One of the FURANS with a carbonyl thereby forming a cyclic lactone. It is an endogenous compound made from gamma-aminobutyrate and is the precursor of gamma-hydroxybutyrate. It is also used as a pharmacological agent and solvent.
Compounds containing phenyl-1-butanone.
A genus of bacteria that form a nonfragmented aerial mycelium. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. This genus is responsible for producing a majority of the ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS of practical value.
Protein kinase that drives both the mitotic and meiotic cycles in all eukaryotic organisms. In meiosis it induces immature oocytes to undergo meiotic maturation. In mitosis it has a role in the G2/M phase transition. Once activated by CYCLINS; MPF directly phosphorylates some of the proteins involved in nuclear envelope breakdown, chromosome condensation, spindle assembly, and the degradation of cyclins. The catalytic subunit of MPF is PROTEIN P34CDC2.
Protein kinases that control cell cycle progression in all eukaryotes and require physical association with CYCLINS to achieve full enzymatic activity. Cyclin-dependent kinases are regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).

Contact dermatitis in Alstroemeria workers. (1/836)

Hand dermatitis is common in workers in the horticultural industry. This study determined the prevalence of hand dermatitis in workers of Alstroemeria cultivation, investigated how many workers had been sensitized by tulipalin A (the allergen in Alstroemeria) and took stock of a wide range of determinants of hand dermatitis. The 12-month period prevalence of major hand dermatitis amounted to 29.5% whereas 7.4% had minor dermatitis. Of these workers, 52.1% were sensitized for tulipalin A. Several personal and work-related determinants played a role in the multifactorial aetiology of hand dermatitis. Factors which showed a significant relationship with major hand dermatitis were: female sex, atopic dermatitis, chapped hands and the frequency of washing hands. It may be concluded that the Alstroemeria workers are a population at risk of developing contact dermatitis and it might be useful to carry out an educational campaign to lower the high prevalence.  (+info)

Modulation of acute and chronic inflammatory processes by cacospongionolide B, a novel inhibitor of human synovial phospholipase A2. (2/836)

1. Cacospongionolide B is a novel marine metabolite isolated from the sponge Fasciospongia cavernosa. In in vitro studies, this compound inhibited phospholipase A2 (PLA2), showing selectivity for secretory PLA2 (sPLA2) versus cytosolic PLA2 (cPLA2), and its potency on the human synovial enzyme (group II) was similar to that of manoalide. 2. This activity was confirmed in vivo in the 8 h zymosan-injected rat air pouch, on the secretory enzyme accumulating in the pouch exudate. Cacospongionolide B, that is bioavailable when is given orally, reduced the elevated levels of sPLA2 present in paw homogenates of rats with adjuvant arthritis. 3. This marine metabolite showed topical anti-inflammatory activity on the mouse ear oedema induced by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol acetate (TPA) and decreased carrageenin paw oedema in mice after oral administration of 5, 10 or 20 mg kg(-1). 4. In the mouse air pouch injected with zymosan, cacospongionolide B administered into the pouch, induced a dose-dependent reduction in the levels of eicosanoids and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) in the exudates 4 h after the stimulus. It also had a weak effect on cell migration. 5. The inflammatory response of adjuvant arthritis was reduced by cacospongionolide B, which did not significantly affect eicosanoid levels in serum, paw or stomach homogenates and did not induce toxic effects. 6 Cacospongionolide B is a new inhibitor of sPLA2 in vitro and in vivo, with anti-inflammatory properties in acute and chronic inflammation. This marine metabolite was active after oral administration and able to modify TNFalpha levels, and may offer an interesting approach in the search for new anti-inflammatory agents.  (+info)

Human metabolism of mammalian lignan precursors in raw and processed flaxseed. (3/836)

BACKGROUND: The mammalian lignans enterolactone and enterodiol are produced in the colon by the action of bacteria on the plant precursor secoisolariciresinol diglycoside, which is found in high concentrations in flaxseed. OBJECTIVE: Two experiments were conducted to determine 1) whether there is a dose response in urinary lignan excretion with increasing flaxseed intake, 2) whether flaxseed processing affects lignan excretion, 3) peak plasma lignan concentrations, and 4) plasma lignan concentrations after chronic supplementation. DESIGN: Nine healthy young women supplemented their diets with 5, 15, or 25 g raw or 25 g processed (muffin or bread) flaxseed for 7 d during the follicular phase of their menstrual cycles. Twenty-four-hour urine samples were collected at baseline and on the final day of supplementation. As an adjunct to the 25-g-flaxseed arm, subjects consumed the supplement for an additional day and blood and urine samples were collected at specific intervals. All blood and urine samples were analyzed for enterolactone and enterodiol by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. RESULTS: A dose-dependent urinary lignan response to raw flaxseed was observed (r = 0.72, P < 0.001). The processing of flaxseed as a muffin or bread did not affect the quantity of lignan excretion. Plasma lignan concentrations were greater (P < or = 0.05) than baseline by 9 h after flaxseed ingestion (29.35+/-3.69 and 51.75+/-7.49 nmol/L, respectively). The total plasma area under the curve was higher on the eighth than on the first day (1840.15+/-343.02 and 1027.15+/-95.71 nmol x h/L, respectively). CONCLUSION: Mammalian lignan production from flaxseed precursors is dependent on time and dose but not on processing.  (+info)

Evidence that halogenated furanones from Delisea pulchra inhibit acylated homoserine lactone (AHL)-mediated gene expression by displacing the AHL signal from its receptor protein. (4/836)

Acylated homoserine lactone (AHL)-mediated gene expression controls phenotypes involved in colonization, often specifically of higher organisms, in both marine and terrestrial environments. The marine red alga Delisea pulchra produces halogenated furanones which resemble AHLs structurally and show inhibitory activity at ecologically realistic concentrations in AHL bioassays. Evidence is presented that halogenated furanones displace tritiated OHHL [N-3-(oxohexanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone] from Escherichia coli cells overproducing LuxR with potencies corresponding to their respective inhibitory activities in an AHL-regulated bioluminescence assay, indicating that this is the mechanism by which furanones inhibit AHL-dependent phenotypes. Alternative mechanisms for this phenomenon are also addressed. General metabolic disruption was assessed with two-dimensional PAGE, revealing limited non-AHL-related effects. A direct chemical interaction between the algal compounds and AHLs, as monitored by 1H NMR spectroscopy, was shown not to occur in vitro. These results support the contention that furanones, at the concentrations produced by the alga, can control bacterial colonization of surfaces by specifically interfering with AHL-mediated gene expression at the level of the LuxR protein.  (+info)

