The immediate precursor in the biosynthesis of SEROTONIN from tryptophan. It is used as an antiepileptic and antidepressant.
A selective and irreversible inhibitor of tryptophan hydroxylase, a rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of serotonin (5-HYDROXYTRYPTAMINE). Fenclonine acts pharmacologically to deplete endogenous levels of serotonin.
A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.
A butyrophenone with general properties similar to those of HALOPERIDOL. It has been used in the treatment of aberrant sexual behavior. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p567)
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydroxylation of TRYPTOPHAN to 5-HYDROXYTRYPTOPHAN in the presence of NADPH and molecular oxygen. It is important in the biosynthesis of SEROTONIN.
A serotonin antagonist and a histamine H1 blocker used as antipruritic, appetite stimulant, antiallergic, and for the post-gastrectomy dumping syndrome, etc.
One of the AROMATIC-L-AMINO-ACID DECARBOXYLASES, this enzyme is responsible for the conversion of DOPA to DOPAMINE. It is of clinical importance in the treatment of Parkinson's disease.
An enzyme group with broad specificity. The enzymes decarboxylate a range of aromatic amino acids including dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA DECARBOXYLASE); TRYPTOPHAN; and HYDROXYTRYPTOPHAN.
5-Hydroxy-indole-3-ethanol.
Kynuramine is a biologically active compound that results from the metabolism of tryptophan by the enzyme kynurenine monooxygenase, and it plays a role in the regulation of neurotransmission and immune responses.
Tryptamine substituted with two hydroxyl groups in positions 5 and 6. It is a neurotoxic serotonin analog that destroys serotonergic neurons preferentially and is used in neuropharmacologic research.
Hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5HIAA) is a major metabolite of serotonin, a neurotransmitter, formed by the action of monoamine oxidase and aldehyde dehydrogenase, and its measurement in urine is often used as a biomarker for serotonin synthesis in clinical and research settings.
An ergot derivative that is a congener of LYSERGIC ACID DIETHYLAMIDE. It antagonizes the effects of serotonin in blood vessels and gastrointestinal smooth muscle, but has few of the properties of other ergot alkaloids. Methysergide is used prophylactically in migraine and other vascular headaches and to antagonize serotonin in the carcinoid syndrome.
A monoamine oxidase inhibitor with antihypertensive properties.
A selective and potent serotonin-2 antagonist that is effective in the treatment of a variety of syndromes related to anxiety and depression. The drug also improves the subjective quality of sleep and decreases portal pressure.
An MAO inhibitor that is used as an antidepressive agent.
An inhibitor of DOPA DECARBOXYLASE that does not enter the central nervous system. It is often given with LEVODOPA in the treatment of parkinsonism to prevent the conversion of levodopa to dopamine in the periphery, thereby increasing the amount that reaches the central nervous system and reducing the required dose. It has no antiparkinson actions when given alone.
An inhibitor of DOPA DECARBOXYLASE, preventing conversion of LEVODOPA to dopamine. It is used in PARKINSON DISEASE to reduce peripheral adverse effects of LEVODOPA. It has no antiparkinson actions by itself.
A group of compounds that are methyl derivatives of the amino acid TYROSINE.
A genus of freshwater mussel in the family MYTILIDAE, class BIVALVIA. It is found in tropical and warm temperate coastal waters. Most species have green in their shells.
A phenothiazine antipsychotic used in the management of PHYCOSES, including SCHIZOPHRENIA.
A beta-hydroxylated derivative of phenylalanine. The D-form of dihydroxyphenylalanine has less physiologic activity than the L-form and is commonly used experimentally to determine whether the pharmacological effects of LEVODOPA are stereospecific.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate serotonin receptors, thereby blocking the actions of serotonin or SEROTONIN RECEPTOR AGONISTS.
An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.
The naturally occurring form of DIHYDROXYPHENYLALANINE and the immediate precursor of DOPAMINE. Unlike dopamine itself, it can be taken orally and crosses the blood-brain barrier. It is rapidly taken up by dopaminergic neurons and converted to DOPAMINE. It is used for the treatment of PARKINSONIAN DISORDERS and is usually given with agents that inhibit its conversion to dopamine outside of the central nervous system.
Tryptamine substituted with two hydroxyl groups in positions 5 and 7. It is a neurotoxic serotonin analog that destroys serotonergic neurons preferentially and is used in neuropharmacology as a tool.
A pharmacologic congener of serotonin that contracts smooth muscle and has actions similar to those of tricyclic antidepressants. It has been proposed as an oxytocic.
Hallucinogenic alkaloid isolated from the flowering heads (peyote) of Lophophora (formerly Anhalonium) williamsii, a Mexican cactus used in Indian religious rites and as an experimental psychotomimetic. Among its cellular effects are agonist actions at some types of serotonin receptors. It has no accepted therapeutic uses although it is legal for religious use by members of the Native American Church.
A group of naturally occurring amines derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of the natural amino acids. Many have powerful physiological effects (e.g., histamine, serotonin, epinephrine, tyramine). Those derived from aromatic amino acids, and also their synthetic analogs (e.g., amphetamine), are of use in pharmacology.
Dibenzothiepins are a class of tricyclic heterocyclic compounds sharing a common structure of two benzene rings fused to a thiepin ring, which have been used in the development of various pharmaceutical drugs, particularly as antipsychotic agents, but are not widely used in current clinical practice due to their adverse effects profile.
An alkaloid found in the roots of Rauwolfia serpentina and R. vomitoria. Reserpine inhibits the uptake of norepinephrine into storage vesicles resulting in depletion of catecholamines and serotonin from central and peripheral axon terminals. It has been used as an antihypertensive and an antipsychotic as well as a research tool, but its adverse effects limit its clinical use.
An alpha-2 adrenergic agonist that has both central and peripheral nervous system effects. Its primary clinical use is as an antihypertensive agent.
Cell-surface proteins that bind SEROTONIN and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Several types of serotonin receptors have been recognized which differ in their pharmacology, molecular biology, and mode of action.
A chemically heterogeneous group of drugs that have in common the ability to block oxidative deamination of naturally occurring monoamines. (From Gilman, et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p414)
Decarboxylated monoamine derivatives of TRYPTOPHAN.
Involuntary shock-like contractions, irregular in rhythm and amplitude, followed by relaxation, of a muscle or a group of muscles. This condition may be a feature of some CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; (e.g., EPILEPSY, MYOCLONIC). Nocturnal myoclonus is the principal feature of the NOCTURNAL MYOCLONUS SYNDROME. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp102-3).
Kynurenine is a metabolic product of the amino acid tryptophan, formed via the kynurenine pathway, and serves as an important intermediate in the biosynthesis of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) and other neuroactive compounds, while also playing a role in immune response regulation and potential involvement in various neurological disorders.
A dopamine D2-receptor antagonist. It has been used therapeutically as an antidepressant, antipsychotic, and as a digestive aid. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)

Reaction specificity of native and nicked 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine decarboxylase. (1/275)

3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine (Dopa) decarboxylase is a stereospecific pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent alpha-decarboxylase that converts L-aromatic amino acids into their corresponding amines. We now report that reaction of the enzyme with D-5-hydroxytryptophan or D-Dopa results in a time-dependent inactivation and conversion of the PLP coenzyme to pyridoxamine 5'-phosphate and PLP-D-amino acid Pictet-Spengler adducts, which have been identified by high performance liquid chromatography. We also show that the reaction specificity of Dopa decarboxylase toward aromatic amines depends on the experimental conditions. Whereas oxidative deamination occurs under aerobic conditions (Bertoldi, M., Moore, P. S., Maras, B., Dominici, P., and Borri Voltattorni, C. (1996) J. Biol. Chem. 271, 23954-23959; Bertoldi, M., Dominici, P., Moore, P. S., Maras, B., and Borri Voltattorni, C. (1998) Biochemistry 37, 6552-6561), half-transamination and Pictet-Spengler reactions take place under anaerobic conditions. Moreover, we examined the reaction specificity of nicked Dopa decarboxylase, obtained by selective tryptic cleavage of the native enzyme between Lys334 and His335. Although this enzymatic species does not exhibit either decarboxylase or oxidative deamination activities, it retains a large percentage of the native transaminase activity toward D-aromatic amino acids and displays a slow transaminase activity toward aromatic amines. These transamination reactions occur concomitantly with the formation of cyclic coenzyme-substrate adducts. Together with additional data, we thus suggest that native Dopa decarboxylase can exist as an equilibrium among "open," "half-open," and "closed" forms.  (+info)

Recovery of locomotion after ventral and ventrolateral spinal lesions in the cat. II. Effects of noradrenergic and serotoninergic drugs. (2/275)

The effects of serotoninergic and noradrenergic drugs (applied intrathecally) on treadmill locomotion were evaluated in two adult cats subjected to a ventral and ventrolateral spinal lesion (T13). Despite the extensive spinal lesion, severely damaging important descending pathways such as the reticulo- and vestibulospinal tracts, both cats recovered quadrupedal voluntary locomotion. As detailed in a previous paper, the locomotor recovery occurred in three stages defined as early period, when the animal could not walk with its hindlimbs, recovery period, when progressive improvement occurred, and plateau period, when a more stable locomotor performance was observed. At this latter stage, the cats suffered from postural and locomotor deficits, such as poor lateral stability, irregular stepping of the hindlimbs, and inconsistent homolateral fore- and hindlimb coupling. The present study aimed at evaluating the potential of serotoninergic and/or noradrenergic drugs to improve the locomotor abilities in the early and late stages. Both cats were implanted chronically with an intrathecal cannula and electromyographic (EMG) electrodes, which allowed determination, under similar recording conditions, of the locomotor performance pre- and postlesion and comparisons of the effects of different drugs. EMG and kinematic analyses showed that norepinephrine (NE) injected in early and plateau periods improved the regularity of the hindlimb stepping and stabilized the interlimb coupling, permitting to maintain constant locomotion for longer periods of time. Methoxamine, the alpha1-agonist (tested only at the plateau period), had similar effects. In contrast, the alpha2-agonist, clonidine, deteriorated walking. Serotoninergic drugs, such as the neurotransmitter itself, serotonin (5HT), the precursor 5-hydroxytryptophan (5HTP), and the agonist quipazine improved the locomotion by increasing regularity of the hindlimb stepping and by increasing the step cycle duration. In contrast, the 5HT1A agonist 8-hydroxy-dipropylaminotetralin (DPAT) caused foot drag in one of the cats, resulting in frequent stumbling. Injection of combination of methoxamine and quipazine resulted in maintained, regular stepping with smooth movements and good lateral stability. Our results show that the effects of drugs can be integrated to the residual voluntary locomotion and improve some of its postural aspects. However, this work shows clearly that the effects of drugs (such as clonidine) may depend on whether or not the spinal lesion is complete. In a clinical context, this may suggest that different classes of drugs could be used in patients with different types of spinal cord injuries. Possible mechanisms underlying the effect of noradrenergic and serotoninergic drugs on the locomotion after partial spinal lesions are discussed.  (+info)

