Methyl, propyl, butyl, and ethyl esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid. They have been approved by the FDA as antimicrobial agents for foods and pharmaceuticals. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed, p872)
Benzoate derivatives substituted by one or more hydroxy groups in any position on the benzene ring.
Salts and esters of gentisic acid.
Oxidases that specifically introduce DIOXYGEN-derived oxygen atoms into a variety of organic molecules.
A fungistatic compound that is widely used as a food preservative. It is conjugated to GLYCINE in the liver and excreted as hippuric acid.
Widely distributed enzymes that carry out oxidation-reduction reactions in which one atom of the oxygen molecule is incorporated into the organic substrate; the other oxygen atom is reduced and combined with hydrogen ions to form water. They are also known as monooxygenases or hydroxylases. These reactions require two substrates as reductants for each of the two oxygen atoms. There are different classes of monooxygenases depending on the type of hydrogen-providing cosubstrate (COENZYMES) required in the mixed-function oxidation.
A flavoprotein that catalyzes the synthesis of protocatechuic acid from 4-hydroxybenzoate in the presence of molecular oxygen. EC
Derivatives of BENZOIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxybenzene structure.
Benzoic acid or benzoic acid esters substituted with one or more chlorine atoms.
A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria able to anaerobically oxidize and degrade toluene.
An antiseptic and disinfectant aromatic alcohol.
Derivatives of adipic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a 1,6-carboxy terminated aliphatic structure.
Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.
An NADPH-dependent flavin monooxygenase that plays a key role in the catabolism of TRYPTOPHAN by catalyzing the HYDROXYLATION of KYNURENINE to 3-hydroxykynurenine. It was formerly characterized as EC and EC
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria isolated from soil and water as well as clinical specimens. Occasionally it is an opportunistic pathogen.
A family of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria utilizing only one-carbon organic compounds and isolated from in soil and water.
Enzyme that catalyzes the final step of fatty acid oxidation in which ACETYL COA is released and the CoA ester of a fatty acid two carbons shorter is formed.
A species of METHYLOCOCCUS which forms capsules and is capable of autotrophic carbon dioxide fixation. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
Benzoate derivatives that contain one or more alkyl or aryl groups linked to the benzene ring structure by OXYGEN.
The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus PSEUDOMONAS. It cannot utilize FRUCTOSE; GLUCOSE; or MALTOSE for energy.
Benzoic acid or benzoic acid esters substituted with one or more bromine atoms.
A condensation product of riboflavin and adenosine diphosphate. The coenzyme of various aerobic dehydrogenases, e.g., D-amino acid oxidase and L-amino acid oxidase. (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p972)
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped, phototrophic bacteria found in aquatic environments. Internal photosynthetic membranes are present as lamellae underlying the cytoplasmic membrane.
A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.
Enzymes that catalyze the formation of acyl-CoA derivatives. EC 6.2.1.
A family of isomeric, colorless aromatic hydrocarbon liquids, that contain the general formula C6H4(CH3)2. They are produced by the destructive distillation of coal or by the catalytic reforming of petroleum naphthenic fractions. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
A group of compounds that are derivatives of heptanedioic acid with the general formula R-C7H11O4.
A species of METHYLOSINUS which is capable of degrading trichloroethylene and other organic pollutants.
A soluble cytochrome P-450 enzyme that catalyzes camphor monooxygenation in the presence of putidaredoxin, putidaredoxin reductase, and molecular oxygen. This enzyme, encoded by the CAMC gene also known as CYP101, has been crystallized from bacteria and the structure is well defined. Under anaerobic conditions, this enzyme reduces the polyhalogenated compounds bound at the camphor-binding site.
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-phosphate (NMN) coupled by pyrophosphate linkage to the 5'-phosphate adenosine 2',5'-bisphosphate. It serves as an electron carrier in a number of reactions, being alternately oxidized (NADP+) and reduced (NADPH). (Dorland, 27th ed)
Enzymes that catalyze the addition of a carboxyl group to a compound (carboxylases) or the removal of a carboxyl group from a compound (decarboxylases). EC 4.1.1.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A lipid-soluble benzoquinone which is involved in ELECTRON TRANSPORT in mitochondrial preparations. The compound occurs in the majority of aerobic organisms, from bacteria to higher plants and animals.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
A genus of gram-negative, ellipsoidal or rod-shaped bacteria whose major source of energy and reducing power is from the oxidation of ammonia to nitrite. Its species occur in soils, oceans, lakes, rivers, and sewage disposal systems.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Benzene derivatives that include one or more hydroxyl groups attached to the ring structure.
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of protocatechuate to 3-carboxy-cis-cis-muconate in the presence of molecular oxygen. It contains ferric ion. EC
Any member of the class of enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of the substrate and the addition of water to the resulting molecules, e.g., ESTERASES, glycosidases (GLYCOSIDE HYDROLASES), lipases, NUCLEOTIDASES, peptidases (PEPTIDE HYDROLASES), and phosphatases (PHOSPHORIC MONOESTER HYDROLASES). EC 3.
Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Carbon-containing phosphoric acid derivatives. Included under this heading are compounds that have CARBON atoms bound to one or more OXYGEN atoms of the P(=O)(O)3 structure. Note that several specific classes of endogenous phosphorus-containing compounds such as NUCLEOTIDES; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and PHOSPHOPROTEINS are listed elsewhere.
Non-heme iron-containing enzymes that incorporate two atoms of OXYGEN into the substrate. They are important in biosynthesis of FLAVONOIDS; GIBBERELLINS; and HYOSCYAMINE; and for degradation of AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS.
A P450 oxidoreductase that catalyzes the hydroxylation of the terminal carbon of linear hydrocarbons such as octane and FATTY ACIDS in the omega position. The enzyme may also play a role in the oxidation of a variety of structurally unrelated compounds such as XENOBIOTICS, and STEROIDS.
A family of gram-negative aerobic bacteria in the class BETA PROTEOBACTERIA, encompassing the acidovorans rRNA complex. Some species are pathogenic for PLANTS.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Inorganic compounds that contain tungsten as an integral part of the molecule.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
A group of PROTEOBACTERIA represented by morphologically diverse, anaerobic sulfidogens. Some members of this group are considered bacterial predators, having bacteriolytic properties.
A benzyl-indazole having analgesic, antipyretic, and anti-inflammatory effects. It is used to reduce post-surgical and post-traumatic pain and edema and to promote healing. It is also used topically in treatment of RHEUMATIC DISEASES and INFLAMMATION of the mouth and throat.
The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A group of 1,2-benzenediols that contain the general formula R-C6H5O2.
A flavoring agent. It is the intermediate product in the two-step bioconversion of ferulic acid to vanillin. (J Biotechnol 1996;50(2-3):107-13).
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-tyrosine, tetrahydrobiopterin, and oxygen to 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine, dihydrobiopterin, and water. EC
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The second enzyme in the committed pathway for CHOLESTEROL biosynthesis, this enzyme catalyzes the first oxygenation step in the biosynthesis of STEROLS and is thought to be a rate limiting enzyme in this pathway. Specifically, this enzyme catalyzes the conversion of SQUALENE to (S)-squalene-2,3-epoxide.
S-Acyl coenzyme A. Fatty acid coenzyme A derivatives that are involved in the biosynthesis and oxidation of fatty acids as well as in ceramide formation.
Placing of a hydroxyl group on a compound in a position where one did not exist before. (Stedman, 26th ed)
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
An enzyme that utilizes NADH or NADPH to reduce FLAVINS. It is involved in a number of biological processes that require reduced flavin for their functions such as bacterial bioluminescence. Formerly listed as EC and EC
A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on carbon-carbon bonds. This enzyme group includes all the enzymes that introduce double bonds into substrates by direct dehydrogenation of carbon-carbon single bonds.
A flavoprotein that catalyzes the reduction of heme-thiolate-dependent monooxygenases and is part of the microsomal hydroxylating system. EC
These enzymes catalyze the elimination of ammonia from amidines with the formation of a double bond. EC 4.3.2.
Systems of enzymes which function sequentially by catalyzing consecutive reactions linked by common metabolic intermediates. They may involve simply a transfer of water molecules or hydrogen atoms and may be associated with large supramolecular structures such as MITOCHONDRIA or RIBOSOMES.
Derivatives of the dimethylisoalloxazine (7,8-dimethylbenzo[g]pteridine-2,4(3H,10H)-dione) skeleton. Flavin derivatives serve an electron transfer function as ENZYME COFACTORS in FLAVOPROTEINS.
Derivatives of SUCCINIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a 1,4-carboxy terminated aliphatic structure.
A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)
A bacterial genus of the order ACTINOMYCETALES.
Enzymes that catalyze the rearrangement of geometry about double bonds. EC 5.2.
A highly volatile inhalation anesthetic used mainly in short surgical procedures where light anesthesia with good analgesia is required. It is also used as an industrial solvent. Prolonged exposure to high concentrations of the vapor can lead to cardiotoxicity and neurological impairment.
An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-carbon bond of a 3-hydroxy acid. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 4.1.3.
A widely used industrial solvent.
Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.
A species of gram-positive, asporogenous, non-pathogenic, soil bacteria that produces GLUTAMIC ACID.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
A family of gram-negative methanotrophs in the order Rhizobiales, distantly related to the nitrogen-fixing and phototrophic bacteria.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A large group of aerobic bacteria which show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method. This is because the cell walls of gram-negative bacteria are low in peptidoglycan and thus have low affinity for violet stain and high affinity for the pink dye safranine.
A family of aerobic gram-negative rods that are nitrogen fixers. They are highly viscous, and appear as a semitransparent slime in giant colonies.
Atomic species differing in mass number but having the same atomic number. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The generic name for the group of aliphatic hydrocarbons Cn-H2n+2. They are denoted by the suffix -ane. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Drug metabolizing enzymes which oxidize methyl ethers. Usually found in liver microsomes.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
A water-soluble, colorless crystal with an acid taste that is used as a chemical intermediate, in medicine, the manufacture of lacquers, and to make perfume esters. It is also used in foods as a sequestrant, buffer, and a neutralizing agent. (Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p1099; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1851)
