doi:10.1002/cncr.23542. PMID 18473355. Wick, M.; Berg, L.; Hertz, M. (1992). "Large cell carcinoma of the lung ... 39 (5): 683-90. doi:10.1097/PAS.0000000000000408. Amin, Mahul B., ed. (2017). AJCC Cancer Staging Manual (8 ed.). Springer. p. ... 5 (5): 285-92. PMID 10550713. Oberg, K.; Jelic, S.; Esmo Guidelines Working, G. (2008). "Neuroendocrine bronchial and thymic ... 72 (5): 1547-50. doi:10.1002/1097-0142(19930901)72:5. 3.0.CO;2-C. PMID 8348490. Soga, J. (2003). "Primary endocrinomas ( ...
*  Habenular nuclei
According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse, 1 in 5 preventable deaths, in the United States, is caused by tobacco use. ... 5: 138. doi:10.3389/fnins.2011.00138. PMC 3244072 . PMID 22203792. Stephenson-Jones, Marcus; Floros, Orestis; Robertson, Brita ... 5-HT) systems". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 109 (3): E164-E173. doi: ... "Evolutionary conservation of the habenular nuclei and their circuitry controlling the dopamine and 5-hydroxytryptophan ( ...
*  Neurotransmitter
26 (5): 274-281. doi:10.1016/j.tips.2005.03.007. PMID 15860375. Wang X, Li J, Dong G, Yue J (February 2014). "The endogenous ... VMAT2 is the CNS vesicular transporter for not only the biogenic amines DA, NE, EPI, 5-HT, and HIS, but likely also for the ... 135 (5): 825-37. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2008.09.059. PMC 2614332 . PMID 19041748. "Agonist - Definition and More from the Free ... 45 (5): 351-358. doi:10.1016/j.npep.2011.07.006. PMC 3170513 . PMID 21855138. Whishaw, Bryan Kolb, Ian Q. (2014). An ...
*  Transdermal patch
Revolutionary' 24-hour slow release 5-HTP transdermal patch, launched in early 2014 in the United Kingdom". 5htppatch.co.uk. ... Cyanocobalamin, a highly stable form of vitamin B12, is compatible with transdermal patching[citation needed]. 5- ... Hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) can also be administered through a transdermal patch, which was launched in the United Kingdom in ...
*  Monoamine oxidase
50 (5-6): 373. doi:10.1016/S0361-9230(99)00110-0. PMID 10643441. Shih JC, Chen K (August 2004). "Regulation of MAO-A and MAO-B ... 100 (5): 269-74. PMID 318025. Filic V, Vladic A, Stefulj J, Cicin-Sain L, Balija M, Sucic Z, Jernej B (February 2005). " ... 2 (5): 365-377. doi:10.1515/BMC.2011.030. PMC 3197729 . PMID 22022344. Kalgutkar AS, Dalvie DK, Castagnoli N, Taylor TJ ( ... ISBN 0-443-06911-5. Gaweska H, Fitzpatrick PF (October 2011). "Structures and Mechanism of the Monoamine Oxidase Family". ...
*  Enterochromaffin cell
The synthesis of 5-HT, in EC cells, is catalyzed by the enzyme tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (TpH1) from the amino acid L-tryptophan ... Following synthesis, 5-HT is then stored in vesicles by vesicular monoamine transporter 1 close to the basal margin of the cell ... 5-HT also activates a neural secretory response, whereby binding at 5-HT1P receptors on myenteric neurons triggers a signalling ... Serotonin, also named 5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT), can be classified as a hormone, neurotransmitter and a mitogen. It is ...
*  Myoclonus
Some studies have shown that doses of 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) leads to improvement in patients with some types of action ... myoclonus and PME.[citation needed] These differences in the effect of 5-HTP on patients with myoclonus have not yet been ...
*  Tryptophan transaminase
... hydroxytryptophan aminotransferase, L-tryptophan aminotransferase, and L-tryptophan transaminase. This enzyme participates in ... Other names in common use include L-phenylalanine-2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase, tryptophan aminotransferase, 5- ...
