One of the FURANS with a carbonyl thereby forming a cyclic lactone. It is an endogenous compound made from gamma-aminobutyrate and is the precursor of gamma-hydroxybutyrate. It is also used as a pharmacological agent and solvent.
Compounds containing phenyl-1-butanone.
A genus of bacteria that form a nonfragmented aerial mycelium. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. This genus is responsible for producing a majority of the ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS of practical value.
Protein kinase that drives both the mitotic and meiotic cycles in all eukaryotic organisms. In meiosis it induces immature oocytes to undergo meiotic maturation. In mitosis it has a role in the G2/M phase transition. Once activated by CYCLINS; MPF directly phosphorylates some of the proteins involved in nuclear envelope breakdown, chromosome condensation, spindle assembly, and the degradation of cyclins. The catalytic subunit of MPF is PROTEIN P34CDC2.
Protein kinases that control cell cycle progression in all eukaryotes and require physical association with CYCLINS to achieve full enzymatic activity. Cyclin-dependent kinases are regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
A commonly occurring abnormal hemoglobin in which lysine replaces a glutamic acid residue at the sixth position of the beta chains. It results in reduced plasticity of erythrocytes.
Databases devoted to knowledge about specific chemicals.
A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.
Any woven or knit material of open texture used in surgery for the repair, reconstruction, or substitution of tissue. The mesh is usually a synthetic fabric made of various polymers. It is occasionally made of metal.
An agency of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH concerned with overall planning, promoting, and administering programs pertaining to advancement of medical and related sciences. Major activities of this institute include the collection, dissemination, and exchange of information important to the progress of medicine and health, research in medical informatics and support for medical library development.
Large collections of small molecules (molecular weight about 600 or less), of similar or diverse nature which are used for high-throughput screening analysis of the gene function, protein interaction, cellular processing, biochemical pathways, or other chemical interactions.
The sodium salt of 4-hydroxybutyric acid. It is used for both induction and maintenance of ANESTHESIA.
4-carbon straight chain aliphatic hydrocarbons substituted with two hydroxyl groups. The hydroxyl groups cannot be on the same carbon atom.
Procedures for measuring a response to odorants.
Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The volatile portions of substances perceptible by the sense of smell. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Compounds with a 5-membered ring of four carbons and an oxygen. They are aromatic heterocycles. The reduced form is tetrahydrofuran.
NERVE GROWTH FACTOR is the first of a series of neurotrophic factors that were found to influence the growth and differentiation of sympathetic and sensory neurons. It is comprised of alpha, beta, and gamma subunits. The beta subunit is responsible for its growth stimulating activity.
A CELL LINE derived from a PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA of the rat ADRENAL MEDULLA. PC12 cells stop dividing and undergo terminal differentiation when treated with NERVE GROWTH FACTOR, making the line a useful model system for NERVE CELL differentiation.
In tissue culture, hairlike projections of neurons stimulated by growth factors and other molecules. These projections may go on to form a branched tree of dendrites or a single axon or they may be reabsorbed at a later stage of development. "Neurite" may refer to any filamentous or pointed outgrowth of an embryonal or tissue-culture neural cell.
Factors which enhance the growth potentialities of sensory and sympathetic nerve cells.
A protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is specific for NERVE GROWTH FACTOR; NEUROTROPHIN 3; neurotrophin 4, neurotrophin 5. It plays a crucial role in pain sensation and thermoregulation in humans. Gene mutations that cause loss of receptor function are associated with CONGENITAL INSENSITIVITY TO PAIN WITH ANHIDROSIS, while gene rearrangements that activate the protein-tyrosine kinase function are associated with tumorigenesis.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The branch of pharmacology that deals directly with the effectiveness and safety of drugs in humans.
Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.
Persistent difficulty discarding or parting with possessions, regardless of the value of these possessions. Epidemiological studies suggest that hoarding occurs in 2-5% of the population and can lead to substantial distress and disability, as well as serious public health consequences.
A contagious disease caused by canine adenovirus (ADENOVIRUSES, CANINE) infecting the LIVER, the EYE, the KIDNEY, and other organs in dogs, other canids, and bears. Symptoms include FEVER; EDEMA; VOMITING; and DIARRHEA.
The science concerned with the detection, chemical composition, and biological action of toxic substances or poisons and the treatment and prevention of toxic manifestations.
Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.
The study of the origin, nature, properties, and actions of drugs and their effects on living organisms.

Contact dermatitis in Alstroemeria workers. (1/836)

Hand dermatitis is common in workers in the horticultural industry. This study determined the prevalence of hand dermatitis in workers of Alstroemeria cultivation, investigated how many workers had been sensitized by tulipalin A (the allergen in Alstroemeria) and took stock of a wide range of determinants of hand dermatitis. The 12-month period prevalence of major hand dermatitis amounted to 29.5% whereas 7.4% had minor dermatitis. Of these workers, 52.1% were sensitized for tulipalin A. Several personal and work-related determinants played a role in the multifactorial aetiology of hand dermatitis. Factors which showed a significant relationship with major hand dermatitis were: female sex, atopic dermatitis, chapped hands and the frequency of washing hands. It may be concluded that the Alstroemeria workers are a population at risk of developing contact dermatitis and it might be useful to carry out an educational campaign to lower the high prevalence.  (+info)

Modulation of acute and chronic inflammatory processes by cacospongionolide B, a novel inhibitor of human synovial phospholipase A2. (2/836)

1. Cacospongionolide B is a novel marine metabolite isolated from the sponge Fasciospongia cavernosa. In in vitro studies, this compound inhibited phospholipase A2 (PLA2), showing selectivity for secretory PLA2 (sPLA2) versus cytosolic PLA2 (cPLA2), and its potency on the human synovial enzyme (group II) was similar to that of manoalide. 2. This activity was confirmed in vivo in the 8 h zymosan-injected rat air pouch, on the secretory enzyme accumulating in the pouch exudate. Cacospongionolide B, that is bioavailable when is given orally, reduced the elevated levels of sPLA2 present in paw homogenates of rats with adjuvant arthritis. 3. This marine metabolite showed topical anti-inflammatory activity on the mouse ear oedema induced by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol acetate (TPA) and decreased carrageenin paw oedema in mice after oral administration of 5, 10 or 20 mg kg(-1). 4. In the mouse air pouch injected with zymosan, cacospongionolide B administered into the pouch, induced a dose-dependent reduction in the levels of eicosanoids and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) in the exudates 4 h after the stimulus. It also had a weak effect on cell migration. 5. The inflammatory response of adjuvant arthritis was reduced by cacospongionolide B, which did not significantly affect eicosanoid levels in serum, paw or stomach homogenates and did not induce toxic effects. 6 Cacospongionolide B is a new inhibitor of sPLA2 in vitro and in vivo, with anti-inflammatory properties in acute and chronic inflammation. This marine metabolite was active after oral administration and able to modify TNFalpha levels, and may offer an interesting approach in the search for new anti-inflammatory agents.  (+info)

Human metabolism of mammalian lignan precursors in raw and processed flaxseed. (3/836)

BACKGROUND: The mammalian lignans enterolactone and enterodiol are produced in the colon by the action of bacteria on the plant precursor secoisolariciresinol diglycoside, which is found in high concentrations in flaxseed. OBJECTIVE: Two experiments were conducted to determine 1) whether there is a dose response in urinary lignan excretion with increasing flaxseed intake, 2) whether flaxseed processing affects lignan excretion, 3) peak plasma lignan concentrations, and 4) plasma lignan concentrations after chronic supplementation. DESIGN: Nine healthy young women supplemented their diets with 5, 15, or 25 g raw or 25 g processed (muffin or bread) flaxseed for 7 d during the follicular phase of their menstrual cycles. Twenty-four-hour urine samples were collected at baseline and on the final day of supplementation. As an adjunct to the 25-g-flaxseed arm, subjects consumed the supplement for an additional day and blood and urine samples were collected at specific intervals. All blood and urine samples were analyzed for enterolactone and enterodiol by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. RESULTS: A dose-dependent urinary lignan response to raw flaxseed was observed (r = 0.72, P < 0.001). The processing of flaxseed as a muffin or bread did not affect the quantity of lignan excretion. Plasma lignan concentrations were greater (P < or = 0.05) than baseline by 9 h after flaxseed ingestion (29.35+/-3.69 and 51.75+/-7.49 nmol/L, respectively). The total plasma area under the curve was higher on the eighth than on the first day (1840.15+/-343.02 and 1027.15+/-95.71 nmol x h/L, respectively). CONCLUSION: Mammalian lignan production from flaxseed precursors is dependent on time and dose but not on processing.  (+info)

Evidence that halogenated furanones from Delisea pulchra inhibit acylated homoserine lactone (AHL)-mediated gene expression by displacing the AHL signal from its receptor protein. (4/836)

Acylated homoserine lactone (AHL)-mediated gene expression controls phenotypes involved in colonization, often specifically of higher organisms, in both marine and terrestrial environments. The marine red alga Delisea pulchra produces halogenated furanones which resemble AHLs structurally and show inhibitory activity at ecologically realistic concentrations in AHL bioassays. Evidence is presented that halogenated furanones displace tritiated OHHL [N-3-(oxohexanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone] from Escherichia coli cells overproducing LuxR with potencies corresponding to their respective inhibitory activities in an AHL-regulated bioluminescence assay, indicating that this is the mechanism by which furanones inhibit AHL-dependent phenotypes. Alternative mechanisms for this phenomenon are also addressed. General metabolic disruption was assessed with two-dimensional PAGE, revealing limited non-AHL-related effects. A direct chemical interaction between the algal compounds and AHLs, as monitored by 1H NMR spectroscopy, was shown not to occur in vitro. These results support the contention that furanones, at the concentrations produced by the alga, can control bacterial colonization of surfaces by specifically interfering with AHL-mediated gene expression at the level of the LuxR protein.  (+info)

Adverse events associated with ingestion of gamma-butyrolactone--Minnesota, New Mexico, and Texas, 1998-1999. (5/836)

Products containing gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) are marketed for many claimed purposes, including to induce sleep, release growth hormone, enhance sexual activity and athletic performance, relieve depression, and prolong life. GBL is converted by the body into gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), a drug banned outside of clinical trials approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Recognized manifestations of GHB toxicity include bradycardia, hypothermia, central nervous system depression, and uncontrolled movements. This report describes seven cases of GBL toxicity involving the product "Revivarant," which is labeled as containing 1.82 g of GBL per fluid ounce, reported from two hospital emergency departments (EDs) in Minnesota during October-December 1998 and summarizes an additional 34 cases of GBL toxicity reported to poison centers in New Mexico and Texas during October 1998-January 1999.  (+info)

Production of poly(3-hydroxybutyric acid-co-4-hydroxybutyric acid) and poly(4-hydroxybutyric acid) without subsequent degradation by Hydrogenophaga pseudoflava. (6/836)

A Hydrogenophaga pseudoflava strain was able to synthesize poly(3-hydroxybutyric acid-co-4-hydroxybutyric acid) [P(3HB-co-4HB)] having a high level of 4-hydroxybutyric acid monomer unit (4HB) from gamma-butyrolactone. In a two-step process in which the first step involved production of cells containing a minimum amount of poly(3-hydroxybutyric acid) [P(3HB)] and the second step involved polyester accumulation from the lactone, approximately 5 to 10 mol% of the 3-hydroxybutyric acid (3HB) derived from the first-step culture was unavoidably reincorporated into the polymer in the second cultivation step. Reincorporation of the 3HB units produced from degradation of the first-step residual P(3HB) was confirmed by high-resolution 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. In order to synthesize 3HB-free poly(4-hydroxybutyric acid) [P(4HB)] homopolymer, a three-stage cultivation technique was developed by adding a nitrogen addition step, which completely removed the residual P(3HB). The resulting polymer was free of 3HB. However, when the strain was grown on gamma-butyrolactone as the sole carbon source in a synthesis medium, a copolyester of P(3HB-co-4HB) containing 45 mol% 3HB was produced. One-step cultivation on gamma-butyrolactone required a rather long induction time (3 to 4 days). On the basis of the results of an enzymatic study performed with crude extracts, we suggest that the inability of cells to produce 3HB in the multistep culture was due to a low level of 4-hydroxybutyric acid (4HBA) dehydrogenase activity, which resulted in a low level of acetyl coenzyme A. Thus, 3HB formation from gamma-butyrolactone is driven by a high level of 4HBA dehydrogenase activity induced by long exposure to gamma-butyrolactone, as is the case for a one-step culture. In addition, intracellular degradation kinetics studies showed that P(3HB) in cells was completely degraded within 30 h of cultivation after being transferred to a carbon-free mineral medium containing additional ammonium sulfate, while P(3HB-co-4HB) containing 5 mol% 3HB and 95 mol% 4HB was totally inert in interactions with the intracellular depolymerases. Intracellular inertness could be a useful factor for efficient synthesis of the P(4HB) homopolymer and of 4HB-rich P(3HB-co-4HB) by the strain used in this study.  (+info)

