Enzymes of the oxidoreductase class that catalyze the dehydrogenation of hydroxysteroids. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.1.-.
Catalyze the oxidation of 3-hydroxysteroids to 3-ketosteroids.
Supporting cells for the developing female gamete in the OVARY. They are derived from the coelomic epithelial cells of the gonadal ridge. Granulosa cells form a single layer around the OOCYTE in the primordial ovarian follicle and advance to form a multilayered cumulus oophorus surrounding the OVUM in the Graafian follicle. The major functions of granulosa cells include the production of steroids and LH receptors (RECEPTORS, LH).
Formation of CORPUS LUTEUM. This process includes capillary invasion of the ruptured OVARIAN FOLLICLE, hypertrophy of the GRANULOSA CELLS and the THECA CELLS, and the production of PROGESTERONE. Luteinization is regulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE.
A group of enzymes that catalyze the reversible reduction-oxidation reaction of 20-hydroxysteroids, such as from a 20-ketosteroid to a 20-alpha-hydroxysteroid (EC 1.1.1.149) or to a 20-beta-hydroxysteroid (EC 1.1.1.53).
A class of enzymes that catalyzes the oxidation of 17-hydroxysteroids to 17-ketosteroids. EC 1.1.-.
The yellow body derived from the ruptured OVARIAN FOLLICLE after OVULATION. The process of corpus luteum formation, LUTEINIZATION, is regulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of positively charged molecules (cations) across a biological membrane.
Proteins that specifically bind to IRON.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A sequence-related subfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS that actively transport organic substrates. Although considered organic anion transporters, a subset of proteins in this family have also been shown to convey drug resistance to neutral organic drugs. Their cellular function may have clinical significance for CHEMOTHERAPY in that they transport a variety of ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS. Overexpression of proteins in this class by NEOPLASMS is considered a possible mechanism in the development of multidrug resistance (DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE). Although similar in function to P-GLYCOPROTEINS, the proteins in this class share little sequence homology to the p-glycoprotein family of proteins.
A pyrazine compound inhibiting SODIUM reabsorption through SODIUM CHANNELS in renal EPITHELIAL CELLS. This inhibition creates a negative potential in the luminal membranes of principal cells, located in the distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct. Negative potential reduces secretion of potassium and hydrogen ions. Amiloride is used in conjunction with DIURETICS to spare POTASSIUM loss. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p705)
Sodium channels found on salt-reabsorbing EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the distal NEPHRON; the distal COLON; SALIVARY DUCTS; SWEAT GLANDS; and the LUNG. They are AMILORIDE-sensitive and play a critical role in the control of sodium balance, BLOOD VOLUME, and BLOOD PRESSURE.
Ion channels that specifically allow the passage of SODIUM ions. A variety of specific sodium channel subtypes are involved in serving specialized functions such as neuronal signaling, CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, and KIDNEY function.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
Agents that promote the excretion of urine through their effects on kidney function.
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
A class of drugs that act by inhibition of sodium influx through cell membranes. Blockade of sodium channels slows the rate and amplitude of initial rapid depolarization, reduces cell excitability, and reduces conduction velocity.
Ruminants of the family Bovidae consisting of Bubalus arnee and Syncerus caffer. This concept is differentiated from BISON, which refers to Bison bison and Bison bonasus.
A well-characterized basic peptide believed to be secreted by the liver and to circulate in the blood. It has growth-regulating, insulin-like, and mitogenic activities. This growth factor has a major, but not absolute, dependence on GROWTH HORMONE. It is believed to be mainly active in adults in contrast to INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR II, which is a major fetal growth factor.
A well-characterized neutral peptide believed to be secreted by the LIVER and to circulate in the BLOOD. It has growth-regulating, insulin-like and mitogenic activities. The growth factor has a major, but not absolute, dependence on SOMATOTROPIN. It is believed to be a major fetal growth factor in contrast to INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR I, which is a major growth factor in adults.
A family of soluble proteins that bind insulin-like growth factors and modulate their biological actions at the cellular level. (Int J Gynaecol Obstet 1992;39(1):3-9)
One of the six homologous soluble proteins that bind insulin-like growth factors (SOMATOMEDINS) and modulate their mitogenic and metabolic actions at the cellular level.
A protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is closely related in structure to the INSULIN RECEPTOR. Although commonly referred to as the IGF-I receptor, it binds both IGF-I and IGF-II with high affinity. It is comprised of a tetramer of two alpha and two beta subunits which are derived from cleavage of a single precursor protein. The beta subunit contains an intrinsic tyrosine kinase domain.
The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.
... flanking region". Journal of Biological Chemistry. 260 (8): 5055-60. doi:10.1016/S0021-9258(18)89178-5. PMID 2580830. Ruoslahti ... 7 (5): 267-9. doi:10.1055/s-2008-1071168. PMID 9402482. Lee PI, Chang MH, Chen DS, Lee CY (January 1989). "Serum alpha- ... The normal range of AFP for adults and children is variously reported as under 50, under 10, or under 5 ng/mL. At birth, normal ... 26 (5): 1332-43. doi:10.1021/bi00379a020. PMID 2436661. Sakai M, Morinaga T, Urano Y, et al. (1985). "The human alpha- ...
... flanking region of human MRP3". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 270 (3): 728-32. doi:10.1006/bbrc.2000.2507. PMID 10772892. Nies ... flanking region, genomic organization and alternative splice variants". Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1415 (2): 369-74. doi:10.1016/ ... 5 (2): R8. doi:10.1186/gb-2004-5-2-r8. PMC 395752. PMID 14759258. Lang T, Hitzl M, Burk O, Mornhinweg E, Keil A, Kerb R, Klein ... 290 (5): 1427-33. doi:10.1006/bbrc.2002.6367. PMID 11820781. Scheffer GL, Kool M, de Haas M, de Vree JM, Pijnenborg AC, Bosman ...
... flanking region and active promoter". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 263 (32): 16992-8. PMID 3182828. Abbotts J, SenGupta ... "Two regions in human DNA polymerase beta mRNA suppress translation in Escherichia coli". Nucleic Acids Research. 20 (18): 4859- ... 243 (5408): 441-5. doi:10.1038/243441a0. PMID 4591306. S2CID 4153800. Cabelof DC, Raffoul JJ, Yanamadala S, Ganir C, Guo Z, ... 93 (5): 507-12. doi:10.1007/bf00202813. PMID 8168825. S2CID 34824853. Chyan YJ, Strauss PR, Wood TG, Wilson SH (August 1996). " ...
... flanking region by deletion/substitution". J. Biol. Chem. 263 (24): 12020-7. PMID 3042787. Micanovic R, Bailey CA, Brink L, ... untranslated region contains multiple copies of an Alu family repeat. In addition, this gene is polymorphic and three common ... "Complex arrangement of genes within a 220-kb region of double-duplicated DNA on human 2q37.1". Genomics. 73 (1): 50-5. doi: ... 261 (7): 3112-5. PMID 3512548. Ezra E, Blacher R, Udenfriend S (1984). "Purification and partial sequencing of human placental ...
... flanking region element responsible for the low level constitutive expression of the human cytosolic phospholipase A2 gene". ... flanking region surrounding a human cytosolic phospholipase A2 gene". Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 205 ... 19 (4-5): 683-688. PMID 9745929. Hirabayashi T, Murayama T, Shimizu T (2005). "Regulatory mechanism and physiological role of ... 58 (5-6): 328-333. doi:10.1080/15216540600702289. PMID 16754327. S2CID 36287675. Sharp JD, White DL, Chiou XG, et al. (1991). " ...
... flanking region". J. Biol. Chem. 269 (7): 5279-87. PMID 8106512. Harada H, Kitagawa M, Tanaka N, Yamamoto H, Harada K, Ishihara ... 40 (5): 976-82. PMID 10102295. Whitney LW, Becker KG, Tresser NJ, Caballero-Ramos CI, Munson PJ, Prabhu VV, Trent JM, McFarland ... 35 (5-6): 507-11. doi:10.1080/10428199909169615. PMID 10609788. Staal A, Enserink JM, Stein JL, Stein GS, van Wijnen AJ (2000 ... Intron-exon organization and functional analysis of 5'- ...
... flanking region of the human PTK6 gene". Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1574 (3): 365-9. doi:10.1016/s0167-4781(02)00234-8. PMID ... 5 (7): 1767-77. PMID 10430081. Derry JJ, Richard S, Valderrama Carvajal H, et al. (2000). "Sik (BRK) Phosphorylates Sam68 in ... Kang KN, Kim M, Pae KM, Lee ST (2002). "Characterization of the 5'- ...
... flanking region of human aggrecanase-1 (ADAMTS4) gene". Molecular Biology Reports. 27 (3): 167-73. doi:10.1023/A:1007253930568 ... Adjacent to the C-terminal TSR is a disintegrin-like domain, a cysteine-rich region that stacks against the active-site of the ... Members of the family share several distinct protein modules, including a propeptide region, a metalloproteinase domain, a ... 5 (3): 169-76. doi:10.1093/dnares/5.3.169. PMID 9734811. Tortorella MD, Burn TC, Pratta MA, Abbaszade I, Hollis JM, Liu R, ...
... flanking region". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 262 (28): 13662-73. PMID 2888762. Stavrou E, Schmaier AH (March 2010). " ... flanking region". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 262 (28): 13662-73. PMID 2888762. Que BG, Davie EW (April 1986). " ... and a proline-rich region, and its light chain contains the protease domain. The structure of the FnI-EGF-like tandem domain of ... 2 (5): 549-558. doi:10.1182/bloodadvances.2018016337. PMC 5851424. PMID 29519898. Pathak M, Wilmann P, Awford J, Li C, Hamad BK ...
... flanking region of the human beta-glucuronidase gene". Genomics. 10 (4): 1009-18. doi:10.1016/0888-7543(91)90192-H. PMID ... Marathe SV, McEwen JE (February 1995). "Vectors with the gus reporter gene for identifying and quantitating promoter regions in ... 274 (33): 23451-5. doi:10.1074/jbc.274.33.23451. PMID 10438523. Wong AW, He S, Grubb JH, Sly WS, Withers SG (December 1998). " ... 2 (6): 443-5. doi:10.1002/humu.1380020604. PMID 8111412. S2CID 46432543. Wu BM, Sly WS (1994). "Mutational studies in a patient ...
