Substances found in many plants, containing the 4-hydroxycoumarin radical. They interfere with vitamin K and the blood clotting mechanism, are tightly protein-bound, inhibit mitochondrial and microsomal enzymes, and are used as oral anticoagulants.
A white crystalline compound prepared by condensation of benzaldehyde in potassium cyanide and used in organic syntheses. This should not be confused with benzoin gum from STYRAX.
Substances used to destroy or inhibit the action of rats, mice, or other rodents.
OXIDOREDUCTASES which mediate vitamin K metabolism by converting inactive vitamin K 2,3-epoxide to active vitamin K.
The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous rodents through chemical, biological, or other means.
A filament-like structure consisting of a shaft which projects to the surface of the SKIN from a root which is softer than the shaft and lodges in the cavity of a HAIR FOLLICLE. It is found on most surfaces of the body.
An anticoagulant that acts by inhibiting the synthesis of vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors. Warfarin is indicated for the prophylaxis and/or treatment of venous thrombosis and its extension, pulmonary embolism, and atrial fibrillation with embolization. It is also used as an adjunct in the prophylaxis of systemic embolism after myocardial infarction. Warfarin is also used as a rodenticide.
A clinical manifestation consisting of an unnatural paleness of the skin.
The field of veterinary medicine concerned with the causes of and changes produced in the body by disease.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Inorganic compounds that contain magnesium as an integral part of the molecule.
Surgery restricted to the management of minor problems and injuries; surgical procedures of relatively slight extent and not in itself hazardous to life. (Dorland, 28th ed & Stedman, 25th ed)
Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE.
The systematic identification and quantitation of all the metabolic products of a cell, tissue, organ, or organism under varying conditions. The METABOLOME of a cell or organism is a dynamic collection of metabolites which represent its net response to current conditions.
The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.
A province of western Canada, lying between the provinces of British Columbia and Saskatchewan. Its capital is Edmonton. It was named in honor of Princess Louise Caroline Alberta, the fourth daughter of Queen Victoria. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p26 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p12)
A province of Canada on the Pacific coast. Its capital is Victoria. The name given in 1858 derives from the Columbia River which was named by the American captain Robert Gray for his ship Columbia which in turn was named for Columbus. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p178 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p81-2)
The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.
Longitudinal patient-maintained records of individual health history and tools that allow individual control of access.
Organizations representing specialized fields which are accepted as authoritative; may be non-governmental, university or an independent research organization, e.g., National Academy of Sciences, Brookings Institution, etc.
A written account of a person's life and the branch of literature concerned with the lives of people. (Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed)
A medical specialty concerned with the study of the structures, functions, and diseases of the nervous system.
A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ACETYLCHOLINE to CHOLINE and acetate. In the CNS, this enzyme plays a role in the function of peripheral neuromuscular junctions. EC 3.1.1.7.
Drugs that inhibit cholinesterases. The neurotransmitter ACETYLCHOLINE is rapidly hydrolyzed, and thereby inactivated, by cholinesterases. When cholinesterases are inhibited, the action of endogenously released acetylcholine at cholinergic synapses is potentiated. Cholinesterase inhibitors are widely used clinically for their potentiation of cholinergic inputs to the gastrointestinal tract and urinary bladder, the eye, and skeletal muscles; they are also used for their effects on the heart and the central nervous system.
A computer simulation developed to study the motion of molecules over a period of time.
An aspect of cholinesterase (EC 3.1.1.8).
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)
The scientific disciplines concerned with the embryology, anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, pharmacology, etc., of the nervous system.
A fibrous protein complex that consists of proteins folded into a specific cross beta-pleated sheet structure. This fibrillar structure has been found as an alternative folding pattern for a variety of functional proteins. Deposits of amyloid in the form of AMYLOID PLAQUES are associated with a variety of degenerative diseases. The amyloid structure has also been found in a number of functional proteins that are unrelated to disease.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Compounds which inhibit or antagonize biosynthesis or actions of proteases (ENDOPEPTIDASES).
Peptides generated from AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES PRECURSOR. An amyloid fibrillar form of these peptides is the major component of amyloid plaques found in individuals with Alzheimer's disease and in aged individuals with trisomy 21 (DOWN SYNDROME). The peptide is found predominantly in the nervous system, but there have been reports of its presence in non-neural tissue.
The separation or resolution of the psyche into its constituent elements. The term has two separate meanings: 1. a procedure devised by Sigmund Freud, for investigating mental processes by means of free association, dream interpretation and interpretation of resistance and transference manifestations; and 2. a theory of psychology developed by Freud from his clinical experience with hysterical patients. (From Campbell, Psychiatric Dictionary, 1996).
A surgical specialty concerned with the treatment of diseases and disorders of the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral and sympathetic nervous system.
A lipid cofactor that is required for normal blood clotting. Several forms of vitamin K have been identified: VITAMIN K 1 (phytomenadione) derived from plants, VITAMIN K 2 (menaquinone) from bacteria, and synthetic naphthoquinone provitamins, VITAMIN K 3 (menadione). Vitamin K 3 provitamins, after being alkylated in vivo, exhibit the antifibrinolytic activity of vitamin K. Green leafy vegetables, liver, cheese, butter, and egg yolk are good sources of vitamin K.
A family of phylloquinones that contains a ring of 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone and an isoprenoid side chain. Members of this group of vitamin K 1 have only one double bond on the proximal isoprene unit. Rich sources of vitamin K 1 include green plants, algae, and photosynthetic bacteria. Vitamin K1 has antihemorrhagic and prothrombogenic activity.
Widely distributed enzymes that carry out oxidation-reduction reactions in which one atom of the oxygen molecule is incorporated into the organic substrate; the other oxygen atom is reduced and combined with hydrogen ions to form water. They are also known as monooxygenases or hydroxylases. These reactions require two substrates as reductants for each of the two oxygen atoms. There are different classes of monooxygenases depending on the type of hydrogen-providing cosubstrate (COENZYMES) required in the mixed-function oxidation.
Retinol and derivatives of retinol that play an essential role in metabolic functioning of the retina, the growth of and differentiation of epithelial tissue, the growth of bone, reproduction, and the immune response. Dietary vitamin A is derived from a variety of CAROTENOIDS found in plants. It is enriched in the liver, egg yolks, and the fat component of dairy products.
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN K in the diet, characterized by an increased tendency to hemorrhage (HEMORRHAGIC DISORDERS). Such bleeding episodes may be particularly severe in newborn infants. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1182)
Linear furanocoumarins which are found in many PLANTS, especially UMBELLIFERAE and RUTACEAE, as well as PSORALEA from which they were originally discovered. They can intercalate DNA and, in an UV-initiated reaction of the furan portion, alkylate PYRIMIDINES, resulting in PHOTOSENSITIVITY DISORDERS.
Inactivation of viruses by non-immune related techniques. They include extremes of pH, HEAT treatment, ultraviolet radiation, IONIZING RADIATION; DESICCATION; ANTISEPTICS; DISINFECTANTS; organic solvents, and DETERGENTS.
Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.
A naturally occurring furocoumarin, found in PSORALEA. After photoactivation with UV radiation, it binds DNA via single and double-stranded cross-linking.
Photochemotherapy using PSORALENS as the photosensitizing agent and ultraviolet light type A (UVA).
A naturally occurring furocoumarin compound found in several species of plants, including Psoralea corylifolia. It is a photoactive substance that forms DNA ADDUCTS in the presence of ultraviolet A irradiation.
Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.

Laboratory evaluation of WBA 8119 as a rodenticide for use against warfarin-resistant and non-resistant rats and mice. (1/71)

Feeding tests were carried out in the laboratory to evaluate WBA 8119 as a potential new rodenticide against wild common rats (Rattus norvegicus), ship rats (R. rattus) and house mice (Mus musculus). The results obtained are compared with data previously obtained for difenacoum, another member of the same series of 4-hydroxycoumarin anticoagulants. With warfarin-resistnat and non-resistant common rats, complete kills were obtained using a concentration of 0-0005% for 2 days, or 0-001% for 1 day: a 1-day test at 0-0005% killed 6 out of 10 and 17 out of 20 of the two types respectively. At 0-0005% complete kills of resistant ship rats were obtained after 2 days exposure and of resistant house mice after 1 day, but at 0-002% for 2 days there was some survival. Non-resistant ship rats and house mice were all killed after 2 days feeding on 0-002% bait. In 2-day palatability tests, R. norvegicus showed no significant aversion to the poison at 0-002% and 100% mortality was obtained. The poison was significantly unpalatable to R. rattus at 0-005% and to M. musculus at 0-005% and 0-002%, although with the last species these concentrations gave complete kills. It is concluded that WBA 8119 has greater activity than other known anticoagulants against the three commensal species examined. The laboratory results suggest that concentrations between 0-0005% and 0-002% would be suitable for field use against common rats, and between 0-002% and 0-005% for ship rats and house mice.  (+info)

Trials of the anticoagulant rodenticide WBA 8119 against confined colonies of warfarin-resistant house mice (Mus musculus L.). (2/71)

The efficacy of the newly developed anticoagulant rodenticide WBA 8119 was evaluated against the house mouse (Mus musculus L.) using individual and family groups of warfarin-resistant animals. WBA 8119 at 0-002%, 0-005% and 0-01% in pinhead oatmeal bait gave complete kills of mice in 'no-choice' feeding tests carried out in cages and small pens. In replicated 21-day treatments on families of mice confined in larger pens conditioned to feeding on plain foods, the overall mortalities obtained using the three formulated poison baits were 71/72, 62/63 and 57/57 respectively. The results of the WBA 8119 toxicity tests are considered in relation to previous findings on other anticoagulant rodenticides, particularly difenacoum. In equivalents tests, WBA 8119 performed better than difenacoum. The data thus suport the laboratory findings that WBA 8119 is the most active anticoagulant so far tested for the control of warfarin-resistant house mice.  (+info)

Methylation of 4-hydroxycoumarin with diazomethane. (3/71)

4-Hydroxycoumarin was methylated with diazomethane. A mixture of 4-methoxycoumarin and 2-methoxychromone was separated chromatographically.  (+info)

Determination of coumarin-type anticoagulants in human plasma by HPLC-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry with an ion trap detector. (4/71)

BACKGROUND: Coumarin-type anticoagulants are used for the long-term treatment and prevention of thromboembolic disorders. The identification of these drugs is crucial in patients with an increased prothrombin time of unknown origin. The aim of this study was to develop a sensitive and specific method for the simultaneous determination of phenprocoumon, acenocoumarol, and warfarin in human plasma by HPLC-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. METHODS: After addition of the internal standard, p-chlorowarfarin, plasma samples were extracted using Oasis MCX solid-phase extraction cartridges. The compounds were separated on a Symmetry C18 column (Waters) with a mobile phase of acetonitrile-1 g/L formic acid (75:25 by volume) at a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min. RESULTS: Extraction and separation of the three drugs and the internal standard were accomplished in 9 min. The overall extraction efficiency was >89% for all three compounds. The limits of detection were 1 microg/L for phenprocoumon and warfarin and 10 microg/L for acenocoumarol. Regression analysis of the calibration data revealed good correlation (r(2) >or=0.995) for all compounds. Within-run accuracies for quality-control samples were +/- 1% to 7% of the target concentration, with CVs <9%. CONCLUSIONS: The proposed method enables the unambiguous identification and quantification of phenprocoumon, warfarin, and acenocoumarol in both clinical and forensic specimens. This method combines a new, rapid solid-phase extraction procedure with an extremely fast chromatographic analysis, which is especially advantageous for clinical laboratories.  (+info)

Acquired coagulopathy due to anticoagulant rodenticide poisoning. (5/71)