Promotion of antibiotic production by high ethanol, high NaCl concentration, or heat shock in Pseudomonas fluorescens S272. (7/836)

A stress imposed by a continuous feed of high ethanol, high NaCl concentration, or a high temperature shock increased antibiotic production by several times in Pseudomonas fluorescens S272. A tentative bioassay showed that the stress caused about 40-fold elevation in the autoinducer activity. Addition of synthetic autoinducers, N-(3-oxododecanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone or N-(3-oxohexanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone at a concentration of more than 100 micrograms/l to a non-stressed culture also increased the antibiotic production by several times. These results suggested that the antibiotic production in P. fluorescens S272 was regulated by N-acyl-homoserine lactone and the promotive effect by stress occurred through any function that increased the autoinducer production.  (+info)

Acyl homoserine-lactone quorum-sensing signal generation. (8/836)

Acyl homoserine lactones (acyl-HSLs) are important intercellular signaling molecules used by many bacteria to monitor their population density in quorum-sensing control of gene expression. These signals are synthesized by members of the LuxI family of proteins. To understand the mechanism of acyl-HSL synthesis we have purified the Pseudomonas aeruginosa RhlI protein and analyzed the kinetics of acyl-HSL synthesis by this enzyme. Purified RhlI catalyzes the synthesis of acyl-HSLs from acyl-acyl carrier proteins and S-adenosylmethionine. An analysis of the patterns of product inhibition indicated that RhlI catalyzes signal synthesis by a sequential, ordered reaction mechanism in which S-adenosylmethionine binds to RhlI as the initial step in the enzymatic mechanism. Because pathogenic bacteria such as P. aeruginosa use acyl-HSL signals to regulate virulence genes, an understanding of the mechanism of signal synthesis and identification of inhibitors of signal synthesis has implications for development of quorum sensing-targeted antivirulence molecules.  (+info)