... flanking regulatory region". Gene. 294 (1-2): 259-68. doi:10.1016/S0378-1119(02)00798-9. PMID 12234688. Tiffin N, Williams RD, ... "The genomic organization and the full coding region of the human PAX7 gene". Genomics. 45 (1): 168-74. doi:10.1006/geno. ... 5 (1): 15-21. doi:10.1093/hmg/5.1.15. PMID 8789435. Vorobyov E, Mertsalov I, Dockhorn-Dworniczak B, Dworniczak B, Horst J ( ... "Structural and functional characterization of the human PAX7 5'- ...
... flanking regulatory region of the murine serotonin transporter". Brain Research. Molecular Brain Research. 44 (2): 286-92. doi: ... 4 (5): 645. doi:10.1021/cn4001044. PMC 3656756. PMID 23862750. Alivisatos AP, Andrews AM, Boyden ES, Chun M, Church GM, ... Bengel D, Heils A, Petri S, Seemann M, Glatz K, Andrews A, Murphy DL, Lesch KP (March 1997). "Gene structure and 5'- ...
... flanking region of human genomic ETA gene". Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 190 (2): 332-9. doi:10.1006/ ... 56 Suppl 5: 1303-7. doi:10.1253/jcj.56.supplementv_1303. PMID 1291713. Hosoda K, Nakao K, Tamura N, Arai H, Ogawa Y, Suga S, ... Yang H, Tabuchi H, Furuichi Y, Miyamoto C (January 1993). "Molecular characterization of the 5'- ...
... flanking region, and chromosomal localization of the human RGS3 gene". Genomics. 45 (2): 429-33. doi:10.1006/geno.1997.4929. ... 2002). "RGS3 interacts with 14-3-3 via the N-terminal region distinct from the RGS (regulator of G-protein signalling) domain ... 36 (1): 40-5. doi:10.1038/ng1285. PMID 14702039. Humphray SJ, Oliver K, Hunt AR, et al. (2004). "DNA sequence and analysis of ... 2002). "Additional 5' exons in the RGS3 locus generate multiple mRNA transcripts, one of which accounts for the origin of human ...
... flanking region of the human estrogen receptor gene". DNA Seq. 2 (6): 347-58. doi:10.3109/10425179209020816. PMID 1476547. Piva ... genomic organization of the human ERalpha gene promoter region". Mol. Endocrinol. 15 (12): 2057-63. doi:10.1210/me.15.12.2057. ... 6 (5): 773-85. doi:10.1210/me.6.5.773. PMID 1603086. Keaveney M, Klug J, Dawson MT, Nestor PV, Neilan JG, Forde RC, Gannon F ( ... 70 (5-7): 361-3. doi:10.1016/j.steroids.2005.02.015. PMID 15862818. S2CID 54297122. Wang CL, Tang XY, Chen WQ, Su YX, Zhang CX ...
... flanking region of the Pigr gene contains a response element to glucocorticoids. This class of hormones increases the steady ... Cleavage occurs at the junction of the transmembrane region of the receptor and domain 5. pIgRs are capable of capturing IgA ... Evidence for the involvement of multiple complementarity determining region (CDR)-like loops in receptor domain I". The Journal ... The quite long intracellular domain of the receptor, alongside with the transmembrane region, is responsible for the ...
... flanking region and structural organization". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Gene Structure and Expression. 1395 (1): 62 ... 42 (Database issue): D490-5. doi:10.1093/nar/gkt1178. PMC 3965031. PMID 24270786. "Glycoside Hydrolase Family 59". CAZypedia. ...
... flanking region of the gene". Genomics. 19 (1): 91-6. doi:10.1006/geno.1994.1017. PMID 8188248. Byrne JA, Smith PJ (1993). "The ... This gene may play a role in malignancies and disease that involve this region. This gene is oriented in a head-to-tail ... It is one of several genes located in the imprinted gene domain of 11p15.5, an important tumor-suppressor gene region. ... Alterations in this region have been associated with the Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome, Wilms tumor, rhabdomyosarcoma, ...
... flanking region". Genomics. 19 (2): 369-72. doi:10.1006/geno.1994.1072. PMID 8188267. Sparkes RS, Lee RH, Shinohara T, et al. ( ... 2000). "A 6-Mb high-resolution physical and transcription map encompassing the hereditary prostate cancer 1 (HPC1) region". ... doi:10.1016/S0021-9258(18)43955-5. PMID 7961975. Abe T, Kikuchi T, Shinohara T (1994). "The sequence of the human phosducin ...
... flanking region of the coagulation factor VII gene". J. Thromb. Haemost. 1 (6): 1220-7. doi:10.1046/j.1538-7836.2003.00227.x. ... 5 (12): 1301-10. doi:10.1091/mbc.5.12.1301. PMC 301159. PMID 7696711. Faulkner NE, Vig B, Echeverri CJ, et al. (1998). " ... 113 (5): 877-86. PMID 10671377. Hartley JL, Temple GF, Brasch MA (2001). "DNA Cloning Using In Vitro Site-Specific ... U.S.A. 92 (5): 1634-8. Bibcode:1995PNAS...92.1634W. doi:10.1073/pnas.92.5.1634. PMC 42574. PMID 7878030. Garces JA, Clark IB, ...
... flanking region of the human corticotropin releasing hormone gene". DNA Seq. 4 (3): 197-206. doi:10.3109/10425179309015632. ... "Structural analysis of the regulatory region of the human corticotropin releasing hormone gene". FEBS Lett. 267 (1): 1-5. doi: ... 11 (7): 980-5. doi:10.1210/me.11.7.980. PMID 9178757. Timpl P, Spanagel R, Sillaber I, Kresse A, Reul JM, Stalla GK, Blanquet V ... 1 (5): 460-3. doi:10.1038/nm0595-460. PMID 7585095. S2CID 27897688. Slominski A, Ermak G, Hwang J, Chakraborty A, Mazurkiewicz ...
... flanking region and structural organization". Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1395 (1): 62-67. doi:10.1016/S0167-4781(97)00140-1. PMID ... region". Hum. Mutat. 28 (7): 742. doi:10.1002/humu.9500. PMID 17579360. Beier UH; Görögh T (2005). "Implications of ... 5 (9): e12862. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0012862. PMC 2943476. PMID 20877624. GeneReviews/NCBI/NIH/UW entry on Krabbe disease ... 1998). "Human galactocerebrosidase gene: promoter analysis of the 5'- ...
... flanking region of the human follicle-stimulating hormone receptor gene". Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology. 102 (1-2): 93- ... Upon initial binding to the LRR region of FSHR, FSH reshapes its conformation to form a new pocket. FSHR then inserts its ... "Structural predictions for the ligand-binding region of glycoprotein hormone receptors and the nature of hormone-receptor ... 8 (5): 413-21. doi:10.1093/humupd/8.5.413. PMID 12398222. Delbaere A, Smits G, Olatunbosun O, Pierson R, Vassart G, Costagliola ...
... flanking region for the human topoisomerase III gene". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 273 (40): 26130-7. doi:10.1074/jbc. ... "Genes in a refined Smith-Magenis syndrome critical deletion interval on chromosome 17p11.2 and the syntenic region of the mouse ... "Gene for topoisomerase III maps within the Smith-Magenis syndrome critical region: analysis of cell-cycle distribution and ... 12 (5): 713-28. doi:10.1101/gr.73702. PMC 186594. PMID 11997338. Wang Y, Lyu YL, Wang JC (Sep 2002). "Dual localization of ...
... flanking region of CYP3A5: comparative analysis with CYP3A4 and CYP3A7". Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. ... 4 (5): 247-59. doi:10.1097/00008571-199410000-00003. PMID 7894497. Lown KS, Kolars JC, Thummel KE, Barnett JL, Kunze KL, ... 6 (5): 379-85. doi:10.1097/00008571-199610000-00001. PMID 8946469. Anttila S, Hukkanen J, Hakkola J, Stjernvall T, Beaune P, ... Check date values in: ,access-date= (help) "Entrez Gene: CYP3A5 cytochrome P450, family 3, subfamily A, polypeptide 5". " ...
... flanking region of the human GIP receptor (GIPR) gene". Endocr. Res. 28 (4): 577. doi:10.1081/ERC-120016843. PMID 12530665. ... 2003). "Analysis of the putative promoter region of the GIP receptor gene (GIPR) in GIP-dependent Cushing's syndrome (CS)". ... 53 (5): 1326-1335. doi:10.2337/diabetes.53.5.1326. PMID 15111503. Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, et al. (2004). "The status ... doi:10.1016/0167-0115(96)00019-5. PMID 8795084. S2CID 42462407. N'Diaye N, Tremblay J, Hamet P, et al. (1998). "Adrenocortical ...
... flanking region of the transforming growth factor alpha gene". Mol. Endocrinol. 5 (12): 1955-63. doi:10.1210/mend-5-12-1955. ... 2 (5): 355-358. doi:10.1038/sj.mp.4000307. PMID 9322223. Ferrer, I.; Alcantara, S.; Ballabriga, J.; Olive, M.; Blanco, R.; ... 33 (5): 628-31. doi:10.1136/gut.33.5.628. PMC 1379291. PMID 1612477. Bean MF, Carr SA (1992). "Characterization of disulfide ... TGF-α has also been observed to be highly expressed in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) (5). This finding suggests a role for ...
... flanking region gene contains a "CAAT" consensus promoter sequence but no "TATA" sequence. The transcription start site is an ... 85 (1): 41-5. doi:10.1073/pnas.85.1.41. PMC 279477. PMID 3422424. Koike K, Urata Y, Koike M (Aug 1990). "Molecular cloning and ... 284 (5): E855-62. doi:10.1152/ajpendo.00526.2002. PMID 12676647. Suzuki Y, Yoshitomo-Nakagawa K, Maruyama K, Suyama A, Sugano S ... There was an Alu family found in introns 2 and 8. The 5' ... and characterization of a full length-enriched and a 5'-end- ...