Adverse events associated with ingestion of gamma-butyrolactone--Minnesota, New Mexico, and Texas, 1998-1999. (5/836)

Products containing gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) are marketed for many claimed purposes, including to induce sleep, release growth hormone, enhance sexual activity and athletic performance, relieve depression, and prolong life. GBL is converted by the body into gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), a drug banned outside of clinical trials approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Recognized manifestations of GHB toxicity include bradycardia, hypothermia, central nervous system depression, and uncontrolled movements. This report describes seven cases of GBL toxicity involving the product "Revivarant," which is labeled as containing 1.82 g of GBL per fluid ounce, reported from two hospital emergency departments (EDs) in Minnesota during October-December 1998 and summarizes an additional 34 cases of GBL toxicity reported to poison centers in New Mexico and Texas during October 1998-January 1999.  (+info)

Production of poly(3-hydroxybutyric acid-co-4-hydroxybutyric acid) and poly(4-hydroxybutyric acid) without subsequent degradation by Hydrogenophaga pseudoflava. (6/836)

A Hydrogenophaga pseudoflava strain was able to synthesize poly(3-hydroxybutyric acid-co-4-hydroxybutyric acid) [P(3HB-co-4HB)] having a high level of 4-hydroxybutyric acid monomer unit (4HB) from gamma-butyrolactone. In a two-step process in which the first step involved production of cells containing a minimum amount of poly(3-hydroxybutyric acid) [P(3HB)] and the second step involved polyester accumulation from the lactone, approximately 5 to 10 mol% of the 3-hydroxybutyric acid (3HB) derived from the first-step culture was unavoidably reincorporated into the polymer in the second cultivation step. Reincorporation of the 3HB units produced from degradation of the first-step residual P(3HB) was confirmed by high-resolution 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. In order to synthesize 3HB-free poly(4-hydroxybutyric acid) [P(4HB)] homopolymer, a three-stage cultivation technique was developed by adding a nitrogen addition step, which completely removed the residual P(3HB). The resulting polymer was free of 3HB. However, when the strain was grown on gamma-butyrolactone as the sole carbon source in a synthesis medium, a copolyester of P(3HB-co-4HB) containing 45 mol% 3HB was produced. One-step cultivation on gamma-butyrolactone required a rather long induction time (3 to 4 days). On the basis of the results of an enzymatic study performed with crude extracts, we suggest that the inability of cells to produce 3HB in the multistep culture was due to a low level of 4-hydroxybutyric acid (4HBA) dehydrogenase activity, which resulted in a low level of acetyl coenzyme A. Thus, 3HB formation from gamma-butyrolactone is driven by a high level of 4HBA dehydrogenase activity induced by long exposure to gamma-butyrolactone, as is the case for a one-step culture. In addition, intracellular degradation kinetics studies showed that P(3HB) in cells was completely degraded within 30 h of cultivation after being transferred to a carbon-free mineral medium containing additional ammonium sulfate, while P(3HB-co-4HB) containing 5 mol% 3HB and 95 mol% 4HB was totally inert in interactions with the intracellular depolymerases. Intracellular inertness could be a useful factor for efficient synthesis of the P(4HB) homopolymer and of 4HB-rich P(3HB-co-4HB) by the strain used in this study.  (+info)

Promotion of antibiotic production by high ethanol, high NaCl concentration, or heat shock in Pseudomonas fluorescens S272. (7/836)

A stress imposed by a continuous feed of high ethanol, high NaCl concentration, or a high temperature shock increased antibiotic production by several times in Pseudomonas fluorescens S272. A tentative bioassay showed that the stress caused about 40-fold elevation in the autoinducer activity. Addition of synthetic autoinducers, N-(3-oxododecanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone or N-(3-oxohexanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone at a concentration of more than 100 micrograms/l to a non-stressed culture also increased the antibiotic production by several times. These results suggested that the antibiotic production in P. fluorescens S272 was regulated by N-acyl-homoserine lactone and the promotive effect by stress occurred through any function that increased the autoinducer production.  (+info)

Acyl homoserine-lactone quorum-sensing signal generation. (8/836)

Acyl homoserine lactones (acyl-HSLs) are important intercellular signaling molecules used by many bacteria to monitor their population density in quorum-sensing control of gene expression. These signals are synthesized by members of the LuxI family of proteins. To understand the mechanism of acyl-HSL synthesis we have purified the Pseudomonas aeruginosa RhlI protein and analyzed the kinetics of acyl-HSL synthesis by this enzyme. Purified RhlI catalyzes the synthesis of acyl-HSLs from acyl-acyl carrier proteins and S-adenosylmethionine. An analysis of the patterns of product inhibition indicated that RhlI catalyzes signal synthesis by a sequential, ordered reaction mechanism in which S-adenosylmethionine binds to RhlI as the initial step in the enzymatic mechanism. Because pathogenic bacteria such as P. aeruginosa use acyl-HSL signals to regulate virulence genes, an understanding of the mechanism of signal synthesis and identification of inhibitors of signal synthesis has implications for development of quorum sensing-targeted antivirulence molecules.  (+info)

4-Butyrolactone, also known as gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) or 1,4-butanolide, is a chemical compound with the formula C4H6O2. It is a colorless oily liquid that is used in various industrial and commercial applications, including as an intermediate in the production of other chemicals, as a solvent, and as a flavoring agent.

In the medical field, 4-butyrolactone has been studied for its potential use as a sleep aid and muscle relaxant. However, it is not currently approved by regulatory agencies such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for these uses. It is also known to have abuse potential and can cause intoxication, sedation, and other central nervous system effects when ingested or inhaled.

It's important to note that 4-butyrolactone is not a medication and should only be used under the supervision of a qualified healthcare professional for approved medical purposes.

Butyrophenones are a group of synthetic antipsychotic drugs that are primarily used to treat symptoms of schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. They act as dopamine receptor antagonists, which means they block the action of dopamine, a neurotransmitter in the brain associated with mood, motivation, and pleasure.

Some examples of butyrophenones include haloperidol, droperidol, and benperidol. These drugs are known for their potent antipsychotic effects and can also be used to manage agitation, aggression, and other behavioral disturbances in patients with various psychiatric and neurological disorders.

