Pulmonary Embolism: Blocking of the PULMONARY ARTERY or one of its branches by an EMBOLUS.Venous Thrombosis: The formation or presence of a blood clot (THROMBUS) within a vein.Anticoagulants: Agents that prevent clotting.Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight: Heparin fractions with a molecular weight usually between 4000 and 6000 kD. These low-molecular-weight fractions are effective antithrombotic agents. Their administration reduces the risk of hemorrhage, they have a longer half-life, and their platelet interactions are reduced in comparison to unfractionated heparin. They also provide an effective prophylaxis against postoperative major pulmonary embolism.Vitamin K: A lipid cofactor that is required for normal blood clotting. Several forms of vitamin K have been identified: VITAMIN K 1 (phytomenadione) derived from plants, VITAMIN K 2 (menaquinone) from bacteria, and synthetic naphthoquinone provitamins, VITAMIN K 3 (menadione). Vitamin K 3 provitamins, after being alkylated in vivo, exhibit the antifibrinolytic activity of vitamin K. Green leafy vegetables, liver, cheese, butter, and egg yolk are good sources of vitamin K.Venous Thromboembolism: Obstruction of a vein or VEINS (embolism) by a blood clot (THROMBUS) in the blood stream.Thrombophlebitis: Inflammation of a vein associated with a blood clot (THROMBUS).Thromboembolism: Obstruction of a blood vessel (embolism) by a blood clot (THROMBUS) in the blood stream.Thrombosis: Formation and development of a thrombus or blood clot in the blood vessel.Warfarin: An anticoagulant that acts by inhibiting the synthesis of vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors. Warfarin is indicated for the prophylaxis and/or treatment of venous thrombosis and its extension, pulmonary embolism, and atrial fibrillation with embolization. It is also used as an adjunct in the prophylaxis of systemic embolism after myocardial infarction. Warfarin is also used as a rodenticide.Metabolomics: The systematic identification and quantitation of all the metabolic products of a cell, tissue, organ, or organism under varying conditions. The METABOLOME of a cell or organism is a dynamic collection of metabolites which represent its net response to current conditions.Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.Alberta: A province of western Canada, lying between the provinces of British Columbia and Saskatchewan. Its capital is Edmonton. It was named in honor of Princess Louise Caroline Alberta, the fourth daughter of Queen Victoria. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p26 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p12)British Columbia: A province of Canada on the Pacific coast. Its capital is Victoria. The name given in 1858 derives from the Columbia River which was named by the American captain Robert Gray for his ship Columbia which in turn was named for Columbus. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p178 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p81-2)Genomics: The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.Health Records, Personal: Longitudinal patient-maintained records of individual health history and tools that allow individual control of access.Academies and Institutes: Organizations representing specialized fields which are accepted as authoritative; may be non-governmental, university or an independent research organization, e.g., National Academy of Sciences, Brookings Institution, etc.Metabolome: The dynamic collection of metabolites which represent a cell's or organism's net metabolic response to current conditions.Databases, Pharmaceutical: Databases devoted to knowledge about PHARMACEUTICAL PRODUCTS.Pharmacological Processes: The metabolism of drugs and their mechanisms of action.4-Hydroxycoumarins: Substances found in many plants, containing the 4-hydroxycoumarin radical. They interfere with vitamin K and the blood clotting mechanism, are tightly protein-bound, inhibit mitochondrial and microsomal enzymes, and are used as oral anticoagulants.Biography as Topic: A written account of a person's life and the branch of literature concerned with the lives of people. (Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed)BiographyBenzoin: A white crystalline compound prepared by condensation of benzaldehyde in potassium cyanide and used in organic syntheses. This should not be confused with benzoin gum from STYRAX.Neurology: A medical specialty concerned with the study of the structures, functions, and diseases of the nervous system.Warfarin: An anticoagulant that acts by inhibiting the synthesis of vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors. Warfarin is indicated for the prophylaxis and/or treatment of venous thrombosis and its extension, pulmonary embolism, and atrial fibrillation with embolization. It is also used as an adjunct in the prophylaxis of systemic embolism after myocardial infarction. Warfarin is also used as a rodenticide.Stroke: A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)Azores: A group of nine islands and several islets belonging to Portugal in the north Atlantic Ocean off the coast of Portugal. The islands are named after the acores, the Portuguese for goshawks, living there in abundance. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p102 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p42)Pinnipedia: The suborder of aquatic CARNIVORA comprising the WALRUSES; FUR SEALS; SEA LIONS; and EARLESS SEALS. They have fusiform bodies with very short tails and are found on all sea coasts. The offspring are born on land.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.4-Hydroxycoumarins: Substances found in many plants, containing the 4-hydroxycoumarin radical. They interfere with vitamin K and the blood clotting mechanism, are tightly protein-bound, inhibit mitochondrial and microsomal enzymes, and are used as oral anticoagulants.Biography as Topic: A written account of a person's life and the branch of literature concerned with the lives of people. (Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed)BiographyBenzoin: A white crystalline compound prepared by condensation of benzaldehyde in potassium cyanide and used in organic syntheses. This should not be confused with benzoin gum from STYRAX.Neurology: A medical specialty concerned with the study of the structures, functions, and diseases of the nervous system.Warfarin: An anticoagulant that acts by inhibiting the synthesis of vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors. Warfarin is indicated for the prophylaxis and/or treatment of venous thrombosis and its extension, pulmonary embolism, and atrial fibrillation with embolization. It is also used as an adjunct in the prophylaxis of systemic embolism after myocardial infarction. Warfarin is also used as a rodenticide.Stroke: A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)Azores: A group of nine islands and several islets belonging to Portugal in the north Atlantic Ocean off the coast of Portugal. The islands are named after the acores, the Portuguese for goshawks, living there in abundance. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p102 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p42)Pinnipedia: The suborder of aquatic CARNIVORA comprising the WALRUSES; FUR SEALS; SEA LIONS; and EARLESS SEALS. They have fusiform bodies with very short tails and are found on all sea coasts. The offspring are born on land.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Vitamin K Epoxide Reductases: OXIDOREDUCTASES which mediate vitamin K metabolism by converting inactive vitamin K 2,3-epoxide to active vitamin K.Vitamin K: A lipid cofactor that is required for normal blood clotting. Several forms of vitamin K have been identified: VITAMIN K 1 (phytomenadione) derived from plants, VITAMIN K 2 (menaquinone) from bacteria, and synthetic naphthoquinone provitamins, VITAMIN K 3 (menadione). Vitamin K 3 provitamins, after being alkylated in vivo, exhibit the antifibrinolytic activity of vitamin K. Green leafy vegetables, liver, cheese, butter, and egg yolk are good sources of vitamin K.Vitamin K 1: A family of phylloquinones that contains a ring of 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone and an isoprenoid side chain. Members of this group of vitamin K 1 have only one double bond on the proximal isoprene unit. Rich sources of vitamin K 1 include green plants, algae, and photosynthetic bacteria. Vitamin K1 has antihemorrhagic and prothrombogenic activity.Warfarin: An anticoagulant that acts by inhibiting the synthesis of vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors. Warfarin is indicated for the prophylaxis and/or treatment of venous thrombosis and its extension, pulmonary embolism, and atrial fibrillation with embolization. It is also used as an adjunct in the prophylaxis of systemic embolism after myocardial infarction. Warfarin is also used as a rodenticide.Mixed Function Oxygenases: Widely distributed enzymes that carry out oxidation-reduction reactions in which one atom of the oxygen molecule is incorporated into the organic substrate; the other oxygen atom is reduced and combined with hydrogen ions to form water. They are also known as monooxygenases or hydroxylases. These reactions require two substrates as reductants for each of the two oxygen atoms. There are different classes of monooxygenases depending on the type of hydrogen-providing cosubstrate (COENZYMES) required in the mixed-function oxidation.Vitamin A: Retinol and derivatives of retinol that play an essential role in metabolic functioning of the retina, the growth of and differentiation of epithelial tissue, the growth of bone, reproduction, and the immune response. Dietary vitamin A is derived from a variety of CAROTENOIDS found in plants. It is enriched in the liver, egg yolks, and the fat component of dairy products.Vitamin K Deficiency: A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN K in the diet, characterized by an increased tendency to hemorrhage (HEMORRHAGIC DISORDERS). Such bleeding episodes may be particularly severe in newborn infants. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1182)Vitamin A Deficiency: A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN A in the diet, characterized by NIGHT BLINDNESS and other ocular manifestations such as dryness of the conjunctiva and later of the cornea (XEROPHTHALMIA). Vitamin A deficiency is a very common problem worldwide, particularly in developing countries as a consequence of famine or shortages of vitamin A-rich foods. In the United States it is found among the urban poor, the elderly, alcoholics, and patients with malabsorption. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1179)Carbon-Carbon Ligases: Enzymes that catalyze the joining of two molecules by the formation of a carbon-carbon bond. These are the carboxylating enzymes and are mostly biotinyl-proteins. EC 6.4.Vitamin K 2: A group of substances similar to VITAMIN K 1 which contains a ring of 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinione and an isoprenoid side chain of varying number of isoprene units. In vitamin K 2, each isoprene unit contains a double bond. They are produced by bacteria including the normal intestinal flora.Pulmonary Embolism: Blocking of the PULMONARY ARTERY or one of its branches by an EMBOLUS.Venous Thromboembolism: Obstruction of a vein or VEINS (embolism) by a blood clot (THROMBUS) in the blood stream.Thromboembolism: Obstruction of a blood vessel (embolism) by a blood clot (THROMBUS) in the blood stream.Venous Thrombosis: The formation or presence of a blood clot (THROMBUS) within a vein.Embolectomy: Surgical removal of an obstructing clot or foreign material which has been transported from a distant vessel by the bloodstream. Removal of a clot at its original site is called THROMBECTOMY.Vena Cava Filters: Mechanical devices inserted in the inferior vena cava that prevent the migration of blood clots from deep venous thrombosis of the leg.Anticoagulants: Agents that prevent clotting.Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products: Soluble protein fragments formed by the proteolytic action of plasmin on fibrin or fibrinogen. FDP and their complexes profoundly impair the hemostatic process and are a major cause of hemorrhage in intravascular coagulation and fibrinolysis.Vascular Neoplasms: Neoplasms located in the vasculature system, such as ARTERIES and VEINS. They are differentiated from neoplasms of vascular tissue (NEOPLASMS, VASCULAR TISSUE), such as ANGIOFIBROMA or HEMANGIOMA.Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight: Heparin fractions with a molecular weight usually between 4000 and 6000 kD. These low-molecular-weight fractions are effective antithrombotic agents. Their administration reduces the risk of hemorrhage, they have a longer half-life, and their platelet interactions are reduced in comparison to unfractionated heparin. They also provide an effective prophylaxis against postoperative major pulmonary embolism.ThiophenesSolar Energy: Energy transmitted from the sun in the form of electromagnetic radiation.Organophosphonates: Carbon-containing phosphonic acid compounds. Included under this heading are compounds that have carbon bound to either OXYGEN atom or the PHOSPHOROUS atom of the (P=O)O2 structure.Phosphorous Acids: Inorganic derivatives of phosphorus trihydroxide (P(OH)3) and its tautomeric form dihydroxyphosphine oxide (HP=O(OH)2). Note that organic derivatives of phosphonic acids are listed under are ORGANOPHOSPHONATES.Vinyl CompoundsThiadiazolesVinyl Chloride: A gas that has been used as an aerosol propellant and is the starting material for polyvinyl resins. Toxicity studies have shown various adverse effects, particularly the occurrence of liver neoplasms.Fosfomycin: An antibiotic produced by Streptomyces fradiae.Diethyl Pyrocarbonate: Preservative for wines, soft drinks, and fruit juices and a gentle esterifying agent.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
(1/71) Laboratory evaluation of WBA 8119 as a rodenticide for use against warfarin-resistant and non-resistant rats and mice.

