Sleep: A readily reversible suspension of sensorimotor interaction with the environment, usually associated with recumbency and immobility.Anoxia: Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.Sleep Apnea Syndromes: Disorders characterized by multiple cessations of respirations during sleep that induce partial arousals and interfere with the maintenance of sleep. Sleep apnea syndromes are divided into central (see SLEEP APNEA, CENTRAL), obstructive (see SLEEP APNEA, OBSTRUCTIVE), and mixed central-obstructive types.Sleep Apnea, Obstructive: A disorder characterized by recurrent apneas during sleep despite persistent respiratory efforts. It is due to upper airway obstruction. The respiratory pauses may induce HYPERCAPNIA or HYPOXIA. Cardiac arrhythmias and elevation of systemic and pulmonary arterial pressures may occur. Frequent partial arousals occur throughout sleep, resulting in relative SLEEP DEPRIVATION and daytime tiredness. Associated conditions include OBESITY; ACROMEGALY; MYXEDEMA; micrognathia; MYOTONIC DYSTROPHY; adenotonsilar dystrophy; and NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p395)Polysomnography: Simultaneous and continuous monitoring of several parameters during sleep to study normal and abnormal sleep. The study includes monitoring of brain waves, to assess sleep stages, and other physiological variables such as breathing, eye movements, and blood oxygen levels which exhibit a disrupted pattern with sleep disturbances.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Sleep, REM: A stage of sleep characterized by rapid movements of the eye and low voltage fast pattern EEG. It is usually associated with dreaming.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Sleep Disorders: Conditions characterized by disturbances of usual sleep patterns or behaviors. Sleep disorders may be divided into three major categories: DYSSOMNIAS (i.e. disorders characterized by insomnia or hypersomnia), PARASOMNIAS (abnormal sleep behaviors), and sleep disorders secondary to medical or psychiatric disorders. (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p187)Sleep Apnea, Central: A condition associated with multiple episodes of sleep apnea which are distinguished from obstructive sleep apnea (SLEEP APNEA, OBSTRUCTIVE) by the complete cessation of efforts to breathe. This disorder is associated with dysfunction of central nervous system centers that regulate respiration.Cardanolides: The aglycone constituents of CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES. The ring structure is basically a cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene nucleus attached to a lactone ring at the C-17 position.Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Ouabain: A cardioactive glycoside consisting of rhamnose and ouabagenin, obtained from the seeds of Strophanthus gratus and other plants of the Apocynaceae; used like DIGITALIS. It is commonly used in cell biological studies as an inhibitor of the NA(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE.Lithium: An element in the alkali metals family. It has the atomic symbol Li, atomic number 3, and atomic weight [6.938; 6.997]. Salts of lithium are used in treating BIPOLAR DISORDER.Furosemide: A benzoic-sulfonamide-furan. It is a diuretic with fast onset and short duration that is used for EDEMA and chronic RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Biological Transport, Active: The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.Diet, Sodium-Restricted: A diet which contains very little sodium chloride. It is prescribed by some for hypertension and for edematous states. (Dorland, 27th ed)Mesembryanthemum: A plant genus of the family AIZOACEAE. It is a native of Africa and widely planted for erosion control to stabilize soil along roadsides and beaches.Stellaria: A plant genus of the family CARYOPHYLLACEAE.Chlorides: Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.Sodium Chloride: A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.Photosynthesis: The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)AcridinesVacuoles: Any spaces or cavities within a cell. They may function in digestion, storage, secretion, or excretion.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Aquaporins: A class of porins that allow the passage of WATER and other small molecules across CELL MEMBRANES.Acidosis: A pathologic condition of acid accumulation or depletion of base in the body. The two main types are RESPIRATORY ACIDOSIS and metabolic acidosis, due to metabolic acid build up.Boron Compounds: Inorganic or organic compounds that contain boron as an integral part of the molecule.Rats, Inbred WFXenopus: An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Xenopus laevis: The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.Permeability: Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.Oocytes: Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
(1/190) Transport of fluid by lens epithelium.

We report for the first time that cultured lens epithelial cell layers and rabbit lenses in vitro transport fluid. Layers of the alphaTN4 mouse cell line and bovine cell cultures were grown to confluence on permeable membrane inserts. Fluid movement across cultured layers and excised rabbit lenses was determined by volume clamp (37 degrees C). Cultured layers transported fluid from their basal to their apical sides against a pressure head of 3 cmH2O. Rates were (in microliter. h-1. cm-2) 3.3 +/- 0.3 for alphaTN4 cells (n = 27) and 4.7 +/- 1.0 for bovine layers (n = 6). Quinidine, a blocker of K+ channels, and p-chloromercuribenzenesulfonate and HgCl2, inhibitors of aquaporins, inhibited fluid transport. Rabbit lenses transported fluid from their anterior to their posterior sides against a 2.5-cmH2O pressure head at 10.3 +/- 0.62 microliter. h-1. lens-1 (n = 5) and along the same pressure head at 12.5 +/- 1.1 microliter. h-1. lens-1 (n = 6). We calculate that this flow could wash the lens extracellular space by convection about once every 2 h and therefore might contribute to lens homeostasis and transparency.  (+info)

(2/190) Transmembrane segment 5 of the Glut1 glucose transporter is an amphipathic helix that forms part of the sugar permeation pathway.