In addition to their antipsychotic properties, butyrophenones have been used off-label for their sedative and analgesic effects. However, they are associated with a range of side effects, including extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS), such as involuntary muscle spasms and tremors, as well as other neurological and cardiovascular adverse reactions. Therefore, their use is typically reserved for cases where other treatments have been ineffective or contraindicated.

Streptomyces is a genus of Gram-positive, aerobic, saprophytic bacteria that are widely distributed in soil, water, and decaying organic matter. They are known for their complex morphology, forming branching filaments called hyphae that can differentiate into long chains of spores.

Streptomyces species are particularly notable for their ability to produce a wide variety of bioactive secondary metabolites, including antibiotics, antifungals, and other therapeutic compounds. In fact, many important antibiotics such as streptomycin, neomycin, tetracycline, and erythromycin are derived from Streptomyces species.

Because of their industrial importance in the production of antibiotics and other bioactive compounds, Streptomyces have been extensively studied and are considered model organisms for the study of bacterial genetics, biochemistry, and ecology.

Maturation-Promoting Factor (MPF) is not a medical term per se, but it is commonly used in the field of cell biology and cancer research. MPF refers to a complex of two proteins that play a crucial role in regulating the cell cycle, specifically during the transition from the G2 phase to mitosis (M phase).

MPF is composed of a cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK1) and a regulatory subunit called cyclin B. During the late G2 phase, the levels of cyclin B increase, which leads to the activation of CDK1. Once activated, MPF triggers a series of events that promote mitosis, including chromosome condensation, nuclear envelope breakdown, and spindle formation.

In summary, Maturation-Promoting Factor (MPF) is a protein complex made up of CDK1 and cyclin B, which regulates the transition from the G2 phase to mitosis during the cell cycle.

Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) are a family of serine/threonine protein kinases that play crucial roles in regulating the cell cycle, transcription, and other cellular processes. They are activated by binding to cyclin proteins, which accumulate and degrade at specific stages of the cell cycle. The activation of CDKs leads to phosphorylation of various downstream target proteins, resulting in the promotion or inhibition of different cell cycle events. Dysregulation of CDKs has been implicated in several human diseases, including cancer, and they are considered important targets for drug development.

Meiosis is a type of cell division that results in the formation of four daughter cells, each with half the number of chromosomes as the parent cell. It is a key process in sexual reproduction, where it generates gametes or sex cells (sperm and eggs).

The process of meiosis involves one round of DNA replication followed by two successive nuclear divisions, meiosis I and meiosis II. In meiosis I, homologous chromosomes pair, form chiasma and exchange genetic material through crossing over, then separate from each other. In meiosis II, sister chromatids separate, leading to the formation of four haploid cells. This process ensures genetic diversity in offspring by shuffling and recombining genetic information during the formation of gametes.

Enzyme inhibitors are substances that bind to an enzyme and decrease its activity, preventing it from catalyzing a chemical reaction in the body. They can work by several mechanisms, including blocking the active site where the substrate binds, or binding to another site on the enzyme to change its shape and prevent substrate binding. Enzyme inhibitors are often used as drugs to treat various medical conditions, such as high blood pressure, abnormal heart rhythms, and bacterial infections. They can also be found naturally in some foods and plants, and can be used in research to understand enzyme function and regulation.

An oocyte, also known as an egg cell or female gamete, is a large specialized cell found in the ovary of female organisms. It contains half the number of chromosomes as a normal diploid cell, as it is the product of meiotic division. Oocytes are surrounded by follicle cells and are responsible for the production of female offspring upon fertilization with sperm. The term "oocyte" specifically refers to the immature egg cell before it reaches full maturity and is ready for fertilization, at which point it is referred to as an ovum or egg.

