4-Hydroxycoumarins: Substances found in many plants, containing the 4-hydroxycoumarin radical. They interfere with vitamin K and the blood clotting mechanism, are tightly protein-bound, inhibit mitochondrial and microsomal enzymes, and are used as oral anticoagulants.Benzoin: A white crystalline compound prepared by condensation of benzaldehyde in potassium cyanide and used in organic syntheses. This should not be confused with benzoin gum from STYRAX.Pathology, Veterinary: The field of veterinary medicine concerned with the causes of and changes produced in the body by disease.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Magnesium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain magnesium as an integral part of the molecule.Surgical Procedures, Minor: Surgery restricted to the management of minor problems and injuries; surgical procedures of relatively slight extent and not in itself hazardous to life. (Dorland, 28th ed & Stedman, 25th ed)Cattle Diseases: Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.Melilotus: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE.Warfarin: An anticoagulant that acts by inhibiting the synthesis of vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors. Warfarin is indicated for the prophylaxis and/or treatment of venous thrombosis and its extension, pulmonary embolism, and atrial fibrillation with embolization. It is also used as an adjunct in the prophylaxis of systemic embolism after myocardial infarction. Warfarin is also used as a rodenticide.Metabolomics: The systematic identification and quantitation of all the metabolic products of a cell, tissue, organ, or organism under varying conditions. The METABOLOME of a cell or organism is a dynamic collection of metabolites which represent its net response to current conditions.Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.Alberta: A province of western Canada, lying between the provinces of British Columbia and Saskatchewan. Its capital is Edmonton. It was named in honor of Princess Louise Caroline Alberta, the fourth daughter of Queen Victoria. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p26 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p12)British Columbia: A province of Canada on the Pacific coast. Its capital is Victoria. The name given in 1858 derives from the Columbia River which was named by the American captain Robert Gray for his ship Columbia which in turn was named for Columbus. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p178 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p81-2)Genomics: The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.Health Records, Personal: Longitudinal patient-maintained records of individual health history and tools that allow individual control of access.Academies and Institutes: Organizations representing specialized fields which are accepted as authoritative; may be non-governmental, university or an independent research organization, e.g., National Academy of Sciences, Brookings Institution, etc.Biography as Topic: A written account of a person's life and the branch of literature concerned with the lives of people. (Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed)BiographyNeurology: A medical specialty concerned with the study of the structures, functions, and diseases of the nervous system.Stroke: A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)Protein C Deficiency: An absence or deficiency in PROTEIN C which leads to impaired regulation of blood coagulation. It is associated with an increased risk of severe or premature thrombosis. (Stedman's Med. Dict., 26th ed.)Necrosis: The pathological process occurring in cells that are dying from irreparable injuries. It is caused by the progressive, uncontrolled action of degradative ENZYMES, leading to MITOCHONDRIAL SWELLING, nuclear flocculation, and cell lysis. It is distinct it from APOPTOSIS, which is a normal, regulated cellular process.Drug Eruptions: Adverse cutaneous reactions caused by ingestion, parenteral use, or local application of a drug. These may assume various morphologic patterns and produce various types of lesions.Anticoagulants: Agents that prevent clotting.Neurosciences: The scientific disciplines concerned with the embryology, anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, pharmacology, etc., of the nervous system.Amyloid: A fibrous protein complex that consists of proteins folded into a specific cross beta-pleated sheet structure. This fibrillar structure has been found as an alternative folding pattern for a variety of functional proteins. Deposits of amyloid in the form of AMYLOID PLAQUES are associated with a variety of degenerative diseases. The amyloid structure has also been found in a number of functional proteins that are unrelated to disease.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Protease Inhibitors: Compounds which inhibit or antagonize biosynthesis or actions of proteases (ENDOPEPTIDASES).Amyloid beta-Peptides: Peptides generated from AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES PRECURSOR. An amyloid fibrillar form of these peptides is the major component of amyloid plaques found in individuals with Alzheimer's disease and in aged individuals with trisomy 21 (DOWN SYNDROME). The peptide is found predominantly in the nervous system, but there have been reports of its presence in non-neural tissue.Psychoanalysis: The separation or resolution of the psyche into its constituent elements. The term has two separate meanings: 1. a procedure devised by Sigmund Freud, for investigating mental processes by means of free association, dream interpretation and interpretation of resistance and transference manifestations; and 2. a theory of psychology developed by Freud from his clinical experience with hysterical patients. (From Campbell, Psychiatric Dictionary, 1996).Neurosurgery: A surgical specialty concerned with the treatment of diseases and disorders of the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral and sympathetic nervous system.Vitamin K Epoxide Reductases: OXIDOREDUCTASES which mediate vitamin K metabolism by converting inactive vitamin K 2,3-epoxide to active vitamin K.Vitamin K: A lipid cofactor that is required for normal blood clotting. Several forms of vitamin K have been identified: VITAMIN K 1 (phytomenadione) derived from plants, VITAMIN K 2 (menaquinone) from bacteria, and synthetic naphthoquinone provitamins, VITAMIN K 3 (menadione). Vitamin K 3 provitamins, after being alkylated in vivo, exhibit the antifibrinolytic activity of vitamin K. Green leafy vegetables, liver, cheese, butter, and egg yolk are good sources of vitamin K.Vitamin K 1: A family of phylloquinones that contains a ring of 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone and an isoprenoid side chain. Members of this group of vitamin K 1 have only one double bond on the proximal isoprene unit. Rich sources of vitamin K 1 include green plants, algae, and photosynthetic bacteria. Vitamin K1 has antihemorrhagic and prothrombogenic activity.Mixed Function Oxygenases: Widely distributed enzymes that carry out oxidation-reduction reactions in which one atom of the oxygen molecule is incorporated into the organic substrate; the other oxygen atom is reduced and combined with hydrogen ions to form water. They are also known as monooxygenases or hydroxylases. These reactions require two substrates as reductants for each of the two oxygen atoms. There are different classes of monooxygenases depending on the type of hydrogen-providing cosubstrate (COENZYMES) required in the mixed-function oxidation.Vitamin A: Retinol and derivatives of retinol that play an essential role in metabolic functioning of the retina, the growth of and differentiation of epithelial tissue, the growth of bone, reproduction, and the immune response. Dietary vitamin A is derived from a variety of CAROTENOIDS found in plants. It is enriched in the liver, egg yolks, and the fat component of dairy products.Vitamin K Deficiency: A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN K in the diet, characterized by an increased tendency to hemorrhage (HEMORRHAGIC DISORDERS). Such bleeding episodes may be particularly severe in newborn infants. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1182)Psoralens: Linear furanocoumarins which are found in many PLANTS, especially UMBELLIFERAE and RUTACEAE, as well as PSORALEA from which they were originally discovered. They can intercalate DNA and, in an UV-initiated reaction of the furan portion, alkylate PYRIMIDINES, resulting in PHOTOSENSITIVITY DISORDERS.Virus Inactivation: Inactivation of viruses by non-immune related techniques. They include extremes of pH, HEAT treatment, ultraviolet radiation, IONIZING RADIATION; DESICCATION; ANTISEPTICS; DISINFECTANTS; organic solvents, and DETERGENTS.Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Ficusin: A naturally occurring furocoumarin, found in PSORALEA. After photoactivation with UV radiation, it binds DNA via single and double-stranded cross-linking.PUVA Therapy: Photochemotherapy using PSORALENS as the photosensitizing agent and ultraviolet light type A (UVA).Methoxsalen: A naturally occurring furocoumarin compound found in several species of plants, including Psoralea corylifolia. It is a photoactive substance that forms DNA ADDUCTS in the presence of ultraviolet A irradiation.Blood Platelets: Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.ThiophenesSolar Energy: Energy transmitted from the sun in the form of electromagnetic radiation.Organophosphonates: Carbon-containing phosphonic acid compounds. Included under this heading are compounds that have carbon bound to either OXYGEN atom or the PHOSPHOROUS atom of the (P=O)O2 structure.Phosphorous Acids: Inorganic derivatives of phosphorus trihydroxide (P(OH)3) and its tautomeric form dihydroxyphosphine oxide (HP=O(OH)2). Note that organic derivatives of phosphonic acids are listed under are ORGANOPHOSPHONATES.Vinyl CompoundsThiadiazolesVinyl Chloride: A gas that has been used as an aerosol propellant and is the starting material for polyvinyl resins. Toxicity studies have shown various adverse effects, particularly the occurrence of liver neoplasms.

Laboratory evaluation of WBA 8119 as a rodenticide for use against warfarin-resistant and non-resistant rats and mice. (1/71)

Feeding tests were carried out in the laboratory to evaluate WBA 8119 as a potential new rodenticide against wild common rats (Rattus norvegicus), ship rats (R. rattus) and house mice (Mus musculus). The results obtained are compared with data previously obtained for difenacoum, another member of the same series of 4-hydroxycoumarin anticoagulants. With warfarin-resistnat and non-resistant common rats, complete kills were obtained using a concentration of 0-0005% for 2 days, or 0-001% for 1 day: a 1-day test at 0-0005% killed 6 out of 10 and 17 out of 20 of the two types respectively. At 0-0005% complete kills of resistant ship rats were obtained after 2 days exposure and of resistant house mice after 1 day, but at 0-002% for 2 days there was some survival. Non-resistant ship rats and house mice were all killed after 2 days feeding on 0-002% bait. In 2-day palatability tests, R. norvegicus showed no significant aversion to the poison at 0-002% and 100% mortality was obtained. The poison was significantly unpalatable to R. rattus at 0-005% and to M. musculus at 0-005% and 0-002%, although with the last species these concentrations gave complete kills. It is concluded that WBA 8119 has greater activity than other known anticoagulants against the three commensal species examined. The laboratory results suggest that concentrations between 0-0005% and 0-002% would be suitable for field use against common rats, and between 0-002% and 0-005% for ship rats and house mice.  (+info)

Trials of the anticoagulant rodenticide WBA 8119 against confined colonies of warfarin-resistant house mice (Mus musculus L.). (2/71)

The efficacy of the newly developed anticoagulant rodenticide WBA 8119 was evaluated against the house mouse (Mus musculus L.) using individual and family groups of warfarin-resistant animals. WBA 8119 at 0-002%, 0-005% and 0-01% in pinhead oatmeal bait gave complete kills of mice in 'no-choice' feeding tests carried out in cages and small pens. In replicated 21-day treatments on families of mice confined in larger pens conditioned to feeding on plain foods, the overall mortalities obtained using the three formulated poison baits were 71/72, 62/63 and 57/57 respectively. The results of the WBA 8119 toxicity tests are considered in relation to previous findings on other anticoagulant rodenticides, particularly difenacoum. In equivalents tests, WBA 8119 performed better than difenacoum. The data thus suport the laboratory findings that WBA 8119 is the most active anticoagulant so far tested for the control of warfarin-resistant house mice.  (+info)

Methylation of 4-hydroxycoumarin with diazomethane. (3/71)

4-Hydroxycoumarin was methylated with diazomethane. A mixture of 4-methoxycoumarin and 2-methoxychromone was separated chromatographically.  (+info)

Determination of coumarin-type anticoagulants in human plasma by HPLC-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry with an ion trap detector. (4/71)

BACKGROUND: Coumarin-type anticoagulants are used for the long-term treatment and prevention of thromboembolic disorders. The identification of these drugs is crucial in patients with an increased prothrombin time of unknown origin. The aim of this study was to develop a sensitive and specific method for the simultaneous determination of phenprocoumon, acenocoumarol, and warfarin in human plasma by HPLC-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. METHODS: After addition of the internal standard, p-chlorowarfarin, plasma samples were extracted using Oasis MCX solid-phase extraction cartridges. The compounds were separated on a Symmetry C18 column (Waters) with a mobile phase of acetonitrile-1 g/L formic acid (75:25 by volume) at a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min. RESULTS: Extraction and separation of the three drugs and the internal standard were accomplished in 9 min. The overall extraction efficiency was >89% for all three compounds. The limits of detection were 1 microg/L for phenprocoumon and warfarin and 10 microg/L for acenocoumarol. Regression analysis of the calibration data revealed good correlation (r(2) >or=0.995) for all compounds. Within-run accuracies for quality-control samples were +/- 1% to 7% of the target concentration, with CVs <9%. CONCLUSIONS: The proposed method enables the unambiguous identification and quantification of phenprocoumon, warfarin, and acenocoumarol in both clinical and forensic specimens. This method combines a new, rapid solid-phase extraction procedure with an extremely fast chromatographic analysis, which is especially advantageous for clinical laboratories.  (+info)

Acquired coagulopathy due to anticoagulant rodenticide poisoning. (5/71)