*  Gastric bypass surgery
5-Hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), also known as oxitriptan, is a naturally occurring amino acid and chemical precursor as well as a ... 17 (5): 372-5. doi:10.2337/diacare.17.5.372. PMID 8062602. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Sjöström L, Narbro K ... To gain the maximum benefit from this physiology, it is important that the patient eat only at mealtimes, 5 to 6 small meals ... There has been allot studies showing the benefit of 5-HTP supplementation to help with food addiction depression aspect of ...
*  5-Hydroxyindoleacetic acid
5-HIAA is tested by 24-hour urine samples combined with an acidic additive to maintain pH below 3. Certain foods and drugs are ... Since 5-HIAA is a metabolite of serotonin, testing is most frequently performed for the diagnosis of carcinoid tumors of the ... Quantitation of urinary 5-HIAA is the best test for carcinoid, but scrupulous care must be taken that specimen collection and ... 5-Hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) is the main metabolite of serotonin. In chemical analysis of urine samples, 5-HIAA is used ...
Is 5-Hydroxytryptophan Safe?  Is 5-Hydroxytryptophan Safe?
... This part of the eMedTV library takes an in-depth look at this question and highlights some ... important warnings and precautions with 5-hydroxytryptophan. This page also explains why many doctors do not recommend the ... Is 5-Hydroxytryptophan Safe?. By Kristi Monson, PharmD; Arthur Schoenstadt, MD , Many people may wonder, 'Is 5- ... hydroxytryptophan safe?' Many healthcare providers do not recommend taking 5-hydroxytryptophan, because it may cause a ...
more infohttp://women.emedtv.com/5-hydroxytryptophan/is-5-hydroxytryptophan-safe.html
Decarboxylation of L-Dopa and 5-Hydroxytryptophan in Dispersed Rat Pan by E. W.-T. Yu, L. Stern et al.  "Decarboxylation of L-Dopa and 5-Hydroxytryptophan in Dispersed Rat Pan" by E. W.-T. Yu, L. Stern et al.
The estimated Km and Vmax are, for L-dopa, 4.8 X 10(-5) M and 2.5 nmol/mg protein/min and for 5-hydroxytryptophan, 2.9 X 10(-5 ... The pH optimum for 5-hydroxytryptophan decarboxylation is from 7.0-8.5 while that for L-dopa is 7.0. It is concluded that ... Only the hydroxylated amino acids L-dopa and 5-hydroxytryptophan are decarboxylated by intact dispersed pancreas acinar cells ... pancreas acinar cells possess a single aromatic amino acid decarboxylase specific for the hydroxylated amino acids L-dopa and 5 ...
more infohttps://ir.lib.uwo.ca/oncpub/21/
5-HTP (5-hydroxytryptophan) 5-HTP  5-HTP (5-hydroxytryptophan) 5-HTP
... specifications & features from suppliers/manufacturer 5-Hydroxytryptophan or 5-HTP Effective ... 5-HTP itself is not found in foods to any appreciable extent. For use as a weight loss supplement, it is manufactured from the ... effect, 5-Hydroxytryptophan is becoming a key nutrient in many of the new weight loss supplements. 5-HTP is an effective weight ... Here is where 5-HTP comes into play. What is 5-hydroxytryptophan? 5-hydroxytryptophan helps the nervous system by encouraging ...
more infohttp://www.freewtc.com/products/5-htp-5-hydroxytryptophan-7169-33451.htm
5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan 4350-09-8 H-NMR | C-NMR Spectral Analysis   NMR Spectrum  5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan 4350-09-8 H-NMR | C-NMR Spectral Analysis NMR Spectrum
5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan 4350-09-8 NMR spectrum, 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan H-NMR spectral analysis, 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan C-NMR ... 2S)-2-amino-3-(5-hydroxy-1H-indol-3-yl)propanoic acid; ... More 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan NMR spectra of reference · 1H NMR ...