... (GBL) or γ-butyrolactone, is a hygroscopic colorless, water-miscible liquid with a weak characteristic odor ... Gamma-Butyrolactone is often referred to be used as a date rape drug. Frequent use of GHB or GBL, even when taken long-term and ... "Gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) Pre-Review Report" (PDF). 4 June 2012. Van Cauter, E.; Plat, L.; Scharf, M. B.; Leproult, R.; ... γ-Butyrolactone is produced industrially by dehydrogenation of 1,4-butanediol at a temperature of 180-300 °C and atmospheric ...
Both γ-butyrolactone (GBL) and 1,4-butanediol are converted to GHB in the body. In January 2016, it was announced scientists ... Some prodrugs, such as γ-butyrolactone (GBL), convert to GHB in the stomach and blood stream. Other prodrugs exist, such as 1,4 ... Elliott S, Burgess V (July 2005). "The presence of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) and gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) in alcoholic ... γ-butyrolactone and 1,4-butanediol". Clinical Toxicology. 50 (6): 458-70. doi:10.3109/15563650.2012.702218. PMID 22746383. ...
Amide formation via reaction with gamma-butyrolactone completed the synthesis of embutramide (4). Elks J (14 November 2014). ... 31 (4): 319-20. PMID 2815545. Kintz P, Cirimele V, Ludes B (October 2002). "Blood investigation in a fatality involving the ... Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 March 2017. Hellebrekers LJ, Baumans V, Bertens AP, Hartman W (July 1990). "[The use of ... 315-. ISBN 978-0-323-24198-4. US 3045043, Schmitt K, Henning I, Lindner E, Ott H, "New gamma-hydroxy-carboxylic acid amides and ...
... (ABL) is a derivative of γ-butyrolactone that is used as a precursor in organic synthesis, and it is used ... with butyrolactone in an alkaline solution. 2-Acetylbutyrolactone can also be prepared by reacting ethylene oxide with ethyl ... "Method for Preparing 2-Acetyl-y-Butyrolactone". United States Patent. Archived from the original on 2022-03-31. Retrieved March ... Ritanserin Risperidone Paliperidone Ocaperidone Seganserin Setoperone Novoldiamine (1-Diethylamino-4-aminopentane) [140-80-7] ...
Also a condensation analogous to acetalisation reaction is possible.: 83 An ethanediol derivate and γ-butyrolactone are ... 49 The epoxide cyclohexene oxide and the lactone γ-butyrolactone are reacting to the spiro orthoester spiro-7-9-dioxacyclo[4.3. ... Hsu, Ying-Gev; Wan, Yen-Shen (15 July 2009). "Cationic photopolymerization of cis-2,3-tetramethylene-1,4,6-trioxaspiro[4,4] ... reacting to a derivate of 1,4,6-trioxa-spiro[4.4]nonane. The third possibility is using dibutyltin oxide and carbon disulfide ...
... γ-Butyrolactone (GBL) NIH National Toxicology Program Baird, Zachariah Steven; Uusi-Kyyny, Petri; Pokki, Juha-Pekka; Pedegert, ... 37 (4): 250-4. doi:10.1093/jat/bkt013. PMID 23486087. Fred Smith (31 December 2004). Handbook of Forensic Drug Analysis. ...
The degradation of the polymer chain sets free the initial diol and γ-butyrolactone, which is further hydrolyzed to 4- ... synthesized from γ-butyrolactone and triethylorthoformate). In polycondensation small molecules are formed (in this case of ... The 4-hydroxybutanoic acid formed is responsible for the locally lowered pH value upon polymer degradation. The commercial use ... 4, pp. 770-772, Bibcode:1997MaMol..30..770N, doi:10.1021/ma9610626 J. Heller; J. Barr (2004), "Poly(ortho esters) - from ...
August 2006). "Evaluation for the withdrawal syndrome from gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), gamma-butyrolactone (GBL), and 1,4- ... butanediol (1,4-BD) in different rat lines". Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 1074: 545-58. doi:10.1196/annals. ...
At about 200 °C in the presence of soluble ruthenium catalysts, the diol undergoes dehydrogenation to form butyrolactone. It is ... gamma-butyrolactone) as a Class C controlled substance. In Germany, the drug is not explicitly illegal, but might also be ... Butane-1,4-diol is also used as a recreational drug known by some users as "One Comma Four", "Liquid Fantasy", "One Four Bee" ... Butane-1,4-diol was detected by GC-MS. The production plant seems to have intended to cut costs by replacing less toxic pentane ...
Shoji Hara, Akira Suzuk (1998). "Synthesis of 4-(2-Bromo-2-Propenyl)-4-Methyl-Y-Butyrolactone by the Reaction of Ethyl ...
"Improved thermosets obtained from cycloaliphatic epoxy resins and γ-butyrolactone with lanthanide triflates as initiators. I. ... 3,4-Epoxycyclohexylmethyl-3',4'-epoxycyclohexane carboxylate (ECC) is a cycloaliphatic epoxy resin which is used in many ... Record of 3,4-Epoxycyclohexylmethyl-3',4'-epoxycyclohexancarboxylat in the GESTIS Substance Database of the Institute for ... 4′-epoxycyclohexancarboxylate in photoinitiated cationic polymerizations". Journal of Polymer Science Part A: Polymer Chemistry ...
4,5-tetrahydro-8-chloro-3-methyl-5-phenyl-1h-3-benzazepin-7-ol MeSH D03.438.079.800 - 2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-7,8-dihydroxy-1-phenyl ... 4,5-dihydro-1-(3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-1h-pyrazol-3-amine MeSH D03.383.129.539.200 - epirizole MeSH D03.383.129.539.487 - ... 4-oxadiazole MeSH D03.383.312.649.290 - fanft MeSH D03.383.312.649.308 - furagin MeSH D03.383.312.649.313 - furazolidone MeSH ... 4-dihydro-2,6-dimethyl-5-nitro-4-(2-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-, methyl ester MeSH D03.383.725.210 - dimethindene MeSH D03.383. ...
4-Butanediol Baclofen GABA Gabamide GABOB gamma-Butyrolactone (GBL) gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) gamma-Hydroxyvaleric acid ( ... GHV) gamma-Valerolactone (GVL) Lesogaberan Phenibut 4-Fluorophenibut Picamilon Progabide SL-75102 Tolgabide ADX-71441 GABAA-ρ ...
The molecular formula C4H6O2 may refer to: 1,4-Butynediol Butyrolactones β-Butyrolactone γ-Butyrolactone Crotonic acid Diacetyl ... or butanedione Diepoxybutane 1,4-Dioxene Isocrotonic acid Methacrylic acid Methyl acrylate Succinaldehyde Vinyl acetate ...