A drug-metabolizing enzyme found in the hepatic, placental and intestinal microsomes that metabolizes 7-alkoxycoumarin to 7-hydroxycoumarin. The enzyme is cytochrome P-450- dependent.
A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus PSEUDOMONAS, which is found in SOIL and WATER.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.
Unsaturated hydrocarbons of the type Cn-H2n, indicated by the suffix -ene. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p408)
Phenols substituted with one or more chlorine atoms in any position.
The salts or esters of salicylic acids, or salicylate esters of an organic acid. Some of these have analgesic, antipyretic, and anti-inflammatory activities by inhibiting prostaglandin synthesis.
The mineral component of bones and teeth; it has been used therapeutically as a prosthetic aid and in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.
The measurement of the amplitude of the components of a complex waveform throughout the frequency range of the waveform. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Toxic chlorinated unsaturated hydrocarbons. Include both the 1,1- and 1,2-dichloro isomers. Both isomers are toxic, but 1,1-dichloroethylene is the more potent CNS depressant and hepatotoxin. It is used in the manufacture of thermoplastic polymers.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Two-ring crystalline hydrocarbons isolated from coal tar. They are used as intermediates in chemical synthesis, as insect repellents, fungicides, lubricants, preservatives, and, formerly, as topical antiseptics.
Transferases are enzymes transferring a group, for example, the methyl group or a glycosyl group, from one compound (generally regarded as donor) to another compound (generally regarded as acceptor). The classification is based on the scheme "donor:acceptor group transferase". (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A somewhat heterogeneous class of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of alkyl or related groups (excluding methyl groups). EC 2.5.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus PSEUDOMONAS, containing multiple genomovars. It is distinguishable from other pseudomonad species by its ability to use MALTOSE and STARCH as sole carbon and energy sources. It can degrade ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS and has been used as a model organism to study denitrification.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that is found in soil and which causes formation of root nodules on some, but not all, types of field pea, lentil, kidney bean, and clover.
A colorless liquid used as a solvent and an antiseptic. It is one of the ketone bodies produced during ketoacidosis.
A heavy metal trace element with the atomic symbol Cu, atomic number 29, and atomic weight 63.55.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
8-Hydroxyquinolinols chlorinated on the number 5 and/or 7 carbon atom(s). They are antibacterial, antiprotozoal, and antidiarrheal, especially in amebiasis, and have also been used as antiseborrheics. The compounds are mostly used topically, but have been used also as animal feed additives. They may cause optic and other neuropathies and are most frequently administered in combination with other agents.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydroxylation of TRYPTOPHAN to 5-HYDROXYTRYPTOPHAN in the presence of NADPH and molecular oxygen. It is important in the biosynthesis of SEROTONIN.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
Organic compounds that include a cyclic ether with three ring atoms in their structure. They are commonly used as precursors for POLYMERS such as EPOXY RESINS.
Compounds in which one or more of the three hydroxyl groups of glycerol are in ethereal linkage with a saturated or unsaturated aliphatic alcohol; one or two of the hydroxyl groups of glycerol may be esterified. These compounds have been found in various animal tissue.
A coenzyme for a number of oxidative enzymes including NADH DEHYDROGENASE. It is the principal form in which RIBOFLAVIN is found in cells and tissues.
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of BENZOATE to 4-hydroxybenzoate. It requires IRON and tetrahydropteridine.
A bicyclic monoterpene ketone found widely in plants, especially CINNAMOMUM CAMPHORA. It is used topically as a skin antipruritic and as an anti-infective agent.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Organic esters or salts of sulfonic acid derivatives containing an aliphatic hydrocarbon radical.
Artifactual vesicles formed from the endoplasmic reticulum when cells are disrupted. They are isolated by differential centrifugation and are composed of three structural features: rough vesicles, smooth vesicles, and ribosomes. Numerous enzyme activities are associated with the microsomal fraction. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.
A second-line antitubercular agent that inhibits mycolic acid synthesis.
A genus in the family BURKHOLDERIACEAE, comprised of many species. They are associated with a variety of infections including MENINGITIS; PERITONITIS; and URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS.
A genus of motile or nonmotile gram-positive bacteria of the family Clostridiaceae. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. They occur in water, soil, and in the intestinal tract of humans and lower animals.
A colorless, toxic liquid with a strong aromatic odor. It is used to make rubbers, polymers and copolymers, and polystyrene plastics.
Indolesulfonic acid used as a dye in renal function testing for the detection of nitrates and chlorates, and in the testing of milk.
An antineoplastic agent that is a derivative of progesterone and used to treat advanced breast cancer.
The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.
A thioureylene antithyroid agent that inhibits the formation of thyroid hormones by interfering with the incorporation of iodine into tyrosyl residues of thyroglobulin. This is done by interfering with the oxidation of iodide ion and iodotyrosyl groups through inhibition of the peroxidase enzyme.
Gram-negative, non-motile, capsulated, gas-producing rods found widely in nature and associated with urinary and respiratory infections in humans.
Hydrocarbon compounds with one or more of the hydrogens replaced by CHLORINE.
Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.
Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.
A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.
A barbituric acid derivative that acts as a nonselective central nervous system depressant. It potentiates GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID action on GABA-A RECEPTORS, and modulates chloride currents through receptor channels. It also inhibits glutamate induced depolarizations.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
A trihydroxybenzene or dihydroxy phenol that can be prepared by heating GALLIC ACID.
A genus of gram-negative rods which form exospores and are obligate methanotrophs.
Derivatives and polymers of styrene. They are used in the manufacturing of synthetic rubber, plastics, and resins. Some of the polymers form the skeletal structures for ion exchange resin beads.
An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the formation of L-TYROSINE, dihydrobiopterin, and water from L-PHENYLALANINE, tetrahydrobiopterin, and oxygen. Deficiency of this enzyme may cause PHENYLKETONURIAS and PHENYLKETONURIA, MATERNAL. EC
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
A large group of cytochrome P-450 (heme-thiolate) monooxygenases that complex with NAD(P)H-FLAVIN OXIDOREDUCTASE in numerous mixed-function oxidations of aromatic compounds. They catalyze hydroxylation of a broad spectrum of substrates and are important in the metabolism of steroids, drugs, and toxins such as PHENOBARBITAL, carcinogens, and insecticides.
A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)
A family of anaerobic METHANOCOCCALES whose organisms are motile by means of flagella. These methanogens use carbon dioxide as an electron acceptor.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, spherical cells usually occurring in pairs. The resting stage is considered a cyst. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
An inhibitor of drug metabolism and CYTOCHROME P-450 ENZYME SYSTEM activity.
Compounds based on ANTHRACENES which contain two KETONES in any position. Substitutions can be in any position except on the ketone groups.
A carcinogen that is often used in experimental cancer studies.
A genus of yeast-like mitosporic Saccharomycetales fungi characterized by producing yeast cells, mycelia, pseudomycelia, and blastophores. It is commonly part of the normal flora of the skin, mouth, intestinal tract, and vagina, but can cause a variety of infections, including CANDIDIASIS; ONYCHOMYCOSIS; vulvovaginal candidiasis (CANDIDIASIS, VULVOVAGINAL), and thrush (see CANDIDIASIS, ORAL). (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
A trace element with atomic symbol Mn, atomic number 25, and atomic weight 54.94. It is concentrated in cell mitochondria, mostly in the pituitary gland, liver, pancreas, kidney, and bone, influences the synthesis of mucopolysaccharides, stimulates hepatic synthesis of cholesterol and fatty acids, and is a cofactor in many enzymes, including arginase and alkaline phosphatase in the liver. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1992, p2035)
Cytochromes of the b group that are found bound to cytoplasmic side of ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. They serve as electron carrier proteins for a variety of membrane-bound OXYGENASES. They are reduced by the enzyme CYTOCHROME-B(5) REDUCTASE.
The facilitation of biochemical reactions with the aid of naturally occurring catalysts such as ENZYMES.
A group of oxidoreductases that act on NADH or NADPH. In general, enzymes using NADH or NADPH to reduce a substrate are classified according to the reverse reaction, in which NAD+ or NADP+ is formally regarded as an acceptor. This subclass includes only those enzymes in which some other redox carrier is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p100) EC 1.6.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Cytochrome P-450 monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES) that are important in steroid biosynthesis and metabolism.
A monooxygenase that catalyzes the conversion of BETA-CAROTENE into two molecules of RETINAL. It was formerly characterized as EC and EC
Organic compounds containing carbon and hydrogen in the form of an unsaturated, usually hexagonal ring structure. The compounds can be single ring, or double, triple, or multiple fused rings.
Chemical groups containing the covalent sulfur bonds -S-. The sulfur atom can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.
A plant genus of the family APIACEAE. The roots are used as food.
A drug-metabolizing, cytochrome P-448 (P-450) enzyme which catalyzes the hydroxylation of benzopyrene to 3-hydroxybenzopyrene in the presence of reduced flavoprotein and molecular oxygen. Also acts on certain anthracene derivatives. An aspect of EC
The type species of the genus NITROSOMONAS, a gram-negative chemolithotroph that oxidizes ammonia to nitrite. It is found in soil, sewage, freshwater, and on building walls, and especially in polluted areas where air contains high levels of nitrogen compounds.
A genus of bacteria that form a nonfragmented aerial mycelium. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. This genus is responsible for producing a majority of the ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS of practical value.
Iron-containing proteins that transfer electrons, usually at a low potential, to flavoproteins; the iron is not present as in heme. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, straight, curved, or branched rods which are motile by a single polar flagellum. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
Potent cholinesterase inhibitor used as an insecticide and acaricide.
A proposed family of bacteria belonging to the alpha-2 subgroup of PROTEOBACTERIA.
Proteins, usually acting in oxidation-reduction reactions, containing iron but no porphyrin groups. (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1993, pG-10)

