4-Butyrolactone: One of the FURANS with a carbonyl thereby forming a cyclic lactone. It is an endogenous compound made from gamma-aminobutyrate and is the precursor of gamma-hydroxybutyrate. It is also used as a pharmacological agent and solvent.Butyrophenones: Compounds containing phenyl-1-butanone.Streptomyces: A genus of bacteria that form a nonfragmented aerial mycelium. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. This genus is responsible for producing a majority of the ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS of practical value.Maturation-Promoting Factor: Protein kinase that drives both the mitotic and meiotic cycles in all eukaryotic organisms. In meiosis it induces immature oocytes to undergo meiotic maturation. In mitosis it has a role in the G2/M phase transition. Once activated by CYCLINS; MPF directly phosphorylates some of the proteins involved in nuclear envelope breakdown, chromosome condensation, spindle assembly, and the degradation of cyclins. The catalytic subunit of MPF is PROTEIN P34CDC2.Cyclin-Dependent Kinases: Protein kinases that control cell cycle progression in all eukaryotes and require physical association with CYCLINS to achieve full enzymatic activity. Cyclin-dependent kinases are regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events.Meiosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Oocytes: Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).Sodium Oxybate: The sodium salt of 4-hydroxybutyric acid. It is used for both induction and maintenance of ANESTHESIA.Butylene Glycols: 4-carbon straight chain aliphatic hydrocarbons substituted with two hydroxyl groups. The hydroxyl groups cannot be on the same carbon atom.Olfactometry: Procedures for measuring a response to odorants.Solvents: Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Odors: The volatile portions of substances perceptible by the sense of smell. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Furans: Compounds with a 5-membered ring of four carbons and an oxygen. They are aromatic heterocycles. The reduced form is tetrahydrofuran.Hemoglobin C: A commonly occurring abnormal hemoglobin in which lysine replaces a glutamic acid residue at the sixth position of the beta chains. It results in reduced plasticity of erythrocytes.Databases, Chemical: Databases devoted to knowledge about specific chemicals.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Surgical Mesh: Any woven or knit material of open texture used in surgery for the repair, reconstruction, or substitution of tissue. The mesh is usually a synthetic fabric made of various polymers. It is occasionally made of metal.Dictionaries, ChemicalNational Library of Medicine (U.S.): An agency of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH concerned with overall planning, promoting, and administering programs pertaining to advancement of medical and related sciences. Major activities of this institute include the collection, dissemination, and exchange of information important to the progress of medicine and health, research in medical informatics and support for medical library development.Small Molecule Libraries: Large collections of small molecules (molecular weight about 600 or less), of similar or diverse nature which are used for high-throughput screening analysis of the gene function, protein interaction, cellular processing, biochemical pathways, or other chemical interactions.Nerve Growth Factor: NERVE GROWTH FACTOR is the first of a series of neurotrophic factors that were found to influence the growth and differentiation of sympathetic and sensory neurons. It is comprised of alpha, beta, and gamma subunits. The beta subunit is responsible for its growth stimulating activity.PC12 Cells: A CELL LINE derived from a PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA of the rat ADRENAL MEDULLA. PC12 cells stop dividing and undergo terminal differentiation when treated with NERVE GROWTH FACTOR, making the line a useful model system for NERVE CELL differentiation.Neurites: In tissue culture, hairlike projections of neurons stimulated by growth factors and other molecules. These projections may go on to form a branched tree of dendrites or a single axon or they may be reabsorbed at a later stage of development. "Neurite" may refer to any filamentous or pointed outgrowth of an embryonal or tissue-culture neural cell.Nerve Growth Factors: Factors which enhance the growth potentialities of sensory and sympathetic nerve cells.Receptor, trkA: A protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is specific for NERVE GROWTH FACTOR; NEUROTROPHIN 3; neurotrophin 4, neurotrophin 5. It plays a crucial role in pain sensation and thermoregulation in humans. Gene mutations that cause loss of receptor function are associated with CONGENITAL INSENSITIVITY TO PAIN WITH ANHIDROSIS, while gene rearrangements that activate the protein-tyrosine kinase function are associated with tumorigenesis.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Acetoin: A product of fermentation. It is a component of the butanediol cycle in microorganisms. In mammals it is oxidized to carbon dioxide.Diacetyl: Carrier of aroma of butter, vinegar, coffee, and other foods.Hydroxybutyrates: Salts and esters of hydroxybutyric acid.Metabolic Engineering: Methods and techniques used to genetically modify cells' biosynthetic product output and develop conditions for growing the cells as BIOREACTORS.Alcohol Oxidoreductases: A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on primary and secondary alcohols as well as hemiacetals. They are further classified according to the acceptor which can be NAD+ or NADP+ (subclass 1.1.1), cytochrome (1.1.2), oxygen (1.1.3), quinone (1.1.5), or another acceptor (1.1.99).TextilesColoring Agents: Chemicals and substances that impart color including soluble dyes and insoluble pigments. They are used in INKS; PAINTS; and as INDICATORS AND REAGENTS.Disk Diffusion Antimicrobial Tests: A method where a culturing surface inoculated with microbe is exposed to small disks containing known amounts of a chemical agent resulting in a zone of inhibition (usually in millimeters) of growth of the microbe corresponding to the susceptibility of the strain to the agent.Azo CompoundsCommerce: The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet: Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Undaria: A genus of BROWN ALGAE, in the family Alariaceae, native to Japan, Korea, and China. The edible SEAWEED Undaria pinnatifida is also called wakame.Databases, Factual: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Database Management Systems: Software designed to store, manipulate, manage, and control data for specific uses.Databases, Genetic: Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.Maleic Anhydrides: Used in copolymerization reactions, in the Diels-Alder(diene)synthesis, in the preparation of resins, pharmaceuticals and agricultural chemicals. It is a powerful irritant and causes burns.Anhydrides: Chemical compounds derived from acids by the elimination of a molecule of water.Maleic Hydrazide: 1,2-Dihydro-3,6-pyridazinedione. A herbicide and plant growth regulator; also used to control suckering of tobacco. Its residue in food and tobacco is highly toxic, causing CNS disturbances and liver damage.MaleatesPyran Copolymer: Copolymer of divinyl ether and maleic anhydride that acts as an immunostimulant with antineoplastic and anti-infective properties. It is used in combination with other antineoplastic agents.Succinic Anhydrides: A subclass of anhydrides with the general structure of dihydrofurandione. They can be substituted on any carbon atom. They modify and inhibit proteins and enzymes and are used in the acylation of amino- and hydroxyl groups.Phthalic Anhydrides: Phthalic acid anhydrides. Can be substituted on any carbon atom. Used extensively in industry and as a reagent in the acylation of amino- and hydroxyl groups.

Contact dermatitis in Alstroemeria workers. (1/836)

Hand dermatitis is common in workers in the horticultural industry. This study determined the prevalence of hand dermatitis in workers of Alstroemeria cultivation, investigated how many workers had been sensitized by tulipalin A (the allergen in Alstroemeria) and took stock of a wide range of determinants of hand dermatitis. The 12-month period prevalence of major hand dermatitis amounted to 29.5% whereas 7.4% had minor dermatitis. Of these workers, 52.1% were sensitized for tulipalin A. Several personal and work-related determinants played a role in the multifactorial aetiology of hand dermatitis. Factors which showed a significant relationship with major hand dermatitis were: female sex, atopic dermatitis, chapped hands and the frequency of washing hands. It may be concluded that the Alstroemeria workers are a population at risk of developing contact dermatitis and it might be useful to carry out an educational campaign to lower the high prevalence.  (+info)

Modulation of acute and chronic inflammatory processes by cacospongionolide B, a novel inhibitor of human synovial phospholipase A2. (2/836)

1. Cacospongionolide B is a novel marine metabolite isolated from the sponge Fasciospongia cavernosa. In in vitro studies, this compound inhibited phospholipase A2 (PLA2), showing selectivity for secretory PLA2 (sPLA2) versus cytosolic PLA2 (cPLA2), and its potency on the human synovial enzyme (group II) was similar to that of manoalide. 2. This activity was confirmed in vivo in the 8 h zymosan-injected rat air pouch, on the secretory enzyme accumulating in the pouch exudate. Cacospongionolide B, that is bioavailable when is given orally, reduced the elevated levels of sPLA2 present in paw homogenates of rats with adjuvant arthritis. 3. This marine metabolite showed topical anti-inflammatory activity on the mouse ear oedema induced by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol acetate (TPA) and decreased carrageenin paw oedema in mice after oral administration of 5, 10 or 20 mg kg(-1). 4. In the mouse air pouch injected with zymosan, cacospongionolide B administered into the pouch, induced a dose-dependent reduction in the levels of eicosanoids and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) in the exudates 4 h after the stimulus. It also had a weak effect on cell migration. 5. The inflammatory response of adjuvant arthritis was reduced by cacospongionolide B, which did not significantly affect eicosanoid levels in serum, paw or stomach homogenates and did not induce toxic effects. 6 Cacospongionolide B is a new inhibitor of sPLA2 in vitro and in vivo, with anti-inflammatory properties in acute and chronic inflammation. This marine metabolite was active after oral administration and able to modify TNFalpha levels, and may offer an interesting approach in the search for new anti-inflammatory agents.  (+info)

