Contraceptives, Oral: Compounds, usually hormonal, taken orally in order to block ovulation and prevent the occurrence of pregnancy. The hormones are generally estrogen or progesterone or both.Contraceptives, Oral, Combined: Fixed drug combinations administered orally for contraceptive purposes.Contraceptives, Oral, Synthetic: Oral contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to synthetic preparations.Contraceptives, Oral, Hormonal: Oral contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to hormonal preparations.Progestins: Compounds that interact with PROGESTERONE RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of PROGESTERONE. Primary actions of progestins, including natural and synthetic steroids, are on the UTERUS and the MAMMARY GLAND in preparation for and in maintenance of PREGNANCY.Ethinyl Estradiol: A semisynthetic alkylated ESTRADIOL with a 17-alpha-ethinyl substitution. It has high estrogenic potency when administered orally, and is often used as the estrogenic component in ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES.Desogestrel: A synthetic progestational hormone used often as the progestogenic component of combined oral contraceptive agents.Norgestrel: A synthetic progestational agent with actions similar to those of PROGESTERONE. This racemic or (+-)-form has about half the potency of the levo form (LEVONORGESTREL). Norgestrel is used as a contraceptive, ovulation inhibitor, and for the control of menstrual disorders and endometriosis.Mestranol: The 3-methyl ether of ETHINYL ESTRADIOL. It must be demethylated to be biologically active. It is used as the estrogen component of many combination ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES.Norethindrone: A synthetic progestational hormone with actions similar to those of PROGESTERONE but functioning as a more potent inhibitor of ovulation. It has weak estrogenic and androgenic properties. The hormone has been used in treating amenorrhea, functional uterine bleeding, endometriosis, and for contraception.Sex Reassignment Surgery: Surgical treatments used to change the physiological sexual characteristics of an individual.Transsexualism: Severe gender dysphoria, coupled with a persistent desire for the physical characteristics and social roles that connote the opposite biological sex. (APA, DSM-IV, 1994)Urology: A surgical specialty concerned with the study, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases of the urinary tract in both sexes, and the genital tract in the male. Common urological problems include urinary obstruction, URINARY INCONTINENCE, infections, and UROGENITAL NEOPLASMS.Andrology: A scientific or medical discipline concerning the study of male reproductive biology, diseases of the male genital organs, and male infertility. Major areas of interest include ENDOCRINOLOGY; SPERMATOGENESIS; semen analysis; FERTILIZATION; CONTRACEPTION; and CRYOPRESERVATION.Access to Information: Individual's rights to obtain and use information collected or generated by others.Urologic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the URINARY TRACT in either the male or the female.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Erectile Dysfunction: The inability in the male to have a PENILE ERECTION due to psychological or organ dysfunction.Journal Impact Factor: A quantitative measure of the frequency on average with which articles in a journal have been cited in a given period of time.Cholestenone 5 alpha-Reductase: An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the conversion of 3-oxo-delta4 steroids into their corresponding 5alpha form. It plays an important role in the conversion of TESTOSTERONE into DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE and PROGESTERONE into DIHYDROPROGESTERONE.Nicotine: Nicotine is highly toxic alkaloid. It is the prototypical agonist at nicotinic cholinergic receptors where it dramatically stimulates neurons and ultimately blocks synaptic transmission. Nicotine is also important medically because of its presence in tobacco smoke.Psychotropic Drugs: A loosely defined grouping of drugs that have effects on psychological function. Here the psychotropic agents include the antidepressive agents, hallucinogens, and tranquilizing agents (including the antipsychotics and anti-anxiety agents).Reinforcement (Psychology): The strengthening of a conditioned response.Adrenal Medulla: The inner portion of the adrenal gland. Derived from ECTODERM, adrenal medulla consists mainly of CHROMAFFIN CELLS that produces and stores a number of NEUROTRANSMITTERS, mainly adrenaline (EPINEPHRINE) and NOREPINEPHRINE. The activity of the adrenal medulla is regulated by the SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM.Drug Overdose: Accidental or deliberate use of a medication or street drug in excess of normal dosage.Cannabinoids: Compounds having the cannabinoid structure. They were originally extracted from Cannabis sativa L. The most pharmacologically active constituents are TETRAHYDROCANNABINOL; CANNABINOL; and CANNABIDIOL.Reinforcement Schedule: A schedule prescribing when the subject is to be reinforced or rewarded in terms of temporal interval in psychological experiments. The schedule may be continuous or intermittent.Tobacco Products: Substances and products derived from NICOTIANA TABACUM.Sympathetic Nervous System: The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.Tobacco Use Disorder: Tobacco used to the detriment of a person's health or social functioning. Tobacco dependence is included.
(1/29) Differential modulation of the gamma-aminobutyric acid type C receptor by neuroactive steroids.

Gamma-aminobutyric acid type C receptor channels (GABA(C)Rs) composed of rho subunits are pharmacologically distinct from GABA(A) receptor channels (GABA(A)Rs). This difference is illustrated by the insensitivity of homo-oligomeric rho(1) receptor channels to many known modulators of GABA(A)Rs, such as barbiturates and benzodiazepines. A number of endogenous metabolites of corticosterone and progesterone, known as neuroactive steroids, compose yet another class of compounds that can modulate GABA(A)Rs. Here, several neuroactive steroids are shown to also modulate the rho(1) receptor channel. 5alpha-Pregnane-3alpha,21-diol-20-one (allotetrahydrodeoxycorticosterone), 5alpha-pregnane-3alpha-ol-11, 20-dione (alphaxalone), and 5alpha-pregnane-3alpha-ol-20-one (allopregnanolone) potentiated the GABA-evoked currents from rho(1) receptor channels and concomitantly altered the deactivation kinetics by prolonging the decay time. In contrast, 5beta-pregnane-3alpha-ol-20-one (pregnanolone), 5beta-pregnane-3, 20-dione (5beta-dihydroprogesterone), and 5beta-pregnane-3alpha, 21-diol-20-one (tetrahydrodeoxycorticosterone), all potentiators of GABA(A)Rs, inhibited the GABA-elicited currents of the rho(1) receptor channel. In comparison to GABA(A)Rs, the modulation of rho(1) receptor channels by these neuroactive compounds occurred with relatively high concentrations of the neuroactive steroids and was more prominent in the presence of low concentrations of GABA, equivalent to fractions of the EC(50) value of the rho(1) receptor channel. Structural comparison of these six neuroactive steroids reveals that the key parameter in determining the mode of modulation for the rho(1) receptor channel is the position of the hydrogen atom bound to the fifth carbon, imposing a trans- or cis-configuration in the backbone structure. This is the first demonstration of isomeric compounds that can differentially modulate the activity of the rho(1) receptor channel.  (+info)

(2/29) Self-augmentation effect of male-specific products on sexually differentiated progesterone metabolism in adult male rat liver microsomes.