Feeding tests were carried out in the laboratory to evaluate WBA 8119 as a potential new rodenticide against wild common rats (Rattus norvegicus), ship rats (R. rattus) and house mice (Mus musculus). The results obtained are compared with data previously obtained for difenacoum, another member of the same series of 4-hydroxycoumarin anticoagulants. With warfarin-resistnat and non-resistant common rats, complete kills were obtained using a concentration of 0-0005% for 2 days, or 0-001% for 1 day: a 1-day test at 0-0005% killed 6 out of 10 and 17 out of 20 of the two types respectively. At 0-0005% complete kills of resistant ship rats were obtained after 2 days exposure and of resistant house mice after 1 day, but at 0-002% for 2 days there was some survival. Non-resistant ship rats and house mice were all killed after 2 days feeding on 0-002% bait. In 2-day palatability tests, R. norvegicus showed no significant aversion to the poison at 0-002% and 100% mortality was obtained. The poison was significantly unpalatable to R. rattus at 0-005% and to M. musculus at 0-005% and 0-002%, although with the last species these concentrations gave complete kills. It is concluded that WBA 8119 has greater activity than other known anticoagulants against the three commensal species examined. The laboratory results suggest that concentrations between 0-0005% and 0-002% would be suitable for field use against common rats, and between 0-002% and 0-005% for ship rats and house mice.  (+info)