Human metabolism of mammalian lignan precursors in raw and processed flaxseed. (3/836)

BACKGROUND: The mammalian lignans enterolactone and enterodiol are produced in the colon by the action of bacteria on the plant precursor secoisolariciresinol diglycoside, which is found in high concentrations in flaxseed. OBJECTIVE: Two experiments were conducted to determine 1) whether there is a dose response in urinary lignan excretion with increasing flaxseed intake, 2) whether flaxseed processing affects lignan excretion, 3) peak plasma lignan concentrations, and 4) plasma lignan concentrations after chronic supplementation. DESIGN: Nine healthy young women supplemented their diets with 5, 15, or 25 g raw or 25 g processed (muffin or bread) flaxseed for 7 d during the follicular phase of their menstrual cycles. Twenty-four-hour urine samples were collected at baseline and on the final day of supplementation. As an adjunct to the 25-g-flaxseed arm, subjects consumed the supplement for an additional day and blood and urine samples were collected at specific intervals. All blood and urine samples were analyzed for enterolactone and enterodiol by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. RESULTS: A dose-dependent urinary lignan response to raw flaxseed was observed (r = 0.72, P < 0.001). The processing of flaxseed as a muffin or bread did not affect the quantity of lignan excretion. Plasma lignan concentrations were greater (P < or = 0.05) than baseline by 9 h after flaxseed ingestion (29.35+/-3.69 and 51.75+/-7.49 nmol/L, respectively). The total plasma area under the curve was higher on the eighth than on the first day (1840.15+/-343.02 and 1027.15+/-95.71 nmol x h/L, respectively). CONCLUSION: Mammalian lignan production from flaxseed precursors is dependent on time and dose but not on processing.  (+info)

Evidence that halogenated furanones from Delisea pulchra inhibit acylated homoserine lactone (AHL)-mediated gene expression by displacing the AHL signal from its receptor protein. (4/836)

Acylated homoserine lactone (AHL)-mediated gene expression controls phenotypes involved in colonization, often specifically of higher organisms, in both marine and terrestrial environments. The marine red alga Delisea pulchra produces halogenated furanones which resemble AHLs structurally and show inhibitory activity at ecologically realistic concentrations in AHL bioassays. Evidence is presented that halogenated furanones displace tritiated OHHL [N-3-(oxohexanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone] from Escherichia coli cells overproducing LuxR with potencies corresponding to their respective inhibitory activities in an AHL-regulated bioluminescence assay, indicating that this is the mechanism by which furanones inhibit AHL-dependent phenotypes. Alternative mechanisms for this phenomenon are also addressed. General metabolic disruption was assessed with two-dimensional PAGE, revealing limited non-AHL-related effects. A direct chemical interaction between the algal compounds and AHLs, as monitored by 1H NMR spectroscopy, was shown not to occur in vitro. These results support the contention that furanones, at the concentrations produced by the alga, can control bacterial colonization of surfaces by specifically interfering with AHL-mediated gene expression at the level of the LuxR protein.  (+info)

Adverse events associated with ingestion of gamma-butyrolactone--Minnesota, New Mexico, and Texas, 1998-1999. (5/836)

Products containing gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) are marketed for many claimed purposes, including to induce sleep, release growth hormone, enhance sexual activity and athletic performance, relieve depression, and prolong life. GBL is converted by the body into gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), a drug banned outside of clinical trials approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Recognized manifestations of GHB toxicity include bradycardia, hypothermia, central nervous system depression, and uncontrolled movements. This report describes seven cases of GBL toxicity involving the product "Revivarant," which is labeled as containing 1.82 g of GBL per fluid ounce, reported from two hospital emergency departments (EDs) in Minnesota during October-December 1998 and summarizes an additional 34 cases of GBL toxicity reported to poison centers in New Mexico and Texas during October 1998-January 1999.  (+info)

Production of poly(3-hydroxybutyric acid-co-4-hydroxybutyric acid) and poly(4-hydroxybutyric acid) without subsequent degradation by Hydrogenophaga pseudoflava. (6/836)

A Hydrogenophaga pseudoflava strain was able to synthesize poly(3-hydroxybutyric acid-co-4-hydroxybutyric acid) [P(3HB-co-4HB)] having a high level of 4-hydroxybutyric acid monomer unit (4HB) from gamma-butyrolactone. In a two-step process in which the first step involved production of cells containing a minimum amount of poly(3-hydroxybutyric acid) [P(3HB)] and the second step involved polyester accumulation from the lactone, approximately 5 to 10 mol% of the 3-hydroxybutyric acid (3HB) derived from the first-step culture was unavoidably reincorporated into the polymer in the second cultivation step. Reincorporation of the 3HB units produced from degradation of the first-step residual P(3HB) was confirmed by high-resolution 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. In order to synthesize 3HB-free poly(4-hydroxybutyric acid) [P(4HB)] homopolymer, a three-stage cultivation technique was developed by adding a nitrogen addition step, which completely removed the residual P(3HB). The resulting polymer was free of 3HB. However, when the strain was grown on gamma-butyrolactone as the sole carbon source in a synthesis medium, a copolyester of P(3HB-co-4HB) containing 45 mol% 3HB was produced. One-step cultivation on gamma-butyrolactone required a rather long induction time (3 to 4 days). On the basis of the results of an enzymatic study performed with crude extracts, we suggest that the inability of cells to produce 3HB in the multistep culture was due to a low level of 4-hydroxybutyric acid (4HBA) dehydrogenase activity, which resulted in a low level of acetyl coenzyme A. Thus, 3HB formation from gamma-butyrolactone is driven by a high level of 4HBA dehydrogenase activity induced by long exposure to gamma-butyrolactone, as is the case for a one-step culture. In addition, intracellular degradation kinetics studies showed that P(3HB) in cells was completely degraded within 30 h of cultivation after being transferred to a carbon-free mineral medium containing additional ammonium sulfate, while P(3HB-co-4HB) containing 5 mol% 3HB and 95 mol% 4HB was totally inert in interactions with the intracellular depolymerases. Intracellular inertness could be a useful factor for efficient synthesis of the P(4HB) homopolymer and of 4HB-rich P(3HB-co-4HB) by the strain used in this study.  (+info)

Promotion of antibiotic production by high ethanol, high NaCl concentration, or heat shock in Pseudomonas fluorescens S272. (7/836)

A stress imposed by a continuous feed of high ethanol, high NaCl concentration, or a high temperature shock increased antibiotic production by several times in Pseudomonas fluorescens S272. A tentative bioassay showed that the stress caused about 40-fold elevation in the autoinducer activity. Addition of synthetic autoinducers, N-(3-oxododecanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone or N-(3-oxohexanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone at a concentration of more than 100 micrograms/l to a non-stressed culture also increased the antibiotic production by several times. These results suggested that the antibiotic production in P. fluorescens S272 was regulated by N-acyl-homoserine lactone and the promotive effect by stress occurred through any function that increased the autoinducer production.  (+info)

Acyl homoserine-lactone quorum-sensing signal generation. (8/836)

Acyl homoserine lactones (acyl-HSLs) are important intercellular signaling molecules used by many bacteria to monitor their population density in quorum-sensing control of gene expression. These signals are synthesized by members of the LuxI family of proteins. To understand the mechanism of acyl-HSL synthesis we have purified the Pseudomonas aeruginosa RhlI protein and analyzed the kinetics of acyl-HSL synthesis by this enzyme. Purified RhlI catalyzes the synthesis of acyl-HSLs from acyl-acyl carrier proteins and S-adenosylmethionine. An analysis of the patterns of product inhibition indicated that RhlI catalyzes signal synthesis by a sequential, ordered reaction mechanism in which S-adenosylmethionine binds to RhlI as the initial step in the enzymatic mechanism. Because pathogenic bacteria such as P. aeruginosa use acyl-HSL signals to regulate virulence genes, an understanding of the mechanism of signal synthesis and identification of inhibitors of signal synthesis has implications for development of quorum sensing-targeted antivirulence molecules.  (+info)