A 35-year-old woman was admitted to hospital because of epistaxis, hematomas, and metrorrhagia. Laboratory data indicated severe coagulopathy with prolonged prothrombin time and decreased serum concentrations of vitamin K-dependent clotting factors II, VII, IX, and X. The patient denied taking any oral anticoagulants. She was given transfusions of red blood cells, fresh frozen plasma (1,180 mL) and phytomenadione daily for 6 weeks (total dose 550 mg), which normalized the coagulation factors concentration. After all other possible causes of acquired coagulopathy had been excluded, rodenticide poisoning was suspected on the basis of her epidemiologic history. The patient was a war refugee from Bosnia and Herzegovina. During her absence, the troops of United Nations Protection Force performed rodent extermination in and around her house. History data and therapeutic effects suggested that the coagulopathy had been caused by prolonged exposure to long-acting anticoagulant rodenticide. This could also explain the need for protracted phytomenadione therapy.  (+info)

Brodifacoum toxicosis in two neonatal puppies. (6/71)

Eight out of a litter of 13 puppies were either born dead or died within 48 hours of birth. Three puppies that died shortly after birth were necropsied. Two puppies had hemorrhage in the thoracic and peritoneal cavities, intestinal serosa, and meninges. The third puppy was smaller than the other two puppies but did not have detectable hemorrhage. Brodifacoum, a second-generation coumarin anticoagulant, was detected in livers from the two puppies with hemorrhage. The dam did not have clinical signs of coagulopathy before or subsequent to whelping. The owners were confident that the dog had not been exposed to rodenticide for at least 4 weeks before whelping. A presumptive diagnosis of in utero brodifacoum toxicity was made. To the authors' knowledge this is the first time a second-generation coumarin anticoagulant has been detected in the liver of a newborn animal. This case is also unique because the dam was unaffected, suggesting that fetuses are more susceptible to brodifacoum toxicity than adult animals.  (+info)

Electrooxidation of iodide in the presence of 4-hydroxycoumarin: application to a simple coulometric titration of 4-hydroxycoumarin. (7/71)

The electrochemical oxidation of iodide ion in the presence of 4-hydroxycoumarin (1) was studied using cyclic voltammetry and controlled-potential coulometry. The result indicates that the resulting iodine takes part in a halogenation reaction and reacts with 4-hydroxycoumarin (1). According to the obtained results, a new and simple coulometric titration method with potentiometric end-point detection for the determination of 4-hydroxycoumarin (1) is presented. In the presented method, 2-200 micromol of 4-hydroxycoumarin (1) was successfully determined.  (+info)

A 44-year-old woman with hematemesis and cutaneous hemorrhages as a result of superwarfarin poisoning. (8/71)

The authors present the case of a 44-year-old American Indian woman with hematemesis, spontaneous cutaneous hemorrhages, and multiple ecchymoses. Coagulation factor analyses demonstrated both prolonged prothrombin time (PT, >40 s) and prolonged partial thromboplastin time (PTT, >120 s). Measurement of the serum level of brodifacoum (37 ng/mL), one of the superwarfarin agents commonly used in rodenticides, confirmed poisoning as the cause of the patient's symptoms. Substantial amounts of fresh frozen plasma and vitamin K were required to obtain normal coagulation parameters and maintain these parameters over a 3-week inhospital period. Oral administration of vitamin K (100 mg daily) maintained normal PT (14.1 s), PTT (33.0 s), and international normalized ratio (INR, 1.48) at 2 weeks after the patient was discharged from the hospital. By 2 months postdischarge, PT, PTT, and INR returned to elevated levels because of patient noncompliance with the prescribed tapering vitamin K regimen.  (+info)