Transmembrane segment 5 of the Glut1 glucose transporter has been proposed to form an amphipathic transmembrane helix that lines the substrate translocation pathway (Mueckler, M., Caruso, C., Baldwin, S. A., Panico, M., Blench, I., Morris, H. R., Allard, W. J., Lienhard, G. E., and Lodish, H. F. (1985) Science 229, 941-945). This hypothesis was tested using cysteine-scanning mutagenesis in conjunction with the membrane-impermeant, sulfhydryl-specific reagent, p-chloromercuribenzenesulfonate (pCMBS). A series of 21 mutants was created from a fully functional, cysteine-less, parental Glut1 molecule by changing each residue within putative transmembrane segment 5 to cysteine. Each mutant was then expressed in Xenopus oocytes and its steady-state protein level, 2-deoxyglucose uptake activity, and sensitivity to pCMBS were measured. All 21 mutants exhibited measurable transport activity, although several of the mutants exhibited reduced activity due to a corresponding reduction in steady-state protein. Six of the amino acid side chains within transmembrane segment 5 were clearly accessible to pCMBS in the external medium, as determined by inhibition of transport activity, and a 7th residue showed inhibition that lacked statistical significance because of the extremely low transport activity of the corresponding mutant. All 7 of these residues were clustered along one face of a putative alpha-helix, proximal to the exoplasmic surface of the plasma membrane. These results comprise the first experimental evidence for the existence of an amphipathic transmembrane alpha-helix in a glucose transporter molecule and strongly suggest that transmembrane segment 5 of Glut1 forms part of the sugar permeation pathway.  (+info)

(3/190) Identification of the amine-polyamine-choline transporter superfamily 'consensus amphipathic region' as the target for inactivation of the Escherichia coli GABA transporter GabP by thiol modification reagents. Role of Cys-300 in restoring thiol sensitivity to Gabp lacking Cys.

The Escherichia coli gamma-aminobutyric acid transporter GabP (gab permease) contains a functionally significant cysteine residue (Cys-300) within its consensus amphipathic region (CAR), a putative channel-forming structure that extends out of transmembrane helix 8 and into the adjoining cytoplasmic loop 8-9 of transporters from the amine-polyamine-choline (APC) superfamily. Here we show that of the five cysteine residues (positions 158, 251, 291, 300 and 443) in the E. coli GabP, Cys-300 is the one that renders the transport activity sensitive to inhibition by thiol modification reagents: whereas substituting Ala for Cys-300 mimics the inhibitory effect of thiol modification, substituting Ala at position 158, 251, 291 or 443 preserves robust transport activity and confers no resistance to thiol inactivation; and whereas the robustly active Cys-300 single-Cys mutant is fully sensitive to thiol modification, other single-Cys mutants (Cys at 158, 251, 291 or 443) exhibit kinetically compromised transport activities that resist further chemical inactivation by thiol reagents. The present study reveals additionally that Cys-300 exhibits (1) sensitivity to hydrophobic thiol reagents, (2) general resistance to bulky (fluorescein 5-maleimide) and/or charged {2-sulphonatoethyl methanethiosulphonate or [2-(trimethylammonium)ethyl] methanethiosulphonate} thiol reagents and (3) a peculiar sensitivity to p-chloromercuribenzenesulphonate (PCMBS). The accessibility of PCMBS to Cys-300 (located midway through the lipid bilayer) might be related to the structural similarity that it shares with guvacine (1, 2,3,6-tetrahydro-3-pyridinecarboxylic acid), a transported GabP substrate. These structural requirements for thiol sensitivity provide the first chemical evidence consistent with channel-like access to the polar surface of the CAR, a physical configuration that might provide a basis for understanding how this region impacts the function of APC transporters generally [Closs, Lyons, Kelly and Cunningham (1993) J. Biol. Chem. 268, 20796-20800] and the gab permease particularly [Hu and King (1998) Biochem. J. 300, 771-776].  (+info)

(4/190) Melibiose carrier of Escherichia coli: use of cysteine mutagenesis to identify the amino acids on the hydrophilic face of transmembrane helix 2.