Increased dopaminergic and 5-hydroxytryptaminergic activities in male rat brain following long-term treatment with anabolic androgenic steroids. (3/275)

1. The effects of treating groups of rats with four different anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) (testosterone, nandrolone, methandrostenolone, and oxymetholone) on 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and dopamine (DA) neurones in different brain regions were examined. The AAS was injected six times with 1 week's interval and the rats were sacrificed 2 days after the final injection. 5-HT and its metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), DA and its metabolites 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA) were measured. The effect on DA and 5-HT synthesis rate was analysed as the accumulation of 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl-alanine (DOPA) and 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), respectively, after inhibition of the amino acid decarboxylase with NSD-1015 (3-hydroxy-benzylhydrazine dihydrochloride). Additionally, the monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity was analysed in the hypothalamus. 2. The DOPAC + HVA/DA ratio was increased in the striatum in all treatment groups. However, the synthesis rate of DA was significantly increased only in the methandrostenolone treated group. 3. The 5-HIAA/5-HT ratio was increased in all treatment groups in the hippocampus, in the frontal cortex in the methandrostenolone-treated animals and in the hypothalamus in the testosterone- and oxymetholone-treated rats, while the 5-HT synthesis rate was not affected by the AAS-treatments. 4. The MAO-A activity was increased in the oxymetholone-treated rats while the other treatment groups were unaffected. The MAO-B activity was not changed. 5. The results indicate that relatively high doses of AAS increase dopaminergic and 5-hydroxytryptaminergic metabolism in male rat brain, probably due to enhanced turnover in these monaminergic systems.  (+info)

Local treatments of dorsal raphe nucleus induce changes in serotonergic activity in rat major cerebral arteries. (4/275)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Rat major cerebral arteries seem to receive serotonergic fibers originating from the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN), but little is known about their function. The aim of our present work was to establish a functional relationship between this brain stem nucleus and the cerebral blood vessels by studying the effects of several treatments in the DRN on cerebrovascular serotonergic activity. METHODS: Serotonin, clomipramine, 8-OH-DPAT, and WAY-100635 were administered in DRN. A stereotaxically localized electrode allowed the electrical stimulation of this brain stem nucleus. Serotonergic activity was appraised in major cerebral arteries, striatum, and hippocampus from 5-hydroxytryptophan accumulation after aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase inhibition with NSD-1015. RESULTS: Serotonin significantly decreased serotonergic activity in major cerebral arteries and striatum without affecting it in hippocampus. This reduction was blocked by previous injection of WAY-100635 in DRN. Local administration of 8-OH-DPAT or clomipramine elicited an effect similar to that of serotonin, whereas that of WAY-100635 did not modify serotonergic activity in either of the tissues. Electrical stimulation of DRN significantly increased serotonergic activity in major cerebral arteries and striatum but not in hippocampus. CONCLUSIONS: These results confirm the presence of a serotonergic innervation in rat major cerebral arteries functionally related to DRN. 5-HT(1A) receptor activation partly mediates the action of serotonin in DRN. A serotonergic tone acting on these somatodendritic receptors was not clearly found.  (+info)

Receptors and neurotransmitters involved in the dual modulation of prolactin release by the serotoninergic system in pregnant and lactating rats. (5/275)

The receptors and neurotransmitter pathways that may participate in the inhibitory action of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT) on prolactin release during late pregnancy and lactation in rats were studied. Administration of the 5HT synthesis inhibitor, p-chlorophenylalanine, to late pregnant rats induced a significant increase in serum prolactin concentrations at 17:00 h on day 19 of pregnancy that was partially blocked by injections of the 5HT precursor, 5-hydroxytryptophan, or the 5HT agonists, 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)-tetralin hydrobromide (S1a), 1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane (S2) and N-(3-chlorophenyl)imidodicarbonimide diamide HCl (S3), but not by RU 24969 (S1b) or 1-meta-(chlorophenyl)-piperazine-2-HCl (S1a-2c). The 5HT neurotoxins, fenfluramine and p-chloroamphetamine, which selectively destroy fine axon serotoninergic fibres but not coarse ones, prevented the increase in circulating prolactin observed at 18:00 h on pro-oestrus and on day 21 of pregnancy, but did not modify serum prolactin concentrations at 17:00 h on day 19 of pregnancy. Administration of the adrenergic antagonists, metoprolol or prazosin, also prevented the stimulatory effects of p-chlorophenylalanine or ketanserin in pregnant rats on day 19 (17:00 h) or on days 10-12 (16:30 h) in lactating rats separated from their litters. Administration of p-chlorophenylalanine to pregnant rats on day 19 reduced dopamine concentrations in the arcuate nucleus and in the anterior hypothalamus and noradrenaline concentrations in the anterior hypothalamus and the suprachiasmatic nucleus. These results indicate that the inhibitory actions of 5HT on prolactin release in pregnant and lactating rats are mediated by S1a, S2a and S3 receptors and by the coarse axon serotoninergic fibres. In addition, the inhibitory actions of 5HT may modulate the action of a stimulatory adrenergic pathway, as well as the concentrations of noradrenaline and dopamine in different hypothalamic areas, which, in turn, particularly arcuate nucleus dopamine, regulate prolactin release.  (+info)

Paradoxical actions of the serotonin precursor 5-hydroxytryptophan on the activity of identified serotonergic neurons in a simple motor circuit. (6/275)

Neurotransmitter synthesis is regulated by a variety of factors, yet the effect of altering transmitter content on the operation of neuronal circuits has been relatively unexplored. We used electrophysiological, electrochemical, and immunohistochemical techniques to investigate the effects of augmenting the serotonin (5-HT) content of identified serotonergic neurons embedded in a simple motor circuit. The dorsal swim interneurons (DSIs) are serotonergic neurons intrinsic to the central pattern generator (CPG) for swimming in the mollusc Tritonia diomedea. As expected, treatment with the serotonin precursor 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) increased the intensity of serotonin immunolabeling and enhanced the potency of synaptic and modulatory actions elicited by the DSIs. It also greatly enhanced the ability of the DSIs to evoke rhythmic CPG activity. After 5-HTP treatment, microvoltammetric measurements indicated an increase in a putative 5-HT electrochemical signal during swim CPG activation. Paradoxically, the spiking activity of the serotonergic neurons decreased to a single burst at the onset of the rhythmic motor program, whereas the overall duration of the episode remained about the same. 5-HTP treatment gradually reduced the rhythmicity of the CPG output. Thus, more serotonin did not result in a more robust swim motor program, suggesting that serotonin synthesis must be kept within certain limits for the circuit to function correctly and indicating that altering neurotransmitter synthesis can have serious consequences for the output of neural networks.  (+info)

Use of neurotransmitter precursors for treatment of depression. (7/275)

Insufficient activity of the neurotransmitters serotonin and norepinephrine is a central element of the model of depression most widely held by neurobiologists today. In the late 1970s and 1980s, numerous studies were performed in which depressed patients were treated with the serotonin precursors L-tryptophan and 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), and the dopamine and norepinephrine precursors tyrosine and L-phenylalanine. This article briefly reviews the published research on the efficacy of neurotransmitter precursors in treating depression, highlights the findings of studies, and discusses issues regarding the interpretation of those findings. The nature of the studies makes it difficult to draw firm conclusions regarding the efficacy of neurotransmitter precursors for treating depression. While there is evidence that precursor loading may be of therapeutic value, particularly for the serotonin precursors 5-HTP and tryptophan, more studies of suitable design and size might lead to more conclusive results. However, the evidence suggests neurotransmitter precursors can be helpful in patients with mild or moderate depression.  (+info)

Non-linear membrane properties of sacral sphincter motoneurones in the decerebrate cat. (8/275)

1. Responses to pudendal afferent stimulation and depolarizing intracellular current injection were examined in sacral sphincter motoneurones in decerebrate cats. 2. In 16 animals examined, 2-10 s trains of electrical stimulation of pudendal afferents evoked sustained sphincter motoneurone activity lasting from 5 to >50 s after stimulation. The sustained response was observed in: 11 animals in the absence of any drugs; two animals after the intravenous administration of 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP; <= 20 mg kg-1); one animal in which methoxamine was perfused onto the ventral surface of the exposed spinal cord; and two animals following the administration of intravenous noradrenergic agonists. 3. Extracellular and intracellular recordings from sphincter motoneurones revealed that the persistent firing evoked by afferent stimulation could be terminated by motoneurone membrane hyperpolarization during micturition or by intracellular current injection. 4. Intracellular recordings revealed that 22/40 sphincter motoneurones examined displayed a non-linear, steep increase in the membrane potential in response to depolarizing ramp current injection. The mean voltage threshold for this non-linear membrane response was -43 +/- 3 mV. Five of the 22 cells displaying the non-linear membrane response were recorded prior to the administration of 5-HTP; 17 after the intravenous administration of 5-HTP (<= 20 mg kg-1). 5. It is concluded that sphincter motoneurones have a voltage-sensitive, non-linear membrane response to depolarization that could contribute to sustained sphincter motoneurone firing during continence.  (+info)

5-Hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) is a chemical compound that is produced by the body as a precursor to serotonin, a neurotransmitter that helps regulate mood, appetite, sleep, and pain sensation. 5-HTP is not present in food but can be derived from the amino acid tryptophan, which is found in high-protein foods such as turkey, chicken, milk, and cheese.

5-HTP supplements are sometimes used to treat conditions related to low serotonin levels, including depression, anxiety, insomnia, migraines, and fibromyalgia. However, the effectiveness of 5-HTP for these conditions is not well established, and it can have side effects and interact with certain medications. Therefore, it's important to consult a healthcare provider before taking 5-HTP supplements.

Fenclonine is not a commonly used medical term or a medication in clinical practice. It's possible that you may have encountered this term in the context of research or scientific studies. Fenclonine is an experimental drug that has been investigated for its potential role as an inhibitor of bacterial enzymes, specifically the D-alanine:D-alanine ligase (DD-transpeptidase) involved in bacterial cell wall biosynthesis.