It is well known that several 3-keto-4-ene steroids such as progesterone and testosterone are metabolized in a gender-specific or -predominant manner by adult rat liver microsomes. In the male, these steroids are primarily metabolized into two oxidized (16alpha-hydroxyl and 6beta-hydroxyl) products mainly by the respective, male-specific cytochrome P450 subforms, CYP2C11 and CYP3A2, while they are primarily metabolized into the 5alpha-reduced products by female-predominant 5alpha-reductase in the female. These sexually differentiated enzyme activities are largely regulated at the transcription level under endocrine control. In the present study, we show that unlabeled 16alpha-hydroxyprogesterone and 6beta-hydroxyprogesterone inhibited the 5alpha-reductive [(3)H]progesterone metabolism by adult male rat liver microsomes without significantly inhibiting the CYP2C11 and CYP3A2 activities producing themselves, whereas 3alpha-hydroxy-5alpha-pregnan-20-one and 5alpha-pregnane-3,20-dione not only stimulated the 5alpha-reductive metabolism producing themselves but also inhibited the male-specific oxidative metabolism. This finding compels us to propose a novel hypothesis that adult male rat liver microsomes may possess a self-augmentation system regulated by the male-specific products on sexually differentiated steroid metabolism, besides regulation by gene expressions of the related enzymes.  (+info)

(3/29) Substrate specificity of human 3(20)alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase for neurosteroids and its inhibition by benzodiazepines.

In this report, we compared kinetic constants and products in the reduction of the neurosteroids, 3alpha,5alpha-tetrahydroprogesterone (3alpha,5alpha THP) and 3alpha,5alpha-tetrahydrodeoxycorticosterone (3alpha,5alpha-THDOC), and their precursors, 5alpha-dihydroprogesterone (5alpha-DHP), 5alpha-dihydrodeoxycorticosterone (5alpha-DHDOC) and progesterone, by three isoenzymes (AKR1C1, AKR1C2 and AKR1C3) of human 3alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. AKR1C1 efficiently reduced 3alpha,5alpha-THP, 5alpha-DHP and progesterone to their 20alpha-hydroxy metabolites, and slowly converted 5alpha-DHDOC to 3alpha,5alpha-THDOC. AKR1C2 exhibited low 20-ketoreductase activity for 3alpha,5alpha-THP and moderate 3-ketoreductase activity for 5alpha-DHP and 5alpha-DHDOC. 3alpha,5alpha-THDOC was not reduced by the two isoenzymes. No significant activity for the steroids was detected with AKR1C3. The results suggest that AKR1C2 is involved in the neurosteroid synthesis, but AKR1C1 decreases the neurosteroid concentrations in human brain by inactivating 3alpha,5alpha-THP and eliminating the precursors from the synthetic pathways. In addition, we found that the several benzodiazepines inhibited the three isoenzymes noncompetitively with respect to the substrate. Although cloxazolam was a potent and specific inhibitor of AKR1C3, diazepam, estazolam, flunitrazepam, medazepam and nitrazepam, that inhibited AKR1C1 and AKR1C2, may influence the neurosteroid metabolism.  (+info)

(4/29) Branched fatty acids in dairy and beef products markedly enhance alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase expression in prostate cancer cells in vitro.

An enzyme previously identified as alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase (AMACR) is overexpressed in high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and in a majority (60-100%) of prostate cancers (CaPs) as compared with normal and benign hyperplastic lesions of the prostate, where it is minimally expressed. This enzyme is required for the beta-oxidation of branched-chain fatty acids, which include phytanic acid and its alpha-oxidation product, pristanic acid. Interestingly, there is an established correlation between CaP risk and the consumption of dairy and beef products, which also contain marked quantities of these two phytols. In this context, it has also been reported that sex steroids influence lipogenesis through the induction of fatty acid synthase in CaP-derived cell lines and CaP tissues. These findings indicate a potential role for AMACR and the possible influence of sex steroids in both the early development and subsequent progression of CaP. Despite the recent interest in AMACR as a histological marker for CaP, little is known about the regulation of this enzyme and its role in CaP development. To identify potential AMACR-regulating factors, we treated LNCaP cells (an androgen-responsive CaP-derived cell line) and NPrEC cells (a normal prostate basal epithelial cell line) with increasing concentrations of pristanic acid, phytanic acid, 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone, and 17beta-estradiol. Neither the biologically potent androgen 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone nor 17beta-estradiol had any apparent effect on AMACR expression at the protein or transcriptional levels in either cell line. Conversely, pristanic acid and, to a much lesser extent, phytanic acid markedly increased AMACR protein levels selectively in the LNCaP cell line, but not the NPrEC cell line. However, no change was measured at the transcriptional level in either cell line. AMACR is therefore significantly increased at the protein level in CaP cells, through what appears to be the stabilizing effect of the same fatty acids that are present at appreciable concentrations in beef and dairy products, which have been associated with CaP risk. Our findings therefore provide a link between the consumption of dietary fatty acids and the enhanced expression of AMACR, an enzyme that may play an important role in genesis and progression of CaP.  (+info)

(5/29) Androgen inhibition of MAP kinase pathway and Elk-1 activation in proliferating osteoblasts.