Gamma Butyrolactone Gamma Butyrolactone (GBL) Product Name: Gamma Butyrolactone Key words: Gamma Butyrolactone, gamma -BLO, 1, 4-Butyrolactone, 4-Hydroxybutyric acid lactone, 4-Hydroxybutanoic acid lactone 4-Butanolide 1. CAS: 96-48-0 2. Molecular...
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Directed evolution of Vibrio fischeri LuxR for increased sensitivity to a broad spectrum of acyl-homoserine lactones (Cynthia H. Collins, Frances H. Arnold and Jared R. Leadbetter) Molecular Microbiology 2005 Acyl-homoserine lactone acylase from Ralstonia strain XJ12B represents a novel and potent class of quorum-quenching enzymes (Yi-Han Lin, Jin-Ling Xu, Jiangyong Hu, Lian-Hui Wang, Say Leong, Jared Renton Leadbetter and Lian-Hui Zhang) Molecular Microbiology 2003 Quorum Sensing and Quorum-quenching enzymes (Yi-Hu Dong and Lian-Hui Zhang) Journal of Microbiology 2005 AhlD, an N-acylhomoserine lactonase in Arthrobacter sp., and predicted homologues in other bacteria (Park, et. al) Microbiology 2003 AiiA, an enzyme that inactivates the acylhomoserine lactone quorum-sensing signal and attenuates the virulence of Erwinia carotovora PNAS 2000 The molecular structure and catalytic mechanism of a quorum-quenching N-acyl-L-homoserine lactone hydrolase (Kim et al.) PNAS 2005 Communications blackout? Do ...
According to the National Toxicology Program (NTP, 1996), γ-Butyrolactone (GBL) is rapidly metabolized to gamma-hydroxybutyric acid and eliminated primarily as respiratory carbon dioxide and urinary metabolites. GHB is converted eventually to succinic acid, which enters the Krebs cycle, eventually being eliminated mainly as carbon dioxide. GBL shares common segments of its metabolism and toxicokinetic pathway with 1,4 -Butanediol as well as other compounds that can be metabolized to gamma-hydroxy butyric acid. Approximately 10% of a dose applied to the skin of rats, is absorbed (NTP, 1992). A mean permeability constant of 0.0001 cm/hr (1.1 g/m2/hr) has been estimated (Ursin, 1995). ...
Acute oral toxicity Based on the results of acute oral toxicity testing (LD50 = 1582 mg/kg), gamma-butyrolactone is classified as Xn; R22 (Harmful if swallowed) under the EU DSD classification criteria (EU Directive 67/548/EEC). It is assigned an Acute Toxicity Category 4 rating (Harmful if swallowed) under the EU CLP classification criteria (EU Regulation 1272/2008). Acute inhalation toxicity Based on the presence of CNS effects, including drowsiness or dizziness in animal studies, gamma-butyrolactone is classified as R67 (Vapours may cause drowsiness and dizziness) under the EU DSD classification criteria (EU Directive 67/548/EEC). Gamma-butyrolactone would be rated STOT Single Exposure 3, based on CNS effects including drowsiness and or dizziness according to the EU CLP classification criteria (EU Regulation 1272/2008). Acute dermal toxicity Gamma-butyrolactone exhibits a low level of acute toxicity by the oral and inhalation routes of exposure. Furthermore, significant dermal absorption is ...
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Accepted name: acyl-homoserine-lactone acylase. Reaction: an N-acyl-L-homoserine lactone + H2O = L-homoserine lactone + a carboxylate. Other name(s): acyl-homoserine lactone acylase; AHL-acylase; AiiD; N-acyl-homoserine lactone acylase; PA2385 protein; quorum-quenching AHL acylase; quorum-quenching enzyme; PvdQ; QuiP. Systematic name: N-acyl-L-homoserine-lactone amidohydrolase. Comments: Acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs) are produced by a number of bacterial species and are used by them to regulate the expression of virulence genes in a process known as quorum-sensing. Each bacterial cell has a basal level of AHL and, once the population density reaches a critical level, it triggers AHL-signalling which, in turn, initiates the expression of particular virulence genes. Plants or animals capable of degrading AHLs would have a therapeutic advantage in avoiding bacterial infection as they could prevent AHL-signalling and the expression of virulence genes in quorum-sensing bacteria. This ...
Posted by Rebo on 4:08 pm on Mar. 14, 2002. I am looking for Gamma-butryolactone, or butyrolactone!! This shit has become a real pain in the ass to track down since the ban (dont even get me started on that fucking ban)! The companies I have found will not ship to the states. Keep in mind, CO2 cartridges are LEGAL here, compared to other countries in which GBL is. Raise any ideas?. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - N-acyl-L-homoserine lactones are inter-kingdom signalling molecules controlling quorum sensing in the Gram-negative bacteria and priming plants increasing stress adaptation. AU - Moshynets, O.. AU - Babenko, L.. AU - Karakhim, S.. AU - Kharkhota, M.. AU - Kosakivska, I.. AU - Rogalsky, S.. AU - Shcherbatiuk, M.. AU - Suslova, O.. AU - Spiers, A.. PY - 2017/9. Y1 - 2017/9. U2 - 10.1111/febs.14174. DO - 10.1111/febs.14174. M3 - Meeting Abstract. VL - 284. SP - 358. EP - 358. JO - FEBS Journal. JF - FEBS Journal. SN - 1742-464X. IS - S1. T2 - 42nd Congress of the Federation-of-European-Biochemical-Societies (FEBS) on From Molecules to Cells and Back. Y2 - 10 September 2017 through 14 September 2017. ER - ...
Miller, S.T., et al. Salmonella typhimurium recognizes a chemically distinct form of the bacterial quorum-sensing signal AI-2. Mol Cell 15, 5, 677-87 (2004).
see article for more reactions. Abstract. Depending on the strength of a Lewis or Br nsted acid catalyst, borate intermediates resulting from the crotylboration of aliphatic aldehydes with ester-containing crotylboronates form either γ-substituted-α-alkylidene-γ-butyrolactones via oxonia cope rearrangement-lactonization or β,γ-disubstituted-α-methylene-γ-butyrolactones via lactonization.. ...
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Gamma-Butyrolactone(GBL) Cas no.:96-48-0 Appearance:colorless transparent liquid MF: C10H13NO2 Hey friend, we are raw material factory...
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γ-Butyrolactone (GBL) is a hygroscopic colorless liquid with a weak characteristic odor. Soluble in water, GBL is a common solvent and reagent in chemistry as well as being ...
For a full list of publications. Selected recent publications. Yifat Glucksam-Galnoy, Roy Sananes, Nava Silberstein, Pnina Krief, Vladimir V. Kravchenko, Michael M. Meijler and Tsaffrir Zor, The bacterial quorum-sensing signal molecule N-3-oxo-dodecanoyl-L-homoserine lactone reciprocally modulates pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in activated macrophages, Journal of Immunology, 2013, 191, 337-344. (pdf). Dorit Avni, Yifat Glucksam and Tsaffrir Zor , The Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor LY294002 modulates cytokine expression in mouse macrophages via p50 nuclear factor kappa B inhibition, in a PI3K-independent mechanism, Biochemical Pharmacology, 2012, 83, 106-114. (pdf). Meir Goldsmith, Ala Daka, Nadia F. Lamour, Roi Mashiach, Yifat Glucksam, Charles E. Chalfant, Michael M. Meijler and Tsaffrir Zor, A ceramide analog inhibits cPLA2 activity and consequent PGE2 formation in LPS-stimulated macrophages, Immunology Letters, 2011, 135, 136-143. ( pdf ). Dorit Avni , Orna Ernst , Amir ...
-丁内酯(GBL)其他名称:二氢呋喃-2(3H)-oneGBLButyrolactone-1,4-内酯-4-丁内酯4-羟基丁酸内酯-羟基丁酸内酯CAS号码:96-48-,gamma-Butyrolactone/96-48-0,Organic Chemicals Chemicals Supplier or Manufacturer - importer & exporter Price By China(Mainland) company: Hebei Atun Trading Co., Ltd on www.worldinout.com .
Question: In the Life Extension magazine s Q&A column, Tom Matthews wrote that gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) should not be taken supplementally but should only be used in the synthesis of GHB outside the body. He then cited an oral LD-50 of 17.2 ml/kg for GBL in rats. Any comments? CF. Answer: A dose of 17.2 ml/kg in a 50 kg (112 lb) person would be 860 ml of GBL, which is about 170 teaspoons! That s nearly a quart of GBL! Since the average person using GBL would be expected to use approximately 1/4-1/2 tsp. (1-2 ml), this represents a theoretical safety margin of 400:1, which is exceedingly high by almost any standard. There is no obvious reason for citing such a high LD-50 as apparent justification for an absolute dis-recommendation for GBL. Scientifically, that would be like citing the danger of sunburn as a basis for trashing the use of 100 watt light bulbs.. In a long-term dosing experiment in rodents, very high doses of butyrolactone showed a surprising lack of toxicity [NTIS, 1992]. The ...
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ID 2: 235. Toxin: n. Systematic name: 2-Furancarboxylic acid, 2-[[3-[(3,3-dimethyloxiranyl)methyl]-4-hydroxyphenyl]methyl]-2,5-dihydro-4-hydroxy-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-5-oxo-, methyl ester, (2R)-. Molecular formulae: C24H24O8. Molecular weight: 440.44. Chemical abstract number: 87414-45-7. Literature reference:. ...
ID 2: 235. Toxin: n. Systematic name: 2-Furancarboxylic acid, 2-[[3-[(3,3-dimethyloxiranyl)methyl]-4-hydroxyphenyl]methyl]-2,5-dihydro-4-hydroxy-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-5-oxo-, methyl ester, (2R)-. Molecular formulae: C24H24O8. Molecular weight: 440.44. Chemical abstract number: 87414-45-7. Literature reference:. ...
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Information on Registered Substances comes from registration dossiers which have been assigned a registration number. The assignment of a registration number does however not guarantee that the information in the dossier is correct or that the dossier is compliant with Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 (the REACH Regulation). This information has not been reviewed or verified by the Agency or any other authority. The content is subject to change without prior notice ...
Many Gram-negative bacteria employ N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs) as quorum-sensing (QS) signal molecules to regulate virulence expression in a density-dependent manner. Quorum quenching (QQ) via enzymatic inactivation of AHLs is a promising strategy to reduce bacterial infections and drug resistance. Herein, a thermostable AHL lactonase (AidB), which could degrade different AHLs, with or without a substitution of carbonyl or hydroxyl at the C-3 position, was identified from the soil bacterium Bosea sp. strain F3-2. Ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography analysis demonstrated that AidB is an AHL lactonase that hydrolyzes the ester bond of the homoserine lactone (HSL) ring. AidB was thermostable in the range 30 to 80°C and showed maximum activity after preincubation at 60°C for 30 min. The optimum temperature of AidB was 60°C, and the enzyme could be stably stored in double-distilled water (ddH2O) at 4°C or room temperature. AidB homologs were found only in Rhizobiales and ...
Quorum sensing (QS) denotes a density-dependent mode of inter-bacterial communication based on signal transmitter molecules. Active QS is present during chronic infections with the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa in immunocompromised patients. The authors have previously demonstrated a …
definition of HBHL, what does HBHL mean?, meaning of HBHL, Hydroxybutanoyl Homoserine Lactone, HBHL stands for Hydroxybutanoyl Homoserine Lactone
Quorum sensing (QS) is a regulatory system that allows bacteria to share information about cell density and adjust gene expression accordingly. All QS bacteria produce and release chemical signal molecules called autoinducers (AIs) that increase in concentration as a function of cell density. The most commonly studied AIs belong to one of the following three categories: acylated homoserine lactones, also referred to as AI-1, used by Gram-negative bacteria; peptide signals, used by Gram-positive bacteria; and AI-2, used by both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. QS can be divided into at least 4 steps: production of AIs by the bacterial cell; release of AIs, either actively or passively, into the surrounding environment; recognition of AIs by specific receptors; and leading to changes in gene regulation once they exceed a threshold concentration. The processes controlled by QS include virulence, competence, conjugation, antibiotic production, motility, sporulation, and biofilm formation ...
In the extracellular environment the enzyme LuxI is present in form of the fusion construct, proteinA-LuxI. The conversion of S-adenosyl methionine (SAM) to acylated homoserine lactone (AHL) catalyzed by LuxI follows enzyme kinetics by Michaelis-Menten:. v = Vmax x SAMex/ (Km + SAMex) Next, AHL has to be transported across the membrane of the cell via diffusion. The inside concentration is therefore determined by the diffusion rate across the membrane (kdif), the initial concentration (AHLex) as well as the decay constant of AHL inside the cell (kAHL). d[AHL] dt= kdiff(AHLex- AHLin) -(kdec * AHLin) Furthermore AHL as well as constitutively expressed LuxR form a complex which can bind to the luxR promoter. The amount of AHL-LuxR complex binding the luxR promoter is dependent on the concentration of AHL, the concentration of LuxR and its degradation (kLuxR) the binding and dissociation constant of AHL and LuxR (kdis=. [LuxR-AHL]=kdis x [AHL] x [LuxR] A signal can be detected using different ...