Inhibiting this enzyme can disrupt the integrity and growth of bacteria, making fenclonine a potential antibiotic agent. However, further research is required to establish its safety, efficacy, and therapeutic applications. As such, it's not currently used as a standard treatment option in human medicine.

For accurate information regarding medical definitions or treatments, consult with healthcare professionals or refer to reputable medical resources.

Serotonin, also known as 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), is a monoamine neurotransmitter that is found primarily in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, blood platelets, and the central nervous system (CNS) of humans and other animals. It is produced by the conversion of the amino acid tryptophan to 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), and then to serotonin.

In the CNS, serotonin plays a role in regulating mood, appetite, sleep, memory, learning, and behavior, among other functions. It also acts as a vasoconstrictor, helping to regulate blood flow and blood pressure. In the GI tract, it is involved in peristalsis, the contraction and relaxation of muscles that moves food through the digestive system.

Serotonin is synthesized and stored in serotonergic neurons, which are nerve cells that use serotonin as their primary neurotransmitter. These neurons are found throughout the brain and spinal cord, and they communicate with other neurons by releasing serotonin into the synapse, the small gap between two neurons.

Abnormal levels of serotonin have been linked to a variety of disorders, including depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, and migraines. Medications that affect serotonin levels, such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), are commonly used to treat these conditions.

Benperidol is a butyrophenone derivative that is primarily used as an antipsychotic medication. Its medical definition can be broken down into its chemical class, mechanism of action, and clinical uses.

Chemical Class: Benperidol belongs to the chemical class of butyrophenones, which are a group of synthetic compounds with diverse pharmacological activities, including antipsychotic, antiemetic, and sedative effects.

Mechanism of Action: Benperidol works by blocking dopamine receptors in the brain, particularly the D2 receptor subtype. Dopamine is a neurotransmitter that plays a crucial role in regulating movement, emotion, and cognition. By blocking dopamine receptors, benperidol reduces the amount of dopamine available to stimulate these receptors, which can help alleviate symptoms of psychosis, such as hallucinations, delusions, and disorganized thinking.

Clinical Uses: Benperidol is primarily used to treat chronic schizophrenia and other related psychotic disorders. It may also be used off-label for the management of severe aggression or agitation in individuals with developmental disabilities or dementia. However, its use is limited due to its significant side effects, including extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS), such as rigidity, tremors, and involuntary movements, and potential for causing tardive dyskinesia, a neurological disorder characterized by involuntary movements of the face, tongue, or limbs.

It is important to note that benperidol should only be prescribed and administered under the supervision of a qualified healthcare professional, as its use requires careful monitoring and management of potential side effects.

Tryptophan hydroxylase is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the synthesis of neurotransmitters and hormones, including serotonin and melatonin. It catalyzes the conversion of the essential amino acid tryptophan to 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), which is then further converted to serotonin. This enzyme exists in two isoforms, TPH1 and TPH2, with TPH1 primarily located in peripheral tissues and TPH2 mainly found in the brain. The regulation of tryptophan hydroxylase activity has significant implications for mood, appetite, sleep, and pain perception.

Cyproheptadine is an antihistamine and anticholinergic medication that is primarily used to treat symptoms of allergies, such as runny nose, sneezing, and itching. It works by blocking the action of histamine, a substance in the body that causes allergic reactions.

Cyproheptadine also has other uses, including the treatment of migraines and cluster headaches, appetite stimulation in people with certain medical conditions, and as a sedative in some cases. It is available in various forms, such as tablets, capsules, and syrup.

Like all medications, cyproheptadine can have side effects, including drowsiness, dry mouth, dizziness, and blurred vision. It is important to follow the dosage instructions carefully and talk to a healthcare provider if you experience any bothersome or persistent side effects.

Dopa decarboxylase (DDC) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the synthesis of dopamine and serotonin, two important neurotransmitters in the human body. This enzyme is responsible for converting levodopa (L-DOPA), an amino acid precursor, into dopamine, a critical neurotransmitter involved in movement regulation, motivation, reward, and mood.

The gene that encodes dopa decarboxylase is DDC, located on chromosome 7p12.2-p12.1. The enzyme is widely expressed throughout the body, including the brain, kidneys, liver, and gut. In addition to its role in neurotransmitter synthesis, dopa decarboxylase also contributes to the metabolism of certain drugs, such as levodopa and carbidopa, which are used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease.

Deficiencies or mutations in the DDC gene can lead to various neurological disorders, including aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase deficiency (AADCD), a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by decreased levels of dopamine and serotonin. Symptoms of AADCD may include developmental delay, movement disorders, seizures, autonomic dysfunction, and oculogyric crises.

Aromatic-L-amino-acid decarboxylases (ALADs) are a group of enzymes that play a crucial role in the synthesis of neurotransmitters and biogenic amines in the body. These enzymes catalyze the decarboxylation of aromatic L-amino acids, such as L-dopa, L-tryptophan, and L-phenylalanine, to produce corresponding neurotransmitters or biogenic amines, including dopamine, serotonin, and histamine, respectively.

There are two main types of ALADs in humans: dopa decarboxylase (DDC) and tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH). DDC is responsible for the conversion of L-dopa to dopamine, which is a crucial neurotransmitter involved in movement regulation. TPH, on the other hand, catalyzes the rate-limiting step in serotonin synthesis by converting L-tryptophan to 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), which is then converted to serotonin by another enzyme called aromatic amino acid decarboxylase.

Deficiencies or mutations in ALADs can lead to various neurological and psychiatric disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, dopa-responsive dystonia, and depression. Therefore, understanding the function and regulation of ALADs is essential for developing effective therapies for these conditions.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Hydroxytryptophol" is not a recognized or established term in medicine or biochemistry. It seems like it might be a combination of "hydroxytryptophan," which is a naturally occurring amino acid, and "-ol," which is a suffix often used to denote an alcohol. However, I can't find any scientific literature or studies referring to a compound named "Hydroxytryptophol." It's possible there might be a spelling mistake or a misunderstanding in the term. If you have more context or information, I'd be happy to help further!

Kynurenine aminotransferase (also known as Kynuramine transaminase) is an enzyme that plays a role in the metabolism of the amino acid tryptophan. This enzyme catalyzes the conversion of kynurenine to kynurenic acid, which is a neuroprotective compound.

Kynurenine and kynurenic acid are both important components of the kynurenine pathway, which is a major metabolic route for tryptophan in mammals. The kynurenine pathway plays a role in various physiological processes, including the immune response and the regulation of neurotransmission.

Abnormalities in the kynurenine pathway have been implicated in several neurological and psychiatric disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, and depression. Therefore, understanding the enzymes involved in this pathway, including kynuramine transaminase, is important for gaining insights into the underlying mechanisms of these diseases and for developing potential therapeutic strategies.

5,6-Dihydroxytryptamine is a chemical compound that is classified as a derivative of tryptamine. Tryptamine is a naturally occurring amine that is formed from the essential amino acid, tryptophan. 5,6-Dihydroxytryptamine is formed by the hydroxylation of tryptamine at the 5th and 6th carbon atoms of its indole ring structure.

This compound is not typically found in significant quantities in biological systems under normal conditions. However, it can be synthesized and has been studied for its potential pharmacological properties. Like other tryptamines, 5,6-Dihydroxytryptamine has an affinity for various serotonin receptors, and it has been found to act as a full agonist at the 5-HT1A receptor.

It is worth noting that 5,6-Dihydroxytryptamine should not be confused with 5-HTP (5-Hydroxytryptophan) or serotonin (5-HT), which are also tryptamine derivatives but have different structures and functions in the body.

Hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5HIAA) is a major metabolite of the neurotransmitter serotonin, formed in the body through the enzymatic degradation of serotonin by monoamine oxidase and aldehyde dehydrogenase. 5HIAA is primarily excreted in the urine and its measurement can be used as a biomarker for serotonin synthesis and metabolism in the body.

Increased levels of 5HIAA in the cerebrospinal fluid or urine may indicate conditions associated with excessive serotonin production, such as carcinoid syndrome, while decreased levels may be seen in certain neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson's disease. Therefore, measuring 5HIAA levels can have diagnostic and therapeutic implications for these conditions.

Methysergide is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called ergot alkaloids. It is primarily used for the prophylaxis (prevention) of migraine headaches. Methysergide works by narrowing blood vessels around the brain, which is thought to help prevent migraines.

The medical definition of Methysergide is:
A semisynthetic ergot alkaloid derivative used in the prophylaxis of migraine and cluster headaches. It has both agonist and antagonist properties at serotonin receptors, and its therapeutic effects are thought to be related to its ability to block the binding of serotonin to its receptors. However, methysergide can have serious side effects, including fibrotic reactions in various organs, such as the heart, lungs, and kidneys, so it is usually used only for short periods of time and under close medical supervision.

Pargyline is an antihypertensive drug and a irreversible monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) of type B. It works by blocking the breakdown of certain chemicals in the brain, such as neurotransmitters, which can help improve mood and behavior in people with depression.

Pargyline is not commonly used as a first-line treatment for depression due to its potential for serious side effects, including interactions with certain foods and medications that can lead to dangerously high blood pressure. It is also associated with a risk of serotonin syndrome when taken with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) or other drugs that increase serotonin levels in the brain.

Pargyline is available only through a prescription and should be used under the close supervision of a healthcare provider.

Ritanserin is a medication that belongs to the class of drugs known as serotonin antagonists. It works by blocking the action of serotonin, a neurotransmitter in the brain, which helps to reduce anxiety and improve mood. Ritanserin was initially developed for the treatment of depression and schizophrenia, but its development was discontinued due to its side effects.

The medical definition of Ritanserin is:

A piperazine derivative and a serotonin antagonist that has been used in the treatment of depression and schizophrenia. Its therapeutic effect is thought to be related to its ability to block the action of serotonin at 5HT2 receptors. However, development of ritanserin was discontinued due to its side effects, including orthostatic hypotension, dizziness, and sedation. It has also been studied for its potential in treating cocaine addiction and alcohol withdrawal syndrome.

Nialamide is not typically considered in modern medical definitions as it is an older, first-generation monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) that has largely been replaced by newer and safer medications. However, for the sake of completeness:

Nialamide is a non-selective, irreversible monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) antidepressant. It works by blocking the action of monoamine oxidase, an enzyme that breaks down certain neurotransmitters such as serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine in the brain. This increases the availability of these neurotransmitters, which can help to elevate mood in individuals with depression.