Phe161 and Arg166 variants of p-hydroxybenzoate hydroxylase. Implications for NADPH recognition and structural stability. (1/76)

Phe161 and Arg166 of p-hydroxybenzoate hydroxylase from Pseudomonas fluorescens belong to a newly discovered sequence motif in flavoprotein hydroxylases with a putative dual function in FAD and NADPH binding [1]. To study their role in more detail, Phe161 and Arg166 were selectively changed by site-directed mutagenesis. F161A and F161G are catalytically competent enzymes having a rather poor affinity for NADPH. The catalytic properties of R166K are similar to those of the native enzyme. R166S and R166E show impaired NADPH binding and R166E has lost the ability to bind FAD. The crystal structure of substrate complexed F161A at 2.2 A is indistinguishable from the native enzyme, except for small changes at the site of mutation. The crystal structure of substrate complexed R166S at 2.0 A revealed that Arg166 is important for providing an intimate contact between the FAD binding domain and a long excursion of the substrate binding domain. It is proposed that this interaction is essential for structural stability and for the recognition of the pyrophosphate moiety of NADPH.  (+info)

Modelling flavin and substrate substituent effects on the activation barrier and rate of oxygen transfer by p-hydroxybenzoate hydroxylase. (2/76)

The simulation of enzymatic reactions, using computer models, is becoming a powerful tool in the most fundamental challenge in biochemistry: to relate the catalytic activity of enzymes to their structure. In the present study, various computed parameters were correlated with the natural logarithm of experimental rate constants for the hydroxylation of various substrate derivatives catalysed by wild-type para-hydroxybenzoate hydroxylase (PHBH) as well as for the hydroxylation of the native substrate (p-hydroxybenzoate) by PHBH reconstituted with a series of 8-substituted flavins. The following relative parameters have been calculated and tested: (a) energy barriers from combined quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) (AM1/CHARMM) reaction pathway calculations, (b) gas-phase reaction enthalpies (AM1) and (c) differences between the HOMO and LUMO energies of the isolated substrate and cofactor molecules (AM1 and B3LYP/6-31+G(d)). The gas-phase approaches yielded good correlations, as long as similarly charged species are involved. The QM/MM approach resulted in a good correlation, even including differently charged species. This indicates that the QM/MM model accounts quite well for the solvation effects of the active site surroundings, which vary for differently charged species. The correlations obtained demonstrate quantitative structure activity relationships for an enzyme-catalysed reaction including, for the first time, substitutions on both substrate and cofactor.  (+info)

Antioxidative galloyl esters as enzyme inhibitors of p-hydroxybenzoate hydroxylase. (3/76)

Gallic acid and its esters were evaluated as enzyme inhibitors of recombinant p-hydroxybenzoate hydroxylase (PHBH), a NADPH-dependent flavin monooxygenase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. n-Dodecyl gallate (DG) (IC(50)=16 microM) and (-)-epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG) (IC(50)=16 microM), a major component of green tea polyphenols, showed the most potent inhibition, while product-like gallic acid did not inhibit the enzyme significantly (IC(50)>250 microM). Inhibition kinetics revealed that both DG and EGCG inhibited PHBH in a non-competitive manner (K(I)=18.1 and 14.0 microM, respectively). The enzyme inhibition was caused by specific binding of the antioxidative gallate to the enzyme, and by scavenging reactive oxygen species required for the monooxygenase reaction. Molecular modeling predicted that EGCG binds to the enzyme in the proximity of the FAD binding site via formation of three hydrogen bonds.  (+info)

Comparing protein-ligand interactions in solution and single crystals by Raman spectroscopy. (4/76)

By using a Raman microscope, we show that it is possible to probe the conformational states in protein crystals and crystal fragments under growth conditions (in hanging drops). The flavin cofactor in the enzyme para-hydroxybenzoate hydroxylase can assume two conformations: buried in the protein matrix ("in") or essentially solvent-exposed ("out"). By using Raman difference spectroscopy, we previously have identified characteristic flavin marker bands for the in and out conformers in the solution phase. Now we show that the flavin Raman bands can be used to probe these conformational states in crystals, permitting a comparison between solution and crystal environments. The in or out marker bands are similar for the respective conformers in the crystal and in solution; however, significant differences do exist, showing that the environments for the flavin's isoalloxazine ring are not identical in the two phases. Moreover, the Raman-band widths of the flavin modes are narrower for both in and out conformers in the crystals, indicating that the flavin exists in a more limited range of closely related conformational states in the crystal than in solution. In general, the ability to compare detailed Raman data for complexes in crystals and solution provides a means of bridging crystallographic and solution studies.  (+info)