Non-aromatizable androgens have significant beneficial effects on skeletal homeostasis independently of conversion to estradiol, but the effects of androgens on bone cell metabolism and cell proliferation are still poorly understood. Using an osteoblastic model with enhanced androgen responsiveness, MC3T3-E1 cells stably transfected with androgen receptor (AR) under the control of the type I collagen promoter (colAR-MC3T3), the effects of androgens on mitogenic signaling were characterized. Cultures were treated with the non-aromatizable androgen 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and the effects on osteoblast viability were determined as measured by an MTT assay. A complex response was observed in that continuous short-term DHT treatment enhanced osteoblast viability, but with longer-term DHT treatment inhibition was observed. The inhibition by DHT was prevented by the specific AR antagonist hydroxyflutamide, and was also observed in primary cultures of normal rat calvarial osteoblasts. In order to identify potential mediators of this effect, mitogenic pathway-specific cDNA microarrays were interrogated. Reduced hybridization of several genes important in MAP kinase-mediated signaling was observed, with the most dramatic effect on Elk-1 expression. Analysis of phosphorylation cascades demonstrated that DHT treatment inhibited phosphoERK1/2 levels, MAP kinase activation of Elk-1, Elk-1 protein and phosphoElk-1 levels, and downstream AP-1/luciferase reporter activity. Together, these data provide the first evidence that androgen inhibition of the MAP kinase signaling pathway is a potential mediator of osteoblast growth, and are consistent with the hypothesis that the MAP cascade may be a specific downstream target of DHT.  (+info)

(6/29) Insight into the mechanism of action of neuroactive steroids.

Rho(1) receptor-channels (rho(1)Rs) are GABA-gated chloride channels that exhibit slow kinetics, little desensitization, and inert pharmacology to most anesthetics, except for neuroactive steroids (NSs). NSs differentially modulate rho(1)Rs dependent on the steric arrangement of the hydrogen atom at the fifth carbon position. In particular, the NS allotetrahydrodeoxycorticosterone (5alpha-THDOC) potentiates, whereas 5beta-pregnane-3alpha-ol-20-one (pregnanolone) and 5beta-dihydroprogesterone (5beta-DHP) inhibit rho(1) GABA currents. Here, we used Xenopus laevis oocytes expressing rho(1)Rs as a model system to study the mechanism of NS modulation. The second transmembrane residue, Ile307, was mutated to 16 amino acids. Subsequent testing of these mutants with 5alpha- and 5beta-NSs, at equivalent GABA activity, showed the following paradigm. For 5beta-DHP, Ile307 mutation either altered the degree of inhibition or entirely reversed the direction of modulation, rendering 5beta-DHP a potentiator. Dependent on the mutation, pregnanolone remained an inhibitor, transformed into a potentiator, or converted to inhibitor and potentiator based on concentration. The extent of mode reversal for both 5beta compounds showed a correlation with the side-chain hydrophilicity of the 307 residue. In contrast, Ile307 substitutions did not alter the direction of modulation for 5alpha-THDOC but caused a significant increase in the level of potentiation. Paradoxical to their impact on the mode and/or the degree of modulation, none of the mutations altered the concentration range producing the response significantly for any of the above NSs. Moreover, preincubation of Ile307 mutants with 5alpha or 5beta alone produced an equivalent effect on the activation time course. Based on the above data, a universal model is presented wherein anesthetic compounds like NSs can potentiate or inhibit the activity of ligand-gated ion channels distinct from interaction with alternative binding sites.  (+info)

(7/29) Modulation of the firing activity of female dorsal raphe nucleus serotonergic neurons by neuroactive steroids.

Important gender differences in mood disorders result in a greater susceptibility for women. Accumulating evidence suggests a reciprocal modulation between the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) system and neuroactive steroids. Previous data from our laboratory have shown that during pregnancy, the firing activity of 5-HT neurons increases in parallel with progesterone levels. This study was undertaken to evaluate the putative modulation of the 5-HT neuronal firing activity by different neurosteroids. Female rats received i.c.v. for 7 days a dose of 50 micro g/kg per day of one of the following steroids: progesterone, pregnenolone, 5beta-pregnane-3,20-dione (5beta-DHP), 5beta-pregnan-3alpha-ol,20-one, 5beta-pregnan-3beta-ol,20-one, 5alpha-pregnane-3,20-dione, 5alpha-pregnan-3alpha-ol,20-one (allopregnanolone, 3alpha,5alpha-THP), 5alpha-pregnane-3beta-ol,20-one and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). 5beta-DHP and DHEA were also administered for 14 and 21 days (50 micro g/kg per day, i.c.v.) as well as concomitantly with the selective sigma 1 (sigma1) receptor antagonist NE-100. In vivo, extracellular unitary recording of 5-HT neurons performed in the dorsal raphe nucleus of these rats revealed that DHEA, 5beta-DHP and 3alpha,5alpha-THP significantly increased the firing activity of the 5-HT neurons. Interestingly, 5beta-DHP and DHEA showed different time-frames for their effects with 5beta-DHP having its greatest effect after 7 days to return to control values after 21 days, whereas DHEA demonstrated a sustained effect over the 21 day period. NE-100 prevented the effect of DHEA but not of 5beta-DHP, thus indicating that its sigma1 receptors mediate the effect of DHEA but not that of 5beta-DHP. In conclusion, our results offer a cellular basis for potential antidepressant effects of neurosteroids, which may prove important particularly for women with affective disorders.  (+info)

(8/29) Fine tuning of the specificity of an anti-progesterone antibody by first and second sphere residue engineering.

The specificity of anti-progesterone P15G12C12G11 antibody was improved by combination of in vitro scanning saturation mutagenesis and error-prone PCR. The most evolved mutant is able to discriminate against 5beta- or 5alpha-dihydroprogesterone, 23 and 15 times better than the starting antibody, while maintaining the affinity for progesterone that remains in the picomolar range. The high level of homology with anti-progesterone monoclonal antibody DB3 allowed the construction of three-dimensional models of P15G12C12G11 based on the structures of DB3 in complex with various steroids. These models together with binding data, derived from site-directed mutagenesis, were used to build a phage library in which five first sphere positions in complementarity-determining regions 2H and 3L were varied. Variants selected by an initial screening in competition against a large excess of 5beta- or 5alpha-dihydroprogesterone were characterized by a convergent amino acid signature different from that of the wild-type antibody and had lower cross-reactivity. Binding properties of this first set of mutants were further improved by the addition of second sphere mutations selected independently from an error-prone library. The three-dimensional models of the best variant show changes in the antigen binding site that explain well the increase in selectivity. The improvements are partly linked to a change in the canonical class of the light chain third hypervariable loop.  (+info)