(2/71) Trials of the anticoagulant rodenticide WBA 8119 against confined colonies of warfarin-resistant house mice (Mus musculus L.).

The efficacy of the newly developed anticoagulant rodenticide WBA 8119 was evaluated against the house mouse (Mus musculus L.) using individual and family groups of warfarin-resistant animals. WBA 8119 at 0-002%, 0-005% and 0-01% in pinhead oatmeal bait gave complete kills of mice in 'no-choice' feeding tests carried out in cages and small pens. In replicated 21-day treatments on families of mice confined in larger pens conditioned to feeding on plain foods, the overall mortalities obtained using the three formulated poison baits were 71/72, 62/63 and 57/57 respectively. The results of the WBA 8119 toxicity tests are considered in relation to previous findings on other anticoagulant rodenticides, particularly difenacoum. In equivalents tests, WBA 8119 performed better than difenacoum. The data thus suport the laboratory findings that WBA 8119 is the most active anticoagulant so far tested for the control of warfarin-resistant house mice.  (+info)

(3/71) Methylation of 4-hydroxycoumarin with diazomethane.

4-Hydroxycoumarin was methylated with diazomethane. A mixture of 4-methoxycoumarin and 2-methoxychromone was separated chromatographically.  (+info)

(4/71) Determination of coumarin-type anticoagulants in human plasma by HPLC-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry with an ion trap detector.