It's important to note that MAOIs like Nialamide have significant dietary and medication restrictions due to their potential for serious and life-threatening interactions with certain foods and medications. Their use is generally reserved for treatment-resistant cases of depression and other psychiatric disorders, when other treatment options have been exhausted.

Benserazide is a type of medication called an inhibitor of peripheral aromatic amino acid decarboxylase. It is often used in combination with levodopa to treat Parkinson's disease. Benserazide works by preventing the conversion of levodopa to dopamine outside of the brain, which helps to reduce the side effects of levodopa and increase the amount of dopamine that reaches the brain. This can help to improve the symptoms of Parkinson's disease, such as stiffness, tremors, and difficulty with movement.

Benserazide is available in combination with levodopa under the brand name Madopar. It is taken orally, usually in the form of tablets. The specific dosage of benserazide will depend on the individual's needs and should be determined by a healthcare professional.

It is important to note that benserazide can interact with other medications, so it is important to inform your doctor about all the medications you are taking before starting treatment with benserazide. Additionally, benserazide may cause side effects, such as nausea, dizziness, and dry mouth. If you experience any severe or persistent side effects while taking benserazide, you should contact your healthcare provider.

Carbidopa is a peripheral decarboxylase inhibitor used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. It works by preventing the conversion of levodopa to dopamine outside of the brain, allowing more levodopa to reach the brain and reduce the symptoms of Parkinson's disease. Carbidopa is often combined with levodopa in medication formulations and is available under various brand names, such as Sinemet.

Here are some key points about carbidopa:

* It is a peripheral decarboxylase inhibitor that prevents the conversion of levodopa to dopamine outside of the brain.
* Carbidopa is often combined with levodopa in medication formulations for the treatment of Parkinson's disease.
* By preventing the conversion of levodopa to dopamine outside of the brain, more levodopa can reach the brain and reduce the symptoms of Parkinson's disease.
* Common side effects of carbidopa include nausea, vomiting, and orthostatic hypotension.
* Carbidopa should be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional and dosed appropriately to minimize side effects and maximize therapeutic benefit.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Methyltyrosines" is not a widely recognized medical term or concept in the field of medicine or biochemistry. It seems that there might be some misunderstanding or typo in your question.

If you are referring to "3-Methoxytyrosine" or "3-MT," it is a metabolite of dopamine, which is formed in the body by the enzyme catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT). 3-MT can be measured in various biological samples, such as urine or plasma, to evaluate the activity of COMT and assess the exposure to drugs that inhibit this enzyme.

If you meant something else by "Methyltyrosines," please provide more context or clarify your question so I can give a more accurate answer.

"Perna" is not a term commonly used in medical terminology. However, "Perna canaliculus" is a species of marine mussel that is native to New Zealand and is sometimes referred to as the "green-lipped mussel." This mollusk has been studied for its potential anti-inflammatory properties due to the presence of omega-3 fatty acids, antioxidants, and other bioactive compounds.

Extracts from Perna canaliculus have been used in some dietary supplements and alternative medicine practices as a treatment for inflammatory conditions such as osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. However, more research is needed to fully understand the potential benefits and risks of using these extracts.

Therefore, "Perna" in medical terms typically refers to the green-lipped mussel (Perna canaliculus) and its potential anti-inflammatory properties.

Thioridazine is an antipsychotic medication that belongs to the class of phenothiazines. It works by blocking dopamine receptors in the brain, which helps to reduce psychotic symptoms such as delusions, hallucinations, and disordered thought processes. Thioridazine is used to treat schizophrenia and other mental disorders associated with anxiety, agitation, or hostility.

It's important to note that thioridazine has been associated with serious side effects, including prolongation of the QT interval on the electrocardiogram (ECG), which can lead to potentially fatal arrhythmias. Therefore, its use is generally reserved for patients who have not responded to other antipsychotic medications or who cannot tolerate them. Thioridazine has been withdrawn from the market in many countries due to these safety concerns.

Dihydroxyphenylalanine is not a medical term per se, but it is a chemical compound that is often referred to in the context of biochemistry and neuroscience. It is also known as levodopa or L-DOPA for short.

L-DOPA is a precursor to dopamine, a neurotransmitter that plays a critical role in regulating movement, emotion, and cognition. In the brain, L-DOPA is converted into dopamine through the action of an enzyme called tyrosine hydroxylase.

L-DOPA is used medically to treat Parkinson's disease, a neurological disorder characterized by motor symptoms such as tremors, rigidity, and bradykinesia (slowness of movement). In Parkinson's disease, the dopamine-producing neurons in the brain gradually degenerate, leading to a deficiency of dopamine. By providing L-DOPA as a replacement therapy, doctors can help alleviate some of the symptoms of the disease.

It is important to note that L-DOPA has potential side effects and risks, including nausea, dizziness, and behavioral changes. Long-term use of L-DOPA can also lead to motor complications such as dyskinesias (involuntary movements) and fluctuations in response to the medication. Therefore, it is typically used in combination with other medications and under the close supervision of a healthcare provider.

Serotonin antagonists are a class of drugs that block the action of serotonin, a neurotransmitter, at specific receptor sites in the brain and elsewhere in the body. They work by binding to the serotonin receptors without activating them, thereby preventing the natural serotonin from binding and transmitting signals.

Serotonin antagonists are used in the treatment of various conditions such as psychiatric disorders, migraines, and nausea and vomiting associated with cancer chemotherapy. They can have varying degrees of affinity for different types of serotonin receptors (e.g., 5-HT2A, 5-HT3, etc.), which contributes to their specific therapeutic effects and side effect profiles.

Examples of serotonin antagonists include ondansetron (used to treat nausea and vomiting), risperidone and olanzapine (used to treat psychiatric disorders), and methysergide (used to prevent migraines). It's important to note that these medications should be used under the supervision of a healthcare provider, as they can have potential risks and interactions with other drugs.

Tryptophan is an essential amino acid, meaning it cannot be synthesized by the human body and must be obtained through dietary sources. Its chemical formula is C11H12N2O2. Tryptophan plays a crucial role in various biological processes as it serves as a precursor to several important molecules, including serotonin, melatonin, and niacin (vitamin B3). Serotonin is a neurotransmitter involved in mood regulation, appetite control, and sleep-wake cycles, while melatonin is a hormone that regulates sleep-wake patterns. Niacin is essential for energy production and DNA repair.

Foods rich in tryptophan include turkey, chicken, fish, eggs, cheese, milk, nuts, seeds, and whole grains. In some cases, tryptophan supplementation may be recommended to help manage conditions related to serotonin imbalances, such as depression or insomnia, but this should only be done under the guidance of a healthcare professional due to potential side effects and interactions with other medications.

Levodopa, also known as L-dopa, is a medication used primarily in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. It is a direct precursor to the neurotransmitter dopamine and works by being converted into dopamine in the brain, helping to restore the balance between dopamine and other neurotransmitters. This helps alleviate symptoms such as stiffness, tremors, spasms, and poor muscle control. Levodopa is often combined with carbidopa (a peripheral decarboxylase inhibitor) to prevent the conversion of levodopa to dopamine outside of the brain, reducing side effects like nausea and vomiting.

5,7-Dihydroxytryptamine is a chemical compound that is a derivative of the neurotransmitter serotonin. It is formed by the hydroxylation of serotonin at the 5 and 7 positions of its indole ring. This compound is not typically found in significant concentrations in the body, but it can be synthesized and used for research purposes.

In the laboratory, 5,7-Dihydroxytryptamine has been used as a tool to study the role of serotonin in various physiological processes. For example, researchers have used this compound to selectively destroy serotonergic neurons in animal models, allowing them to investigate the functions of these neurons and their contributions to behavior and brain function.

It is important to note that 5,7-Dihydroxytryptamine is not a medication or therapeutic agent, and it should only be used in research settings under the guidance of trained professionals.

Quipazine is not generally considered a medical term, but it is a chemical compound that has been studied in the field of medicine and neuroscience. Quipazine is a type of drug known as a serotonin receptor agonist, which means it binds to and activates serotonin receptors in the brain.

Serotonin is a neurotransmitter, a chemical that transmits signals in the brain and nervous system, that plays a role in regulating mood, appetite, sleep, and other functions. Quipazine has been studied for its potential therapeutic uses in various conditions, including depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, and substance abuse disorders. However, it is not currently approved for use as a medication in any country.

It's important to note that while quipazine may have potential therapeutic benefits, it also has significant side effects, including seizures, changes in heart rate and blood pressure, and neuroleptic malignant syndrome, a potentially life-threatening condition characterized by muscle rigidity, fever, and autonomic dysfunction. As such, its use is generally limited to research settings.

Mescaline is a naturally occurring psychoactive alkaloid that is found in several species of cacti, including the peyote (Lophophora williamsii), San Pedro (Echinopsis pachanoi), and Peruvian torch (Echinopsis peruviana) cacti. It is known for its ability to produce profound changes in consciousness, mood, and perception when ingested.

In a medical context, mescaline is classified as a hallucinogen or psychedelic drug. It works by binding to serotonin receptors in the brain, which leads to altered states of consciousness, including visual hallucinations, distorted perceptions of time and space, and altered emotional states.

It's important to note that while mescaline has been used for centuries in religious and spiritual practices among indigenous communities, its use is not without risks. High doses can lead to unpleasant or even dangerous psychological effects, such as anxiety, panic, and psychosis. Additionally, the legal status of mescaline varies by country and region, so it's important to be aware of local laws and regulations before using it.

Biogenic amines are organic compounds that are derived from the metabolic pathways of various biological organisms, including humans. They are formed by the decarboxylation of amino acids, which are the building blocks of proteins. Some examples of biogenic amines include histamine, serotonin, dopamine, and tyramine.

Histamine is a biogenic amine that plays an important role in the immune system's response to foreign invaders, such as allergens. It is also involved in regulating stomach acid production and sleep-wake cycles. Serotonin is another biogenic amine that acts as a neurotransmitter, transmitting signals between nerve cells in the brain. It is involved in regulating mood, appetite, and sleep.

Dopamine is a biogenic amine that functions as a neurotransmitter and is involved in reward and pleasure pathways in the brain. Tyramine is a biogenic amine that is found in certain foods, such as aged cheeses and fermented soy products. It can cause an increase in blood pressure when consumed in large quantities.