... by using 3-hydroxy-gamma-butyrolactone as a chiral synthon It is used as one of the monomers for manufacture of some polyesters ... 1,2,4-Butanetriol is also used as a precursor for two cholesterol-lowering drugs, Crestor and Zetia, which are derived from D-3 ... 1,2,4-Butanetriol is a clear or slightly yellow, odorless, hygroscopic, flammable, viscous liquid. It is an alcohol with three ... 1,2,4-Butanetriol can be prepared synthetically by several different methods such as hydroformylation of glycidol and ...
7-dione γ-Butyrolactone (GBL) γ-Hydroxybutyraldehyde (GHBAL) γ-Valerolactone (GVL) Aceturic acid Aceglutamide Ethyl acetoxy ... It is the acetyl ester of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB, which is 4-hydroxybutanoic acid), and based on its structural relation to ... Aceburic acid (INN), also known as 4-acetoxybutanoic acid or 4-hydroxybutyric acid acetate, is a drug described as an analgesic ... 1052-. ISBN 978-0-412-46630-4. Dardoize F, Goasdoue C, Goasdoue N, Laborit HM, Topall G (1989-01-01). "4-Hydroxybutyric acid ( ...
γ-Valerolactone (GVL) acts as a prodrug to GHV, analogously to how γ-butyrolactone (GBL) is a prodrug to GHB. 1,4-Butanediol (1 ... 37 (4): 250-4. doi:10.1093/jat/bkt013. PMID 23486087. v t e (Drugs with non-standard legal status, ECHA InfoCard ID from ... γ-Hydroxyvaleric acid (GHV), also known as 4-methyl-GHB, is a designer drug related to γ-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB). It is ... 4-BD) Aceburic acid Valerenic acid Valeric acid "GHB and Analogues: Fast Facts". National Drug Intelligence Center. January 1, ...
Gamma-Butyrolactone & Polyurethanes), And Segment Forecasts To 2020". Grand View Research. September 2015. Retrieved 2015-11-18 ... 1,4-Butanediol (BDO) can be synthesized using succinic acid as a precursor. The automotive and electronics industries heavily ... This enzyme complex is a 4 subunit membrane-bound lipoprotein which couples the oxidation of succinate to the reduction of ... In humans, three HIF prolyl 4-hydroxylases regulate the stability of HIFs. Hydroxylation of two prolyl residues in HIF1α ...
The AlCl3-catalyzed acylation of benzene with γ-butyrolactone produces 1-tetralone. 1-Tetralone can be reduced via a Birch ... 4-Phenylbutanoic acid can also be quantitatively converted into 1-tetralone by heating in the presence of a strong Lewis acid ... 4-Phenylbutanoic acid chlorides with electron-donating groups can be cyclized to 1-tetralones under mild reaction conditions in ... 4, pp. 249-266, doi:10.1016/S2225-4110(16)30111-0, PMC 3942903, PMID 24716140 H. Hock; W. Susemihl (1933), "Autoxydation von ...
It is synthesised by the reaction of gamma-butyrolactone and ethyl acetate with sodium ethoxide. 1,4-Butanediol (1,4-BD) 1,6- ... doi:10.1021/jf00016a014 常温下4-乙酰氧基丁酸乙酯的催化合成方法. 1994. CN1047589C v t e (Articles without InChI source, Articles without
Casey, Charles P.; Brunsvold, William R. (December 1975). "Synthesis of α-methylene-γ-butyrolactone via transition metal ...
The formation of a thermodynamically stable gamma-butyrolactone as a co-product drives the reaction to completion while ... ChemCatChem 6 (4):973-976. doi:10.1002/cctc.201300841 Zuhse R, Leggewie C, Hollmann F, Kara S (2015) Scaling-Up of "Smart ... The use of 1,4-butanediol as an intelligent cosubstrate has also been validated in non-aqueous media using a commercial ADH. ... The use of 1,4-butanediol as a smart cosubstrate for cofactor regeneration was the next step towards more sustainable redox ...
... phenylethyl alcohol and gamma-butyrolactone, secondary products of alcoholic fermentation". Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des ... 79 (4): 283-88. doi:10.1002/j.2050-0416.1973.tb03541.x. Ribéreau-Gayon, P.; Sapis, J. C. (2019). "On the presence in wine of ...
... phenylethyl alcohol and gamma-butyrolactone, secondary products of alcoholic fermentation". Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des ... 79 (4): 283-288. doi:10.1002/j.2050-0416.1973.tb03541.x. Ribéreau-Gayon, P.; Sapis, J. C. (1965). "On the presence in wine of ... Roger Protz (4 December 2004). "The Complete Guide to World Beer". Archived from the original on 25 April 2011. Retrieved 21 ... In Belgium, some beers, such as table beer are of such low alcohol content (1%-4%) that they are served instead of soft drinks ...
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Condensation of this β-keto lactone can be visualized to involve initial attack on the reactive butyrolactone by the primary ... 117-. ISBN 978-0-8247-5660-4. Paiva T, Arriaga F, Wauquier A, Lara E, Largo R, Leitao JN (1988). "Effects of ritanserin on ... 378 (1): 164-8. doi:10.1016/0006-8993(86)90299-4. PMID 3091188. S2CID 43604995. Olmez I, Love S, Xiao A, Manigat L, Randolph P ... 4). Halogenation of the terminal alcohol with phosphorus oxychloride then yields 6-(2-chloroethyl)- 7-methyl-5H-thiazolo[3,2-a] ...
Kinoshita, H; Ipposhi, H; Okamoto, S; Nakano, H; Nihira, T; Yamada, Y (November 1997). "Butyrolactone autoregulator receptor ... 155 (Pt 4): 1250-9. doi:10.1099/mic.0.022467-0. PMID 19332826. Hopwood, David A. (2007). Streptomyces in nature and medicine : ... ISBN 978-4-431-54607-8. List of Streptomyces species "LPSN bacterio.net". Straininfo of Streptomyces virginiae "UniProt". www. ... ISBN 3-642-75617-4. {{cite book}}: ,first1= has generic name (help)CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) Atta-ur- ...
A-factor type γ-butyrolactone 1′-reductase (1S-forming) EC 1.1.1.414: L-galactonate 5-dehydrogenase EC 1.1.1.415: noscapine ... EC 1.14.13.141: Now EC 1.14.15.29, cholest-4-en-3-one 26-monooxygenase [(25S)-3-oxocholest-4-en-26-oate forming] EC 1.14.13.142 ... 4-dienoyl-CoA reductase [(3E)-enoyl-CoA-producing] * *No Wikipedia article EC 1.3.2.1: now EC 1.3.99.2 EC 1.3.2.2: now EC 1.3. ... 4-chlorinase * *No Wikipedia article EC 1.14.21.1: Now EC 1.14.19.64, (S)-stylopine synthase EC 1.14.21.2: Now EC 1.14.19.65, ( ...
... and abyssomicins possess the β-keto-γ-butyrolactone motif of tetronic acid. In organic synthesis, it is used as a precursor for ... 2,4(3H,5H)-Furandione: Heteroannulations with aromatic o-amino carbonyl compounds and condensations with some vic-polyones". ... 5-Hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone "2,4(3H,5H)-Furandione". Sigma-Aldrich. Abdou, Moaz M.; El-Saeed, Rasha A.; Abozeid, Mohamed A.; ... 12 (4): 464-475. doi:10.1016/j.arabjc.2015.11.004. Georgiadis, Dimitris; Zografos, Alexandros (2006). "Synthetic Strategies ...