BACKGROUND: Coumarin-type anticoagulants are used for the long-term treatment and prevention of thromboembolic disorders. The identification of these drugs is crucial in patients with an increased prothrombin time of unknown origin. The aim of this study was to develop a sensitive and specific method for the simultaneous determination of phenprocoumon, acenocoumarol, and warfarin in human plasma by HPLC-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. METHODS: After addition of the internal standard, p-chlorowarfarin, plasma samples were extracted using Oasis MCX solid-phase extraction cartridges. The compounds were separated on a Symmetry C18 column (Waters) with a mobile phase of acetonitrile-1 g/L formic acid (75:25 by volume) at a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min. RESULTS: Extraction and separation of the three drugs and the internal standard were accomplished in 9 min. The overall extraction efficiency was >89% for all three compounds. The limits of detection were 1 microg/L for phenprocoumon and warfarin and 10 microg/L for acenocoumarol. Regression analysis of the calibration data revealed good correlation (r(2) >or=0.995) for all compounds. Within-run accuracies for quality-control samples were +/- 1% to 7% of the target concentration, with CVs <9%. CONCLUSIONS: The proposed method enables the unambiguous identification and quantification of phenprocoumon, warfarin, and acenocoumarol in both clinical and forensic specimens. This method combines a new, rapid solid-phase extraction procedure with an extremely fast chromatographic analysis, which is especially advantageous for clinical laboratories.  (+info)

(5/71) Acquired coagulopathy due to anticoagulant rodenticide poisoning.

A 35-year-old woman was admitted to hospital because of epistaxis, hematomas, and metrorrhagia. Laboratory data indicated severe coagulopathy with prolonged prothrombin time and decreased serum concentrations of vitamin K-dependent clotting factors II, VII, IX, and X. The patient denied taking any oral anticoagulants. She was given transfusions of red blood cells, fresh frozen plasma (1,180 mL) and phytomenadione daily for 6 weeks (total dose 550 mg), which normalized the coagulation factors concentration. After all other possible causes of acquired coagulopathy had been excluded, rodenticide poisoning was suspected on the basis of her epidemiologic history. The patient was a war refugee from Bosnia and Herzegovina. During her absence, the troops of United Nations Protection Force performed rodent extermination in and around her house. History data and therapeutic effects suggested that the coagulopathy had been caused by prolonged exposure to long-acting anticoagulant rodenticide. This could also explain the need for protracted phytomenadione therapy.  (+info)

(6/71) Brodifacoum toxicosis in two neonatal puppies.

Eight out of a litter of 13 puppies were either born dead or died within 48 hours of birth. Three puppies that died shortly after birth were necropsied. Two puppies had hemorrhage in the thoracic and peritoneal cavities, intestinal serosa, and meninges. The third puppy was smaller than the other two puppies but did not have detectable hemorrhage. Brodifacoum, a second-generation coumarin anticoagulant, was detected in livers from the two puppies with hemorrhage. The dam did not have clinical signs of coagulopathy before or subsequent to whelping. The owners were confident that the dog had not been exposed to rodenticide for at least 4 weeks before whelping. A presumptive diagnosis of in utero brodifacoum toxicity was made. To the authors' knowledge this is the first time a second-generation coumarin anticoagulant has been detected in the liver of a newborn animal. This case is also unique because the dam was unaffected, suggesting that fetuses are more susceptible to brodifacoum toxicity than adult animals.  (+info)

(7/71) Electrooxidation of iodide in the presence of 4-hydroxycoumarin: application to a simple coulometric titration of 4-hydroxycoumarin.

The electrochemical oxidation of iodide ion in the presence of 4-hydroxycoumarin (1) was studied using cyclic voltammetry and controlled-potential coulometry. The result indicates that the resulting iodine takes part in a halogenation reaction and reacts with 4-hydroxycoumarin (1). According to the obtained results, a new and simple coulometric titration method with potentiometric end-point detection for the determination of 4-hydroxycoumarin (1) is presented. In the presented method, 2-200 micromol of 4-hydroxycoumarin (1) was successfully determined.  (+info)

(8/71) A 44-year-old woman with hematemesis and cutaneous hemorrhages as a result of superwarfarin poisoning.

The authors present the case of a 44-year-old American Indian woman with hematemesis, spontaneous cutaneous hemorrhages, and multiple ecchymoses. Coagulation factor analyses demonstrated both prolonged prothrombin time (PT, >40 s) and prolonged partial thromboplastin time (PTT, >120 s). Measurement of the serum level of brodifacoum (37 ng/mL), one of the superwarfarin agents commonly used in rodenticides, confirmed poisoning as the cause of the patient's symptoms. Substantial amounts of fresh frozen plasma and vitamin K were required to obtain normal coagulation parameters and maintain these parameters over a 3-week inhospital period. Oral administration of vitamin K (100 mg daily) maintained normal PT (14.1 s), PTT (33.0 s), and international normalized ratio (INR, 1.48) at 2 weeks after the patient was discharged from the hospital. By 2 months postdischarge, PT, PTT, and INR returned to elevated levels because of patient noncompliance with the prescribed tapering vitamin K regimen.  (+info)