Gamma Butyrolactone Gamma Butyrolactone (GBL) Product Name: Gamma Butyrolactone Key words: Gamma Butyrolactone, gamma -BLO, 1, 4-Butyrolactone, 4-Hydroxybutyric acid lactone, 4-Hydroxybutanoic acid lactone 4-Butanolide 1. CAS: 96-48-0 2. Molecular...
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Directed evolution of Vibrio fischeri LuxR for increased sensitivity to a broad spectrum of acyl-homoserine lactones (Cynthia H. Collins, Frances H. Arnold and Jared R. Leadbetter) Molecular Microbiology 2005 Acyl-homoserine lactone acylase from Ralstonia strain XJ12B represents a novel and potent class of quorum-quenching enzymes (Yi-Han Lin, Jin-Ling Xu, Jiangyong Hu, Lian-Hui Wang, Say Leong, Jared Renton Leadbetter and Lian-Hui Zhang) Molecular Microbiology 2003 Quorum Sensing and Quorum-quenching enzymes (Yi-Hu Dong and Lian-Hui Zhang) Journal of Microbiology 2005 AhlD, an N-acylhomoserine lactonase in Arthrobacter sp., and predicted homologues in other bacteria (Park, et. al) Microbiology 2003 AiiA, an enzyme that inactivates the acylhomoserine lactone quorum-sensing signal and attenuates the virulence of Erwinia carotovora PNAS 2000 The molecular structure and catalytic mechanism of a quorum-quenching N-acyl-L-homoserine lactone hydrolase (Kim et al.) PNAS 2005 Communications blackout? Do ...
According to the National Toxicology Program (NTP, 1996), γ-Butyrolactone (GBL) is rapidly metabolized to gamma-hydroxybutyric acid and eliminated primarily as respiratory carbon dioxide and urinary metabolites. GHB is converted eventually to succinic acid, which enters the Krebs cycle, eventually being eliminated mainly as carbon dioxide. GBL shares common segments of its metabolism and toxicokinetic pathway with 1,4 -Butanediol as well as other compounds that can be metabolized to gamma-hydroxy butyric acid. Approximately 10% of a dose applied to the skin of rats, is absorbed (NTP, 1992). A mean permeability constant of 0.0001 cm/hr (1.1 g/m2/hr) has been estimated (Ursin, 1995). ...
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Accepted name: acyl-homoserine-lactone acylase. Reaction: an N-acyl-L-homoserine lactone + H2O = L-homoserine lactone + a carboxylate. Other name(s): acyl-homoserine lactone acylase; AHL-acylase; AiiD; N-acyl-homoserine lactone acylase; PA2385 protein; quorum-quenching AHL acylase; quorum-quenching enzyme; PvdQ; QuiP. Systematic name: N-acyl-L-homoserine-lactone amidohydrolase. Comments: Acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs) are produced by a number of bacterial species and are used by them to regulate the expression of virulence genes in a process known as quorum-sensing. Each bacterial cell has a basal level of AHL and, once the population density reaches a critical level, it triggers AHL-signalling which, in turn, initiates the expression of particular virulence genes. Plants or animals capable of degrading AHLs would have a therapeutic advantage in avoiding bacterial infection as they could prevent AHL-signalling and the expression of virulence genes in quorum-sensing bacteria. This ...
Posted by Rebo on 4:08 pm on Mar. 14, 2002. I am looking for Gamma-butryolactone, or butyrolactone!! This shit has become a real pain in the ass to track down since the ban (dont even get me started on that fucking ban)! The companies I have found will not ship to the states. Keep in mind, CO2 cartridges are LEGAL here, compared to other countries in which GBL is. Raise any ideas?. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - N-acyl-L-homoserine lactones are inter-kingdom signalling molecules controlling quorum sensing in the Gram-negative bacteria and priming plants increasing stress adaptation. AU - Moshynets, O.. AU - Babenko, L.. AU - Karakhim, S.. AU - Kharkhota, M.. AU - Kosakivska, I.. AU - Rogalsky, S.. AU - Shcherbatiuk, M.. AU - Suslova, O.. AU - Spiers, A.. PY - 2017/9. Y1 - 2017/9. U2 - 10.1111/febs.14174. DO - 10.1111/febs.14174. M3 - Meeting Abstract. VL - 284. SP - 358. EP - 358. JO - FEBS Journal. JF - FEBS Journal. SN - 1742-464X. IS - S1. T2 - 42nd Congress of the Federation-of-European-Biochemical-Societies (FEBS) on From Molecules to Cells and Back. Y2 - 10 September 2017 through 14 September 2017. ER - ...
Miller, S.T., et al. Salmonella typhimurium recognizes a chemically distinct form of the bacterial quorum-sensing signal AI-2. Mol Cell 15, 5, 677-87 (2004).
see article for more reactions. Abstract. Depending on the strength of a Lewis or Br nsted acid catalyst, borate intermediates resulting from the crotylboration of aliphatic aldehydes with ester-containing crotylboronates form either γ-substituted-α-alkylidene-γ-butyrolactones via oxonia cope rearrangement-lactonization or β,γ-disubstituted-α-methylene-γ-butyrolactones via lactonization.. ...
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γ-Butyrolactone (GBL) is a hygroscopic colorless liquid with a weak characteristic odor. Soluble in water, GBL is a common solvent and reagent in chemistry as well as being ...
For a full list of publications. Selected recent publications. Yifat Glucksam-Galnoy, Roy Sananes, Nava Silberstein, Pnina Krief, Vladimir V. Kravchenko, Michael M. Meijler and Tsaffrir Zor, The bacterial quorum-sensing signal molecule N-3-oxo-dodecanoyl-L-homoserine lactone reciprocally modulates pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in activated macrophages, Journal of Immunology, 2013, 191, 337-344. (pdf). Dorit Avni, Yifat Glucksam and Tsaffrir Zor , The Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor LY294002 modulates cytokine expression in mouse macrophages via p50 nuclear factor kappa B inhibition, in a PI3K-independent mechanism, Biochemical Pharmacology, 2012, 83, 106-114. (pdf). Meir Goldsmith, Ala Daka, Nadia F. Lamour, Roi Mashiach, Yifat Glucksam, Charles E. Chalfant, Michael M. Meijler and Tsaffrir Zor, A ceramide analog inhibits cPLA2 activity and consequent PGE2 formation in LPS-stimulated macrophages, Immunology Letters, 2011, 135, 136-143. ( pdf ). Dorit Avni , Orna Ernst , Amir ...
-丁内酯(GBL)其他名称:二氢呋喃-2(3H)-oneGBLButyrolactone-1,4-内酯-4-丁内酯4-羟基丁酸内酯-羟基丁酸内酯CAS号码:96-48-,gamma-Butyrolactone/96-48-0,Organic Chemicals Chemicals Supplier or Manufacturer - importer & exporter Price By China(Mainland) company: Hebei Atun Trading Co., Ltd on www.worldinout.com .
Question: In the Life Extension magazine s Q&A column, Tom Matthews wrote that gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) should not be taken supplementally but should only be used in the synthesis of GHB outside the body. He then cited an oral LD-50 of 17.2 ml/kg for GBL in rats. Any comments? CF. Answer: A dose of 17.2 ml/kg in a 50 kg (112 lb) person would be 860 ml of GBL, which is about 170 teaspoons! That s nearly a quart of GBL! Since the average person using GBL would be expected to use approximately 1/4-1/2 tsp. (1-2 ml), this represents a theoretical safety margin of 400:1, which is exceedingly high by almost any standard. There is no obvious reason for citing such a high LD-50 as apparent justification for an absolute dis-recommendation for GBL. Scientifically, that would be like citing the danger of sunburn as a basis for trashing the use of 100 watt light bulbs.. In a long-term dosing experiment in rodents, very high doses of butyrolactone showed a surprising lack of toxicity [NTIS, 1992]. The ...
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ID 2: 235. Toxin: n. Systematic name: 2-Furancarboxylic acid, 2-[[3-[(3,3-dimethyloxiranyl)methyl]-4-hydroxyphenyl]methyl]-2,5-dihydro-4-hydroxy-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-5-oxo-, methyl ester, (2R)-. Molecular formulae: C24H24O8. Molecular weight: 440.44. Chemical abstract number: 87414-45-7. Literature reference:. ...
ID 2: 235. Toxin: n. Systematic name: 2-Furancarboxylic acid, 2-[[3-[(3,3-dimethyloxiranyl)methyl]-4-hydroxyphenyl]methyl]-2,5-dihydro-4-hydroxy-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-5-oxo-, methyl ester, (2R)-. Molecular formulae: C24H24O8. Molecular weight: 440.44. Chemical abstract number: 87414-45-7. Literature reference:. ...
Information on Registered Substances comes from registration dossiers which have been assigned a registration number. The assignment of a registration number does however not guarantee that the information in the dossier is correct or that the dossier is compliant with Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 (the REACH Regulation). This information has not been reviewed or verified by the Agency or any other authority. The content is subject to change without prior notice ...