Regulation of the p-hydroxybenzoic acid hydroxylase gene (pobA) in plant-growth-promoting Pseudomonas putida WCS358. (5/76)

The regulation of the p-hydroxybenzoate hydroxylase gene (pobA) of Pseudomonas putida WCS358 involved in the catabolism of p-hydroxybenzoic acid (PHB) to the central intermediate protocatechuate was studied. Protocatechuic acid (PCA) is then degraded via the beta-ketoadipate pathway to form tricarboxylic acid intermediates. In several Gram-negative bacteria pobA has been found genetically linked to a regulator called pobR which activates pobA expression in response to PHB. In this study the identification and characterization of the pobC-pobA locus of P. putida WCS358 is presented. The p-hydroxybenzoate hydroxylase (PobA) is highly identical to other identified PobA proteins, whereas the regulatory protein PobC did not display very high identity to other PobR proteins studied and belonged to the AraC family of regulatory proteins, hence it has been designated POBC: Using the pobA promoter transcriptionally fused to a promoterless lacZ gene it was observed that induction via PobC occurred very efficiently when PHB was present and to a lesser but still significant level also in the presence of PCA. This PobC-PCA response was genetically demonstrated by making use of pobC::Tn5 and pcaH::Tn5 mutants of strain WCS358 constructed in this study. In pobC mutants both the p-hydroxybenzoic and PCA response were not observed, whereas in the pcaH mutant, which lacks a functional protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase, the protocatechuic-acid-dependent pobA activation was still observed. Finally, the activation of pobA by PHB varied according to the concentration and it was observed that in the pcaR::Tn5 regulatory mutant of strain WCS358 the pobA promoter activity was reduced. PcaR is a regulator involved in the regulation of several loci of the beta-ketoadipate pathway, one of which is pcaK. It was postulated that the reduction of pobA activation in pcaR::Tn5 mutants was because there was no expression of the pcaK gene encoding the PHB transport protein resulting in lower levels of PHB present inside the cell.  (+info)

A study of p-hydroxybenzoate hydroxylase from Pseudomonas fluorescens. Improved purification, relative molecular mass, and amino acid composition. (6/76)

The purification procedure for p-hydroxybenzoate hydroxylase has been modified by replacement of the DEAE-cellulose (DE-32) column in the original procedure by a Sephadex--Cibacron-blue affinity column. In this way the yield of enzyme could be improved from 16% to about 40--50%. Preparative gel chromatography indicated that the enzyme does not exist as a monomeric species as earlier believed but mainly as a dimer. Sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis of purified enzyme revealed a minimum relative molecular mass (Mr) of 43000--45000. Analytical gel chromatography, sedimentation equilibrium and sedimentation velocity experiments showed that the enzyme exists in solution mainly as a dimer but also in higher-order quaternary structures (presumably tetramer and hexamer). Temperature dependence of the distribution of the oligomers suggests that the association is of hydrophobic nature. The amino acid composition of the enzyme is also presented. The enzyme contains no disulfide but five sulfhydryl groups. In the native state of the enzyme only one sulfhydryl group is accessible to N-ethylmaleimide or 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid). The iso-electric point of the enzyme was found to be 5.8.  (+info)

Protein and ligand dynamics in 4-hydroxybenzoate hydroxylase. (7/76)

para-Hydroxybenzoate hydroxylase catalyzes a two-step reaction that demands precise control of solvent access to the catalytic site. The first step of the reaction, reduction of flavin by NADPH, requires access to solvent. The second step, oxygenation of reduced flavin to a flavin C4a-hydroperoxide that transfers the hydroxyl group to the substrate, requires that solvent be excluded to prevent breakdown of the hydroperoxide to oxidized flavin and hydrogen peroxide. These conflicting requirements are met by the coordination of multiple movements involving the protein, the two cofactors, and the substrate. Here, using the R220Q mutant form of para-hydroxybenzoate hydroxylase, we show that in the absence of substrate, the large beta alpha beta domain (residues 1-180) and the smaller sheet domain (residues 180-270) separate slightly, and the flavin swings out to a more exposed position to open an aqueous channel from the solvent to the protein interior. Substrate entry occurs by first binding at a surface site and then sliding into the protein interior. In our study of this mutant, the structure of the complex with pyridine nucleotide was obtained. This cofactor binds in an extended conformation at the enzyme surface in a groove that crosses the binding site of FAD. We postulate that for stereospecific reduction, the flavin swings to an out position and NADPH assumes a folded conformation that brings its nicotinamide moiety into close contact with the isoalloxazine moiety of the flavin. This work clearly shows how complex dynamics can play a central role in catalysis by enzymes.  (+info)

Reaction of reduced flavins and flavoproteins with diphenyliodonium chloride. (8/76)

The reaction of diphenyliodonium chloride with free reduced flavins has been studied by stopped flow spectrophotometry under anaerobic conditions, and second order rate constants were determined as a function of pH. The reactive flavin species was identified as the reduced anion, based on an observed reaction pK of 6.7. The product mixture was independent of the initial concentration of reactant and contained approximately 20% oxidized flavin. The results can be modeled quantitatively on a modification of the mechanism proposed by Tew (Tew, D. G. (1993) Biochemistry 32, 10209-10215). The composition of the complex reaction mixture has been analyzed, and four flavin-phenyl adducts with distinctive absorbance and fluorescence characteristics have been identified, involving substitution at the flavin C4a, N5, and C8 positions. Inactivation of flavoprotein enzymes by diphenyliodonium has also been studied, and several examples were found where inactivation occurs readily, despite noninvolvement of radical intermediates in their reaction mechanisms. It can be concluded that inactivation by phenyliodonium species is not a valid indicator of catalytic mechanism involving radical intermediates. One of the several factors determining inactivation is maintenance of the enzyme flavin in the reduced form in the steady state of catalysis, the other factors being redox potential and accessibility of the inhibitor to the flavin active site.  (+info)