... metabolised into GHB by ADH and ALDH γ-Butyrolactone (GBL) - metabolised into GHB by paraoxonase γ-Valerolactone (GVL) - ... 37 (4): 250-4. doi:10.1093/jat/bkt013. PMID 23486087. Høg S, Wellendorph P, Nielsen B, Frydenvang K, Dahl IF, Bräuner-Osborne H ... 3-Hydroxycyclopent-1-enecarboxylic acid (HOCPCA) 4-(p-Chlorobenzyl)-GHB Aceburic acid γ-Hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) γ- ... Poldrugo F, Snead OC (January 1984). "1,4 Butanediol, gamma-hydroxybutyric acid and ethanol: relationships and interactions". ...
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γ-butyrolactone; 4,4-dibutyl-4-hydroxy-butyric acid, γ-lactone. ... 4, 1980; 47 FR 27810, June 25, 1982; 48 FR 10812, Mar. 15, 1983; 48 FR 51907, Nov. 15, 1983; 49 FR 5747, Feb. 15, 1984; 50 FR ... Guaiene; 1,4-dimethyl-7-isopropenyl-[delta]9,10-octahydroazulene. Guaiol acetate; 1,4-dimethyl-7-([alpha]-hydroxy-isopropyl)-δ ... 4-Phenyl-2-butyl acetate; phenylethyl methyl carbinyl acetate. 1-Phenyl-3-methyl-3-pentanol; phenylethyl methyl ethyl carbinol ...
is a professional manufacturer of the N - methyl pyrrolidone, Gamma butyrolactone and the related chemical products. ... γ-butyrolactone; γ-butyrolactone(99.5%); Gamma ButyroLactone; 1,4-Butyrolactone; 2,3-dihydroxybutanoic acid; GBL; γ- ... 1. Chemical name 4-Hydroxybutyric acid gamma-lactone; BLO; Butyronitrile,99%; 4,5-Dihydro-2(3H)-furanone; 4-Hydroxybutyric acid ...
Butyrolactone (C4H6O2). *1,3-Cyclohexadiene, 5-(1,5-dimethyl-4-hexenyl)-2-methyl-, [S-(R*,S*)]- (C15H24) ... Naphthalene, 1,2,3,5,6,8a-hexahydro-4,7-dimethyl-1-(1-methylethyl)-, (1S-cis)- (C15H24) ... Bicyclo[3.1.0]hexane, 4-methylene-1-(1-methylethyl)- (C10H16) ... 3,5-Dimethoxy-4-hydroxytoluene (C9H12O3). *p-Menth-2-en-8-ol (C ... Benzene, 1,2-dimethoxy-4-propenyl-, (Z)- (C11H14O2) ... Phenol, 4-ethyl-2-methoxy- (C9H12O2). *2-Methyl-3-furanthiol (C ...
Gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) or γ-butyrolactone, is a hygroscopic colorless, water-miscible liquid with a weak characteristic odor ... Gamma-Butyrolactone is often referred to be used as a date rape drug. Frequent use of GHB or GBL, even when taken long-term and ... "Gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) Pre-Review Report" (PDF). 4 June 2012. Van Cauter, E.; Plat, L.; Scharf, M. B.; Leproult, R.; ... γ-Butyrolactone is produced industrially by dehydrogenation of 1,4-butanediol at a temperature of 180-300 °C and atmospheric ...
gamma-BUTYROLACTONE. ICSC. : 1020 (May 2018). 1,4-Butanolide. Butyric acid lactone. Tetrahydro-2-furanone. Dihydro-2(3H)- ... Formula: C4H6O2. Molecular mass: 86.1 Boiling point: 204°C Melting point: -44°C Relative density (water = 1): 1.13 (20°C). ...
4-carbon compound with a structure similar to gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). GHB is described as a neurotransmitter and a ... Schep LJ, Knudsen K, Slaughter RJ, Vale JA, Mégarbane B. The clinical toxicology of γ-hydroxybutyrate, γ-butyrolactone and 1,4- ... Gamma hydroxybutyrate (GHB), gamma butyrolactone (GBL) and 1,4-butanediol (1,4-BD; BDO): A literature review with a focus on UK ... GHB is manufactured readily from its precursor, gamma-butyrolactone (GBL). GBL is a solvent found in floor cleaning products, ...
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4 to Bifidobacteriaceae (the Actinobacteriota phylum) and 2 to Acetobacteraceae (the Proteobacteria phylum). A metagenomic ... butyrolactone (in the 03SU, 06TG, 14TG, 18KR, 29KU metagenomes) and furans (in the 03SU, 06TG, 07BZ and 14TG metagenomes) were ... Expansion of Gamma-Butyrolactone Signaling Molecule Biosynthesis to Phosphotriester Natural Products. ACS Chem. Biol. 2020, 15 ... γ-Butyrolactone and 1,4-Butanediol. Clin. Toxicol. 2012, 50, 458-470. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] ...
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Preparation of (-Butyrolactone from 1,4-Butanediol dehydrogenation over Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst. Chinese Journal of Catalysis, 21 ... 4. Preparation of Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 catalysts..... 5. Effects of light curing modes and..... 6. Dynamic Monte Carlo study on the.... ... 4] Liu, B.J., Xiong, G.X., Pan, X.L., Sheng, S.S., Yang, W.S., 2002. Effect of noble metal on selective hydrogenation of ... The reaction of hydrogen with alloys of magnesium and nickel and the formation of Mg2NiH4. Inorg. Chem., 7:2254-2256. ...
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... or gamma-butyrolactone (96480). Dose response relationships were identified for lymphoma and 2,4,5-T and any polychlorinated ... Excess risk for soft tissue sarcoma was seen for those exposed to any phenoxy herbicides, such as 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic- ... Excess risk for exposure to 2,4,5-T, TCDD, and polychlorinated dibenzodioxins or furans was approximately twofold for this ... 4- D, 2,4,5-T, TCDD, and any polychlorinated dibenzodioxin. Associations of chemical exposure with nonHodgkins lymphoma were ...
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... gamma butyrolactone and any chemical compound that is metabolically converted to gamma hydroxybutyric acid, its salts, isomers ... 4) any amount of any other controlled substance enumerated in Schedule I, II, III or IV or a controlled substance analog of a ... or salts of isomers as enumerated in Schedule I or a controlled substance analog of gamma butyrolactone, its salts, isomers or ... isomers or salts of isomers as enumerated in Schedule I or a controlled substance analog of 1-4 butane diol, its salts, isomers ...
... gamma-butyrolactone and 1,3-butadiene [1-3]. It also has potential applications in the manufacture of food additives, cosmetics ... where Y was the predicted response (2,3-BD concentration), β0, β1, β2, β3, β4, β5, and β6 were the regression coefficients, and ... Figure 4. The response surface plot. A, effects of YE and CSLP on 2,3-BD production. B, effects of YE and sodium acetate on 2,3 ... Table 4 Experimental design and results of central composition experiment Full size table. ...