... flanking region". Mol. Endocrinol. 3 (9): 1448-54. doi:10.1210/mend-3-9-1448. PMID 2608068. Loric S, Egloff M, Domingo M, et al ... The gene localizes to a chromosomal region containing several closely related serine protease inhibitors (serpins) which have ... 97 (1): E151-5. doi:10.1210/jc.2011-2022. PMID 22013108. Rosen MI, Shnider SM, Levinson G, Hughes (2002). Shnider and ... 86 (1): 73-5. doi:10.1007/bf00205177. PMID 2253941. Underhill DA, Hammond GL (1990). "Organization of the human corticosteroid ...
... flanking region of the human MYPT1 gene". Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1517 (3): 424-9. doi:10.1016/s0167-4781(00)00285-2. PMID ... doi:10.1007/3-540-64753-8_5. ISBN 978-3-540-64753-9. PMID 10087910. Ziter FA, Wiser WC, Robinson A (1977). "Three-generation ...
The hair is longest on the flanks and rump. In the fall, the summer coat is gradually replaced by a thicker, coarse-haired ... Douzery, E.; Randi, E. (November 1997). "The mitochondrial control region of Cervidae: evolutionary patterns and phylogenetic ... studies of mitochondrial control region and cytochrome b DNA sequences placed it near Capreolus within an Old World section of ... Commonly 2-5 Bucks: 5-6 months During the annual rut in November and December, the male will seek out and follow females, ...
In July 1979, Pol Pot established a new headquarters, Office 131, on the western flank of Mount Thom.[360] He dropped the name ... The Khmer Rouge converted a disused secondary school in Phnom Penh's Tuol Sleng region into a security prison, S-21. It was ... with the war to begin in the North-West Zone and then spread to other regions.[144] As communication across Cambodia was slow, ... Retrieved 5 August 2019.. *^ Heuveline, Patrick (2001). "The Demographic Analysis of Mortality Crises: The Case of Cambodia, ...
The young have the malar region pink, and somewhat clear eyes. The tail is much shorter than the adults.[19] ... The loose feathers of the flanks are brought over the primaries, and the shoulder patch is spread so the white is conspicuous, ... Retrieved 5 December 2017.. *^ "skjære - folketro" [magpie - folklore]. Store Norske Leksikon [Norwegian Encyclopedia] (in ... p. 5. ISBN 9781449087913.. *^ "Species factsheet: Pica pica". BirdLife International. Retrieved 20 November 2015.. NB - ...
Inflectional suffixes in the morphology of Bengali vary from region to region, along with minor differences in syntax. ... Native Bengali words do not allow initial consonant clusters;[61] the maximum syllabic structure is CVC (i.e. one vowel flanked ... Besides the native region it is also spoken by the Bengalis living in Tripura, southern Assam and the Bengali population in the ... Bengali language is native to the region of Bengal, which comprises Indian states of West Bengal and the present-day nation of ...
Donar's Oak was a sacred tree located in an unclear location around what is now the region of Hesse, Germany. According to the ... The tree is flanked on both sides by large hearths. Völsunga saga ... Scandinavian placenames occur with the name of a deity compounded with lundr, 'grove', or viðr, 'wood'.[5] ...
... es inhabit various regions of the ocean, including coral reefs, pelagic waters, and the seabed; some live in the ... Coleoids rely mostly on ADAR enzymes for RNA editing, which requires large double-stranded RNA structures to flank to the ... Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 March 2011.. *^ a b c Huffard, Christine L. (2006). "Locomotion by Abdopus aculeatus ( ... 5 (4): 275-283. doi:10.1207/S15327604JAWS0504_02.. *^ Wodinsky, Jerome (1977). "Hormonal Inhibition of Feeding and Death in ...
westerly past the region around Albany, NY to the Susquehanna River side of the Catskills, then ... historic territories inside the divides of the frequently mountainous landforms flanking the Delaware River's drainage basin. ... In 1828, Mexican General Manuel de Mier y Terán made an inspection of eastern Mexican Texas and estimated that the region ... The Lenape practiced large-scale agriculture to augment a mobile hunter-gatherer society in the regions around the Delaware ...
Paul M. Markowski (April 2002). "Hook Echoes and Rear-Flank Downdrafts: A Review". Mon. Wea. Rev. 130 (4): 852-76. Bibcode: ... They typically look to its rear, the main region of updraft and inflow. Under that updraft is a rain-free base, and the next ... As the mesocyclone lowers below the cloud base, it begins to take in cool, moist air from the downdraft region of the storm. ... For example, an increase in the sea surface temperature of a source region (e.g. Gulf of Mexico and Mediterranean Sea) ...
Amazon Gold Rush, Amazon region, Brazil[clarification needed][16]. *Mount Kare Gold Rush, Enga Province, Papua New Guinea[17][ ... The main goldfield was along the south flank of the Klondike River near its confluence with the Yukon River near what was to ... Gold rushes by region[edit]. Australia[edit]. Main article: Australian gold rushes ... Gold rushes helped spur a huge immigration that often led to permanent settlement of new regions. Activities propelled by gold ...
In regions north of the rivers Danube and Rhine, such as most of Germania, where the populations remained independent from Rome ... The traditional explanation is that the smaller ramparts were unfinished because the region was invaded by the Romans; however ... They have been found in particular in the north-west and central regions of France and were combined with wide moats ("Type ... According to Jane McIntosh, in about 5,000 BC during the Neolithic between 2 million and 5 million people lived in Europe;[17] ...
After their defeat, the Ottoman Army gave Mustafa Kemal the organization of the defense of the region in August. The region was ... By November 12, the Turkish IX Corps with Ahmet Fevzi Pasha had reinforced the XI Corps on the left flank. The 3rd Army began ... The region south of Lake Van was extremely vulnerable. The Turks had to defend a line of more than 600 kilometers with only ... A success in this region would mean a diversion of Russian forces to this front from the Polish and Galician fronts.[7] A ...
... these guns were positioned at the flanks at it was speculated that they might still serve to fire rocks and canister shots at ... Köslin Region. *Stettin Region. *Stralsund Region. *Posen-West Prussia Region. *List of placenames ... 978-3-412-20340-5. .. *^ a b c d e f g h i Kroczyński, Hieronim (2009). "Ferdinand von Schills Mitwirkung an der Verteidigung ... 0-9626655-2-5. .. *^ a b c d e f g Przemysław Kroczyński, "Udział Polaków w oblężeniu Kołobrzegu w 1807 roku w świetle akt ...
It is found in West Papua, Indonesia and Papua New Guinea[2] in montane forest regions.[3] They are "widespread along the ... Black-flanked rock-wallaby (P. lateralis). *Mareeba rock-wallaby (P. mareeba). *Brush-tailed rock-wallaby (P. penicillata) ... 38 (5): 617-624. doi:10.1111/j.1744-7429.2006.00197.x.. *^ Meredith, Robert W.; Mendoza, Miguel A.; Roberts, Karen K.; ... Their life expectancy in the wild is approximately 4 or 5 years. These specific pygmy ringtails have "cinnamon brown to dark ...
Britain denied this, claiming the resolution did not apply to Britain and that the troops were not new to the region as they ... Britain's Middle East policy had been centered around protecting the flanks of its sea lines of communication to India. After ... At the request of the United States, the ban was extended to the whole region. A French amendment allowed immigration so long ... In the Tel Aviv region, the operation was codenamed Operation Hippo while in Jerusalem it was codenamed Operation Elephant. Up ...
The Pribnow box has a 6 bp region centered around the -10 position and an 8-12 bp sequence around the -35 region that are both ... Additionally, binding of TBP is facilitated by stabilizing interactions with DNA flanking the TATA box, which consists of G-C ... One study found less than 30% of 1031 potential promoter regions contain a putative TATA box motif in humans.[9] In Drosophila, ... In bacteria, promoter regions may contain a Pribnow box, which serves an analogous purpose to the eukaryotic TATA box. ...
... taken as a region there is likely to be fewer than 30 breeding pairs in this region.[1][10] In the Middle East, the white- ... underparts and flanks. The legs and cere at this young nestling age can range from pinkish to pale yellow.[4] By about 30 days ... Conservation studies on raptors.-ICBP Technical Publication, (5), 401-407. *^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p von Blotzheim, U ... North-Caucasian region. Natural Sciences. *^ a b Salo, P., Nordström, M., Thomson, R. L., & Korpimäki, E. (2008). Risk induced ...
The Japanese thrust into the Pacific region had begun in early December 1941 with attacks against British and Commonwealth ... platoons withdrew back across the creek while elements of another company that was in support moved to the northern flank. ... Strategically, as a result of the fighting around Milne Bay, Japanese operations within the region were constrained. The defeat ... as the Allies gained the ascendency in the region throughout late 1942 and the Japanese were forced to fall back to the ...
T is used for turns, featuring hydrogen bonds typical of helices, S is used for regions of high curvature (where the angle ... In 2011, it was shown that DSSP failed to annotate many "cryptic" π helices, which are commonly flanked by α helices [4]. In ...
... flanking region for human acid alpha-glucosidase, detection of an intron in the 5' untranslated leader sequence, definition of ... Acid alpha-glucosidase, also called α-1,4-glucosidase[5] and acid maltase,[6] is an enzyme (EC 3.2.1.20) that helps to break ... 47 (3): 440-5. PMC 1683879. PMID 2203258.. *. Hoefsloot LH, Hoogeveen-Westerveld M, Reuser AJ, Oostra BA (December 1990). " ... Martiniuk F, Mehler M, Tzall S, Meredith G, Hirschhorn R (March 1990). "Sequence of the cDNA and 5'- ...
... and were said to have inhabited the region of Magnesia and Mount Pelion in Thessaly, the Foloi oak forest in Elis, and the ... Female centaurs flanking Venus (Mosaic from Roman Tunisia, 2nd century AD). Though female centaurs, called centaurides or ... 77 (5): 273-291. doi:10.2307/4349592. JSTOR 4349592.. *^ Alexander, Jonathann. "Tzetzes, Chiliades 9". Theoi.com. Theoi Project ... 5-7. *^ Maria Cristina Biella and Enrico Giovanelli, Il bestiario fantastico di età orientalizzante nella penisola italiana ( ...