Information on Registered Substances comes from registration dossiers which have been assigned a registration number. The assignment of a registration number does however not guarantee that the information in the dossier is correct or that the dossier is compliant with Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 (the REACH Regulation). This information has not been reviewed or verified by the Agency or any other authority. The content is subject to change without prior notice ...
Many Gram-negative bacteria employ N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs) as quorum-sensing (QS) signal molecules to regulate virulence expression in a density-dependent manner. Quorum quenching (QQ) via enzymatic inactivation of AHLs is a promising strategy to reduce bacterial infections and drug resistance. Herein, a thermostable AHL lactonase (AidB), which could degrade different AHLs, with or without a substitution of carbonyl or hydroxyl at the C-3 position, was identified from the soil bacterium Bosea sp. strain F3-2. Ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography analysis demonstrated that AidB is an AHL lactonase that hydrolyzes the ester bond of the homoserine lactone (HSL) ring. AidB was thermostable in the range 30 to 80°C and showed maximum activity after preincubation at 60°C for 30 min. The optimum temperature of AidB was 60°C, and the enzyme could be stably stored in double-distilled water (ddH2O) at 4°C or room temperature. AidB homologs were found only in Rhizobiales and ...
Quorum sensing (QS) denotes a density-dependent mode of inter-bacterial communication based on signal transmitter molecules. Active QS is present during chronic infections with the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa in immunocompromised patients. The authors have previously demonstrated a …
definition of HBHL, what does HBHL mean?, meaning of HBHL, Hydroxybutanoyl Homoserine Lactone, HBHL stands for Hydroxybutanoyl Homoserine Lactone
Quorum sensing (QS) is a regulatory system that allows bacteria to share information about cell density and adjust gene expression accordingly. All QS bacteria produce and release chemical signal molecules called autoinducers (AIs) that increase in concentration as a function of cell density. The most commonly studied AIs belong to one of the following three categories: acylated homoserine lactones, also referred to as AI-1, used by Gram-negative bacteria; peptide signals, used by Gram-positive bacteria; and AI-2, used by both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. QS can be divided into at least 4 steps: production of AIs by the bacterial cell; release of AIs, either actively or passively, into the surrounding environment; recognition of AIs by specific receptors; and leading to changes in gene regulation once they exceed a threshold concentration. The processes controlled by QS include virulence, competence, conjugation, antibiotic production, motility, sporulation, and biofilm formation ...
LuxI and LuxR are key factors that drive quorum sensing (QS) in bacteria through secretion and perception of the signaling molecules e.g. N-Acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs). The role of these proteins is well established in Gram-negative bacteria for intercellular communication but remain under-explored in Gram-positive bacteria where QS peptides are majorly responsible for cell-to-cell communication. Therefore, in the present study, we explored conservation, potential function, topological arrangements and evolutionarily aspects of these proteins in Gram-positive bacteria. Putative LuxI/LuxR containing proteins were retrieved using the domain-based strategy from InterPro v62.0 meta-database. Conservational analyses via multiple sequence alignment and domain showed that these are well conserved in Gram-positive bacteria and possess relatedness with Gram-negative bacteria. Further, Gene ontology and ligand-based functional annotation explain their active involvement in signal transduction ...
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Individuals who have extra copies of a gene that produces a specific protein are less likely to contract HIV or develop AIDS than people from the same ...
Chemsex -- the use of crystallized methamphetamine, mephedrone, γ-hydroxybutyrate or γ-butyrolactone and to a lesser extent cocaine and ketamine to facilitate sex -- has emerged as a new phenomenon in the UK and across Europe among gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (GBMSM).
fluorescence was monitored with a FACSCalibur cytometer, using the FL4 channel and at least 10,000 events were collected. The percentage of inhibition was
BBC News has a report on the increasingly popularity of gamma-Butyrolactone or GBL as a recreational drug. Actually, its not a drug in itself, but once ingested it is metabolised into GHB, a drug often sold under the name Liquid Ecstasy. Actually, the effects are much more like alcohol than ecstasy (the street name is…
The importance of accurate demographic information is reflected in the United States Constitution, Article 1, which provides for a decennial census of this countrys human population. Bacteria also conduct a census of their population and do so more frequently, more efficiently, and as far we know, …
This MassBank Record with Accession RP021802 contains the MS2 mass spectrum of 3-hydroxy-N-(2-oxooxolan-3-yl)tetradecanamide. The mass spectrum was acquired on a LC-ESI-QTOF with POSITIVE ionisation using CID fragmentation with the collision energy 20 at a resolution of null and has the SPLASH splash10-0udi-1900000000-23f306718a9c6f1e71b2.
During this shaking period label chloroform-resistant tubes or 96 well plate with sample names and dilutions For ease of handling large numbers of eppendorf tubes, we load them in a rack, wrap saran wrap around the tubes + rack, secure the ends with packing tape, and shake the entire rack in the 37°C shaker. Saran wrap can be easily cut off using scissors at the end of the experiment ...
You are viewing an interactive 3D depiction of the molecule n-{(1e)-1-amino-5-[(diaminomethylene)amino]-1-hydroxy-1-penten-2-yl}benzamide (C13H19N5O2) from the PQR.
You are viewing an interactive 3D depiction of the molecule n-[(2s,3r)-3-hydroxy-4-{[(4-methoxyphenyl)sulfonyl][(2r)-2-methylbutyl]amino}-1-phenyl-2-butanyl]-4-oxohexanamide (C28H40N2O6S) from the PQR.
A polyhydride or superhydride is a compound that contains an abnormally large amount of hydrogen. This can be described as high hydrogen stoichiometry. Examples include iron pentahydride FeH5 and LiH6 and LiH7. The more well known lithium hydride only has one hydrogen atom. Polyhydrides are only known to be stable under high pressure. Polyhydrides are important because they can form substances with a very high density of hydrogen. They may resemble the elusive metallic hydrogen, but can be made under lower pressures. One possibility is that they could be superconductors. Hydrogen sulfide under high pressures forms SH3 units, and can be a superconductor at 203 K (−70 °C) and a pressure of 1.5 million atmospheres. The polyhydrides of alkaline earth and alkali metals contain cage structures. Also hydrogen may be clustered into H−, H3−, or H2 units. Polyhydrides of transition metals may have the hydrogen atoms arranged around the metal atom. Computations suggest that increasing hydrogen ...
Phytoestrogens have been linked to a risk of breast cancer. The main phytoestrogens in the Finnish diet are lignans, and enterolactone is quantitatively the most important circulating lignan. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between serum enterolactone and risk of breast cancer in Finnish women. The subjects were participants of the Kuopio Breast Cancer Study. This analysis concerns 194 breast cancer cases (68 premenopausal and 126 postmenopausal) who entered the study before diagnosis and 208 community-based controls. They completed a validated food frequency questionnaire referring to the previous 12 months and gave serum samples before the examinations. The measurement of serum enterolactone was performed by time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay. The statistical analyses were done by the logistic regression method. The mean serum enterolactone concentration was 20 nmol/l for the cases and 26 nmol/l for the controls (P 0.003). The mean serum enterolactone concentration in the ...