Common Name :Brodifacoum Chemical name: 3-[3-(4-bromo[1-1-biphenyl]-4-yl)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-1-napthalenyl]-4-hydroxy-2H-1-benzopyran-2-one Formula:C30H23O4Br Molecular Weight:527.4 Specifications Item Spcification Brodifacoum ≥98%...
Brodifacoum is an anti-coagulant which causes internal bleeding and may eventually cause death. It may be circulated or stored for up to 4 weeks in the fatty tissues and some organs, particularly the liver, and will be transferred to any animal which ingests the poisoned carcasses. While brodifacoum has not been shown to enter plants, it will remain in dry soil for several days after contact. Rabbits and native mammals may also be tempted by poison baits. Predatory and scavenging animals such as birds of prey, tawny frogmouths, fish and some small mammals may be adversely affected by the presence of this chemical in the food chain if they consume enough of animals that have died from anticoagulants. ...
A derivative of dicoumarol, C25H16O6, Mr, = 412·41, orthorhombic, P212121, a = 7·959(2), b = 12·865 (3), c = 18·606 (6) Å, V = 1905·3 (22) Å3, Z = 4, Dx = 1.44 g cm-3, λ(Mo Kα) = 0·71073 Å , μ = 0·965 cm-1, F(000) = 856, T = 293 K, final R = 0·042 for 2031 observations. The 4-hydroxycoumarins are intramolecularly hydrogen bonded between hydroxyls and carbonyls, O···O separations are 2·624 (3) and 2·718 (3)Å, a scheme which imparts a dis-symmetry to the otherwise achiral molecule and underlies packing in a polar space group.
After Stalins stroke, Beria claimed to have killed him. This aborted a final purge of Old Bolsheviks Anastas Mikoyan and Vyacheslav Molotov for which Stalin had been laying the groundwork in the year prior to his death. Shortly after Stalins death, he announced triumphantly to the Politburo that he had "done [Stalin] in" and "saved [us] all", according to Molotovs memoirs. Notably, Beria never explicitly stated whether he had initiated Stalins stroke or had merely delayed his treatment in the hope he would die (as argued by Sebag-Montefiore and consistent with evidence).[22] Support for the assertion that Stalin was poisoned by Berias associates has been presented from several sources, including Edvard Radzinsky in his biography Stalin and a recent study by Miguel A. Faria in the journal Surgical Neurology International. Warfarin (4-Hydroxycoumarins) is cited as the likely agent; it would have produced the symptoms reported, and administering it into Stalins food or drink was well within ...
After Stalins stroke, Beria claimed to have killed him. This aborted a final purge of Old Bolsheviks Anastas Mikoyan and Vyacheslav Molotov for which Stalin had been laying the groundwork in the year prior to his death. Shortly after Stalins death, he announced triumphantly to the Politburo that he had "done [Stalin] in" and "saved [us] all", according to Molotovs memoirs. Notably, Beria never explicitly stated whether he had initiated Stalins stroke or had merely delayed his treatment in the hope he would die (as argued by Sebag-Montefiore and consistent with evidence).[22] Support for the assertion that Stalin was poisoned by Berias associates has been presented from several sources, including Edvard Radzinsky in his biography Stalin and a recent study by Miguel A. Faria in the journal Surgical Neurology International. Warfarin (4-Hydroxycoumarins) is cited as the likely agent; it would have produced the symptoms reported, and administering it into Stalins food or drink was well within ...
The Challenge: While anticoagulant rodenticides revolutionized the rodent pest control industry, they are hazardous to non-target predatory and scavenging birds on a global scale. Second-generation compounds, like brodifacoum, can have prolonged effects in non-target species that increase toxicity of subsequent exposures. Restrictions on the sale, distribution and packaging of some second- generation anticoagulant rodenticides (e.g., brodifacoum, difethialone, bromadiolone and difenacoum) have been instituted by the US EPA, but do not seem to have successfully reduced exposure and effects in non-target predatory wildlife. The risk posed by anticoagulant rodenticides to wildlife is inadequately characterized. Data are needed to better evaluate the threat of these compounds to non-target organisms, and new safer compounds are needed to mitigate risk. The Science: Data on the toxicity of chlorophacinone, diphacinone and brodifacoum have been collected in American kestrels and Eastern screech-owls ...
Anticoagulant rodenticides , Anticoagulant rodenticides , کتابخانه دیجیتال دانشگاه علوم پزشکی اصفهان
Why the Fuss?" Explained. First-generation anticoagulant rodenticides (FGARs) were developed in the 1940s and are considered "multiple dose" rodenticides, because they typically require multiple feedings by a rodent over time to obtain a lethal dose. Second-generation anticoagulant rodenticides (SGARs) were developed in response to resistance issues reported with the FGARs, primarily warfarin. CA Department of Pesticide Regulation registered bromadiolone in 1982, brodifacoum in 1983, difethialone in 1997, and difenacoum in 2008. In general, SGARs are more acutely toxic than FGARs because they are designed to be lethal after a single feeding instead of after multiple doses. Since it takes several days for a rodent to die after feeding on an SGAR, rodents may feed on the SGAR bait multiple times before dying. As a result, rodent carcasses may contain residues of SGARs many times over the lethal dose. If a non-target predator feeds on a rodent carcass containing a lethal concentration of an SGAR, ...
Anticoagulant rodenticide (AR) poisoning has emerged as a significant concern for conservation and management of non-target wildlife. The purpose for these toxicants is to suppress pest populations in agricultural or urban settings. The potential of direct and indirect exposures and illicit use of ARs on public and community forest lands have recently raised concern for fishers (Martes pennanti), a candidate for listing under the federal Endangered Species Act in the Pacific states. In an investigation of threats to fisher population persistence in the two isolated California populations, we investigate the magnitude of this previously undocumented threat to fishers, we tested 58 carcasses for the presence and quantification of ARs, conducted spatial analysis of exposed fishers in an effort to identify potential point sources of AR, and identified fishers that died directly due to AR poisoning. We found 46 of 58 (79%) fishers exposed to an AR with 96% of those individuals having been exposed to one or
Bromadiolone is a potent anticoagulant rodenticide. It is a second-generation 4-hydroxycoumarin derivative and vitamin K antagonist, often called a "super-warfarin" for its added potency and tendency to accumulate in the liver of the poisoned organism. When first introduced to the UK market in 1980, it was effective against the populations that had become resistant to the first generation anticoagulants. The product may be used both indoors and outdoors for rats and mice. It is classified as an extremely hazardous substance in the United States as defined in Section 302 of the U.S. Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (42 U.S.C. 11002), and is subject to strict reporting requirements by facilities which produce, store, or use it in significant quantities.[1] ...
Australia. The most common forms of mouse and rat poison contain products that make it impossible to clot blood. These so-called anticoagulant rodenticides are seriously poisonous to cats and dogs. Pets that ingest anticoagulant rodenticides will be symptom-free for several days, but then will start to suffer from bleeding that can be fatal. Very small quantities of the most modern poisons are sufficient to kill a pet. Click the link above for more information.. This leads to a question. Say a mouse consumes anticoagulant rodenticide. After a few days it will become weak and lethargic-and therefore much less likely to escape from a hunting house cat. If the cat catches and consumes the mouse, will the poison in the mouses system affect the cat?. This phenomenon is called secondary intoxication. It is a big concern in theory. Fortunately, in practice it appears to be a rare event.. There is little doubt that if a mouses stomach is full of poison when a cat consumes it then the cat will be ...
Read "Diversity of the parasite fauna of Mus musculus L. (Rodentia, Muridae) from different habitats, Russian Journal of Ecology" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Overdose of the oral anticoagulant warfarin (Coumadin), or drug interactions with warfarin, can lead to toxicity. Similarly, toxicity can result from exposure to superwarfarins, which are long-acting anticoagulants used in rodenticides.
S pervarfarin zehirlenmesi genellikle, fark edilmeyen k k dozlarda kronik maruziyete ba l olarak geli ir ve kolayl kla yanl tan konarak ciddi komplikasyonlara yol a abilir. Tan , uyumlu bir hikaye varl nda kan ve idrar rneklerinin s v kromatografisi ve tandem kitle spektrometresi (LC-MS/MS) tekni i ile analiz edilmesi yoluyla do rulanabilir. zellikle de, tedavi s resine karar verilebilmesi i in tekrarlanan laboratuvar l mlerinin yap lmas n n m mk n olmad durumlarda, aylar boyunca y ksek dozda g nl k oral K vitamini verilmesi gereklidir. Bu yaz da, ticari rodentisitlerle tekrarlayan mesleksel deri maruziyetine ba l olarak s pervarfarin zehirlenmesi geli en bir olgu sunulmaktad r.. Anahtar Kelimeler: Kazan lm koag lopatiler, K ...
Title:Microwave Assisted, 4-dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP) Mediated, Onepot, Three-component, Regio- and Diastereoselective Synthesis of Trans- 2,3-dihydrofuro[3,2-c]coumarins. VOLUME: 1 ISSUE: 2. Author(s):Nanabhau B. Karanjule and Shriniwas D. Samant. Affiliation:Organic Chemistry Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Institute of Chemical Technology, N.M. Parekh Road, Matunga, Mumbai 400 019, India.. Keywords:2-Bromo-1-phenylethanone, 4-dimethylaminopyridine, 4-hydroxycoumarins, diastereoselective reaction, green synthesis, microwave assisted synthesis, multicomponent reaction, N-ylides, regioselective reaction, one-pot reaction, threecomponent reaction, trans-2, 3-dihydrofuro[3, 2-c]coumarins.. Abstract:The regio- and diastereoselective base catalyzed one-pot, multicomponent reaction of 4-hydroxycoumarin, aldehyde, and 2-bromo-1-phenylethanone giving trans 2,3-dihydrofuro[3,2-c]coumarins is greatly accelerated by a combination of 4-(N,N-dimethylamino)pyridine (DMAP) and microwave ...
Regulatory changes in the use of some second-generation anticoagulant rodenticides in parts of North America may result in expanded use of first-generation anticoagulant rodenticides (FGARs). Recent toxicological studies with captive raptors have demonstrated that these species are considerably more sensitive to the FGAR diphacinone than traditional avian wildlife test species (mallard, bobwhite). We have now examined the toxicity of the FGAR chlorophacinone (CPN) to American kestrels fed rat tissue mechanically amended with CPN, or rat tissue containing biologically-incorporated CPN, for 7 days. Nominal CPN concentrations in these diets were 0.15, 0.75, and 1.5 μg/g food wet weight, and actual CPN concentration in diets were analytically verified as being close to target values. Food intake was consistent among groups, body weight fluctuated by less than 6%, exposure and adverse effects were generally dose-dependent, and there were no dramatic differences in toxicity between mechanically-amended and
KOMBAT RATS & MICE BLOCKS contains brodifacoum, a second generation single feed anti-coagulant rodenticide. Anti-coagulants prevent blood clotting and thins the blood of target animals. It requires only a very small dose in single meal to control rodents unlike some other rodenticides that need to be taken in successive doses to be effective. Rats and mice that have become resistant to the older warfarin containing rodenticides will easily be controlled with this product as it requires a minute quantity to kill the target. It contains a bittering agent to deter domestic animals and young children from eating it. The blocks are blue and that makes it unattractive to birds. Each block is also engraved with the words "RAT POISON" on them to act as a deterrent to human beings. APPLY KOMBAT RODENTICIDES ONLY IN A BAIT STATION TO PREVENT EXPOSURE OF PEST AND CHILDREN TO THE BAITS!. Available in blister packs. Registration No. L6425 - ACT 36 OF 1947. View product & MSDS information ...
Canada and the US have started to restrict the use of rodent poisons based on blood thinners, as new research shows that the toxins accumulate in birds of prey and other animals.. Anticoagulant rodenticides (ARs) work like the drug Warfarin on humans, which itself was used as a first generation AR, and was less lethal and less prone to bioaccumulation than its second generation successors.. Second generation ARs seem to act like pesticides such as DDT, which build up in animals that prey on target pests. "It seems that every time anybody goes out and gets a bunch of dead birds of prey and looks at their livers, they find surprisingly high incidence of these compounds," says John Elliott, an ecotoxicologist at Environment Canada in Delta.. In a study of 130 birds of prey found dead near Vancouver, virtually all of them had residues of at least one second generation AR in their livers. The researchers presented their findings at the 2012 meeting of the North American division of the Society of ...
Warfarin-induced skin necrosis (or, more generally, Anticoagulant-induced skin necrosis) is a condition in which skin and subcutaneous tissue necrosis (tissue death) occurs due to acquired protein C deficiency following treatment with anti-vitamin K anticoagulants (4-hydroxycoumarins, such as warfarin). Warfarin necrosis is a rare but severe complication of treatment with warfarin or related anticoagulants. The typical patient appears to be an obese, middle aged woman (median age 54 years, male to female ratio 1:3). This drug eruption usually occurs between the third and tenth days of therapy with warfarin derivatives. The first symptoms are pain and redness in the affected area. As they progress, lesions develop a sharp border and become petechial, then hard and purpuric. They may then resolve or progress to form large, irregular, bloody bullae with eventual necrosis and slow-healing eschar formation. Favored sites are breasts, thighs, buttocks and penis, all areas with subcutaneous fat. In ...