1PBF: Crystal structures of wild-type p-hydroxybenzoate hydroxylase complexed with 4-aminobenzoate,2,4-dihydroxybenzoate, and 2-hydroxy-4-aminobenzoate and of the Tyr222Ala mutant complexed with 2-hydroxy-4-aminobenzoate. Evidence for a proton channel and a new binding mode of the flavin ring
1PBC: Crystal structures of wild-type p-hydroxybenzoate hydroxylase complexed with 4-aminobenzoate,2,4-dihydroxybenzoate, and 2-hydroxy-4-aminobenzoate and of the Tyr222Ala mutant complexed with 2-hydroxy-4-aminobenzoate. Evidence for a proton channel and a new binding mode of the flavin ring
4-hydroxybenzoate octaprenyltransferase; Catalyzes the prenylation of para-hydroxybenzoate (PHB) with an all-trans polyprenyl group. Mediates the second step in the final reaction sequence of ubiquinone-8 (UQ-8) biosynthesis, which is the condensation of the polyisoprenoid side chain with PHB, generating the first membrane-bound Q intermediate 3- octaprenyl-4- ...
Ortiz-Maldonado M, Ballou DP, Massey V. A rate-limiting conformational change of the flavin in p-hydroxybenzoate hydroxylase is necessary for ligand exchange and catalysis: studies with 8-mercapto- and 8-hydroxy-flavins. Biochemistry. 2001 Jan 30; 40(4):1091-101 ...
4-hydroxybenzoate-octaprenyl transferase; Catalyzes the prenylation of para-hydroxybenzoate (PHB) with an all-trans polyprenyl group. Mediates the second step in the final reaction sequence of plastoquinone-9 (PQ-9) biosynthesis, which is the condensation of the polyisoprenoid side chain with PHB, generating the first membrane-bound Q intermediate 4-hydroxy-3-solanesylbenzoate (292 aa ...
Gledišta različitih vjera o etici kontracepcije se razlikuju.[145] Rimokatolička Crkva u nekim slučajevima službeno prihvaća samo prirodno planiranje obitelji,[146] premda veliki broj katolika u razvijenim zemljama prihvaća i koristi suvremene metode kontracepcije.[147][148][149] Katolički pogled na kontracepciju je službeno protivljenje Katoličke Crkve svim oblicima umjetnih kontracepcijskih sredstava. Stav Crkve je da, bračni spolni čin treba biti otvoren životu (prokreativan) te sjedinjujući.[11] Dodatni je prijepor što pojedina kontracepcijska sredstva mogu dovesti do pobačaja. Kontracepcijska spirala uzrokuje pobačaj, tako što spriječava usađivanje oplođene jajne stanice u maternicu. Kontracepcijske pilule ponekad imaju jednako djelovanje. Dodatni razlog protivljenju kontracepciji je što kontracepcija nije posve pouzdana u spriječavanju širenja spolnih bolesti poput AIDS-a, sifilisa, gonoreje, genitanog herpesa itd. Pojedine uzročnike spolnih bolesti kontracepcijska ...
Open Beauty Facts est développé par une association à but non lucratif indépendante de lindustrie. Open Food Facts est fait pour tous, par tous, et est financé par tous. Vous pouvez soutenir notre travail en donnant à Open Beauty Facts et aussi en utilisant le moteur de recherche Lilo ...
Ethylparaben (ethyl para-hydroxybenzoate) is the ethyl ester of p-hydroxybenzoic acid. Its formula is HO-C6H4-CO-O-CH2CH3. It is a member of the class of compounds known as parabens. ...
We synthesized and studied the antitumor properties of the novel complex compound 2,5-dihydroxybenzoate molybdenum(VI) with tetraphenylphosphonium as counterion, which also acts as cancer cell growth inhibitor. A novel complex compound, the 2,5-dihydroxybenzoate molybdenum(VI) complex, (PPh4)2[Mo3O6(mu-O)2(2,5-DHBA)2] was synthesized. 1H NMR, 13C NMR, IR, and UV-Vis analyses were used for its molecular characterization. The human leukemia cell lines HL-60 and K562 were tested for their viability by assessing the metabolic activity of cells (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide; MTT), the structural integrity of the cell membrane (Trypan blue assay), and cell proliferation ability (growth curves). We showed that both leukemia cell lines are induced to decreased proliferation efficiency after treatment with the novel complex, compared to 2,5-dihydroxybenzoate, tetraphenyl-phosphonium polyoxomolybdate, or tetraphenylphosphonium chloride as individual entities, in a time- and
Hi, I have a Yeast question that I hope someone in the group can answer. In bacteria the conversion of chorismate to para-hydroxybenzoate (PHB) is the first step in ubiquinone biosynthesis. The reaction is carried out by the enzyme chorismate pyruvate lyase (CPL) encoded by the ubiC gene. In a search of the literature I have not been able to find any references to a CPL activity in Yeast. Is it known that chorismate is converted directly to PHB in Yeast as part of ubiquinone synthesis, or is the PHB derived from a different pathway? If it is a direct conversion it would seem that petite mutants blocked at this step would have been isolated and described in the literature. Have I missed something or is there a gap in the information on this pathway? Many Thanks, Frank Mondello ...
2-trimethylsilylethyl 2-bromo-6-hydroxybenzoate | 143104-20-5, chemical structure search 2-trimethylsilylethyl 2-bromo-6-hydroxybenzoate including CAS No., molecular formula, chemical properties, chemical suppliers, price of chemical.
Super rich moisturising organic Vitamin E provides a natural mix of bioactive tocopherols which penetrate and moisturise the driest of skin.
Get maximum performance and secure single tenancy from a dedicated server with root-level access to all server resources for easier workload customization.
Sodium 4-amino-2-hydroxybenzoate 133-10-8 NMR spectrum, Sodium 4-amino-2-hydroxybenzoate H-NMR spectral analysis, Sodium 4-amino-2-hydroxybenzoate C-NMR spectral analysis ect.
3,4-Dihydroxyphthalate , , H+ 3,4-dihydroxyphthalate , / decarboxylase ,/ 4.1.1.- , Search GenBank, 23 hits on Apr. 03, 2012 ,\ ExPASy , \ , CO2 v 2,3-Dihydroxybenzoate ...
4,5-Dihydroxyphthalate , , H+ 4,5-dihydroxyphthalate , / decarboxylase ,/ , Search GenBank, 150 hits on Apr. 03, 2012 Kyoto ,\ ExPASy , \ , CO2 v 3,4-Dihydroxybenzoate ...
Toxicokinetics Several studies have been identified that examine the basic toxicokinetics of Methylparaben: - Methylparaben was hydrolysed by both liver and skin microsomal/cytosolic fraction of humans and minipigs. The hydrolysis by human esterases was higher than that observed for minipigs. - High plasma levels and urinary output of free and conjugated p-Hydroxybenzoic acid (metabolite of Methylparaben) in dogs indicate that hydrolysis of the ester linkage and metabolic conjugate constitute the main paths of alteration for Methylparaben. Excretion via urine is almost complete 48 hours after application of 100 mg/kg bw to dogs. - 1 mg Methylparaben/kg bw/d was applied orally to a dog for one year. The rate of urinary excretion in the dog had increased to such an extent that after 24 hours 96% of the dose was recovered in the urine. - Methyl p-hydroxybenzoate sodium salt was administered to rabbits (800 mg/kg bw/d) and urine collected for 24 hours was examined for metabolites. After application ...
Renalase, FAD-dependent amine oxidase is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the RNLS gene. Renalase is a flavin adenine dinucleotide-dependent amine oxidase that is secreted into the blood from the kidney. The gene encoding this protein is called RNLS (also known as C10orf59 or FLJ11218). The renalase gene has 9 exons spanning approximately 311,000 bp and resides on chromosome 10 at q23.33. The renalase protein consists of a putative secretory signal peptide (SignalP score of 0.4), a flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)-binding region, and an oxidase domain. At least four alternative splicing isoforms have been identified in humans (hRenalase1 to hRenalase4). Only hRenalase1 is detected in human blood samples, which means that hRenalase2 to 4 probably have different functions than hRenalase1. Analysis of the primary structure of renalase shows that it is an FAD-dependent oxidase. The X-ray crystal structure of hRenalase1 reveals structural similarity between renalase and p-hydroxybenzoate ...