Biogenic amines can have various effects on the body, depending on their type and concentration. In general, they play important roles in many physiological processes, but high levels of certain biogenic amines can be harmful and may cause symptoms such as headache, nausea, and hypertension.

Dibenzothiepins are a class of chemical compounds that contain a dibenzothiepin ring structure. This ring structure is composed of two benzene rings fused to a thiepin ring, which is a six-membered ring containing a sulfur atom and a double bond.

In the medical field, dibenzothiepins are primarily known for their use as antipsychotic drugs. The first dibenzothiepin antipsychotic, clopenthixol, was synthesized in the 1960s and found to have potent antipsychotic effects. Since then, several other dibenzothiepins have been developed for use as antipsychotics, including flupentixol and thiothixene.

These drugs work by blocking dopamine receptors in the brain, which helps to reduce the symptoms of psychosis such as hallucinations, delusions, and disorganized thinking. However, they can also cause side effects such as extrapyramidal symptoms (involuntary muscle movements), sedation, and weight gain.

It's worth noting that while dibenzothiepins have been used as antipsychotics for several decades, they are not commonly prescribed today due to the availability of newer antipsychotic drugs with fewer side effects.

Reserpine is an alkaloid derived from the Rauwolfia serpentina plant, which has been used in traditional medicine for its sedative and hypotensive effects. In modern medicine, reserpine is primarily used to treat hypertension (high blood pressure) due to its ability to lower both systolic and diastolic blood pressure.

Reserpine works by depleting catecholamines, including norepinephrine, epinephrine, and dopamine, from nerve terminals in the sympathetic nervous system. This leads to a decrease in peripheral vascular resistance and heart rate, ultimately resulting in reduced blood pressure.

Reserpine is available in various forms, such as tablets or capsules, and is typically administered orally. Common side effects include nasal congestion, dizziness, sedation, and gastrointestinal disturbances like diarrhea and nausea. Long-term use of reserpine may also lead to depression in some individuals. Due to its potential for causing depression, other antihypertensive medications are often preferred over reserpine when possible.

Methyldopa is a centrally acting antihypertensive drug, which means it works in the brain to lower blood pressure. It is a synthetic derivative of the amino acid L-DOPA and acts as a false neurotransmitter, mimicking the action of norepinephrine in the brain. This results in decreased sympathetic outflow from the central nervous system, leading to vasodilation and reduced blood pressure. Methyldopa is used primarily for the treatment of hypertension (high blood pressure) and is available in oral formulations.

Serotonin receptors are a type of cell surface receptor that bind to the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT). They are widely distributed throughout the body, including the central and peripheral nervous systems, where they play important roles in regulating various physiological processes such as mood, appetite, sleep, memory, learning, and cognition.

There are seven different classes of serotonin receptors (5-HT1 to 5-HT7), each with multiple subtypes, that exhibit distinct pharmacological properties and signaling mechanisms. These receptors are G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) or ligand-gated ion channels, which activate intracellular signaling pathways upon serotonin binding.

Serotonin receptors have been implicated in various neurological and psychiatric disorders, including depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, and migraine. Therefore, selective serotonin receptor agonists or antagonists are used as therapeutic agents for the treatment of these conditions.

Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) are a class of drugs that work by blocking the action of monoamine oxidase, an enzyme found in the brain and other organs of the body. This enzyme is responsible for breaking down certain neurotransmitters, such as serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine, which are chemicals that transmit signals in the brain.

By inhibiting the action of monoamine oxidase, MAOIs increase the levels of these neurotransmitters in the brain, which can help to alleviate symptoms of depression and other mood disorders. However, MAOIs also affect other chemicals in the body, including tyramine, a substance found in some foods and beverages, as well as certain medications. As a result, MAOIs can have serious side effects and interactions with other substances, making them a less commonly prescribed class of antidepressants than other types of drugs.

MAOIs are typically used as a last resort when other treatments for depression have failed, due to their potential for dangerous interactions and side effects. They require careful monitoring and dosage adjustment by a healthcare provider, and patients must follow strict dietary restrictions while taking them.

Tryptamines are a class of organic compounds that contain a tryptamine skeleton, which is a combination of an indole ring and a ethylamine side chain. They are commonly found in nature and can be synthesized in the lab. Some tryptamines have psychedelic properties and are used as recreational drugs, such as dimethyltryptamine (DMT) and psilocybin. Others have important roles in the human body, such as serotonin, which is a neurotransmitter that regulates mood, appetite, and sleep. Tryptamines can also be found in some plants and animals, including certain species of mushrooms, toads, and catnip.

Myoclonus is a medical term that describes a quick, involuntary jerking muscle spasm. These spasms can happen once or repeat in a series, and they can range from mild to severe in nature. Myoclonus can affect any muscle in the body and can be caused by several different conditions, including certain neurological disorders, injuries, or diseases. In some cases, myoclonus may occur without an identifiable cause.

There are various types of myoclonus, classified based on their underlying causes, patterns of occurrence, and associated symptoms. Some common forms include:

1. Action myoclonus: Occurs during voluntary muscle movements
2. Stimulus-sensitive myoclonus: Triggered by external or internal stimuli, such as touch, sound, or light
3. Physiological myoclonus: Normal muscle jerks that occur during sleep onset (hypnic jerks) or during sleep (nocturnal myoclonus)
4. Reflex myoclonus: Result of a reflex arc activation due to a peripheral nerve stimulation
5. Epileptic myoclonus: Part of an epilepsy syndrome, often involving the brainstem or cortex
6. Symptomatic myoclonus: Occurs as a result of an underlying medical condition, such as metabolic disorders, infections, or neurodegenerative diseases

Treatment for myoclonus depends on the specific type and underlying cause. Medications, physical therapy, or lifestyle modifications may be recommended to help manage symptoms and improve quality of life.

Kynurenine is an organic compound that is produced in the human body as part of the metabolism of the essential amino acid tryptophan. It is an intermediate in the kynurenine pathway, which leads to the production of several neuroactive compounds and NAD+, a coenzyme involved in redox reactions.

Kynurenine itself does not have any known physiological function, but some of its metabolites have been found to play important roles in various biological processes, including immune response, inflammation, and neurological function. For example, the kynurenine pathway produces several neuroactive metabolites that can act as agonists or antagonists at various receptors in the brain, affecting neuronal excitability, synaptic plasticity, and neurotransmission.

Abnormalities in the kynurenine pathway have been implicated in several neurological disorders, including depression, schizophrenia, Alzheimer's disease, and Huntington's disease. Therefore, understanding the regulation of this pathway and its metabolites has become an important area of research in neuroscience and neuropsychopharmacology.

Sulpiride is an antipsychotic drug that belongs to the chemical class of benzamides. It primarily acts as a selective dopamine D2 and D3 receptor antagonist. Sulpiride is used in the treatment of various psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, psychosis, anxiety, and depression. In addition, it has been found to be effective in managing gastrointestinal disorders like gastroparesis due to its prokinetic effects on the gastrointestinal tract.

The medical definition of Sulpiride is as follows:

Sulpiride (INN, BAN), also known as Sultopride (USAN) or SP, is a selective dopamine D2 and D3 receptor antagonist used in the treatment of various psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, psychosis, anxiety, and depression. It has been found to be effective in managing gastrointestinal disorders like gastroparesis due to its prokinetic effects on the gastrointestinal tract. Sulpiride is available under various brand names worldwide, including Dogmatil, Sulpitac, and Espirid."

Please note that this definition includes information about the drug's therapeutic uses, which are essential aspects of understanding a medication in its entirety.