The melibiose carrier from Escherichia coli is a galactoside-cation symporter. Based on both experimental evidence and hydropathy analysis, 12 transmembrane helices have been assigned to this integral membrane protein. Transmembrane helix 2 contains several charged and polar amino acids that have been shown to be essential for the cation-coupled transport of melibiose. Starting with the cysteine-less melibiose carrier, we have individually substituted cysteine for amino acids 39-66, which includes the proposed transmembrane helix 2. In the resulting derivative carriers, we measured the transport of melibiose, determined the effect of the hydrophilic sulfhydryl reagent, p-chloromercuribenzenesulfonic acid (PCMBS), on transport in intact cells and inside out vesicles, and examined the ability of melibiose to protect the carrier from inactivation by the sulfhydryl reagent. We found a set of seven positions in which the reaction with the sulfhydryl reagent caused partial or complete loss of carrier function measured in intact cells or inside-out vesicles. The presence of melibiose protected five of these positions from reaction with PCMBS. The reaction of two additional positions with PCMBS resulted in the partial loss of transport function only in inside-out vesicles. Melibiose protected these two positions from reaction with the reagent. Together, the PCMBS-sensitive sites and charged residues assigned to helix 2 form a cluster of amino acids that map in three rows with each row comprised of every fourth residue. This is the pattern expected of residues that are part of an alpha-helical structure and thus the rows are tilted at an angle of 25 degrees to the helical axis. We suggest that these residues line the path of melibiose and its associated cation through the carrier.  (+info)

(5/190) Roles of Gln81 and Cys80 in catalysis by glycosylphosphatidylinositol-phospholipase C from Trypanosoma brucei.

Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (GPtdIns-PLC) is found in the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei. A region of protein sequence similarity exists between the protozoan enzyme and eubacterial phosphatidylinositol-phospholipases C. The functional relevance of Cys80 and Gln81 of GPtdIns-PLC, both in this region, was tested with a panel of mutations at each position. Gln81Glu, Gln81Ala, Gln81Gly, Gln81Lys and Gln81Leu mutants were inactive. Cleavage of GPtdIns was detectable in Gln81Asn, although the specific activity decreased 500-fold, and kcat was reduced 50-fold. Thus an amide side-chain at residue 81 is essential for catalysis by GPtdIns-PLC. Sulfhydryl reagents inactivate GPtdIns-PLC, suggesting that a Cys could be close to the enzyme active site. Surprisingly, p-chloromercuriphenyl sulfonate (p-CMPS) is significantly more potent than N-ethylmaleimide, the less bulky compound. This knowledge prompted us to test whether replacement of Cys80 with an amino acid possessing a bulky side-chain would inactivate GPtdIns-PLC: Cys80Ala, Cys80Thr, Cys80Phe, Cys184Ala, and Cys269-270-273Ser were constructed for that purpose. Cys80Phe lacked enzyme activity, while Cys80Ala, Cys80Thr and Cys269-270-273Ser retained 33 to 100% of wild-type activity. Interestingly, the Cys80Ala and Cys80Thr mutants became resistant to p-CMPS, as predicted if the sulfhydryl reagent reacted with Cys80 in the wild-type enzyme to form a cysteinyl mercurylphenylsulfonate moiety, a bulky adduct that inactivated GPtdIns-PLC, similar to the Cys80Phe mutation. We conclude that a bulky side-chain (or adduct) at position 80 of GPtdIns-PLC abolishes enzyme activity. Together, these observations place Cys80 and Gln81 at, or close to, the active site of GPtdIns-PLC from T. brucei.  (+info)

(6/190) Gamma-aminobutyric acid increases the water accessibility of M3 membrane-spanning segment residues in gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptors.

Gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABA(A)) receptors are members of the ligand-gated ion channel gene superfamily. Using the substituted cysteine accessibility method, we investigated whether residues in the alpha(1)M3 membrane-spanning segment are water-accessible. Cysteine was substituted, one at a time, for each M3 residue from alpha(1)Ala(291) to alpha(1)Val(307). The ability of these mutants to react with the water-soluble, sulfhydryl-specific reagent pCMBS(-) was assayed electrophysiologically. Cysteines substituted for alpha(1)Ala(291) and alpha(1)Tyr(294) reacted with pCMBS(-) applied both in the presence and in the absence of GABA. Cysteines substituted for alpha(1)Phe(298), alpha(1)Ala(300), alpha(1)Leu(301), and alpha(1)Glu(303) only reacted with pCMBS(-) applied in the presence of GABA. We infer that the pCMBS(-) reactive residues are on the water-accessible surface of the protein and that GABA induces a conformational change that increases the water accessibility of the four M3 residues, possibly by inducing the formation of water-filled crevices that extend into the interior of the protein. Others have shown that mutations of alpha(1)Ala(291), a water-accessible residue, alter volatile anesthetic and ethanol potentiation of GABA-induced currents. Water-filled crevices penetrating into the interior of the membrane-spanning domain may allow anesthetics and alcohol to reach their binding sites and thus may have implications for the mechanisms of action of these agents.  (+info)

(7/190) Cysteine residues in the Na+/dicarboxylate co-transporter, NaDC-1.