One, known today as Lake McConnell, covered almost all of the western NWT as well as adjacent regions of what is now Alberta ... to south southwest is a narrow belt of dacite flanked by two gabbro sills (one of which forms the largest island), with some ... Human use of the lake began with the Dene, the First Nations in the region, whose ancestors settled there around 7,500 years ... "Frame Lake had the most peculiar species assemblage for the region", the two wrote of the results of their zooplankton findings ...
Lists of birds by region. References[edit]. *. Lepage, Denis. "Checklist of birds of Malaysia". Bird Checklists of the World. ... and several have buff flanks. As their name suggests, many species have a white ring around each eye. ... They nest on the ground in temperate and arctic regions and are long-distance migrants. There are 7 species worldwide and 2 ... The Cisticolidae are warblers found mainly in warmer southern regions of the Old World. They are generally very small birds of ...
The bombers were to be delivered to the Netherlands East Indies to help deter any Japanese aggression into the region. ... four in the flank-mount conformal gun pod packages, two in the dorsal turret, one each in the pair of waist positions, and a ... conformal gun pods each flanking the lower cockpit, each pod containing two Browning M2s. By 1945, however, combat squadrons ... ISBN 0-684-83339-5.. *Herman, Arthur. Freedom's Forge: How American Business Produced Victory in World War II, New York: Random ...
The vacuum allowed pirates to flourish in the region. After being conquered by Majapahit in 1375 AD, the Palembang region was ... caused by the simultaneous pressure on its two flanks of Siam and Java."[24]:204,243 However, there was virtually a power ... An example is the rumah limas traditional house, this house has been adopted by many people in various regions because the ... This region has a tropical monsoon climate, similar to most other Indonesian provinces. Throughout the year the province is ...
Drower, Margaret S. (1973). "Syria c. 1550-1400 BC". The Cambridge Ancient History: The Middle East and the Aegean Region c. ... In defence cavalry were used to attack and harass the enemy's infantry flanks as they advanced. Cavalry were frequently used ... The best-known current examples are the Janjaweed, militia groups seen in the Darfur region of Sudan, who became notorious for ... The Middle East and the Aegean Region c. 1800-1380 BC Volume II Part I (Third ed.). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. ...
When the western flank of the Mongols plundered Polish cities, a European alliance among the Poles, the Moravians, and the ... Mongol forces would spread out in a line, surround an entire region, and then drive all of the game within that area together. ... Genghis Khan ascended the throne in the Ikh Khuraldai region in the Onan river, from the Jami' al-tawarikh. ... The Mongol Empire - at its height of the largest contiguous empire in history - had a lasting impact, unifying large regions. ...
Flanking Regions". International Journal of Primatology. 18 (2): 261-295. doi:10.1023/A:1026328804319.. ... 173 (5): 386-8. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2013.2296. PMID 23381591.. *^ a b "Dietary Guidelines for Indians" (PDF). National ... 22 (5): 535-48. doi:10.1093/ajcn/22.5.535. PMID 4977512.. *^ a b Pemberton J (June 2006). "Medical experiments carried out in ... 43 (4): 680-5. PMID 9105273.. *^ a b Svirbely JL, Szent-Györgyi A (1932). "The chemical nature of vitamin C". The Biochemical ...
... was pushed hard on his left flank with the situation so dangerous that he and his men were pushed right up against the ... in the region. These machinations caused calls for Metellus's removal; despite delaying tactics by Metellus, in 107 BC Marius ... This destabilized the Pontic army, slewing it towards its right flank. Sulla dashed back to his own right wing and ordered the ... Crassus' forces, fighting on Sulla's right however, managed to turn the opposition's flank and drive them back. The Samnites ...
... is partitioned into six administrative regions, with Djibouti city representing one of the official regions. It is ... The structures are associated with graves of rectangular shape flanked by vertical slabs, as also found in Tiya, central ... per 1,000 births is 95 and the neonatal mortality as a percentage of under 5's mortality are 37. In Djibouti the number of ... Wildlife is spread over three main regions, namely from the northern mountain region of the country to the volcanic plateaux in ...
During this period, the region that is now the park was near the equator on the southwestern edge of the supercontinent Pangaea ... and its climate was humid and sub-tropical.[12] What later became northeastern Arizona was a low plain flanked by mountains to ... The dominant plants in the park include more than 100 grass species, many native to the region. Growing among the grasses are ... However, the park's oldest Spanish inscriptions, left by descendants of the region's early Spanish colonists, date only to the ...
Flanking SNPs are Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) that appear in the flanking region. Polymorphisms in this region can ... flanking region is a region of DNA that is adjacent to the 5′ end of the gene. The 5flanking region contains the promoter, ... flanking region of eukaryotic genomes. A specific transcription factor called CAAT-binding protein binds to this region and ... untranslated region, this region is not transcribed into RNA or translated into a functional protein. These regions primarily ...
Belted cattle have a circular belt of unpigmented hair and skin around their midsection. The belt is inherited as a monogenic autosomal dominant trait. We mapped the causative variant to a 37 kb segment on bovine chromosome 3. Whole genome sequence data of 2 belted and 130 control cattle yielded only one private genetic variant in the critical interval in the two belted animals. The belt-associated variant was a copy number variant (CNV) involving the quadruplication of a 6 kb non-coding sequence located approximately 16 kb upstream of the TWIST2 gene. Increased copy numbers at this CNV were strongly associated with the belt phenotype in a cohort of 333 cases and 1322 controls. We hypothesized that the CNV causes aberrant expression of TWIST2 during neural crest development, which might negatively affect melanoblasts. Functional studies showed that ectopic expression of bovine TWIST2 in neural crest in transgenic zebrafish led to a decrease in melanocyte numbers. Our results thus implicate an
... flanking region of the rat CYP2B2 gene in transgenic mice.. Ramsden R1, Beck NB, Sommer KM, Omiecinski CJ. ... flanking region of the rat CYP2B2 gene. Protein-DNA interactions at the PBRU domain also were characterized. Using the ... flanking CYP2B2 sequence are not PB responsive. DNA affinity enrichment techniques and immunoblotting and electromobility shift ... gene reporters to assess the functional consequences of specific deletions and site-specific mutations within the 2.5kb 5- ...
... flanking region.. Gomez M., Manzano A., Navarro-Sabate A., Duran J., Obach M., Perales J.C., Bartrons R. ... flanking region by transient transfection assays with different 5-deletion promoter constructs in GC-1spg and mouse sertoli ... Specific expression of pfkfb4 gene in spermatogonia germ cells and analysis of its 5- ...
We have identified a 428 bp fragment of the E8 5-flanking region, from -1528 to -1100,... ... Deikman J, Fischer RL: Interaction of a DNA binding factor with the 50-flanking region of an ethylene-responsive fruit ripening ... Coupe SA, Deikman J: Characterization of a DNA-binding protein that interacts with 50-flanking regions of two fruitripening ... flanking region, from -1528 to -1100, that makes a minimal 35S promoter responsive to ethylene. This fragment confers ethylene- ...
Flanking Region" was a major or minor topic of these publications. To see the data from this visualization as text, click here. ... Flanking Region" by people in Profiles.. * Bruschweiler-Li L, Fuentes Medel YF, Scofield MD, Trang EB, Binke SA, Gardner PD. ... Flanking Region" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... Flanking Region" by people in this website by year, and whether "5 ...
... untranslated region of the human coagulation factor XIII A subunit gene, HUMF13A01[AAAG]n, was evaluated using an allelic ... flanking region to the human coagulation factor XIII A subunit gene Genomics. 1994 Sep 1;23(1):260-4. doi: 10.1006/geno. ... untranslated region of the human coagulation factor XIII A subunit gene, HUMF13A01[AAAG]n, was evaluated using an allelic ... one base distal to the repeat region. The allelic ladder was employed to type 326 F13A01 chromosomes rapidly and reliably in ...
... flanking region: Transcriptional control by 17β-estradiol. Authors: Muriach, Borja ; Carrillo, Manuel ; Zanuy, Silvia ; Cerdá- ... flanking region (sbFSHβ 5′ FR) was cloned and characterized in order to study the molecular mechanisms underlying ... Analysis of the ~3.5 kb of this region revealed the presence of several putative cis-acting elements, including steroid hormone ... The sbFSHβ 5′ FR was efficiently expressed under basal conditions in LβT2 but not in HEK 293, pointing to both positive and ...
... flanking region regulate c-fos expression. Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from Molecular and Cellular ... flanking region regulate c-fos expression.. M Z Gilman, R N Wilson, R A Weinberg ... We tested sequences flanking the mouse c-fos gene for the ability to form specific DNA-protein complexes with factors present ... One complex formed in a region necessary for the induction of c-fos expression by serum growth factors. Two additional ...
... flanking region haplotypes in children with arthritis and in controls, and to investigate the functional significance of each ... flanking region determine variable interleukin-10 transcription and are associated with particular phenotypes of juvenile ... Objective: To determine the distribution of the interleukin-10 (IL-10) 5 ...
... flanking region were placed upstream from the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) reporter gene. In transient transfection ... To localize functionally important portions of the promoter region, several shorter fragments of the galanin 5- ... flanking sequence of the gene. This sequence contains a TATA box (ATATATA) preceded by numerous potential binding sites for ... Expression of the human galanin gene was analysed using a 3.5-kb DNA fragment comprising the 5- ...
... with the data presented as recovery of the indicated region (region 1, regions 2 and 3, regions 4 and 5, or region 6), as a ... Flanking Conserved Region 3 Control Domain. Jeffrey C. Raum, Chad S. Hunter, Isabella Artner, Eva Henderson, Min Guo, Lynda ... Flanking Conserved Region 3 Control Domain. Jeffrey C. Raum, Chad S. Hunter, Isabella Artner, Eva Henderson, Min Guo, Lynda ... Transgenic reporters of region 3 alone (R3), sequences spanning regions 1 to 6 (R1-6; base pairs −10428 to +230), and R1-6 ...
... flanking region of the chicken ovalbumin gene. Saturation kinetics showed that 2-fold... ... Highly purified hen oviduct progesterone receptor A subunit has been found to interact preferentially with the 5- ... Flanking Regulatory Region of the Ovalbumin Gene. In: Chrousos G.P., Loriaux D.L., Lipsett M.B. (eds) Steroid Hormone ... flanking region of the chicken ovalbumin gene. Saturation kinetics showed that 2-fold less receptor was required for half- ...