5-HTP is sold over the counter in the United States, France, Canada, Singapore, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom as a ... 5-Hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), also known as oxitriptan, is a naturally occurring amino acid and chemical precursor as well as a ... 5-HTP is necessary for serotonin production and its concentrations in the brain also decrease after taking MDMA. Other usage At ... 5-HTP use after MDMA MDMA is an empathogenic-entactogenic and serotonergic psychotropic drug used primarily for recreational, ...
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4-Methyl-αMT 5-Fluoro-αMT 5-MeO-αMT α-Ethyltryptamine α,N-DMT α,N,N-TMT α-Methyl-5-HT MAOI potency was comparable at 7 μM/kg, ... The 5-Methoxy analogue, 5-MeO-αMT is schedule 9 in Australia and αMT would be controlled as an analogue of this. As of October ... αMT was made illegal in the United Kingdom as of 7 January 2015, along with 5-MeO-DALT. This was following the events of 10 ... 29 (5): 394-397. doi:10.1093/jat/29.5.394. PMID 16105268. "Erowid AMT Vault : Effects". "Erowid 5-MeO-AMT Vault : Legal Status ...
"The effect of the antihistaminic drugs on the central action of 5-hydroxytryptophan in mice". Polish Journal of Pharmacology ...
24 (5): 841-849. doi:10.1002/pro.2657. ISSN 1469-896X. PMC 4420532. PMID 25645104. Han Q, Phillips RS, Li J (2019-04-10). " ... 5: 29. doi:10.3389/fmolb.2018.00029. PMC 5897657. PMID 29682508. Weininger, Ulrich (2019). "Optimal Isotope Labeling of ... Tryptophan is the precursor to 5-hydroxytryptophan and then serotonin, tryptamine, auxin, kynurenines, and melatonin. In plants ... Glyphosate can easily affect the maintenance of the gut microbiota in host organisms by specifically inhibiting the 5- ...
22 (5): 606-616. doi:10.1177/0883073807302619. PMID 17690069. S2CID 10689202. "Home". Escalante-Acosta, Bruno Alfonso; Ramos- ... Another diagnostic method is to measure Pteridine levels in urine and to measure neurotransmitters 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid (5 ... Treatment options include substitution with neurotransmitter precursors (levodopa, 5-hydroxytryptophan), monoamine oxidase ...
17 (5): 454-60. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0749.2004.00185.x. PMID 15357831. Coates PM, Blackman MR, Cragg GM, Levine M, Moss J, White ... 85 (1): 5-13. doi:10.1111/1750-3841.14952. PMID 31856339. Hattori A, Migitaka H, Iigo M, Itoh M, Yamamoto K, Ohtani-Kaneko R, ... Salehi B (5 July 2019). "Melatonin in Medicinal and Food Plants" (PDF). Cells. 681. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 ... A 1.2-shift of the hydrogen and then a loss of one of the two hydrogen atoms on C5 reestablishes aromaticity to furnish 5- ...
5-HIAA is tested by 24-hour urine samples combined with an acidic additive to maintain pH below 3. Certain foods like pineapple ... Since 5-HIAA is a metabolite of serotonin, testing is most frequently performed for the diagnosis of carcinoid tumors of the ... Quantitation of urinary 5-HIAA is the best test for carcinoid, but scrupulous care must be taken that specimen collection and ... 5-Hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) is the main metabolite of serotonin. In chemical analysis of urine samples, 5-HIAA is used ...
5 (2): 125-9. doi:10.1016/0378-4274(80)90161-7. PMID 6781106. (Chemical articles with multiple compound IDs, Multiple chemicals ... Carbidopa Methyldopa Zbinden G, Brändle E (February 1980). "Inhibition of 5-hydroxytryptophan nephrotoxicity by alpha- ...
163 (5): 1191-1203. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2015.10.074. PMC 4899047. PMID 26590422. Hägglund, Martin; Borgius, Lotta; Dougherty, ... "Bistability of alpha-motoneurones in the decerebrate cat and in the acute spinal cat after intravenous 5-hydroxytryptophan". ...
17 (1): 33-5. doi:10.1038/nn.3587. PMC 4974073. PMID 24270185. "Scientists find brain region that helps you make up your mind ... 31 (5): 658-72. doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2007.01.004. PMID 17379307. S2CID 12856377. Antolin-Fontes B, Ables JL, Görlich A, ... 21 (5): 277-295. doi:10.1038/s41583-020-0292-4. ISSN 1471-0048. PMID 32269316. S2CID 215411587. Geisler S, Trimble M (June 2008 ... 447 (7148): 1111-5. Bibcode:2007Natur.447.1111M. doi:10.1038/nature05860. PMID 17522629. S2CID 4418279. Shumake J, Ilango A, ...
with P. E. Harrison-Read: Lithium-induced Hypersensitivity to Foot Shock in Rats and the Role of 5-Hydroxytryptophan. Nature ...
26 (5): 274-281. doi:10.1016/j.tips.2005.03.007. PMID 15860375. Wang X, Li J, Dong G, Yue J (February 2014). "The endogenous ... VMAT2 is the CNS vesicular transporter for not only the biogenic amines DA, NE, EPI, 5-HT, and HIS, but likely also for the ... 45 (5): 351-8. doi:10.1016/j.npep.2011.07.006. PMC 3170513. PMID 21855138. Miller GM (January 2011). "The emerging role of ... 5 (1): 64-71. PMID 10696120. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 August 2004. van Praag HM (March 1981). "Management of ...
112 (5): 725-35. doi:10.1172/JCI17786. PMC 182196. PMID 12952921. Khoo JP, Zhao L, Alp NJ, Bendall JK, Nicoli T, Rockett K, et ... 39 (5): 313-8. doi:10.1111/j.1469-8749.1997.tb07437.x. PMID 9236697. S2CID 12761124. Frye RE, Huffman LC, Elliott GR (July 2010 ... 85 (5): 893-899. doi:10.1111/bcp.13886. PMC 6475685. PMID 30720885. van Wegberg AM, MacDonald A, Ahring K, Bélanger-Quintana A ... ISBN 978-0-12-416687-5. Schaub J, Däumling S, Curtius HC, Niederwieser A, Bartholomé K, Viscontini M, et al. (August 1978). " ...
5-HTP is sold over the counter in the United States, France, Canada, Singapore, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom as a ... 5-Hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), also known as oxitriptan, is a naturally occurring amino acid and chemical precursor as well as a ... 5-HTP is necessary for serotonin production and its concentrations in the brain also decrease after taking MDMA. Other usage At ... 5-HTP use after MDMA MDMA is an empathogenic-entactogenic and serotonergic psychotropic drug used primarily for recreational, ...
5-HTP at 50 to 100 mg thrice daily is well tolerated when used at recommended doses alone or in combination with conventional ... 5-HTP is generally recommended over l-tryptophan because it crosses the blood-brain barrier at a higher rate, is converted into ... L-Tryptophan and 5-Hydroxytryptophan in Mental Health Care Both amino acids have beneficial effects on many mental health ... 5-HTP is also moderately sedating and doses greater than 100 mg should be taken at bedtime. Cases of serious serotonin syndrome ...
Learn how to find the best L-Tryptophan and 5-Hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) supplements, evidence for using L-tryptophan or 5-HTP ... Find out which L-Tryptophan and 5-Hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) supplements passed our tests. ... 5-HTP is taken at a daily dose of about 50 mg to 900 mg depending on the use, and divided during the day. (See What to Consider ... Become a Member to View the Latest Update: in our L-tryptophan and 5-Hydroxy-L-tryptophan (5-HTP) Review First Name. ...
Find everything you need to know about 5-HTP (5-Hydroxytryptophan), including what it is used for, warnings, reviews, side ... Learn more about 5-HTP (5-Hydroxytryptophan) at EverydayHealth.com. ... Taking 5-hydroxytryptophan while you are breast-feeding is possibly unsafe. Do not use this product if you are breastfeeding a ... Taking 5-hydroxytryptophan while you are breast-feeding is possibly unsafe. Do not use this product if you are breastfeeding a ...
L-Dopa and 5-HTP replacement was begun at age 7 mo. This therapy generally corrected the deficiency of monoamines and their ... These findings indicate the complexity in replacement therapy with L-dopa and 5-HTP, but suggest that this treatment may be ... Furthermore, the clinical and biochemical effects of L-dopa were inhibited by phenylalanine and 5-HTP, respectively, ... Treatment with L-dopa and 5-hydroxytryptophan compared with therapy with a tetrahydropterin.. ...
Baldessarini RJ Myoclonus After 5 Hydroxytryptophan In Rats With Lesions Of Indoleamine Neurons In The Central Nervous System ... AND SEIZURES WAS PRODUCED FOLLOWING THE SYSTEMIC ADMINISTRATION OF HYDROXYTRYPTOPHAN TO ADULT RATS PREVIOUSLY GIVEN ... "Myoclonus After 5 Hydroxytryptophan In Rats With Lesions Of Indoleamine Neurons In The Central Nervous System". ... "Myoclonus After 5 Hydroxytryptophan In Rats With Lesions Of Indoleamine Neurons In The Central Nervous System" Neurology. 1976; ...
The results indicate that the fluorescence does not originate from the 5-indoxyl radical as previously suggested but from one ... 1997, 65, 931) that multiphoton near infrared excitation of 5-hydroxytryptophan results in a transient product with green ... Visible fluorescence from multiphoton excitation enables detection of 5-hydroxytryptophan with extremely high sensitivity and ... Investigation of multiphoton-induced fluorescence from solutions of 5-hydroxytryptophan. Photochemical & Photobiological ...
Beauty Shot 5-HTP Active Mind Biotin Burn It LP CoEnzyme Q10 Detox Marine Collagen Vita-Min Complex Vitamin C Vitamin D3 ...
Understand the usages of 5-Hydroxytryptophan in various health conditions. Explore other smart treatment options, see research ... Tried or prescribed 5-Hydroxytryptophan? Share your experience. Have you? Ive Tried it 0 ... 3 4 5 6 7 8 Additionally, preliminary evidence suggests that 5-HTP can reduce symptoms of fibromyalgia 9 and perhaps help you ... Effect of 5-Hydroxytryptophan on Panic Disorder. Tryptophan is a naturally occurring amino acid in certain foods. In the human ...
If you care about your health and want products that offer protection and wellness, buy 5-Hydroxytryptophan Solgar and many ...
It contains pyridoxal 5-phosphate, the active form of vitamin B6 and the necessary cofactor for the conversion of 5-HTP to ... 5-HTP increases serotonin levels to promote restful sleep, manage stress, and decrease sugar cravings.* ... 5-HTP increases serotonin levels to promote restful sleep, manage stress, and decrease sugar cravings.* It contains pyridoxal 5 ... phosphate, the active form of vitamin B6 and the necessary cofactor for the conversion of 5-HTP to serotonin. ...
You can buy best 5 htp supplements with cost price from supplier YanggeBiotech.Sufficient Griffonia Seed is ensured by Whole ... 5 htp for sale best 5 htp best 5 htp for sleep buy 5htp griffonia seed extract cost 5 htp wholesale 5 htp hydroxytryptophan ... 5-htp Powder where to buy?. 5htp Powder to add this branded ingredient to your final product, please email us at: nancy@ ... 5-htp Powder where to buy?. 5htp Powder to add this branded ingredient to your final product, please email us at: nancy@ ...
5-Hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) is the intermediate metabolite produced when the body initiates the process of converting the ... 5-Hydroxytryptophan 100 mg.. Other Ingredients: Microcrystalline Cellulose, Hypromellose (derived from cellulose) capsule, ...
It is a by product of L-tryptophan, it works to increase the production of serotonin in the brain and central nervous system, which can affect sleep quality, pain sensation, anxiety, appetite etc. It is believed to be effective for depression, insomnia, obesity and many other conditions.
5-Hydroxtryptophan) encourages increased serotonin levels in the brain to promote a heightened state of emotional well-being, ... 5-Hydroxtryptophan) encourages increased serotonin levels in the brain to promote a heightened state of emotional well-being, ... Made with high-quality vegan ingredients backed by verifiable science 5-HTP ( ... Made with high-quality vegan ingredients backed by verifiable science 5-HTP ( ...