The role of cysteine residues in the Na(+)/dicarboxylate co-transporter (NaDC-1) was tested using site-directed mutagenesis. The transport activity of NaDC-1 was not affected by mutagenesis of any of the 11 cysteine residues, indicating that no individual cysteine residue is necessary for function. NaDC-1 is sensitive to inhibition by the impermeant cysteine-specific reagent, p-chloromercuribenzenesulphonate (pCMBS). The pCMBS-sensitive residues in NaDC-1 are Cys-227, found in transmembrane domain 5, and Cys-476, located in transmembrane domain 9. Although cysteine residues are not required for function in NaDC-1, their presence appears to be important for protein stability or trafficking to the plasma membrane. There was a direct relationship between the number of cysteine residues, regardless of location, and the transport activity and expression of NaDC-1. The results indicate that mutagenesis of multiple cysteine residues in NaDC-1 may alter the shape or configuration of the protein, leading to alterations in protein trafficking or stability.  (+info)

(8/190) Requirement of aquaporin-1 for NaCl-driven water transport across descending vasa recta.

Deletion of AQP1 in mice results in diminished urinary concentrating ability, possibly related to reduced NaCl- and urea gradient-driven water transport across the outer medullary descending vasa recta (OMDVR). To quantify the role of AQP1 in OMDVR water transport, we measured osmotically driven water permeability in vitro in microperfused OMDVR from wild-type, AQP1 heterozygous, and AQP1 knockout mice. OMDVR diameters in AQP1(-/-) mice were 1.9-fold greater than in AQP1(+/+) mice. Osmotic water permeability (P(f)) in response to a 200 mM NaCl gradient (bath > lumen) was reduced about 2-fold in AQP1(+/-) mice and by more than 50-fold in AQP1(-/-) mice. P(f) increased from 1015 to 2527 microm/s in AQP1(+/+) mice and from 22 to 1104 microm/s in AQP1(-/-) mice when a raffinose rather than an NaCl gradient was used. This information, together with p-chloromercuribenzenesulfonate inhibition measurements, suggests that nearly all NaCl-driven water transport occurs by a transcellular route through AQP1, whereas raffinose-driven water transport also involves a parallel, AQP1-independent, mercurial-insensitive pathway. Interestingly, urea was also able to drive water movement across the AQP1-independent pathway. Diffusional permeabilities to small hydrophilic solutes were comparable in AQP1(+/+) and AQP1(-/-) mice but higher than those previously measured in rats. In a mathematical model of the medullary microcirculation, deletion of AQP1 resulted in diminished concentrating ability due to enhancement of medullary blood flow, partially accounting for the observed urine-concentrating defect.  (+info)