Gerd Symptoms Weakness For Acidic reflux, it is broken down into GERD and LPR. Classic GERD symptoms include heartburn. LPR symptoms are more likely throat clearing, a lump in the. The likely culprit is a pulled muscle, but if the area is also swollen and warm, and symptoms get worse even after you elevate your leg, it could. All about rodent poison in pets with emphasis on. - Rodent Poison (Rat Bait Poisoning) in Pets: information about rodenticide poisoning in animals, focusingparticularly on anti-coagulant rodenticides (e.g. warfarin, bromadiolone, brodifacoum).. I think its pretty obvious to someone who has studied biochemistry and nutrition why the alkaline diet is silly, and that the main health benefits people perceive from this diet are due to the fact that they are increasing their intake of nutrient-rich greens and vegetables.. Large, Painful, Small Lump Below, Under, in. - Lower esophageal muscles may also constrict in attempt to stop acid leakage from the stomach. Hard or Painful ...
This reagent is a fluorogenic substrate suitable for the continuous determination of cytochrome P450 mixed-function monooxygenases. The product of the reaction is the fluorescent compound 3-cyano-7-hydroxycoumarin (Product No. C 2737). This property has been utilized to determine the activity of CYP1A by measuring the rate of dealkylation of 3-Cyano-7-ethoxycoumarin to this fluorescent product . Fluorescence of 3-cyano-7-hydroxycoumarin occurs at neutral pH with excitation and emission at 408 and 450 nm, respectively . Fluorescent reaction product detection is at least 50-fold more sensitive than that of the product of alkyl resorufin oxidation because of greater rate of turnover of 3-Cyano-7-ethoxycoumarin . The ability to continuously monitor the enzyme reaction at pH 7 is derived from the lower pKa of the 3-cyano-7- hydroxycoumarin product compared to that for 7-ethoxycoumarin . 3-Cyano-7-ethoxycoumarin is a suitable substrate for three of the five principal cytochrome P450 drug metabolizing ...
Generic Persantine is a coumarin anticoagulants. Generic Persantine is indicated as an adjunct to coumarin anticoagulants in the prevention of postoperative thromboembolic complications of cardiac valve replacement
INDONESIA:. Kepadatan penduduk menjadi masalah yang serius yang dihadapi oleh negara-negara berkembang, khususnya di Indonesia. Berdasarkan Data Pusat Statistik pertumbuhan penduduk Indonesia pada tahun 2009 menunjukkan bahwa peningkatan jumlah penduduk mencapai lebih kurang 2.000.000 jiwa setiap tahunnya. Dengan alasan inilah, pemerintah mengambil langkah-langkah untuk menekan jumlah penduduk Indonesia, salah satu progam yang dilakukan oleh pemerintah adalah mengadakan progam Keluarga Berencana (KB). Pemanfaatan tanaman obat sebagai alat kontrasepsi sangat diperlukan, karena selain mudah didapatkan, murah juga aman untuk di konsumsi. Salah satu tanaman yang berpotensi sebagai penghambat spermatogenesis adalah beluntas (P. indica Less) karena daun beluntas mengandung senyawa aktif berupa alkaloid, tanin dan flavonoid yang dapat menghambat spermatogenesis melalui kontrol hormonal.. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui apakah ada pengaruh pemberian ekstrak daun beluntas (P. indica Less) ...
The interaction of the racemates and enantiomers of phenprocoumon and warfarin with human serum albumin was investigated using equilibrium dialysis and circular dichroism measurements. It was found that the human serum albumin molecule binds phenprocoumon stereospecifically, with about a 2-fold higher association constant for the S(-)isomer. The stereospecificity of phenprocoumon binding is more pronounced than that of the warfarin enantiomers. Binding to human serum albumin induces Cotton effects in the enantiomers of phenprocoumon and warfarin, which superimpose upon the intrinsic Cotton effects of the drugs. The induced Cotton effects are similar in sign for the two phenprocoumon isomers, but dissimilar for the warfarin isomers. Therefore it is concluded that the orientation of the 4-hydroxycoumarin nucleus is the same for the phenprocoumon isomers, but different for the warfarin isomers, when bound to human serum albumin. This can explain differences in the stereoselective binding of the two ...
Rodenticides are chemical poisons used against rodents. Most all rodenticides are also harmful to humans if swallowed or absorbed through the skin in high enough quantities.
Neosorexa Gold are ready-to-use rodenticide grain baits for the control of brown and black rats including strains resistant to other anticoagulants.
Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) can be found in some forms of rodenticides. Most baits contain 0.075% cholecalciferol. A single toxic dose is 0.5-3 mg/kg (or
Formal title: Docket Number [EPA-HQ-OPP-2006-0955; FRL-8104-7] Rodenticides; Proposed Risk Mitigation Decision; Notice of Availability EPA is proposing
During a professional career spanning more than 50 years, the American physician, biochemist, and teacher Armand J. Quick made numerous important contributions to medicine, particularly in the field of hemostasis. His hippuric acid test (1933) was the first quantitative test of liver function. In 1935 he reported the technique most closely associated with his name, the prothrombin time test, which was used by other investigators in the isolation of vitamin K and the identification of the coumarin anticoagulants. Later the test came into wide use for the control of anticoagulant therapy. Quick studied hereditary bleeding disorders and devised tests for their identification. He also uncovered several basic principles of normal hemostasis. He was among the first to draw attention to the anticoagulant properties of aspirin, and at the end of his career postulated the existence of a vitamin besides C and K that is essential for hemostasis. ...
4) Rodenticide: another common toxicity to be aware of for both dogs and cats. The cold weather drives rats and mice into our homes and without question this is undesirable. In an effort to get rid of these unwanted visitors many people will put out poison. Keep this in mind, rodenticides dont just kill rodents, they will kill any mammal that ingests it. Most rat poison is formulated to be tasty, attracting both rodents and our pets. If you must put a rodenticide in your house or on your property make sure your animals cant get to it, remembering that the crafty rodent often will move the poison. Also warfarin based products are best since these are at least treatable if caught in time ...
The Edinburgh Artery Study recruited 1,592 people (809 men and 783 women) ages 55-74 years in 1988 from a general northern European white population sample. Full details of recruitment, data collection at baseline in 1988-1989, methods of follow-up, and definitions of outcomes have been previously described (19,20). The study population was selected to provide a population-based sample by random identification of eligible individuals in 5-year age bands from 11 general practices across the city of Edinburgh that provide primary care for populations of varying socioeconomic status. The response rate was 65%. Respondents were found to be representative of the wider population, as comparisons with a random sample of 20% of nonrespondents did not detect substantial bias (19). Baseline data were collected during participants attendance at a research clinic using a combination of questionnaire and examination data. Complete mortality follow-up was achieved by flagging for deaths at the National ...
Find rat bait and rat poison such as Contrac Blox, Contrac Pellets, WeatherBlok XT, Fastrac Pellets, Fastrac Blox, Final Blox, Eatons 2G and Eatons Nectus
Ondracek K, Bandouchova H, Hilscherova K, Kovacova V, Linhart P, Miksikova M, Mlcakova V, Osickova J, Pohanka M, Skochova H, Pikula J. Mixture toxicity of microcystin-LR, paraoxon and bromadiolone in Xenopus laevis embryos. Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2015 Jan; 36(Suppl 1): 114-119 ...
EARLIER this year, Britain was rocked by claims that genetically modified foods are dangerous. Arpad Pusztai, a biochemist who used to work at the Rowett R
Bromethalin rodenticide toxicity, more commonly referred to as rat poisoning, occurs when a dog becomes exposed to the chemical bromethalin, a toxic substance that is found in a variety of rat and mice poisons.
satellite colonies are small colonies which grow around the true colonies containing the resistance gene. they are non-resistant colonies which grow in a circular pattern around the resistant ones. Resistance is mediated through beta-lactamase, which is produced by the resistant colony in the center. therefore satellite colonies where able to grow on place where the ampicillin is degraded (around the resistant colony ...
Looking for online definition of rodenticide poisoning in the Medical Dictionary? rodenticide poisoning explanation free. What is rodenticide poisoning? Meaning of rodenticide poisoning medical term. What does rodenticide poisoning mean?
Phenprocoumon (marketed under the brand names Marcoumar, Marcumar and Falithrom) is a long-acting oral anticoagulant drug, a derivative of coumarin. It is a vitamin K antagonist that inhibits coagulation by blocking synthesis of coagulation factors II, VII, IX and X. It is used for the prophylaxis and treatment of thromboembolic disorders (thrombosis/pulmonary embolism). It is the standard coumarin used in Germany. Phenprocoumon is a 4-hydroxycoumarin and inhibits vitamin K epoxide reductase.[1] ...
A new fluorometric method has been developed to measure the relative rates of the 7-ethoxycoumarin O-deethylase activities in periportal and pericentral regions of the liver lobule. The method utilizes a pair of micro-light guides constructed from two strands of 80 µm-diameter glass optical fibers. The micro-light guides are placed in periportal and pericentral regions on the surface of the perfused liver. The increase in tissue fluorescence due to 7-hydroxycoumarin formation from 7-ethoxycoumarin is measured in periportal and pericentral regions by illuminating tissue with light at 360 ± 50 nm and measuring fluorescence at 450 ± 50 nm. Since the steady-state tissue fluorescence due to 7-hydroxycoumarin monitored with a large light guide was found to be directly proportional to the steady-state rate of 7-ethoxycoumarin O-deethylation, the sublobular fluorescence of 7-hydroxycoumarin measured by micro-light guides following infusion of 7-ethoxycoumarin allows one to estimate sublobular rates ...
Drugs given into muscles are absorbed very quickly because there is a good blood supply to this area. Injection into muscle tissue is not without risk since there are many important structures, eg arteries, veins and nerves running through the muscle tissue. It is important to check that the needle has not accidentally been placed in a blood vessel (particularly an artery) in the muscle, before giving the injection. Once the needle has been inserted into the muscle gentle suction should be applied to the syringe to ensure that blood does not flow back into the needle. One of the disadvantages of giving treatment deep into muscle tissue is that it is difficult to know what is going on at the injection site after the injection has been given. Traumatic technique can result in bruising and, in animals with a bleeding disorder (eg anticoagulant rodenticide poisoning), haemorrhage can be severe after intramuscular injection. However, since the site of injection is hidden these complications may go ...
FIFRA: Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act, Basic Practice SeriesbyBergeson & Campbell, P.C. covers Xprt.Core.Models.keywordModel, Xprt.Core.Models.keywordModel, Xprt.Core.Models.keywordModel.
Collapse IMPORTANT SAFETY INFORMATIONExpand TRIGLIDE® administration is contraindicated for patients with known hypersensitivity to fenofibrate or any of the formulation components, severe renal dysfunction, gallbladder disease, and/or hepatic dysfunction, including primary biliary cirrhosis and unexplained persistent liver function abnormality. Caution should be exercised when coumarin anticoagulants are given in conjunction with TRIGLIDE®. The combined use of TRIGLIDE® and HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors should be avoided unless the benefit of furthering alteration in lipid levels is likely to outweigh the increased risk of this drug combination. The most commonly observed side effects seen in fenofibrate therapy are abnormal liver function test results, respiratory disorders and abdominal pain.. INDICATION. TRIGLIDE® is indicated as adjunctive therapy to diet for the reduction of LDL-C, total-C, triglycerides, and apo B in adult patients with primary hypercholesterolemia or mixed ...
Catechin and epicatechin were analysed in the peel of six apple cultivars (three resistant and three non-resistant to apple scab). Two methods of analytical sample preparation following extraction...
Coumarins: Biology, Applications and Mode of Action predominantly focuses on the parent compound, coumarin, and its main metabolite in humans, 7-hydroxycoumarin. It describes in detail every facet of these compounds including history, toxicology, chemistry, metabolism, analysis, clinical, veterinary and other applications, their roles as immunomodulatory agents and speculates on their mode of action.
PROJECT GOAL: Develop methods to reduce invasive and native rodent damage with both lethal and nonlethal approaches.. Objectives:. 1. Develop and test new potential rodenticides to replace ineffective rodenticides and products no longer available.. 2. Develop and test new delivery systems for chemical delivery to rodents.. 3. Develop and test barrier systems for rodent and rabbit damage reduction.. 4. Develop and test repellents for rodent and rabbit damage reduction.. 5. Develop and test fertility control materials for rodent and rabbit population management.. 6. Review current and potential strategies and approaches to rodent and rabbit damage reduction.. 7. Provide service assistance to stakeholders through consultations.. ...
Norbormide [5-(α-hydroxy-α-2-pyridylbenzyl)-7-(α-2-pyridylbenzylidene)-5-norbornene-2,3-dicarboximide] (NRB), an existing but infrequently used rodenticide, is known to be uniquely toxic to rats but relatively harmless to other rodents and mammals. However, one major drawback of NRB as a viable rodenticide relates to an evolutionary aversion developed by the rat leading to sub-lethal dosing due to ...
provided that:. "(a) Except as otherwise provided in the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act [this subchapter], as amended by this Act and as otherwise provided by this section, the amendments made by this Act [see Short Title note set out below] shall take effect at the close of the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 21, 1972], provided if regulations are necessary for the implementation of any provision that becomes effective on the date of enactment, such regulations shall be promulgated and shall become effective within 90 days from the date of enactment of this Act.. "(b) The provisions of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act [this subchapter] and the regulations thereunder as such existed prior to the enactment of this Act shall remain in effect until superseded by the amendments made by this Act and regulations thereunder.. "(c)(1) Two years after the enactment of this Act the Administrator shall have promulgated regulations providing for the ...