Promotes enhanced serotonin levels* May improve emotional well-being, appetite control and sleep/wake cycles* Made with hypoallergenic, vegan ingredients 5-HTP (5-Hydroxtryptophan) encourages increased serotonin levels in the brain to promote a heightened state of emotional well-being, support appetite control and slee
5-hye DROX ee TRIP toe fanBrand: 5-HTPWhat is the most important information I should know about 5-hydroxytryptophan?Follow all ... Taking 5-hydroxytryptophan while you are breast-feeding is possibly unsafe. Do not use this product if you are breast-feeding a ... Taking 5-hydroxytryptophan while you are pregnant is possibly unsafe. Do not use this product if you are pregnant. ... What are the possible side effects of 5-hydroxytryptophan?. Get emergency medical help if you have any of these signs of an ...
A blog post discussing 5-hydroxytryptophan in relation to the tryptophan - serotonin - melatonin cascade. Depression, sleeping ... Effects of L-5-hydroxytryptophan in autistic children. J Autism Child Schizophr. 1978;8: 171-180.. ***** Clarke G. et al. The ... Tryptophan and 5-Hydroxytryptophan for depression. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2002: CD003198. *** Caruso I. et al. Double- ... So to the title of this post: "Whats with 5-hydroxytryptophan?". Well, potentially quite a bit.. The first time I heard about ...
Thorne 5-hydroxytryptophan supplement will increase the serotonin levels for sleep enhancement, decreased sugar cravings & ...
Use left/right arrows to navigate the slideshow or swipe left/right if using a mobile ...
Made with high-quality ingredients backed by verifiable science Verifiable Science 5-Hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) is an intermedi ... 5-Hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) is an intermediate in the natural synthesis of the essential amino acid, tryptophan, to serotonin. ... The enzyme tryptophan hydroxylase adds a hydroxyl group (OH) to tryptophan, forming the 5-HTP intermediate. In the body, it ... administration of 5-HTP supported serotonin production.4 The 5-HTP supplied in this supplement is derived from the Griffonia ...
L-5-HTP (L-5-Hydroxytryptophan). Product Name: Griffonia Seeds ExtractL-5-HTP (L-5-Hydroxytryptophan). Active Ingredients: 5- ... Hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP). CAS No.: 4350-09-8. Molecular Formula: C11H12N2O3. Molecular Weight: 220.08. Structure:. ... 5-Hydroxytryptophan is an important building block for the human body to form serotonin. Serotonin plays an important role in ... The seeds of the plant are used as an herbal supplement for their 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) content. ...
Hydroxytryptophan) Supplement with Blend of L-Theanine, L-Tryptophan, GABA, Valerian Root Extract, Chamomile Leaf, Passion ... Hydroxytryptophan). Improved Mood: 5-HTP is commonly used to boost serotonin levels in the brain, which can lead to improved ... Hydroxytryptophan) is a great option for anyone who wants to support their mood and sleep naturally. This supplement is vegan- ... Hydroxytryptophan 7-in-1 Formula 650mg. Rated 5.00 out of 5 based on 2 customer ratings ...
Be the first to review "5-HTP (5-Hydroxytryptophan)" Cancel reply. Your email address will not be published. Required fields ... 5-HTP (5-Hydroxtryptophan) encourages increased serotonin levels in the brain to promote a heightened state of emotional well- ... 5-Hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) is an intermediate in the natural synthesis of the essential amino acid, tryptophan, to serotonin. ... The enzyme tryptophan hydroxylase adds a hydroxyl group (OH) to tryptophan, forming the 5-HTP intermediate. In the body, it ...
DSD010: Have you used or taken any vitamins, minerals or other dietary supplements in the past 30 days? Include prescription and non-prescription supplements.. Participants with a record of having taken a product determined to be a dietary supplement in the last 30 days are coded 1. This variable was edited and takes into account DS reported in any of the sub-sections of the DSQ. Some products were mistakenly recorded in the prescription medication sub-section. These data have been moved to the dietary supplement files and are counted as supplements for DSD010 and DSDCOUNT. Participants who took their antacid containing calcium or magnesium as a dietary supplement and reported them in the dietary supplement sub-section are also coded 1. Participants who reported taking an antacid containing calcium or magnesium in the last 30 days that was recorded only in the non-prescription antacid sub-section, but did not take any dietary supplement are coded 2. Participants who did not take any product that ...
5-hidroxitriptofano o 5-HTP puede convertirse en serotonina en el cuerpo. Utilizado a menudo para tratar la depresión. Tiene ... Mania following addition of hydroxytryptophan to monoamine oxidase inhibitor. Gen Hosp Psychiatry 2012;34:102.e13-4. ... Double-blind crossover study with levorotatory form of hydroxytryptophan in patients with degenerative cerebellar diseases. ... hydroxytryptophan and carbidopa. N Engl J Med 1-13-1977;296:70-75. View abstract. ...
Read our review of the top 5 best diet pills for women in 2021. ... List of Top 5 Best Diet Pills for Women [Review]. *PhenQ: Best ... 5. Powher Cut: Boosts Energy Levels. Best For Active Women & Boosts Energy Levels ... The Hourglass Fit weight loss pill contains 5-HTP, which may help you manage your mood. Heavy exercise and calorie-restricted ... Working in harmony with 5-HTP, Hourglass Fit may help you stick to your diet for longer. Hourglass Fit also contains Zinc, ...
Not sure for CES-DC cut-off ≥ 15 (total score range is 0 to 60) or SCARED cut-off inclusion criteria 5 ... Yes for CES-DC cut-off ≥ 15 (total score range is 0 to 60) or SCARED cut-off inclusion criteria 5 ... No for CES-DC cut-off ≥ 15 (total score range is 0 to 60) or SCARED cut-off inclusion criteria 5 ... Not sure for Medical History of Adverse Reaction to 5HTP exclusion criteria 5 ...
Tryptophan derivatives such as 5-hydroxytryptophan (5HTP) and serotonin are valuable molecules with pharmaceutical interest. ... From: Synthetic pathways and processes for effective production of 5-hydroxytryptophan and serotonin from glucose in ...
Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a systemic connective tissue disease. Characteristics of systemic sclerosis include essential vasomotor disturbances; fibrosis; subsequent atrophy of the skin (see the image below), subcutaneous tissue, muscles, and internal organs (eg, alimentary tract, lungs, heart, kidney, CNS); and immunologic disturbances acco...
  • 5-Hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), also known as oxitriptan, is a naturally occurring amino acid and chemical precursor as well as a metabolic intermediate in the biosynthesis of the neurotransmitter serotonin. (wikipedia.org)
  • 5-hydroxytryptophan, also known as 5-HTP, is a dietary supplement made from the seeds of the African plant Griffonia simplicifolia. (everydayhealth.com)
  • Griffonia Simplicifolia Extract l-5-HTP L-pentahydroxyl is extracted from African plant Ghana seeds to increase the production of serotonin in human blood by naturally increasing serotonin levels.5-hydroxytryptophan produces serotonin in the human body, which is helpful for normal nerve important substances and brain function. (yanggebiotech.com)
  • 5-HTP is commercially produced by extraction from the seeds of the African plant, Griffonia simplicifolia. (compoundingcornerpharmacy.com)
  • 4 The 5-HTP supplied in this supplement is derived from the Griffonia simplicifolia plant. (atlantafunctionalmedicine.com)
  • Manufacturers derive 5-HTP supplements from the ground seeds of the griffonia simplicifolia plant. (choosehelp.com)
  • 5-HTP is a naturally-occurring substance derived from the seed pods of Griffonia simplicifolia , a West African medicinal plant. (diagnose-me.com)
  • 5-hydroxytryptophan [5-HTP] and a tetrahydropterin [6-methyltetrahydropterin (6MPH4)] were investigated for their ability to normalize monoamine neurotransmitter metabolism. (jci.org)
  • 5-HTP is a precursor to serotonin, a neurotransmitter that might plays a key role in regulating mood. (hummingherbs.com)
  • 5-HTP Supreme is a dietary supplement containing 5-hydroxytryptophan and vitamin B6 for normal neurotransmitter metabolism support. (acuatlanta.net)
  • 5-HTP Supreme is a synergistic formula of 5-hydroxytryptophan and vitamin B6 for supporting normal neurotransmitter metabolism by providing precursors of serotonin. (acuatlanta.net)
  • The components in ZMA® are all important co-factors in the conversion of 5-HTP to serotonin, which is a neurotransmitter that helps to elevate mood and enhance sleep. (muscleandfitness.com)
  • In humans, 5-HTP is the immediate nutrient precursor to the neurotransmitter serotonin. (diagnose-me.com)
  • Choose the Best L-Tryptophan and 5-HTP Supplements. (consumerlab.com)
  • 5-HTP in supplements is generally safe, but rare cases of EMS have also been reported. (consumerlab.com)
  • Make sure you're choosing the best L-tryptophan or 5-HTP supplements approved in our tests! (consumerlab.com)
  • Avoid using 5-hydroxytryptophan together with other herbal/health supplements that can cause drowsiness. (everydayhealth.com)
  • Ingredients of 5-HTP+(Hydroxytryptophan) Supplements and their benefits. (hummingherbs.com)
  • 5-HTP is a necessary precursor for the production of serotonin and so using 5-HTP supplements can result in more serotonin and less depression. (choosehelp.com)
  • Other usage At high doses, or in combination with carbidopa, 5-HTP has been used to treat obesity (by promoting weight loss). (wikipedia.org)
  • In an open study, almost half of treatment-refractory depressed patients (N=100) responded to 5-HTP (up to 600 mg per day) in combination with 150 mg per day of carbidopa after several weeks of treatment. (psychologytoday.com)
  • Case reports show that some treatment-refractory patients improve when 300 mg per day of 5-HTP is combined with carbidopa (a peripheral monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI), tricyclic antidepressants , MAOIs, or serotonin selective reuptake inhibitors (SSRI). (psychologytoday.com)
  • Patients diagnosed with generalized anxiety disorder randomized to 5-HTP with carbidopa versus clomipramine reported equivalent and significant reductions in generalized anxiety. (psychologytoday.com)
  • Tomar 5-HTP junto con carbidopa puede aumentar el riesgo de efectos secundarios graves, como habla rápida, ansiedad, agresividad y otros. (medlineplus.gov)
  • A systematic review of RCTs on 5-HTP or l-tryptophan in depressed mood identified 108 studies, but design problems and small study size limited analysis of findings to only two studies (N=64) that met inclusion criteria. (psychologytoday.com)
  • On the basis of those limited findings, the reviewers concluded that 5-HTP is probably more effective than placebo at doses of 100 to 300 mg per day for moderately depressed mood. (psychologytoday.com)
  • 5-HTP+(Hydroxytryptophan) powerful 7-in-1 formula contains a blend of natural ingredients designed to promote relaxation, balance your mood, and support healthy sleep patterns. (hummingherbs.com)
  • Humming Herbs 5-HTP+ (Hydroxytryptophan) Mood & Sleep Support is a powerful blend of natural ingredients that work together to support your mood and promote healthy sleep patterns. (hummingherbs.com)
  • ZMA®-5 is an improved formula that combines the original ZMA® with the amino acid 5-Hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) to create a synergistic and highly potent blend of ingredients. (muscleandfitness.com)
  • Transient mild adverse effects reported with l-tryptophan and 5-HTP include nausea, constipation, dry mouth, blurred vision, drowsiness, and decreased libido. (psychologytoday.com)