*  List of MeSH codes (D06)
20-alpha-dihydroprogesterone MeSH D06.472.334.851.687.750.099 --- 5-alpha-dihydroprogesterone MeSH D06.472.334.851.687.750.478 ... alpha subunit MeSH D06.472.351.576.463 --- luteinizing hormone MeSH D06.472.351.576.463.249 --- glycoprotein hormones, alpha ... alpha-msh MeSH D06.472.699.631.525.690.583.075 --- beta-msh MeSH D06.472.699.631.525.690.583.115 --- gamma-msh MeSH D06.472. ... alpha-msh MeSH D06.472.734.525.690.583.075 --- beta-msh MeSH D06.472.734.525.690.583.115 --- gamma-msh MeSH D06.472.734.525.883 ...
*  List of MeSH codes (D04)
20-alpha-dihydroprogesterone MeSH D04.808.745.745.654.829.395 --- hydroxyprogesterones MeSH D04.808.745.745.654.829.395.400 ... File "2006 MeSH Trees".) MeSH D04.345.051.500 --- crown ethers MeSH D04.345.103.222 --- alpha-cyclodextrins MeSH D04.345. ... 17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone MeSH D04.808.745.745.654.829.614 --- medroxyprogesterone MeSH D04.808.745.745.654.829.614.500 --- ... medroxyprogesterone 17-acetate MeSH D04.808.745.745.725 --- pregnenolone MeSH D04.808.745.745.725.395 --- 17-alpha- ...
*  Membrane progesterone receptor
"PAQR7 - Membrane progestin receptor alpha - Homo sapiens (Human) - PAQR7 gene & protein". www.uniprot.org. Retrieved 2015-10-30 ... "PAQR7 - Membrane progestin receptor alpha - Homo sapiens (Human) - PAQR7 gene & protein". www.uniprot.org. Retrieved 2015-10-27 ... Thomas P (May 2008). "Characteristics of membrane progestin receptor alpha (mPRalpha) and progesterone membrane receptor ... Membrane progesterone receptor alpha (mPRα) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PAQR7 gene. It is a steroid receptor ...
*  Neurosteroid
"Brain 5alpha-dihydroprogesterone and allopregnanolone synthesis in a mouse model of protracted social isolation". Proceedings ... alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase for neurosteroids and its inhibition by benzodiazepines" (pdf). Biological & Pharmaceutical ... 25 (4): 441-5. doi:10.1248/bpb.25.441. PMID 11995921. Akk G, Shu HJ, Wang C, Steinbach JH, Zorumski CF, Covey DF, Mennerick S ( ... 5. doi:10.3389/fphys.2014.00065. ISSN 1664-042X. PMC 3935357 . PMID 24616704. Paul, S. M.; Doherty, J. J.; Robichaud, A. J.; ...
*  5α-Reductase
... alpha -substrate}+NADP+}}} 5α-DHP is a major hormone in circulation of normal cycling and pregnant women. 5α-Reductase is most ... 5alpha-reductase enzyme isoforms I and II reduce progesterone to dihydroprogesterone (DHP) and deoxycorticosterone to ... Allopregnanolone 3β-Dihydroprogesterone → Isopregnanolone Deoxycorticosterone → 5α-Dihydrodeoxycorticosterone Corticosterone → ... 5α-R1 and 5α-R2 appear to be expressed in the prostate in male fetuses and throughout postnatal life. In adulthood, 5α-R1-3 is ...
*  3α-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase
Ozeki T, Takahashi Y, Nakayama K, Kamataki T (September 2002). "Hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF)-4 alpha/gamma, HNF-1 alpha, and ... "Hepatocyte nuclear factor-4 alpha/gamma and hepatocyte nuclear factor-1 alpha as causal factors of interindividual difference ... Binstock JM, Iyer RB, Hamby CV, Fried VA, Schwartz IS, Weinstein BI, Southren AL (September 1992). "Human hepatic 3 alpha- ... Khanna M, Qin KN, Cheng KC (June 1995). "Distribution of 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase in rat brain and molecular ...
*  17α-Hydroxyprogesterone
17-alpha hydroxyprogesterone caproate, and related progestins". Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 197 (6): 599.e1-7. doi:10.1016/j.ajog. ... 11α-Hydroxyprogesterone 5α-Dihydroprogesterone 20-Dihydroprogesterone 11-Deoxycorticosterone 11-Deoxycortisol 17α- ...
*  Progestogen
17-alpha hydroxyprogesterone caproate, and related progestins". Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 197 (6): 599.e1-7. doi:10.1016/j.ajog. ... 20α-dihydroprogesterone, 5α-dihydroprogesterone, 11-deoxycorticosterone, and 5α-dihydrodeoxycorticosterone. Progesterone ... doi:10.1016/S0015-0282(01)01791-5. PMID 11384629. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) (the Women's Health, ... The equine placenta produces a variety of progestogens, primarily 5α-dihydroprogesterone and 5α,20α-tetrahydroprogesterone, ...
*  5α-Reductase inhibitor
However, it can only decrease circulating DHT levels by about 25 to 54%. Alfatradiol (brand names Ell-Cranell Alpha, Pantostin ... 5-ARIs are generally well-tolerated in both men and women and produce few side effects. However, they have been found to have ... 5α-Dihydrocortisol is present in the aqueous humor of the eye, is synthesized in the lens, and might help make the aqueous ... 5α-DHP is a major hormone in circulation of normal cycling and pregnant women. Other enzymes compensate to a degree for the ...
*  List of neurosteroids
... of the above-listed inhibitory androstane neurosteroids 3α-Dihydroprogesterone (3α-DHP): pregn-4-en-3α-ol-20-one - GABAA ... NMDA receptor positive allosteric modulator 3β-Dihydroprogesterone (3β-DHP): pregn-4-en-3β-ol-20-one - GABAA receptor negative ... 5: 65. doi:10.3389/fphys.2014.00065. PMC 3935357 . PMID 24616704. Lange Y, Steck TL (2016). "Active membrane cholesterol as a ... 25-Hydroxycholesterol: cholest-5-en-3β,25-diol - NMDA receptor negative allosteric modulator 3α,5α-Androstanediol (3α- ...