R. J. Sokol, Bruno, R. S., and Traber, M., "Vitamin E and vitamin K metabolism", in Physiology of the Gastrointestinal Tract, San Diego, CA: Elsevier, 2006, pp. 1773-1789. ...
R. J. Sokol, Bruno, R. S., and Traber, M., "Vitamin E and vitamin K metabolism", in Physiology of the Gastrointestinal Tract, San Diego, CA: Elsevier, 2006, pp. 1773-1789. ...
Alan Sugar has tweeted a photoshopped picture showing Labour leader Jeremy Corbyn alongside Hitler, behind a craven attempt to pass it off as jest. We will not reproduce the vile image here. Sugars disgraceful tweet prompted an avalanche of outrage, with even John Mann - who is not given to restraint in his accusations -…
Learn about new anticoagulants that have entered the clinical routine and the implications they may have for clinicians and laboratories.
In order to identify the forces involved in the binding and to understand the mechanism involved, equilibrium and kinetic studies were performed on the binding of the winged bean acidic lectin to human erythrocytes. The magnitudes of delta S and delta H were positive and negative respectively, an observation differing markedly from the lectin-simple sugar interactions where delta S and delta H are generally negative. Analysis of the sign and magnitudes of these values indicate that ionic and hydrogen bonded interactions prevail over hydrophobic interactions resulting in net -ve delta H (-37.12 kJ.mol-1) and +ve delta S (14.4 J.mole-1 K-1 at 20 degrees C), thereby suggesting that this entropy driven reaction also reflects conformational changes in the lectin and/or the receptor. Presence of two kinds of receptors for WBA II on erythrocytes, as observed by equilibrium studies, is consistent with the biexponential dissociation rate constants (at 20 degrees C K1 = 1.67 x 10(-3) M-1 sec-1 and K2 = ...
(610) Warfarin is one of a group of chemicals (rodenticides) that are used to control rat and mice populations. Poisoning by these substances is common in pigs due to accidental...
A highly palatable and fast acting anti-coagulant rodenticide designed for professional use. Highly effective against both rats and mice. Visit www.environmentalscience.bayer.com.au to download label and SDS ...
For-Bid is given in the food to discourage horses, dogs and cats from eating feces. Simply sprinkle on food, and after the food is consumed, this will impart a forbidden and unpalatable taste to the feces.
1) Food poisoning The saprophytic bacteria cause decay of our food and make it unpalatable. Toxins are produced as a result of bacterial growth on the foodstuffs. Due to this, food poisoning occurs.
House mice do not hibernate; instead, they gather food and store it for later. Mice are commensal rodents who depend on man for food and...
Warfarin is a modern slow-kill repeat-bait poison and among the safest and most effective rat poisons in common use. Warfarin was discovered after Canadian cattle ate improperly stored sweet clover and began to hemorhage and die. In 1930 the active ingredient "coumarin" was isolated from this clover. In 1940 the Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation patented a coumarin compounded called Warfarin (named after the foundations initials). In 1952 warfarin was first used as an anticoagulant on humans, and today it (or some other coumarin derivative) is used by patients with artificial heart valves or who are in danger of thrombosis (blood clots). When used as a rodenticide, warfarin should be set out in feed-on-demand bait stations for at least two weeks. Other anticoagulants that work about the same as warfarin are brodifacoum, bromadiolone, chlorophacinone, diphacinone, fumarin, pival, and PMP. Some rat and mouse populations have become resistant to warfarin and other anti-coagulants -- a good ...
Environmental Health Criteria, No. 166: Methyl Bromide . World Health Organization, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland, 1995. 324 pages, softbound. (English, with summaries in French and Spanish.) Sw. Fr. 47/US $42.30. In developing countries: Sw. Fr. 32.90. Order no. 1160166. Environmental Health Criteria, No. 175: Anticoagulant Rodenticides . World Health Organization, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland, 1995. 121 pages, softbound. (English, with summaries in French and Spanish.) Sw. Fr. 21/US $18.90. In developing countries: Sw. Fr. 14.70. Order no. 1160175. WHO Model Prescribing Information: Drugs Used in Parasitic Diseases . Second Edition. World Health Organization, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland, 1995. 146 pages (available in English; French and Spanish in preparation) Sw. fr. 35/US $31.50. In developing countries: Sw. fr. 24.50. Order no. 1152343. Fever and Antipyresis: The Role of the Nervous System , by Keith E. Cooper. 182 pages; hardback. Cambridge University Press, New York, 1995. $49.95 Le Ver de Guinee en
Thallium sulfate has been widely employed as a rodenticide and ant killer. It is odorless and tasteless,giving no warning of its presence. Its use, however, has been prohibited in the U.S. since 1975 as a household insecticide and rodenticide. The electrical conductivity of thallium sulfide changes with exposure to infrared light, and this compound is used in photocells. Thallium bromide-iodide crystals have been used as infrared optical materials. Thallium has been used, with sulfur or selenium and arsenic, to produce low melting glasses with become fluid between 125 and 150C. These glasses ...
Free business and product listings on Port Elizabeth, Uitenhage and Despatchs definitive Product and Business Directory in the W - From Walls to Wrought Iron/Weedkillers (see Insecticides, Rodenticides, Fungicides and Weedkillers)/ category
The broader impact/commercial potential of this Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) project is to establish a bio-based manufacturing process for the production of the commodity chemical 4-hydroxycoumarin (4-HC) in an economical and renewable way. 4-HC is a direct synthetic precursor used to manufacture widely used oral anticoagulants, such as warfarin, acenocoumarol, and phenprocoumon. In a .... ...
0015] In examples where the rodenticide composition includes at least one solvent, the at least one solvent can be, for example, 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene (CH2═CFCF3), also known as HFO-1234yf or simply 1234yf; trans-1,1,1,3-tetrafluoropropene, also known as HFO-1234ze or simply 1234ze; cis-1-chloro-3,3,3-trifluoropropene, also known as cis-HCFO-1233zd or simply cis-1233zd; trans-1-chloro-3,3,3-trifluoropropene, also known as trans-HCFO-1233zd or simply trans-1233zd; or a combination thereof. Rodenticide compositions of the present technology can include 2-chloropentafluoropropene in an amount from about 10% by weight of the composition to about 90% by weight of the composition, and the at least one solvent in an amount from about 90% by weight of the composition to about 10% by weight of the composition. In some examples, the amount of 2-chloropentafluoropropene is greater than the amount of the at least one solvent. In such examples, rodenticide compositions can include ...
... is an oral anticoagulant of the coumarin series, synthesized and developed in the Geigy laboratoires in the late 1960s and sold in the United States under the brand name of Sintrom. It lowers the prothrombin level of the blood. It is a white crystalline powder without taste and odor and has a molecular weight of 353. It is soluble in alkaline solutions but only slightly soluble in water and organic solvents. Chemically, acenocoumarol is 3-(alpha-acetonyl-4-nitrobenzyl)-4-hydroxycoumarin. ...
The preparation of hepatocytes using the two-stage perfusion technique usually involves the use of collagenase (CII) alone or in combination with dispase (C/D) or trypsin inhibitor (CA/TI) as digestion enzymes. The effect of CII, C/D and CA/TI on cell viability, yield, cytochrome P450 mediated oxidation of testosterone, glucuronidation and sulfation of 7-hydroxycoumarin, glutathione content, glutathione-S-transferase activity and glutathione-conjugation capacity of hepatocytes has been assessed. Cytochrome P450 mediated oxidation of testosterone was significantly (p , 0.05) decreased with CII isolated hepatocytes (81.7 +/- 3.3 nmol/10(6) cells, mean +/- S.E.M., n = 3), compared with those isolated using CA/TI (96.6 +/- 1.9 nmol/10(6) cells) or C/D (95.1 +/- 2.1 nmol/10(6) cells). In contrast, glutathione conjugation of the non-specific substrate 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene was significantly (p , 0.05) increased with CII isolated hepatocytes (56.9 +/- 5.9 nmol/10(6) cells, mean +/- S.E.M., n = ...
The other study, which appears in Molecular Ecology, examines which genes turn on or off, or ramp up or down, in bobcats that test positive for poison. Led by former UCLA wildlife biologist Devaughn Fraser and UCLA conservation genomicist Alice Mouton, that research revealed that the rat poison caused changes to nearly 1,800 genes.. Previous research has examined the effects on rats of rodenticides, including anticoagulants, which are used as blood thinners in humans but can be deadly in large doses. But the new work is the first to present a detailed immune profile of bobcats and the first gene-expression study of the effects of rodenticide on any species.. The new studies began when Serieys, now a wildlife biologist and postdoctoral researcher at UC Santa Cruz and the Institute for Communities and Wildlife in Africa at University of Cape Town, joined a research team that in the early 2000s found a link between rat poison and a fatal outbreak of mange in bobcats in Southern California. Their ...
Certain classes of antibiotics can no longer eliminate a resistant strain of common skin-covering bacteria. This new strain can now cause infections as it grows amidst the non-resistant strains that are killed by the antibiotic. Although some observers claim this represents upward evolutionary development, amazing results from an in-depth analysis suggest that these bacteria were designed to make such changes and that evolution had nothing to do with it.. All cells must make proteins, and for this they use protein-building apparatuses called ribosomes. A ribosome is very large compared to most biomolecules and consists of modular portions of proteins and nucleic acids. In normal, non-resistant populations of the bacteria under investigation, an enzyme called RlmN readies the ribosome by adding a methyl group-in essence, a methane molecule-to carbon number two on the ribosomes 2503rd nucleic acid. The antibiotic called methicillin kills these bacteria by clogging their ribosomes at exactly that ...
0.75 - 1.5 oz/acre (0.375 - 0.75 oz ai/acre). Field trials show good efficacy of the above materials against the sugarcane aphid. Both have the ability to penetrate leaves through translaminar movement and kill aphids feeding on the undersides.. Maximum efficacy will be achieved by application in a large volume of water, preferably 20 gallons per acre or GPA (minimum 10 GPA) by ground or 5 GPA from the air. Laboratory trials indicate that Transform (sulfoxaflor) is relatively safe for important aphid predators such as lady beetles and lacewings and thus can be considered IPM-compatible. This is true to a lesser extent for Sivanto (flupyradifurone), but various trials have indicated a much longer period of residual activity for this material.. Both insecticides have annual application limits and growers are advised to rotate them if follow-up applications are required. Note also that preharvest intervals will be a factor to consider when treating late-season infestations, so applicators should ...
DISCUSSION. Experimental dosing of cattle with N. gariepina reproduced the nephrotoxic syndrome that was observed in the field cases. The clinical, post-mortem and histological features were similar to those noted in the field cases and confirmed acute renal failure resulting from ingestion of the shruband corroborate the findings of a previous study that described the pathophysiology and pathology in sheep following dosing with of N. gariepina1,6,13. Feed deprivation was confirmed to be a predisposing factor for poisoning to develop. This phenomenon had been noted in the field outbreak, where poisoning only occurred after the animals were penned for 36-48 h and then released into camps where N. gariepina grew abundantly6. Although the plant is highly toxic, poisoning in cattle was not reported on the farms before these outbreaks, nor afterwards, even though the plants remained within the camps grazed by the cattle13. During the laboratory trial, the 1st dosing on D 9, without prior starvation, ...
What they found were tiny leeches about 1.5 cm (a bit above half an inch) long. Approximately one in every six shrimp were found to have leeches on them, and each infected shrimp was carrying between one to three leeches. Seeing as this is a new species, at this stage very little is known about its biology except what can be inferred based on what we know of a related species - M. borealis - which has been studied in slightly more details. It is unclear whether M. californiensis (and related species) merely hitch-hike on the shrimp and use it to carry them to potential hosts, or if they in fact feed on the shrimp. In laboratory trials on M. borealis, the leeches refused to feed on any of the fishes that they were presented with, and none of the leeches were found to have fish blood cells in their gut. It is possible that Mysidobdella as a genus specialise in feeding on mysid shrimps. If that is indeed the case, then Mysidobdella would be the only marine leech known to feed on the blood of ...
The Logan Band & Color Guard is a member of the WBA (Western Band Association) and is comprised of some 290 students, approximately 230 musicians and 60 color guard. The Band and Guard compete as a marching unit during the fall season, entering several field show competitions throughout California. The marching season culminates with the WBA Championships, usually held in late November. The James Logan High School Band & Color Guard have been the Western Band Association upper division Sweepstakes Champions seven times since 1997 and are the current (2005) Class 4A/5A WBA Champions. (WBA web site). Recent Honors/Awards. ...