  • The amino acids 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) and l-tryptophan are precursors of serotonin. (psychologytoday.com)
  • In small, controlled trials 5-HTP has also been reported to augment the antidepressant efficacy of the antidepressant clomipramine. (wikipedia.org)
  • a double-blind comparison of 5-hydroxytryptophan, clomipramine and placebo. (foundhealth.com)
  • The purpose of this study is to learn more about if taking a supplement called 5-hydroxytryptophan (5HTP) can improve breathing and anxiety symptoms related to asthma. (centerwatch.com)
  • 5HTP (5-hydroxy tryptophan) is considered by many to be more effective than tryptophan for depression . (diagnose-me.com)
  • These findings indicate the complexity in replacement therapy with L-dopa and 5-HTP, but suggest that this treatment may be partially effective in biopterin-deficient patients who are unresponsive to high doses of tetrahydropterins. (jci.org)
  • Some studies suggest that 5-HTP may be effective in treating depression, but taking 5-HTP at high doses or for long periods could be dangerous. (healthline.com)
  • 5-HTP is sold over the counter in the United States, France, Canada, Singapore, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom as a dietary supplement for use as an antidepressant, appetite suppressant, and sleep aid. (wikipedia.org)
  • 5-hydroxytryptophan is often sold as an herbal supplement. (everydayhealth.com)
  • 5-HTP is usually sold as a herbal supplement. (yanggebiotech.com)
  • The seeds of the plant are used as an herbal supplement for their 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) content. (benepure.com)
  • Natural amino acid supplement containing 5-hydroxytryptophan. (vitacost.com)
  • A 2020 meta-analysis found oral 5-HTP supplementation had a large effect size on depression symptom severity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Supplementation with 5-HTP bypasses the conversion of L-tryptophan into 5-HTP by the enzyme tryptophan hydroxylase, the rate-limiting step in the synthesis of serotonin and a step that can be inhibited by a number of factors, including stress, insulin resistance, increasing age, and deficiencies of vitamin C, folate, and iron. (compoundingcornerpharmacy.com)
  • As per nearly every Cochrane Review I've ever read, the text reads something like, a few trials showing possible effects from [5-HTP] supplementation on depressive symptoms but not enough rigorous study to be able to form a suitable opinion. (blogspot.com)
  • A 2002 review concluded that although the data evaluated suggests that 5-HTP is more effective than placebo in the treatment of depression, the evidence was insufficient to be conclusive due to a lack of clinical data meeting the rigorous standards of the day. (wikipedia.org)
  • More and larger studies using current methodologies are needed to determine if 5-HTP is truly effective in treating depression. (wikipedia.org)
  • 5-hydroxytryptophan has been used in alternative medicine as a possibly effective aid in treating depression. (everydayhealth.com)
  • Read more about Depression and Tryptophan (5-HTP) . (foundhealth.com)
  • Tryptophan (5-HTP) has been historically prescribed for the treatment of depression , but since anxiety is often a symptom of depression, this is sometimes also prescribed for anxiety as well. (foundhealth.com)
  • Ask your doctor before taking 5-hydroxytryptophan with a sleeping pill, narcotic pain medicine, muscle relaxer, or medicine for anxiety, depression, or seizures. (umcvc.org)
  • The first time I heard about 5-HTP was with reference to the collected data on the potential therapeutic use of the compound in cases of depression as per the Cochrane Review by Shaw and colleagues ** (full-text). (blogspot.com)
  • Improved Mood: 5-HTP is commonly used to boost serotonin levels in the brain, which can lead to improved mood and reduced symptoms of depression. (hummingherbs.com)
  • Several studies have found that 5-HTP is as effective as antidepressants for depression. (doctorshealthpress.com)
  • A review of studies shows that 5-HTP works better than placebo as a treatment for depression, but because of side effects, an overall lack of solid clinical research and some lingering questions about the supplement's safety, most experts do not endorse its use. (choosehelp.com)
  • Due to some lingering uncertainty about its safety and because existing serotonin based antidepressants work well, experts do not generally endorse the use of 5-HTP as a treatment for depression. (choosehelp.com)
  • It contains pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, the active form of vitamin B6 and the necessary cofactor for the conversion of 5-HTP to serotonin. (lycoacu.com)
  • Vitamin B6 (as Pyridoxal 5′-Phosphate) 6.8 mg. (compoundingcornerpharmacy.com)
  • This means that 5-HTP converts directly into serotonin in the brain. (diagnose-me.com)
  • Furthermore, the clinical and biochemical effects of L-dopa were inhibited by phenylalanine and 5-HTP, respectively, demonstrating that these amino acids have antagonistic pharmacological effects. (jci.org)
  • L -Tryptophan is converted to 5-HTP via the enzyme tryptophan hydroxylase , TPH which relies on the cofactors of iron and BH4 for optimal functioning. (blogspot.com)
  • The enzyme tryptophan hydroxylase adds a hydroxyl group (OH) to tryptophan, forming the 5-HTP intermediate. (atlantafunctionalmedicine.com)
  • 5-HTP increases serotonin levels to promote restful sleep, manage stress, and decrease sugar cravings. (lycoacu.com)
  • 5-HTP Supreme is recommended for people with low levels of serotonin, low mood and food cravings. (acuatlanta.net)
  • 5-HTP at 50 to 100 mg thrice daily is well tolerated when used at recommended doses alone or in combination with conventional antianxiety agents. (psychologytoday.com)
  • 5-HTP is also moderately sedating and doses greater than 100 mg should be taken at bedtime. (psychologytoday.com)
  • Before using 5-hydroxytryptophan, talk to your healthcare provider. (everydayhealth.com)
  • What should I discuss with my healthcare provider before taking 5-hydroxytryptophan? (umcvc.org)
  • If you choose to use 5-hydroxytryptophan, use it as directed on the package or as directed by your doctor, pharmacist, or other healthcare provider. (umcvc.org)
  • Findings of placebo-controlled trials show consistent beneficial effects of 5-HTP for generalized anxiety and panic disorder. (psychologytoday.com)
  • Read more about Panic Disorder and 5-Hydroxytryptophan . (foundhealth.com)
  • 5-HTP can elevate levels of serotonin, which is associated with good mood in humans. (vitacost.com)
  • 5-Hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) is the intermediate metabolite produced when the body initiates the process of converting the essential amino acid L-tryptophan to serotonin. (compoundingcornerpharmacy.com)
  • Inter-individual (between-participant differences) and intra-individual associations (within-participant changes over time) were assessed as percentage difference in metabolite concentration per 5 h/week of MVPA or LPA. (bvsalud.org)
  • 5-HTP use after MDMA MDMA is an empathogenic-entactogenic and serotonergic psychotropic drug used primarily for recreational, though sometimes also therapeutic, purposes. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, these clinical findings, as for all therapeutic findings with 5-HTP, are preliminary and need confirmation in larger trials. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some, but not all, studies suggest that regular use of 5-HTP may help reduce the frequency and severity of migraines, as well as help other types of headaches. (foundhealth.com)
  • 5-HTP (5-Hydroxtryptophan) encourages increased serotonin levels in the brain to promote a heightened state of emotional well-being, support appetite control and sleep/wake cycles. (pharmedicorx.com)
  • 5-HTP Supreme can be used during the day to support normal mood or appetite or at bedtime to support sleep. (acuatlanta.net)
  • In clinical trials of various design, 5-HTP has also been reported to treat fibromyalgia, myoclonus, migraine, and cerebellar ataxia. (wikipedia.org)
  • 5-Hydroxytryptophan versus methysergide in the prophylaxis of migraine. (foundhealth.com)
  • Comparison of the effect of 5-hydroxytryptophan and propranolol in the interval treatment of migraine [translated from German]. (foundhealth.com)
  • 3 4 5 6 7 8 Additionally, preliminary evidence suggests that 5-HTP can reduce symptoms of fibromyalgia 9 and perhaps help you lose weight. (foundhealth.com)
  • What other drugs will affect 5-hydroxytryptophan? (umcvc.org)
  • 5-Hydroxytryptophan, or 5-HTP, is an amino acid that converts to serotonin in the body. (vitacost.com)
  • Humming Herbs 5-HTP+(Hydroxytryptophan) is a great option for anyone who wants to support their mood and sleep naturally. (hummingherbs.com)
  • 5-Hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) is a naturally occurring chemical. (healthline.com)
  • Investigation of multiphoton-induced fluorescence from solutions of 5-hydroxytryptophan. (bentham.co.uk)
  • 1997, 65, 931) that multiphoton near infrared excitation of 5-hydroxytryptophan results in a transient product with green fluorescence. (bentham.co.uk)
  • Visible fluorescence from multiphoton excitation enables detection of 5-hydroxytryptophan with extremely high sensitivity and also has potential applications in imaging of biological systems and investigation of protein dynamics. (bentham.co.uk)
  • The results indicate that the fluorescence does not originate from the 5-indoxyl radical as previously suggested but from one or more other transient products which require further characterisation. (bentham.co.uk)
  • Fluorescence characteristics of 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin). (nih.gov)
  • Caruso and colleagues *** reported some interesting results from a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of 5-HTP in fibromyalgia (FM) suggestive of positive effects to be had. (blogspot.com)
  • The conversion of 5-HT to melatonin is via the intermediate compound, N-Acetlyserotonin (NAS) . (blogspot.com)
  • 5-Hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) is an intermediate in the natural synthesis of the essential amino acid, tryptophan, to serotonin. (atlantafunctionalmedicine.com)
  • 5-HTP is generally recommended over l-tryptophan because it crosses the blood-brain barrier at a higher rate, is converted into serotonin more efficiently than l-tryptophan, and has a more pronounced antidepressant effect. (psychologytoday.com)
  • 5-HTP easily crosses the blood-brain barrier and effectively increases central nervous system (CNS) synthesis of serotonin. (compoundingcornerpharmacy.com)
  • 5-HTP readily enters the blood brain barrier, however conversion into serotonin requires the cofac-tor vitamin B6, which is included in this formula. (acuatlanta.net)
  • Longo G, Rudoi I, Iannuccelli M, Strinati R, Panizon F. [Treatment of essential headache in developmental age with L-5-HTP (cross over double-blind study versus placebo)] Pediatr Med Chir. (foundhealth.com)
  • It is converted in the body to 5-HTP (which is not found in foods), which is then converted to serotonin and melatonin (see What It Is ). (consumerlab.com)
  • Looking again at the magnificent figure offered to accompany this post, one could perhaps see how sleep could be affected by 5-HTP purely based on melatonin featuring some way down the pathway. (blogspot.com)
  • Additional evidence on any direct effect from 5-HTP administration on melatonin levels is even more scant. (blogspot.com)
  • 5-Hydroxytryptophan: a review of its antidepressant efficacy and adverse effects. (foundhealth.com)