LuxI and LuxR are key factors that drive quorum sensing (QS) in bacteria through secretion and perception of the signaling molecules e.g. N-Acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs). The role of these proteins is well established in Gram-negative bacteria for intercellular communication but remain under-explored in Gram-positive bacteria where QS peptides are majorly responsible for cell-to-cell communication. Therefore, in the present study, we explored conservation, potential function, topological arrangements and evolutionarily aspects of these proteins in Gram-positive bacteria. Putative LuxI/LuxR containing proteins were retrieved using the domain-based strategy from InterPro v62.0 meta-database. Conservational analyses via multiple sequence alignment and domain showed that these are well conserved in Gram-positive bacteria and possess relatedness with Gram-negative bacteria. Further, Gene ontology and ligand-based functional annotation explain their active involvement in signal transduction ...
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Maurer S, Wabnitz GH, Kahle NA, Stegmaier S, Prior B, Giese T, Gaida MM, Samstag Y, Hänsch GM (2015). Tasting Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms: human neutrophils express the bitter receptor T2R38 as sensor for the quorum sensing molecule N-(3-oxododecanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone. Front Immunol. 6 (369). PubMed DOI Wabnitz GH, Nessmann A, Kirchgessner H, Samstag Y (2015). InFlow microscopy of human leukocytes: a tool for quantitative analysis of actin rearrangements in the immune synapse. J Immunol Methods. 423:29-39. PubMed DOI. Schröder-Braunstein J, Gras J, Brors B, Schwarz S, Szikszai T, Lasitschka F, Wabnitz G, Heidtmann A, Lee YS, Schiessling S, Leowardi C, Al-Saeedi M, Ulrich A, Engelke A, Winter J, Samstag Y, Giese T, Meuer S (2014). Initiation of an inflammatory response in resident intestinal lamina propria cells -use of a human organ culture model. PLoS One. 9(5):e97780. PubMed DOI. Riplinger SM, Wabnitz GH, Kirchgessner H, Jahraus B, Lasitschka F, Schulte B, van der Pluijm G, van der ...
Individuals who have extra copies of a gene that produces a specific protein are less likely to contract HIV or develop AIDS than people from the same ...
Chemsex -- the use of crystallized methamphetamine, mephedrone, γ-hydroxybutyrate or γ-butyrolactone and to a lesser extent cocaine and ketamine to facilitate sex -- has emerged as a new phenomenon in the UK and across Europe among gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (GBMSM).
fluorescence was monitored with a FACSCalibur cytometer, using the FL4 channel and at least 10,000 events were collected. The percentage of inhibition was
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen that causes serious infections in immunocompromised patients and those with cystic fibrosis (CF). This gram-negative bacterium uses multiple cell-to-cell signals to control ...
BBC News has a report on the increasingly popularity of gamma-Butyrolactone or GBL as a recreational drug. Actually, its not a drug in itself, but once ingested it is metabolised into GHB, a drug often sold under the name Liquid Ecstasy. Actually, the effects are much more like alcohol than ecstasy (the street name is…
The importance of accurate demographic information is reflected in the United States Constitution, Article 1, which provides for a decennial census of this countrys human population. Bacteria also conduct a census of their population and do so more frequently, more efficiently, and as far we know, …
This MassBank Record with Accession RP021802 contains the MS2 mass spectrum of 3-hydroxy-N-(2-oxooxolan-3-yl)tetradecanamide. The mass spectrum was acquired on a LC-ESI-QTOF with POSITIVE ionisation using CID fragmentation with the collision energy 20 at a resolution of null and has the SPLASH splash10-0udi-1900000000-23f306718a9c6f1e71b2.
During this shaking period label chloroform-resistant tubes or 96 well plate with sample names and dilutions For ease of handling large numbers of eppendorf tubes, we load them in a rack, wrap saran wrap around the tubes + rack, secure the ends with packing tape, and shake the entire rack in the 37°C shaker. Saran wrap can be easily cut off using scissors at the end of the experiment ...
You are viewing an interactive 3D depiction of the molecule n-{(1e)-1-amino-5-[(diaminomethylene)amino]-1-hydroxy-1-penten-2-yl}benzamide (C13H19N5O2) from the PQR.
You are viewing an interactive 3D depiction of the molecule n-[4-({[5-(dimethylamino)-1-naphthyl]sulfonyl}amino)phenyl]-3-hydroxy-2,2-dimethylpropanamide (C23H27N3O4S) from the PQR.
Phytoestrogens have been linked to a risk of breast cancer. The main phytoestrogens in the Finnish diet are lignans, and enterolactone is quantitatively the most important circulating lignan. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between serum enterolactone and risk of breast cancer in Finnish women. The subjects were participants of the Kuopio Breast Cancer Study. This analysis concerns 194 breast cancer cases (68 premenopausal and 126 postmenopausal) who entered the study before diagnosis and 208 community-based controls. They completed a validated food frequency questionnaire referring to the previous 12 months and gave serum samples before the examinations. The measurement of serum enterolactone was performed by time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay. The statistical analyses were done by the logistic regression method. The mean serum enterolactone concentration was 20 nmol/l for the cases and 26 nmol/l for the controls (P 0.003). The mean serum enterolactone concentration in the ...
Density and speed-of-sound values at T = (278.15, 283.15, 288.15, 293.15, 298.15, 308.15, and 318.15) K and at atmospheric pressure were measured, for dilute aqueous solutions of γ-butyrolactone and ε-caprolactone, using an Anton Paar DSA 5000 vibrating-tube densimeter and sound analyzer. A small but significant effect of hydrolysis was observed for aqueous ε-caprolactone and a procedure for eliminating its effect was proposed and employed. Values of the partial molar volume and isentropic compression at infinite dilution were obtained from this experimental data by suitable extrapolation procedures and compared with available data from the literature. The group contribution of the methylene group was evaluated and compared with that obtained for other classes of aqueous cyclic solutes.. ...
Read about Gamma-hydroxybutyrate and Gamma-butyrolactone Abuse, and learn m ore about GBL & GHB abuse on Gamma-hydroxybutyrate and Gamma-butyrolactone Abuse page
Quorum sensing is a unique bacterial communication system which permits bacteria to synchronize their behaviour in accordance with the population density. The operation of this communication network involves the use of diffusible autoinducer molecules, termed N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs). Serratia spp. are well known for their use of quorum sensing to regulate the expression of various genes. In this study, we aimed to characterized the AHL production of a bacterium designated as strain RB-25 isolated from a former domestic waste landfill site. It was identified as Serratia fonticola using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry analysis and this was confirmed by 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing. High resolution triple quadrupole liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of S. fonticola strain RB-25 spent culture supernatant indicated the existence of three AHLs namely: N-butyryl-L-homoserine lactone (C4-HSL), N-hexanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (C6
Quorum-quenching catalysts are of interest for potential application as biochemical tools for interrogating interbacterial communication pathways, as antibiofouling agents, and as anti-infective agents in plants and animals. Herein, the structure and function of AidC, an N-acyl-l-homoserine lactone (AHL) lactonase from Chryseobacterium, is characterized. Steady-state kinetics show that zinc-supplemented AidC is the most efficient wild-type quorum-quenching enzymes characterized to date, with a k cat/K M value of approximately 2 × 10 6 M -1 s -1 for N-heptanoyl-l-homoserine lactone. The enzyme has stricter substrate selectivity and significantly lower KM values (ca. 50 μM for preferred substrates) compared to those of typical AHL lactonases (ca. ,1 mM). X-ray crystal structures of AidC alone and with the product N-hexanoyl-l-homoserine were determined at resolutions of 1.09 and 1.67 Å, respectively. Each structure displays as a dimer, and dimeric oligiomerization was also observed in solution ...
1.THE GREEN FLUORESCENT PROTEIN - Annual Review of Biochemistry, 67(1):509.. 2.Tian T, Burrage K (2006) Stochastic models for regulatory networks of the genetic toggle switch. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 103: 8372 -8377.. 3.Basu S, Mehreja R, Thiberge S, Chen M, Weiss R (2004) Spatiotemporal control of gene expression with pulse-generating networks. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 101: 6355 -6360.. 4.Nilsson P, Olofsson A, Fagerlind M, Fagerström T, Rice S, u. a. (2001) Kinetics of the AHL Regulatory System in a Model Biofilm System: How Many Bacteria Constitute a Quorum? Journal of Molecular Biology 309: 631-640.. 5.Schaefer AL, Val DL, Hanzelka BL, Cronan JE, Greenberg EP (1996) Generation of cell-to-cell signals in quorum sensing: acyl homoserine lactone synthase activity of a purified Vibrio fischeri LuxI protein. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A 93: 9505-9509.. 6.Kaplan HB, Greenberg EP (1985) Diffusion of autoinducer is ...
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In this paper, we investigated the intra-species bacterial quorum sensing at the single cell level using a double droplet trapping system. Escherichia coli transformed to express the quorum sensing receptor protein, LasR, were encapsulated in microdroplets that were positioned adjacent to microdroplets containing the autoinducer, N-(3-oxododecanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone (OdDHL). Functional activation of the LasR protein by diffusion of the OdDHL across the droplet interface was measured by monitoring the expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP) from a LasR-dependent promoter. A threshold concentration of OdDHL was found to induce production of quorum-sensing associated GFP by E. coli. Additionally, we demonstrated that LasR-dependent activation of GFP expression was also initiated when the adjacent droplets contained single E. coli transformed with the OdDHL synthase gene, LasI, representing a simple quorum sensing circuit between two droplets.
In recent years it has become clear that the production of N-acyl homoserine lactones (N-AHLs) is widespread in Gram-negative bacteria. These molecules act as diffusible chemical communication signals (bacterial pheromones) which regulate diverse physiological processes including bioluminescence, antibiotic production, piasmid conjugal transfer and synthesis of exoenzyme virulence factors in plant and animal pathogens. The paradigm for N-AHL production is in the bioluminescence (lux) phenotype of Photobacterium fischeri (formerly classified as Vibrio fischeri) where the signalling molecule N-(3-oxohexanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone (OHHL) is synthesized by the action of the Luxl protein. OHHL is thought to bind to the LuxR protein, allowing it to act as a positive transcriptional activator in an autoinduction process that physiologically couples cell density (and growth phase) to the expression of the bioluminescence genes. Based on the growing information on Luxl and LuxR homologues in other ...
We have discovered that P. aeruginosa produces a cell-to-cell signal that is unlike any previously reported intercellular signal molecule. This molecule was determined to have a 4-quinolone base structure and therefore has been designated as the Pseudomonas quinolone signal (PQS). Our results showed that exogenously added PQS induced a lasB′-lacZ fusion in the P. aeruginosa lasR mutant, strain PAO-R1, containing the plasmid pTS400 (Fig. 2A). This indicates that there is a third cell-to-cell signal, in addition to the autoinducers 3-oxo-C12-HSL and C4-HSL, that is involved in lasB induction by P. aeruginosa. Despite the ability of PQS to activate lasB′-lacZ in the absence of lasR, the production of PQS required an active LasR protein (Fig. 2A). This suggested that a gene (or genes) required for PQS synthesis is controlled through the las quorum sensing system. We also found that at least RhlR was required for PQS to act as a signal because lasB′-lacZ was not induced by PQS in the lasR, rhlR ...
Quorum sensing is a mechanism for regulating proteobacterial gene expression in response to changes in cell population. In proteobacteria, N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) appears to be the most widely used signalling molecules in mediating, among others, the production of extracellular virulence factors for survival. In this work, the genome of B. cepacia strain GG4, a plasmid-free strain capable of AHL synthesis was explored. In silico analysis of the 6.6 Mb complete genome revealed the presence of a LuxI homologue which correspond to Type I quorum sensing. Here, we report the molecular cloning and characterization of this LuxI homologue, designated as BurI. This 609 bp gene was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3). The purified protein was approximately 25 kDa and is highly similar to several autoinducer proteins of the LuxI family among Burkholderia species. To verify the AHL synthesis activity of this protein, high resolution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis
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Implications for the application of the MPN technique.It has been shown that cellular isolates which correspond to abundant 16S rDNA sequences can indeed be isolated if the inocula are diluted in MPN series prior to enrichment (16). This effect has been attributed to the presence of rare but rapidly growing bacteria which are eliminated by the dilution step. Consequently, the MPN technique currently represents the method of choice to obtain cultures of abundant bacteria (16).. Unexpectedly, isolates obtained in the present study from the highest positive dilutions, despite the very high cultivation success of up to 100%, could not be detected by DGGE fingerprinting and yielded only a very faint signal during dot blot hybridization. Based on the relatively large inherent statistical uncertainty of the MPN technique, the fraction of strain G100 in the natural bacterioplankton community could also be as low as 12% (the lower limit of the MPN confidence interval). Nevertheless, this minimum value is ...
Quorum sensing regulation, mediated by N-acyl homoserine lactone signals, produced by strain Serratia plymuthica HRO-C48 isolated from the rhizosphere of oilseed rape, was found to be responsible for
Rabbit polyclonal to TranscriptionfactorSp1. SLN-CTAb does not cross-react with any other low molecular protein in particular PLB. SLN could not be detected with total ventricular protein extract because of its very low level suggesting that microsomal fractions should be used to detect SLN in the ventricle. These results together suggest HA-1077 that we effectively produced a rabbit-polyclonal antibody particular for SLN which identifies SLN across varieties. Shape 1 (A) European blot evaluation of sarcolipin (SLN) and phospholamban (PLB) in the full total homogenate (Total), SR enriched microsomal fractions (SR) and post microsomal fractions (PM) from rat atria and ventricle. Bacterial draw out including rat and human being SLN … The manifestation design of SLN differs between little and bigger mammals To determine whether SLN proteins expression comes after its mRNA design HA-1077 [2-5], total proteins prepared from different muscle groups of mouse, rat, pet and rabbit were analyzed by ...
We describe novel imaging protocols that allow detection of small cancer cell colonies deep inside tissue phantoms with high sensitivity and specificity. to deeper tumors. We show that under these conditions Syryl-9M can detect as few as 10 cells in a biologically relevant phantom. This outstanding characteristic should bode very well for development of new highly efficient near-IR clinical imaging agents. 2. Methods 2.1. Cells and cell culture For our collagen gel phantom experiments, we required cell lines that we knew from experience would not be adversely affected by culturing in three dimensional collagen type I gels. This was true of all the cell lines used in this work. Three of the lines, normal mammary, +SA and 4T1, were also derived from the same BALB/c inbred mouse strain. The MDA-MB-231 and NIHOVCAR3 cells were chosen to represent malignant human cell lines. Passage Ambrisentan two, normal mouse mammary epithelial cells were propagated from cells obtained from Dr. H. L. Hosick in ...
Virulence in the Gram-negative pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa relies in part on the efficient functioning of two LuxI/R dependent quorum sensing (QS) cascades, namely, the LasI/R and RhlI/R systems that generate and respond to N-(3-oxo)-dodecanoyl-l-homoserine lactone and N-butyryl-l-homoserine lactone, respectively. The two acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) synthases, LasI and RhlI, use 3-oxododecanoyl-ACP and butyryl-ACP, respectively, as the acyl-substrates to generate the corresponding autoinducer signals for the bacterium. Although AHL synthases represent excellent targets for developing QS modulators in P. aeruginosa, and in other related bacteria, the identification of potent and signal synthase specific inhibitors has represented a significant technical challenge. In the current study, we sought to test the utility of AHL analogs as potential modulators of an AHL synthase and selected RhlI in P. aeruginosa as an initial target. We systematically varied the chemical functionalities of the ...
Specific recognition of cognate signals is considered fundamental to cell signaling circuits as it creates fidelity in the communication system. In bacterial quorum sensing (QS), receptor specificity ensures that bacteria cooperate only with kin. There are examples, however, of QS receptors that respond promiscuously to multiple signals. Eavesdropping by these promiscuous receptors can be beneficial in both interspecies competition... ...
A number of bacteria use a class of chemical compounds called acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs) as quorum sensing (QS) signals to coordinate their behavior at the population level, including pathogens...
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e) A person who extracts or synthesizes either 1,4-Butanediol or gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) from a finished product as described in subparagraph(1)(j)2. or a person who extracts or synthesizes 1,4-Butanediol or gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) from any product or material, unless such extraction or synthesis is authorized by law; or ...
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The use of natural products is becoming increasingly popular worldwide. Flaxseed is a source of natural products that are rich with bioactives and have been reported to modulate inflammation, blood pressure, glucose levels and lipid profiles in both humans and animals. Currently, several known bioactives including fibers, lignans, alpha-linolenic acid, and linoorbitides (LOBs) are believed to impart those pharmacological activities. Previous studies have focused on the ability of flaxseed bioactives to provide their pharmacological action in the systemic circulation. However, our increasing understanding of their pharmacokinetics and chemical structures, suggests enhanced abundance of LOBs and lignans at the level of the intestinal epithelium due to the potential lack of permeation of LOBs, and susceptibility of lignans to enterohepatic circulation. Our aim in this work is to evaluate the effects of the lignan enterolactone (ENL) and LOBs on intestinal epithelium function and how it might ...
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GBL (gamma-butyrolactone) is a pro-drug of GHB, which means that it converts to GHB within the body. GBL occurs naturally in certain food products, is found in small quantities in the human body and is available commercially as an industrial solvent and as an ingredient in cleaners, paint removers and engine degreasers.. Factsheet GBL (PDF). ...
As noted, GHB is a derivative of the endogenous substance GABA and will be present in patients even in the absence of GHB ingestion. GHB as a sodium salt is also available as a therapeutic drug for treatment of narcolepsy. In addition, Gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) and 1,4-butanedial (BD) are chemicals metabolized to GHB in the body if they are ingested orally. In some cases, patients may have obtained these substances, rather than GHB, for self-administration, because they may not be banned by law, depending on the country in question.. Most methods for GHB detection are chromatographic and performed in reference labs, and, therefore, the long turnaround time makes it difficult for the testing to have a direct impact in patient management. These types of methods are not prone to interference by structural analogs and other compounds that may be present in a patient specimen. There is one direct enzymatic assay available based on GHB dehydrogenase, and this method does exhibit some interference from ...
In P. aeruginosa chronic infections, autoinducer concentrations in patient samples vary among different strains, and accurate values are still unknown. However, in one report, the levels of extractable 3-oxo-C12-HSL and C4-HSL in the sputum of CF patients were in the nanomolar range: up to 22 nM for 3-oxo-C12-HSL and 0 to 5 nM for C4-HSL (29). This is considerably lower than the concentrations required for exerting cytotoxicity in mammalian cells (10 to 50 μM) (30) and also the levels found in planktonic P. aeruginosa cultures (1 μM) (31) and in vitro biofilms (600 μM) (32). It has been widely accepted that antibodies with subnanomolar affinity exhibit improved therapeutic efficacy, especially if the targets to be bound are present in low concentrations (33). Clearly, nanomolar levels of HSL compounds in patient lungs cannot be ruled out, although these lower levels observed might have been influenced analytically by factors such as the unstable nature of these compounds in the extracellular ...
During infection of plants by Agrobacterium tumefaciens, plants are wounded and then a tumor is induced, which is a source of opines, chemicals that stimulate the production of the quorum-sensing (QS) signal N-(3-oxooctanoyl)homoserine lactone (OC8-HSL). γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is produced by plants as part of the response to wounding. Chevrot et al. show that GABA stimulates expression of the attKLM operon in A. tumefaciens, which produces a lactonase that inactivates OC8-HSL. OC8-HSL was undetectable in cultures of A. tumefaciens exposed to GABA. Proteins encoded by the attKLM operon were identified in a proteomic screen for proteins synthesized in response to the addition of GABA to cultures of A. tumefaciens. The induction of the attKLM operon was also monitored using a reporter assay, and in A. tumefaciens deficient for the GABA transporter system, GABA did not induce the reporter. The importance of GABA for the plant response was verified using a transgenic tobacco that expressed a ...
ChemInform Abstract: Asymmetric Vinylogous Michael Reaction of α,β-Unsaturated Ketones with γ-Butenolide under Multifunctional Catalysis.|span||/span| | Huicai Huang; Feng Yu; Zhichao Jin; Wenjun Li; Wenbin Wu; Xinmiao Liang; Jinxing Ye | download | BookSC. Download books for free. Find books
R. Wagner, G. Stübiger, D. Veigel, M. Wuczkowski, P. Lanzerstorfer, J. Weghuber, E. Karteris, K. Nowikovsky, N. Wilfinger, C. Singer, R. Colomer, B. Benhamu, M. Lopez-Rodrguez, P. Valent, T. Grunt - Multi-level suppression of receptor-PI3K-mTORC1 by fatty acid synthase inhibitors is crucial for their efficacy against ovarian cancer cells - Oncotarget, Vol. 8, No. 7, ...
During infection of plants by Agrobacterium tumefaciens, plants are wounded and then a tumor is induced, which becomes a source of opines: chemicals that stimulate the production of the quorum-sensing (QS) signal N-(3-oxooctanoyl) homoserine lactone (OC8-HSL). γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is produced by plants as part of the response to wounding. Chevrot et al. show that GABA stimulates expression of the attKLM operon in A. tumefaciens, which produces a lactonase that opens the ring and inactivates OC8-HSL. Consequently, OC8-HSL was undetectable in cultures of A. tumefaciens exposed to GABA. Proteins encoded by the attKLM operon were identified in a screen for proteins synthesized in response to the addition of GABA to cultures of A. tumefaciens. The induction of the attKLM operon was also monitored using a reporter assay, and in A. tumefaciens deficient for the GABA transporter system, GABA did not induce the reporter. The importance of GABA for the plant response was verified using transgenic ...
Both γ-butyrolactone (GBL) and 1,4-butanediol are converted to GHB in the body. In January 2016, it was announced scientists ... Some prodrugs, such as γ-butyrolactone (GBL), convert to GHB in the stomach and blood stream. Other prodrugs, such as 1,4- ... Elliott S, Burgess V (July 2005). "The presence of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) and gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) in alcoholic ... γ-butyrolactone and 1,4-butanediol". Clinical Toxicology. 50 (6): 458-70. doi:10.3109/15563650.2012.702218. PMID 22746383. ...
An ethanediol derivate and γ-butyrolactone are reacting to a derivate of 1,4,6-trioxa-spiro[4.4]nonane. The third possibility ... The epoxide cyclohexene oxide and the lactone γ-butyrolactone are reacting to the spiro orthoester spiro-7-9-dioxacyclo[4.3.0] ... Hsu, Ying-Gev; Wan, Yen-Shen (15 July 2009). "Cationic photopolymerization of cis-2,3-tetramethylene-1,4,6-trioxaspiro[4,4] ...
The degradation of the polymer chain sets free the initial diol and γ-butyrolactone, which is further hydrolyzed to 4- ... synthesized from γ-butyrolactone and triethylorthoformate). In polycondensation small molecules are formed (in this case of ... The 4-hydroxybutanoic acid formed is responsible for the locally lowered pH value upon polymer degradation. The commercial use ... Polyorthoesters type II are formed by polyaddition of a α,ω-diol and the diketene acetal 3,9-diethylidene-2,4,8,10- ...
August 2006). "Evaluation for the withdrawal syndrome from gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), gamma-butyrolactone (GBL), and 1,4- ... butanediol (1,4-BD) in different rat lines". Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 1074: 545-58. doi:10.1196/annals. ...