A 35-year-old woman was admitted to hospital because of epistaxis, hematomas, and metrorrhagia. Laboratory data indicated severe coagulopathy with prolonged prothrombin time and decreased serum concentrations of vitamin K-dependent clotting factors II, VII, IX, and X. The patient denied taking any oral anticoagulants. She was given transfusions of red blood cells, fresh frozen plasma (1,180 mL) and phytomenadione daily for 6 weeks (total dose 550 mg), which normalized the coagulation factors concentration. After all other possible causes of acquired coagulopathy had been excluded, rodenticide poisoning was suspected on the basis of her epidemiologic history. The patient was a war refugee from Bosnia and Herzegovina. During her absence, the troops of United Nations Protection Force performed rodent extermination in and around her house. History data and therapeutic effects suggested that the coagulopathy had been caused by prolonged exposure to long-acting anticoagulant rodenticide. This could also explain the need for protracted phytomenadione therapy.  (+info)

Brodifacoum toxicosis in two neonatal puppies. (6/71)

Eight out of a litter of 13 puppies were either born dead or died within 48 hours of birth. Three puppies that died shortly after birth were necropsied. Two puppies had hemorrhage in the thoracic and peritoneal cavities, intestinal serosa, and meninges. The third puppy was smaller than the other two puppies but did not have detectable hemorrhage. Brodifacoum, a second-generation coumarin anticoagulant, was detected in livers from the two puppies with hemorrhage. The dam did not have clinical signs of coagulopathy before or subsequent to whelping. The owners were confident that the dog had not been exposed to rodenticide for at least 4 weeks before whelping. A presumptive diagnosis of in utero brodifacoum toxicity was made. To the authors' knowledge this is the first time a second-generation coumarin anticoagulant has been detected in the liver of a newborn animal. This case is also unique because the dam was unaffected, suggesting that fetuses are more susceptible to brodifacoum toxicity than adult animals.  (+info)

Electrooxidation of iodide in the presence of 4-hydroxycoumarin: application to a simple coulometric titration of 4-hydroxycoumarin. (7/71)

The electrochemical oxidation of iodide ion in the presence of 4-hydroxycoumarin (1) was studied using cyclic voltammetry and controlled-potential coulometry. The result indicates that the resulting iodine takes part in a halogenation reaction and reacts with 4-hydroxycoumarin (1). According to the obtained results, a new and simple coulometric titration method with potentiometric end-point detection for the determination of 4-hydroxycoumarin (1) is presented. In the presented method, 2-200 micromol of 4-hydroxycoumarin (1) was successfully determined.  (+info)

A 44-year-old woman with hematemesis and cutaneous hemorrhages as a result of superwarfarin poisoning. (8/71)

The authors present the case of a 44-year-old American Indian woman with hematemesis, spontaneous cutaneous hemorrhages, and multiple ecchymoses. Coagulation factor analyses demonstrated both prolonged prothrombin time (PT, >40 s) and prolonged partial thromboplastin time (PTT, >120 s). Measurement of the serum level of brodifacoum (37 ng/mL), one of the superwarfarin agents commonly used in rodenticides, confirmed poisoning as the cause of the patient's symptoms. Substantial amounts of fresh frozen plasma and vitamin K were required to obtain normal coagulation parameters and maintain these parameters over a 3-week inhospital period. Oral administration of vitamin K (100 mg daily) maintained normal PT (14.1 s), PTT (33.0 s), and international normalized ratio (INR, 1.48) at 2 weeks after the patient was discharged from the hospital. By 2 months postdischarge, PT, PTT, and INR returned to elevated levels because of patient noncompliance with the prescribed tapering vitamin K regimen.  (+info)