This toxicology elective is designed to provide the student with introductory knowledge of the molecular mechanisms of action and clinical management of poisons. The course will begin with introductory concepts such as history, mechanisms of cell injury and toxicant disposition. The student will then be exposed to the fundamental principles of managing an acutely poisoned patient. Toxicology lectures on each major organ system will prepare students for group presentations. The aims of student presentations will be to achieve a greater understanding of the clinical management of the poisoned patient, and to hone presentation skills. To the extent that is feasible, the course will involve lectures, or other learning experiences, led by external specialists. The scope of poisons that will be discussed is broad, and includes environmental toxins, industrial toxicants, and drugs. Specific agents will include heavy metals, volatile solvents, common plant toxins, rodenticides, and several drugs. ...
This may go off tangent a bit but I think I may have a case of super warfarin toxicity due to the cumulative use of a particular brand of rodenticide over the course of 15 years in one house. I was diagnosed with Osteopenia in the year 2000 after a stress fracture. The Dr was surprised due to my healthy diet and regular aerobic and strength exercises. Do you think there could be some connection? I just moved out of the house and the change in my energy levels is incredible. My belongings made me sick(after the move) until I washed them twice. Any suggestion on who I might contact? I have an appointment with a toxicologist at the end of May but I was also trying to locate testing labs for my belongings but the toxicity may now be gone, but only after 2 months have passed. ...
Plants have evolved highly complex systems of defense against most of their natural enemies (eg, insects, animals). At the very least, these defenses make many plants unpalatable; however, some can be fatal to the inexperienced forager.
While useful info to know, it doesnt really change the way one would consume this delicious purple vegetable. Trying to eat it raw would be tough to chew, an unpalatable taste, and who knows what kind of digestive nightmare (gas? bloating?) would result as your stomach tries to break down its tough and fibrous texture. For this reason, well stick with eating cooked eggplant, but just not rely on it for having much antioxidants! ...
One of the big issues in having a caseload, and accepting natures timing in birth unless there is a clear reason to interrupt the natural processes, is that I have no way of knowing when babies will come. The booking dates on my calendar do not tell me when or in what order the mothers and babies who are important to me as my caseload will make their individual claims on my time and skill. I know I will have periods of waiting, as well as times when several babies are needing to be born. This is beyond my control, and my Christian faith allows me to trust not only that my Heavenly Father cares for me and wants to guide me in all the events in my life, but that each new baby is in Gods care. There are times when I am tired, and I ask God specifically for strength, wisdom, and understanding as I do my work. In a post-Christian society this concept may be unpalatable to some, but its very real to me ...
Rather than suggesting I read his online response "carefully", it would have been far better if Jack Gilliat unequivocally acknowledged and apologised for providing the incorrect url initially. So is it surprising that his own error led to some confusion?. I can now confirm that I have read the relevant GMC Supplement and it only convinces me that the view I originally took about Gilliats criticism is correct. I believe, Gilliats primary argument that a patient should forfeit his/her right to confidentiality (once disclosed publicly) is flawed because in a strict legal sense,the patient is not bound by the confidentiality laws or not a party to any confidentiality-led legal contract with their treating doctors.Is Gilliat seriously contending that both the law and GMC should allow doctors get engaged in a free for all in the press where a patient makes unpalatable allegations, rather than following the due process of law? Has Gilliat forgotten about the existence of medical defence insurers who ...
Opens the Highlight Feature Bar and highlights feature annotations from the FEATURES table of the record. The Highlight Feature Bar can be used to navigate to and highlight other features and provides links to display the highlighted region separately. Links in the FEATURES table will also highlight the corresponding region of the sequence. More... ...
Opens the Highlight Feature Bar and highlights feature annotations from the FEATURES table of the record. The Highlight Feature Bar can be used to navigate to and highlight other features and provides links to display the highlighted region separately. Links in the FEATURES table will also highlight the corresponding region of the sequence. More... ...
May modulate the extracellular space surronding parallel fibers of cerebellar during development. Plays a role in the migration of epidermal cells (By similarity).
In a way, studying the rat is like studying a human. As the leading theme of this lab, ask yourself: for every structure observed in the rat, there is an equivalent structure in your own body what is the structure and where is it located?
tags: vultures, Gyps species, conservation biology, endangered species, veterinary medicine, toxicology, physiology, evolutionary biology, pharmaceutical chemistry, epidemiology, mathematical modeling, researchblogging.org,peer-reviewed research, journal club Only thirty years ago, tens of millions of White-rumped Vultures, Gyps bengalensis, were flying the skies of Asia. They are now classified as Critically Endangered. Image: Marek Jobda / rarebirdsyearbook.com [larger view]…. ...
Digital Morphology account of a juvenile heterozygous house mouse, Mus musculus, featuring CT-generated animations of the whole specimen
Daniel and certain Hebrews are trained in the court of Nebuchadnezzar-They eat plain food and drink no wine-God gives them knowledge and wisdom beyond all others.
Transcribed locus, strongly similar to XP_341579.3 PREDICTED: similar to Serine/threonine-protein kinase RIO3 (RIO kinase 3) [Rattus norvegicus ...
World middleweight champion Felix Sturm has promised Matthew Macklin a rematch after defending his WBA title in controversial fashion.
Vor über eineinhalb Jahren musste Wladimir Klitschko die empfindliche Niederlage gegen Tyson Fury hinnehmen. Am 29. April will er gegen Anthony Joshua im Wembleystadion den vakanten Superchampiontitel der WBA zurückerobern. Im Interview mit der Berliner Morgenpost verrät er, was ihn trotz des hohen Boxeralters von 41 Jahren noch antreibt.
Coumarin (anhydride of o-coumaric acid) is white, crystalline lactone, obtainable naturally from several plants, such as tonka bean, lavender, sweet clover grass, strawberries, and cinnamon, or produced synthetically from an amino acid, phenylalanine. It is the principle of dicumarol which inhibits the hepatic synthesis of the vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors. Coumarin derivatives are used widely as anticoagulants (such as warfarin, -OH group is attached at 4 position) for the treatment of disorders in which there is excessive or undesirable clotting, such as thrombophlebitis, pulmonary embolism, and certain cardiac conditions. Coumarin derivatives are also used as rodenticides due to the property of causing fatal hemorrhaging. Coumarin has the characteristic odour like that of vanilla beans. It is used for the preparation of perfumes, soaps, flavourings. The coumarin nucleus (benzo-2-pyrone) is derived cinnamic acid (phenylacrylic skeleton) in the biosynthesis. Accordingly, the hydroxy ...
Greenriver is one of the leading agrochemical manufacturers and suppliers in China. We are producing both insecticide, herbicide, fungicide, rodenticide, and plant growth regulator, we are also supplying knapsack sprayers and electrical sprayers.
Coumarin is often found in tobacco products and artificial vanilla substitutes, though it has been banned as a food additive in numerous countries since the mid-20th century because it is moderately toxic to the liver and kidneys, with an LD50 of 275 mg/kg - low compared to related compounds. Although only somewhat dangerous to humans, coumarin is a potent rodenticide: rats and other rodents largely metabolize it to 3,4-coumarin epoxide, a toxic compound that can cause internal hemorrhage and death. Humans largely metabolize it to 7-hydroxycoumarin, a compound of lower toxicity. Coumarin was banned as a food additive in the United States in 1978. OSHA considers this compound to be only a lung-specific carcinogen, and "not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans" [2]. Coumarin was banned as an adulterant in cigarettes by tobacco companies in 1997, but due to the lack of reporting requirements to the US Department of Health and Human Services it was still being used as a flavoring ...
There is an arising and concerning issue in the field of bacterial resistance, which is confirmed by the number of deaths associated with drug-resistant bacterial infections. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of antibiotics on Staphylococcus aureus non-resistant strain and strains resistant to cadmium or lead ions. Metal resistant strains were created by the gradual addition of 2 mM solution of metal ions (cadmium or lead) to the S. aureus culture. An increasing antimicrobial effect of ampicillin, streptomycin, penicillin and tetracycline (0, 10, 25, 50, 75, 150, 225 and 300 µM) on the resistant strains was observed using a method of growth curves. A significant growth inhibition (compared to control) of cadmium resistant cells was observed in the presence of all the four different antibiotics. On the other hand, the addition of streptomycin and ampicillin did not inhibit the growth of lead resistant strain. Other antibiotics were still toxic to the bacterial cells. Significant
Pictured Recipe: Quinoa & Chia Oatmeal Mix. Oatmeal is a satisfying, healthy morning meal. Its high in soluble fiber, which may help to lower "bad" LDL cholesterol, and has a healthy amount of protein, both of which will help you feel satisfied. Plus oatmeal is a low-glycemic-index (GI) food-and research suggests that eating a low-GI meal before you exercise may help you burn more fat. For a boost of calcium, make oatmeal with low-fat milk instead of water. Then top it with your favorite fruit to add more fiber and nuts for (filling) healthy fats. Here are cooking instructions for the most common types of oatmeal, plus some of our favorite toppings. Use these instructions to prepare 1 serving of oatmeal or follow package directions. One serving of each type of oatmeal below is about 150 calories and 4 grams of fiber.. ...
The coincidence of the thermal and blast casualty areas emanating from ground zero generates both a zone of dual casualty categories as well as a greatly enhanced mortality and morbidity rate for the geographically impacted areas. Figures 2b and 2d show substantial areas affected by both blast and thermal hazards. The casualty model predicts a zone of mass fires with , 25 cals cm2 for both sizes of nuclear weapons detonations in these simulations. In this area, the fireball generated by the blast, as well as spontaneous incineration of buildings from radiant heat, will generate mass fires that would consume the great majority of the structures above ground. This quantity of thermal energy would be expected to result in virtually complete mortality from thermal injuries alone. For all four cities, for a 550 Kt detonation the model generates a nearly equivalent geographic area for this central , 25 cals cm2 mass fire zone as it does for the blast ring incorporating trauma injuries resulting from ...
Buy or license direct from the photographer this stunning image of : Lesser Crested Tern ( Sterna Bengalensis ) , Tanji , The Gambia
A novel ionic liquid entitled 3-methyl-1-sulfonic acid imidazolium mesylate ([Msim][OMs]) was synthesized, and characterized by studying its FT-IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and mass spectra. This ionic liquid was employed as a dual-functional catalyst for the preparation of bis-coumarins via the one-pot pseudo three-component reaction of 4-hydroxycoumarin (2 eq.) and arylaldehydes (1 eq.) under solvent-free and relatively mild conditions. Owing to dual-functionality of [Msim][OMs] (having acidic and basic sites), it could act as a highly effective catalyst for the reaction. Additionally, an attractive mechanism based on dual-functionality of the catalyst was proposed.
Dear Candie, no, this is not true. It doesn`t make you gaseous. This is just a misconception that oatmeal causes any gas as in reality, there is no proof that oatmeal causes any gas trouble. Oatmeal is a very safe food and doesn`t cause gas complexities however, if it is taken in excess and more than recommended by the doctor, it may cause some health problems and if you drink alcohol while taking oatmeal, there are chances of gas and other problems then. however, in normal cases, no gas is produced by oatmeal. Please talk to doctor in this regard ...
My breasts are freakishly huge, and my stomach is swollen and hard. I was in labor for few hours at residence and did not even notice it. It will drop the rates of pregnancy hormone in your urine. In short: Aand totally abused these things. Other than quenching her common curiosity, she will be able to get to know the precise time for paying a visit to the obstetrician. (I work in a daycare weve had sick kids in my room)Ive been sick off and on for the last 2 weeks. Childrens Risk Mitigation cardiac catheterization and pregnancy To minimize childrens exposure to rodenticide products used in homes, EPA is requiring that all rodenticide bait products available for sale to consumers be sold only in bait stations. She already had is oregano bad for pregnancy children, and was now in her early 40s. 9 kg (25-35 pounds) having a singleton pregnancy. yea. My husband has peripheral neuropathy and we are catheterizaton for a good specialist. I want my mom to be able to share the journey that she ...