At about 200 °C in the presence of soluble ruthenium catalysts, the diol undergoes dehydrogenation to form butyrolactone. World ... gamma-butyrolactone) as a Class C controlled substance. In Germany, the drug is not explicitly illegal, but might also be ... 1,4-Butanediol is also used as a recreational drug known by some users as "One Comma Four", "Liquid Fantasy", "One Four Bee" or ... 1,4-Butanediol was detected by GC-MS. The production plant seems to have intended to cut costs by replacing less toxic 1,5- ...
Gamma-Butyrolactone & Polyurethanes), And Segment Forecasts To 2020". Grand View Research. September 2015. Retrieved 2015-11-18 ... Succinic acid is a precursor to some polyesters and a component of some alkyd resins.[10] 1,4-Butanediol (BDO) can be ... In humans, three HIF prolyl 4-hydroxylases regulate the stability of HIFs.[38] Hydroxylation of two prolyl residues in HIF1α ... Dehydration of succinic acid gives succinic anhydride.[14] Succinate can be used to derive 1,4-butanediol, maleic anhydride, ...
"Improved thermosets obtained from cycloaliphatic epoxy resins and γ-butyrolactone with lanthanide triflates as initiators. I. ... 3,4-Epoxycyclohexylmethyl-3',4'-epoxycyclohexane carboxylate (ECC) is a cycloaliphatic epoxy resin which is used in many ... Record of 3,4-Epoxycyclohexylmethyl-3',4'-epoxycyclohexancarboxylat in the GESTIS Substance Database of the Institute for ... 4′-epoxycyclohexancarboxylate in photoinitiated cationic polymerizations". Journal of Polymer Science Part A: Polymer Chemistry ...
4,5-tetrahydro-8-chloro-3-methyl-5-phenyl-1h-3-benzazepin-7-ol MeSH D03.438.079.800 - 2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-7,8-dihydroxy-1-phenyl ... 4,5-dihydro-1-(3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-1h-pyrazol-3-amine MeSH D03.383.129.539.200 - epirizole MeSH D03.383.129.539.487 - ... 4-oxadiazole MeSH D03.383.312.649.290 - fanft MeSH D03.383.312.649.308 - furagin MeSH D03.383.312.649.313 - furazolidone MeSH ... 4-dihydro-2,6-dimethyl-5-nitro-4-(2-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-, methyl ester MeSH D03.383.725.210 - dimethindene MeSH D03.383. ...
4-Butanediol Baclofen GABA Gabamide GABOB gamma-Butyrolactone (GBL) gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) gamma-Hydroxyvaleric acid ( ...
4 (1): 7. doi:10.1186/s40508-016-0051-z. ISSN 2043-7129. Watson, Allan J. B.; Jamieson, Craig; Greatrex, Ben; Murray, Jane; ... Method of producing (S)-4-hydroxymethyl-γ-lactone, 1990-09-17, retrieved 2019-01-31 Okabe, Masami; Sun, Ruen Chu; Tam, Steve Y ... 1S,5R)-6,8-dioxabicyclo[3.2.1]octan-4-one - Registration Dossier - ECHA". echa.europa.eu. European Chemicals Agency, Europa ( ... 4-hydroxymethyl-γ-butyrolactone], from which zalcitabine (2'-3'-dideoxycytidine, ddC), formerly a HIV drug, is available. In a ...
GHB γ-Butyrolactone (GBL) - by way of bioactivation to GHB[citation needed] γ-Hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) γ-Hydroxyvaleric acid ( ... 1,4-Butanediol (disputed) 3-Hydroxycyclopent-1-enecarboxylic acid (HOCPCA) 4-(p-Chlorobenzyl)- ... 4-hydroxy-but-2-enoic acid, CAS# 430440-66-7) NCS-435 (4-(p-methoxybenzyl)-GHB) UMB66 UMB68 UMB72 UMB86 Gabazine (SR-95531) NCS ... GHV; 4-methyl-GHB) γ-Valerolactone (GVL) - by bioactivation to GHV trans-Hydroxycrotonic acid (T-HCA) Aceburic acid NCS-356 (4 ...
The molecular formula C4H6O2 may refer to: 1,4-Butynediol Butyrolactones β-Butyrolactone γ-Butyrolactone Crotonic acid Diacetyl ... Diepoxybutane 1,4-Dioxene Isocrotonic acid Methacrylic acid Methyl acrylate Succinaldehyde Vinyl acetate This set index page ...
... by using 3-hydroxy-gamma-butyrolactone as a chiral synthon It is used as one of the monomers for manufacture of some polyesters ... 1,2,4-Butanetriol is also used as a precursor for two cholesterol-lowering drugs, Crestor and Zetia, which are derived from D-3 ... 1,2,4-Butanetriol is a clear or slightly yellow, odorless, hygroscopic, flammable, viscous liquid. It is an alcohol with three ... 1,2,4-Butanetriol can be prepared synthetically by several different methods such as hydroformylation of glycidol and ...
γ-Butyrolactone (GBL) is a hygroscopic colorless, water-miscible liquid with a weak characteristic odor. It is the simplest 4- ... "Gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) Pre-Review Report" (PDF). 4 June 2012. Van Cauter, E.; Plat, L.; Scharf, M. B.; Leproult, R.; ... γ-Butyrolactone is produced industrially by dehydrogenation of 1,4-butanediol at a temperature of 180-300 °C and atmospheric ... Butyrolactone, with its wide liquid range, chemical stability and high dielectric constant, is used in some batteries but ...
γ-Valerolactone (GVL) acts as a prodrug to GHV, analogously to how γ-butyrolactone (GBL) is a prodrug to GHB. 1,4-Butanediol (1 ... γ-Hydroxyvaleric acid (GHV), also known as 4-methyl-GHB, is a designer drug related to γ-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB). It is ... 37 (4): 250-4. doi:10.1093/jat/bkt013. PMID 23486087. v t e. ... 4-BD) Aceburic acid Valerenic acid Valeric acid Carter LP; Chen ... and its 4-methyl-substituted analog, gamma-hydroxyvaleric acid (GHV)". Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 78 (1): 91-9. doi:10.1016/j ...
7-dione γ-Butyrolactone (GBL) γ-Hydroxybutyraldehyde (GHBAL) γ-Valerolactone (GVL) Aceturic acid Aceglutamide Ethyl acetoxy ... It is the acetyl ester of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB, which is 4-hydroxybutanoic acid), and based on its structural relation to ... Aceburic acid (INN), also known as 4-acetoxybutanoic acid or 4-hydroxybutyric acid acetate, is drug described as an analgesic ... GHB, is likely to behave as a prodrug to it.[citation needed] 1,4-Butanediol (1,4-BD) 1,6-Dioxecane-2, ...
Gamma-Butyrolactone & Polyurethanes), And Segment Forecasts To 2020". Grand View Research. September 2015. Retrieved 2015-11-18 ... 1,4-Butanediol (BDO) can be synthesized using succinic acid as a precursor. The automotive and electronics industries heavily ... This enzyme complex is a 4 subunit membrane-bound lipoprotein which couples the oxidation of succinate to the reduction of ... In humans, three HIF prolyl 4-hydroxylases regulate the stability of HIFs. Hydroxylation of two prolyl residues in HIF1α ...
It is synthesised by the reaction of gamma-butyrolactone and ethyl acetate with sodium ethoxide. 1,4-Butanediol (1,4-BD) 1,6- ... doi:10.1021/jf00016a014 常温下4-乙酰氧基丁酸乙酯的催化合成方法. 1994. CN1047589C v t
The AlCl3-catalyzed acylation of benzene with γ-butyrolactone produces 1-tetralone. 1-Tetralone can be reduced via a Birch ... 4-Phenylbutanoic acid can also be quantitatively converted into 1-tetralone by heating in the presence of a strong Lewis acid ... 4-Phenylbutanoic acid chlorides with electron-donating groups can be cyclized to 1-tetralones under mild reaction conditions in ... The starting compound 4-phenylbutanoic acid (whose sodium salt sodium phenylbutyrate is used to treat hyperammonaemia) is ...
The formation of a thermodynamically stable gamma-butyrolactone as a co-product drives the reaction to completion while ... ChemCatChem 6 (4):973-976. doi:10.1002/cctc.201300841 Zuhse R, Leggewie C, Hollmann F, Kara S (2015) Scaling-Up of "Smart ... The use of 1,4-butanediol as an intelligent cosubstrate has also been validated in non-aqueous media using a commercial ADH. ... The use of 1,4-butanediol as a smart cosubstrate for cofactor regeneration was the next step towards more sustainable redox ...
... phenylethyl alcohol and gamma-butyrolactone, secondary products of alcoholic fermentation". Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des ... 79 (4): 283-288. doi:10.1002/j.2050-0416.1973.tb03541.x. Ribéreau-Gayon, P.; Sapis, J. C. (2019). "On the presence in wine of ... ISBN 978-0-8493-4226-4. Stryer, Lubert (1975). Biochemistry. W. H. Freeman and Company. ISBN 978-0-7167-0174-3. Raj SB, ...
... phenylethyl alcohol and gamma-butyrolactone, secondary products of alcoholic fermentation". Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des ... 79 (4): 283-288. doi:10.1002/j.2050-0416.1973.tb03541.x. Ribéreau-Gayon, P.; Sapis, J. C. (1965). "On the presence in wine of ... Roger Protz (4 December 2004). "The Complete Guide to World Beer". Archived from the original on 25 April 2011. Retrieved 21 ... In Belgium, some beers, such as table beer are of such low alcohol content (1%-4%) that they are served instead of soft drinks ...
Gamma butyrolactone (other names include: GBL; dihydro-2(3H)-furanone; 1,2-butanolide; 1,4-butanolide; 4-hydroxybutanoic acid ... N-Phenethyl-4-piperidone (NPP) (fentanyl) Iodine (methamphetamine, amphetamine) Ergocristine and its salts (lysergic acid ... 4-Methylenedioxyphenyl-2-propanone (MDMA, MDA, MDEA, MDOH) Methylamine (methamphetamine) Ethylamine (etilamfetamine) Propionic ...
A comparative study of human and animal sensitivity to alpha-methylene-gamma-butyrolactone and derivatives". The British ... 66 (4): 186-9. doi:10.1016/s0367-326x(99)00122-7. PMID 20095126. Stampf, J (August 1978). "Allergic contact dermatitis due to ...
Kinoshita, H; Ipposhi, H; Okamoto, S; Nakano, H; Nihira, T; Yamada, Y (November 1997). "Butyrolactone autoregulator receptor ... 155 (Pt 4): 1250-9. doi:10.1099/mic.0.022467-0. PMID 19332826. Hopwood, David A. (2007). Streptomyces in nature and medicine : ... ISBN 978-4-431-54607-8. List of Streptomyces species LPSN bacterio.net Straininfo of Streptomyces virginiae UniProt Deutsche ... ISBN 3-642-75617-4.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link) Atta-ur-Rahman, edited by (1997). Studies in Natural Products ...
γ-Butyrolactone 1,6-Dioxecane-2,7-dione 3-Hydroxybutanal Aceburic acid Ethyl acetoxy butanoate Thomas L. Lemke; David A. ... 4-butanediol (1,4-BD). Like 1,4-BD, it also behaves as a prodrug to GHB when taken exogenously. However, as with all aliphatic ...
Butyl benzyl phthalate gamma-Butyrolactone Caffeine Cantharidin Captan Carbaryl Carbazole 3-Carbethoxypsoralen Carmoisine ... 4 Hepatitis D virus Hexachlorobutadiene Hexachlorophene Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type II Hycanthone mesylate Hydralazine ... 9 Dapsone Decabromodiphenyl oxide Deltamethrin Diacetylaminoazotoluene Diallate 1,2-Diamino-4-nitrobenzene 1,4-Diamino-2- ... 4-c]psoralen Methyl red Methyl selenac Microcystis extracts Modacrylic fibres Monuron Morpholine Musk ambrette Musk xylene 1,5- ...
... and abyssomicins possess the β-keto-γ-butyrolactone motif of tetronic acid. In organic synthesis, it is used as a precursor for ... 2,4(3H,5H)-Furandione: Heteroannulations with aromatic o-amino carbonyl compounds and condensations with some vic-polyones". ... 5-Hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone "2,4(3H,5H)-Furandione". Sigma-Aldrich. Abdou, Moaz M.; El-Saeed, Rasha A.; Abozeid, Mohamed A.; ...
... butyrolactone, avermectins), antibiotics (macrolides like erythromycin; amphotericin B), anticancer drugs (vernolepin, ... 978-0-85404-182-4. .. *^ Pelouze, J. (9 December 1844). "Mémoire sur l'acide lactique" [Memoir on lactic acid]. Comptes rendus ... Lactones are usually named according to the precursor acid molecule (aceto = 2 carbon atoms, propio = 3, butyro = 4, valero = 5 ... γ-lactones are so stable that, in the presence of dilute acids at room temperature, 4-hydroxy acids (R-CH(OH)-(CH2)2-COOH) ...
... phenylethyl alcohol and gamma-butyrolactone, secondary products of alcoholic fermentation»] Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires Des ... Munduko edari alkoholdunik kontsumituena[1] eta zaharrena da,[2][3][4] eta edaririk kontsumituena ura eta tearen ostean. ... 1990). «Estrabón III, 3, 7-8; 4, 16-18» Memorias de historia antigua (11) ISSN 0210-2943. Noiz kontsultatua: 2018-04-03. ... 0,18tik % 0,3 bitartean hitz egiteko ezintasuna edo zailtasuna, noraeza eta oka egitea eragin dezake.[175] % 0,25 eta %0,4 ...
... gamma-Butyrolactone may also be used to remove cured cyanoacrylate.[33] Commercial debonders are also available. ... Anahad O'Connor (4 December 2007). "The Claim: Super Glue Can Heal Wounds". The New York Times. Retrieved 19 February 2011. ... 85 (4): 496a-496. doi:10.1136/bjo.85.4.496a. ISSN 0007-1161. PMC 1723922. PMID 11302128.. ... has a molecular weight of 111.1 g/mol, a flashpoint of 79 °C (174 °F; 352 K), and a density of 1.1 g/ml.[4] Ethyl 2- ...
β-propiolactone γ-butyrolactone (GBL) D-glucono-δ-lactone (E575) ε-caprolactone Macrolides Kavalactones Ellagic acid ( ... butyrolactone, avermectins), antibiotics (macrolides like erythromycin; amphotericin B), anticancer drugs (vernolepin, ... γ-lactones are so stable that, in the presence of dilute acids at room temperature, 4-hydroxy acids (R-CH(OH)-(CH2)2-COOH) ... Therefore, the prefixes also indicate the size of the lactone ring: α-lactone = 3-membered ring, β-lactone = 4-membered, γ- ...
... phenylethyl alcohol and gamma-butyrolactone, secondary products of alcoholic fermentation". Comptes rendus hebdomadaires des ... Chem. 251 (4): 907-13. PMID 2607. *^ Laćan, G; Magnus, V; Jericević, B; Kunst, L; Iskrić, S (1984). "Formation of Tryptophol ... "Plant Physiology 76 (4): 889-93. PMC 1064400. PMID 16663965. doi:10.1104/pp.76.4.889. ... "Plant Physiology 42 (4): 520-524. PMC 1086576. PMID 16656532. doi:10.1104/pp.42.4.520. ...
Tiaimín Thiamine (Vitamin B1) - C12H17ClN4OS·HCl ... Gamma-butyrolactone. *Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB). *gaistrin ... Aigéad úrach Uric acid - C5H4N4O3 ... Cytosine - C4H5N3O. D[cuir in eagar , athraigh foinse]. *Aigéad ...
NMP is produced industrially by a typical ester-to-amide conversion, by treating butyrolactone with methylamine. Alternative ... InChI=1S/C5H9NO/c1-6-4-2-3-5(6)7/h2-4H2,1H3 Y ... 4] It is also used heavily in lithium ion battery fabrication, ...