Pseudomonas Fluorescens in Delhi : Peptech Biosciences Ltd., a world class Pseudomonas Fluorescens manufacturer and Top Supplier in Delhi. Get a best quote on Pseudomonas Fluorescens in Delhi. Call Us Now @ +919999168770
Peter and Erin Slocum paid $715,155 for 13 acres of open land in Medina in 2006. They built a four-bedroom, six-bath, 5,806-square foot home and a second building on the grounds. Plans change, however, and the Slocums sold their farmhouse for $2.1 million,. Tagged with: Coldwell Banker Burnet Edina Realty Fritz Kroll Gregg Larsen Phoenix on the River. Read More » ...
An antibiotic substance isolated from Pseudomonas fluorescens strain G308 was earlier assigned the structure of N-mercapto-4-formylcarbosty...
14 (3): 276-283. Hassan, S. T. S.; Švajdlenka, E.; Berchová-Bímová, K. (April 2017). "Hibiscus sabdariffa L. and its bioactive ... The enzyme protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase uses 3,4-dihydroxybenzoate and O2 to produce 3-carboxy-cis,cis-muconate. Ethyl ... 43 (3): 474-477. doi:10.1042/bj0430474. PMC 1274717. PMID 16748434. Pacheco Palencia, L. A.; Mertens-Talcott, S; Talcott, S. T ... Lin, H.-H.; Chen, J.-H.; Huang, C.-C.; Wang, C.-J. (June 2007). "Apoptotic effect of 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid on human gastric ...
... may refer to: Benzoate 4-monooxygenase 4-hydroxybenzoate 3-monooxygenase This set index page ...
... may refer to: 4-hydroxybenzoate 3-monooxygenase (NAD(P)H) 4-hydroxybenzoate 3-monooxygenase ...
55 (3): 888-96. doi:10.1016/0006-291X(73)91227-8. PMID 4148586. Premkumar R, Rao PV, Sreeleela NS, Vaidyanathan CS (1969). "m- ... In enzymology, a 3-hydroxybenzoate 4-monooxygenase (EC is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction 3- ... hydroxybenzoate + NADPH + H+ + O2 ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } 3,4-dihydroxybenzoate + NADP+ + H2O The 4 substrates of ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is 3-hydroxybenzoate,NADPH:oxygen oxidoreductase (4-hydroxylating). This enzyme is ...
Howell LG, Spector T, Massey V (July 1972). "Purification and properties of p-hydroxybenzoate hydroxylase from Pseudomonas ... Spector T, Massey V (July 1972). "Studies on the effector specificity of p-hydroxybenzoate hydroxylase from Pseudomonas ... Hosokawa K, Stanier RY (May 1966). "Crystallization and properties of p-hydroxybenzoate hydroxylase from Pseudomonas putida". ... Spector T, Massey V (September 1972). "p-Hydroxybenzoate hydroxylase from Pseudomonas fluorescens. Evidence for an oxygenated ...
... m-hydroxybenzoate 6-hydroxylase, and 3-hydroxybenzoic acid-6-hydroxylase. This enzyme participates in benzoate degradation via ... In enzymology, a 3-hydroxybenzoate 6-monooxygenase (EC is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction 3- ... hydroxybenzoate + NADH + H+ + O2 ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } 2,5-dihydroxybenzoate + NAD+ + H2O The 4 substrates of ... 55 (3): 897-903. doi:10.1016/0006-291X(73)91228-X. PMID 4357436. Biology portal v t e. ...
Fujii T, Kaneda T (1985). "Purification and properties of NADH/NADPH-dependent p-hydroxybenzoate hydroxylase from ... In enzymology, a 4-hydroxybenzoate 3-monooxygenase [NAD(P)H] (EC is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is 4-hydroxybenzoate,NAD(P)H:oxygen oxidoreductase (3-hydroxylating). Other names in ... Seibold B, Matthes M, Eppink MH, Lingens F, Van Berkel WJ, Muller R (1996). "4-Hydroxybenzoate hydroxylase from Pseudomonas sp ...
... camphor 5-monooxygenase MeSH D08.811.682.690.708.170.500 - alkane 1-monooxygenase MeSH D08.811.682.690.708.170.915 - steroid ... monophenol monooxygenase MeSH D08.811.682.690.708.170 - cytochrome p-450 enzyme system MeSH D08.811.682.690.708.170.040 - aryl ... monooxygenase MeSH D08.811.682.690.708.392.468 - Linoleoyl-CoA desaturase MeSH D08.811.682.690.708.392.625 - stearoyl-coa ... camphor 5-monooxygenase MeSH D08.244.453.915 - steroid hydroxylases MeSH D08.244.453.915.050 - aldosterone synthase MeSH ...
... and p-hydroxybenzoate hydroxylase. This enzyme participates in benzoate degradation via hydroxylation and benzoate degradation ... In enzymology, a benzoate 4-monooxygenase (EC, Formerly EC is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is benzoate,NADPH:oxygen oxidoreductase (4-hydroxylating). Other names in common use ... It has 3 cofactors: iron, Tetrahydrobiopterin, and Tetrahydropteridine. Reddy CC, Vaidyanathan CS (1975). "Purification, ...
In enzymology, a 4-methoxybenzoate monooxygenase (O-demethylating) (EC is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical ... 119 (3): 595-602. doi:10.1111/j.1432-1033.1981.tb05649.x. PMID 6273164. Biology portal v t e. ... Twilfer H, Bernhardt FH, Gersonde K (1981). "An electron-spin-resonance study on the redox-active centers of the 4- ... methoxybenzoate monooxygenase from Pseudomonas putida". Eur. J. Biochem. ...
... is a popular antioxidant in part because of its low toxicity. The LD50 is 2200 mg/kg in mice (oral). 4- ... 4-Hydroxybenzoic acid is primarily known as the basis for the preparation of its esters, known as parabens, which are used as ... 4-Hydroxybenzoic acid has about one tenth the acidity of benzoic acid, having an acid dissociation constant Ka = 3.3×10−5 M at ... 4-Hydroxybenzoic acid can be found naturally in coconut. It is one of the main catechins metabolites found in humans after ...
1976). "Flavin-oxygen derivatives involved in the hydroxylation of p-hydroxybenzoate hydroxylase". J. Biol. Chem. 251 (9): 2550 ... but is believed to follow mechanisms related to the flavin-dependent monooxygenases. After L-kynurenine binds, NADPH reduces ... Tautomerization yields 3-hydroxy-L-kynurenine in complex with the enzyme (E Fl HOH-P). Dissociation of 3-hydroxy-L-kynurenine ... Kynurenine 3-monooxygenase serves as an important branch point in the kynurenine pathway and, as a result, is an attractive ...
Sircar, D.; Mitra, A. (2008). "Evidence for p-hydroxybenzoate formation involving enzymatic phenylpropanoid side-chain cleavage ... In enzymology, a 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde dehydrogenase (EC is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction 4- ... 165 (4): 407-414. doi:10.1016/j.jplph.2007.05.005. PMID 17658659. Biology portal v t e. ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is 3-hydroxybenzaldehyde:NAD+ oxidoreductase. This enzyme is also called p- ...
p-Hydroxybenzoate hydroxylase (PHBH) catalyzes the oxygenation of p-hydroxybenzoate (pOHB) to 3,4-dihyroxybenzoate (3,4-diOHB ... Cytochrome P450 type enzymes that catalyze monooxygenase (hydroxylation) reactions are dependent on the transfer of two ... Riboflavin FADH2 FMN FMO, flavin-containing monooxygenase NAD Teufel, Robin; Agarwal, Vinayak; Moore, Bradley S. (2016-04-01 ... 5 (3): 533-44. doi:10.1093/mp/sss020. PMID 22431563. Sivabalan S, Vedeswari CP, Jayachandran S, Koteeswaran D, Pravda C, Aruna ...
... cytochrome P450 monooxygenases, and fatty acid monooxygenases, are a set of cytochrome P450-containing enzymes that catalyze ... Schreuder HA, van Berkel WJ, Eppink MH, Bunthol C (1999). "Phe161 and Arg166 variants of p-hydroxybenzoate hydroxylase. ... The CYP omega hydroxylases are often referred to as monoxygenases; however, the monooxygenases are CYP450 enzymes that add a ... The CYP450 omega hydroxylases are accordingly better viewed as a subset of monooxygenases that have the ability to hydroxylate ...