*  Warfarin necrosis
90 (4 Pt 2): 671-2. doi:10.1016/S0029-7844(97)00393-1. PMID 11770590. Nalbandian RM, Mader IJ, Barrett JL, Pearce JF, Rupp EC ( ... 116 (4): 444-5. doi:10.1001/archderm.116.4.444. PMID 7369776. Chan YC, Valenti D, Mansfield AO, Stansby G (March 2000). " ... 298 (6668): 233-4. doi:10.1136/bmj.298.6668.233. PMC 1835547 . PMID 2522326. Makris M, Bardhan G, Preston FE (March 1996). " ... 75 (3): 523-4. PMID 8701423. Kiehl R, Hellstern P, Wenzel E (January 1987). "Hereditary antithrombin III (AT III) deficiency ...
*  4-Hydroxycoumarins
... belong to a class of vitamin K antagonist (VKA) anticoagulant drug molecules derived from coumarin by adding ... Although 4-hydroxycoumarin itself is not an anticoagulant, it is an important fungal metabolite from the precursor coumarin, ... The identification of Dicoumarol in 1940 is the precursor of the drug class known as 4-Hydroxycoumarin. See warfarin for this ... The primary mechanism of the 4-hydroxycoumarin drugs is the inhibition of vitamin K epoxide reductase. These compounds are not ...
*  Michael reaction
Vol., 4, p. 630 Moffett, R. B. (1963). "Methyl γ-Methyl-γ-nitrovalerate". Org. Synth. ; Coll. Vol., 4, p. 652 Horning, E. C.; ... Vol., 4, p. 776 McMurry, J. E.; Melton, J. (1988). "Conversion of Nitro to Carbonyl by Ozonolysis of Nitronates: 2,5- ... Proton abstraction from protonated base (or solvent) by the enolate 4 to 5 is the final step. The course of the reaction is ... A newer definition, proposed by Kohler, is the 1,4-addition of a doubly stabilized carbon nucleophile to an α,β-unsaturated ...
*  Baker-Venkataraman rearrangement
also in the Collective Volume (1963) 4: 478 (PDF)). Jain, P. K.; Makrandi, J. K.; et al. (1982). "A Facile Baker-Venkataraman ... Kalinin, A.V.; Sneckus, V. (1998). "4,6-Dimethoxy-3,7-dimethylcoumarin from Colchicum decaisnei. Total synthesis by carbamoyl ... Regiospecific route to substituted 4-hydroxycoumarins". Tetrahedron Letters. 39 (28): 4995-4998. doi:10.1016/S0040-4039(98) ...
*  Derris robusta
East AJ, Ollis WD, Wheeler RE (1969). "Natural occurrence of 3-aryl-4-hydroxycoumarins. Part I. Phytochemical examination of ...
*  Vitamin K
100 (4): 530-547. doi:10.1160/TH08-03-0147. PMID 18841274. Davidson, R. T.; Foley, A. L.; Engelke, J. A.; Suttie, J. W. (Feb ... Blood clotting (coagulation) studies in humans using 45 mg per day of vitamin K2 (as MK-4) and even up to 135 mg per day (45 mg ... All forms of K2 other than MK-4 can only be produced by bacteria, which use these forms in anaerobic respiration. The MK-7 and ... 91 (4): 1761-1768. doi:10.1172/JCI116386. PMC 288156 . PMID 8473516. Holden, R. M.; Morton, A. R.; Garland, J. S.; Pavlov, A.; ...
*  Vitamin K antagonist
Section 3.1.4. Retrieved 21 June 2017. Sean C Sweetman (Ed) (2009). Martindale: The Complete Drug Reference (36th ed.). London ... For a more complete list of coumarins used as pharmaceuticals and rodenticides, see the main article on 4-hydroxycoumarins. ... The vitamin K antagonists can cause birth defects (teratogens). Coumarins (more accurately 4-hydroxycoumarins) are the most ...
*  Phosphonium coupling
Shen, Zhen-Lu; He, Xiao-Fei; Hong, Yi-Ming; Hu, Xin-Quan; Mo, Wei-Min; Hu, Bao-Xiang; Sun, Nan, One-pot synthesis of 4- ... Hu, Yi; Ding, Qiuping; Ye, Shengqing; Peng, Yiyuan; Wu, Jie, Rapid access to 4-substituted-pyrones and 2(5H)-furanones via a ... Kang, Fu-An; Murray, William V., Efficient conversion of Biginelli-type 3,4-dihydropyrimidin-2(1H)-ones to pyrimidines via in- ... Peng, Yi-Yuan; Wen, Yanfang; Mao, Xuechun; Qiu, Guanyinsheng, Direct sulfanylation of 4-hydroxycoumarins with thiols in water, ...
*  Warfarin
64 (5): 490-4. doi:10.2146/ajhp060370. PMID 17322161. Valente, E. J.; Trager, W. F.; Jensen, L. H. (1975). "The crystal and ... 58 (4): 395-401. doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2011.03.031. PMC 3175766 . PMID 21757117. Delaney JA, Opatrny L, Brophy JM, Suissa S (2007 ... 116 (4): 879-890. doi:10.1160/TH16-04-0266. PMID 27488143. Ansell J, Hirsh J, Hylek E, et al. (2008). "Pharmacology and ... 427 (6974): 541-4. doi:10.1038/nature02254. PMID 14765195. Rost S, Fregin A, Ivaskevicius V, Conzelmann E, Hörtnagel K, Pelz HJ ...
*  List of MeSH codes (D03)
4,5-tetrahydro-8-chloro-3-methyl-5-phenyl-1h-3-benzazepin-7-ol MeSH D03.438.079.800 --- 2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-7,8-dihydroxy-1- ... 4,5-dihydro-1-(3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-1h-pyrazol-3-amine MeSH D03.383.129.539.200 --- epirizole MeSH D03.383.129.539.487 ... 4-dihydro-2,6-dimethyl-5-nitro-4-(2-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-, methyl ester MeSH D03.383.725.210 --- dimethindene MeSH D03.383. ... 4,6,7,11b-hexahydro-3-isobutyl-9,10-dimethoxy- MeSH D03.438.834.775 --- sparteine MeSH D03.438.834.850 --- tetrabenazine MeSH ...
*  4-Hydroxycoumarin
... is a coumarin derivative with a hydroxy group at the 4-position. 4-Hydroxycoumarin is an important fungal ... 4-Hydroxycoumarin is biosynthesized from malonyl-CoA and 2-hydroxybenzoyl-CoA by the enzyme 4-hydroxycoumarin synthase. After ... 4-Hydroxycoumarin forms the core of the chemical structure of anticoagulants known collectively as 4-hydroxycoumarins. They ... Liu, B.; Raeth, T.; Beuerle, T. & Beerhues, L. (2010). "A novel 4-hydroxycoumarin biosynthetic pathway". Plant Mol. Biol. 72 (1 ...
4-Hydroxycoumarins - Wikipedia  4-Hydroxycoumarins - Wikipedia
4-Hydroxycoumarins belong to a class of vitamin K antagonist (VKA) anticoagulant drug molecules derived from coumarin by adding ... Although 4-hydroxycoumarin itself is not an anticoagulant, it is an important fungal metabolite from the precursor coumarin, ... The identification of Dicoumarol in 1940 is the precursor of the drug class known as 4-Hydroxycoumarin. See warfarin for this ... The primary mechanism of the 4-hydroxycoumarin drugs is the inhibition of vitamin K epoxide reductase. These compounds are not ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/4-Hydroxycoumarins
Catalysis & biocatalysis in OBC Home  Catalysis & biocatalysis in OBC Home