*  List of MeSH codes (D02)
4,4'-(3-oxo-1,5-pentanediyl)bis(n,n-dimethyl-n-2-propenyl-), dibromide MeSH D02.092.146.325 --- p-dimethylaminoazobenzene MeSH ... 4,5-trisphosphate MeSH D02.033.800.519.400.700 --- phytic acid MeSH D02.033.800.609 --- mannitol MeSH D02.033.800.609.450 --- ... 4-nitrophenyl) ester MeSH D02.705.539.783 --- phorate MeSH D02.705.539.790 --- phosmet MeSH D02.705.539.900 --- temefos MeSH ... 4-nitrophenyl) ester MeSH D02.886.309.783 --- phorate MeSH D02.886.309.790 --- phosmet MeSH D02.886.309.900 --- temefos MeSH ...
*  Aquaporin
Benga G, Popescu O, Pop VI, Holmes RP (1986). "p-(Chloromercuri)benzenesulfonate binding by membrane proteins and the ... 265 (4 Pt 2): F463-76. PMID 7694481. Mitsuoka K, Murata K, Walz T, Hirai T, Agre P, Heymann JB, Engel A, Fujiyoshi Y (1999). " ... 81 (4): 361-8. doi:10.1016/S0888-7543(03)00029-6. PMID 12676560. Radin, M. Judith; Yu, Ming-Jiun; Stoedkilde, Lene; Miller, R ... 19 (4): 456-61. doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.molbev.a004101. PMID 11919287. Sade, N; Shatil-Cohen, A; Attia, Z; Maurel, C; ...
Vacuolar chloride transport in Mesembryanthemum crystallinum L. measured using the fluorescent dye lucigenin. - Oxford...  Vacuolar chloride transport in Mesembryanthemum crystallinum L. measured using the fluorescent dye lucigenin. - Oxford...
In the presence of 250 microm p-chloromercuribenzene sulfonate, a known anion-transport inhibitor, vacuolar Cl(-) transport was ... 4,4'-Diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-Disulfonic Acid, Acridines, Chlorides, Dimethyl Sulfoxide, Flufenamic Acid, Fluorescent Dyes, ...
more infohttps://www.neuroscience.ox.ac.uk/publications/50246
NAVER Academic > Search...  NAVER Academic > Search...
1990 P J Rapiejko et al. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta cited 4 times ... Differential effects of interleukin-2 and interleukin-4 on protein tyrosine phosphorylation in factor-dependent murine T cells. ... 4-Chloromercuribenzenesulfonate, pharmacology, Animals, Biological Transport, Active, Calcium Channels, drug effects, ... Amino Acids, analysis, Animals, Cells, Cultured, Interleukin-2, pharmacology, Interleukin-4, Lymphocyte Activation, ...
more infohttps://academic.naver.com/search.naver?field=3&query=Biochimica+et+Biophysica+Acta+1052%EA%B6%8C+2%ED%98%B8
List of MeSH codes (D02) - Wikipedia  List of MeSH codes (D02) - Wikipedia
4,4'-(3-oxo-1,5-pentanediyl)bis(n,n-dimethyl-n-2-propenyl-), dibromide MeSH D02.092.146.325 --- p-dimethylaminoazobenzene MeSH ... 4,5-trisphosphate MeSH D02.033.800.519.400.700 --- phytic acid MeSH D02.033.800.609 --- mannitol MeSH D02.033.800.609.450 --- ... 4-nitrophenyl) ester MeSH D02.705.539.783 --- phorate MeSH D02.705.539.790 --- phosmet MeSH D02.705.539.900 --- temefos MeSH ... 4-nitrophenyl) ester MeSH D02.886.309.783 --- phorate MeSH D02.886.309.790 --- phosmet MeSH D02.886.309.900 --- temefos MeSH ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_MeSH_codes_(D02)
Phosphatidylinositol hydrolysis by Trypanosoma brucei glycosylphosphatidylinositol phospholipase C. - Semantic Scholar  Phosphatidylinositol hydrolysis by Trypanosoma brucei glycosylphosphatidylinositol phospholipase C. - Semantic Scholar
Detergent-solubilized glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored structures can be cleaved by C-type phospholipases isolated from peanuts and bloodstream cells of the African trypanosome, Trypanosoma brucei. The two enzymes differ in their reported ability to hydrolyze phosphatidylinositol (PI); while the peanut enzyme readily hydrolyzes PI in vitro, the T. brucei enzyme was reported to be virtually inactive against PI and consequently named GPI-specific phospholipase C (GPI-PLC). In this paper, we describe experiments in which we reinvestigated the substrate specificity of T. brucei GPI-PLC by incubating the purified enzyme with Triton X-100/PI-mixed micelles and by studying PI hydrolysis. We found that PI hydrolysis occurred in a detergent-dependent fashion over the range of concentrations tested (5 microM to 1 mM PI). At 5 microM PI, hydrolysis was maximal at 0.005% Triton X-100, whereas at 1 mM PI, maximal hydrolysis required 0.05% Triton X-100. Hydrolysis of both PI and GPI was strongly affected
more infohttps://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Phosphatidylinositol-hydrolysis-by-Trypanosoma-C.-B%C3%BCtikofer-Boschung/4057d6205f955623bc31914c31fa61144fd8f56a
A Cysteine Substitution Probes β3H267 Interactions with Propofol and Other Potent Anesthetics in α1β3γ2L γ-Aminobutyric Acid...  A Cysteine Substitution Probes β3H267 Interactions with Propofol and Other Potent Anesthetics in α1β3γ2L γ-Aminobutyric Acid...