more infohttp://www.molbase.com/en/hnmr_4350-09-8-moldata-4486.html
N-acetyl-6-hydroxytryptophan oxidase: Definition with N-acetyl-6-hydroxytryptophan oxidase Pictures and Photos  N-acetyl-6-hydroxytryptophan oxidase: Definition with N-acetyl-6-hydroxytryptophan oxidase Pictures and Photos
Definition of N-acetyl-6-hydroxytryptophan oxidase with photos and pictures, translations, sample usage, and additional links ... N-acetyl-6-hydroxytryptophan Oxidase Images Lexicographical Neighbors of N-acetyl-6-hydroxytryptophan Oxidase. Mülleran mimicry ... N-acetyl-6-hydroxytryptophan Oxidase Pictures. Click the following link to bring up a new window with an automated collection ... N-acetyl-6-hydroxytryptophan oxidase. N-acetyl-alpha-D-galactosaminyloligosaccharidase. N-acetylaspartate. N- ...
more infohttp://www.lexic.us/definition-of/n-acetyl-6-hydroxytryptophan_oxidase
5-Hydroxytryptophan | Thorne  5-Hydroxytryptophan | Thorne
5-HTP is well absorbed by the body and easily crosses the blood-brain barrier where it can increase the synthesis of serotonin ... However, supplementation with 5-HTP is preferable, because unlike L-tryptophan, 5-HTP cannot be shunted into other uses in the ... 5-Hydroxytryptophan should be used with caution in an individual currently being treated with an SSRI, MAO inhibitor, or other ... 5-HTP has been shown to have a beneficial impact on mood, sleep, carbohydrate cravings, and discomfort associated with fatigue ...
more infohttps://www.thorne.com/products/products/dp/5-hydroxytryptophan
5-Hydroxytryptophan Support Group - Drugs.com  5-Hydroxytryptophan Support Group - Drugs.com
Ask questions and get answers about 5-Hydroxytryptophan. Our support group helps people share their own experience. 9 members, ... 5-Hydroxytryptophan - Am taking amlodopine 5mg can I still take 5- htp for depression?. Updated 11 Apr 2016 • 1 answer ... 5-Hydroxytryptophan - How long does it take serotonin to work for insomnia?. Updated 19 Jul 2018 • 1 answer ... 5-Hydroxytryptophan - How long does it take 5-HTP to work?. Updated 10 Dec 2016 • 1 answer ...
more infohttps://www.drugs.com/answers/support-group/5-hydroxytryptophan/
5-Hydroxytryptophan - Wikipedia  5-Hydroxytryptophan - Wikipedia
Pardo, JV (2012). "Mania following addition of hydroxytryptophan to monoamine oxidase inhibitor". General hospital psychiatry. ... 5-HTP is sometimes taken by people coming down from MDMA to relieve post-MDMA dysphoria. As 5-HTP is a necessary precursor for ... 5-HTP is sold over the counter in the United States, Canada, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom as a dietary supplement ... "5-HTP". U.S. National Library of Medicine. Retrieved 7 June 2015. Ma Z, Zhang G, Jenney C, Krishnamoorthy S, Tao R (July 2008 ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/5-Hydroxytryptophan
Tryptophan and 5-hydroxytryptophan for depression  Tryptophan and 5-hydroxytryptophan for depression
Supplementation with the serotonin precursor 5-HTP Refs. and further reading. HOME. HedWeb. Nootropics. erythroxylum-coca.com. ... 5-HTP: safety. Precursor therapy: 5-HTP. 5-HTP and corticosteroid receptors. Tryptophan and 5-hydroxytryptophan for depression ... Are tryptophan and 5-hydroxytryptophan effective treatments for depression? A meta-analysis by. Shaw K, Turner J, Del Mar C. ... These studies suggest 5-HT and L-tryptophan are better than placebo at alleviating depression (Peto OR = 4.1, 95% CI = 1.3-13.2 ...
more infohttps://www.biopsychiatry.com/5-htp.html
How can 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) help with treating bipolar disorder?  How can 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) help with treating bipolar disorder?