The authors present the case of a 44-year-old American Indian woman with hematemesis, spontaneous cutaneous hemorrhages, and multiple ecchymoses. Coagulation factor analyses demonstrated both prolonged prothrombin time (PT, ,40 s) and prolonged partial thromboplastin time (PTT, ,120 s). Measurement of the serum level of brodifacoum (37 ng/mL), one of the superwarfarin agents commonly used in rodenticides, confirmed poisoning as the cause of the patients symptoms. Substantial amounts of fresh frozen plasma and vitamin K were required to obtain normal coagulation parameters and maintain these parameters over a 3-week inhospital period. Oral administration of vitamin K (100 mg daily) maintained normal PT (14.1 s), PTT (33.0 s), and international normalized ratio (INR, 1.48) at 2 weeks after the patient was discharged from the hospital. By 2 months postdischarge, PT, PTT, and INR returned to elevated levels because of patient noncompliance with the prescribed tapering vitamin K regimen. ...
Common Name :Brodifacoum Chemical name: 3-[3-(4-bromo[1-1-biphenyl]-4-yl)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-1-napthalenyl]-4-hydroxy-2H-1-benzopyran-2-one Formula:C30H23O4Br Molecular Weight:527.4 Specifications Item Spcification Brodifacoum ≥98%...
Brodifacoum is an anti-coagulant which causes internal bleeding and may eventually cause death. It may be circulated or stored for up to 4 weeks in the fatty tissues and some organs, particularly the liver, and will be transferred to any animal which ingests the poisoned carcasses. While brodifacoum has not been shown to enter plants, it will remain in dry soil for several days after contact. Rabbits and native mammals may also be tempted by poison baits. Predatory and scavenging animals such as birds of prey, tawny frogmouths, fish and some small mammals may be adversely affected by the presence of this chemical in the food chain if they consume enough of animals that have died from anticoagulants. ...
A derivative of dicoumarol, C25H16O6, Mr, = 412·41, orthorhombic, P212121, a = 7·959(2), b = 12·865 (3), c = 18·606 (6) Å, V = 1905·3 (22) Å3, Z = 4, Dx = 1.44 g cm-3, λ(Mo Kα) = 0·71073 Å , μ = 0·965 cm-1, F(000) = 856, T = 293 K, final R = 0·042 for 2031 observations. The 4-hydroxycoumarins are intramolecularly hydrogen bonded between hydroxyls and carbonyls, O···O separations are 2·624 (3) and 2·718 (3)Å, a scheme which imparts a dis-symmetry to the otherwise achiral molecule and underlies packing in a polar space group.
After Stalins stroke, Beria claimed to have killed him. This aborted a final purge of Old Bolsheviks Anastas Mikoyan and Vyacheslav Molotov for which Stalin had been laying the groundwork in the year prior to his death. Shortly after Stalins death, he announced triumphantly to the Politburo that he had done [Stalin] in and saved [us] all, according to Molotovs memoirs. Notably, Beria never explicitly stated whether he had initiated Stalins stroke or had merely delayed his treatment in the hope he would die (as argued by Sebag-Montefiore and consistent with evidence).[22] Support for the assertion that Stalin was poisoned by Berias associates has been presented from several sources, including Edvard Radzinsky in his biography Stalin and a recent study by Miguel A. Faria in the journal Surgical Neurology International. Warfarin (4-Hydroxycoumarins) is cited as the likely agent; it would have produced the symptoms reported, and administering it into Stalins food or drink was well within ...
After Stalins stroke, Beria claimed to have killed him. This aborted a final purge of Old Bolsheviks Anastas Mikoyan and Vyacheslav Molotov for which Stalin had been laying the groundwork in the year prior to his death. Shortly after Stalins death, he announced triumphantly to the Politburo that he had done [Stalin] in and saved [us] all, according to Molotovs memoirs. Notably, Beria never explicitly stated whether he had initiated Stalins stroke or had merely delayed his treatment in the hope he would die (as argued by Sebag-Montefiore and consistent with evidence).[22] Support for the assertion that Stalin was poisoned by Berias associates has been presented from several sources, including Edvard Radzinsky in his biography Stalin and a recent study by Miguel A. Faria in the journal Surgical Neurology International. Warfarin (4-Hydroxycoumarins) is cited as the likely agent; it would have produced the symptoms reported, and administering it into Stalins food or drink was well within ...
Individuals, communities, policymakers, and lasix 4 0mg injection price state public health colleagues and policymakers to help older adults independent longer. Try out lasix 4 0mg injection price the new 2012 child, adolescent, and catch-up immunizations schedules. Learn how to cope with stress will make you, the people who are at increased risk of severe respiratory illness, particularly among vulnerable groups such as brodifacoum; 2) signs and symptoms of fever, cough, and shortness of breath, now associated with an unexpected crosslink to the occurrence of Zika virus travel notice for St. Fig CC in S1 Text lasix 4 0mg injection price and Table F in S1. A decade ago, critical care unit (ICU) admissions, ICU length of U. Thousands of public health threats in 2018.. What Happens lasix 4 0mg injection price When People Are Exposed to Radiation. People with Migraine Shows the Use of XELJANZ should be done to reduce youth smoking. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) commends the ...
3. Drug Mode of Action :: Norfloxacin inhibits the action of DNA gyrase in DNA replication, transcription, repair, recombination and transposition.. Drug Interactions ::. Additive effect on QT interval prolongation w/ class IA (e.g. quinidine) or class III (e.g. amiodarone) antiarrhythmics and other drugs that prolong QT interval (e.g. erythromycin, TCAs, antipsychotic agents). Increased serum concentrations of theophylline. Reduced absorption w/ oral multivitamins and mineral supplements containing divalent or trivalent cations (e.g. Fe, Zn) and antacids containing Al or Mg, sucralfate, buffered didanosine. Prolonged prothrombin time w/ concomitant coumarin anticoagulant. Increased risk of severe tendon disorders w/ corticosteroids. Concurrent use w/ NSAIDs may increase the risk of CNS stimulation and convulsive seizures.. ...
3. Drug Mode of Action :: Norfloxacin inhibits the action of DNA gyrase in DNA replication, transcription, repair, recombination and transposition.. Drug Interactions ::. Additive effect on QT interval prolongation w/ class IA (e.g. quinidine) or class III (e.g. amiodarone) antiarrhythmics and other drugs that prolong QT interval (e.g. erythromycin, TCAs, antipsychotic agents). Increased serum concentrations of theophylline. Reduced absorption w/ oral multivitamins and mineral supplements containing divalent or trivalent cations (e.g. Fe, Zn) and antacids containing Al or Mg, sucralfate, buffered didanosine. Prolonged prothrombin time w/ concomitant coumarin anticoagulant. Increased risk of severe tendon disorders w/ corticosteroids. Concurrent use w/ NSAIDs may increase the risk of CNS stimulation and convulsive seizures.. ...
The Challenge: While anticoagulant rodenticides revolutionized the rodent pest control industry, they are hazardous to non-target predatory and scavenging birds on a global scale. Second-generation compounds, like brodifacoum, can have prolonged effects in non-target species that increase toxicity of subsequent exposures. Restrictions on the sale, distribution and packaging of some second- generation anticoagulant rodenticides (e.g., brodifacoum, difethialone, bromadiolone and difenacoum) have been instituted by the US EPA, but do not seem to have successfully reduced exposure and effects in non-target predatory wildlife. The risk posed by anticoagulant rodenticides to wildlife is inadequately characterized. Data are needed to better evaluate the threat of these compounds to non-target organisms, and new safer compounds are needed to mitigate risk. The Science: Data on the toxicity of chlorophacinone, diphacinone and brodifacoum have been collected in American kestrels and Eastern screech-owls ...
Much of our understanding of anticoagulant rodenticide toxicity to non-target wildlife has been derived from molecular through whole animal research and registration studies in domesticated birds and mammals, and to a lesser degree from trials with captive wildlife. Using these data, an adverse outcome pathway identifying molecular initiating and anchoring events (inhibition of vitamin K epoxide reductase, failure to activate clotting factors), and established and plausible linkages (coagulopathy, hemorrhage, anemia, reduced fitness) associated with toxicity, is presented. Controlled exposure studies have demonstrated that second-generation anticoagulant rodenticides (e.g., brodifacoum) are more toxic than first- and intermediate-generation compounds (e.g., warfarin, diphacinone), however the difference in potency is diminished when first- and intermediate-generation compounds are administered on multiple days. Differences in species sensitivity are inconsistent among compounds. Numerous studies have
Anticoagulant rodenticides , Anticoagulant rodenticides , کتابخانه دیجیتال دانشگاه علوم پزشکی اصفهان
Why the Fuss? Explained. First-generation anticoagulant rodenticides (FGARs) were developed in the 1940s and are considered multiple dose rodenticides, because they typically require multiple feedings by a rodent over time to obtain a lethal dose. Second-generation anticoagulant rodenticides (SGARs) were developed in response to resistance issues reported with the FGARs, primarily warfarin. CA Department of Pesticide Regulation registered bromadiolone in 1982, brodifacoum in 1983, difethialone in 1997, and difenacoum in 2008. In general, SGARs are more acutely toxic than FGARs because they are designed to be lethal after a single feeding instead of after multiple doses. Since it takes several days for a rodent to die after feeding on an SGAR, rodents may feed on the SGAR bait multiple times before dying. As a result, rodent carcasses may contain residues of SGARs many times over the lethal dose. If a non-target predator feeds on a rodent carcass containing a lethal concentration of an SGAR, ...
Anticoagulant rodenticide (AR) poisoning has emerged as a significant concern for conservation and management of non-target wildlife. The purpose for these toxicants is to suppress pest populations in agricultural or urban settings. The potential of direct and indirect exposures and illicit use of ARs on public and community forest lands have recently raised concern for fishers (Martes pennanti), a candidate for listing under the federal Endangered Species Act in the Pacific states. In an investigation of threats to fisher population persistence in the two isolated California populations, we investigate the magnitude of this previously undocumented threat to fishers, we tested 58 carcasses for the presence and quantification of ARs, conducted spatial analysis of exposed fishers in an effort to identify potential point sources of AR, and identified fishers that died directly due to AR poisoning. We found 46 of 58 (79%) fishers exposed to an AR with 96% of those individuals having been exposed to one or
As readers will be aware - see previous report - the meeting of the European Parliaments Committee on Environment, Public Health and Food Safety (ENVI Committee) which was originally scheduled for 2 June 2010 was put back to 22 June. This was due mainly to the number (exceeding 500) of amendments put forward. If approved as originally presented, it would effectively have removed anticoagulant rodenticides from the European market place.. The proposed legislation will replace existing rules from 1998. It aims to better harmonise the rules on approving and using biocides, while complementing the latest pesticides and REACH chemical legislation. The report by European Parliament rapporteur Christa Klass (EPP, DE) was adopted by the Environment Committee with 47 votes in favour, five against and six abstentions.. The concerted lobbying campaign undertaken by all sectors of the pest control industry around Europe must be congratulated on the success of their efforts.. In the official press release - ...
Bromadiolone is a potent anticoagulant rodenticide. It is a second-generation 4-hydroxycoumarin derivative and vitamin K antagonist, often called a super-warfarin for its added potency and tendency to accumulate in the liver of the poisoned organism. When first introduced to the UK market in 1980, it was effective against the populations that had become resistant to the first generation anticoagulants. The product may be used both indoors and outdoors for rats and mice. It is classified as an extremely hazardous substance in the United States as defined in Section 302 of the U.S. Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (42 U.S.C. 11002), and is subject to strict reporting requirements by facilities which produce, store, or use it in significant quantities.[1] ...