Dibenzofuran-4,6-bis(oxazoline) (DBFOX). A novel trans-chelating bis(oxazoline) ligand for asymmetric reactions Kennosuke Itoh ... The trans-chelating bis(oxazoline) ligand (R,R)-4,6-dibenzofurandiyl-2,2′-bis(4-phenyloxazoline) [(R,R)-DBFOX/Ph] coordinates ... A new route to substituted furocoumarins via copper-catalyzed cyclization between 4-hydroxycoumarins and ketoximes Tuong A. To ... An organocatalytic asymmetric Mannich reaction for the synthesis of 3,3-disubstituted-3,4-dihydro-2-quinolones Soumendranath ...
more infohttp://pubs.rsc.org/en/journals/articlecollectionlanding?sercode=ob&themeid=0b041f09-607b-4b5e-b7be-626c22dcdb60
Long-term Treatment for Cancer Patients With Deep Venous Thrombosis or Pulmonary Embolism - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov  Long-term Treatment for Cancer Patients With Deep Venous Thrombosis or Pulmonary Embolism - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
Background. Patients with cancer and a first deep venous thrombosis of the leg or pulmonary embolism (venous thromboembolism, VTE) are generally treated with low molecular weight heparin (LMWH)injections for 6 months, since this treatment is associated with a reduced incidence of recurrent VTE compared to vitamin K antagonists (VKA). It is recommended that patients with active malignancy (metastatic cancer and/or ongoing cancer treatment)continue anticoagulant treatment. However, it is unknown whether LMWH is still superior compared to VKA for the long-term anticoagulant treatment.. Aim. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether low-molecular-weight heparin more effectively reduces recurrent VTE compared to vitamin K antagonists in patients with cancer who have already completed 6 to 12 months of anticoagulant treatment because of deep venous thrombosis of the leg or pulmonary embolism.. Hypothesis. The investigators hypothesize that LMWH is more effective compared to VKA in the long-term ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01164046
Long-term Treatment for Cancer Patients With Deep Venous Thrombosis or Pulmonary Embolism - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov  Long-term Treatment for Cancer Patients With Deep Venous Thrombosis or Pulmonary Embolism - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
Background. Patients with cancer and a first deep venous thrombosis of the leg or pulmonary embolism (venous thromboembolism, VTE) are generally treated with low molecular weight heparin (LMWH)injections for 6 months, since this treatment is associated with a reduced incidence of recurrent VTE compared to vitamin K antagonists (VKA). It is recommended that patients with active malignancy (metastatic cancer and/or ongoing cancer treatment)continue anticoagulant treatment. However, it is unknown whether LMWH is still superior compared to VKA for the long-term anticoagulant treatment.. Aim. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether low-molecular-weight heparin more effectively reduces recurrent VTE compared to vitamin K antagonists in patients with cancer who have already completed 6 to 12 months of anticoagulant treatment because of deep venous thrombosis of the leg or pulmonary embolism.. Hypothesis. The investigators hypothesize that LMWH is more effective compared to VKA in the long-term ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01164046?recr=Open&intr=%22Vitamin+K%22&rank=14
Drug CategoriesBrowse DrugBank Categories - DrugBank  Drug CategoriesBrowse DrugBank Categories - DrugBank
4. 19. Details. Adenosine Monophosphate. Adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in ... 4-Hydroxycoumarins. Substances found in many plants, containing the 4-hydroxycoumarin radical. They interfe... more. 5. 30. ...
more infohttps://www.drugbank.ca/categories
Han J[au] - PubMed - NCBI  Han J[au] - PubMed - NCBI
Hypervalent Iodine(III) Mediated Tosyloxylation of 4-Hydroxycoumarins.. Xu B, Gao Y, Han J, Xing Z, Zhao S, Zhang Z, Ren R, ... 4.. Increased sulfation of bile acids in mice and human subjects with sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide deficiency ... Refractive Outcomes of 4-Year-old Children after Intravitreal Anti-vascular Endothelial Growth Factor versus Laser ... Transformation of the B-O Units from Corner-Sharing to Edge-Sharing Linkages in BaMBO4 (M = Ga, Al). ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?cmd=search&term=Han+J%5Bau%5D&dispmax=50
Xing Z[au] - PubMed - NCBI  Xing Z[au] - PubMed - NCBI
4.. Surface-defect-rich mesoporous NH2-MIL-125 (Ti)@Bi2MoO6 core-shell heterojunction with improved charge separation and ... Hypervalent Iodine(III)-Mediated Tosyloxylation of 4-Hydroxycoumarins.. Xu B, Gao Y, Han J, Xing Z, Zhao S, Zhang Z, Ren R, ... Nano-zero-valent iron and MnOx selective deposition on BiVO4 decahedron superstructures for promoted spatial charge separation ... Self-Luminescence of Perovskite-Like LaSrGaO4 via Intrinsic Defects and Anomalous Luminescence Analysis of LaSrGaO4:Mn2. ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?cmd=search&term=Xing+Z%5Bau%5D&dispmax=50
What Are Some Coumarin Derivatives? (with pictures)  What Are Some Coumarin Derivatives? (with pictures)
The 4-hydroxycoumarin known as bishydroxycoumarin, or dicoumarol, can be formed through natural or artificial methods. When ... The coumarin molecule is changed through the addition of certain chemical groups into a substance called 4-hydroxycoumarin, ...
more infohttps://www.wisegeek.com/what-are-some-coumarin-derivatives.htm
Warfarin - Wikipedia  Warfarin - Wikipedia
4 (1): 26-35. Retrieved 27 June 2018.. *^ a b c Laurence DR, Kneebone P (1973). Clinical Pharmacology. Edinburgh, London and ... 5 (4): 262-70. doi:10.1038/sj.tpj.6500313. PMID 15883587.. *^ a b Rieder MJ, Reiner AP, Gage BF, Nickerson DA, Eby CS, McLeod ... Archived from the original on 4 July 2011.. *^ Naumov VP, Brent J (2003). Stalin's last crime: the plot against the Jewish ... 978-1-879284-36-4. .. *^ a b Bates SM, Greer IA, Middeldorp S, Veenstra DL, Prabulos AM, Vandvik PO (February 2012). "VTE, ...
more infohttps://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Warfarin
Michael reaction - Wikipedia  Michael reaction - Wikipedia