... and 5-thiobutyl butyrolactone (TBBL) as a substrate, respectively. A normalized lactonase activity (NLA) was estimated based on ... 4. [Etiology of preeclampsia after assisted reproductive treatments]. / Étiologie de la prééclampsie après traitements de ... The detection system was shown to have a good linear range from 0.01 nM to 4 nM, using single-stranded DNA with 3-OH end as ... Chapitre 4. PMA : la nouvelle donne. La révision de la loi de bioéthique en 2021. ...
S)-3-Hydroxy-gamma-butyrolactone. Synonyms:. 2(3H)-FURANONE, DIHYDRO-3-HYDROXY-, (S);2(3H)-FURANONE, DIHYDRO-4-HYDROXY-, (S);(S ... S)-3-Hydroxy-gamma-butyrolactone is an important intermediate in organic synthesis and an important chiral pool. It is mainly ... 3-HYDROXY-GAMA-BUTYROLACTONE;(S)-(-)-3-HYDROXY-GAMMA-BUTYROLACTONE. ... 434-990-4. Product Categories:. Chiral Building Blocks;Simple Alcohols (Chiral);chiral;Tetrahydrofuran Series;Synthetic Organic ...
Gamma-Butyrolactone Liquid CAS 110-63-4 BDO / 1, 4-Butanediol CAS 529-34-0 α-Tetralone yellow liquid CAS 106-96-7 3- ... More related products: cas PMK Replacement CAS 1451-82-7 2-Bromo-4-Methylpropiophenone CAS 62-44-2 phenacetin CAS 49851-31-2 2 ... CAS 78-10-4 Tetraethyl orthosilicate CAS 123-75-1 Pyrrolidine liquid yellow liquid CAS 96-48-0 GBL / ... V g utca 4. Mobil: (30)989 2964 Web: www.cardio-sp.com Tel.: (52)-500-120 ...
影响酚醛泡沫塑料成型加工的因素[J]. 工程塑料应用,2000,28(4):14-17.. [12] 马玉峰,张伟. 酸固化剂对酚醛泡沫材料性能的影响[J]. 工程塑料应用,2012,40(11):77-81.. [13] 唐路林,李乃宁,吴培熙,等. ... 4] 张玉祥. 建筑保温用有机泡沫材料的发展与应用[J]. 新型建筑材料,1994,5(3):39-45.. [5] SHUTOV F A. Processing and application of phenolic foams[J]. ... 4]. WANG Jing;ZHAO Zhen-dong;LI Dong-mei;LU Yan-ju;CHEN Yu-xiang;BI Liang-wu;
","grey",0 20223,"beta-Butyrolactone","3068-88-0","C3068880","cheminventory_bottle,cheminventory_sample,epa:all_plated,tox21: ... "101-14-4","C101144","cheminventory_sample,tox21:all_plated,tox21:ntp_all_plated,tox21:ntp_ph1,tox21:ph1","1","grey",0 20867,"4, ... "4-Butyrolactone","96-48-0","C96480","cheminventory_bottle,cheminventory_sample,epa:all_plated,tox21:all_plated,tox21:epa_all_ ... 4-diisocyanate","91-93-0","C91930","cheminventory_bottle,cheminventory_sample,tox21:all_plated,tox21:ntp_all_plated,tox21:ntp_ ...
... furanone or dihydro-butyrolactone, gamma-crotonolactone or 2[5H]-furanone, 2-hydroxy-2-cyclopenten-1-one, hyacinthine, 2,4- ... Specific compounds: stearic acids, 2-cyclopentene-1,4,-dione, 2[3H]- ...
Thirdly, references to gamma-butyrolactone include (a) any salt of gamma-butyrolactone; and (b) any preparation or other ... 448). Under new reg.4B(1), gamma-butyrolactone ("GBL") and 1,4-butanediol (which can be used for the synthesis of GBL) are ... that references to any stereoisomeric form of gamma-butyrolactone and 1,4-butanediol are omitted from reg. 4B: see the ... Home Office circular 021/2009 (GBL, 1,4-BD, BZP and related piperazine compounds): link ...
  • Gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) or γ-butyrolactone, is a hygroscopic colorless, water-miscible liquid with a weak characteristic odor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is a naturally occurring, 4-carbon compound with a structure similar to the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). (medscape.com)
  • GHB is manufactured readily from its precursor, gamma-butyrolactone (GBL). (medscape.com)
  • There are typically three specific 'chems' (drugs) involved: Methamphetamine (Crystal Meth), Mephedrone (Meth), GHB and GBL (G). Abbreviation: gbl drug wiki referred to as the "date rape drug" Gamma butyrolactone (GBL) and 1,4 butanediol (BD) are GHB analogs that. (topdarknetdrugmarket.com)
  • GHB (Gamma Hydroxy Butyrate) and GBL (Gamma Butyrolactone) are chems used in dance clubs or during sex. (topdarknetdrugmarket.com)
  • By K Rochford 2024 Cited by 4 It was observed that the concentrations of gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) Drugs were applied for 13 min with a ValveLink 8 perfusion system. (topdarknetdrugmarket.com)
  • It is mainly used as an intermediate in the GBL or Gamma-butyrolactone is buy gbl cleaner, how to clean the alloy wheels, alloy wheel cleaner used drug. (topdarknetdrugmarket.com)
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  • S)-3-Hydroxy-gamma-butyrolactone is an important intermediate in organic synthesis and an important chiral pool. (chemicalbook.com)
  • S)-3-Hydroxy-gamma-butyrolactone is an important synthetic intermediate for a variety of chiral compounds. (chemicalbook.com)
  • Optically pure (S)-3-hydroxy-gamma-butyrolactone, a crucial chiral building block in the pharmaceutical industry, was synthesized from L: -malic acid by combining selective hydrogenation and lipase-catalyzed hydrolysis. (chemicalbook.com)
  • Lipase from Candida rugosa was found to be the most efficient enzyme for the hydrolysis of (S)-beta-benzoyloxy-gamma-butyrolactone[1]. (chemicalbook.com)
  • S)-3-Hydroxy-gamma-butyrolactone is incompatible with oxidizing agents. (chemicalbook.com)
  • The regulations only concern gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) and 1,4-butanediol (1,4-BD). (folkhalsomyndigheten.se)
  • Excess risk for exposure to 2,4,5-T, TCDD, and polychlorinated dibenzodioxins or furans was approximately twofold for this disease while a threefold increased risk was observed for exposure to pentachlorophenol (87865) or gamma-butyrolactone (96480). (cdc.gov)
  • Australia warehouse 99% high purity (S) -3-Hydroxy-Gamma-B Utyrolactone New GBL CAS No. 7331-52-4 Liquid Safe Delivery GBL liquid-Guangzhou Wanjiang Biotechnology Co., Ltd. (gzwjsw.com)
  • γ-Butyrolactone is produced industrially by dehydrogenation of 1,4-butanediol at a temperature of 180-300 °C and atmospheric pressure in the presence of a copper catalyst. (wikipedia.org)
  • Preparation of (-Butyrolactone from 1,4-Butanediol dehydrogenation over Cu/ZnO/Al 2 O 3 catalyst. (zju.edu.cn)
  • Butyrolactone is principally a precursor to other chemicals. (wikipedia.org)
  • 4-methyl-2-phenyl -m- dioxolane. (fda.gov)