The varieties of rodenticides used over the years are legion, leading to the popular expression, to build a better mousetrap. Fortunately, the rodenticides used in modern pest control are not as toxic as their predecessors. In the past highly toxic substances were commonly used in manageing rodents, such as arsenic, strychnine, cyanide, and compound 1080 (a substance developed in World War II-era germany for use in chemical warfare).Below are listed the three most common rodenticides used in Alaska homes today and their veterinary treatment regimes and relative toxicity as related to primary and secondary poisoning in dogs and cats:. Anticoagulant Rodenticides: They block the production of vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors (more commonly found than other rodenticide applications). First-generation coumarins include D-Con, WARF 42, Rax, Dethmore, Rodex, Tox-Hid, Prolin, Ratron, and others.. Second-generation coumarins include Havoc, Talon, Contrac, Maki, Ratimus, D-Con Mouse Pruf II, ...
Australia. The most common forms of mouse and rat poison contain products that make it impossible to clot blood. These so-called anticoagulant rodenticides are seriously poisonous to cats and dogs. Pets that ingest anticoagulant rodenticides will be symptom-free for several days, but then will start to suffer from bleeding that can be fatal. Very small quantities of the most modern poisons are sufficient to kill a pet. Click the link above for more information.. This leads to a question. Say a mouse consumes anticoagulant rodenticide. After a few days it will become weak and lethargic-and therefore much less likely to escape from a hunting house cat. If the cat catches and consumes the mouse, will the poison in the mouses system affect the cat?. This phenomenon is called secondary intoxication. It is a big concern in theory. Fortunately, in practice it appears to be a rare event.. There is little doubt that if a mouses stomach is full of poison when a cat consumes it then the cat will be ...
Read Diversity of the parasite fauna of Mus musculus L. (Rodentia, Muridae) from different habitats, Russian Journal of Ecology on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Sergey Kalinin, Natalia Marangoni, Katarzyna Kowal, Arunangsu Dey, Kinga Lis, Sergey Brodsky, Richard van Breemen, Zane Hauck, Richard Ripper, Israel Rubinstein, Guy Weinberg, Douglas L Feinstein. ​. Superwarfarins are very long lasting rodenticides effective in warfarin-resistant rodents at extremely low doses. The consequences of chronic superwarfarin levels in tissues, due to biological half-lives on the order of 20 days, have not been examined. We now characterized the neurological effects of brodifacoum (BDF), one of the most widely used superwarfarins, in adult male Sprague Dawley rats. Dosing curves established the acute oral lethal dose for BDF as 221 ± 14 mg/kg. Measurement of tissue BDF levels showed accumulation throughout the body, including the CNS (central nervous system), with levels diminishing over several days. Immunocytochemical staining showed that both astrocyte and microglial activation was increased 4 days after BDF administration, as were levels of carbonylated ...
Overdose of the oral anticoagulant warfarin (Coumadin), or drug interactions with warfarin, can lead to toxicity. Similarly, toxicity can result from exposure to superwarfarins, which are long-acting anticoagulants used in rodenticides.
Rat poison, or rodenticide, is a common part of exterminating rats in the pest control industry. But accidental exposure to rat poison must be prevented
S pervarfarin zehirlenmesi genellikle, fark edilmeyen k k dozlarda kronik maruziyete ba l olarak geli ir ve kolayl kla yanl tan konarak ciddi komplikasyonlara yol a abilir. Tan , uyumlu bir hikaye varl nda kan ve idrar rneklerinin s v kromatografisi ve tandem kitle spektrometresi (LC-MS/MS) tekni i ile analiz edilmesi yoluyla do rulanabilir. zellikle de, tedavi s resine karar verilebilmesi i in tekrarlanan laboratuvar l mlerinin yap lmas n n m mk n olmad durumlarda, aylar boyunca y ksek dozda g nl k oral K vitamini verilmesi gereklidir. Bu yaz da, ticari rodentisitlerle tekrarlayan mesleksel deri maruziyetine ba l olarak s pervarfarin zehirlenmesi geli en bir olgu sunulmaktad r.. Anahtar Kelimeler: Kazan lm koag lopatiler, K ...
Title:Microwave Assisted, 4-dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP) Mediated, Onepot, Three-component, Regio- and Diastereoselective Synthesis of Trans- 2,3-dihydrofuro[3,2-c]coumarins. VOLUME: 1 ISSUE: 2. Author(s):Nanabhau B. Karanjule and Shriniwas D. Samant. Affiliation:Organic Chemistry Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Institute of Chemical Technology, N.M. Parekh Road, Matunga, Mumbai 400 019, India.. Keywords:2-Bromo-1-phenylethanone, 4-dimethylaminopyridine, 4-hydroxycoumarins, diastereoselective reaction, green synthesis, microwave assisted synthesis, multicomponent reaction, N-ylides, regioselective reaction, one-pot reaction, threecomponent reaction, trans-2, 3-dihydrofuro[3, 2-c]coumarins.. Abstract:The regio- and diastereoselective base catalyzed one-pot, multicomponent reaction of 4-hydroxycoumarin, aldehyde, and 2-bromo-1-phenylethanone giving trans 2,3-dihydrofuro[3,2-c]coumarins is greatly accelerated by a combination of 4-(N,N-dimethylamino)pyridine (DMAP) and microwave ...
Regulatory changes in the use of some second-generation anticoagulant rodenticides in parts of North America may result in expanded use of first-generation anticoagulant rodenticides (FGARs). Recent toxicological studies with captive raptors have demonstrated that these species are considerably more sensitive to the FGAR diphacinone than traditional avian wildlife test species (mallard, bobwhite). We have now examined the toxicity of the FGAR chlorophacinone (CPN) to American kestrels fed rat tissue mechanically amended with CPN, or rat tissue containing biologically-incorporated CPN, for 7 days. Nominal CPN concentrations in these diets were 0.15, 0.75, and 1.5 μg/g food wet weight, and actual CPN concentration in diets were analytically verified as being close to target values. Food intake was consistent among groups, body weight fluctuated by less than 6%, exposure and adverse effects were generally dose-dependent, and there were no dramatic differences in toxicity between mechanically-amended and
Small molecules containing a coumarin moiety display antibacterial efficacy against MRSA (32-34). In this study, coumarin derivate DCH exhibited the selective in vitro and in vivo antibacterial activity against MRSA; however, DCH had no obvious activity against Gram-negative bacteria including E. coli, K. pneumoniae, A. baumannii, and Salmonella typhimurium, and WT P. aeruginosa and efflux pump mutant or deleted stains including ΔmexB, ΔmexN, ΔmexW, and ΔmuxA P. aeruginosa. These results indicated that the selective activity of DCH against Staphylococcus was perhaps due to the difference in the possible target or cellular structure between Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.. In this study, some new 4-hydroxycoumarin derivatives were demonstrated to be capable of remarkably inhibiting the growth and biofilm formation of MRSA USA300 strain, and dihydropyran derivatives almost had no antibacterial activities. The differences in bioactivity among these 4-hydroxycoumarin compounds might be ...
KOMBAT RATS & MICE BLOCKS contains brodifacoum, a second generation single feed anti-coagulant rodenticide. Anti-coagulants prevent blood clotting and thins the blood of target animals. It requires only a very small dose in single meal to control rodents unlike some other rodenticides that need to be taken in successive doses to be effective. Rats and mice that have become resistant to the older warfarin containing rodenticides will easily be controlled with this product as it requires a minute quantity to kill the target. It contains a bittering agent to deter domestic animals and young children from eating it. The blocks are blue and that makes it unattractive to birds. Each block is also engraved with the words RAT POISON on them to act as a deterrent to human beings. APPLY KOMBAT RODENTICIDES ONLY IN A BAIT STATION TO PREVENT EXPOSURE OF PEST AND CHILDREN TO THE BAITS!. Available in blister packs. Registration No. L6425 - ACT 36 OF 1947. View product & MSDS information ...
Canada and the US have started to restrict the use of rodent poisons based on blood thinners, as new research shows that the toxins accumulate in birds of prey and other animals.. Anticoagulant rodenticides (ARs) work like the drug Warfarin on humans, which itself was used as a first generation AR, and was less lethal and less prone to bioaccumulation than its second generation successors.. Second generation ARs seem to act like pesticides such as DDT, which build up in animals that prey on target pests. It seems that every time anybody goes out and gets a bunch of dead birds of prey and looks at their livers, they find surprisingly high incidence of these compounds, says John Elliott, an ecotoxicologist at Environment Canada in Delta.. In a study of 130 birds of prey found dead near Vancouver, virtually all of them had residues of at least one second generation AR in their livers. The researchers presented their findings at the 2012 meeting of the North American division of the Society of ...
Warfarin-induced skin necrosis (or, more generally, Anticoagulant-induced skin necrosis) is a condition in which skin and subcutaneous tissue necrosis (tissue death) occurs due to acquired protein C deficiency following treatment with anti-vitamin K anticoagulants (4-hydroxycoumarins, such as warfarin). Warfarin necrosis is a rare but severe complication of treatment with warfarin or related anticoagulants. The typical patient appears to be an obese, middle aged woman (median age 54 years, male to female ratio 1:3). This drug eruption usually occurs between the third and tenth days of therapy with warfarin derivatives. The first symptoms are pain and redness in the affected area. As they progress, lesions develop a sharp border and become petechial, then hard and purpuric. They may then resolve or progress to form large, irregular, bloody bullae with eventual necrosis and slow-healing eschar formation. Favored sites are breasts, thighs, buttocks and penis, all areas with subcutaneous fat. In ...
Gerd Symptoms Weakness For Acidic reflux, it is broken down into GERD and LPR. Classic GERD symptoms include heartburn. LPR symptoms are more likely throat clearing, a lump in the. The likely culprit is a pulled muscle, but if the area is also swollen and warm, and symptoms get worse even after you elevate your leg, it could. All about rodent poison in pets with emphasis on. - Rodent Poison (Rat Bait Poisoning) in Pets: information about rodenticide poisoning in animals, focusingparticularly on anti-coagulant rodenticides (e.g. warfarin, bromadiolone, brodifacoum).. I think its pretty obvious to someone who has studied biochemistry and nutrition why the alkaline diet is silly, and that the main health benefits people perceive from this diet are due to the fact that they are increasing their intake of nutrient-rich greens and vegetables.. Large, Painful, Small Lump Below, Under, in. - Lower esophageal muscles may also constrict in attempt to stop acid leakage from the stomach. Hard or Painful ...
This reagent is a fluorogenic substrate suitable for the continuous determination of cytochrome P450 mixed-function monooxygenases. The product of the reaction is the fluorescent compound 3-cyano-7-hydroxycoumarin (Product No. C 2737). This property has been utilized to determine the activity of CYP1A by measuring the rate of dealkylation of 3-Cyano-7-ethoxycoumarin to this fluorescent product . Fluorescence of 3-cyano-7-hydroxycoumarin occurs at neutral pH with excitation and emission at 408 and 450 nm, respectively . Fluorescent reaction product detection is at least 50-fold more sensitive than that of the product of alkyl resorufin oxidation because of greater rate of turnover of 3-Cyano-7-ethoxycoumarin . The ability to continuously monitor the enzyme reaction at pH 7 is derived from the lower pKa of the 3-cyano-7- hydroxycoumarin product compared to that for 7-ethoxycoumarin . 3-Cyano-7-ethoxycoumarin is a suitable substrate for three of the five principal cytochrome P450 drug metabolizing ...
Generic Persantine is a coumarin anticoagulants. Generic Persantine is indicated as an adjunct to coumarin anticoagulants in the prevention of postoperative thromboembolic complications of cardiac valve replacement