... some findings show that 5-htp supplements may help regulate mood and emotions, possibly as well as some antidepressants. for ... While there haven't been many studies, some findings show that 5-HTP supplements may help regulate mood and emotions, possibly ... For instance, a small study of volunteers with anxiety disorders reported that taking supplements of 5-HTP greatly lowered ... How can 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) help with treating bipolar disorder?. ANSWER ...
more infohttps://www.webmd.com/bipolar-disorder/qa/how-can-5hydroxytryptophan-5htp-help-with-treating-bipolar-disorder
PatientsLikeMe | 5-Hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) report for  patients like you  PatientsLikeMe | 5-Hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) report for patients like you
5-Hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP): Find the most comprehensive real-world treatment information on 5-Hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) at ... bipolar I disorder or psoriasis currently take 5-Hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP). ... Stopped taking 5-Hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) Duration. Patients. This item is relevant to you: Less than 1 month 20 * 20 ... Currently taking 5-Hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) Duration. Patients. This item is relevant to you: 1 - 6 months 3 * 3 ...
more infohttps://www.patientslikeme.com/treatments/show/14410-5-htp-tr-side-effects-and-efficacy
Thorne Research 5-Hydroxytryptophan | Net Pharmacy  Thorne Research 5-Hydroxytryptophan | Net Pharmacy
Buy Thorne Research 5-Hydroxytryptophan 90. Shop full range of Thorne Research Group products on NetPharmacy NZ. NetPharmacy NZ ...
more infohttps://www.netpharmacy.co.nz/products/thorne-research-5-hydroxytryptophan
LifeTime - 5-Hydroxy Tryptophan 100mg 30ct  LifeTime - 5-Hydroxy Tryptophan 100mg 30ct
Free Shipping on orders over $85 US 48 states (may be subject to a surcharge if over 5 lbs; we'll call for your approval if ...
more infohttp://www.totaldiscountvitamins.com/create_review/49601/lifetime
LifeTime - 5-Hydroxy Tryptophan 30ct 12x  LifeTime - 5-Hydroxy Tryptophan 30ct 12x
Presidents Day Sale Save EXTRA 5% Promo Code: ASCE † † Sale ends 02/20/2018 11:59 PM EST. Some restrictions apply...see below ... Free Shipping on orders over $85 US 48 states (may be subject to a surcharge if over 5 lbs; we'll call for your approval if ... Free shipping is limited to the contiguous 48 US states and may be subject to a surcharge for orders over 5 pounds (we'll call ... Sale restrictions: The 5% savings discount is off our regular discounted price. Discount may not be combined with other ...
more infohttp://www.totaldiscountvitamins.com/create_review/49618/lifetime
5-HTP (5-Hydroxytryptophan) 50 mg - 180 Capsules  5-HTP (5-Hydroxytryptophan) 50 mg - 180 Capsules
5-HTP may help your brain produce serotonin, which might help you sleep better and support a good mood. Get free shipping from ... Rating : 5 out of 5 stars. Taking 5-HTP (5-Hydroxytryptophan) 50 mg by Pure Encapsulations really helped me to be able to sleep ... Taking 5-HTP (5-Hydroxytryptophan) 50 mg by Pure Encapsulations really helped me to be able to sleep well after weeks of not ... 5-hydroxytryptophan‚ also known as 5-HTP‚ is a substance that occurs halfway through the process of converting tryptophan into ...
more infohttps://pureformulas.com/5htp-5hydroxytryptophan-50-mg-180-vegetable-capsules-by-pure-encapsulations.html
5-hydroxytryptophan - oi  5-hydroxytryptophan - oi
5-hydroxytryptophan n. 5-Hydroxytryptophan rescues serotonin response to stress in prefrontal cortex of hyperphenylalaninaemic ... Effects of 5-hydroxytryptophan and m-hydroxybenzylhydrazine associated to Lactobacillus spp. on the humoral response of ... 5-Hydroxytryptophan during critical postnatal period improves cognitive performances and promotes dendritic spine maturation in ... A precursor of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine), synthesized in the brain from dietary tryptophan, an amino acid that, unlike ...
more infohttp://oxfordindex.oup.com/view/10.1093/oi/authority.20110803095953279
5-HTP (5-Hydroxytryptophan) vs. Prozac (SSRIs) | Nutrition Review  5-HTP (5-Hydroxytryptophan) vs. Prozac (SSRIs) | Nutrition Review
Hydroxytryptophan and Fluvoxamine. Psychopathology. 1991; 24: 53-81.. 5. H. van Praag. Management of Depression with Serotonin ... 5-HTP. In the 1970s, the American health food industry began to provide an alternative method of getting more tryptophan to the ... precursor, L-5-Hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), which is also available as a dietary supplement. 5-HTP has been shown to be superior ... 5-HT Precursors in Migraine Prophy laxis: A Double-Blind Cross-Over Study with L-5-Hydroxytryptophan versus Placebo. Clin J ...