Flanking Region is Associated with Essential Hypertension among Japanese Females. Int J Med Sci 2007; 4(3):146-152. doi:10.7150 ... flanking region of natriuretic peptide precursor B (NPPB) gene and assessed the relationship between gene variants and EH. ... Flanking Region is Associated with Essential Hypertension among Japanese Females Kotoko Kosuge1, Masayoshi Soma1,3, Tomohiro ... flanking region of NPPB appears to be a useful genetic marker of EH in females. ...
... flanking region in controlling the expression of homologous and heterologous linked genes. ... regulatory region. These results underline the importance of the 3 downstream regulatory regions, which still need to be ... For 10 years, the regulatory regions of the mouse and rabbit whey acidic protein gene have been used to express heterologous ... Regulatory regions. Transgenic animals. Mammary gland. Milk. Protein expression. Rabbit. Rat. Mouse. Livestock. ...
... flanking region, revealed that the region between −83 and 60 bp upstream of the transcription start site was essential for ... flanking region of the mouse 20α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase gene. Keiji HIRABAYASHI, Maho ISHIDA, Masatoshi SUZUKI, Keitaro ... flanking region of the mouse 20α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase gene. Keiji HIRABAYASHI, Maho ISHIDA, Masatoshi SUZUKI, Keitaro ... flanking region of the mouse 20α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase gene Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ...
... flanking region of the natural resistance-associated macrophage protein gene (NRAMP1) between humans and great apes, Mammalian ... "Comparative study of the genomic organization of DNA repeats within the 5′- ... These results show that sequence length variants in the Alu-flanking regions as well as nucleotide substitutions are the most ... flanking region of... Roger, M. ; Sánchez, F.O. ; Schurr, E. 1998-06-01 00:00:00 The human NRAMP1 gene located on Chromosome ( ...
... flanking region for the gene expression in activated T lymphocytes ... Haase, A.; Stoffel, W., 1990: The 3'-flanking region shared by the human apolipoprotein AI and CIII gene regulates gene ... Sano, R.; Nakajima, T.; Takahashi, K.; Kubo, R.; Yazawa, S.; Kominato, Y., 2011: The 3' flanking region of the human ABO ... flanking region of the human CGL-1/granzyme B gene targets expression of a reporter gene to activated T-lymphocytes in ...
... flanking region of the human amiloride-sensitive sodium channel (αENaC) gene: role of nuclear factor κB. Deborah L. BAINES, ... flanking regions of the human αENaC gene using luciferase reporter-gene vectors transiently transfected into human adult ... flanking region of the human amiloride-sensitive sodium channel (αENaC) gene: role of nuclear factor κB ... flanking region of the human amiloride-sensitive sodium channel (αENaC) gene: role of nuclear factor κB ...
... flanking region of the common carp IGF-I gene by performing luciferase reporter assays in transfected 293GHR cells. Addition of ... flanking region from a local tropical fish, the common carp (Cyprinus carpio), and characterized its promoter activity by ... However, sequence analysis of the common carp IGF-I promoter region identified several consensus liver-enriched transcription ... we have cloned and completely sequenced the IGF-I gene and the 5- ...
Flanking Region was amplified and subsequently subjected to Single Strand Conformation Polymorphism (SSCP). The results were ... Also, the 265 bp of IGF-1 promoter in the 5 ... Flanking Region and First Exon of Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 ... Flanking Region was amplified and subsequently subjected to Single Strand Conformation Polymorphism (SSCP). The results were ... Also, the 265 bp of IGF-1 promoter in the 5 ...
... flanking promoter sequence were identified and characterized. Two constructs were generated by placing a bacterial lacZ ... An 8.3-kb and a 5.4-kb fragment containing the 5 ... flanking region drives LacZ expression in podocytes.. @article{ ... flanking region drives LacZ expression in podocytes.}, author={Marcus M{\o}ller and Iulia A. Kovari and Lawrence B. Holzman}, ... Evaluation of a new tool for exploring podocyte biology: mouse Nphs1 5 ...
Polymorphisms and mutations found in the regions flanking exons 5 to 8 of the TP53 gene in a population at high risk for ...
Flanking Region" was a major or minor topic of these publications. To see the data from this visualization as text, click here. ... Flanking Region" by people in Profiles.. * Tsui FW, Tsui HW, Cheng EY, Stone M, Payne U, Reveille JD, Shulman MJ, Paterson AD, ... Flanking Region" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... flanking region of ANKH are associated with ankylosing spondylitis. Arthritis Rheum. 2003 Mar; 48(3):791-7. ...
... flanking region of the PAI-1 gene with clinicopathologic features of gastric cancer in Chinese patients and looked for ... We explored a possible correlation of genetic instability and CpG methylation in the 5- ... flanking region of the PAI-1 gene in Chinese patients with gastric cancer. * J. Liu ... flanking region of the PAI-1 gene with clinicopathologic features of gastric cancer in Chinese patients and looked for ...
... flanking promoter regions are conserved to a greater extent than both the entire mature coding and intron regions of these ... Several highly conserved regions in the first 200 base pairs of the 5 flanking DNA have been identified. Additional sequence ... flanking sequences may contain potential cis regulatory elements which are responsible for the coordinate expression of the ... The rat alpha-, beta-, gamma- and bovine alpha s1-casein genes contain similar 5 exon arrangements in which the 5 noncoding, ...
... flanking region and the first exon of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DQB1 alleles. One hundred and forty-five Spanish ... flanking region of HLA-DQB1 and association with autoimmunity M Pascual 1 , J Martin, A Nieto, M J Giphart, A R van der Slik, R ... The undetected deletion in the flanking region of some DQB1 alleles and a lack of stratification for HLA typing explain ... flanking region of HLA-DQB1 and association with autoimmunity M Pascual et al. Immunogenetics. 2001 Mar. ...
... flanking region of NANOGP8 in a self-renewal environment is associated with increased sphere formation and tumor growth of ... flanking region of NANOGP8 in a self-renewal environment is associated with increased sphere formation and tumor growth of ... flanking region of NANOGP8 exhibited enhanced clonogenicity, sphere formation, and xenograft tumor growth. The sphere culture ... flanking region of NANOGP8. Forced expression of NANOGP8 increased the entry into the cell cycle. ...
... flanking region of the mouse glucagon receptor gene: Comparison with the rat gene. Together they form a unique fingerprint. * ... flanking region of the mouse GR gene was cloned up to 6 kb and the structural organization was compared to the 5 untranslated ... flanking region of the mouse GR gene was cloned up to 6 kb and the structural organization was compared to the 5 untranslated ... flanking region of the mouse GR gene was cloned up to 6 kb and the structural organization was compared to the 5 untranslated ...
... flanking region of ANKH are associated with ankylosing spondylitis. F W L Tsui, H W Tsui, E Y Cheng, M Stone, U Payne, J D ... flanking region of ANKH are associated with ankylosing spondylitis. Together they form a unique fingerprint. * Spondylitis ... flanking region of ANKH are associated with ankylosing spondylitis. / Tsui, F W L; Tsui, H W; Cheng, E Y; Stone, M; Payne, U; ... flanking region of ANKH are associated with ankylosing spondylitis, Arthritis & Rheumatism, vol. 48, no. 3, pp. 791-797. https ...