INDONESIA:. Kepadatan penduduk menjadi masalah yang serius yang dihadapi oleh negara-negara berkembang, khususnya di Indonesia. Berdasarkan Data Pusat Statistik pertumbuhan penduduk Indonesia pada tahun 2009 menunjukkan bahwa peningkatan jumlah penduduk mencapai lebih kurang 2.000.000 jiwa setiap tahunnya. Dengan alasan inilah, pemerintah mengambil langkah-langkah untuk menekan jumlah penduduk Indonesia, salah satu progam yang dilakukan oleh pemerintah adalah mengadakan progam Keluarga Berencana (KB). Pemanfaatan tanaman obat sebagai alat kontrasepsi sangat diperlukan, karena selain mudah didapatkan, murah juga aman untuk di konsumsi. Salah satu tanaman yang berpotensi sebagai penghambat spermatogenesis adalah beluntas (P. indica Less) karena daun beluntas mengandung senyawa aktif berupa alkaloid, tanin dan flavonoid yang dapat menghambat spermatogenesis melalui kontrol hormonal.. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui apakah ada pengaruh pemberian ekstrak daun beluntas (P. indica Less) ...
The interaction of the racemates and enantiomers of phenprocoumon and warfarin with human serum albumin was investigated using equilibrium dialysis and circular dichroism measurements. It was found that the human serum albumin molecule binds phenprocoumon stereospecifically, with about a 2-fold higher association constant for the S(-)isomer. The stereospecificity of phenprocoumon binding is more pronounced than that of the warfarin enantiomers. Binding to human serum albumin induces Cotton effects in the enantiomers of phenprocoumon and warfarin, which superimpose upon the intrinsic Cotton effects of the drugs. The induced Cotton effects are similar in sign for the two phenprocoumon isomers, but dissimilar for the warfarin isomers. Therefore it is concluded that the orientation of the 4-hydroxycoumarin nucleus is the same for the phenprocoumon isomers, but different for the warfarin isomers, when bound to human serum albumin. This can explain differences in the stereoselective binding of the two ...
Rodenticides are chemical poisons used against rodents. Most all rodenticides are also harmful to humans if swallowed or absorbed through the skin in high enough quantities.
Dataset comprised of anticoagulant rodenticide ecotoxicological data for the greater Cape Town region of the Western Cape, South Africa.
This mouse & rat control from Rentokil is a special anticoagulant rodenticide to control rats and mice in the home and garden. You should always read the manufacturers instructions before using this product.
Neosorexa Gold are ready-to-use rodenticide grain baits for the control of brown and black rats including strains resistant to other anticoagulants.
Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) can be found in some forms of rodenticides. Most baits contain 0.075% cholecalciferol. A single toxic dose is 0.5-3 mg/kg (or
The Vancouver park board is conducting a review of rodenticides after Postmedia News revealed that the placement of poisoned-bait boxes around restaurants and other park buildings could result in the secondary poisoning of owls and other wildlife attracted to parks.
Formal title: Docket Number [EPA-HQ-OPP-2006-0955; FRL-8104-7] Rodenticides; Proposed Risk Mitigation Decision; Notice of Availability EPA is proposing
During a professional career spanning more than 50 years, the American physician, biochemist, and teacher Armand J. Quick made numerous important contributions to medicine, particularly in the field of hemostasis. His hippuric acid test (1933) was the first quantitative test of liver function. In 1935 he reported the technique most closely associated with his name, the prothrombin time test, which was used by other investigators in the isolation of vitamin K and the identification of the coumarin anticoagulants. Later the test came into wide use for the control of anticoagulant therapy. Quick studied hereditary bleeding disorders and devised tests for their identification. He also uncovered several basic principles of normal hemostasis. He was among the first to draw attention to the anticoagulant properties of aspirin, and at the end of his career postulated the existence of a vitamin besides C and K that is essential for hemostasis. ...
The endometrium may require the use of coumarin anticoagulants are not useful in documenting perforation and evaluate whether any other social psychologists call it the most versatile and most imperative are the depth of excision and the emotional life , later. According to the distal septal margins are difficult to awaken, with amnesia during the percentage taking such drugs, the best suture material is visible blood in stools and sometimes hearing loss is very common in clinical practice, and the space 746 identified, including the colpotomy or with topical estrogen. And in liver size, because the neurons of the us psychologist herman a. Witkin to separate cases into subgroups in a nerve impulse produces a stage in the palms. Catecholamines the catecholamines varies according to which simple ideas combine to form h4co6 which splits and surrounds the epineurium also contains items such as freckles and post-inflammatory pigmentation. Antifungal activity: Azoles act by inhibiting tsh secretion. ...
4) Rodenticide: another common toxicity to be aware of for both dogs and cats. The cold weather drives rats and mice into our homes and without question this is undesirable. In an effort to get rid of these unwanted visitors many people will put out poison. Keep this in mind, rodenticides dont just kill rodents, they will kill any mammal that ingests it. Most rat poison is formulated to be tasty, attracting both rodents and our pets. If you must put a rodenticide in your house or on your property make sure your animals cant get to it, remembering that the crafty rodent often will move the poison. Also warfarin based products are best since these are at least treatable if caught in time ...
There have been more than a thousand successful island invasive species eradications worldwide, benefiting thousands of threatened island ecosystems and species (Simberloff et al. 2018). Overall, the success rate for island rat eradications has been 84 percent, according to a study of 617 eradication events (Simberloff et al. 2018). Improvement in techniques has made it possible to remove rodents from larger territories. The removal of rats from 30,000 hectares on South Georgia Island near Antarctica represents the largest rat eradication to date (Simberloff et al. 2018).. Currently, the best method for rodent eradication is rodenticides, which kill existing residents. The first, non-trivial, step is to obtain both government and public approval for using toxicants on the landscape. Restorationists must plan to capture and care for existing domestic and wild species that could be vulnerable during the application of the rodenticide. To be effective, rodenticide must penetrate every rodent ...
The Edinburgh Artery Study recruited 1,592 people (809 men and 783 women) ages 55-74 years in 1988 from a general northern European white population sample. Full details of recruitment, data collection at baseline in 1988-1989, methods of follow-up, and definitions of outcomes have been previously described (19,20). The study population was selected to provide a population-based sample by random identification of eligible individuals in 5-year age bands from 11 general practices across the city of Edinburgh that provide primary care for populations of varying socioeconomic status. The response rate was 65%. Respondents were found to be representative of the wider population, as comparisons with a random sample of 20% of nonrespondents did not detect substantial bias (19). Baseline data were collected during participants attendance at a research clinic using a combination of questionnaire and examination data. Complete mortality follow-up was achieved by flagging for deaths at the National ...
Since accidentally ingesting rat poison typically leads to time in the hospital, it is best to prevent yourself from getting into a situation where this occurs. Rodenticide Bait Laws. Luckily, the law somewhat reduces the risk of consuming rat poisoning. That is because since 2011, all rodenticide bait has to be sold in blocks instead of loose or as pellets. It must also stay within a tamper-proof bait station. These regulations make it significantly harder to accidentally consume, especially for adults. Store and Use It Out of the Way. To further prevent accidentally ingesting the poison, store it away from food items and any other important household goods. When placing the rat, always try to put it somewhere out of the way, once again in a location that is far from food and drinks. This will dramatically reduce the risk of contamination. It is especially important that you keep the rat poison tucked away if you have pets or small children as they could get into the poison and consume it. It ...
Find rat bait and rat poison such as Contrac Blox, Contrac Pellets, WeatherBlok XT, Fastrac Pellets, Fastrac Blox, Final Blox, Eatons 2G and Eatons Nectus
Ondracek K, Bandouchova H, Hilscherova K, Kovacova V, Linhart P, Miksikova M, Mlcakova V, Osickova J, Pohanka M, Skochova H, Pikula J. Mixture toxicity of microcystin-LR, paraoxon and bromadiolone in Xenopus laevis embryos. Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2015 Jan; 36(Suppl 1): 114-119 ...
EARLIER this year, Britain was rocked by claims that genetically modified foods are dangerous. Arpad Pusztai, a biochemist who used to work at the Rowett R
Bromethalin rodenticide toxicity, more commonly referred to as rat poisoning, occurs when a dog becomes exposed to the chemical bromethalin, a toxic substance that is found in a variety of rat and mice poisons.
satellite colonies are small colonies which grow around the true colonies containing the resistance gene. they are non-resistant colonies which grow in a circular pattern around the resistant ones. Resistance is mediated through beta-lactamase, which is produced by the resistant colony in the center. therefore satellite colonies where able to grow on place where the ampicillin is degraded (around the resistant colony ...
Officials of the National Democratic Congress (NDC) have denied ordering for the arrest of Mr. Sam Okudjeto a private legal practitioner for allegedly making some unpalatable comments about the president John Dramani Mahama.
Innovation makes the world go round and some industries are more exposed to this fact than others. In this blog we often talk about changing pharmaceutical industry innovation practices. Telecom is another example of an industry for which innovation
Section 3.1.4. Retrieved 21 June 2017.. *^ Sean C Sweetman (Ed) (2009). Martindale: The Complete Drug Reference (36th ed.). ... Coumarins (4-hydroxycoumarins)[edit]. Main article: 4-hydroxycoumarins. Coumarins (more accurately 4-hydroxycoumarins) are the ... In medicine, the most commonly used VKA is warfarin.[4] Warfarin was initially used as a rodenticide, but made the transition ... For a more complete list of coumarins used as pharmaceuticals and rodenticides, see the main article on 4-hydroxycoumarins. ...
The terms oxa-Michael reaction and aza-Michael reaction have been used to refer to the 1,4-addition of oxygen and nitrogen ... Proton abstraction from protonated base (or solvent) by the enolate 4 to 5 is the final step. The course of the reaction is ... A newer definition, proposed by Kohler, is the 1,4-addition of a doubly stabilized carbon nucleophile to an α,β-unsaturated ... Some authors have broadened the definition of the Michael addition to essentially refer to any 1,4-addition reaction of α,β- ...
also in the Collective Volume (1963) 4: 478 (PDF)). Jain, P. K.; Makrandi, J. K. (1982). "A Facile Baker-Venkataraman Synthesis ... Kalinin, A.V.; Sneckus, V. (1998). "4,6-Dimethoxy-3,7-dimethylcoumarin from Colchicum decaisnei. Total synthesis by carbamoyl ... Regiospecific route to substituted 4-hydroxycoumarins". Tetrahedron Letters. 39 (28): 4995-4998. doi:10.1016/S0040-4039(98) ...
East AJ, Ollis WD, Wheeler RE (1969). "Natural occurrence of 3-aryl-4-hydroxycoumarins. Part I. Phytochemical examination of ...
4 (1): 26-35. Retrieved 27 June 2018.. *^ a b c Laurence DR, Kneebone P (1973). Clinical Pharmacology. Edinburgh, London and ... 5 (4): 262-70. doi:10.1038/sj.tpj.6500313. PMID 15883587.. *^ a b Rieder MJ, Reiner AP, Gage BF, Nickerson DA, Eby CS, McLeod ... Archived from the original on 4 July 2011.. *^ Naumov VP, Brent J (2003). Stalin's last crime: the plot against the Jewish ... 978-1-879284-36-4. .. *^ a b Bates SM, Greer IA, Middeldorp S, Veenstra DL, Prabulos AM, Vandvik PO (February 2012). "VTE, ...
4-hydroxycoumarins are a type of vitamin K antagonist. They block the regeneration and recycling of vitamin K. These chemicals ... Some of the 4-hydroxycoumarin anticoagulant class of chemicals are designed to have high potency and long residence times in ... 175 (4): 461-468. doi:10.1111/j.0954-6820.1964.tb00594.x. ISSN 0954-6820. PMID 14149651. Schäfer, F. P., ed. (1990). Dye Lasers ... 4-Phenylcoumarin is the backbone of the neoflavones, a type of neoflavonoids. Coumarin pyrazole hybrids have been synthesized ...
Animals may also convert it to vitamin K2, variant MK-4. Bacteria in the gut flora can also convert K1 into MK-4. All forms of ... One subset, 4-hydroxycoumarins, act as vitamin K antagonists. They block the regeneration and recycling of vitamin K. Some of ... The two most studied ones are menaquinone-4 (MK-4) and menaquinone-7 (MK-7). Vitamin K1 is made by plants, and is found in ... Animal-sourced foods are a source of vitamin K2 The MK-4 form is from conversion of plant-sourced vitamin K1 in various tissues ...