more infohttps://nutritionreview.org/2013/04/5htp-5hydroxytryptophan-prozac-ssris/
5-Hydroxy Tryptophan 50 mg 45 cap Priority One  5-Hydroxy Tryptophan 50 mg 45 cap Priority One
Using 5-Hydroxy Tryptophan by those who suffer from Fibromyalgia has been shown to reduce pain pain, fatigue and improve ... Research has shown that use of 5-Hydroxy Tryptophan in dosages of 400mg per day for a period of two months has reduced the ... 5-Hydroxy L-Tryptophan 100 Mg 30 Caps USD $21.75 5-Htp 50 Mg 150 Caps USD $45.19 L-Tryptophan 180 Caps USD $47.95 5-Htp 50 Mg ... 5-Htp Sap 100mg 90 Caps USD $31.00 5-Htp 100 Mg 60 Vegcaps USD $45.95 ...
more infohttp://www.bayho.com/mm5/merchant.mvc?Screen=PROD&Product_Code=345002&Store_Code=BH&Category_Code=345
5-HT (5-Hydroxytryptophan) - DCNutrition.com  5-HT (5-Hydroxytryptophan) - DCNutrition.com
Clinical Studies Using 5-http. Depression: Much of the published research on 5-HTP has to do with its use in the treatment of ... 5-HTP vs. Conventional Anti-depressants: The current conventional therapies of choice for depression are the selective ... 5-HTP is well absorbed from an oral dose, with about 70 percent ending up in the bloodstream. It easily crosses the blood-brain ... 5-HTP is well absorbed from an oral dose, with about 70 percent ending up in the bloodstream. Absorption of 5-HTP is not ...
more infohttps://www.dcnutrition.com/miscellaneous-nutrients/5-ht-5-hydroxytryptophan/
The Involvement of Bulbospinal Serotonergic Neurons in the Effect of 5-Hydroxytryptophan on Alpha and Gamma Motoneurons |...  The Involvement of Bulbospinal Serotonergic Neurons in the Effect of 5-Hydroxytryptophan on Alpha and Gamma Motoneurons |...
5-HT)-containing neurons which originate in the nucleus raphe and terminate near motoneurons in the spinal cord... ... Koe, B.K., and Weissman, A., 1968, p-Chlorophenylalanine: a specific depletor of brain 5-HT, Adv. Pharmacol., 6B: 27-29.Google ... We found all three cases to be true, which argues that 5-HTP works via the 5-HT pathway to facilitate alpha and gamma ... Anderson, E.G., and Holgerson, L.O., 1966, The distribution of 5-hydroxy-tryptamine and norepinephrine in the cat spinal cord, ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4684-5952-4_74
  • The estimated Km and Vmax are, for L-dopa, 4.8 X 10(-5) M and 2.5 nmol/mg protein/min and for 5-hydroxytryptophan, 2.9 X 10(-5) M and 0.3 nmol/mg protein/min. (uwo.ca)
  • 5-HTP is well absorbed by the body and easily crosses the blood-brain barrier where it can increase the synthesis of serotonin in the central nervous system. (thorne.com)
  • 5-HTP crosses the blood-brain barrier, while 5-HT does not. (wikipedia.org)
  • 5-HTP easily crosses the blood-brain barrier, not requiring the presence of a transport molecule. (dcnutrition.com)
  • Although there is little information available about the possible side effects of 5-hydroxytryptophan, the supplement may cause nausea, indigestion, and diarrhea. (emedtv.com)
  • 5-HTP has been shown to have a beneficial impact on mood, sleep, carbohydrate cravings, and discomfort associated with fatigue. (thorne.com)
  • Numerous studies of individuals with negative mood status have shown significant positive response with 50-300 mg of 5-HTP daily. (thorne.com)
  • Solgar ® 5-HTP is a complex formulated to help those individuals coping with modern day stresses and strains which may be effecting sleep or mood balance. (solgar.co.uk)
  • Thus, the current study aims to assess the effects of 5-HTP, on emotional processing and mood in healthy volunteers. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • And 5-HTP can be taken with meals without reducing its effectiveness. (thorne.com)
  • 5-HTP is sold over the counter in the United States, Canada, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom as a dietary supplement for use as an antidepressant, appetite suppressant, and sleep aid. (wikipedia.org)
  • A supplement like Pure Encapsulations' 5-HTP 50 mg may be more helpful than consuming foods that contain serotonin itself‚ as well. (pureformulas.com)