  • 4'-Chlorodiazepam (7-Chloro-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-methyl-1,3-dihydro-2H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-one). (rudifortson4law.co.uk)
  • Butyrolactone, with its wide liquid range, chemical stability, and high dielectric constant, is used in electrolytic capacitors as the organic solvent. (wikipedia.org)
  • 4-hydroxybutyric gbl drug wiki colourless liquid used darknet markets address as a solvent or reagent in various industrial uses, as well as a recreational drug. (topdarknetdrugmarket.com)
  • It is also used in the synthesis of S(-)-3-hydroxy-4-bromobutyric acid which is a potential stabilizer. (chemicalbook.com)
  • A simple and practical approach to enantiomerically pure (S)-3-hydroxy-γ-butyrolactone: synthesis of (R)-4-cyano-3-hydroxybutyric acid ethyl ester. (chemicalbook.com)
  • CLASS A: "3,4-dichloro-N-[2-(dimethylamino)cyclohexyl]-N-methylbenzamide (U-47,700). (rudifortson4law.co.uk)
  • With a heating value of 27,200 J/g, 2,3-BD compares favourably with ethanol (29,100 J/g) and methanol (22,100 J/g) for using as a liquid fuel or fuel additive [ 4 ]. (springer.com)
  • whereas the related compound 1,4-butanediol (1,4-B) tends to be slightly less potent and slower to take effect but longer-acting than GHB. (wikipedia.org)
  • 4) We has 10 years' exporting experience in active pharmaceutical ingredient products. (justlanded.com)
  • 4) We have our own agent/remailer/distributor who can help us ship our products very fast and safe, and we have stock in there for transferring. (gzwjsw.com)
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  • It is claimed that poly(GBL) is competitive with commercial biomaterial poly(4-hydroxybutyrate), or P4HB. (wikipedia.org)
  • The requirements in accordance with 2 § of the regulations state that the GBL and 1,4-BD cannot easily be extracted through methods that are easy to apply or are profitable. (folkhalsomyndigheten.se)
  • Three male mice and one female receiving 1,050 mg/kg died from g -butyrolactone toxicity during the studies. (nih.gov)
  • Toxicity of γ-butyrolactone (72-hr lethal concentration predicted to kill 50% was 47 ppm) indicated effects in THF treatments can result from γ-butyrolactone toxicity. (nih.gov)
  • This research is the first to link toxic effects directly to a THF degradation product (γ-butyrolactone) rather than to C 60 and may explain toxicity attributed to C 60 in other investigations. (nih.gov)
  • GBL and 1,4-BD are industrial solvents, and like other abused solvents, their supply is difficult to control. (nih.gov)
  • The oxidation of 1,4-butanediol and butyrolactone have been investigated by using supported gold, palladium and gold-palladium nanoparticles. (southwales.ac.uk)
  • Twice as nice: The oxidation of 1,4-butanediol and butyrolactone has been investigated over supported gold, palladium and gold-palladium nanoparticles. (southwales.ac.uk)
  • Analyses of THF-C 60 and THF-water by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry did not detect THF but found THF oxidation products γ-butyrolactone and tetrahydro-2-furanol. (nih.gov)
  • g -Butyrolactone is an intermediate in the synthesis of polymers used as film formers in hair sprays, blood plasma extenders, and clarifying agents in beer and wine. (nih.gov)
  • 4. Structure-activity relationships of epolactaene derivatives: structural requirements for inhibition of Hsp60 chaperone activity. (nih.gov)
  • 19. Relationship Between Structure and Antiproliferative Activity of Novel 5-amino-4-cyanopyrazole-1-formaldehydehydrazono Derivatives on HL-60RG Human Leukemia Cells. (nih.gov)
  • Being a chemical analogue of the phenethylamine, amphetamine and cathinone class, this synthetic compound shares very close chemical similarity with 4-MMC or mephedrone, which is well known to cause sympathomimetic effects closely related to other stimulant like chemicals. (gblchemlab.com)
  • Toxicology and carcinogenesis studies were conducted by administering g -butyrolactone (greater than 97% pure) in corn oil by gavage to groups of F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice of each sex, 5 days per week for 16 days, 13 weeks, and 2 years. (nih.gov)
  • γ-butyrolactone is a downstream product of 1,4-butanediol, which is the raw material for the production of 2-pyrrolidone and N-methylpyrrolidone, from which a series of high value-added products such as vinylpyrrolidone and polyvinylpyrrolidone are derived, and are widely used in pesticide, pharmaceutical and cosmetic fields. (welinkschem.com)
  • Interestingly, the introduction of a 4-aryl(alkyl)sulfonyl group only slightly decreased the electron donation, but it significantly increased the π-acceptance and slightly enhanced the buried volume (%Vbur) of new imidazol-2-ylidenes. (bvsalud.org)
  • Effects of genetic variation in protease activated receptor 4 after an acute coronary syndrome: Analysis from the TRACER trial. (musc.edu)
  • This request for applications (RFA) is being issued in response to the recent emergence of GHB, GBL, and 1,4-BD as public health concerns. (nih.gov)
  • I've even noticed free download payday 2 this point, completely stock firmware with a number of apps from the Play Store, running music right now, and left 4 dead 2 auto player script can't even keep up with the log output on Verbose logging. (gabioptika.com)
  • Patients who have ingested the GHB precursor, 1,4 butanediol (BD), may have a prolonged clinical course. (medscape.com)
  • Patients 4 and 5. (cdc.gov)
  • Exceptions to the requirement for a permit apply to the person who handles mixtures containing GBL and/or 1,4-BD for industrial or scientific purposes and who meets the demands of the exception to the requirement for a permit in accordance with 2 § of the regulations. (folkhalsomyndigheten.se)
  • however, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has declared 1,4-BD a Class I Health Hazard. (nih.gov)
  • 4-CDC, is a stimulant drug categorized under the cathinone class. (gblchemlab.com)
  • 4-MDMC is an empathogen and stimulant psychoactive drug. (gblchemlab.com)
  • New Pd/NHC complexes were obtained through selective C(2)H-palladation of some of the synthesized 4-RSO2-functionalized imidazolium salts under mild conditions. (bvsalud.org)