Density and speed-of-sound values at T = (278.15, 283.15, 288.15, 293.15, 298.15, 308.15, and 318.15) K and at atmospheric pressure were measured, for dilute aqueous solutions of γ-butyrolactone and ε-caprolactone, using an Anton Paar DSA 5000 vibrating-tube densimeter and sound analyzer. A small but significant effect of hydrolysis was observed for aqueous ε-caprolactone and a procedure for eliminating its effect was proposed and employed. Values of the partial molar volume and isentropic compression at infinite dilution were obtained from this experimental data by suitable extrapolation procedures and compared with available data from the literature. The group contribution of the methylene group was evaluated and compared with that obtained for other classes of aqueous cyclic solutes.. ...
Read about Gamma-hydroxybutyrate and Gamma-butyrolactone Abuse, and learn m ore about GBL & GHB abuse on Gamma-hydroxybutyrate and Gamma-butyrolactone Abuse page
Quorum sensing is a unique bacterial communication system which permits bacteria to synchronize their behaviour in accordance with the population density. The operation of this communication network involves the use of diffusible autoinducer molecules, termed N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs). Serratia spp. are well known for their use of quorum sensing to regulate the expression of various genes. In this study, we aimed to characterized the AHL production of a bacterium designated as strain RB-25 isolated from a former domestic waste landfill site. It was identified as Serratia fonticola using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry analysis and this was confirmed by 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing. High resolution triple quadrupole liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of S. fonticola strain RB-25 spent culture supernatant indicated the existence of three AHLs namely: N-butyryl-L-homoserine lactone (C4-HSL), N-hexanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (C6
Quorum-quenching catalysts are of interest for potential application as biochemical tools for interrogating interbacterial communication pathways, as antibiofouling agents, and as anti-infective agents in plants and animals. Herein, the structure and function of AidC, an N-acyl-l-homoserine lactone (AHL) lactonase from Chryseobacterium, is characterized. Steady-state kinetics show that zinc-supplemented AidC is the most efficient wild-type quorum-quenching enzymes characterized to date, with a k cat/K M value of approximately 2 × 10 6 M -1 s -1 for N-heptanoyl-l-homoserine lactone. The enzyme has stricter substrate selectivity and significantly lower KM values (ca. 50 μM for preferred substrates) compared to those of typical AHL lactonases (ca. ,1 mM). X-ray crystal structures of AidC alone and with the product N-hexanoyl-l-homoserine were determined at resolutions of 1.09 and 1.67 Å, respectively. Each structure displays as a dimer, and dimeric oligiomerization was also observed in solution ...
1.THE GREEN FLUORESCENT PROTEIN - Annual Review of Biochemistry, 67(1):509.. 2.Tian T, Burrage K (2006) Stochastic models for regulatory networks of the genetic toggle switch. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 103: 8372 -8377.. 3.Basu S, Mehreja R, Thiberge S, Chen M, Weiss R (2004) Spatiotemporal control of gene expression with pulse-generating networks. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 101: 6355 -6360.. 4.Nilsson P, Olofsson A, Fagerlind M, Fagerström T, Rice S, u. a. (2001) Kinetics of the AHL Regulatory System in a Model Biofilm System: How Many Bacteria Constitute a "Quorum"? Journal of Molecular Biology 309: 631-640.. 5.Schaefer AL, Val DL, Hanzelka BL, Cronan JE, Greenberg EP (1996) Generation of cell-to-cell signals in quorum sensing: acyl homoserine lactone synthase activity of a purified Vibrio fischeri LuxI protein. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A 93: 9505-9509.. 6.Kaplan HB, Greenberg EP (1985) Diffusion of autoinducer is ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
In this paper, we investigated the intra-species bacterial quorum sensing at the single cell level using a double droplet trapping system. Escherichia coli transformed to express the quorum sensing receptor protein, LasR, were encapsulated in microdroplets that were positioned adjacent to microdroplets containing the autoinducer, N-(3-oxododecanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone (OdDHL). Functional activation of the LasR protein by diffusion of the OdDHL across the droplet interface was measured by monitoring the expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP) from a LasR-dependent promoter. A threshold concentration of OdDHL was found to induce production of quorum-sensing associated GFP by E. coli. Additionally, we demonstrated that LasR-dependent activation of GFP expression was also initiated when the adjacent droplets contained single E. coli transformed with the OdDHL synthase gene, LasI, representing a simple quorum sensing circuit between two droplets.
In recent years it has become clear that the production of N-acyl homoserine lactones (N-AHLs) is widespread in Gram-negative bacteria. These molecules act as diffusible chemical communication signals (bacterial pheromones) which regulate diverse physiological processes including bioluminescence, antibiotic production, piasmid conjugal transfer and synthesis of exoenzyme virulence factors in plant and animal pathogens. The paradigm for N-AHL production is in the bioluminescence (lux) phenotype of Photobacterium fischeri (formerly classified as Vibrio fischeri) where the signalling molecule N-(3-oxohexanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone (OHHL) is synthesized by the action of the Luxl protein. OHHL is thought to bind to the LuxR protein, allowing it to act as a positive transcriptional activator in an autoinduction process that physiologically couples cell density (and growth phase) to the expression of the bioluminescence genes. Based on the growing information on Luxl and LuxR homologues in other ...
We have discovered that P. aeruginosa produces a cell-to-cell signal that is unlike any previously reported intercellular signal molecule. This molecule was determined to have a 4-quinolone base structure and therefore has been designated as the Pseudomonas quinolone signal (PQS). Our results showed that exogenously added PQS induced a lasB′-lacZ fusion in the P. aeruginosa lasR mutant, strain PAO-R1, containing the plasmid pTS400 (Fig. 2A). This indicates that there is a third cell-to-cell signal, in addition to the autoinducers 3-oxo-C12-HSL and C4-HSL, that is involved in lasB induction by P. aeruginosa. Despite the ability of PQS to activate lasB′-lacZ in the absence of lasR, the production of PQS required an active LasR protein (Fig. 2A). This suggested that a gene (or genes) required for PQS synthesis is controlled through the las quorum sensing system. We also found that at least RhlR was required for PQS to act as a signal because lasB′-lacZ was not induced by PQS in the lasR, rhlR ...
Quorum sensing is a mechanism for regulating proteobacterial gene expression in response to changes in cell population. In proteobacteria, N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) appears to be the most widely used signalling molecules in mediating, among others, the production of extracellular virulence factors for survival. In this work, the genome of B. cepacia strain GG4, a plasmid-free strain capable of AHL synthesis was explored. In silico analysis of the 6.6 Mb complete genome revealed the presence of a LuxI homologue which correspond to Type I quorum sensing. Here, we report the molecular cloning and characterization of this LuxI homologue, designated as BurI. This 609 bp gene was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3). The purified protein was approximately 25 kDa and is highly similar to several autoinducer proteins of the LuxI family among Burkholderia species. To verify the AHL synthesis activity of this protein, high resolution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis
An ethanediol derivate and γ-butyrolactone are reacting to a derivate of 1,4,6-trioxa-spiro[4.4]nonane. The third possibility ... The epoxide cyclohexene oxide and the lactone γ-butyrolactone are reacting to the spiro orthoester spiro-7-9-dioxacyclo[4.3.0] ... Hsu, Ying-Gev; Wan, Yen-Shen (15 July 2009). "Cationic photopolymerization of cis-2,3-tetramethylene-1,4,6-trioxaspiro[4,4] ...
The degradation of the polymer chain sets free the initial diol and γ-butyrolactone, which is further hydrolyzed to 4- ... synthesized from γ-butyrolactone and triethylorthoformate). In polycondensation small molecules are formed (in this case of ... The 4-hydroxybutanoic acid formed is responsible for the locally lowered pH value upon polymer degradation. The commercial use ... Polyorthoesters type II are formed by polyaddition of a α,ω-diol and the diketene acetal 3,9-diethylidene-2,4,8,10- ...