Renilla-luciferin 2-monooxygenase EC Cypridina-luciferin 2-monooxygenase EC Firefly luciferase EC ... Watasenia-luciferin 2-monooxygenase EC Oplophorus-luciferin 2-monooxygenase EC Cytochrome P450 oxidase ... 3-((3aS,4S,7aS)-7a-methyl-1,5-dioxo-octahydro-1H-inden-4-yl)propanoate-CoA ligase EC 3-oxocholest-4-en-26-oate-CoA ... internal monooxygenases or internal mixed function oxidases)) ... EC 1.6.4 now Category:EC 1.8.1 Category:EC 1.6.5 (with a ...
... tetraacyldisaccharide 4'-kinase EC now EC EC now EC EC now with EC 2.7. ... UDP-4-amino-4,6-dideoxy-N-acetyl-beta-L-altrosamine N-acetyltransferase EC UDP-4-amino-4,6-dideoxy-N-acetyl-alpha-D- ... precorrin-4 C11-methyltransferase EC now with EC EC now EC EC chlorophenol ... hygromycin B 4-O-kinase EC O-phosphoseryl-tRNASec kinase EC glycerate 2-kinase EC 3-deoxy-D- ...
Category:EC 1.13.12 (With incorporation of one atom of oxygen (internal monooxygenases or internal mixed function oxidases)) * ... Category:Lyases (EC 4) (Lyase)Edit. Category:EC 4.1 (carbon-carbon lyases)Edit. *Category:EC 4.1.1 *Ornithine decarboxylase (EC ... Category:EC 1.6.4 now Category:EC 1.8.1. *Category:EC 1.6.5 (with a quinone or similar compound as acceptor) *NADH ... Category:EC 1.9.3 (with oxygen as acceptor) *Cytochrome c oxidase EC ...
55 (3): 888-96. doi:10.1016/0006-291X(73)91227-8. PMID 4148586. Premkumar R, Rao PV, Sreeleela NS, Vaidyanathan CS (1969). "m- ... In enzymology, a 3-hydroxybenzoate 4-monooxygenase (EC is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction 3- ... hydroxybenzoate + NADPH + H+ + O2 ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } 3,4-dihydroxybenzoate + NADP+ + H2O The 4 substrates of ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is 3-hydroxybenzoate,NADPH:oxygen oxidoreductase (4-hydroxylating). This enzyme is ...
Howell LG, Spector T, Massey V (July 1972). "Purification and properties of p-hydroxybenzoate hydroxylase from Pseudomonas ... Spector T, Massey V (July 1972). "Studies on the effector specificity of p-hydroxybenzoate hydroxylase from Pseudomonas ... Hosokawa K, Stanier RY (May 1966). "Crystallization and properties of p-hydroxybenzoate hydroxylase from Pseudomonas putida". ... Spector T, Massey V (September 1972). "p-Hydroxybenzoate hydroxylase from Pseudomonas fluorescens. Evidence for an oxygenated ...
... we have assembled a consensus sequence for nicotinamide-flavoprotein monooxygenases which differs from that of the ... The pobA gene encoding p-hydroxybenzoate hydroxylase (PobA) from Acinetobacter calcoaceticus has been developed as a genetic ... Evolutionary divergence of pobA, the structural gene encoding p-hydroxybenzoate hydroxylase in an Acinetobacter calcoaceticus ...
Purification and properties of NADH/NADPH-dependent p-hydroxybenzoate hydroxylase from Corynebacterium cyclohexanicum. ... 4-hydroxybenzoate [CPD:C00156];. NADH [CPD:C00004];. NADPH [CPD:C00005];. H+ [CPD:C00080];. O2 [CPD:C00007]. ... Pathway (6) KEGG PATHWAY (6) Chemical substance (9) KEGG COMPOUND (9) Chemical reaction (3) KEGG REACTION (2) KEGG RCLASS (1) ... 3,4-dihydroxybenzoate [CPD:C00230];. NAD+ [CPD:C00003];. NADP+ [CPD:C00006];. H2O [CPD:C00001]. ...
Characterization of the 4-carboxy-4-hydroxy-2-oxoadipate aldolase gene and operon structure of the protocatechuate 4,5-cleavage ... 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase NAD-binding protein [KO:K07516] [EC:] ...
And other monooxygenases",. abstract = "The crystal structure is reported of p-hydroxybenzoate hydroxylase (PobA) from ... And other monooxygenases. / Lazar, John T.; Shuvalova, Ludmilla A; Rosas-Lemus, Monica; Kiryukhina, Olga; Satchell, Karla J. F. ... And other monooxygenases. John T. Lazar, Ludmilla A Shuvalova, Monica Rosas-Lemus, Olga Kiryukhina, Karla J. F. Satchell, ... And other monooxygenases. In: Acta Crystallographica Section F: Structural Biology Communications. 2019 ; Vol. 75. pp. 507-514. ...
B) The monooxygenase gene, praI, is integrated in both JME7 (black) and JME50 (orange). The difference between JME7 and JME50 ... FIG 3 A mutation in the RBS of pcaH is sufficient for reproduction of the increase in the PCA-specific growth rate. (A) The ... A) The 3,4-cleavage pathway of PCA was transferred from P. putida KT2440 to E. coli, allowing growth with PCA as the sole ... F− Δ(araD-araB)567 lacZ4787(del)::rrnB-3 λ− rph-1 Δ(rhaD-rhaB)568 hsdR514. 33. ...
B) The monooxygenase gene, praI, is integrated in both JME7 (black) and JME50 (orange). The difference between JME7 and JME50 ... FIG 3 A mutation in the RBS of pcaH is sufficient for reproduction of the increase in the PCA-specific growth rate. (A) The ... A) The 3,4-cleavage pathway of PCA was transferred from P. putida KT2440 to E. coli, allowing growth with PCA as the sole ... PCA and 4-HB were dissolved in water at 5 g/liter, filter sterilized, and added at a final concentration of 1 g/liter. The pH ...
4-hydroxybenzoate + NAD(P)H + O(2) <=> 3,4-dihydroxybenzoate + NAD(P)(+) + H(2)O. ... The enzyme from Corynebacterium cyclohexanicum is highly specific for 4-hydroxybenzoate, but uses NADH and NADPH at ...
3). Therefore, the decrease in the growth rate is presumably not caused by limiting O2 diffusion but by the high Kmvalue (20 μM ... 3. Growth rate, O2 consumption by dioxygenases, and maximal rate of O2 diffusion into the bacteria (P. putida KT2442) as a ... P. putida mt-2(pWWO) was grown in a phosphate-buffered medium (14.0 g of Na2HPO4 · 12H2O, 2.0 g of KH2PO4 per liter) ... Benzoate (retention time [Rt] = 68 min), 4-hydroxybenzoate (Rt = 51 min), catechol (Rt = 32.0 min), and protocatechuate (Rt = ...
Orcinol 2-monooxygenase Phenol 2-monooxygenase (NADPH) Flavin-containing monooxygenase Kynurenine ... 5-monooxygenase Violacein synthase F-actin monooxygenase Acetone monooxygenase (methyl ... 20-monooxygenase 2-nitrophenol 2-monooxygenase Albendazole monooxygenase (flavin-containing) 4 ... hydroxybenzoate 3-monooxygenase (NAD(P)H) Leukotriene-E(4) 20-monooxygenase Anthranilate 3-monooxygenase ...
3-Hydroxybenzoate 4-monooxygenase Current Synonym true false 124236014 3-Hydroxybenzoate 4-hydroxylase Current Synonym true ... 3-hydroxybenzoate 4-hydroxylase Current Synonym true false 3721351018 3-hydroxybenzoate 4-monooxygenase Current Synonym true ... 3-hydroxybenzoate 4-monooxygenase (substance). Code System Preferred Concept Name. 3-hydroxybenzoate 4-monooxygenase (substance ...
p-Hydroxybenzoate hydroxylase Current Synonym true false 2646349014 4-Hydroxybenzoate 3-monooxygenase Current Synonym true ... 4-hydroxybenzoate 3-monooxygenase Current Synonym true false 3722908014 p-hydroxybenzoate hydroxylase Current Synonym true ... 4-hydroxybenzoate 3-monooxygenase (NAD(P)H) Current Synonym true false 209002016 4-hydroxybenzoate 3-hydroxylase Current ... 4-hydroxybenzoate 3-monooxygenase (reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) Current Synonym true false ...
The refined 1.9 A structure of the p-hydroxybenzoate hydroxylase-substrate complex was the basis of further refinement of the ... Crystal structure of the p-hydroxybenzoate hydroxylase-substrate complex refined at 1.9 A resolution. Analysis of the enzyme- ... The conformation of FAD in p-hydroxybenzoate hydroxylase is strikingly similar to that in glutathione reductase, while the ... Using synchrotron radiation, the X-ray diffraction intensities of crystals of p-hydroxy-benzoate hydroxylase, complexed with ...
p Hydroxybenzoate Hydroxylase p-Hydroxybenzoate Hydroxylase para Hydroxybenzoate Hydroxylase para-Hydroxybenzoate Hydroxylase ... Squalene Monooxygenase [D08.811.682.690.708.749] Squalene Monooxygenase * Trans Cinnamate 4 Monooxygenase [D08.811.682.690. ... Hydroxylase, p-Hydroxybenzoate. Hydroxylase, para-Hydroxybenzoate. p Hydroxybenzoate Hydroxylase. p-Hydroxybenzoate Hydroxylase ... 4-Hydroxybenzoate-3-Monooxygenase - Preferred Concept UI. M0023240. Scope note. A flavoprotein that catalyzes the synthesis of ...
Monooxygenase possible 2-polyprenyl-6-methoxyphenol hydroxylase Probable protein kinase 0.504. PBAL39_21295. PBAL39_25205. ...