... like butyrolactone) to glucuronic acid, which may be oxidized to glucaric acid, or isomerized to another hexuronic acid, so ... InChI=1S/C6H8O6/c7-1-2(8)5-3(9)4(10)6(11)12-5/h1-5,8-10H/t2-,3+,4-,5+/m0/s1 N ... 2R)-2-[(2S,3R,4S)-3,4-Dihydroxy-5-oxo-tetrahydrofuran-2-yl]-2-hydroxy-acetaldehyde ... InChI=1/C6H8O6/c7-1-2(8)5-3(9)4(10)6(11)12-5/h1-5,8-10H/t2-,3+,4-,5+/m0/s1 ...
... and butyrolactone lignans.[18][19][20] ...
... can be prepared by the ring-opening of butyrolactone with potassium cyanide to give the mixed potassium ... Collective Volume, 4, p. 496. *^ Peter Werle and Marcus Morawietz "Alcohols, Polyhydric" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of ... InChI=1S/C5H8O4/c6-4(7)2-1-3-5(8)9/h1-3H2,(H,6,7)(H,8,9) Y ... InChI=1/C5H8O4/c6-4(7)2-1-3-5(8)9/h1-3H2,(H,6,7)(H,8,9) ...
... acid directed diastereoselective lactonization of tetrahydrogibberellic acid via a C-H oxidation to form a butyrolactone ... 101 (4): 1032-1033. doi:10.1021/ja00498a040. Chen, Mark S.; White, M. Christina (2007). "A Predictably Selective Aliphatic C-H ...
... safrole Gamma-butyrolactone (dihydro-2(3H)-furanone) 1,4-butanediol Red Phosphorus White Phosphorus Hypophosphorous acid, its ... It should also be noted that Section (4), Subsection (2) of the CDSA reads that any person who obtains or who makes any attempt ... 4-b)indole) and any salt thereof Harmalol (4,9-dihydro-1-methyl-3H-pyrido(3,4-b)indol-7-ol) and any salt thereof Psilocin (3-[2 ... 2-bromo-4-(o-chlorophenyl)-9-methyl-6H-thieno[3,2-f]-s-triazolo[4,3-a][1,4]diazepine) Camazepam (7-chloro-1,3-dihydro-3-(N,N- ...
... can be prepared by the ring-opening of butyrolactone with potassium cyanide to give the mixed potassium ... 4, p. 496 Peter Werle and Marcus Morawietz "Alcohols, Polyhydric" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry: 2002, ...
B) The designation of gamma butyrolactone or any other chemical as a listed chemical pursuant to paragraph (34) or (35) does ... The controlled drug which it was alleged 1,4-B was substantially similar to was gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB). 1,4-B GHB In this ... It was raised in defense that 1,4-B and GHB contain different functional groups, and that the food additive monosodium ... 4-B not substantially similar to GHB. It was also raised in the case of Washam that the Federal Analogue Act was ...
Koek W, Mercer SL, Coop A (June 2007). "Cataleptic effects of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), its precursor gamma-butyrolactone ( ... its precursor gamma-butyrolactone, and GABA(B) receptor agonists: time course and differential antagonism by the GABA(B) ... 101 (4): 949-57. doi:10.1111/j.1476-5381.1990.tb14186.x. PMC 1917862. PMID 1964824. Jackson GL, Kuehl D (May 2002). "The GABA(B ...
Butyl benzyl phthalate gamma-Butyrolactone Caffeine Cantharidin Caprolactam Captan Carbaryl Carbazole 3-Carbethoxypsoralen ... 4 Hepatitis D virus Hexachlorobutadiene Hexachlorophene Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type II Hycanthone mesylate Hydralazine ... 9 Dapsone Decabromodiphenyl oxide Deltamethrin Diacetylaminoazotoluene Diallate 1,2-Diamino-4-nitrobenzene 1,4-Diamino-2- ... 4-c]psoralen Methyl red Methyl selenac Microcystis extracts Modacrylic fibres Monuron Morpholine Musk ambrette Musk xylene 1,5- ...
Entry from β-Butyrolactone from TCI Europe, retrieved on 20 December 2018 Sigma-Aldrich Co., β-Butyrolactone. H. Abe; I. ... According to an IARC classification, β-butyrolactone is assigned to group 2B: "possibly carcinogenic". (R)-β-butyrolactone ... in acetonitrile under microwave irradiation within 1h to β-butyrolactone (74% yield). β-Butyrolactone is a clear liquid that ... β-Butyrolactone is obtained in 63% yield by the addition of ethanal to ethenone (ketene) in the presence of the clay mineral ...
7) Fluorination of lactones can provide heterocyclic fluorides, although ring opening has been observed for γ-butyrolactone. ... 4) Sulfur tetrafluoride can be used to replace a variety of functional groups with partially or fully fluorinated derivatives. ...
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γ-(4-fluorophenyl)-γ-butyrolactone. EC / List no.: 257-422-5 CAS no.: 51787-96-3 ...
4-diol Cas 49851-31-2 α-Bromovalerophenone Cas 1451-83-8 2-bromo-1-(3-methylphenyl)propan-1-one Cas 13956-29-1 CBD POWDER / CBD ... Cas 506-59-2 Dimethylamine hydrochloride Cas 593-81-7 Trimethylamine hydrochloride Cas 872-50-4 N-methylpyrrolidin-2-one Cas ... pyridinecarboxylate Cas 40064-34-4 4-piperidone monohydrate hydrochloride Cas 593-51-1 Methylamine hydrochloride Cas 1451-82-7 ... oil High Yield Powder PMK Glycidate Cas 13605-48-6 Lowest price BMK powder CAS 16648-44-5 Cas 99918-43-1 N-phenylpiperidin-4- ...
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The effects of reaction conditions on the catalytic activity have been examined and a more than 95% yield of γ butyrolactone ... The effects of reaction conditions on the catalytic activity have been examined and a more than 95% yield of γ butyrolactone ... CHEN Xue gang, SHEN Wei, XU Hua long, XIANG Yi fei (Department of Chemistry);Dehydrogenation Synthesis of γ-Butyrolactone from ... Preparation of γ- Butyrolactone from 1,4 Butanediol Dehydrogenation over Cu/ZnO/Al_2O_3 Catalyst. ...
... gamma-butyrolactone Suppliers, gamma-butyrolactone Manufacturers, related products of gamma-butyrolactone. ... Information for gamma-butyrolactone 96-48-0 including gamma-butyrolactone CAS NO 96-48-0, ... γ-butyrolactone; γ-butyrolactone(99.5%); Gamma ButyroLactone; 1,4-Butyrolactone; 2,3-dihydroxybutanoic acid; GBL; γ- ... gamma-butyrolactone. Product Name:. gamma-butyrolactone. Synonyms:. 4-Hydroxybutyric acid gamma-lactone; BLO; Butyronitrile,99 ...
China supplier Gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) / 1,4 bdo / butanediol domestic shipping, gbl, bdo, 110-63-4, 96-48-0, gbl supplier, ... China supplier Gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) / 1,4 bdo / butanediol domestic shipping. Price: USD 10.00/kg. MOQ: 1 kg. ... Cas 110-63-4 Butane-1,4-diol. Cas 49851-31-2 α-Bromovalerophenone. Procaine cas 59-46-1. Benzocaine cas 94-09-7. Lidocaine HCl ... Cas 40064-34-4 4-piperidone monohydrate hydrochloride. Cas 593-51-1 Methylamine hydrochloride. Cas 1451-82-7 2-Bromo-4- ...
4, 5-Trimethoxybenzoic Acid / Gallic acid trimethyl ether CAS 118-41-2 - Zhuzhou Interial bioengineering Co., Ltd. ... 4. Delivery: We have products in stock, and we will deliver them soon when your PO arrived. Meanwhile we will give you the ... 99% 3, 4, 5-Trimethoxybenzoic Acid / Gallic acid trimethyl ether CAS 118-41-2 Images ... AKOS 213-36;AKOS BBS-00003718;3,4,5-TRIMETHOXYBENZOIC ACID;BENZOIC ACID, 3,4,5-TRIMETHOXY-;GALLIC ACID TRIMETHYL ETHER; ...
gamma-Butyrolactone; 4-Butyrolactone; dihydrofuran-2(3H)-one .... MW: 86.090. g/mol MF: C4H6O2. IUPAC name: oxolan-2-one. ... C4H7NO2. IUPAC name: (3R)-3-aminooxolan-2-one. Create Date: 2006-07-29. ... C4H7NO2. IUPAC name: (3S)-3-aminooxolan-2-one. Create Date: 2005-06-24. ... Rule of 5 (4) Compounds satisfied Lipinskis Rule of Five in evaluating druglikeness. Query: (-5:5[LOGP]) AND (0:500[MOLWT]) ...
... butyrolactone; 4,4-dibutyl-4-hydroxy-butyric acid, [gamma]-lactone. ... 4, 1980; 47 FR 27810, June 25, 1982; 48 FR 10812, Mar. 15, 1983; 48 FR 51907, Nov. 15, 1983; 49 FR 5747, Feb. 15, 1984; 50 FR ... 4-Phenyl-2-butyl acetate; phenylethyl methyl carbinyl acetate. 1-Phenyl-3-methyl-3-pentanol; phenylethyl methyl ethyl carbinol ... Zingerone; 4-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-2-butanone.. (c) [Delta]-Decalactone and [Delta]-dodecalactone when used separately or ...
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The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has issued a warning about use of products containing gamma butyrolactone (GBL). ... GBL is also known by the chemical names 2(3H)-furanone dihydro; butyrolactone; 4-butyrolactone; dihydro-2(3H)-furanone; 4- ... butanolide; 2(3H)-furanone, dihydro; tetrahydro-2-furanone; and butyrolactone gamma. According to the FDA, brand names include ... It affects nearly 4 million Americans-and slightly more than one half of these persons receive care at home. The prevalence of ...
Quorum sensing is the regulation of gene expression in response to fluctuations in cell-population density. Quorum sensing bacteria produce and release chemical signal molecules called autoinducers that increase in concentration as a function of cell density. The detection of a minimal threshold sti …
Olga S Sokolova 1 , Angelina Chemeris 2 , Siyang Guo 3 , Salvatore L Alioto 3 , Meghal Gandhi 3 , Shae Padrick 4 , Evgeniya ... 4 Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19102, USA. ...
γ-Butyrolactone (γ-BL). 204. −43.4. 1.73. 39.1. 4.12. −2.8. 5.4. γ-Valerolactone (γ-VL). 208. −31. 2.0. 34. 4.29. −2.8. 5.4. ... 0.5 M TEABF4/ACN. 167-171 [Co(phen)3]+ + e− ↔ [Co(phen)3]2+. [Fe(phen)3]2+ ↔ [Fe(phen)3]3+ + e−. 0.01/0.01. 2.1. 0.3 M TEAPF6/ ... 0.1 M TEABF4/ACN. 180 [Fe(TEOA)(OH)]−+ e− ↔ [Fe(TEOA)(OH)]2−. [Co(mTEA)(H2O)]− ↔ [Co(mTEA)(H2O)] + e−. 0.5/0.5. 0.93. 5 M NaOH/ ... 0.5 M TEABF4/ACN. 176 [V(acac)3] + e− ↔ [V(acac)3]−. [V(acac)3] ↔ [V(acac)3]+ + e−. 0.05. 2.2. ...
Gamma-Butyrolactone (GBL) Gamma-Butyrolactone (GBL) Gamma-Butyrolactone (GBL) has widespread industrial use. It is a common ... Gamma-Butyrolactone (GBL) Gamma-Butyrolactone (GBL) Gamma-Butyrolactone (GBL) has widespread industrial use. It is a common ... Gamma-Butyrolactone(GBL) CAS No. 96-48-0 Purity: 99.9% up Place of Origin: China gamma-butyrolactone CAS 96-48-0 Name of gamma- ... Gamma-Butyrolactone(GBL) CAS No. 96-48-0 Gamma-Butyrolactone(GBL) CAS No. 96-48-0 Purity: 99.9% up Place of Origin: China gamma ...
Gamma Butyrolactone 99.9 % GBL manufacturers, suppliers ☆ Gamma Butyrolactone 99.9 % GBL buyers, importers, wholesalers, ... Gamma-Butyrolactone 99.9% /Gamma-Butyrolactone 99.9% /Gamma-Butyrolactone 99.9% /Gamma-Butyrolactone 99.9% Gamma-Butyrolactone ... Gamma Butyrolactone 99.9 % GBL. Gamma Butyrolactone 99.9 % GBL Gamma Butyrolactone 99.9 % GBL Gamma Butyrolactone 99.9 % GBL ... Gamma-Butyrolactone GBL GHB Intermediate & Gamma Butyrolactone 99.9 % GBL for Wheel Clearner. Gamma-Butyrolactone GBL GHB ...
4-Butirolactona/metabolismo. Prote nas de Bact rias/gen tica. Regula o da Express o G nica. Homosserina/an logos & derivados. ... Herpesvirus Humano 4/gen tica. Intera es Hospedeiro-Pat geno. Seres Humanos. Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerase-1/gen tica. Liga o ... Herpesvirus Humano 4/fisiologia. Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerase-1/metabolismo. Regi es Promotoras Gen ticas. Transativadores/gen ... Fator 4 Nuclear de Hepat cito/gen tica. Programas de Redu o de Peso. ...
4-Butirolactona/uso terap utico. Animais. Cardiot nicos/farmacologia. Cromatografia L quida de Alta Press o. cidos Cum ricos/ ... Two pairs of diastereoisomers, namely (3Z)-(3S,8S,3aS,6R)-4,5-dehydro-3.3a,8.6-diligustilide (1) and (3Z)-(3S,8R,3aS,6R ... The experimental group received L. wallichii treatment at 100 mg/kg every 48 h for 4 weeks, while the control group only ... 0 ((3Z)-(3S,8S,3aS,6R)-4,5-dehydro-3.3a,8.6-diligustilide); 0 (Benzofurans); 0 (Drugs, Chinese Herbal); 8VV922U86J ( ...
... and Gamma-Butyrolactone*Introduction ... Chapter 4. Cocaine and Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor* ...
Butyrolactone (C4H6O2). *Pentane, 2,2-dimethyl- (C7H16) ... Benzene, 1,4-diiodo- (C6H4I2). *Benzene, 1,2-dibromo- (C6H4Br2) ... Benzene, 1,2,4-trichloro-5-[(4-chlorophenyl)sulfonyl]- (C12H6Cl4O2S) ... Urea, N-(4-chlorophenyl)-N,N-dimethyl- (C9H11ClN2O) ... Benzoic acid, 4-chloro- (C7H5ClO2). *Butane, 2-bromo- (C4H9Br) ... 2,2-Bis(4-chlorophenyl)acetic acid (C14H10Cl2O2) ... Benzene, 1,4-bis(chloromethyl)- (C8H8Cl2). *Fenuron (C9H12N2O) ...
Butyrolactone (C4H6O2). *2-Pentanol (C5H12O) ... Ethanone, 1-(4-methylphenyl)- (C9H10O). *3-Buten-1-ol, 3-methyl ... Contribution of dynamic headspace GC-MS analysis of aroma compounds to authenticity testing of honey, Food Chem., 2001, 72, 4, ... Bicyclo[2.2.2]octan-1-ol, 4-methyl- (C9H16O) ... 1-Pentanol, 4-methyl- (C6H14O). *2(3H)-Furanone, dihydro-5- ...
When treated with some growth arrest-inducing agents such as sodium nitroprusside, forskolin and butyrolactone I, cells ... 87414-49-1/butyrolactone I; 9061-61-4/Nerve Growth Factor; 96-48-0/4-Butyrolactone; EC 2.7.11.1/Akt1 protein, rat; EC 2.7.11.1/ ... 4-Butyrolactone / analogs & derivatives*, pharmacology. Animals. CDC2 Protein Kinase / metabolism. Cell Differentiation / ...
4-Butyrolactone / administration & dosage, pharmacology. Animals. Biotransformation. Corpus Striatum / metabolism*. Dopamine / ... 1199-18-4/Oxidopamine; 306-08-1/Homovanillic Acid; 502-85-2/Sodium Oxybate; 59-46-1/Procaine; 96-48-0/4-Butyrolactone ...
γ-Hydroxybutyric Acid (GHB), γ-Butyrolactone (GBL), and 1,4-Butanediol (BD) ...
γ-Hydroxybutyric Acid (GHB), γ-Butyrolactone (GBL), and 1,4-Butanediol (BD) ... 978-1-58829-014-4. Softcover ISBN. 978-1-4684-9726-7. Edition Number. 1. Number of Pages. XXIII, 410. Number of Illustrations. ... ISBN 978-1-58829-014-4. *Free shipping for individuals worldwide *Institutional customers should get in touch with their ... ISBN 978-1-58829-014-4. *Free shipping for individuals worldwide *Institutional customers should get in touch with their ...
... gamma-Butyl-gamma-butyrolactone; gamma-Octalactone; gamma-Octalactone (natural); gamma-Octanolactone; gamma-n-Butyl-gamma- ... gamma-Butyl-gamma-butyrolactone; gamma-Octalactone; gamma-Octalactone (natural); gamma-Octanolactone; gamma-n-Butyl-gamma- ... 2(3H)-Furanone, 5-butyldihydro-; 2(3H)-Furanone, dihydro-5-butyl-; 4-Butyl-4-hydroxybutyric acid lactone; 4-Butyl-gamma- ... butyrolactone; 4-Hydroxyoctanoic acid lactone; 4-Octanolide; 5-Butyldihydro-2(3H)-furanone; 5-Butyltetrahydro-2-furanone; 8-Oxo ...