... γ-Butyrolactone (GBL) γ-Hydroxybutyraldehyde (GHBAL) γ-Valerolactone (GVL) Aceturic acid Aceglutamide C.R. Ganellin; David J. ... It is the acetyl ester of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB, which is 4-hydroxybutanoic acid), and based on its structural relation to ... Aceburic acid (INN), also known as 4-acetoxybutanoic acid or 4-hydroxybutyric acid acetate, is drug described as an analgesic ... GHB, is likely to behave as a prodrug to it.[citation needed] 1,4-Butanediol (1,4-BD) ...
Evaluation for the withdrawal syndrome from gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), gamma-butyrolactone (GBL), and 1,4-butanediol (1,4 ...
GHB γ-Butyrolactone (GBL) γ-Hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) γ-Hydroxyvaleric acid (GHV; 4-methyl-GHB) γ-Valerolactone (GVL) trans- ... 2008). "Novel High-Affinity and Selective Biaromatic 4-Substituted gamma-Hydroxybutyric Acid (GHB) Analogues as GHB Ligands: ... 4-hydroxy-but-2-enoic acid, CAS# 430440-66-7) NCS-435 (4-(p-methoxybenzyl)-GHB) UMB66 UMB68 UMB72 UMB86 Gabazine (SR-95531) NCS ... R)-4-[4′-(2-Iodobenzyloxy)phenyl]-GHB]] Amisulpride Levosulpiride Prochlorperazine Sulpiride Sultopride Snead OC (November 2000 ...
Gamma-Butyrolactone & Polyurethanes), And Segment Forecasts To 2020". Grand View Research. September 2015. Retrieved 2015-11-18 ... The major uses of 1,4 BDO are in the production of THF and polybutylene terephthalate, or PBT. THF is used to produce spandex ... Global 1,4-butanediol market size was estimated at US$4.72 billion in 2013. 2009 Frost & Sullivan Biorenewable Chemicals ... May 4, 2011. Retrieved 2013-10-01. "BioAmber Closes $30 Million Financing with LANXESS and Existing Investors". PR Newswire. ...
At about 200 °C in the presence of soluble ruthenium catalysts, the diol undergoes dehydrogenation to form butyrolactone. World ... gamma-butyrolactone) as a Class C controlled substance. In Germany, the drug is not explicitly illegal, but might also be ... 1,4-Butanediol is also used as a recreational drug known by some users as "One Comma Four", "Liquid Fantasy", "One Four Bee" or ... 1,4-Butanediol was detected by GC-MS. The production plant seems to have intended to cut costs by replacing less toxic 1,5- ...
The molecular formula C4H6O2 may refer to: 1,4-Butynediol γ-Butyrolactone Crotonic acid Diacetyl Diepoxybutane 1,4-Dioxene ...
... γ-Butyrolactone (GBL) NIH National Toxicology Program Andresen-Streichert H, Jungen H, Gehl A, Müller A, Iwersen-Bergmann S ( ... 37 (4): 250-4. doi:10.1093/jat/bkt013. PMID 23486087. Fred Smith (31 December 2004). Handbook of Forensic Drug Analysis. ...
4,5-tetrahydro-8-chloro-3-methyl-5-phenyl-1h-3-benzazepin-7-ol MeSH D03.438.079.800 --- 2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-7,8-dihydroxy-1- ... 4,5-dihydro-1-(3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-1h-pyrazol-3-amine MeSH D03.383.129.539.200 --- epirizole MeSH D03.383.129.539.487 ... 4-dihydro-2,6-dimethyl-5-nitro-4-(2-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-, methyl ester MeSH D03.383.725.210 --- dimethindene MeSH D03.383. ... 4,6,7,11b-hexahydro-3-isobutyl-9,10-dimethoxy- MeSH D03.438.834.775 --- sparteine MeSH D03.438.834.850 --- tetrabenazine MeSH ...
4-Butanediol Baclofen GABA Gabamide GABOB gamma-Butyrolactone (GBL) gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) gamma-Hydroxyvaleric acid ( ...
"Improved thermosets obtained from cycloaliphatic epoxy resins and γ-butyrolactone with lanthanide triflates as initiators. I. ... 3,4-Epoxycyclohexylmethyl-3',4'-epoxycyclohexane carboxylate (ECC) is a cycloaliphatic epoxy resin which is used in many ... Record of 3,4-Epoxycyclohexylmethyl-3',4'-epoxycyclohexancarboxylat in the GESTIS Substance Database of the Institute for ... 4′-epoxycyclohexancarboxylate in photoinitiated cationic polymerizations". Journal of Polymer Science Part A: Polymer Chemistry ...
... by using 3-hydroxy-gamma-butyrolactone as a chiral synthon Niu, W (2003). "Microbial synthesis of the energetic material ... 1,2,4-Butanetriol is also used as a precursor for two cholesterol-lowering drugs, Crestor and Zetia, which are derived from D-3 ... 1,2,4-Butanetriol is a clear or slightly yellow, odorless, hygroscopic, flammable, viscous liquid. It is an alcohol with three ... 1,2,4-Butanetriol can be prepared synthetically by several different methods such as hydroformylation of glycidol and ...
"Gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) Pre-Review Report" (PDF). 4 Jun 2012. Van Cauter, E.; Plat, L.; Scharf, M. B.; Leproult, R.; Cespedes ... γ-Butyrolactone (GBL) is a hygroscopic colorless liquid with a weak characteristic odor and profoundly disgusting taste. ... Vose, J.; Tighe, T.; Schwartz, M.; Buel, E. (2001). "Detection of gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) as a natural component in wine". ... Elliott, S.; Burgess, V. (2005). "The presence of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) and gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) in alcoholic ...
γ-Valerolactone (GVL) acts as a prodrug to GHV, analogously to how γ-butyrolactone (GBL) is a prodrug to GHB. 1,4-Butanediol (1 ... γ-Hydroxyvaleric acid (GHV), also known as 4-methyl-GHB, is a designer drug related to γ-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB). It is ... 4-BD) Aceburic acid Valerenic acid Valeric acid Carter LP; Chen W; Wu H; Mehta AK; Hernandez RJ; Ticku MK; Coop A; Koek W; ... France CP (April 2005). "Comparison of the behavioral effects of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) and its 4-methyl-substituted ...
For the reaction of benzene with γ-butyrolactone, the use of solid acidic catalysts based on zeolites and aluminosilicates was ... The acylation of benzene with γ-butyrolactone with excess aluminum chloride produces 1-tetralone in yields of 91-96%. A ... 4-Phenylbutanoic acid can also be quantitatively converted into 1-tetralone by heating to 180 °C and addition of catalytic ... The starting compound 4-phenylbutanoic acid (whose sodium salt sodium phenylbutyrate is used to treat hyperammonaemia) is ...
Gamma-Butyrolactone & Polyurethanes), And Segment Forecasts To 2020". Grand View Research. September 2015. Retrieved 2015-11-18 ... 1,4-Butanediol (BDO) can be synthesized using succinic as a precursor. The automotive and electronics industries heavily rely ... In humans, three HIF prolyl 4-hydroxylases regulate the stability of HIFs. Hydroxylation of two prolyl residues in HIF1α ... ISBN 978-0-85404-182-4. Record in the GESTIS Substance Database of the Institute for Occupational Safety and Health "Product ...
As an example of copolymerization of non-homopolymerizable monomers, γ-butyrolactone (BL) and ε-caprolactone (CL) show that the ... γ-Butyrolactone, and Ethylene Carbonate or 1,2-Propylene Carbonate". Macromolecules. 37 (18): 6755-6762. Bibcode:2004MaMol.. ... "Oligomerization and copolymerization of γ-butyrolactone - a monomer known as unable to homopolymerize, 1. Copolymerization with ... For example, 4, 6 and 7-membered rings of cyclic esters polymerize through CROP. When considering the ring size of the monomer ...
The formation of a thermodynamically stable gamma-butyrolactone as a co-product drives the reaction to completion while ... ChemCatChem 6 (4):973-976. doi:10.1002/cctc.201300841 Zuhse R, Leggewie C, Hollmann F, Kara S (2015) Scaling-Up of "Smart ... The use of 1,4-butanediol as an intelligent cosubstrate has also been validated in non-aqueous media using a commercial ADH. ... The use of 1,4-butanediol as a smart cosubstrate for cofactor regeneration was the next step towards more sustainable redox ...
... and salts of optical isomers Hydriodic acid Benzaldehyde Nitroethane Gamma butyrolactone (Other names include: GBL; Dihydro-2 ( ... N-phenethyl-4-piperidone (NPP) Iodine Ergocristine and its salts These chemicals are designated as those that are used in the ... 4-Hydroxybutanoic acid lactone; gamma-hydroxybutyric acid lactone) Red Phosphorus White Phosphorus (Other names: Yellow ... 4-Methylenedioxyphenyl-2-propanone Methylamine Ethylamine Propionic anhydride Isosafrole Safrole Piperonal N-Methylephedrine, ...
γ-Butyrolactone 3-Hydroxybutanal Thomas L. Lemke; David A. Williams (24 January 2012). Foye's Principles of Medicinal Chemistry ... 4-butanediol (1,4-BD). Like 1,4-BD, it also behaves as a prodrug to GHB when taken exogenously. However, as with all aliphatic ...
A comparative study of human and animal sensitivity to alpha-methylene-gamma-butyrolactone and derivatives". The British ... 66 (4): 186-9. doi:10.1016/s0367-326x(99)00122-7. PMID 20095126. Stampf, J (August 1978). "Allergic contact dermatitis due to ...