*  Progesterone
3β-dihydroprogesterone, 20α-dihydroprogesterone, and 20β-dihydroprogesterone, as well as various combination products of the ... 17-alpha hydroxyprogesterone caproate, and related progestins". Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 197 (6): 599.e1-7. doi:10.1016/j.ajog. ... Other metabolites of progesterone formed by the enzymes in this pathway include 3α-dihydroprogesterone, ... 20 (5): 432-8. PMID 18188998. Jiang C, Zuo F, Wang Y, Wan J, Yang Z, Lu H, Chen W, Zang W, Yang Q, Wang J (June 2016). " ...
*  Sertraline
Trauger JW, Jiang A, Stearns BA, LoGrasso PV (2002). "Kinetics of allopregnanolone formation catalyzed by human 3 alpha- ... 60 (5): 512-21. doi:10.1016/S0009-9236(96)90147-2. PMID 8941024. Wang JH, Liu ZQ, Wang W, Chen XP, Shu Y, He N, Zhou HH (2001 ... 84 (5): 45-52. doi:10.1021/cen-v084n010.p045. A short blurb on the history of sertraline, see: Couzin J (2005). "The brains ... 76 (1): 5-14. doi:10.1159/000096360. PMID 17170559. Banerjee S, Hellier J, Romeo R, Dewey M, Knapp M, Ballard C, Baldwin R, ...
*  Medroxyprogesterone acetate
Penning TM, Sharp RB, Krieger NR (December 1985). "Purification and properties of 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase from rat ... selective inhibition of 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid oxidoreductase activity". Journal of Steroid Biochemistry. 17 (2): 197-203. doi: ... 5. Reduced risk of ectopic pregnancy. Compared with women who use no contraceptive at all, women who use DMPA have a reduced ... ISBN 978-92-5-105195-5. Archived from the original on 17 June 2014. Kemppainen JA, Langley E, Wong CI, Bobseine K, Kelce WR, ...
5α-Dihydroprogesterone - Wikipedia  5α-Dihydroprogesterone - Wikipedia
5S,8R,9S,10S,13S,14S,17S)-17-acetyl-10,13-dimethyl-1,2,4,5,6,7,8,9,11,12,14,15,16,17-tetradecahydrocyclopenta[a]phenanthren-3- ... a model to study the putative role of allopregnanolone and 5alpha-dihydroprogesterone in psychiatric disorders". Brain Res. ... 5α-Dihydroprogesterone (5α-DHP), also known as allopregnanedione,[1] as well as 5α-pregnane-3,20-dione, is an endogenous ... 5α-DHP is an agonist of the progesterone receptor and a positive allosteric modulator of the GABAA receptor (albeit with an ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/5-alpha-dihydroprogesterone
Progesterone (17OHP) for Prolongation of Pregnancy in Women With Preterm Rupture of the Membranes (PROM)  Progesterone (17OHP) for Prolongation of Pregnancy in Women With Preterm Rupture of the Membranes (PROM)
20-alpha-dihydroprogesterone. A biologically active 20-alpha-reduced metabolite of PROGESTERONE. It is converted from ... 17-alpha-hydroxy-progesterone caproate, Castor Oil (Placebo). Location. Desert Good Samaritan Hospital. Mesa. Arizona. United ... Treatment of Preterm Labor With 17 Alpha-Hydroxyprogesterone Caproate. The goal of our research will be to determine the ... It is not known whether 17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate (17OHP-C) is effective for preventing preterm delivery with an ...
more infohttps://www.bioportfolio.com/resources/trial/65146/Progesterone-17OHP-for-Prolongation-of-Pregnancy-in-Women-With-Preterm-Rupture-of.html
Shaoyang Kerey Chemicals Co., Ltd. - chemical supplier: Page 1 of product list  Shaoyang Kerey Chemicals Co., Ltd. - chemical supplier: Page 1 of product list
Chemical supplier listed by chemBlink - Shaoyang Kerey Chemicals Co., Ltd.: phone and fax numbers, website URL, online contact form and page 1 of product list.
more infohttps://www.chemblink.com/webs/www.kery-pharm.com.htm
Impact of Oral Contraceptives on GABA and Neurosteroids - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov  Impact of Oral Contraceptives on GABA and Neurosteroids - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
... pregnanolone and 5 alpha-dihydroprogesterone (5α-DHP). [ Time Frame: Outcome will be assessed at several time points for each ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00656318
List of MeSH codes (D06) - Wikipedia  List of MeSH codes (D06) - Wikipedia
20-alpha-dihydroprogesterone MeSH D06.472.334.851.687.750.099 --- 5-alpha-dihydroprogesterone MeSH D06.472.334.851.687.750.478 ... alpha subunit MeSH D06.472.351.576.463 --- luteinizing hormone MeSH D06.472.351.576.463.249 --- glycoprotein hormones, alpha ... alpha-msh MeSH D06.472.699.631.525.690.583.075 --- beta-msh MeSH D06.472.699.631.525.690.583.115 --- gamma-msh MeSH D06.472. ... alpha-msh MeSH D06.472.734.525.690.583.075 --- beta-msh MeSH D06.472.734.525.690.583.115 --- gamma-msh MeSH D06.472.734.525.883 ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_MeSH_codes_(D06)
List of MeSH codes (D04) - Wikipedia  List of MeSH codes (D04) - Wikipedia
20-alpha-dihydroprogesterone MeSH D04.808.745.745.654.829.395 --- hydroxyprogesterones MeSH D04.808.745.745.654.829.395.400 ... File "2006 MeSH Trees".) MeSH D04.345.051.500 --- crown ethers MeSH D04.345.103.222 --- alpha-cyclodextrins MeSH D04.345. ... 17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone MeSH D04.808.745.745.654.829.614 --- medroxyprogesterone MeSH D04.808.745.745.654.829.614.500 --- ... medroxyprogesterone 17-acetate MeSH D04.808.745.745.725 --- pregnenolone MeSH D04.808.745.745.725.395 --- 17-alpha- ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_MeSH_codes_(D04)