Last Thursday evening our Norwich Terrier was fidgety. My wife took him to the vet Friday morning who suspected poisoning. My wife confirmed that a neighbor had placed bromethalin around their motor home. The vet administered charcoal and an anti seizure medication via IV. The vet called later in the afternoon and said he was not able to control the seizures and recommended putting the dog down and said if we really wanted to try to save the dog he would need to be moved to a more well equipped facility - Cornell or Univ of Penn. My wife started the four hour trip to U of P. I was in DC on business and started the drive up to meet her. The dog was admitted to emergency with tremors and seizures and symptoms so far advanced that the vet offered little hope. Again there is not a lot of survival data to go on. Our concern was binding the poison in the dogs system to reduce further damage to the nervous system. We decided on a course of IV lipids to bind the bromethalin. The vet said that they could ...
Last Thursday evening our Norwich Terrier was fidgety. My wife took him to the vet Friday morning who suspected poisoning. My wife confirmed that a neighbor had placed bromethalin around their motor home. The vet administered charcoal and an anti seizure medication via IV. The vet called later in the afternoon and said he was not able to control the seizures and recommended putting the dog down and said if we really wanted to try to save the dog he would need to be moved to a more well equipped facility - Cornell or Univ of Penn. My wife started the four hour trip to U of P. I was in DC on business and started the drive up to meet her. The dog was admitted to emergency with tremors and seizures and symptoms so far advanced that the vet offered little hope. Again there is not a lot of survival data to go on. Our concern was binding the poison in the dogs system to reduce further damage to the nervous system. We decided on a course of IV lipids to bind the bromethalin. The vet said that they could ...
Oatmeal is not only a great, heart-healthy meal, but its also a blank canvas that can be jazzed up with a wide variety of ingredients. While you may not like the taste of regular oatmeal, adding a few key ingredients can go a long away into making oatmeal taste better. Here are some ideas to make this superfood more delicious.. There are a few different kinds of oatmeal, and they can all be used interchangeably with these ideas, just be sure to cook the oats according to the package directions, as they can vary quite widely. For example steel cut oats require 20-30 minutes to cook, but instant rolled oats take just 5 minutes.. ...
Vol., 4, p. 630 Moffett, R. B. (1963). "Methyl γ-Methyl-γ-nitrovalerate". Org. Synth. ; Coll. Vol., 4, p. 652 Horning, E. C.; ... Vol., 4, p. 776 McMurry, J. E.; Melton, J. (1988). "Conversion of Nitro to Carbonyl by Ozonolysis of Nitronates: 2,5- ... Proton abstraction from protonated base (or solvent) by the enolate 4 to 5 is the final step. The course of the reaction is ... A newer definition, proposed by Kohler, is the 1,4-addition of a doubly stabilized carbon nucleophile to an α,β-unsaturated ...
also in the Collective Volume (1963) 4: 478 (PDF)). Jain, P. K.; Makrandi, J. K.; et al. (1982). "A Facile Baker-Venkataraman ... Kalinin, A.V.; Sneckus, V. (1998). "4,6-Dimethoxy-3,7-dimethylcoumarin from Colchicum decaisnei. Total synthesis by carbamoyl ... Regiospecific route to substituted 4-hydroxycoumarins". Tetrahedron Letters. 39 (28): 4995-4998. doi:10.1016/S0040-4039(98) ...
East AJ, Ollis WD, Wheeler RE (1969). "Natural occurrence of 3-aryl-4-hydroxycoumarins. Part I. Phytochemical examination of ...
4 (1): 26-35. Retrieved 27 June 2018.. *^ a b c Laurence DR, Kneebone P (1973). Clinical Pharmacology. Edinburgh, London and ... 5 (4): 262-70. doi:10.1038/sj.tpj.6500313. PMID 15883587.. *^ a b Rieder MJ, Reiner AP, Gage BF, Nickerson DA, Eby CS, McLeod ... Archived from the original on 4 July 2011.. *^ Naumov VP, Brent J (2003). Stalin's last crime: the plot against the Jewish ... 978-1-879284-36-4. .. *^ a b Bates SM, Greer IA, Middeldorp S, Veenstra DL, Prabulos AM, Vandvik PO (February 2012). "VTE, ...
100 (4): 530-547. doi:10.1160/TH08-03-0147. PMID 18841274. Davidson, R. T.; Foley, A. L.; Engelke, J. A.; Suttie, J. W. (Feb ... Blood clotting (coagulation) studies in humans using 45 mg per day of vitamin K2 (as MK-4) and even up to 135 mg per day (45 mg ... All forms of K2 other than MK-4 can only be produced by bacteria, which use these forms in anaerobic respiration. The MK-7 and ... 91 (4): 1761-1768. doi:10.1172/JCI116386. PMC 288156 . PMID 8473516. Holden, R. M.; Morton, A. R.; Garland, J. S.; Pavlov, A.; ...
Section 3.1.4. Retrieved 21 June 2017. Sean C Sweetman (Ed) (2009). Martindale: The Complete Drug Reference (36th ed.). London ... For a more complete list of coumarins used as pharmaceuticals and rodenticides, see the main article on 4-hydroxycoumarins. ... The vitamin K antagonists can cause birth defects (teratogens). Coumarins (more accurately 4-hydroxycoumarins) are the most ...
Shen, Zhen-Lu; He, Xiao-Fei; Hong, Yi-Ming; Hu, Xin-Quan; Mo, Wei-Min; Hu, Bao-Xiang; Sun, Nan, One-pot synthesis of 4- ... Hu, Yi; Ding, Qiuping; Ye, Shengqing; Peng, Yiyuan; Wu, Jie, Rapid access to 4-substituted-pyrones and 2(5H)-furanones via a ... Kang, Fu-An; Murray, William V., Efficient conversion of Biginelli-type 3,4-dihydropyrimidin-2(1H)-ones to pyrimidines via in- ... Peng, Yi-Yuan; Wen, Yanfang; Mao, Xuechun; Qiu, Guanyinsheng, Direct sulfanylation of 4-hydroxycoumarins with thiols in water, ...
... is a coumarin derivative with a hydroxy group at the 4-position. 4-Hydroxycoumarin is an important fungal ... 4-Hydroxycoumarin is biosynthesized from malonyl-CoA and 2-hydroxybenzoyl-CoA by the enzyme 4-hydroxycoumarin synthase. After ... 4-Hydroxycoumarin forms the core of the chemical structure of anticoagulants known collectively as 4-hydroxycoumarins. They ... Liu, B.; Raeth, T.; Beuerle, T. & Beerhues, L. (2010). "A novel 4-hydroxycoumarin biosynthetic pathway". Plant Mol. Biol. 72 (1 ...
64 (5): 490-4. doi:10.2146/ajhp060370. PMID 17322161. Valente, E. J.; Trager, W. F.; Jensen, L. H. (1975). "The crystal and ... 58 (4): 395-401. doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2011.03.031. PMC 3175766 . PMID 21757117. Delaney JA, Opatrny L, Brophy JM, Suissa S (2007 ... 116 (4): 879-890. doi:10.1160/TH16-04-0266. PMID 27488143. Ansell J, Hirsh J, Hylek E, et al. (2008). "Pharmacology and ... 427 (6974): 541-4. doi:10.1038/nature02254. PMID 14765195. Rost S, Fregin A, Ivaskevicius V, Conzelmann E, Hörtnagel K, Pelz HJ ...
4,5-tetrahydro-8-chloro-3-methyl-5-phenyl-1h-3-benzazepin-7-ol MeSH D03.438.079.800 --- 2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-7,8-dihydroxy-1- ... 4,5-dihydro-1-(3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-1h-pyrazol-3-amine MeSH D03.383.129.539.200 --- epirizole MeSH D03.383.129.539.487 ... 4-dihydro-2,6-dimethyl-5-nitro-4-(2-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-, methyl ester MeSH D03.383.725.210 --- dimethindene MeSH D03.383. ... 4,6,7,11b-hexahydro-3-isobutyl-9,10-dimethoxy- MeSH D03.438.834.775 --- sparteine MeSH D03.438.834.850 --- tetrabenazine MeSH ...
90 (4 Pt 2): 671-2. doi:10.1016/S0029-7844(97)00393-1. PMID 11770590. Nalbandian RM, Mader IJ, Barrett JL, Pearce JF, Rupp EC ( ... 116 (4): 444-5. doi:10.1001/archderm.116.4.444. PMID 7369776. Chan YC, Valenti D, Mansfield AO, Stansby G (March 2000). " ... 298 (6668): 233-4. doi:10.1136/bmj.298.6668.233. PMC 1835547 . PMID 2522326. Makris M, Bardhan G, Preston FE (March 1996). " ... 75 (3): 523-4. PMID 8701423. Kiehl R, Hellstern P, Wenzel E (January 1987). "Hereditary antithrombin III (AT III) deficiency ...
... belong to a class of vitamin K antagonist (VKA) anticoagulant drug molecules derived from coumarin by adding ... Although 4-hydroxycoumarin itself is not an anticoagulant, it is an important fungal metabolite from the precursor coumarin, ... The identification of Dicoumarol in 1940 is the precursor of the drug class known as 4-Hydroxycoumarin. See warfarin for this ... The primary mechanism of the 4-hydroxycoumarin drugs is the inhibition of vitamin K epoxide reductase. These compounds are not ...
It is a second-generation 4-hydroxycoumarin derivative and vitamin K antagonist, often called a "super-warfarin" for its added ...
Product 4 in the diagram is the result of that iodine protection. Product 5 was the result of the allylation of product 4. ... In 1834, Kalbrunner isolated 5-methoxypsoralen from bergamot essential oil,[4] hence the common name "bergapten." It was the ... In people who easily sunburn, furanocoumarins can also increase the tolerance of skin to solar radiation.[4] Bergapten was ... InChI=1S/C12H8O4/c1-14-12-7-2-3-11(13)16-10(7)6-9-8(12)4-5-15-9/h2-6H,1H3 ...
"2,4-Dinitrophenol" (PDF). Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved 15 October 2017.. *^ a b Grundlingh, Johann; Dargan, Paul ... 43 (4): 281-285. doi:10.1081/clt-200058946. PMID 16035205.. *^ Horner WD (1941). "A Study of Dinitrophenol and Its Relation to ... 2,4-Dinitrophenol (2,4-DNP or simply DNP) is an organic compound with the formula HOC6H3(NO2)2. It is a yellow, crystalline ... Commercial DNP is used as an antiseptic and as a non-selective bioaccumulating pesticide.[4] It is a chemical intermediate in ...
InChI=1S/C15H16O9/c16-5-10-12(19)13(20)14(21)15(24-10)23-9-3-6-1-2-11(18)22-8(6)4-7(9)17/h1-4,10,12-17,19-21H,5H2/t10-,12-,13+, ... Aesculin is incorporated into agar with ferric citrate and bile salts (bile aesculin agar).[4] Hydrolysis of aesculin forms ... 7-hydroxy-6-{[(2S,3R,4S,5S,6R)-3,4,5-trihydroxy- 6-(hydroxymethyl)-2-tetrahydropyranyl]oxy}-2-chromenone ... InChI=1/C15H16O9/c16-5-10-12(19)13(20)14(21)15(24-10)23-9-3-6-1-2-11(18)22-8(6)4-7(9)17/h1-4,10,12-17,19-21H,5H2/t10-,12-,13+, ...
Ca3(PO4)2 + 8 C → Ca3P2 + 8 CO. The structure of the room temperature form of Ca3P2 has not been confirmed by X-ray ...
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4-Hydroxycoumarins belong to a class of vitamin K antagonist (VKA) anticoagulant drug molecules derived from coumarin by adding ... Although 4-hydroxycoumarin itself is not an anticoagulant, it is an important fungal metabolite from the precursor coumarin, ... The identification of Dicoumarol in 1940 is the precursor of the drug class known as 4-Hydroxycoumarin. See warfarin for this ... The primary mechanism of the 4-hydroxycoumarin drugs is the inhibition of vitamin K epoxide reductase. These compounds are not ...
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4. Epstein-Barr virus and Kaposis sarcoma, herpesvirus/human herpesvirus. by IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of ...
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Dibenzofuran-4,6-bis(oxazoline) (DBFOX). A novel trans-chelating bis(oxazoline) ligand for asymmetric reactions Kennosuke Itoh ... The trans-chelating bis(oxazoline) ligand (R,R)-4,6-dibenzofurandiyl-2,2′-bis(4-phenyloxazoline) [(R,R)-DBFOX/Ph] coordinates ... A new route to substituted furocoumarins via copper-catalyzed cyclization between 4-hydroxycoumarins and ketoximes Tuong A. To ... An organocatalytic asymmetric Mannich reaction for the synthesis of 3,3-disubstituted-3,4-dihydro-2-quinolones Soumendranath ...
Background. Patients with cancer and a first deep venous thrombosis of the leg or pulmonary embolism (venous thromboembolism, VTE) are generally treated with low molecular weight heparin (LMWH)injections for 6 months, since this treatment is associated with a reduced incidence of recurrent VTE compared to vitamin K antagonists (VKA). It is recommended that patients with active malignancy (metastatic cancer and/or ongoing cancer treatment)continue anticoagulant treatment. However, it is unknown whether LMWH is still superior compared to VKA for the long-term anticoagulant treatment.. Aim. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether low-molecular-weight heparin more effectively reduces recurrent VTE compared to vitamin K antagonists in patients with cancer who have already completed 6 to 12 months of anticoagulant treatment because of deep venous thrombosis of the leg or pulmonary embolism.. Hypothesis. The investigators hypothesize that LMWH is more effective compared to VKA in the long-term ...
4-hydroxycoumarins. Substances found in many plants, containing the 4-hydroxycoumarin radical. They interfere with vitamin K ...
Hypervalent Iodine(III) Mediated Tosyloxylation of 4-Hydroxycoumarins.. Xu B, Gao Y, Han J, Xing Z, Zhao S, Zhang Z, Ren R, ... 4.. Increased sulfation of bile acids in mice and human subjects with sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide deficiency ... Refractive Outcomes of 4-Year-old Children after Intravitreal Anti-vascular Endothelial Growth Factor versus Laser ... Transformation of the B-O Units from Corner-Sharing to Edge-Sharing Linkages in BaMBO4 (M = Ga, Al). ...
4.. Surface-defect-rich mesoporous NH2-MIL-125 (Ti)@Bi2MoO6 core-shell heterojunction with improved charge separation and ... Hypervalent Iodine(III)-Mediated Tosyloxylation of 4-Hydroxycoumarins.. Xu B, Gao Y, Han J, Xing Z, Zhao S, Zhang Z, Ren R, ... Nano-zero-valent iron and MnOx selective deposition on BiVO4 decahedron superstructures for promoted spatial charge separation ... Self-Luminescence of Perovskite-Like LaSrGaO4 via Intrinsic Defects and Anomalous Luminescence Analysis of LaSrGaO4:Mn2. ...
4. 19. Details. Adenosine Monophosphate. Adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in ... 4-Hydroxycoumarins. Substances found in many plants, containing the 4-hydroxycoumarin radical. They interfe... more. 5. 30. ...
The 4-hydroxycoumarin known as bishydroxycoumarin, or dicoumarol, can be formed through natural or artificial methods. When ... The coumarin molecule is changed through the addition of certain chemical groups into a substance called 4-hydroxycoumarin, ...
Vol., 4, p. 630 Moffett, R. B. (1963). "Methyl γ-Methyl-γ-nitrovalerate". Org. Synth. ; Coll. Vol., 4, p. 652 Horning, E. C.; ... Vol., 4, p. 776 McMurry, J. E.; Melton, J. (1988). "Conversion of Nitro to Carbonyl by Ozonolysis of Nitronates: 2,5- ... Proton abstraction from protonated base (or solvent) by the enolate 4 to 5 is the final step. The course of the reaction is ... A newer definition, proposed by Kohler, is the 1,4-addition of a doubly stabilized carbon nucleophile to an α,β-unsaturated ...
Extracts were antiproliferative against HeLa and U-937 cells (p , 0.001) from 0.125-4 mg/mL, 24 h. Wild P. palmata and ... Extracts were antiproliferative against HeLa and U-937 cells (p , 0.001) from 0.125-4 mg/mL, 24 h. Wild P. palmata and ...
Asacoumarin A (4). [. α. ]. D. 20. +4.2 (c 0.0058, MeOH); UV (acetonitrile/H2O) λmax 203, 325 nm; 1H- and 13C-NMR: ... Asacoumarin A (4) was found most active against P. falciparum K1 (IC50 1.3 μM), while less pronounced activities were observed ... The solvent systems used included CH2Cl2/MeOH (65:35) with a few drops of NH4OH for the methanol fraction; CH2Cl2/MeOH (72:28) ... This is also apparent from the 13C-NMR assignment of the methyl groups at position C-4′, which occur around 28-29 ppm and 15-16 ...