... phenylethyl alcohol and gamma-butyrolactone, secondary products of alcoholic fermentation". Comptes rendus hebdomadaires des ... 79 (4): 283-288. doi:10.1002/j.2050-0416.1973.tb03541.x. Ribéreau-Gayon, P.; Sapis, J. C. (1965). "On the presence in wine of ... Some beers, such as table beer are of such low alcohol content (1%-4%) that they are served instead of soft drinks in some ... Protz, Roger (4 December 2004). "The Complete Guide to World Beer". Retrieved 21 September 2010. When people of the ancient ...
Kinoshita, H; Ipposhi, H; Okamoto, S; Nakano, H; Nihira, T; Yamada, Y (November 1997). "Butyrolactone autoregulator receptor ... 155 (Pt 4): 1250-9. doi:10.1099/mic.0.022467-0. PMID 19332826. Hopwood, David A. (2007). Streptomyces in nature and medicine : ... ISBN 4-431-54607-3. List of Streptomyces species LPSN bacterio.net Straininfo of Streptomyces virginiae UniProt Deutsche ... ISBN 3-642-75617-4. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) Atta-ur-Rahman, edited by (1997). Studies in Natural Products ...
... phenylethyl alcohol and gamma-butyrolactone, secondary products of alcoholic fermentation". Comptes rendus hebdomadaires des ... Clara M. Szlavko, Journal of the Institute of Brewing, July-August 1973, Volume 79, Issue 4, pages 283-288, doi:10.1002/j.2050- ...
... gamma-Butyrolactone may also be used to remove cured cyanoacrylate.[33] Commercial debonders are also available. ... Anahad O'Connor (4 December 2007). "The Claim: Super Glue Can Heal Wounds". The New York Times. Retrieved 19 February 2011. ... 85 (4): 496a-496. doi:10.1136/bjo.85.4.496a. ISSN 0007-1161. PMC 1723922. PMID 11302128.. ... has a molecular weight of 111.1 g/mol, a flashpoint of 79 °C (174 °F; 352 K), and a density of 1.1 g/ml.[4] Ethyl 2- ...
It is used in the production of gamma-butyrolactone, 1, 4-butanediol, and tetrahydrofuran.. Request Free Sample Report @ https ... Increasing environmental concerns for greenhouse gas emission leads to the slow production of the 1, 4-butandiol and alkyd ... Growth and development of the construction industry in developing countries will increase the demand of 1, 4-butandiol and ... Based on the application, the market is segregated into additives, unsaturated polyester resins, copolymers, 1, 4-butanediol, ...
Find details about China Butyrolactone, Gam-Butyrolactone from Organic Solvents Gam Butyrolactone Fat Loss - Guangzhou Kafen ... Gam-Butyrolactone. Alias: G-Butyrolactone, 1, 4- Butyrolactone, BLO. Purity : 99.9% ... G-Butyrolactone in the final foodstuff.. G-Butyrolactone is not active in its own right; its mechanism of action ... Animals which lack these enzymes exhibit no effect from G-Butyrolactone. G-Butyrolactone is more lipophilic (fat ...
4 1 534 Succinic Anhydride is a cyclic dicarboxylic anhydride and a tetrahydrofurandione. It can be produced via dehydration of ...
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γ-(4-fluorophenyl)-γ-butyrolactone. EC / List no.: 257-422-5 CAS no.: 51787-96-3 ...
4-diol Cas 49851-31-2 α-Bromovalerophenone Cas 1451-83-8 2-bromo-1-(3-methylphenyl)propan-1-one Cas 13956-29-1 CBD POWDER / CBD ... Cas 506-59-2 Dimethylamine hydrochloride Cas 593-81-7 Trimethylamine hydrochloride Cas 872-50-4 N-methylpyrrolidin-2-one Cas ... pyridinecarboxylate Cas 40064-34-4 4-piperidone monohydrate hydrochloride Cas 593-51-1 Methylamine hydrochloride Cas 1451-82-7 ... oil High Yield Powder PMK Glycidate Cas 13605-48-6 Lowest price BMK powder CAS 16648-44-5 Cas 99918-43-1 N-phenylpiperidin-4- ...
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The effects of reaction conditions on the catalytic activity have been examined and a more than 95% yield of γ butyrolactone ... The effects of reaction conditions on the catalytic activity have been examined and a more than 95% yield of γ butyrolactone ... CHEN Xue gang, SHEN Wei, XU Hua long, XIANG Yi fei (Department of Chemistry);Dehydrogenation Synthesis of γ-Butyrolactone from ... Preparation of γ- Butyrolactone from 1,4 Butanediol Dehydrogenation over Cu/ZnO/Al_2O_3 Catalyst. ...
... gamma-butyrolactone Suppliers, gamma-butyrolactone Manufacturers, related products of gamma-butyrolactone. ... Information for gamma-butyrolactone 96-48-0 including gamma-butyrolactone CAS NO 96-48-0, ... γ-butyrolactone; γ-butyrolactone(99.5%); Gamma ButyroLactone; 1,4-Butyrolactone; 2,3-dihydroxybutanoic acid; GBL; γ- ... gamma-butyrolactone. Product Name:. gamma-butyrolactone. Synonyms:. 4-Hydroxybutyric acid gamma-lactone; BLO; Butyronitrile,99 ...
China supplier Gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) / 1,4 bdo / butanediol domestic shipping, gbl, bdo, 110-63-4, 96-48-0, gbl supplier, ... China supplier Gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) / 1,4 bdo / butanediol domestic shipping. Price: USD 10.00/kg. MOQ: 1 kg. ... Cas 110-63-4 Butane-1,4-diol. Cas 49851-31-2 α-Bromovalerophenone. Procaine cas 59-46-1. Benzocaine cas 94-09-7. Lidocaine HCl ... Cas 40064-34-4 4-piperidone monohydrate hydrochloride. Cas 593-51-1 Methylamine hydrochloride. Cas 1451-82-7 2-Bromo-4- ...
4, 5-Trimethoxybenzoic Acid / Gallic acid trimethyl ether CAS 118-41-2 - Zhuzhou Interial bioengineering Co., Ltd. ... 4. Delivery: We have products in stock, and we will deliver them soon when your PO arrived. Meanwhile we will give you the ... 99% 3, 4, 5-Trimethoxybenzoic Acid / Gallic acid trimethyl ether CAS 118-41-2 Images ... AKOS 213-36;AKOS BBS-00003718;3,4,5-TRIMETHOXYBENZOIC ACID;BENZOIC ACID, 3,4,5-TRIMETHOXY-;GALLIC ACID TRIMETHYL ETHER; ...
gamma-Butyrolactone; 4-Butyrolactone; dihydrofuran-2(3H)-one .... MW: 86.090. g/mol MF: C4H6O2. IUPAC name: oxolan-2-one. ... C4H7NO2. IUPAC name: (3R)-3-aminooxolan-2-one. Create Date: 2006-07-29. ... C4H7NO2. IUPAC name: (3S)-3-aminooxolan-2-one. Create Date: 2005-06-24. ... Rule of 5 (4) Compounds satisfied Lipinskis Rule of Five in evaluating druglikeness. Query: (-5:5[LOGP]) AND (0:500[MOLWT]) ...
... butyrolactone; 4,4-dibutyl-4-hydroxy-butyric acid, [gamma]-lactone. ... 4, 1980; 47 FR 27810, June 25, 1982; 48 FR 10812, Mar. 15, 1983; 48 FR 51907, Nov. 15, 1983; 49 FR 5747, Feb. 15, 1984; 50 FR ... 4-Phenyl-2-butyl acetate; phenylethyl methyl carbinyl acetate. 1-Phenyl-3-methyl-3-pentanol; phenylethyl methyl ethyl carbinol ... Zingerone; 4-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-2-butanone.. (c) [Delta]-Decalactone and [Delta]-dodecalactone when used separately or ...
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The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has issued a warning about use of products containing gamma butyrolactone (GBL). ... GBL is also known by the chemical names 2(3H)-furanone dihydro; butyrolactone; 4-butyrolactone; dihydro-2(3H)-furanone; 4- ... butanolide; 2(3H)-furanone, dihydro; tetrahydro-2-furanone; and butyrolactone gamma. According to the FDA, brand names include ... It affects nearly 4 million Americans-and slightly more than one half of these persons receive care at home. The prevalence of ...
Quorum sensing is the regulation of gene expression in response to fluctuations in cell-population density. Quorum sensing bacteria produce and release chemical signal molecules called autoinducers that increase in concentration as a function of cell density. The detection of a minimal threshold sti …
The barnacle Balanus amphitrite (=Amphibalanus amphitrite) is a major marine biofouling invertebrate worldwide. It has a complex life cycle during which the larva (called a nauplius) molts six times before transforming into the cyprid stage. The cyprid stage in B. amphitrite is the critical stage fo …
Gamma-Butyrolactone (GBL) Gamma-Butyrolactone (GBL) Gamma-Butyrolactone (GBL) has widespread industrial use. It is a common ... Gamma-Butyrolactone (GBL) Gamma-Butyrolactone (GBL) Gamma-Butyrolactone (GBL) has widespread industrial use. It is a common ... Gamma-Butyrolactone(GBL) CAS No. 96-48-0 Purity: 99.9% up Place of Origin: China gamma-butyrolactone CAS 96-48-0 Name of gamma- ... Gamma-Butyrolactone(GBL) CAS No. 96-48-0 Gamma-Butyrolactone(GBL) CAS No. 96-48-0 Purity: 99.9% up Place of Origin: China gamma ...
Gamma Butyrolactone 99.9 % GBL manufacturers, suppliers ☆ Gamma Butyrolactone 99.9 % GBL buyers, importers, wholesalers, ... Gamma-Butyrolactone 99.9% /Gamma-Butyrolactone 99.9% /Gamma-Butyrolactone 99.9% /Gamma-Butyrolactone 99.9% Gamma-Butyrolactone ... Gamma Butyrolactone 99.9 % GBL. Gamma Butyrolactone 99.9 % GBL Gamma Butyrolactone 99.9 % GBL Gamma Butyrolactone 99.9 % GBL ... Gamma-Butyrolactone GBL GHB Intermediate & Gamma Butyrolactone 99.9 % GBL for Wheel Clearner. Gamma-Butyrolactone GBL GHB ...