p-Chloromercuribenzenesulfonate acid sodium salt (pCMBS) was purchased from Toronto Research Chemicals (Canada). All other ... Modification of β3H267C by p-chloromercuribenzenesulfonate (n , 4) was rapid and accelerated by GABA. Only mTFD-MPAB slowed ... and anesthetics and to compare p-chloromercuribenzenesulfonate modification rates with GABA versus GABA plus anesthetics. ... The "cut plane" is about 1 helical turn (4 Å) more intracellular than that in A, and the cut surface shown as yellow mesh. The ...
more infohttps://anesthesiology.pubs.asahq.org/article.aspx?articleid=2471778
International Tables for Crystallography) How the structure of lysozyme was actually determined  International Tables for Crystallography) How the structure of lysozyme was actually determined
... p-chloromercuribenzene sulfonate (PCMBS), p-chloromercuribenzoate (PCMB) and K2HgI4, were added to these vials, and precession ... obtained with PdCl4, MHTS and HgI3 are shown. Values of the anomalous-scattering pairs hkl and khl were used for PdCl4 and MHTS ... 26.1.2.6.4. Re-assessment of heavy-atom derivatives. , top , pdf , Given the three-dimensional data to 6 Å resolution for the ... Several other heavy-atom salts, including K2HgBr4, K2PtBr4 and K2AuCl4, gave derivatives in which the heavy atom was attached ...
more infohttps://it.iucr.org/Fa/ch26o1v0001/sec26o1o2/
Plus it  Plus it
Administration of the MCT2 blocker 4CN, but not the MCT1 antagonist p-chloromercuribenzene sulfonate, increased infarct size. ... the MCT1 blocker p-chloromercuribenzene sulfonate (pCMBS) (2 mm; Sigma), or vehicle. In addition, 10 μl of 2 mm 4-CN, pCMBS, or ... 2) (n = 12; p , 0.001), and no infarct was present in sham-operated animals (n = 6 in IH and n = 4 in normoxia) (data not shown ... Figure 4. Quantitative RT-PCR for MCT2 in rat cortical lysates harvested from animals exposed to SH (black columns) or IH (red ...
more infohttp://www.jneurosci.org/content/31/28/10241
Investigations on the Active Site of Glucose Dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas fluorescens | SpringerLink  Investigations on the Active Site of Glucose Dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas fluorescens | SpringerLink
p-chloromercuribenzoate and p-chloromercuri-benzenesulfonate also inactivated apoenzyme, but the inactivation was prevented by ... N-ethylmaleimide and 7-chloro-4-nitrobenzo-2-oxa-1,3-diazole, on the contrary, inactivated especially holoenzyme, and both ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-94-009-0957-1_13
Aquaporin - Wikipedia  Aquaporin - Wikipedia
Benga G, Popescu O, Pop VI, Holmes RP (1986). "p-(Chloromercuri)benzenesulfonate binding by membrane proteins and the ... 265 (4 Pt 2): F463-76. PMID 7694481. Mitsuoka K, Murata K, Walz T, Hirai T, Agre P, Heymann JB, Engel A, Fujiyoshi Y (1999). " ... 81 (4): 361-8. doi:10.1016/S0888-7543(03)00029-6. PMID 12676560. Radin, M. Judith; Yu, Ming-Jiun; Stoedkilde, Lene; Miller, R ... 19 (4): 456-61. doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.molbev.a004101. PMID 11919287. Sade, N; Shatil-Cohen, A; Attia, Z; Maurel, C; ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aquaporin
AR-C155858 is a potent inhibitor of monocarboxylate transporters MCT1 and MCT2 that binds to an intracellular site involving...  AR-C155858 is a potent inhibitor of monocarboxylate transporters MCT1 and MCT2 that binds to an intracellular site involving...
In this context it may be noted that inhibition of MCT1 and MCT2 by the organomercurial reagent p-chloromercuribenzene sulfonate ... For the MCT1/4 and MCT4/1 chimaeras the switch occurs at the end of the loop between TMs 6 and 7 which contains the conserved ... Figure 4 Microinjection of AR-C155858 inhibits MCT1 expressed in Xenopus oocytes MCT1 was expressed in Xenopus oocytes for 72 h ... For the MCT1/4 and MCT4/1 C-terminal chimaeras, the C-terminal regions were brought into the correct reading frame by a single ...
more infohttp://www.biochemj.org/content/425/3/523
Molecular characteristics of small intestinal and renal brush border thiamin transporters in rats. | IRIS UNIPV  Molecular characteristics of small intestinal and renal brush border thiamin transporters in rats. | IRIS UNIPV
... and with the sulfhydryl specific blocker p-chloromercuribenzene sulfonate inhibited T transport in both types of vesicles. ... and with the sulfhydryl specific blocker p-chloromercuribenzene sulfonate inhibited T transport in both types of vesicles. ... Similarly 7-chloro-4-nitrobenzo-2-oxa-1,3-diazole reacted, but not N-acetylimidazole, both of which are reagents for tyrosine ... Similarly 7-chloro-4-nitrobenzo-2-oxa-1,3-diazole reacted, but not N-acetylimidazole, both of which are reagents for tyrosine ...
more infohttps://iris.unipv.it/handle/11571/12042