Fruktbarhet & graviditet  Fruktbarhet & graviditet
Calcitriol inhibits TNF-alpha-induced inflammatory cytokines in human trophoblasts. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2009 Mar;70(3):372-7 ... 1999 May;71(5):930-6. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A and B receptors mediate the stimulatory effects of GABA on the human ... 1990 Nov;163(5 Pt 1):1497-502. Corpus luteum function in early pregnancies is primarily determined by the rate of change of ... 1995 May;102(5):364-9. The role of a single progesterone measurement in the diagnosis of early pregnancy failure and the ...
more infohttp://natpro.tjenester.org/progesteron/svangerskap/
Østrogendominans (ØD)  Østrogendominans (ØD)
6, 559-564, June 1999 Oestrogen receptor alpha and beta mRNA expression in human endometrium throughout the menstrual cycle ... Di hydroprogesterone upon Estrogen-Induced Prolactin Release ... Dose-Related Effects of Progesterone and 5 Alpha- ... 1983 Jun;28(5):1078-89. Progesterone inhibits the induction of aromatase activity in rat granulosa cells in vitro ...
more infohttp://natpro.tjenester.org/progesteron/dominans/
20-alpha-Dihydroprogesterone - Semantic Scholar  20-alpha-Dihydroprogesterone - Semantic Scholar
It is converted from progesterone to 20-alpha-hydroxypregn-4-en-3-one by the 20-ALPHA-HYDROXYSTEROID DEHYDROGENASE in the ... A biologically active 20-alpha-reduced metabolite of PROGESTERONE. ... 20-alpha-Dihydroprogesterone. Known as: 20-alpha-Hydroxyprogesterone, Pregn-4-en-3-one, 20-alpha-hydroxy-, 20alpha Hydroxypregn ... The development of a sensitive enzyme-immunoassay for 20 alpha-dihydroprogesterone (20 alpha-DHP) and its use in determining… ( ...
more infohttps://www.semanticscholar.org/topic/20-alpha-Dihydroprogesterone/1515082
Frontiers | Gonadal Hormones and Retinal Disorders: A Review | Endocrinology  Frontiers | Gonadal Hormones and Retinal Disorders: A Review | Endocrinology
3 alpha, 5 alpha-tetrahydrodesoxycorticosterone, 3 alpha-hydroxy-5 alpha-dihydro-progesterone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, and 17- ... 5. Azcoitia I, Arevalo MA, De Nicola AF, Garcia-Segura LM. Neuroprotective actions of estradiol revisited. Trends Endocrinol ... Wang JJ, Klein R, Smith W, Klein BE, Tomany S, Mitchell P. Cataract surgery and the 5-years incidence of late-stage age-related ... Aust N Z J Ophthalmol (1997) 25(Suppl 1):S13-5. doi:10.1111/j.1442-9071.1997.tb01745.x ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fendo.2018.00066/full
Influence of Ethynodiol Diacetate on the Formation of A-Homo-3Oxa-5?-Pregnane-4,20-Dione in Female Rats. - Semantic Scholar  Influence of Ethynodiol Diacetate on the Formation of A-Homo-3Oxa-5?-Pregnane-4,20-Dione in Female Rats. - Semantic Scholar
Inhibition of rat ovarian 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3 beta-HSD), 17 alpha-hydroxylase and 17,20 lyase by progestins ... Influence of Ethynodiol Diacetate on the Formation of A-Homo-3Oxa-5?-Pregnane-4,20-Dione in Female Rats.. @article{ ... Effect of the cytochrome P-450 inhibitor, ketoconazole, and the NADPH 5 alpha-reductase inhibitor, 4-MA, upon the metabolic ... Simic1998InfluenceOE, title={Influence of Ethynodiol Diacetate on the Formation of A-Homo-3Oxa-5?-Pregnane-4,20-Dione in Female ...
more infohttps://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Influence-of-Ethynodiol-Diacetate-on-the-Formation-Simic-Kniewald/5f536a4d5f9e3860115579663ce6e7a0f8d24979
The 5 Alpha-Reductase Isozyme Family: A Review of Basic Biology and Their Role in Human Diseases  The 5 Alpha-Reductase Isozyme Family: A Review of Basic Biology and Their Role in Human Diseases
... α-dihydroprogesterone (5α-DHP) is a major hormone in the circulation of both normal cycling and pregnant women [31]. 5α- ... 1-5 μM. 5α-R2 has a lower turnover number (. ) and a higher substrate affinity, as indicated by = 0.004-1 μM for T. Under ... Isozymes are different proteins that perform the same function:(a)5α-R1 and 5α-R2,(b)5α-R3,(c)GPSN2 and GPSN2L proteins. ... They detected 5α-R2 only in fetal genital skin. Lunacek et al. [55] studied the expression of 5α-R 1 and 5α-R2 at the mRNA (RT- ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/au/2012/530121/
dairy Archives - The Paleo Diet®
	  dairy Archives - The Paleo Diet®
Caseins in CM (and also in goat's milk) are divided into: alphaS1, alphaS2, beta and kappa.2 ... and 20β-dihydroprogesterone, 5α-pregnan-3β-ol-20-one, 5α-androstene-3β17β-diol, 5α-androstan-3β-ol-17-one, androstenedione, ... Hormi K, Lehy T. Developmental expression of transforming growth factor-alpha and epidermal growth factor receptor proteins in ... Betacellulin (BTC), Growth hormone (GH), Growth hormone releasing factor (GHRF), Transforming growth factor alpha (TGF α), ...
more infohttps://thepaleodiet.com/tag/dairy/
autoimmune disease Archives - The Paleo Diet®
	  autoimmune disease Archives - The Paleo Diet®
Hormi K, Lehy T. Developmental expression of transforming growth factor-alpha and epidermal growth factor receptor proteins in ... and 20β-dihydroprogesterone, 5α-pregnan-3β-ol-20-one, 5α-androstene-3β17β-diol, 5α-androstan-3β-ol-17-one, androstenedione, ... Betacellulin (BTC), Growth hormone (GH), Growth hormone releasing factor (GHRF), Transforming growth factor alpha (TGF α), ... Estrogens (Estrone, Estradiol-17β, Estriol and Estrone sulfate), Progesterone, 20 alpha-dihydropregnenolone, 5α androstanedione ...