γ-Butyrolactone (γ-BL). 204. −43.4. 1.73. 39.1. 4.12. −2.8. 5.4. γ-Valerolactone (γ-VL). 208. −31. 2.0. 34. 4.29. −2.8. 5.4. ... 0.5 M TEABF4/ACN. 167-171 [Co(phen)3]+ + e− ↔ [Co(phen)3]2+. [Fe(phen)3]2+ ↔ [Fe(phen)3]3+ + e−. 0.01/0.01. 2.1. 0.3 M TEAPF6/ ... 0.1 M TEABF4/ACN. 180 [Fe(TEOA)(OH)]−+ e− ↔ [Fe(TEOA)(OH)]2−. [Co(mTEA)(H2O)]− ↔ [Co(mTEA)(H2O)] + e−. 0.5/0.5. 0.93. 5 M NaOH/ ... 0.5 M TEABF4/ACN. 176 [V(acac)3] + e− ↔ [V(acac)3]−. [V(acac)3] ↔ [V(acac)3]+ + e−. 0.05. 2.2. ...
... and Gamma-Butyrolactone*Introduction ... Chapter 4. Cocaine and Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor* ...
Butyrolactone (C4H6O2). *Pentane, 2,2-dimethyl- (C7H16) ... Benzene, 1,4-diiodo- (C6H4I2). *Benzene, 1,2-dibromo- (C6H4Br2) ... Benzene, 1,2,4-trichloro-5-[(4-chlorophenyl)sulfonyl]- (C12H6Cl4O2S) ... Urea, N-(4-chlorophenyl)-N,N-dimethyl- (C9H11ClN2O) ... Benzoic acid, 4-chloro- (C7H5ClO2). *Butane, 2-bromo- (C4H9Br) ... 2,2-Bis(4-chlorophenyl)acetic acid (C14H10Cl2O2) ... Benzene, 1,4-bis(chloromethyl)- (C8H8Cl2). *Fenuron (C9H12N2O) ...
Butyrolactone (C4H6O2). *2-Pentanol (C5H12O) ... Ethanone, 1-(4-methylphenyl)- (C9H10O). *3-Buten-1-ol, 3-methyl ... Contribution of dynamic headspace GC-MS analysis of aroma compounds to authenticity testing of honey, Food Chem., 2001, 72, 4, ... Bicyclo[2.2.2]octan-1-ol, 4-methyl- (C9H16O) ... 1-Pentanol, 4-methyl- (C6H14O). *2(3H)-Furanone, dihydro-5- ...
When treated with some growth arrest-inducing agents such as sodium nitroprusside, forskolin and butyrolactone I, cells ... 87414-49-1/butyrolactone I; 9061-61-4/Nerve Growth Factor; 96-48-0/4-Butyrolactone; EC 2.7.11.1/Akt1 protein, rat; EC 2.7.11.1/ ... 4-Butyrolactone / analogs & derivatives*, pharmacology. Animals. CDC2 Protein Kinase / metabolism. Cell Differentiation / ...
4-Butyrolactone / administration & dosage, pharmacology. Animals. Biotransformation. Corpus Striatum / metabolism*. Dopamine / ... 1199-18-4/Oxidopamine; 306-08-1/Homovanillic Acid; 502-85-2/Sodium Oxybate; 59-46-1/Procaine; 96-48-0/4-Butyrolactone ...
  • Iron Drum Product Name control chemical against termite chlorpyrifos97% TC, 2921-88-2 CAS NO. 2921-88-2 EINECS NO. 220-864-4 Formulation 97%TC 40%EC (480g/L) Classification Insecticide , agrochemical Mode of action. (ccnmag.com)
  • When treated with some growth arrest-inducing agents such as sodium nitroprusside, forskolin and butyrolactone I, cells expressing wild-type Akt regained their responsiveness to the effects of NGF on differentiation. (biomedsearch.com)
  • A compound, C 4 H 8 O 3 , similar in structure and function to gamma-aminobutyric acid, usually used in the form of its sodium salt. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Effets du 4 butyrolactone et du 4 hydroxybutyrate de sodium sur l'E. (fc-gubkin.ru)
  • The present invention provides a method for preparing (S)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline-1-carboxylic acid and a derivative thereof by using enzymatic resolution, the method comprising the step of: using racemic 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquin. (sumobrain.com)
  • The semiaqueous cleaning composition of claim 1 wherein the oxalic acid dihydrate concentration is between about 2% and about 20%, and wherein the pH is between about 4 and 7. (sumobrain.com)
  • Automated determination of the p K a values of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid in cosolventâ€"water mixtures and related solvent effects using a modified HPLC system. (ebscohost.com)
  • Succinate, also known as 1,4-butanedioic acid or amber acid, is a four-carbon dicarboxylic acid for multiple applications. (hindawi.com)
  • 2-Hydroxy-3-octanone (0.2-0.5% of I ), 2,3-decanedione (2% of I ), 2-phenylethanol (3% of I ), and octanoic acid (4% of I ) were also identified in volatiles from male beetles. (springer.com)
  • Hydrolyzes 4-pyridoxolactone to 4-pyridoxic acid. (rcsb.org)
  • 4. The method according to claim 1 wherein said polyester comprises poly(aliphatic hydroxy carboxylic acid). (patentgenius.com)
  • 4. The composition according to claim 1 wherein R is exclusively an ethylene group. (google.com)
  • Because the industrial and household solvent γ-butyrolactone (GBL) is metabolized to GHB, it has been marketed illicitly as a nutritional supplement alleged to have the same therapeutic effects as GHB. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Process for the preparation of 2,4-hexadiyne-1,6-diol of the formula Iby the reaction of diacetylene of the formula IIwith formaldehyde of the formula IIIin the presence of a silver catalysts, in which the reaction is carried out in the presence of a polar organic solvent at temperatures ranging from 0.degree. (patentgenius.com)
  • The present invention relates to aprocess for the preparation of 2,4-hexadiyne-1,6-diol by the reaction of diacetylene with formaldehyde in the presence of a polar solvent and catalytic amounts of a silver catalyst. (patentgenius.com)
  • Accordingly, we have found a novel and improved process for the preparation of 2,4-hexadiyne-1,6-diol of the formula I by the reaction of diacetylene of the formula II with formaldehyde of the formula III in the presence of silver catalysts, wherein the reaction is carried out in the presence of a polar solvent at temperatures ranging from 0.degree. (patentgenius.com)
  • 4. An article according to claim 3 wherein said cyclic ester monomer is 1,3-dioxan-2-one. (google.com.au)
  • A few years ago, Chen and his group reported they were able to make a polymer from the ring-opening reaction of γ-butyrolactone-a simple five-membered cyclic ester previously thought to be impervious to polymerization for thermodynamic reasons. (acs.org)
  • These compounds then may go on to form the polymer poly(4-hydroxybutyrate). (wikipedia.org)
  • It is claimed that poly(GBL) is competitive with commercial biomaterial poly(4-hydroxybutyrate), or P4HB. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1 , 2 'Chemsex' is a more recently described phenomenon in gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (GBMSM), which describes the use of mephedrone, crystal methamphetamine, γ-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), γ-butyrolactone (GBL) and less commonly, cocaine and ketamine with sex. (bmj.com)
  • 6. The cosmetic composition according to claim 1, wherein the weight-average molar mass of the at least one 4-morpholinomethyl-substituted silicone of formula (V) is in the range from 2000 to 1,000,000 gmol −1 . (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 7. The cosmetic composition according to claim 1, wherein the at least one 4-morpholinomethyl-substituted silicone of formula (V) is present in the form of an oil-in-water emulsion in which the number-average size of the silicone particles in the emulsion is in the range from 3 to 500 nm. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 4-methyl-2-phenyl -m- dioxolane. (fda.gov)
  • 1. The methyl 4-chlorobutanoate , methyl formate , and dichloromethane must be added by temporary removal of one of the addition funnels followed by purging of the system with nitrogen. (orgsyn.org)
  • The combined organic phase is washed with water (20 mL) and brine (20 mL), dried over Na 2 SO 4 (20 g), filtered through a 150-mL medium porosity sintered glass funnel, then concentrated under reduced pressure using a rotary evaporator (45 °C, 25 mmHg) to furnish an amber-colored liquid. (orgsyn.org)
  • The effects of reaction conditions on the catalytic activity have been examined and a more than 95% yield of γ butyrolactone obtained. (cnki.com.cn)
  • DE-A 877,453 and DE-A 869,053 each disclose a process for the preparation of 2,4-hexadiyne-1,6-diol by the reaction of aqueous formaldehyde solution with diacetylene in the presence of Ag catalysts. (patentgenius.com)
  • To bypass GHB restriction laws, home synthesis kits were introduced to transform GBL and/or 1,4-B into GHB. (wikipedia.org)
  • Synthesis of gold nanoparticles with homogeneous sizes and shapes has enormous importance in nanotechnology, because of their size-dependent optical, magnetic, electronic and catalytic properties [ 3 , 4 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Aim 2 will extend results from in vitro studies to two in vivo paradigms, cerebral microdialysis (to measure DA, ACh and cAMP overflow) and the gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) model (to measure effects on DA synthesis). (elsevier.com)
  • 1. In a process for the preparation of 2,4-hexadiyne-1,6-diol by reacting diacetylene with formaldehyde, in the presence of a silver catalyst and water, at temperatures ranging from0.degree. (patentgenius.com)
  • When the study is scaled down to Malaysia, there are predicted about 3.5 million of the population having this metabolic disease [ 4 ]. (hindawi.com)