Vol., 4, p. 630 Moffett, R. B. (1963). "Methyl γ-Methyl-γ-nitrovalerate". Org. Synth. ; Coll. Vol., 4, p. 652 Horning, E. C.; ... Vol., 4, p. 776 McMurry, J. E.; Melton, J. (1988). "Conversion of Nitro to Carbonyl by Ozonolysis of Nitronates: 2,5- ... Proton abstraction from protonated base (or solvent) by the enolate 4 to 5 is the final step. The course of the reaction is ... A newer definition, proposed by Kohler, is the 1,4-addition of a doubly stabilized carbon nucleophile to an α,β-unsaturated ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Michael_reaction
Molecules | Free Full-Text | Antiproliferative and Antioxidant Activities and Mycosporine-Like Amino Acid Profiles of Wild...  Molecules | Free Full-Text | Antiproliferative and Antioxidant Activities and Mycosporine-Like Amino Acid Profiles of Wild...
Extracts were antiproliferative against HeLa and U-937 cells (p , 0.001) from 0.125-4 mg/mL, 24 h. Wild P. palmata and ... Extracts were antiproliferative against HeLa and U-937 cells (p , 0.001) from 0.125-4 mg/mL, 24 h. Wild P. palmata and ...
more infohttp://www.mdpi.com/1420-3049/21/1/119
Molecules  | Free Full-Text | Antiprotozoal and Antiglycation Activities of Sesquiterpene Coumarins from Ferula narthex Exudate...  Molecules | Free Full-Text | Antiprotozoal and Antiglycation Activities of Sesquiterpene Coumarins from Ferula narthex Exudate...
Asacoumarin A (4). [. α. ]. D. 20. +4.2 (c 0.0058, MeOH); UV (acetonitrile/H2O) λmax 203, 325 nm; 1H- and 13C-NMR: ... Asacoumarin A (4) was found most active against P. falciparum K1 (IC50 1.3 μM), while less pronounced activities were observed ... The solvent systems used included CH2Cl2/MeOH (65:35) with a few drops of NH4OH for the methanol fraction; CH2Cl2/MeOH (72:28) ... This is also apparent from the 13C-NMR assignment of the methyl groups at position C-4′, which occur around 28-29 ppm and 15-16 ...
more infohttps://www.mdpi.com/1420-3049/21/10/1287/htm
Dicoumarol - DrugBank  Dicoumarol - DrugBank
Hydroxycoumarins. Direct Parent. 4-hydroxycoumarins. Alternative Parents. 1-benzopyrans / Pyranones and derivatives / ... 4-hydroxycoumarin / Benzopyran / 1-benzopyran / Pyranone / Pyran / Benzenoid / Heteroaromatic compound / Vinylogous acid / ... 2000;18(4):363-73. [PubMed:10949919] *Preusch PC, Smalley DM: Vitamin K1 2,3-epoxide and quinone reduction: mechanism and ... 2000 Aug 15;60(4):601-5. [PubMed:10874136] *Arriagada C, Dagnino-Subiabre A, Caviedes P, Armero JM, Caviedes R, Segura-Aguilar ...
more infohttps://www.drugbank.ca/drugs/DB00266
Naturally Occurring Plant Coumarins | Springer for Research & Development  Naturally Occurring Plant Coumarins | Springer for Research & Development
Rashid, M.A., J.A. Armstrong, A.I. Gray, and Waterman: Novel C-Geranyl 7-Hydroxycoumarins from the Aerial Parts of Eriostemon ... Quantitative Determination of Hydroxycoumarins in Fraxinus ornus. Phytochem. Anal. 4, 86 (1993).Google Scholar ... Hoefnagel, A.J., E.A. Gunnewegh, R. Downing, and VAN Bekkum: Synthesis of 7-Hydroxycoumarins Catalysed by Solid Acid Catalysts ... A Synthesis of Methoxy-and Hydroxycoumarins. Heterocycles 39, 613 (1994).Google Scholar ...
more infohttps://rd.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-7091-6527-0_1
AE  Code of Conduct & Terms of Use - History Forum ~ All Empires  AE Code of Conduct & Terms of Use - History Forum ~ All Empires
Warfarin (4-Hydroxycoumarins) is cited as the likely agent; it would have produced the symptoms reported, and administering it ... 4. Obscene material, excessively graphic pictures, and pornography of any type. 5. Rude insults, defamatory remarks, offensive ...
more infohttp://www.allempires.com/forum/forum_posts.asp?TID=6512&FID=29&PR=3
AE  Code of Conduct & Terms of Use - History Forum ~ All Empires  AE Code of Conduct & Terms of Use - History Forum ~ All Empires
Warfarin (4-Hydroxycoumarins) is cited as the likely agent; it would have produced the symptoms reported, and administering it ... 4. Obscene material, excessively graphic pictures, and pornography of any type. 5. Rude insults, defamatory remarks, offensive ...
more infohttp://www.allempires.com/forum/forum_posts.asp?TID=6512&FID=41&PR=3
SMART: Secondary literature for VKc domain  SMART: Secondary literature for VKc domain
All 4 patients were homozygous for a point mutation in exon 9 that resulted in the conversion of an arginine codon (CTG) to ... 4. The microsomal vitamin K0 reductase activity under 'normal' assay conditions ([DTT] = 2 mM) was as sensitive for R- as for S ... 4) Vitamin K1-epoxide, a metabolite of vitamin K1, appeared in blood after administration of warfarin; there was a lower ... 4 Following the administration of a pharmacological dose of vitamin K1 (10 mg), all seven volunteers had detectable levels of ...
more infohttp://smart.embl.de/smart/show_secondary.cgi?domain=VKc
Pulmonary Embolism; Pulmonary Thromboembolism; Thromboembolism, Pulmonary  Pulmonary Embolism; Pulmonary Thromboembolism; Thromboembolism, Pulmonary
... On-line free medical diagnosis assistant. Ranked list of possible diseases from either several symptoms or a full patient history. A similarity measure between symptoms and diseases is provided.
more infohttps://lookfordiagnosis.com/results.php?symptoms=Pulmonary+Embolism%3B%20Pulmonary%20Thromboembolism%3B%20Thromboembolism%2C%20Pulmonary&lang=1&parent=%2F&mode=F&therapy_ap=1
The Biochemical Basis of Warfarin Therapy | Springer for Research & Development  The Biochemical Basis of Warfarin Therapy | Springer for Research & Development
4.. G. L. Nelsestuen, T. H. Zytkovicz, and J. B. Howard, The mode of action of vitamin K. Identification of y-carboxyglutamic ... R. Wallin, O. Gebhardt, and H. Prydz, NAD(P)H dehydrogenase and its role in the vitamin K (2-methyl-3-phytyl-l, 4- ... R. B. Silverman, A model for a molecular mechanism of anticoagulant activity of 3-substituted 4-hydroxycoumarins, J. Am. Chem. ... 4-naphthoquinone (phylloquinone). These early studies also demonstrated that in addition to phylloquinone or vitamin K1 in ...
more infohttps://rd.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4757-5985-3_2