more infohttps://thepaleodiet.com/tag/autoimmune-disease-2/
Human Metabolome Database: Showing metabocard for Allopregnanolone (HMDB0001449)  Human Metabolome Database: Showing metabocard for Allopregnanolone (HMDB0001449)
Functions as a bi-directional 3-alpha-, 17-beta- and 20-alpha HSD. Can interconvert active androgens, estrogens and progestins ... 3a-Hydroxy-5a-dihydroprogesterone. HMDB. 3a-Hydroxy-5a-pregnan-20-one. HMDB. ... Converts progesterone to its inactive form, 20-alpha-dihydroxyprogesterone (20-alpha-OHP). In the liver and intestine, may have ... Catalyzes the reduction of prostaglandin (PG) D2, PGH2 and phenanthrenequinone (PQ) and the oxidation of 9-alpha,11-beta-PGF2 ...
more infohttp://www.hmdb.ca/metabolites/HMDB01449
dict.md | N  dict.md | N
NADH-UBIQUINONE OXIDOREDUCTASE 1 ALPHA SUBCOMPLEX, ASSEMBLY FACTOR 1. NADH-UBIQUINONE OXIDOREDUCTASE 1 ALPHA/BETA SUBCOMPLEX, 1 ... NADPH 5 alpha Dihydroprogesterone 3 alpha Hydroxysteroid Oxidoreductase. NADPH azodicarbonyl-quinone oxidoreductase protein, ... nadolol 40 MILLIGRAM In 1 TABLET / bendroflumethiazide 5 MILLIGRAM In 1 TABLET ORAL TABLET [Corzide]. ... nadolol 80 MILLIGRAM In 1 TABLET / bendroflumethiazide 5 MILLIGRAM In 1 TABLET ORAL TABLET [Corzide]. ...
more infohttp://en.dict.md/N/37
Search Articles | University of Toronto Libraries  Search Articles | University of Toronto Libraries
20-alpha-Dihydroprogesterone - metabolism , Androsterone - metabolism , Hydroxyprostaglandin Dehydrogenases - genetics , Breast ... BEWO CELLS , PROGESTERONE , INSULIN-RESISTANCE , GENE-EXPRESSION , PHARMACOLOGY & PHARMACY , NECROSIS-FACTOR-ALPHA , ... Estrogen Receptor alpha - metabolism , Female , Estrogens - metabolism , Parity , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , ... Estrogen Receptor alpha - agonists , Liver - drug effects , Cotinine - metabolism , Maternal Behavior , ATP-Binding Cassette ...
more infohttps://query.library.utoronto.ca/index.php/search/q?kw=SubjectTerms:Progesterone%20-%20metabolism
20α-Dihydroprogesterone, MO-TMS  20α-Dihydroprogesterone, MO-TMS
20«alpha»-Dihydroprogesterone, MO-TMS. *Formula: C25H43NO2Si ... 20«alpha»-hydroxy-pregn-4-en-3-one, MO-TMS, anti. *20«alpha»- ...
more infohttps://webbook.nist.gov/cgi/cbook.cgi?ID=R421948
Progesterone and hair loss | HairSite.com  Progesterone and hair loss | HairSite.com
"Moreover, while less DHT is made, more dihydroprogesterone (DHP; 5a-pregnane-3,20dione) is made. DHP competes with the residual ... Klein, ""Progesterone is the chief inhibitor of an enzyme called 5-alpha reductase. Progesterone inhibits the body from ... 5-AR is the enzyme that converts human serum to testosterone, then into DHT, which is the compound thought to be responsible ... converting testosterone to di-hydrotestosterone (DHT) by binding to 5 alpha reductase; ...
more infohttps://hairsite.com/baldness-encyclopedia/progesterone-and-hair-loss/
School of Veterinary Medicine - Research Output
     - UC Davis  School of Veterinary Medicine - Research Output - UC Davis
Li, R. H. L. & Tablin, F., Nov 28 2018, In : Frontiers in Veterinary Science. 5, NOV, 291.. Research output: Contribution to ... 5α-dihydroprogesterone concentrations and synthesis in non-pregnant mares. Conley, A. J., Scholtz, E. L., Legacki, E. L., ... 5, p. 9-20 12 p.. Research output: Contribution to journal › Article ... 18-22 5 p.. Research output: Contribution to journal › Article ... 20-alpha-Dihydroprogesterone Progesterone Horses Microsomes ...
more infohttps://ucdavis.pure.elsevier.com/en/organisations/school-of-veterinary-medicine/publications/
BRENDA - 1.1.1.50: 3alpha-hydroxysteroid 3-dehydrogenase (Si-specific)  BRENDA - 1.1.1.50: 3alpha-hydroxysteroid 3-dehydrogenase (Si-specific)
3 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, 3 alphaHD, 3-alpha-HSD, 3alpha-HSD, 3alpha-HSD/CR, 3alpha-HSOR, 3alpha-hydroxysteroid ... 5alpha-dihydroprogesterone 3alpha-hydroxysteroid oxidoreductase, AKR1C, AKR1C1-4, AKR1C17, AKR1C2, AKR1C3, AKR1C4, AKR1C9, aldo ... 5alpha-dihydroprogesterone 3alpha-hydroxysteroid oxidoreductase, prostaglandin F2alpha-synthase, PT3HSD, sterognost 3alpha ... type 5 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, type I 3alpha-HSD ...
more infohttp://www.brenda-enzymes.org/all_enzymes.php?ecno=1.1.1.50&table=Storage_Stability
BRENDA - 1.1.1.50: 3alpha-hydroxysteroid 3-dehydrogenase (Si-specific)  BRENDA - 1.1.1.50: 3alpha-hydroxysteroid 3-dehydrogenase (Si-specific)
3 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, 3 alphaHD, 3-alpha-HSD, 3alpha-HSD, 3alpha-HSD/CR, 3alpha-HSOR, 3alpha-hydroxysteroid ... 5alpha-dihydroprogesterone 3alpha-hydroxysteroid oxidoreductase, AKR1C, AKR1C1-4, AKR1C17, AKR1C2, AKR1C3, AKR1C4, AKR1C9, aldo ... 5alpha-dihydroprogesterone 3alpha-hydroxysteroid oxidoreductase, prostaglandin F2alpha-synthase, PT3HSD, sterognost 3alpha ... type 5 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, type I 3alpha-HSD ...
more infohttp://www.brenda-enzymes.org/all_enzymes.php?ecno=1.1.1.50&table=pH_Stability
Buy Medroxyprogesterone acetate | Estrogen/progestogen Receptor agonist | Price | IC50 | Research only
			