  • Enhancers are DNA sequences found in 5′ flanking regions of eukaryotic genes that affect transcription. (wikipedia.org)
  • Silencers are DNA sequences found in the 5′ flanking region of eukaryotic genes, assisting in the silencing of a gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • A detailed analysis of the 5'-flanking region by transient transfection assays with different 5'-deletion promoter constructs in GC-1spg and mouse sertoli cells (TM-4), allows us to define the minimal promoter unit, containing several GC-rich and ETF sequences along the first -141 nucleotides involved in basal expression. (uniprot.org)
  • flanking region interact with the same DNA-binding protein that interacts with sequences required for ethylene responsiveness of the coordinately regulated E4 gene. (springer.com)
  • flanking sequences, the E4/E8-binding protein (E4/E8BP). (springer.com)
  • The region of DNA which borders the 5' end of a transcription unit and where a variety of regulatory sequences are located. (umassmed.edu)
  • We tested sequences flanking the mouse c-fos gene for the ability to form specific DNA-protein complexes with factors present in crude nuclear extracts prepared from mammalian cells. (asm.org)
  • Saturation kinetics showed that 2-fold less receptor was required for half-maximal binding to ovalbumin gene flanking sequences than to plasmid pBR322 sequences. (springer.com)
  • In search for a possible mutational hot spot, we have analyzed a 3.5-kb region 5′ to NRAMP1 that is highly enriched for DNA repeat sequences. (deepdyve.com)
  • The repeat sequences could be grouped into one Mer element and six Alu elements, representing five Alu subfamilies, that had integrated in the same DNA region during successive rounds of Alu retropositional activity. (deepdyve.com)
  • Here we demonstrate the presence of unique DNA sequences in the 5' flanking region of the human IL-2 gene that control induced T-cell-specific gene expression. (eurekamag.com)
  • The DNA, which spans about 200 bp, contains regions with sequence homology to LTR sequences of HTLV-III (or LAV) and the 5' upstream region of the IL-2 receptor and interferon-gamma genes. (eurekamag.com)
  • Transcriptional activity of αENaC-luciferase constructs containing 5′-flanking sequences (including the NF-κB consensus) were increased by raising P o 2 from 23 to 142mm Hg if they contained transcriptional initiation sites (TIS) for exons 1A and 1B (pGL3E2.2) or the 3′ TIS of exon 1B alone (pGL3E0.8). (biochemj.org)
  • Evolution of the casein multigene family: conserved sequences in the 5' flanking and exon regions. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The rat alpha- and bovine alpha s1-casein genes have been isolated and their 5' sequences determined. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The rat alpha-, beta-, gamma- and bovine alpha s1-casein genes contain similar 5' exon arrangements in which the 5' noncoding, signal peptide and casein kinase phosphorylation sequences are each encoded by separate exons. (semanticscholar.org)
  • To evaluate basal promoter activities, 5'-flanking sequences of mouse or rat GR genes were fused to a luciferase reporter gene and transiently expressed in a mouse and in a rat cell line, respectively or in rat hepatocytes. (elsevier.com)
  • When the total sequence was compared with those of mice, 93% of the 3′ 518 bp (nt 370-886) sequences were identical, in which the 245 bases just preceding theAUG initiator codon (nt 614) was as highly conserved as in the coding region (nt 614-886). (yonsei.ac.kr)
  • Since many of the factor recognition sites were located in the immediate 5′ flanking sequences of a highly-conserved region, it might be speculated that a regulatory mechanism for Hox gene expression is conserved throughout the evolution and one possible mechanism could be at the post-translational level. (yonsei.ac.kr)
  • We sought to determine whether differences in the human insulin gene or its immediate flanking sequences could be found in diabetes. (elsevier.com)
  • Using homologous recombination in mice, we reveal the modest contribution of proximal 5′ flanking sequences to species differences in V1aR distribution, and confirm that variation in V1aR distribution impacts stress-coping in the forced swim test. (prolekare.cz)
  • Sequences in the 5′ flanking region of genes regulate tissue-specific expression in many cases, and are thus likely candidates for contributing to species-specific expression patterns. (prolekare.cz)
  • Sequences in its 5′ flanking region are conserved in other pollen-specific promoters. (springer.com)
  • Transgenic avians having a recombinant ovomucoid gene expression controlling region operably linked to one or more useful amino acid coding sequences. (google.com)
  • Sequences 5′ to transcriptional start sites contain G-C rich, TATA-less, CAAT-less regions with striking conservation between human and mouse gene flanking regions. (elsevier.com)
  • We have described a series of features in the gene flanking regions and differences among isolates, including DNA-binding sequences, which might impact gene regulation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The peculiar structure of tandem repetitive fragments in the 5' intergenic region of Pb GP43 , their characteristic sequences, besides the presence of multiple poly(A) cleavage sites in the 3' UTR will certainly guide future studies. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These receptors function as ligand-dependent transcription factors by binding to sequences known as thyroid hormone response elements (TRE), which are usually located in the promoter regions of target genes ( 1 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Only about 170-200 bp of the upstream sequences of Est-5B and Est-6 can be aligned to determine similarity, and this alignment requires numerous substitutions and deletions/insertions, indicating that these regions are quite different. (nap.edu)
  • Sequences more than 200 bp 5' of the start site of these genes show only occasional similarities. (nap.edu)
  • Small, Ian 2004-10-06 00:00:00 A comparison of 5′-flanking sequences from 68 different nuclear plant tRNA genes was analyzed to find consensus sequences. (deepdyve.com)
  • GC-rich 5′-flanking sequences were found to be generally incompatible with high levels of expression. (deepdyve.com)
  • Cordes S, Deikman J, Margossian LJ, Fischer RL: Interaction of a developmentally regulated DNA-binding factor with sites flanking two different fruit-ripening genes from tomato. (springer.com)
  • Coupe SA, Deikman J: Characterization of a DNA-binding protein that interacts with 50-flanking regions of two fruitripening genes. (springer.com)
  • A region of length variation including deletions (0.1 to 0.2 kilo-base pairs) or insertions (0.6 to 5.5 kb) of DNA was found only in the immediate 5′ flanking region in 33 per cent of the genes examined. (elsevier.com)
  • The expression and hormonal regulation of chimaeric genes containing the 5′-flanking regions of the normal human growth hormone (hGH-1), the variant hGH (hGH-2) and chorionic somatomammotropin (hCS-1) genes fused to the chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) gene has been examined after transient transfection into cultured rat pituitary (GC), and non-pituitary (HeLa and Rat 2) tumor cells. (elsevier.com)
  • The data indicate that elements present on the hGH-1 and hCS-1 genes' 5′-flanking DNA are required for the efficient expression of these genes in GC cells. (elsevier.com)
  • Cattini, PA & Eberhardt, NL 1987, ' Regulated expression of chimaeric genes containing the 5′-flanking regions of human growth hormone-related genes in transiently transfected rat anterior pituitary tumor cells ', Nucleic acids research , vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 1297-1309. (elsevier.com)
  • those that alter protein structure and function (e.g. coding region mutations) and those that alter the expression of genes [7] , [8] . (prolekare.cz)
  • The two SNPs rs2470893 and rs2472297 ( P -values=1.6 × 10 −11 and 2.7 × 10 −11 ), which were also in strong linkage disequilibrium ( r 2 =0.7) with each other, lie in the 23-kb long commonly shared 5′ flanking region between CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 genes. (nature.com)
  • PI-2 is a 7-kb region located between the genes that in PI-2-containing isolates and the fi nding that isolates of encode peptidase T (PepT) and ferrochelatase (HemH) ( 9 ). (cdc.gov)
  • all identifi ed serotypes expressed highly conserved PI-2 pili The region is composed of 5 genes, which encode 2 sur- supports their potential as a vaccine candidate. (cdc.gov)
  • One of these insertions, Bari-Juvenile hormone epoxy hydrolase (Bari-Jheh), was associated with the selective sweep of its flanking neutral variation and with reduction of expression of one of its neighboring genes: Jheh3. (nih.gov)
  • In the present study, we cloned and sequenced the entire coding regions of two glutathione S -transferase (GST) genes encoding PxGSTs and PxGSTe from the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae), along with their respective 5′ and 3′ flanking regions. (bioone.org)
  • In contrast, the 5' and 3' flanking regions of these genes have very little similarity. (nap.edu)
  • mice with 1700 or 800bp of 5'-flanking CYP2B2 sequence are not PB responsive. (nih.gov)
  • Expression of the human galanin gene was analysed using a 3.5-kb DNA fragment comprising the 5'-flanking sequence of the gene. (garvan.org.au)
  • We determined the nucleotide sequence of the 5′-flanking region of the mouse 20α-HSD gene, and examined its promoter activity using a rat luteinized granulosa cell culture. (biochemj.org)
  • Electrophoretic mobility-shift assays showed that the interaction of proteins in a nuclear extract from rat luteinized granulosa cells with this region was inhibited by a competitor having the wild-type Sp1 sequence in its promoter, but not a mutated Sp1 sequence. (biochemj.org)
  • Comparative sequence analysis of the Alu cluster region in humans, chimpanzee (Pan paniscus), and gorilla (Gorilla gorilla) revealed only modest sequence variability and failed to detect any evidence for genomic instability of the highly repetitive DNA region. (deepdyve.com)
  • These results show that sequence length variants in the Alu-flanking regions as well as nucleotide substitutions are the most common genomic variations even in a region of extreme Alu-clustering. (deepdyve.com)
  • Conversely, the relative luciferase activity of a construct that lacked the 3′ TIS, a 3′ intron and splice site but still retained the 5′ TIS and NF-κB consensus sequence was suppressed significantly by raising P o 2 . (biochemj.org)
  • However, sequence analysis of the common carp IGF-I promoter region identified several consensus liver-enriched transcription factor binding sites, including HNF-1alpha, HNF-3beta, C/EBP, and one STAT5.We have analyzed the promoter activity of the 5'-flanking region of the common carp IGF-I gene by performing luciferase reporter assays in transfected 293GHR cells. (garvan.org.au)
  • The activation of 5′ flanking sequence of NANOGP8 could play a role in the regulation of the stem-like properties of cancer stem cells and prostate tumor initiation and development. (empiregenomics.com)
  • Deletion of the Sp1 binding sites region or mutation of the second proximal Sp1 sequence markedly reduced the distal promoter activity of the reporter gene. (elsevier.com)
  • However, there was no consensus sequence for a TATA box in the 5′ flanking region. (yonsei.ac.kr)
  • Two new primer pairs were designed from Lf sequence to amplify a part of 5'-flanking region of the gene. (bvsalud.org)
  • In the present study, we report identification and characterization of a novel sequence motif residing in the 5'-flanking region of the human DBH gene, which mediates transcriptional induction by TPA. (fujita-hu.ac.jp)
  • Deletional analyses indicated the promoter region between -223 and -187 base pairs to be critical whereas this region does not contain any putative regulatory motifs with significant sequence homology to the AP-1 motif, extensive deletional and site-directed mutational analyses indicated that a sequence between -210 and -199 base pairs, 5'-ATCCGCCTGTCT-3', may represent a novel TPA-response element (TRE). (fujita-hu.ac.jp)
  • After restriction mapping and DNA sequence analysis, the clones were shown to contain all of the 5′ non‐coding exon included in the cDNA and approximately 10 kb of 5′ flanking region. (uthscsa.edu)
  • Deletion analysis of approximately 6 kb of the 5′-flanking sequence of the gene demonstrated that the proximal 106 base pair of the promoter exhibited maximum reporter activity. (bloodjournal.org)