Low sodium cotransport in red cells with physiological internal sodium concentration in essential hypertension. | Hypertension  Low sodium cotransport in red cells with physiological internal sodium concentration in essential hypertension. | Hypertension
5 p-chloromercuribenzene sulfonate) or nystatin, even when internal Na is around its physiological range. ... 4) M. Outward Na cotransport was estimated at both internal Na concentrations as the furosemide-sensitive unidirectional 22Na ...
more infohttp://hyper.ahajournals.org/content/6/6_Pt_1/826
Estimate of the number of urea transport sites in erythrocyte ghosts using a hydrophobic mercurial | SpringerLink  Estimate of the number of urea transport sites in erythrocyte ghosts using a hydrophobic mercurial | SpringerLink
Sites of p-chloromercuribenzene sulfonate inhibition of red cell urea and water transport. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 942:73-82 ... p-(chloromercuri)benzenesulfonate binding by membrane proteins and the inhibition of water transport in human erythrocytes. ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF00231880
JCI -
Targeting lactate metabolism for cancer therapeutics  JCI - Targeting lactate metabolism for cancer therapeutics
Furthermore, the organomercurial reagent p-chloromercuribenzene sulfonate (pCMBS) inhibits the activity of MCT1 and MCT4 by ... Monocarboxylate transporter 4 (MCT4) and CD147 overexpression is associated with poor prognosis in prostate cancer. BMC Cancer. ... Eur J Pharm Sci. 2012;47(4):729-738.. View this article via: PubMed CrossRef Google Scholar ... Int J Gynecol Pathol. 2008;27(4):568-574.. View this article via: PubMed CrossRef Google Scholar ...
more infohttps://www.jci.org/articles/view/69741
Emeritus Professor Philip Kuchel - The University of Sydney  Emeritus Professor Philip Kuchel - The University of Sydney
Benga, G., Chapman, B., Matei, H., Gallagher, C., Blyde, D., Kuchel, P. (2002). Effects of p-chloromercuribenzene sulfonate on ... Benga, G., Chapman, B., Matei, H., Gallagher, C., Blyde, D., Kuchel, P. (2002). Effects of p-chloromercuribenzene sulfonate on ... Endocrinology, 156(4), 1330-1342. [More Information]. *Pham, B., Jain, N., Kuchel, P., Chapman, B., Bickley, S., Jones, S., ... Diffusion Fundamentals, 4(1), 1.1-1.18.. *Momot, K., Kuchel, P. (2006). PFG NMR diffusion experiments for complex systems. ...
more infohttps://sydney.edu.au/science/people/philip.kuchel.php
Alphaxalone Binds in Inner Transmembrane β+-α− Interfaces of α1β3γ2 γ-Aminobutyric Acid Type A Receptors | Anesthesiology | ASA...  Alphaxalone Binds in Inner Transmembrane β+-α− Interfaces of α1β3γ2 γ-Aminobutyric Acid Type A Receptors | Anesthesiology | ASA...
Exposure to para-chloromercuribenzenesulfonate produced irreversible functional changes in ten mutant receptors. Protection by ... 4.. Anesthetic protection of substituted cysteine mutant γ-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptors. (A-I), labeled by ... 4.. Anesthetic protection of substituted cysteine mutant γ-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptors. (A-I), labeled by ... 4.. Anesthetic protection of substituted cysteine mutant γ-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptors. (A-I), labeled by ...
more infohttp://anesthesiology.pubs.asahq.org/article.aspx?articleid=2664913
Knockout of Slc25a19 causes mitochondrial thiamine pyrophosphate depletion, embryonic lethality, CNS malformations, and anemia ...  Knockout of Slc25a19 causes mitochondrial thiamine pyrophosphate depletion, embryonic lethality, CNS malformations, and anemia ...
... to proteoliposomes and terminated by addition of 0.1 mM p-chloromercuribenzene sulfonate (the "inhibitor-stop" method; see ref ... Aliquots (2-5 μl) of mouse amniotic fluid were pipetted in a glass tube, followed by 0.5 ml of water and 0.05 nmol of 2 H 4 - ... 4. AKG levels in amniotic fluid from 25 embryos at E10.5. AKG was measured by using tandem MS and an internal standard. Five ... 4). This finding shows that the two major findings in human MCPHA, CNS defects and AKGuria, are caused by a knockout mutation ...
more infohttps://www.pnas.org/content/103/43/15927
JoVE Author Search: Boron WF  JoVE Author Search: Boron WF
Phloretin reduced UT-B-dependent urea uptake (Jurea*) by 45%, Pf* by 50%, and (- ?pHS*)NH? by 70%. p-Chloromercuribenzene sulfonate ... 4/30/2014. NIH. R01: Research Project. $2,622,436 Regulation of Proximal Tubule Transport. ...
more infohttp://labindex.jove.com/author/Boron-WF
Identification and reconstitution of the yeast mitochondrial transporter for thiamine pyrophosphate | The EMBO Journal  Identification and reconstitution of the yeast mitochondrial transporter for thiamine pyrophosphate | The EMBO Journal