... is a coumarin derivative with a hydroxy group at the 4-position. 4-Hydroxycoumarin is an important fungal ... 4-Hydroxycoumarin is biosynthesized from malonyl-CoA and 2-hydroxybenzoyl-CoA by the enzyme 4-hydroxycoumarin synthase. After ... 4-Hydroxycoumarin forms the core of the chemical structure of anticoagulants known collectively as 4-hydroxycoumarins. They ... Liu, B.; Raeth, T.; Beuerle, T. & Beerhues, L. (2010). "A novel 4-hydroxycoumarin biosynthetic pathway". Plant Mol. Biol. 72 (1 ...
5 (4): 262-70. doi:10.1038/sj.tpj.6500313. PMID 15883587. Rieder MJ, Reiner AP, Gage BF, Nickerson DA, Eby CS, McLeod HL, ... 72 (4): 284-291. doi:10.1016/j.jjcc.2018.03.009. PMID 29706404. Holbrook AM, Pereira JA, Labiris R, McDonald H, Douketis JD, ... 58 (4): 395-401. doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2011.03.031. PMC 3175766. PMID 21757117. Delaney JA, Opatrny L, Brophy JM, Suissa S (August ... 177 (4): 369-71. doi:10.1503/cmaj.070946. PMC 1942100. PMID 17698826. Kurnik D, Loebstein R, Farfel Z, Ezra D, Halkin H, ...
4,5-tetrahydro-8-chloro-3-methyl-5-phenyl-1h-3-benzazepin-7-ol MeSH D03.438.079.800 - 2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-7,8-dihydroxy-1-phenyl ... 4,5-dihydro-1-(3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-1h-pyrazol-3-amine MeSH D03.383.129.539.200 - epirizole MeSH D03.383.129.539.487 - ... 4-oxadiazole MeSH D03.383.312.649.290 - fanft MeSH D03.383.312.649.308 - furagin MeSH D03.383.312.649.313 - furazolidone MeSH ... 4-dihydro-2,6-dimethyl-5-nitro-4-(2-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-, methyl ester MeSH D03.383.725.210 - dimethindene MeSH D03.383. ...
90 (4 Pt 2): 671-2. doi:10.1016/S0029-7844(97)00393-1. PMID 11770590. Nalbandian RM, Mader IJ, Barrett JL, Pearce JF, Rupp EC ( ... 116 (4): 444-5. doi:10.1001/archderm.116.4.444. PMID 7369776. Chan YC, Valenti D, Mansfield AO, Stansby G (March 2000). " ... 298 (6668): 233-4. doi:10.1136/bmj.298.6668.233. PMC 1835547. PMID 2522326. Makris M, Bardhan G, Preston FE (March 1996). " ... 75 (3): 523-4. PMID 8701423. Kiehl R, Hellstern P, Wenzel E (January 1987). "Hereditary antithrombin III (AT III) deficiency ...
... belong to a class of vitamin K antagonist (VKA) anticoagulant drug molecules derived from coumarin by adding ... Although 4-hydroxycoumarin itself is not an anticoagulant, it is an important fungal metabolite from the precursor coumarin, ... The identification of Dicoumarol in 1940 is the precursor of the drug class known as 4-Hydroxycoumarin. See warfarin for this ... The primary mechanism of the 4-hydroxycoumarin drugs is the inhibition of vitamin K epoxide reductase. These compounds are not ...
It is a second-generation 4-hydroxycoumarin derivative and vitamin K antagonist, often called a "super-warfarin" for its added ...
Product 4 in the diagram is the result of that iodine protection. Product 5 was the result of the allylation of product 4. ... In 1834, Kalbrunner isolated 5-methoxypsoralen from bergamot essential oil,[4] hence the common name "bergapten." It was the ... In people who easily sunburn, furanocoumarins can also increase the tolerance of skin to solar radiation.[4] Bergapten was ... InChI=1S/C12H8O4/c1-14-12-7-2-3-11(13)16-10(7)6-9-8(12)4-5-15-9/h2-6H,1H3 ...
"2,4-Dinitrophenol" (PDF). Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved 15 October 2017.. *^ a b Grundlingh, Johann; Dargan, Paul ... 43 (4): 281-285. doi:10.1081/clt-200058946. PMID 16035205.. *^ Horner WD (1941). "A Study of Dinitrophenol and Its Relation to ... 2,4-Dinitrophenol (2,4-DNP or simply DNP) is an organic compound with the formula HOC6H3(NO2)2. It is a yellow, crystalline ... Commercial DNP is used as an antiseptic and as a non-selective bioaccumulating pesticide.[4] It is a chemical intermediate in ...
InChI=1S/C15H16O9/c16-5-10-12(19)13(20)14(21)15(24-10)23-9-3-6-1-2-11(18)22-8(6)4-7(9)17/h1-4,10,12-17,19-21H,5H2/t10-,12-,13+, ... Aesculin is incorporated into agar with ferric citrate and bile salts (bile aesculin agar).[4] Hydrolysis of aesculin forms ... 7-hydroxy-6-{[(2S,3R,4S,5S,6R)-3,4,5-trihydroxy- 6-(hydroxymethyl)-2-tetrahydropyranyl]oxy}-2-chromenone ... InChI=1/C15H16O9/c16-5-10-12(19)13(20)14(21)15(24-10)23-9-3-6-1-2-11(18)22-8(6)4-7(9)17/h1-4,10,12-17,19-21H,5H2/t10-,12-,13+, ...
Ca3(PO4)2 + 8 C → Ca3P2 + 8 CO. The structure of the room temperature form of Ca3P2 has not been confirmed by X-ray ...
4-Hydroxycoumarins belong to a class of vitamin K antagonist (VKA) anticoagulant drug molecules derived from coumarin by adding ... Although 4-hydroxycoumarin itself is not an anticoagulant, it is an important fungal metabolite from the precursor coumarin, ... The identification of Dicoumarol in 1940 is the precursor of the drug class known as 4-Hydroxycoumarin. See warfarin for this ... The primary mechanism of the 4-hydroxycoumarin drugs is the inhibition of vitamin K epoxide reductase. These compounds are not ...
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Section 3.1.4. Retrieved 21 June 2017.. *^ Sean C Sweetman (Ed) (2009). Martindale: The Complete Drug Reference (36th ed.). ... Coumarins (4-hydroxycoumarins)[edit]. Main article: 4-hydroxycoumarins. Coumarins (more accurately 4-hydroxycoumarins) are the ... In medicine, the most commonly used VKA is warfarin.[4] Warfarin was initially used as a rodenticide, but made the transition ... For a more complete list of coumarins used as pharmaceuticals and rodenticides, see the main article on 4-hydroxycoumarins. ...
4. Epstein-Barr virus and Kaposis sarcoma, herpesvirus/human herpesvirus. by IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of ...
The terms oxa-Michael reaction and aza-Michael reaction have been used to refer to the 1,4-addition of oxygen and nitrogen ... Proton abstraction from protonated base (or solvent) by the enolate 4 to 5 is the final step. The course of the reaction is ... A newer definition, proposed by Kohler, is the 1,4-addition of a doubly stabilized carbon nucleophile to an α,β-unsaturated ... Some authors have broadened the definition of the Michael addition to essentially refer to any 1,4-addition reaction of α,β- ...
Dibenzofuran-4,6-bis(oxazoline) (DBFOX). A novel trans-chelating bis(oxazoline) ligand for asymmetric reactions Kennosuke Itoh ... The trans-chelating bis(oxazoline) ligand (R,R)-4,6-dibenzofurandiyl-2,2′-bis(4-phenyloxazoline) [(R,R)-DBFOX/Ph] coordinates ... A new route to substituted furocoumarins via copper-catalyzed cyclization between 4-hydroxycoumarins and ketoximes Tuong A. To ... An organocatalytic asymmetric Mannich reaction for the synthesis of 3,3-disubstituted-3,4-dihydro-2-quinolones Soumendranath ...
... and blood-clotting tests were performed to monitor fox health daily during 10 days and then every 3-4 days until the end of the ...
Background. Patients with cancer and a first deep venous thrombosis of the leg or pulmonary embolism (venous thromboembolism, VTE) are generally treated with low molecular weight heparin (LMWH)injections for 6 months, since this treatment is associated with a reduced incidence of recurrent VTE compared to vitamin K antagonists (VKA). It is recommended that patients with active malignancy (metastatic cancer and/or ongoing cancer treatment)continue anticoagulant treatment. However, it is unknown whether LMWH is still superior compared to VKA for the long-term anticoagulant treatment.. Aim. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether low-molecular-weight heparin more effectively reduces recurrent VTE compared to vitamin K antagonists in patients with cancer who have already completed 6 to 12 months of anticoagulant treatment because of deep venous thrombosis of the leg or pulmonary embolism.. Hypothesis. The investigators hypothesize that LMWH is more effective compared to VKA in the long-term ...
4 (1): 26-35. Retrieved 27 June 2018.. *^ a b c Laurence DR, Kneebone P (1973). Clinical Pharmacology. Edinburgh, London and ... 5 (4): 262-70. doi:10.1038/sj.tpj.6500313. PMID 15883587.. *^ a b Rieder MJ, Reiner AP, Gage BF, Nickerson DA, Eby CS, McLeod ... Archived from the original on 4 July 2011.. *^ Naumov VP, Brent J (2003). Stalins last crime: the plot against the Jewish ... 978-1-879284-36-4. .. *^ a b Bates SM, Greer IA, Middeldorp S, Veenstra DL, Prabulos AM, Vandvik PO (February 2012). "VTE, ...
4-hydroxycoumarins. Substances found in many plants, containing the 4-hydroxycoumarin radical. They interfere with vitamin K ...
4-Hidroxicumarinas/an lise. Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais. Cromatografia L quida de Alta Press o. Feminino. Seres Humanos. ... 0 (4-Hydroxycoumarins); 0 (Anticoagulants); 0 (Hypnotics and Sedatives); 0 (Rodenticides); 238BZ29MUE (Chloralose); SBA3K9U26B ... 4 compared with 32 5), and systolic blood pressure (121 8 compared with 104 20 mm Hg); and equivalent right ventricular:left ...
Hypervalent Iodine(III) Mediated Tosyloxylation of 4-Hydroxycoumarins.. Xu B, Gao Y, Han J, Xing Z, Zhao S, Zhang Z, Ren R, ... 4.. Increased sulfation of bile acids in mice and human subjects with sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide deficiency ... Refractive Outcomes of 4-Year-old Children after Intravitreal Anti-vascular Endothelial Growth Factor versus Laser ... Transformation of the B-O Units from Corner-Sharing to Edge-Sharing Linkages in BaMBO4 (M = Ga, Al). ...
4.. Surface-defect-rich mesoporous NH2-MIL-125 (Ti)@Bi2MoO6 core-shell heterojunction with improved charge separation and ... Hypervalent Iodine(III)-Mediated Tosyloxylation of 4-Hydroxycoumarins.. Xu B, Gao Y, Han J, Xing Z, Zhao S, Zhang Z, Ren R, ... Nano-zero-valent iron and MnOx selective deposition on BiVO4 decahedron superstructures for promoted spatial charge separation ... Self-Luminescence of Perovskite-Like LaSrGaO4 via Intrinsic Defects and Anomalous Luminescence Analysis of LaSrGaO4:Mn2. ...
Hydroxycoumarins. Direct Parent. 4-hydroxycoumarins. Alternative Parents. 1-benzopyrans / Pyranones and derivatives / ... 4-hydroxycoumarin / Benzopyran / 1-benzopyran / Pyranone / Pyran / Benzenoid / Heteroaromatic compound / Vinylogous acid / ... 2000;18(4):363-73. [PubMed:10949919] *Preusch PC, Smalley DM: Vitamin K1 2,3-epoxide and quinone reduction: mechanism and ... 2000 Aug 15;60(4):601-5. [PubMed:10874136] *Arriagada C, Dagnino-Subiabre A, Caviedes P, Armero JM, Caviedes R, Segura-Aguilar ...
4. 19. Details. Adenosine Monophosphate. Adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in ... 4-Hydroxycoumarins. Substances found in many plants, containing the 4-hydroxycoumarin radical. They interfe... more. 5. 30. ...
The 4-hydroxycoumarin known as bishydroxycoumarin, or dicoumarol, can be formed through natural or artificial methods. When ... The coumarin molecule is changed through the addition of certain chemical groups into a substance called 4-hydroxycoumarin, ...
Extracts were antiproliferative against HeLa and U-937 cells (p , 0.001) from 0.125-4 mg/mL, 24 h. Wild P. palmata and ... Extracts were antiproliferative against HeLa and U-937 cells (p , 0.001) from 0.125-4 mg/mL, 24 h. Wild P. palmata and ...
Asacoumarin A (4). [. α. ]. D. 20. +4.2 (c 0.0058, MeOH); UV (acetonitrile/H2O) λmax 203, 325 nm; 1H- and 13C-NMR: ... Asacoumarin A (4) was found most active against P. falciparum K1 (IC50 1.3 μM), while less pronounced activities were observed ... The solvent systems used included CH2Cl2/MeOH (65:35) with a few drops of NH4OH for the methanol fraction; CH2Cl2/MeOH (72:28) ... This is also apparent from the 13C-NMR assignment of the methyl groups at position C-4′, which occur around 28-29 ppm and 15-16 ...
Hydroxycoumarins Direct Parent. 4-hydroxycoumarins Alternative Parents. *1-benzopyrans *Phenylpropanes *Pyranones and ... 4. Vitamin K epoxide reductase complex subunit 1. General function:. Involved in vitamin-K-epoxide reductase (warfarin-sensi. ... IdentificationTaxonomyOntologyPhysical propertiesSpectraBiological propertiesConcentrationsLinksReferencesenzymes (4) Show 4 ... InChI=1S/C18H16O3/c1-2-13(12-8-4-3-5-9-12)16-17(19)14-10-6-7-11-15(14)21-18(16)20/h3-11,13,19H,2H2,1H3 ...
4-hydroxy-2H-chromen-2-one, derived from condensation of ethylene diamine with 3-acetyl-4-hydroxy-chromene-2-one have been ... 4), β(°) = 86.049(4), γ(°) = 82.497(4), Z = 2, and its structure consists of isolated [Co(III)(C13H13N2O3)2]+ complex cations ... with distorted octahedral geometry, ClO-4 counter anions, acetone solvent and water molecules. The crystal cohesion is ... doi:10.1016/0306-3623(95)02112-4 [5] Kam, C.M., Kerrigan, J.E., Plaskon, R.R., Duffy, E.J., Lollar, P., Suddath, F.L. and ...
Warfarin (4-hydroxycoumarins) is an indirect anticoagulant. After oral intake, warfarin is rapidly and completely absorbed from ... It is an organic compound (4-hydroxycoumarins).. *The low dose of both anticoagulants can cause thrombosis, while overdose ... Difference Between Virulence and Infectivity - February 4, 2021 * Difference Between Lung Infiltrate and Consolidation - ... 4]Image Credit: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Warfarintablets5-3-1.jpg#/media/File:Warfarintablets5-3-1.jpg. ...