		
		
		
		
	  Buy Medroxyprogesterone acetate | Estrogen/progestogen Receptor agonist | Price | IC50 | Research only
Medroxyprogesterone acetate and dexamethasone, but not progesterone, dose dependently increases alpha-ENaC and sgk1 mRNA in M-1 ... involved in the reversible conversion between 5alpha-dihydroprogesterone (DHP) and 3alpha, 5alpha-tetrahydroprogesterone (THP ... 2] Medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) and dexamethasone dose dependently increases alpha-ENaC promoter-driven luciferase ... 5% DMSO+30% PEG 300+5% Tween 80+ddH2O. For best results, use promptly after mixing. 1mg/mL ...
more infohttps://www.selleckchem.com/products/Medroxyprogesterone-acetate.html
EP2465469A1 - Device for predicting the optimum insemination time for an animal 
        - Google Patents  EP2465469A1 - Device for predicting the optimum insemination time for an animal - Google Patents
... the so-called alpha and the beta subunits. The alpha subunits of both LH and FSH are nearly 100% identical; however the ... 20-α-Dihydroprogesterone. 0.03. 20-β-Dihydroprogesterone. 3.27. 5-α-Pregnan-3,20 dione. 3.51. ... Ovulation: up to 5 ng/ml. *Ovulation can occur on Day 7 or even at DAY 27 of the estrus cycle. Therefore daily monitoring is ... Days 2 to 5: The corpus luteum grows rapidly in both size and function. Numerous follicles may be seen on the ovary at this ...
more infohttps://patents.google.com/patent/EP2465469A1/en
Nicotine  Nicotine
Reinforcement disorders 3.6 Use of other drugs4 Overdose 5 Pharmacology5.1 Pharmacodynamics5.1.1 Central nervous system 5.1.2 ... Allopregnanolone (brexanolone) Alpha-Lipoic acid Ambrisentan AMI-193 Amlodipine besylate Antimycotics Artemisinin ... Additionally, specific types of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors- eg, alpha 7 receptors, which are stimulated by nicotine-are ... alpha-Diethylphenylethylamine N-Ethylbuphedrone N-Ethylhexedrone N,N-Dimethylphenethylamine Naphthylamphetamine Nisoxetine ...
more infohttp://theinfolist.com/php/SummaryGet.php?FindGo=Nicotine
  • Even though classical PRs and mPRs can also have overlapping regional expression (e.g., both are expressed in the hippocampus, cortex, hypothalamus and cerebellum), their ligand specificity is not identical (for example mPRs bind to 17α-hydroxyprogesterone and 5-dihydroprogesterone with greater affinity than to the classical PRs). (wikipedia.org)
  • The role of DHT was discovered after the description of 5 α -R2 deficiency in a group of males from the Dominican Republic [ 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • acts as an agonist at most nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs),[5] except at two nicotinic receptor subunits (nAChRα9 and nAChRα10) where it acts as a receptor antagonist. (theinfolist.com)
  • 5α-dihydroaldosterone is a potent antinatriuretic agent, although different from aldosterone. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hepatic expression of both 5α-R1 and 2 is immediate, but disappears in the skin and scalp at month 18. (wikipedia.org)
  • Medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) and dexamethasone dose dependently increases alpha-ENaC promoter-driven luciferase activity in M-1 cells, which is not inhibited by Org31710, indicating that Medroxyprogesterone acetate regulates alpha-ENaC in a PR-independent manner. (selleckchem.com)
  • Medroxyprogesterone acetate and dexamethasone, but not progesterone, dose dependently increases alpha-ENaC and sgk1 mRNA in M-1 and in Madin-Darby canine kidney-C7 cells, both collecting duct cell lines. (selleckchem.com)
  • 5α-reductases, also known as 3-oxo-5α-steroid 4-dehydrogenases, are enzymes involved in steroid metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • 5α-Reductases catalyze the following chemical reaction: a 3-oxo-5α-steroid + acceptor ⇌ a 3-oxo-Δ4-steroid + reduced acceptor Thus, the two substrates of these enzymes are a 3-oxo-5α-steroid and acceptor, whereas its two products are 3-oxo-Δ4-steroid and a reduced acceptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Moreover, they are produced, not only by the gonads, but also by other organs ( 3 , 4 ), including the central nervous system (CNS) in which estrogens are thought to exert a neuroprotective role ( 5 , 6 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • 5-ARIs are sometimes used as antiandrogens in feminizing hormone therapy for transgender women to help reduce body hair growth and scalp hair loss. (wikipedia.org)
  • Expression cloning and characterization of human 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2, a microsomal enzyme possessing 20 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity. (semanticscholar.org)
  • 5-ARIs are clinically used in the treatment of conditions that are exacerbated by DHT: Mild-to-moderate benign prostatic hyperplasia and lower urinary tract symptoms Pattern hair loss in both men and women 5-ARIs can be used in the treatment of hirsutism in women. (wikipedia.org)
  • The goal of our research will be to determine the effectiveness of 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate (17P) in the treatment of preterm delivery. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Nor does the "diet made mostly of fruit, vegetables, legumes, whole grains, poultry and fish" distinguish the effects of antinutrients contained in legumes and grains, 5 or the glycemic load of eating too much fruit. (thepaleodiet.com)
  • 5-ARIs are generally well-tolerated in both men and women and produce few side effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • 5α-R1 is expressed in fetal scalp and nongenital skin of the back, anywhere from 5 to 50 times less than in the adult. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alfatradiol (brand names Ell-Cranell Alpha, Pantostin) is a topical 5-ARI used to treat pattern hair loss in Europe. (wikipedia.org)
  • [5] In the United States, a course of treatment typically costs less than $25. (wikipedia.org)
  • The usefulness of 5-ARIs for the potential treatment of acne is uncertain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Its products, 5 β -isomers, are labeled as epi-product, such as 5 β -DHT (epi-DHT) [ 8 ]. (hindawi.com)