4 (1): 26-35. Retrieved 27 June 2018.. *^ a b c Laurence DR, Kneebone P (1973). Clinical Pharmacology. Edinburgh, London and ... 5 (4): 262-70. doi:10.1038/sj.tpj.6500313. PMID 15883587.. *^ a b Rieder MJ, Reiner AP, Gage BF, Nickerson DA, Eby CS, McLeod ... Archived from the original on 4 July 2011.. *^ Naumov VP, Brent J (2003). Stalins last crime: the plot against the Jewish ... 978-1-879284-36-4. .. *^ a b Bates SM, Greer IA, Middeldorp S, Veenstra DL, Prabulos AM, Vandvik PO (February 2012). "VTE, ...
also in the Collective Volume (1963) 4: 478 (PDF)). Jain, P. K.; Makrandi, J. K.; et al. (1982). "A Facile Baker-Venkataraman ... Kalinin, A.V.; Sneckus, V. (1998). "4,6-Dimethoxy-3,7-dimethylcoumarin from Colchicum decaisnei. Total synthesis by carbamoyl ... Regiospecific route to substituted 4-hydroxycoumarins". Tetrahedron Letters. 39 (28): 4995-4998. doi:10.1016/S0040-4039(98) ...
East AJ, Ollis WD, Wheeler RE (1969). "Natural occurrence of 3-aryl-4-hydroxycoumarins. Part I. Phytochemical examination of ...
4-hydroxy-2H-chromen-2-one, derived from condensation of ethylene diamine with 3-acetyl-4-hydroxy-chromene-2-one have been ... 4), β(°) = 86.049(4), γ(°) = 82.497(4), Z = 2, and its structure consists of isolated [Co(III)(C13H13N2O3)2]+ complex cations ... with distorted octahedral geometry, ClO-4 counter anions, acetone solvent and water molecules. The crystal cohesion is ... doi:10.1016/0306-3623(95)02112-4 [5] Kam, C.M., Kerrigan, J.E., Plaskon, R.R., Duffy, E.J., Lollar, P., Suddath, F.L. and ...
100 (4): 530-547. doi:10.1160/TH08-03-0147. PMID 18841274. Davidson, R. T.; Foley, A. L.; Engelke, J. A.; Suttie, J. W. (Feb ... Blood clotting (coagulation) studies in humans using 45 mg per day of vitamin K2 (as MK-4) and even up to 135 mg per day (45 mg ... All forms of K2 other than MK-4 can only be produced by bacteria, which use these forms in anaerobic respiration. The MK-7 and ... 91 (4): 1761-1768. doi:10.1172/JCI116386. PMC 288156 . PMID 8473516. Holden, R. M.; Morton, A. R.; Garland, J. S.; Pavlov, A.; ...
Section 3.1.4. Retrieved 21 June 2017. Sean C Sweetman (Ed) (2009). Martindale: The Complete Drug Reference (36th ed.). London ... For a more complete list of coumarins used as pharmaceuticals and rodenticides, see the main article on 4-hydroxycoumarins. ... The vitamin K antagonists can cause birth defects (teratogens). Coumarins (more accurately 4-hydroxycoumarins) are the most ...
Rashid, M.A., J.A. Armstrong, A.I. Gray, and Waterman: Novel C-Geranyl 7-Hydroxycoumarins from the Aerial Parts of Eriostemon ... Quantitative Determination of Hydroxycoumarins in Fraxinus ornus. Phytochem. Anal. 4, 86 (1993).Google Scholar ... Hoefnagel, A.J., E.A. Gunnewegh, R. Downing, and VAN Bekkum: Synthesis of 7-Hydroxycoumarins Catalysed by Solid Acid Catalysts ... A Synthesis of Methoxy-and Hydroxycoumarins. Heterocycles 39, 613 (1994).Google Scholar ...
Hydroxycoumarins. Direct Parent. 4-hydroxycoumarins. Alternative Parents. 1-benzopyrans / Pyranones and derivatives / ... 4-hydroxycoumarin / Benzopyran / 1-benzopyran / Pyranone / Pyran / Benzenoid / Heteroaromatic compound / Vinylogous acid / ... 2000;18(4):363-73. [PubMed:10949919] *Preusch PC, Smalley DM: Vitamin K1 2,3-epoxide and quinone reduction: mechanism and ... 2000 Aug 15;60(4):601-5. [PubMed:10874136] *Arriagada C, Dagnino-Subiabre A, Caviedes P, Armero JM, Caviedes R, Segura-Aguilar ...
Warfarin (4-Hydroxycoumarins) is cited as the likely agent; it would have produced the symptoms reported, and administering it ... 4. Obscene material, excessively graphic pictures, and pornography of any type. 5. Rude insults, defamatory remarks, offensive ...
  • A Regioselective Synthesis of 3-Isoprenyl-4-hydroxycoumarins. (springer.com)
  • In continuation of our research on the applications of solid acids in organic synthesis, 11 it was found interesting to develop a green and more general protocol for the efficient one-pot three-component synthesis of tetrahydrochro-meno[4,3-fc]chromene-6,8-dione derivatives in the presence of Mg(ClO 4 ) 2 . (scielo.org.za)
  • This establishes the fact that amongst the various salts used, Mg(ClO 4 ) 2 was the most effective catalyst for the synthesis of 10,10-dimethyl-7-phenyl-10,11-dihydrochromeno[4,3-fc]chromene-6,8(7H,9H)-dione. (scielo.org.za)
  • Continued study of this response in the early 1930's by the research groups of Dam, Almquist, and Doisy led to the isolation, characterization, and synthesis of the active compound, 2-Me-3-phytyl-l, 4-naphthoquinone (phylloquinone). (springer.com)
  • Synthesis, structural characterization and antimicrobial studies of 2,4-pentanedione derivatives. (ptfarm.pl)
  • The reaction afforded a γ-butyrolactone that could serve as a potential intermediate en route to the synthesis of the biologically interesting compounds thromboxanes A₂ and B₂. (nzresearch.org.nz)
  • Becoming for lengthy years thinking about synthesis and evaluation of a variety Rabbit Polyclonal to TPH2 of nonpeptidic chemicals such as for example 4-hydroxycoumarin derivatives [5C we had been encouraged to increase these experiments. (ap26113.com)
  • Synthesis of 4-Hydroxycoumarin Derivatives 2.1.1. (ap26113.com)
  • 3. Bottom line Six 4-hydroxycoumarin substances had been synthesized by two-step synthesis. (ap26113.com)
  • 3. A. Jashari, F. Imeri, L. Ballazhi, A. Shabani, B. Mikhova, G. Dräger, E. Popovski and A. Huwiler, Synthesis and cellular characterization of novel isoxazolo- and thiazolohydrazinyldiene-chroman-2,4-diones on cancer and non-cancer cell growth and death, Bioorg. (sciendo.com)
  • Kashmiri Neog, Dhiraj Dutta, Babulal Das and Pranjal Gogoi* "Coumarin to Isocoumarin: One-pot Synthesis of 3-Substituted Isocoumarins from 4-Hydroxycoumarins and Benzyne Precursors" Org. (neist.res.in)
  • Limi Goswami, Kashmiri Neog, Kumud Sharma and Pranjal Gogoi* "Metal-free cascade reaction of β-halo-α,β-unsaturated aldehyde and 1,4-dithiane-2,5-diol: synthesis of polycyclic 2-formylthiophenes" Org. (neist.res.in)
  • New transition metal complex of Cobalt(III) of the ligand ( E )-3-(1-(2-aminoethylimino)ethyl)-4-hydroxy-2H-chromen-2-one, derived from condensation of ethylene diamine with 3-acetyl-4-hydroxy-chromene-2-one have been synthesized by reaction of cobalt(III) salt and the ligand, in amounts equal to metal-ligand molar ratio of 1:2. (scirp.org)
  • Ethyl 2-(4-Nitrobenzylidene)-3-Oxobutanoate (2) Light crystals. (ap26113.com)
  • Chemically, the vitamin K family comprises 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone (3-) derivatives. (wikipedia.org)
  • Application of Aryllead (IV) Derivatives to the Preparation of 3-Aryl-4-hydroxy-l-benzopyran-2-ones. (springer.com)
  • A rapid and green procedure has been introduced for the preparation of tetrahydrochromeno[4,3-b]chromene-6,8-dione derivatives in the presence of magnesium perchlorate. (scielo.org.za)
  • 1 A number of tetra-hydrochromeno[4,3-fc]chromene-6,8-dione derivatives have been synthesized utilizing one-pot three-component reactions. (scielo.org.za)
  • 7-10 However, these methods for preparing tetrahydrochromeno [4,3 -b ]chromene-6,8-dione derivatives have not been entirely satisfactory and involve some disadvantages such as long reaction times and use of organic solvents. (scielo.org.za)
  • Six book 4-hydroxycoumarin derivatives were rationally synthesized, verified, and seen as a molecular docking using crystal HIV-1 protease. (ap26113.com)
  • Experimental data on some nonpeptidic chemicals4-hydroxycoumarins (Amount 1) and 4-hydroxypyran derivatives inhibiting HIV-1 PR, support this notion [4]. (ap26113.com)
  • Right here, several fresh syntheses are shown, followed with molecular docking tests using crystal enzyme and natural activity evaluation of book and guaranteeing 4-hydroxycoumarin derivatives. (ap26113.com)
  • It really is popular that some 4-hydroxycoumarin derivatives are integrase inhibitors. (ap26113.com)
  • The tests described within this paper broaden the sooner reported types that 4-hydroxycoumarin derivatives could provide as book nonpeptidic PIs. (ap26113.com)
  • This nucleophile reacts with the electrophilic alkene 3 to form 4 in a conjugate addition reaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • To optimize the reaction conditions, dimedone 1 (1 mmol), 4-hydroxycoumarin 2 (1 mmol) and benzaldehyde 3 (1 mmol) were used in the presence of Mg(ClO 4 ) 2 under different conditions. (scielo.org.za)
  • We investigated the generality of this reaction by using, dimedone 1, 4-hydroxycoumarin 2, and various aromatic aldehydes under the optimized conditions ( Table 2 ). (scielo.org.za)
  • From comparison with the results depicted in Table 3 , it was found that Mg(ClO 4 ) 2 is the most efficient catalyst with respect to reaction time, temperature and yield of the product ( Table 3 ). (scielo.org.za)
  • Microwave irradiation (140°C, 4 bar) accelerates the reaction greatly as compared to its thermal counterpart. (eurekaselect.com)
  • [4] Chronic oral exposure to DNP can lead to the formation of cataracts and skin lesions and has caused effects on the bone marrow , central nervous system , and cardiovascular system . (wikipedia.org)
  • The trans -chelating bis(oxazoline) ligand ( R , R )-4,6-dibenzofurandiyl-2,2′-bis(4-phenyloxazoline) [( R , R )-DBFOX/Ph] coordinates metal ions to give C 2 -symmetric complexes which effectively catalyze a variety of asymmetric reactions. (rsc.org)
  • [4] It is commonly used to treat blood clots such as deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism and to prevent stroke in people who have atrial fibrillation , valvular heart disease or artificial heart valves . (wikipedia.org)
  • [4] Less commonly it is used following ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and orthopedic surgery . (wikipedia.org)
  • MGS0039 (3-(3,4-dichlorobenzyloxy)-2-amino-6-fluorobicyclo-[3.1.exane-2,6-dicarboxylic acid) has been identified as a potent and selective antagonist for metabotropic glutamate receptors. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Proton abstraction from protonated base (or solvent) by the enolate 4 to 5 is the final step. (wikipedia.org)
  • α (°) = 70.102(4), β (°) = 86.049(4), γ (°) = 82.497(4), Z = 2, and its structure consists of isolated [Co(III)(C 13 H 13 N 2 O 3 ) 2 ] + complex cations with distorted octahedral geometry, ClO - 4 counter anions, acetone solvent and water molecules. (scirp.org)
  • To examine the reusability of Mg(ClO 4 ) 2 under solvent-free conditions, after each run, the catalyst residue was washed with hot CH 2 Cl 2 and reused. (scielo.org.za)
  • The 10,10-dimethyl-7-phenyl-10,11-dihydrochromeno[4,3- b ] chromene-6,8(7 H,9H )-dione was synthesized by the condensation of 4-hydroxycoumarin, 5,5-dimethyl-1,3-cyclohexanedione (dimedone) and benzaldehyde in the presence of Mg(ClO 4 ) 2 as a catalyst. (scielo.org.za)
  • Furthermore, a series of regioisomeric methylated 4-hydroxycoumarins were synthesised, tested and found to be equally effective as bis-nucleophiles in the Pd-AA cascade with both acyclic and cyclic bis-electrophiles. (nzresearch.org.nz)
  • 4-Hydroxycoumarin is biosynthesized from malonyl-CoA and 2-hydroxybenzoyl-CoA by the enzyme 4-hydroxycoumarin synthase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Murray, William V., Efficient conversion of Biginelli 3,4-dihydropyrimidin-2(1H)-one to pyrimidines via PyBroP-mediated coupling, Journal of Organic Chemistry (2005), 70(5), 1957-1960. (wikipedia.org)
  • Murray, William V., Phosphonium coupling in the direct bond formations of tautomerizable heterocycles via C-OH bond activation, European Journal of Organic Chemistry (2009), (4), 461-479. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2,4-Dinitrophenol ( 2,4-DNP or simply DNP ) is an organic compound with the formula HOC 6 H 3 (NO 2 ) 2 . (wikipedia.org)
  • As such, these compounds form the most important and widely used subset of vitamin K antagonist drugs, but other such drugs exist which do not have the 4-hydroxycoumarin structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Entries 4,10,12 and 14 in Table 2 are new compounds. (scielo.org.za)
  • Psoralen compounds are synthesized which have substitutions on the 4, 4', 5', and 8 positions of the psoralen, which permit enhanced binding to nucleic add of pathogens. (google.ca)
  • In particular compounds with primary aminoalkyl substitutions on the 4' or 5' positions of psoralen are used to inactivate pathogens in blood products such as platelets. (google.ca)
  • Significant cell viability decrease in comparison with the effect of doxorubicin alone and the reference 4-hydroxycoumarin was observed when combination treatment comprising doxorubicin and the title compounds was applied. (sciendo.com)
  • [4] Less common side effects may include areas of tissue damage and purple toes syndrome . (wikipedia.org)
  • El-Ansary, A.L. and Omar, N.M.M. (1988) New lanthanide complexes of 4-methyl-7-hydroxycoumarin and their pharmacological activity. (scirp.org)
  • These early studies also demonstrated that in addition to phylloquinone or vitamin K 1 in green plants, vitamin K activity was present in many bacteria as a series of menaqui-nones, 2-Me-l, 4-naphthoquinones substituted at the 3-position with an unsaturated polyisoprenoid chain. (springer.com)
  • is a perennial herb, the milky exudate of which is used as spice and because of its beneficial effects on a number of ailments including cough, asthma, toothache, gastric problems, against constipation and angina pectoris [ 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • This study evaluates the effects of previously synthesized hydrazinyldiene-chroman-2,4-diones on cell proliferation and apoptosis, cell cycle distribution and migration capacity of MCF-7 breast cancer cells in synergy with doxorubicin. (sciendo.com)
  • Nageswara Rao, B. D. (1968) Relaxation effects in the nuclear magnetic double resonance spectra of a symmetrical three spin system (AB 2 ) Molecular Physics, 15 (4). (ias.ac.in)
  • One 10-year population study, the Rotterdam Study, did show a clear and significant inverse relationship between the highest intake levels of menaquinone (mainly MK-4 from eggs and meat, and MK-8 and MK-9 from cheese) and cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in older men and women. (wikipedia.org)
  • Blood clotting (coagulation) studies in humans using 45 mg per day of vitamin K2 (as MK-4) and even up to 135 mg per day (45 mg three times daily) of K2 (as MK-4), showed no increase in blood clot risk. (wikipedia.org)
  • 11. West B. D., Preis S., Schroeder C. H., Link K. P. Studies on the 4-Hydroxycoumarins. (prolekare.cz)
  • Narasimham, N. A. (1968) Isotope shift studies of the B 3 ∑ - -X 3 ∑ - bands of SO Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences, Section A, 68 (4). (ias.ac.in)