  • 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) is a nutritional supplement sold in many health food stores, and is taken in order to raise levels of serotonin in the brain. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • There is also some discussion that 5-HTP may also act as a sleep aid, these properties have made it an increasingly popular supplement in the modern stress filled environment. (foresight-fitness.co.uk)
  • This has led to many people using a supplement to gain the benefits of 5-HTP. (foresight-fitness.co.uk)
  • Insomnia - some studies suggest that taking 5-HTP prior to sleeping help people sleep more deeply when taking the supplement. (foresight-fitness.co.uk)
  • Weight Management - there has been some limited research to suggest that people who take 5-HTP tend to eat fewer calories, r researchers believed that the supplement led people to feel more full after eating. (foresight-fitness.co.uk)
  • 5-Hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) is a supplement that some people use in an effort to support their mental health and immune system. (biopharmchem.com)
  • It's also important to note that not all of the research available on 5-HTP includes studies done in humans, but in animals, and more research is needed to determine if 5-HTP is a safe or effective supplement. (biopharmchem.com)
  • The general belief is that 5-HTP produces this effect via the bulbospinal 5-HT pathway which converts it to 5-HT and subsequently releases it to activate the postsynaptic receptor sites (Anderson, 1972). (springer.com)
  • The psychoactive action of 5-HTP is derived from its increase in production of serotonin in central nervous system tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • When combined with antidepressants of the MAOI or SSRI class, high dose 5-HTP can cause acute serotonin syndrome in rats. (wikipedia.org)
  • 5-HTP is well absorbed from an oral dose, with about 70 percent ending up in the bloodstream. (dcnutrition.com)
  • 5-HTP should not be taken until 12 hours after one's last dose of MDMA because combining the two substances could interact to increase the brain's serotonin levels to dangerous levels, which can result in a potentially life-threatening condition called serotonin syndrome . (psychonautwiki.org)
  • A typical dose of 5-HTP is in the range of 300-500 mg, taken either once daily or in divided doses. (biopharmchem.com)
  • In humans 5-HTP has never been clinically associated with serotonin syndrome, although 5-HTP can precipitate mania when added to an MAOI. (wikipedia.org)
  • 5-Hydroxytryptophan should be used with caution in an individual currently being treated with an SSRI, MAO inhibitor, or other antidepressant medication. (thorne.com)
  • This is most important for SSRI usage, wherein the combination with 5-HTP is potentially lethal. (biopharmchem.com)
  • Because 5-HTP has not been thoroughly studied in a clinical setting, possible side effects and interactions with other drugs are not well known. (wikipedia.org)
  • Does 5-Hydroxytryptophan Cause Side Effects? (emedtv.com)
  • It is possible that you may experience some or none of these 5-hydroxytryptophan side effects explained above. (emedtv.com)
  • Some studies (based on very small populations) suggest that 5-HTP has a similar effect to prescription medications but with fewer of the side effects. (foresight-fitness.co.uk)
  • For some individuals, 5-HTP can cause the following side effects (although rare, and typically at higher dosages). (psychonautwiki.org)
  • 5-HTP is sometimes taken by people coming down from MDMA to relieve post-MDMA dysphoria. (wikipedia.org)
  • in 2007 suggested a recovery, when MDMA-induced depletions of 5-HT were restored in rats after administering 5-HTP. (wikipedia.org)
  • Visual distortions have been reported at heavy doses and consistent usage of 5-HTP. (psychonautwiki.org)
  • B] receptors, adenosine A1 receptors, and 5-hydroxytryptophan 1B receptors, all of which inhibit VGCCs via the GPCR [beta][gamma] subunit, thereby lowering transmitter release probability. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • For the purpose of reducing food intake, 5-HTP should be taken with a meal as it increases satiety from food intake (rather than reducing appetite/hunger). (biopharmchem.com)