Functional Annotations (4). Function. System. P pilus assembly protein, chaperone PapD. cog/ cog. protein binding. go/ ... type 4 fimbrial biogenesis protein FimT (NCBI). 80, 471. PA4589. PA4589. probable outer membrane protein precursor (NCBI). 246 ... POSITION A C G T 1 1.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 2 1.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 3 0.0 0.0 1.0 0.0 4 1.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 5 1.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 6 0.0 0.0 1.0 0.0 7 ... POSITION A C G T 1 1.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 2 0.0 0.75 0.0 0.25 3 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.0 4 0.0 0.0 1.0 0.0 5 0.25 0.5 0.0 0.25 6 0.0 0.5 0.0 ...
alkane-1-monooxygenase (NCBI). 30, 192. PA2651. PA2651. hypothetical protein (NCBI). 30, 117. ... Functional Annotations (3). Function. System. Transcriptional regulator. cog/ cog. sequence-specific DNA binding transcription ... POSITION A C G T 1 1.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 2 1.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 3 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.0 4 1.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 5 0.0 0.0 1.0 0.0 6 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.0 7 ... POSITION A C G T 1 0.0 0.0 1.0 0.0 2 0.0 0.2 0.2 0.6 3 0.6 0.0 0.4 0.0 4 0.0 0.0 1.0 0.0 5 0.0 0.6 0.0 0.4 6 0.2 0.4 0.4 0.0 7 ...
... and 2-hydroxy-4-aminobenzoate and of the Tyr222Ala mutant complexed with 2-hydroxy-4-aminobenzoate. Evidence for a proton ... Crystal structures of wild-type p-hydroxybenzoate hydroxylase complexed with 4-aminobenzoate,2,4-dihydroxybenzoate, ... P-HYDROXYBENZOATE HYDROXYLASE (1PBC:A) * Monooxygenase Activity * Oxidoreductase Activity * 4 Hydroxybenzoate 3 Monooxygenase ... p-Hydroxybenzoate hydroxylase, PHBH Pseudomonas fluorescens [TaxId: 294] A174-275. d1pbca2. Alpha and beta proteins (a+b) FAD- ...
P-hydroxybenzoate hydroxylase; Pbenz_hydroxyl- 4-hydroxybenzoate 3-monooxygenase. 0.733. DR97_5102. DR97_5701. DR97_5102. DR97_ ...
2,3-bisphosphoglycerate-independent phosphoglycerate mutase [1] (data from MRSA252). NWMN_RS04215. enolase [1] (data from ... FAD_binding_3; FAD binding domain (PF01494; HMM-score: 20.7) 3HCDH_N; 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase, NAD binding domain ( ... J. Proteome Res.: 2011, 10(3);1139-50 [PubMed:21166474] [] [DOI] (I p) ... Pyr_redox_3; Pyridine nucleotide-disulphide oxidoreductase (PF13738; HMM-score: 47.3) GIDA; Glucose inhibited division protein ...
glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase 1 [1] (data from MRSA252). NWMN_1837. (gatB). aspartyl/glutamyl-tRNA amidotransferase ... FAD_binding_3; FAD binding domain (PF01494; HMM-score: 20.7) 3HCDH_N; 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase, NAD binding domain ( ... J. Proteome Res.: 2011, 10(3);1139-50 [PubMed:21166474] [] [DOI] (I p) ... Pyr_redox_3; Pyridine nucleotide-disulphide oxidoreductase (PF13738; HMM-score: 47.3) GIDA; Glucose inhibited division protein ...
... or monophenol monooxygenase; carboxypeptidase A; diamine oxidase; xanthine oxidase; phenylalanine ammonia-lyase; creatine ... salicylate 1-monooxygenase; procollagen-lysine 5-dioxygenase; procollagen-proline 3-dioxygenase; procollagen-proline 4- ... Category 4. Warning. P264, P270, P301+P312, P330, P501. H315 Causes skin irritation. Skin corrosion/irritation. Category 2. ... Category 3. Warning. H336 May cause drowsiness or dizziness. Specific target organ toxicity,single exposure; Narcotic effects. ...
Squalene Monooxygenase. *Steroid Hydroxylases. *Trans-Cinnamate 4-Monooxygenase. *Tryptophan Hydroxylase. *Tyrosine 3- ... Maternal omega-3 fatty acids regulate offspring obesity through persistent modulation of gut microbiota. Microbiome. 2018 05 24 ... Influence of toll-like receptor 4 gene variants and plasma fatty acid profile on systemic inflammation: A population-based ... Genetic profiling of fatty acid desaturase polymorphisms identifies patients who may benefit from high-dose omega-3 fatty acids ...
Ortiz-Maldonado M, Ballou DP, Massey V. A rate-limiting conformational change of the flavin in p-hydroxybenzoate hydroxylase is ...
Several mutants have been obtained which are unable to utilize either or both of the aromatic carbon sources p-hydroxy- ... Three successive inductive events permitted the synthesis of the five enzymes converting p-hydroxybenzoate to 3-oxoadipyl-CoA: ... Regulation of Aromatic Metabolism in the Fungi: Metabolic Control of the 3-Oxoadipate Pathway in the Yeast Rhodotorula ... SUMMARY: The metabolic control of the protocatechuate branch of the 3-oxoadipate pathway in Rhodotorula mucilaginosa was ...
Three successive inductive events permitted the synthesis of the five enzymes converting p-hydroxybenzoate to 3-oxoadipyl-CoA: ... 4-dioxygenase by either protocatechuate or p-hydroxybenzoate, and finally the co-ordinate induction of 3-carboxymuconate ... The metabolic control of the protocatechuate branch of the 3-oxoadipate pathway in Rhodotorula mucilaginosa was examined and ... the independent induction of 4-hydroxybenzoate 3-mono-oxygenase by its own specific substrate, the independent induction of ...
Estradiol 6β-monooxygenase Pages 308-309 * Androst-4-ene-3,17-dione monooxygenase ...
... methoxybenzoate monooxygenase O - demethylating - pyridoxolactonase monooxygenase - formylbenzenesulfonate decarboxylase - ... monooxygenase 4-phytase - hydroxy - - methylbut - - en - - yl 4-nitrophenol 2-monooxygenase 4-hydroxycyclohexanecarboxylate ... 4-hydroxy-3-methylbut-2-en-1-yl diphosphate synthase In Enzymology, a 4-hydroxy-3-methylbut-2-EN-1-yl diphosphate synthase is ... 4-Coumarate-CoA ligase In Enzymology, a 4-of coumarate-COA ligase the enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + 4- ...
YS-1r strain also codes for enzymes like phenol 2 monooxygenase, 4-hydroxybenzoate-3-monooxygenase, catechol-2,3-dioxygenase, ... of MBES04 also revealed information about the genes involved in the aromatic compound degradation such as p-hydroxybenzoate 3- ... monooxygenase and vanillate monooxygenase. MBES04 strain also showed three copies of the protocatechuate 4, 5-dioxygenase α and ... Enzymes involved in aromatic ring oxidation and cleavage such as phenol 2-monooxygenase, 4-hydroxybenzoate 3-monooxygenase, ...
  • In enzymology, a 3-hydroxybenzoate 4-monooxygenase (EC is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction 3-hydroxybenzoate + NADPH + H+ + O2 ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } 3,4-dihydroxybenzoate + NADP+ + H2O The 4 substrates of this enzyme are 3-hydroxybenzoate, NADPH, H+, and O2, whereas its 3 products are 3,4-dihydroxybenzoate, NADP+, and H2O. (
  • The systematic name of this enzyme class is 3-hydroxybenzoate,NADPH:oxygen oxidoreductase (4-hydroxylating). (
  • The hydroxylase, 4-hydroxybenzoate 3-monooxygenase, proceeds through a catalytic process that begins with the entrance of NADPH and 4-hydroxybenzoate (the native substrate) into the active site of the enzyme. (
  • This enzyme is also called 3-hydroxybenzoate 4-hydroxylase. (
  • This enzyme participates in benzoate degradation via hydroxylation and 2,4-dichlorobenzoate degradation. (
  • The enzyme 4-hydroxybenzoate 3-monooxygenase, also commonly referred to as para-hydroxybenzoate hydroxylase (PHBH), is a flavoprotein belonging to the family of oxidoreductases. (
  • 4-hydroxybenzoate 3-monooygenase catalyzes the regioselective hydroxylation of 4-hydroxybenzoate, giving 3,4-dihydroxybenzoate as the product. (
  • The active site limits potential substrates to substituted benzenes, namely 4-hydroxybenzoate (the native substrate), 2,4-dihydroxybenzoate, 4-mercaptobenzoate, and several halogenated aromatic compounds. (