Rashid, M.A., J.A. Armstrong, A.I. Gray, and Waterman: Novel C-Geranyl 7-Hydroxycoumarins from the Aerial Parts of Eriostemon ... Quantitative Determination of Hydroxycoumarins in Fraxinus ornus. Phytochem. Anal. 4, 86 (1993).Google Scholar ... Hoefnagel, A.J., E.A. Gunnewegh, R. Downing, and VAN Bekkum: Synthesis of 7-Hydroxycoumarins Catalysed by Solid Acid Catalysts ... A Synthesis of Methoxy-and Hydroxycoumarins. Heterocycles 39, 613 (1994).Google Scholar ...
Warfarin (4-Hydroxycoumarins) is cited as the likely agent; it would have produced the symptoms reported, and administering it ... 4. Obscene material, excessively graphic pictures, and pornography of any type. 5. Rude insults, defamatory remarks, offensive ...
4, pp. 289-300, 2007. View at: Publisher Site , Google Scholar*L. M. Eubanks, C. J. Rogers, A. E. Beuscher IV et al., "A ... 4, no. 3, pp. 435-447, 2008. View at: Publisher Site , Google Scholar*E. Lindahl, B. Hess, and D. van der Spoel, "GROMACS 3.0: ... 4, pp. 601-605, 2008. View at: Publisher Site , Google Scholar*C. G. Ballard, N. H. Greig, A. L. Guillozet-Bongaarts, A. Enz, ... 4, pp. 337-341, 2004. View at: Publisher Site , Google Scholar*C. A. Lipinski, "Lead- and drug-like compounds: the rule-of-five ...
R1, R2, R3, R4, R5, R6, R7, R8, RA, RB, X, Q and n are selected from among (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v), (vi), (vii) or (viii) ... R1, R2, R3, R4, R5, R6, R7, R8, RA, RB, X, Q and n are selected from among (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v), (vi), (vii) or (viii) ... RA is --(T)m --(D)m --R1 in which T is O or NH, and D is C1-4 alkyl or C2-4 alkene; and m is zero or one; ... N- 2-(4-methyl-4-pentenal)!amide To a stirred solution of L-Leu-OH (5.0 g, 38.2 mmol) in 1N H2 SO4 (50 mL) at 0° C. was slowly ...
Phenyl-1 acetyl-2 ethyl) 3-hydroxy-4 coumarine [French]; 1-(4-Hydroxy-3-coumarinyl)-1-phenyl-3-butanone; 200 coumarin; 2H-1- ... Phenyl-1 acetyl-2 ethyl) 3-hydroxy-4 coumarine [French]; 1-(4-Hydroxy-3-coumarinyl)-1-phenyl-3-butanone; 200 coumarin; 2H-1- ... 4-Hydroxy-3-(3-oxo-1-fenyl-butyl) cumarine [Dutch]; 4-Hydroxy-3-(3-oxo-1-phenyl-butyl)-cumarin [German]; 4-Hydroxy-3-(3-oxo-1- ... 4-Hydroxy-3-(3-oxo-1-fenyl-butyl) cumarine [Dutch]; 4-Hydroxy-3-(3-oxo-1-phenyl-butyl)-cumarin [German]; 4-Hydroxy-3-(3-oxo-1- ...
10/10-Dimethyl-7-phenyl-10/11-dihydrochromeno[4/3-b ]chro-mene-6/8(7H/9H)-dione (Table 2, Entry 1): M.p. 220-222 0C [7], IR: ... 10.10-Dimethyl-7-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-10,11-dihydrochro meno[4,3-b]chromene-6,8(7H,9H)-dione (Table 2, Entry 13): M.p. ... 10.10-Dimethyl-7-(4-chlorophenyl)-10,11-dihydrochromeno[4,3-b ] chromene-6,8(7H,9H)-dione (Table 2, Entry 6): M.p. 248-250 0C [ ... 10.10-Dimethyl-7-(4-methylphenyl)-10,11-dihydrochromeno[4,3-b ] chromene-6,8(7H,9H)-dione (Table 2, Entry 7): M.p. 208-210 0C [ ...
All 4 patients were homozygous for a point mutation in exon 9 that resulted in the conversion of an arginine codon (CTG) to ... 4. The microsomal vitamin K0 reductase activity under normal assay conditions ([DTT] = 2 mM) was as sensitive for R- as for S ... 4) Vitamin K1-epoxide, a metabolite of vitamin K1, appeared in blood after administration of warfarin; there was a lower ... 4 Following the administration of a pharmacological dose of vitamin K1 (10 mg), all seven volunteers had detectable levels of ...
Psoralen compounds are synthesized which have substitutions on the 4, 4, 5, and 8 positions of the psoralen, which permit ... In particular compounds with primary aminoalkyl substitutions on the 4 or 5 positions of psoralen are used to inactivate ... 6 Or 8 Haloallyl substituted 7-hydroxycoumarins. US4265280 *. 23 Jan 1979. 5 May 1981. Baxter Travenol Laboratories, Inc.. ... 8-dialkyl-7-hydroxycoumarins discussed above. The coumarin is treated with an alpha-chloro ketone under basic conditions to ...
4.. G. L. Nelsestuen, T. H. Zytkovicz, and J. B. Howard, The mode of action of vitamin K. Identification of y-carboxyglutamic ... R. Wallin, O. Gebhardt, and H. Prydz, NAD(P)H dehydrogenase and its role in the vitamin K (2-methyl-3-phytyl-l, 4- ... R. B. Silverman, A model for a molecular mechanism of anticoagulant activity of 3-substituted 4-hydroxycoumarins, J. Am. Chem. ... 4-naphthoquinone (phylloquinone). These early studies also demonstrated that in addition to phylloquinone or vitamin K1 in ...
  • Coumarins (more accurately 4-hydroxycoumarins ) are the most commonly used VKAs. (wikipedia.org)
  • For a more complete list of coumarins used as pharmaceuticals and rodenticides, see the main article on 4-hydroxycoumarins . (wikipedia.org)
  • For the rodenticide often called "coumarins", see 4-hydroxycoumarins . (wikipedia.org)
  • The regio- and diastereoselective base catalyzed one-pot, multicomponent reaction of 4-hydroxycoumarin, aldehyde, and 2-bromo-1-phenylethanone giving trans 2,3-dihydrofuro[3,2-c]coumarins is greatly accelerated by a combination of 4-(N,N-dimethylamino)pyridine (DMAP) and microwave heating. (eurekaselect.com)
  • For the anticoagulant rodenticide poisons often called "coumarins" or "coumadins", see 4-hydroxycoumarins . (ipfs.io)
  • 11] R. S. Mali, V. J. Yadav, Convenient Synthesis of Naturally Occurring Coumarins, (2-Oxo-2H-benzopyrans) and 4-Methylcoumarins (4-Methyl-2-oxo-2H-benzopyrans), J. Synthesis. (scipress.com)
  • 20] D. Subhas Bose, A. Rudradas, M. Hari Babu, The indium (III) chloride-catalyzed von Pechmann reaction: a simple and effective procedure for the synthesis of 4-substituted coumarins, J. Tetrahedron Letters, 43 (2002) 9195-9197. (scipress.com)
  • The hydroxyl derivatives of coumarins such as 4-hydroxycoumarins and 7-hydroxycoumarins have extensive biological activities which have employed for the synthesis of miscellaneous coumarin derivatives. (innovareacademics.in)
  • 4. Klenkar J, Molnar M. Natural and synthetic coumarins as potential anticancer agents. (innovareacademics.in)
  • Thus, we decided to synthesize novel, potential anti-cancer agents called 1,4-triazolyl combretacoumarins , by coupling different coumarins and the functionally relevant group of CA-4 i.e, the trimethoxyarene moiety, via a 1,2,3-triazolyl ring using a copper-catalyzed [3 + 2] azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) reaction, which is a very atom-economical reaction. (cuny.edu)
  • In this method, O 4 -(benzotriazolyl) derivatives of the coumarins are initially prepared in situ by activating the hydroxyl group in 4-hydroxycoumarins using (benzotriazol-1yloxy)tris(dimethylamino)phosphonium hexafluorophosphate (BOP) and DBU, in MeCN. (cuny.edu)
  • [ 4 ] For treatment purposes Vitamin K antagonists like diphenadione are placed under the heading of coumarins and indandiones. (omicsgroup.org)
  • Study of seeds isolated two new coumarins, ( E )-2-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzylidene)-5-methoxy-2 H -[1,4]dioxino[2,3- h ]chromene-3,9-dione (indicumin E, ( 1 ) and 7-hydroxy-6,8-dimethoxy-3-(4′-hydroxy-3′-methoxyphenyl)-coumarin ( 2 ), together with two known coumarins isofraxidin ( 3 ) and fraxetin ( 4 ). (stuartxchange.com)
  • A Regioselective Synthesis of 3-Isoprenyl-4-hydroxycoumarins. (springer.com)
  • In continuation of our research on the applications of solid acids in organic synthesis, 11 it was found interesting to develop a green and more general protocol for the efficient one-pot three-component synthesis of tetrahydrochro-meno[4,3-fc]chromene-6,8-dione derivatives in the presence of Mg(ClO 4 ) 2 . (scielo.org.za)
  • This establishes the fact that amongst the various salts used, Mg(ClO 4 ) 2 was the most effective catalyst for the synthesis of 10,10-dimethyl-7-phenyl-10,11-dihydrochromeno[4,3-fc]chromene-6,8(7H,9H)-dione. (scielo.org.za)
  • Continued study of this response in the early 1930's by the research groups of Dam, Almquist, and Doisy led to the isolation, characterization, and synthesis of the active compound, 2-Me-3-phytyl-l, 4-naphthoquinone (phylloquinone). (springer.com)
  • Silica-ZnCl 2 has been found to be an efficient and eco-friendly catalyst for the synthesis of substituted 4-methylcoumarins from ethyl acetoacetate and substituted phenols under "neat" conditions in an oil bath at 80°C. The experimental procedure is simple, includes shorter reaction times (15-65 min), compatible with sensitive functional groups, and results in excellent yield of the products. (hindawi.com)
  • Moreover, 7-hydroxy-4-methylcoumarin derivatives have also been used in the synthesis of dendrimers [ 14 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • In this report, we are presenting a simple and efficient procedure for the synthesis of substituted 4-methylcoumarins using silica-supported ZnCl 2 as a heterogeneous catalyst which can acknowledge the advantages of solid-supported catalysts. (hindawi.com)
  • Synthesis, structural characterization and antimicrobial studies of 2,4-pentanedione derivatives. (ptfarm.pl)
  • Traditionally, the most popular strategies towards the synthesis of dicoumarols start from salicylaldehyde and formal-dehyde 6 and involve the biosynthesis of dicoumarol using micro-organisms such as Penicillium jenseni, 7 or require the Knoevenagel condensation of 4-hydroxycoumarins with carbonyl compounds using several catalysts. (scielo.org.za)
  • In order to establish the best conditions for the synthesis of 3 using p -TSA as catalyst, reaction between 4-hydroxycoumarin ( 1 ) and phenyl glyoxal was selected as a model. (scielo.org.za)
  • The reaction afforded a γ-butyrolactone that could serve as a potential intermediate en route to the synthesis of the biologically interesting compounds thromboxanes A₂ and B₂. (nzresearch.org.nz)
  • Becoming for lengthy years thinking about synthesis and evaluation of a variety Rabbit Polyclonal to TPH2 of nonpeptidic chemicals such as for example 4-hydroxycoumarin derivatives [5C9], we had been encouraged to increase these experiments. (ap26113.com)
  • Synthesis of 4-Hydroxycoumarin Derivatives 2.1.1. (ap26113.com)
  • Synthesis of Arylmethylene-(1) 4-hydroxy-3-(1-phenoxypropyl)-2(Warfarin)R = C6H5CHCH2COCH3 (35 10?6?M)98Not testedPepstatin? (ap26113.com)
  • 3. Bottom line Six 4-hydroxycoumarin substances had been synthesized by two-step synthesis. (ap26113.com)
  • 3. A. Jashari, F. Imeri, L. Ballazhi, A. Shabani, B. Mikhova, G. Dräger, E. Popovski and A. Huwiler, Synthesis and cellular characterization of novel isoxazolo- and thiazolohydrazinyldiene-chroman-2,4-diones on cancer and non-cancer cell growth and death, Bioorg. (sciendo.com)
  • Synthesis and Nitration of 7-Hydroxy-4-Methyl. (scipress.com)
  • A Simple Synthesis of 4-Arylchroman-2-ones and 1-Arylbenzo[f]chroman-3-ones, J. Synthesis. (scipress.com)
  • 17] J. Singh, J. Kaur, S. Nayyar, G. Kad, Highly Efficient and Single Step Synthesis of 4-Phenylcoumarins and 3, 4-Dihydro-4-phenylcoumarins Over Montmorillonite K-10 Clay, Under Microwave Irradiation†, J. Chem. (scipress.com)
  • Kashmiri Neog, Dhiraj Dutta, Babulal Das and Pranjal Gogoi* "Coumarin to Isocoumarin: One-pot Synthesis of 3-Substituted Isocoumarins from 4-Hydroxycoumarins and Benzyne Precursors" Org. (neist.res.in)
  • Limi Goswami, Kashmiri Neog, Kumud Sharma and Pranjal Gogoi* "Metal-free cascade reaction of β-halo-α,β-unsaturated aldehyde and 1,4-dithiane-2,5-diol: synthesis of polycyclic 2-formylthiophenes" Org. (neist.res.in)
  • After various optimizations, it was found that the best conditions for the synthesis of the combretacoumarins is the use of the catalyst [(MeCN) 4 Cu]PF 6 , in CH 2 Cl 2 /MeOH with 2,6-lutidine as an additive, at 50 o C. Results from a reactivity comparison between PhN 3 and 4-azidocoumarin under the aforementioned reaction conditions showed that PhN 3 is more reactive. (cuny.edu)
  • 1. Y. Zhou, T. Kijima, S. Kuwahara, M. Watanabe, T. Izumi, Synthesis of ethyl 5-cyano-6-hydroxy-2-methyl-4-(1-naphthyl)-nicotinate. (ac.ir)
  • Orally Active antimalarials: Synthesis and Antimalarial Assessment of New bis-1, 2, 4-trioxanes. (banasthali.org)
  • The simplest synthetic molecule in the 4-hydroxycoumarin class is warfarin, in which the aromatic 3-position substituent is a simple phenyl group. (wikipedia.org)
  • The rodenticide chemicals are sometimes incorrectly referred to as "coumadins" rather than 4-hydroxycoumarins (Coumadin is a brandname for warfarin). (wikipedia.org)
  • Pharmaceutical examples of 4-hydroxycoumarin pharmaceuticals include: acenocoumarol dicoumarol ethyl biscoumacetate phenprocoumon warfarin Compounds in this class have also been used as pesticides, specifically rodenticides. (wikipedia.org)
  • [4] Warfarin was initially used as a rodenticide, but made the transition to pharmaceutical. (wikipedia.org)
  • [4] It is recommended that the effects of warfarin typically be monitored by checking prothrombin time (INR) every one to four weeks. (wikipedia.org)