... chloromercuribenzene sulfonate (p‐CMBS; 69%) and 60 μM mersalyl (65%), which are inhibitors of many mitochondrial carriers. A ... Lanes 1-4: E.coli CO214(DE3) containing the expression vector with (lanes 2 and 4) and without (lanes 1 and 3) the coding ... The extracts were centrifuged at 12 000 g for 10 min at 4°C. The ALS assay at 30°C was started by adding 50 mM pyruvate to the ... Where indicated, 0.4 mg/l thiamine, 4 mg/ml HET, 4 mg/ml thiazole, 340 μg/ml valine (VAL) or 430 μg/ml isoleucine (ILE) was ...
more infohttp://emboj.embopress.org/content/21/21/5653
索引「P」 - Weblio英和和英  索引「P」 - Weblio英和和英
p-chloromercuribenzenesulfonate. *p-chloromercuribenzenesulfonic acid. *p-chloromercuribenzoate. *p-chloromercuribenzoic acid. ... P-oxide 2-(phenyl(phenylmethyl)amino) ethyl ester 5-(5,5-dimethyl-1,3,2-dioxaphosphorinan-2-yl)-1,4-dihydro-2,6-dimethyl-4-(3- ... p-fluoro-N-(2-(4-(2-(hydroxymethyl)-1,4-benzodioxan-5-yl)-1-piperazinyl)ethyl)benzamide ...
more infohttps://ejje.weblio.jp/category/p
Molecular aquaporin 3. Medical search. FAQ  Molecular aquaporin 3. Medical search. FAQ
There are also roles for other water channels, including aquaporins 1, 3, and 4, and for urea transporters in urinary ... Differential expression of Kir4.1 and aquaporin 4 in the retina from endotoxin-induced uveitis rat. (sigmaaldrich.com) ... The inwardly rectifying potassium channel protein Kir4.1 and the water channel protein aquaporin-4 (AQP4) have been suggested ... and 4 as contributors to the urinary concentrating defect in the hypothyroid rat. (asnjournals.org) ...
more infohttps://lookformedical.com/en/faq/molecular-aquaporin-3
INT1433 - wiki-pain  INT1433 - wiki-pain
The net Mg2+ efflux was not affected by adrenalin, isoproterenol, p-chloromercuribenzenesulfonate, ouabain and tetrodotoxin, ... 4) Confidence 0.26 Published 2001 Journal Neurochem. Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 11885784 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance ... Concentrations of 1,4-benzoquinone that induced Ca2+ release did not affect the activity of the microsomal Ca2+, Mg2+-APTase. ... 4) stimulation of ionotropic glutamate receptors may induce long lasting biochemical changes in receptor/ion channel function ...
more infohttp://gnteam.cs.manchester.ac.uk/demos/wiki-pain/vhosts/wikipaints/mediawiki-1.19.1/index.php/INT1433
ChemIDplus - 14110-97-5 - Mercurate(1-), chloro(4-sulfophenyl)-, sodium - Searchable synonyms, formulas, resource links, and...  ChemIDplus - 14110-97-5 - Mercurate(1-), chloro(4-sulfophenyl)-, sodium - Searchable synonyms, formulas, resource links, and...
4-sulfophenyl)-, sodium - Searchable synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information. ... Substance Name: Mercurate(1-), chloro(4-sulfophenyl)-, sodium. RN: 14110-97-5. Note. *. A cytotoxic sulfhydryl reagent that ...
more infohttps://chem.nlm.nih.gov/chemidplus/rn/14110-97-5
Sleep in women : Normal values for sleep stages and position and the effect of age, obesity, sleep apnea, smoking, alcohol and...  Sleep in women : Normal values for sleep stages and position and the effect of age, obesity, sleep apnea, smoking, alcohol and...
OBJECTIVES: To define normal values for total sleep time, sleep latency, sleep efficiency, sleep stages and sleeping positions in women and to investigate how sleep is affected by age, obesity, sleep apnea, smoking, alcohol dependency and hypertension. METHODS: In a population-based study, 400 Swedish women aged 20-70 years with over-sampling of snorers were investigated using overnight in-home polysomnography. All results are weighted. RESULTS: The mean normal total sleep time was 392 min, sleep latency 22 min and sleep efficiency 82%. Women spent 31 min in sleep stage 1, 244 min in stage 2, 41 min in stage 3/4 and 76 min in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. They spent 41% of their sleep time in the supine position, 50% in the lateral position and 9% in the prone position. Multivariate analyses revealed that sleep efficiency was lower in older women and in women with hypertension. Sleep latency was short in women with severe sleep apnea and long in smokers, alcohol-dependent and hypertensive ...
more infohttp://uu.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2:317441
Late sleep - definition of late sleep by The Free Dictionary  Late sleep - definition of late sleep by The Free Dictionary
Define late sleep. late sleep synonyms, late sleep pronunciation, late sleep translation, English dictionary definition of late sleep. late sleep. Translations. Spanish / Español: quedarse en cama. French / Français: grasse matinée. German / Deutsch: Ausschlafen. + 18 more languages
more infohttps://www.thefreedictionary.com/late+sleep