γ-Butyrolactone & 1,4-Butanediol Rtx-BAC1 and Rtx-BAC2 (dual column). GC_PH00808. ... gamma-Hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and gamma-Butyrolactone (GBL) on Rtx-BAC1 and Rtx-BAC2. GC_PH00870. ... Combination Run of U.S. EPA Methods 521 and 522, Nitrosamines and 1,4-Dioxane, on Rxi-5Sil-MS by CSR-LVSI. GC_EV1334. ... 1,4-dioxane. 123-91-1, pyrene and chrysene. semivolatiles and rxi5silms. 8270 ...
γ-Butyrolactone & 1,4-Butanediol Rtx-BAC1 and Rtx-BAC2 (dual column). GC_PH00808. ... 1,4-Dioxane in Drinking Water (5 pg On-Column) on Rxi-624Sil MS (Extracted Ion Chromatogram). GC_EV1263. ... Nonylphenol, Bisphenol A, 4-tert-Octylphenol, Nonylphenol Monoethoxylate, and Nonylphenol Diethoxylate on the Rxi-5Sil MS by ... Combination Run of U.S. EPA Methods 521 and 522, Nitrosamines and 1,4-Dioxane, on Rxi-5Sil-MS by CSR-LVSI. GC_EV1334. ...
butyrolactone. EGMEE. EGMEEA. ethylene glycol. n-hexane. toluene. trichoroethylene. triethylamine. Reply. Grady Holt says: ...
  • It is used in the production of gamma-butyrolactone, 1, 4-butanediol, and tetrahydrofuran. (sbwire.com)
  • [14] Succinate can be used to derive 1,4-butanediol, maleic anhydride, succinimide, 2-pyrrolidinone and tetrahydrofuran . (wikipedia.org)
  • It refers to an acidic anhydride of maleic acid which is generally colorless as compared to white organic compounds and is a versatile chemical intermediate which is widely used to furnish important chemicals such as tetrahydrofuran, 1,4-butanediol and gamma-butyrolactone among others. (mynewsdesk.com)
  • It can produce tetrahydrofuran and γ-butyrolactone in any proportion with a hydrogenation reaction, and the usual ratio is tetrachlorofuran: γ-butyrolactone = 3-4:1. (chemicalbook.com)
  • Du Pont will increase off-list prices of 1,4 butanediol (BDO), tetrahydrofuran (THF) and Terathane polytetramethylene ether glycol (PTMEG) effective October 1, or as contractual agreements permit. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The enzyme from hog liver is inhibited by dicoumarol and folic acid derivatives but not by 2,4-dinitrophenol [1]. (genome.jp)
  • Biosynthesis of butyrolactone derivatives isolated from strains IFO 8835 and 4100. (aspergillus.org.uk)
  • increase for 1,4 butanediol and its derivatives in the U. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Iron Drum Product Name control chemical against termite chlorpyrifos97% TC, 2921-88-2 CAS NO. 2921-88-2 EINECS NO. 220-864-4 Formulation 97%TC 40%EC (480g/L) Classification Insecticide , agrochemical Mode of action. (ccnmag.com)
  • The catalytic activity of Cu/ZnO/Al 2O 3 catalyst for dehydrogenation of 1,4 butanediol has been studied. (cnki.com.cn)
  • γ-Butyrolactone is produced industrially by dehydrogenation of 1,4-butanediol at a temperature of 180-300 °C and atmospheric pressure in the presence of a copper catalyst. (wikipedia.org)
  • Market could be explored by product type as Dehydrogenation of 1, 4-Butanediol and Hydrogenation of Maleic Anhydride. (express-press-release.net)
  • 2.1, 4-butanediol dehydrogenation reactor is a tube array reactor, filled with flake copper catalyst (with zinc oxide as the carrier). (chemicalbook.com)
  • Butyrolactone, with its wide liquid range, chemical stability and high dielectric constant, is used in some batteries but primarily is found in electrolytic capacitors as the organic solvent. (wikipedia.org)
  • Automated determination of the p K a values of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid in cosolventâ€"water mixtures and related solvent effects using a modified HPLC system. (ebscohost.com)
  • Because the industrial and household solvent γ-butyrolactone (GBL) is metabolized to GHB, it has been marketed illicitly as a nutritional supplement alleged to have the same therapeutic effects as GHB. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • There was nothing on the label to indicate the liquid contained the industrial solvent, called 1,4 Butanediol , which targets the central nervous system. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Butyrolactone is principally a precursor to other chemicals. (wikipedia.org)
  • GHB is manufactured readily from its precursor, gamma-butyrolactone (GBL). (medscape.com)
  • 4. The material according to claim 3 wherein the carbonaceous material precursor comprises a polymer. (google.com)
  • Palladium-catalysed transposition of MVG's allylic alcohol derivative also resulted in a 1,4-dioxygenated motif which could be used as a precursor to 1,4-butanediol or γ-butyrolactone. (rsc.org)
  • whereas the related compound 1,4-butanediol (1,4-B) tends to be slightly less potent and slower to take effect but longer-acting than GHB. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nevertheless, butanediol is sometimes used as a substitute for other illegal substances such as gamma butyrolactone (GBL) and gamma hydroxybutyrate ( GHB ). (webmd.com)
  • Growing penetration of spandex in medical textiles, compression stockings, and sportswear coupled with the increasing disposable income are factors that are projected to surge the demand for 1, 4-butanediol which in turn will result in the rise in the demand of maleic anhydride. (sbwire.com)
  • Public health measures to inform young people of the risks of GHB and governmental restrictions on the sale of GHB and its precursors (GBL and 1,4-butanediol [1,4-BD]) have been helpful in promoting this decrease. (medscape.com)
  • Ingredients in GHB, gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) and 1,4-butanediol, can also be converted by the body into GHB. (rapereliefshelter.bc.ca)
  • Common industrial routes include hydrogenation of maleic acid , oxidation of 1,4-butanediol , and carbonylation of ethylene glycol . (wikipedia.org)
  • GHB "precursors" gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) and 1,4-butanediol (BD) are commercially available industrial substances that are not intended for human consumption. (camh.ca)
  • c) "Manufacturer of 1,4-Butanediol" means a person who is involved in the manufacture of 1,4-Butanediol for use in the manufacture of an industrial product and who provides that manufactured 1,4-Butanediol to a distributor of 1,4-Butanediol or a manufacturer of an industrial product. (flsenate.gov)
  • d) "Distributor of 1,4-Butanediol" means a person who is involved in the distribution of 1,4-Butanediol. (flsenate.gov)
  • 2. From which neither 1,4-Butanediol nor gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) can be readily extracted or readily synthesized and which is not sold for human consumption. (flsenate.gov)
  • 2) 1,4-Butanediol is excepted from scheduling pursuant to s. 893.03 (1)(d)1. (flsenate.gov)
  • Increasing disposable incomes coupled with rising penetration of spandex in various products such as sportswear, compression stockings and medical textiles among others has contributed to a surge in demand for 1,4-butanediol. (mynewsdesk.com)
  • para]]The market size for 1,4 butanediol is projected to reach $8. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This was always the case for 1,4 butanediol where the monomeric material oiled the surface layer and would not disperse properly. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • LONDON -- The world 1,4 butanediol (BDO) market is estimated to grow from 1,725. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • has no proprietary rights to certain parts of INVISTA's 1,4 butanediol (BDO) technology and prohibits Frontech from licensing any technology that incorporates INVISTA's hydrogenation technology. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • GBL cleaner is designed to be used on cleaning chrome wheels, deletion printi γ-Butyrolactone (GBL) is a hygroscopic colorless liquid with a weak characteristic odor. (kitairu.net)
  • γ-Butyrolactone (GBL) is a hygroscopic colorless, water-miscible liquid with a weak characteristic odor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gamma-butyrolactone, also termed as "Butyrolactone or 4-butyrolactone", is a hygroscopic liquid with weak odor. (express-press-release.net)
  • On the basis of application, the global maleic anhydride market can be segmented into UPR, 1,4-BDO, additives, copolymers and others. (mynewsdesk.com)
  • 4. An article according to claim 3 wherein said cyclic ester monomer is 1,3-dioxan-2-one. (google.com.au)
  • A few years ago, Chen and his group reported they were able to make a polymer from the ring-opening reaction of γ-butyrolactone-a simple five-membered cyclic ester previously thought to be impervious to polymerization for thermodynamic reasons. (acs.org)
  • Some studies indicate it is metabolized with in 4 hours of ingestion, others say up to 12 or 16. (rapereliefshelter.bc.ca)
  • Gamma - Butyrolactone GBL GHB Intermediate & Gamma Butyrolactone 99 . (ecplaza.net)
  • 7] and arglabin (4),[8] a tumor inhibitor that was the subject of an elegant total synthesis in 2007. (docme.ru)
  • C75 (trans-4-carboxy-5-octyl-3-methylene-butyrolactone), an inhibitor of FAS, resulted in a more than 100-fold effect at the same dose. (scienceagogo.com)
  • The effects of reaction conditions on the catalytic activity have been examined and a more than 95% yield of γ butyrolactone obtained. (cnki.com.cn)
  • 4-methyl-2-phenyl -m- dioxolane. (fda.gov)
  • 1. The methyl 4-chlorobutanoate , methyl formate , and dichloromethane must be added by temporary removal of one of the addition funnels followed by purging of the system with nitrogen. (orgsyn.org)
  • 1 , 2 'Chemsex' is a more recently described phenomenon in gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (GBMSM), which describes the use of mephedrone, crystal methamphetamine, γ-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), γ-butyrolactone (GBL) and less commonly, cocaine and ketamine with sex. (bmj.com)
  • These compounds then may go on to form the polymer poly(4-hydroxybutyrate) as well as the dimer 1,6-Dioxecane-2,7-dione. (wikipedia.org)
  • GBL and 1,4-B are normally found as pure liquids, but they can be mixed with other more harmful solvents when intended for industrial use (e.g. as paint stripper or varnish thinner). (wikipedia.org)
  • Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is a naturally occurring, 4-carbon compound with a structure similar to the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). (medscape.com)
  • A compound, C 4 H 8 O 3 , similar in structure and function to gamma-aminobutyric acid, usually used in the form of its sodium salt. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The combined organic phase is washed with water (20 mL) and brine (20 mL), dried over Na 2 SO 4 (20 g), filtered through a 150-mL medium porosity sintered glass funnel, then concentrated under reduced pressure using a rotary evaporator (45 °C, 25 mmHg) to furnish an amber-colored liquid. (orgsyn.org)
  • Succinate, also known as 1,4-butanedioic acid or amber acid, is a four-carbon dicarboxylic acid for multiple applications. (hindawi.com)
  • 2-Hydroxy-3-octanone (0.2-0.5% of I ), 2,3-decanedione (2% of I ), 2-phenylethanol (3% of I ), and octanoic acid (4% of I ) were also identified in volatiles from male beetles. (springer.com)
  • Cationic dyes in acrylic fibers have been accurately determined spectrophotometrically in the solution of the sample in 4-butyrolactone containing 1.0 to 10 g/l. (ebscohost.com)
  • Without zinc chloride, some cationic dyes are not stable in 4-butyrolactone, and the results are low. (ebscohost.com)
  • Gamma-butyrolactone market is anticipated to expand at a significant CAGR of 6.2% in the upcoming period as the scope, product types, and its applications are increasing across the globe. (express-press-release.net)
  • Global gamma-butyrolactone market is anticipated to witness an exponential growth in the forecast period. (express-press-release.net)
  • North America accounted for the major share of the gamma-butyrolactone market in 2016 and will continue to lead in the forecast period. (express-press-release.net)
  • Globally, North America may account for the substantial market share of gamma-butyrolactone and is expected to lead the overall market in the forecast period. (express-press-release.net)
  • The developing countries like India and China are the major consumers of gamma-butyrolactone in this region. (express-press-release.net)
  • When the study is scaled down to Malaysia, there are predicted about 3.5 million of the population having this metabolic disease [ 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Gamma - butyrolactone ( GBL ) CAS No.: 96-48-0 Properties:Colorless and transparent oily liquid with a smell similar to that of acetone, the boiling point is 204oC. (ecplaza.net)
  • Gamma-Butyrolactone (GBL) is a colorless oily liquid. (chemicalbook.com)
  • Products containing gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) * are marketed for many claimed purposes, including to induce sleep, release growth hormone, enhance sexual activity and athletic performance, relieve depression, and prolong life. (cdc.gov)
  • Summary and Outlook 9447 The a-methylene-g-butyrolactone structural motif is found in a vast array of synthetically challenging and biologically significant natural products, many of which possess useful biological activities (e.g. anticancer, antimalarial, antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory). (docme.ru)