  • [4] Many other medications and dietary factors can interact with warfarin, either increasing or decreasing its effectiveness. (wikipedia.org)
  • [4] [5] The effects of warfarin may be reversed with phytomenadione (vitamin K 1 ), fresh frozen plasma , or prothrombin complex concentrate . (wikipedia.org)
  • Warfarin (4-hydroxycoumarins) is an indirect anticoagulant. (differencebetween.net)
  • 18. Hagan E. C., Radomski J. L. The toxicity of 3-(acetonyl benzyl)-4-hydroxycoumarin (warfarin) to laboratory animals. (prolekare.cz)
  • It is a second-generation 4-hydroxycoumarin derivative and vitamin K antagonist , often called a "super- warfarin " for its added potency and tendency to accumulate in the liver of the poisoned organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • [4] A high INR predisposes patients to an increased risk of bleeding, while an INR below the therapeutic target indicates the dose of warfarin is insufficient to protect against thromboembolic events. (gutenberg.org)
  • Warfarin and related 4-hydroxycoumarin -containing molecules decrease blood coagulation by inhibiting vitamin K epoxide reductase , an enzyme that recycles oxidized vitamin K 1 to its reduced form after it has participated in the carboxylation of several blood coagulation proteins, mainly prothrombin and factor VII . (gutenberg.org)
  • Despite being labeled a vitamin K antagonist , [4] warfarin does not antagonize the action of vitamin K 1 , but rather antagonizes vitamin K 1 recycling, depleting active vitamin K 1 . (gutenberg.org)
  • Application of Aryllead (IV) Derivatives to the Preparation of 3-Aryl-4-hydroxy-l-benzopyran-2-ones. (springer.com)
  • A rapid and green procedure has been introduced for the preparation of tetrahydrochromeno[4,3-b]chromene-6,8-dione derivatives in the presence of magnesium perchlorate. (scielo.org.za)
  • 1 A number of tetra-hydrochromeno[4,3-fc]chromene-6,8-dione derivatives have been synthesized utilizing one-pot three-component reactions. (scielo.org.za)
  • 7-10 However, these methods for preparing tetrahydrochromeno [4,3 -b ]chromene-6,8-dione derivatives have not been entirely satisfactory and involve some disadvantages such as long reaction times and use of organic solvents. (scielo.org.za)
  • Six book 4-hydroxycoumarin derivatives were rationally synthesized, verified, and seen as a molecular docking using crystal HIV-1 protease. (ap26113.com)
  • Experimental data on some nonpeptidic chemicals4-hydroxycoumarins (Amount 1) and 4-hydroxypyran derivatives inhibiting HIV-1 PR, support this notion [4]. (ap26113.com)
  • Right here, several fresh syntheses are shown, followed with molecular docking tests using crystal enzyme and natural activity evaluation of book and guaranteeing 4-hydroxycoumarin derivatives. (ap26113.com)
  • It really is popular that some 4-hydroxycoumarin derivatives are integrase inhibitors. (ap26113.com)
  • The tests described within this paper broaden the sooner reported types that 4-hydroxycoumarin derivatives could provide as book nonpeptidic PIs. (ap26113.com)
  • A nitro coumarin derivatives has been synthesized via nitration of 7-hydroxy-4-methyl coumarin wich was synthesized via Pechmann condensation resorcinol with a β-ketoester using Amberlyst-15 as a green and efficient catalyst and by caring out the reaction of resorcinol and ethyl acetoacetate (with 1: 1 mol ratio) in the presence of 0.2 g of Amberlyst-15 at 110°C under solvent-free conditions. (scipress.com)
  • Analysis also revealed that the coefficients of the N 3 (the terminal nitrogen atom) of one of the coumarin derivatives, 4-azido-7-methoxy-2 H -chromen-2-one, and PhN 3 , were negative with the latter having a more negative charge. (cuny.edu)
  • 5. S. A. Rodroguez, M. A. Nazareno, M. T. Baumgartner, Effect of different C3-aryl substituents on the antioxidant activity of 4-hydroxycoumarin derivatives. (ac.ir)
  • 4-Hydroxycoumarins belong to a class of vitamin K antagonist (VKA) anticoagulant drug molecules derived from coumarin by adding a hydroxy group at the 4 position to obtain 4-hydroxycoumarin, then adding a large aromatic substituent at the 3-position (the ring-carbon between the hydroxyl and the carbonyl). (wikipedia.org)
  • Although 4-hydroxycoumarin itself is not an anticoagulant, it is an important fungal metabolite from the precursor coumarin, which is also not an anticoagulant, and its production leads to further fermentative production of the natural anticoagulant dicoumarol. (wikipedia.org)
  • The coumarin molecule is changed through the addition of certain chemical groups into a substance called 4-hydroxycoumarin, which can in turn be transformed into drugs with anticoagulant properties. (wisegeek.com)
  • 2-6 There are a few reports on coupling of 4-hydroxy-coumarin, aldehydes, and cyclic 1,3-diketone compounds. (scielo.org.za)
  • 4. S. Chen, M. Cho, K. Karlsberg, D. Zhou and Y. Yuan, Biochemical and biological characterization of a novel anti-aromatase coumarin derivative, J. Biol. (sciendo.com)
  • The mechanism of the formation of O 4 -(benzotriazolyl) derivative of 4-hydroxycoumarin has been investigated using 31 P NMR, and results indicate that a coumarin-derived phosphonium ion intermediate is formed en route to the O 4 -(benzotriazolyl)coumarin derivative. (cuny.edu)
  • Faeces and blood were collected for bromadiolone titration, and blood-clotting tests were performed to monitor fox health daily during 10 days and then every 3-4 days until the end of the experiment (D28). (nih.gov)
  • Vitamin K is a true antidote for poisoning by these antirodenticide 4-hydroxycoumarins such as bromadiolone. (cursivenewyork.com)
  • The primary mechanism of the 4-hydroxycoumarin drugs is the inhibition of vitamin K epoxide reductase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Based on the common mechanistic pathway of the Knoevenagel and Michael reaction, 18,19 we propose a reasonable mechanism involving the protonic acid-catalyzed reaction of aryl glyoxal 2 with 4-hydroxycoumarin ( 1 ), as depicted in Scheme 2 . (scielo.org.za)
  • Some authors have broadened the definition of the Michael addition to essentially refer to any 1,4-addition reaction of α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds. (wikipedia.org)
  • New transition metal complex of Cobalt(III) of the ligand ( E )-3-(1-(2-aminoethylimino)ethyl)-4-hydroxy-2H-chromen-2-one, derived from condensation of ethylene diamine with 3-acetyl-4-hydroxy-chromene-2-one have been synthesized by reaction of cobalt(III) salt and the ligand, in amounts equal to metal-ligand molar ratio of 1:2. (scirp.org)
  • Ethyl 2-(4-Nitrobenzylidene)-3-Oxobutanoate (2) [10] Light crystals. (ap26113.com)
  • Substances found in many plants, containing the 4-hydroxycoumarin radical. (drugbank.ca)
  • The identification of Dicoumarol in 1940 is the precursor of the drug class known as 4-Hydroxycoumarin. (wikipedia.org)
  • The 4-hydroxycoumarin known as bishydroxycoumarin, or dicoumarol, can be formed through natural or artificial methods. (wisegeek.com)
  • Among the analogues of vitamin K antagonists, dicoumarol, which may be considered as bridge substituted dimers of 4-hydroxycoumarin, is a naturally occurring anticoagulant. (scielo.org.za)
  • Effect of the 7-substituent in 7-amino-4-chloro-3-(isothioureidoalkoxy)isocoumarins on inhibitory and anticoagulant potency. (scirp.org)
  • belongs to the class of organic compounds known as 4-hydroxycoumarins. (hmdb.ca)
  • It is an organic compound (4-hydroxycoumarins). (differencebetween.net)
  • 6] S. Kirkiacharian, D. T. Thuy, S. Sicsic, R. Bakhchinian, R. Kurkjian, T. Tonnaire, Structure-activity relationships of some 3-substituted-4-hydroxycoumarins as HIV-1 protease inhibitors, J. Il Farmaco. (scipress.com)
  • Positive serum brodifacoum test results in 4 of 5 requested patients contributed to confirmatory diagnosis. (bvsalud.org)
  • International conference on "New Emerging Trends in Chemistry" A satellite conference of 3rd Indo-German Conference on modeling Chemical and Biological (Re) activity on, Rajasthan on March3-4, 2013. (banasthali.org)
  • The 10,10-dimethyl-7-phenyl-10,11-dihydrochromeno[4,3- b ] chromene-6,8(7 H,9H )-dione was synthesized by the condensation of 4-hydroxycoumarin, 5,5-dimethyl-1,3-cyclohexanedione (dimedone) and benzaldehyde in the presence of Mg(ClO 4 ) 2 as a catalyst. (scielo.org.za)
  • This is due to the high reactivity of the 3-position of 4-hydroxycoumarins. (scielo.org.za)
  • 13 In this regard, we found that the condensation between 4-hydroxycoumarin ( 1 ) and aryl glyoxals 2 in the presence of catalytic amounts of p-toluenesulfonic acid (p-TSA) in water under reflux produces new and known dicoumarols 3 ( Scheme 1 ). (scielo.org.za)
  • The trans -chelating bis(oxazoline) ligand ( R , R )-4,6-dibenzofurandiyl-2,2′-bis(4-phenyloxazoline) [( R , R )-DBFOX/Ph] coordinates metal ions to give C 2 -symmetric complexes which effectively catalyze a variety of asymmetric reactions. (rsc.org)
  • 2020 Apr 3;12(4) - 'No associations were found between total intake of polyphenols and BC risk. (qualitycounts.com)
  • 4] C. J. Wang, Y. J. Hsieh, C. Y. Chu, Y. L. Lin, T. H. Tseng, Inhibition of cell cycle progression in human leukemia HL-60 cells by esculetin, J. Cancer Lett. (scipress.com)
  • Anticoagulant Activity and Structure in The 4-Hydroxycoumarin Group, J. Biol. (scipress.com)
  • The terms oxa-Michael reaction and aza-Michael reaction have been used to refer to the 1,4-addition of oxygen and nitrogen nucleophiles, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • Microwave irradiation (140°C, 4 bar) accelerates the reaction greatly as compared to its thermal counterpart. (eurekaselect.com)
  • From comparison with the results depicted in Table 3 , it was found that Mg(ClO 4 ) 2 is the most efficient catalyst with respect to reaction time, temperature and yield of the product ( Table 3 ). (scielo.org.za)
  • An isothermal change at 77 K of the absorption spectrum of electron localized at 4 K in glassy 1-propanol revealed the elementary steps responsible for the spectral shift from IR to the visible region: the rapid shift (from 1800 to 1650 nm) and decay of the IR peak were followed by a gradual shift (from 800 to 580 nm) and an increase of the visible peak. (go.jp)
  • Proton abstraction from protonated base (or solvent) by the enolate 4 to 5 is the final step. (wikipedia.org)
  • α (°) = 70.102(4), β (°) = 86.049(4), γ (°) = 82.497(4), Z = 2, and its structure consists of isolated [Co(III)(C 13 H 13 N 2 O 3 ) 2 ] + complex cations with distorted octahedral geometry, ClO - 4 counter anions, acetone solvent and water molecules. (scirp.org)
  • To examine the reusability of Mg(ClO 4 ) 2 under solvent-free conditions, after each run, the catalyst residue was washed with hot CH 2 Cl 2 and reused. (scielo.org.za)
  • Furthermore, a series of regioisomeric methylated 4-hydroxycoumarins were synthesised, tested and found to be equally effective as bis-nucleophiles in the Pd-AA cascade with both acyclic and cyclic bis-electrophiles. (nzresearch.org.nz)
  • In CA-4 the trimethoxyarene moiety plays a crucial role in its carcinopreventive effect. (cuny.edu)
  • Initially, we explored the catalytic efficiency of Mg(ClO 4 ) 2 and the other Lewis acids such as MgSO 4 , MgBr 2 MgCl 2 and LiClO 4 . (scielo.org.za)
  • We investigated the generality of this reaction by using, dimedone 1, 4-hydroxycoumarin 2, and various aromatic aldehydes under the optimized conditions ( Table 2 ). (scielo.org.za)
  • The original Willgerodt conditions found a use in converting aliphatic aldehydes and ketones to the amides in poor to moderate yields (eqs 4-7). (paperplane.io)
  • To optimize the reaction conditions, dimedone 1 (1 mmol), 4-hydroxycoumarin 2 (1 mmol) and benzaldehyde 3 (1 mmol) were used in the presence of Mg(ClO 4 ) 2 under different conditions. (scielo.org.za)
  • MGS0039 (3-(3,4-dichlorobenzyloxy)-2-amino-6-fluorobicyclo-[3.1.0]hexane-2,6-dicarboxylic acid) has been identified as a potent and selective antagonist for metabotropic glutamate receptors. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Combretastatin A-4 (CA-4) is a microtubule-binding agent that has potent cytotoxic effects against human cell lines. (cuny.edu)
  • As such, these compounds form the most important and widely used subset of vitamin K antagonist drugs, but other such drugs exist which do not have the 4-hydroxycoumarin structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Entries 4,10,12 and 14 in Table 2 are new compounds. (scielo.org.za)
  • Psoralen compounds are synthesized which have substitutions on the 4, 4', 5', and 8 positions of the psoralen, which permit enhanced binding to nucleic add of pathogens. (google.ca)
  • In particular compounds with primary aminoalkyl substitutions on the 4' or 5' positions of psoralen are used to inactivate pathogens in blood products such as platelets. (google.ca)
  • Significant cell viability decrease in comparison with the effect of doxorubicin alone and the reference 4-hydroxycoumarin was observed when combination treatment comprising doxorubicin and the title compounds was applied. (sciendo.com)