  • In transient transfection assays, 2.5 kb of the ACLP 5′-flanking sequence directed high levels of luciferase reporter activity in primary cultured rat aortic smooth muscle cells, and this activity was not dependent on serum response factor. (ahajournals.org)
  • 3. The expression system of claim 1, wherein the nucleic acid sequence encoding Caveolin-1 is set forth in SEQ ID NO:5 beginning at position 1 and ending at position 537. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 5. The isolated protein of claim 4 wherein said amino acid sequence is fused to a heterologous polypeptide. (google.com)
  • Direct matching of the surrounding SNP sequence within the DAF regulatory region with the known transcription factor-binding sites suggests a loss of an Sp1-binding site. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • 2. The transgenic avian of claim 1 , wherein the nucleic acid sequence comprises a signal sequence coding region. (google.com)
  • Sequence of the 5-kb region flanking Bari-Jheh in Drosophila melanogaster (GQ169183--GQ169212). (nih.gov)
  • Sequence of the 5'-flanking region of CYP3A5: comparative analysis with CYP3A4 and CYP3A7. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mouse proximal promoter activity was 2- to 3-fold less than the distal promoter, for which no functional counterpart was observed in the similar region of the rat gene. (elsevier.com)
  • The mouse Mincle proximal promoter region contains an indispensable NF-IL6 binding element, demonstrating that Mincle is a direct target of NF-IL6. (jimmunol.org)
  • However, we did not observe any difference in promoter activity in the region up to -2.6 kb from the proximal transcription start site of the TTF-1 gene between TTF-1 positive and negative cells. (fujita-hu.ac.jp)
  • These results suggest that the proximal 5'-flanking region of the human TTF -1 gene does not contain sufficient cis-active regulatory information to direct gene expression in thyroid cells,and that other cis- or trans-acting factors participate in the thyroid specific gene expression of TTF-1. (fujita-hu.ac.jp)
  • The responsive region was functional regardless of its position or orientation relative to the proximal promoter of CYP3A4 and was capable of conferring rifampicin-inducible expression on a heterologous promoter. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Finally, we demonstrate cooperativity between elements within the distal enhancer region and cis -acting elements in the proximal promoter of CYP3A4 . (aspetjournals.org)
  • Previous work has suggested that both the proximal 5′ flanking region and a polymorphic microsatellite element within that region of the vole Avpr1a gene are associated with variation in V1a receptor (V1aR) distribution and behavior, but neither has been causally linked. (prolekare.cz)
  • we tested the protein-binding capacity of oligonucleotides covering the Pb GP43 proximal 5' flanking region, including overlap and mutated probes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The short tandem repeat (STR) polymorphism present within the 5' untranslated region of the human coagulation factor XIII A subunit gene, HUMF13A01[AAAG]n, was evaluated using an allelic ladder, i.e., a standard size marker consisting of amplified alleles from the locus. (nih.gov)
  • Results: A novel variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) polymorphism in the 5'-flanking region (-1241 nucleotides from the major transcriptional initiation site) was discovered. (medsci.org)
  • Also, the 265 bp of IGF-1 promoter in the 5' Flanking Region was amplified and subsequently subjected to Single Strand Conformation Polymorphism (SSCP). (thescipub.com)
  • We established the detailed polymorphism of the 5'-flanking region and the first exon of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DQB1 alleles. (cdc.gov)
  • Here we report that the repeat in the AT-rich area of the 5' untranslated region is further degenerated by insertions of CAC, ATT and other motifs, and describe a detailed analysis of the polymorphism with a putative role in the regulation of transcriptional activation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) results in a twofold activation of a DAF 5′-flanking region luciferase reporter transfected into three different cell lines. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In the present study, a distal promoter was characterized upstream from a novel non-coding exon revealed by the 5'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends from mouse liver tissue. (elsevier.com)
  • The novel exon, separated by an intron of 3.8 kb from the first coding exon, displayed a high homology (80%) with the most distal of the two untranslated exons found in the 5' region of the rat GR gene. (elsevier.com)
  • The mouse distal promoter region, extending up to -1 kb from the novel exon, displayed 85% identity with the rat promoter. (elsevier.com)
  • Two polymorphisms in GSTP1 are known: a point mutation in exon 5 with a possible functional role, leading to changes in the kinetic properties of the enzyme, and a repeat of AAAAT in the 5' untranslated region immediately upstream of an extensively methylated CpG island. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To better understand the possible mechanisms of regulation of aFGF mRNA by steroids and other growth factors, we isolated the aFGF 5′ non‐coding exon and its flanking region from a EMBL3 DDT1 genomic library, using a 5′ non‐coding exon 69 bp DDT1 aFGF cDNA probe. (uthscsa.edu)
  • RNase protection and primer extension assays confirmed that the 5′ non‐coding exon is included in the DDT1 aFGF mRNA and that a major transcription start site is approximately 136 bp upstream of the 5′ non‐coding splice junction of this exon. (uthscsa.edu)
  • Approximately 6.5 kilobase pairs (kb) of the cIRK1 5'-flanking region were sequenced (Genbank AF375660), including exon 1 and a portion of the intron. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To better understand the regulation of ACLP in VSMCs, we characterized the 21-exon mouse ACLP gene and 5′-flanking region and examined its promoter activity. (ahajournals.org)
  • We have isolated and characterized the immediate 5′-flanking region (886 bp) of the gene encoding human HOXA-7. (yonsei.ac.kr)
  • Polymorphisms and mutations found in the regions flanking exons 5 to 8 of the TP53 gene in a population at high risk for Esophageal cancer in South Africa. (sun.ac.za)
  • The coding region of the human RGS3 gene spans 14.7 kb and contains six exons, and the 5′-untranslated region spans 3.2 kb and contains two exons. (elsevier.com)
  • cIRK1 contains two exons with splice sites in the 5'-untranslated region, a structure similar to mouse and human orthologs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In order to begin addressing this question, we initiated the characterization of the human MBS85 promoter region and compared its transcriptional activity to that of the AAV-2 p5 promoter. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Characterization of 5'-flanking region of human MRP3. (thefullwiki.org)
  • A reporter assay, using reporter constructs of various lengths of the 5′-flanking region, revealed that the region between −83 and 60 bp upstream of the transcription start site was essential for transcriptional activity. (biochemj.org)
  • We transfected a human liver-derived cell line (HepG2) with various CYP3A4 -luciferase reporter gene constructs containing a nested set of 5′-deletions of the CYP3A4 5′-flanking region. (aspetjournals.org)
  • We identified a positive element between base pairs −156 and −122 by analysis of 5′ deletion and mutant constructs. (ahajournals.org)
  • Luciferase activity levels for reporter gene constructs containing CDA 5′-flanking region haplotypes transfected into HEK293T ( A ) or PC-3 ( B ) cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The present study identified variants in the 5'-flanking region of natriuretic peptide precursor B ( NPPB ) gene and assessed the relationship between gene variants and EH. (medsci.org)
  • This notwithstanding, a reporter gene assay was performed to determine if these variants could affect the expression of the NF1 gene, and all three changes in the 5'-untranslated region (UTR) (+ 16, + 25, + 132) were found to be associated with a 60-70% increase in reporter gene expression. (cf.ac.uk)
  • 1999). "Human MRP3 transporter: identification of the 5'-flanking region, genomic organization and alternative splice variants. (thefullwiki.org)
  • We analyzed the structural gene located within a region on 1q21-q23 linked with type 2 diabetes in several populations for variants in the Pima Indians. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • As transcriptional activation is a mechanism for raising cellular mRNA levels, we investigated the effect of physiological changes in P o 2 on the activity of the redox-sensitive transcription factor nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and transcriptional activity of 5′-flanking regions of the human αENaC gene using luciferase reporter-gene vectors transiently transfected into human adult alveolar carcinoma A549 cells. (biochemj.org)
  • CDA 5′-flanking region luciferase reporter gene studies. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Not to be confused with the 5′ untranslated region, this region is not transcribed into RNA or translated into a functional protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • We used transgenic mouse approaches and multiple gene reporters to assess the functional consequences of specific deletions and site-specific mutations within the 2.5kb 5'-flanking region of the rat CYP2B2 gene. (nih.gov)
  • To determine the distribution of the interleukin-10 (IL-10) 5' flanking region haplotypes in children with arthritis and in controls, and to investigate the functional significance of each haplotype. (nih.gov)
  • Some factors that are associated with the regulation of the β-cell mass have been identified ( 5 ), and we hypothesized that functional gene polymorphisms in these factors might be associated with the development of diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Regulation of human cytochrome P4501A2 gene (CYP1A2) expression: isolation and functional analysis of the 5'-flanking region. (dartmouth.edu)
  • isolation and functional analysis of the 5'-flanking region . (dartmouth.edu)
  • It is typically 10 nucleotides long, and is present -30 to -20 nucleotides upstream from the transcription start site, in the core promoter region. (wikipedia.org)
  • The remaining allele carries four repeats and displays a deletion of two consecutive nucleotides (GT), one base distal to the repeat region. (nih.gov)
  • The fact that AAV has evolved to integrate into this ubiquitously transcribed region and that the chromosomal motifs required for integration are located a few nucleotides upstream of the translation initiation start codon of MBS85 suggests that the transcriptional activity of MBS85 might influence site-specific integration and thus might be involved in the evolution of this mechanism. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The numbering scheme for nucleotide positions is based on assignment of the (+1) position to the "A" in the translation initiation codon, with nucleotides 5′ to that position assigned negative and those 3′ within the cDNA assigned positive numbers. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Schurr, E. 1998-06-01 00:00:00 The human NRAMP1 gene located on Chromosome (Chr) region 2q35 is a candidate gene for increased risk of infection by several intracellular macrophage parasites, including M. tuberculosis and M. leprae. (deepdyve.com)
  • We searched for novel polymorphisms in the ANKH gene (human homolog of the murine progressive ankylosis gene) and genotyped 2 polymorphic sites, one in the 5'-noncoding region and the other in the promoter region of ANKH, using DNA from affected (n = 273) and unaffected (n = 112) individuals from 124 AS families. (bath.ac.uk)
  • We identified 2 novel polymorphic sites: one in the 5'-noncoding region of ANKH involving 1-2 copies of an 8-bp repeat (denoted as ANKH-OR), and the other in the promoter region involving different copy numbers of a triplet repeat (denoted as ANKH-TR). (bath.ac.uk)
  • The 5' flanking region of the IL-10 gene is highly polymorphic, with three single base pair substitutions at position -1082(G/A), -819(C/T) and -592(C/A), which results in differential IL-10 production. (cdc.gov)
  • Chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) assays demonstrated that there are promoter elements in the −1645/−392 and −392/+131 regions of the aFGF gene in the context of DDT1 cells. (uthscsa.edu)
  • By use of electrophoretic mobility shift assays with rat aortic smooth muscle cell nuclear extracts, Sp1 and Sp3 transcription factors bound to this region, and transfection assays in D.Mel.2 cells revealed that both Sp1 and Sp3 transactivated the ACLP promoter. (ahajournals.org)
  • We used electrophoretic mobility shift assays and found DNA binding regions between positions -134 to -103 and -255 to -215. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Comparative study of the genomic organization of DNA repeats within the 5′-flanking region of. (deepdyve.com)
  • Flanking SNPs are Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) that appear in the flanking region. (wikipedia.org)
  • Polymorphisms in this region can lead to changes in the regulation of transcription. (wikipedia.org)
  • Polymorphisms in the 5′ flanking region of the DRD4 gene have been linked to ADHD, schizophrenia and methamphetamine abuse. (wikipedia.org)
  • Polymorphisms in the 5′ flanking region of the gene coding for oxytocin have been linked to mutations in promoter function, ultimately leading to potential disorders related to altered oxytocin levels and functionality. (wikipedia.org)
  • In silico analysis of identified single nucleotide polymorphisms [ SNPs ] within the 5'-flanking region of bovine Lf gene was screened, to identify any association on transcription factor binding affinity. (bvsalud.org)
  • Analysis of polymorphisms in the 5'-flanking region of the apolipoprotein(a) [Apo(a)] gene in Thai subjects with coronary artery diseases. (bvsalud.org)
  • Previous studies revealed the presence of polymorphisms in the 5'-flanking region (FL) of the Apo(a) gene at 3 positions G or A (-914), C or T(-49), and G or A (-21), which can be detected by cleavage of PCR -amplified DNA products with TaqI, MaeII and HhaI, respectively. (bvsalud.org)
  • Genome-wide significant association was observed for two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the 15q24 region. (nature.com)
  • The SS within coding regions are in bold and are identified as replacement (R), synonymous (S), or nonsense (NS) polymorphisms. (nih.gov)
  • We have presently studied polymorphisms in the Pb GP43 flanking regions to help understand such variations. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Analysis of the 5′-flanking region revealed the presence of many potential regulatory elements, the presence of an initiator (Inr) element overlapping the transcription start site, and the absence of a TATA or a CCAAT box at the usual positions. (elsevier.com)
  • However, while the chicken and mouse promoter regions share many regulatory motifs, cIRK1 possesses a GC-richer promoter and a putative TATA box, which appears to positively regulate gene expression. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A TATA box and several transcription factor binding sites were found in the putative promoter region upstream of the transcription start site. (pnas.org)
  • Intron nucleotide positions are numbered from the nearest splice site, with +1 as the first nucleotide at the 5′-end of the introns and −1 as the first nucleotide at the 3′-end. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In the present work, we cloned and sequenced the genomic region covering the entire PLZF gene by using the ordered shotgun sequencing (OSS) approach ( 20 , 21 ). (pnas.org)
  • Next, we cloned and sequenced the 5' intergenic region up to position -2,047 from P. brasiliensis Pb339 and observed that it is composed of three tandem repetitive regions of about 500 bp preceded upstream by 442 bp. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Conclusions: The 16-repeat allele of the VNTR in the 5'-flanking region of NPPB appears to be a useful genetic marker of EH in females. (medsci.org)
  • We explored a possible correlation of genetic instability and CpG methylation in the 5'-flanking region of the PAI-1 gene with clinicopathologic features of gastric cancer in Chinese patients and looked for molecular markers for diagnosing gastric tumor development. (geneticsmr.com)
  • 1999, PI-2-containing isolates were of the same serotypes kb genetic region present in 21%-27% of clinical isolates, but accounted for only 3.6% of all invasive isolates. (cdc.gov)
  • Phenobarbital responsiveness conferred by the 5'-flanking region of the rat CYP2B2 gene in transgenic mice. (nih.gov)
  • For 10 years, the regulatory regions of the mouse and rabbit whey acidic protein gene have been used to express heterologous proteins in the milk of transgenic mice, as well as to produce pharmaceutical proteins, on a large scale, in the milk of transgenic livestock. (csic.es)
  • An extended 5′ regulatory region (17·6 kb v. 6·3 kb) of the rabbit whey acidic promoter resulted in an increased frequency of rabbit whey acidic protein expression in transgenic mice. (csic.es)
  • However, the expression levels were low compared with the high expression levels achieved in both transgenic mice and rabbits using the heterologous κ-casein in the 6·3 kb rabbit whey acidic protein 5′ regulatory region. (csic.es)
  • Recent studies showed that the PLZF-RAR α fusion gene is able to induce leukemia in transgenic mice ( 4 , 5 ), and PLZF also may be involved in the pathogenesis of APL with t(15;17) ( 6 ). (pnas.org)
  • To localize functionally important portions of the promoter region, several shorter fragments of the galanin 5'-flanking region were placed upstream from the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) reporter gene. (garvan.org.au)
  • Sequencing analysis of the 5'-flanking region of DQB1*0301, *0303 and *0502 alleles in homozygous B-cell lines showed the absence of LTR3 and a massive deletion of 5635 base pairs. (cdc.gov)
  • The undetected deletion in the flanking region of some DQB1 alleles and a lack of stratification for HLA typing explain previously reported associations of the LTR3 element with RA and type I diabetes (IDDM). (cdc.gov)
  • In the absence of such helper functions, AAV-2 establishes latency by site-specifically integrating its genome into a region of human chromosome 19 (19q13.42) termed AAVS1 ( 27 - 30 , 51 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The TSHR gene, cloned in 1989 ( 2 - 5 ), maps to human chromosome 14q and encodes a predicted seven-transmembrane, G protein-coupled glycoprotein. (jci.org)
  • The ATF6 gene is located on human chromosome 1q21-q23, a region linked to type 2 diabetes in Pima Indians of Arizona, Caucasians, and Chinese populations ( 4 , 5 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • This study was carried out to determine the haplotype frequency of the 5'-flanking region of bovine lactoferrin gene in local and Holstein cattle breeds of Iran using PCR -SSCPand DNA sequencing . (bvsalud.org)
  • Region 3 (base pairs −8118 to −7750 relative to the transcription start site), one of six conserved 5′ cis domains of the MafA promoter, is capable of directing β-cell-line-selective expression. (asm.org)
  • 5′-RACE analysis was used to map the transcription start site 517 bp upstream of the translation start site, and anchored PCR was performed to amplify 1.0 kb of genomic DNA upstream of the transcription start site. (elsevier.com)
  • 5'-RACE analysis was used to map the transcription start site 517 bp upstream of the translational start site. (elsevier.com)
  • To understand the molecular mechanism which controls the transcription of the IGF-I gene in common carp, we have cloned and completely sequenced the IGF-I gene and the 5'-flanking region from a local tropical fish, the common carp (Cyprinus carpio), and characterized its promoter activity by transfection into human embryonic kidney (293GHR) cells which express the human growth hormone (GH) receptor. (garvan.org.au)
  • The cDNA contains an open reading frame (ORF) of 1449 bp that encodes 483 amino acid residues and 126- and 296-bp non-coding regions at the 5′- and 3′-ends, respectively. (mdpi.com)
  • Whereas other b -locus mutants with the typical OCA4 phenotype ( b c1 , b d2 , b d4 , b d8 , b g8 , b g21 , and b p ) have mutations in the protein-coding region of slc45a2 , a mutation has not been identified from the b allele. (genetics.org)
  • The 5′ flanking region contains the promoter, and may contain enhancers or other protein binding sites. (wikipedia.org)
  • A specific transcription factor called CAAT-binding protein binds to this region and aids in transcription in eukaryotes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Multiple protein-binding sites in the 5'-flanking region regulate c-fos expression. (asm.org)
  • These results underline the importance of the 3' downstream regulatory regions, which still need to be better characterized in the whey acidic protein gene. (csic.es)
  • Classical LTP in the CA1 region of the hippocampus (E-LTP) persists for only a few hours and is independent of new protein synthesis. (jneurosci.org)
  • The coding regions of Est-5B and Est-6 are about 80% similar at both the nucleotide and protein levels ( 3 ). (nap.edu)
  • The gene encoding PxGSTe had an intron in the 5′ flanking region. (bioone.org)
  • In eukaryotes, the 5′ flanking region has a complex set of regulatory elements such as enhancers, silencers, and promoters. (wikipedia.org)
  • Deikman J, Kline R, Fischer RL: Organization of ripening and ethylene regulatory regions in a fruit-specific promoter from tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum ). (springer.com)
  • To date, a broad range of expression levels have been detected, and elucidation of the structure-function relationship in these regulatory regions might help to achieve high levels of expression, reproducibly. (csic.es)
  • As an initial step towards understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying PAI-2 gene regulation in monocytes, we report here the analysis of the chromatin structure of 9.6 kb of 5' flanking region of the human PAI-2 gene for potential cis-acting regulatory regions using DNase I hypersensitivity mapping. (edu.au)
  • To localize the regulatory region in the PTTG1 promoter, serial deletions within the PTTG1 promoter region were constructed. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Specific expression of pfkfb4 gene in spermatogonia germ cells and analysis of its 5'-flanking region. (uniprot.org)
  • We investigate clonogenicity, sphere formation, and xenograft tumor growth of prostate cancer cells with an activated 5′ flanking region of NANOGP8. (empiregenomics.com)
  • The microenvironment favoring cancer stem cells could promote the activation of the 5′ flanking region of NANOGP8. (empiregenomics.com)
  • M-ASGP-BP is expressed on the surface of activated macrophages, recognizes terminal galactose/ N -acetylgalactosamine units, and may participate in the interaction between tumoricidal macrophages and tumor cells ( 3 , 4 , 5 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • The 5′ flanking region DNA was inserted into pBLCAT3 reporter gene and transfected into DDT1 cells. (uthscsa.edu)
  • As assessed by levels of CAT activity, the hGH-1 and hCS-1 gene hybrids were expressed at 5- to 25-fold higher levels in GC cells than in HeLa or Rat 2 cells. (elsevier.com)
  • The expression of transcriptional activity in various lengths of the 5'-flanking region of the human TTF -1 gene was studied in TTF-1 positive and negative human thyroid cell lines. (fujita-hu.ac.jp)
  • 5′-Flanking region insert lengths are also indicated. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The 977 bp 5′ flanking region was identified and the transcription factor binding sites were predicted. (mdpi.com)
  • This region contains 3 potential binding sites for PU.1, a myeloid-restricted member of the ets family of transcription factors. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Furthermore, we provide evidence for bidirectional MBS85 promoter activity and demonstrate that the minimal motifs required for AAV site-specific integration are present in the 5′ untranslated region of the gene and play a posttranscriptional role in the regulation of MBS85 expression. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The AAV-2 genome is a single-stranded DNA molecule of 4.7 kb and contains two open reading frames (ORFs), rep and cap , flanked by two inverted terminal repeats (ITRs) ( 56 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The promoter region, structural gene, chain length and strand ends of the exogenous DNA are not involved in the production efficiency of transgenic rats. (nii.ac.jp)