4-Butyrolactone: One of the FURANS with a carbonyl thereby forming a cyclic lactone. It is an endogenous compound made from gamma-aminobutyrate and is the precursor of gamma-hydroxybutyrate. It is also used as a pharmacological agent and solvent.Butyrophenones: Compounds containing phenyl-1-butanone.Streptomyces: A genus of bacteria that form a nonfragmented aerial mycelium. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. This genus is responsible for producing a majority of the ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS of practical value.Maturation-Promoting Factor: Protein kinase that drives both the mitotic and meiotic cycles in all eukaryotic organisms. In meiosis it induces immature oocytes to undergo meiotic maturation. In mitosis it has a role in the G2/M phase transition. Once activated by CYCLINS; MPF directly phosphorylates some of the proteins involved in nuclear envelope breakdown, chromosome condensation, spindle assembly, and the degradation of cyclins. The catalytic subunit of MPF is PROTEIN P34CDC2.Cyclin-Dependent Kinases: Protein kinases that control cell cycle progression in all eukaryotes and require physical association with CYCLINS to achieve full enzymatic activity. Cyclin-dependent kinases are regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events.Meiosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Oocytes: Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
(1/836) Contact dermatitis in Alstroemeria workers.

Hand dermatitis is common in workers in the horticultural industry. This study determined the prevalence of hand dermatitis in workers of Alstroemeria cultivation, investigated how many workers had been sensitized by tulipalin A (the allergen in Alstroemeria) and took stock of a wide range of determinants of hand dermatitis. The 12-month period prevalence of major hand dermatitis amounted to 29.5% whereas 7.4% had minor dermatitis. Of these workers, 52.1% were sensitized for tulipalin A. Several personal and work-related determinants played a role in the multifactorial aetiology of hand dermatitis. Factors which showed a significant relationship with major hand dermatitis were: female sex, atopic dermatitis, chapped hands and the frequency of washing hands. It may be concluded that the Alstroemeria workers are a population at risk of developing contact dermatitis and it might be useful to carry out an educational campaign to lower the high prevalence.  (+info)

(2/836) Modulation of acute and chronic inflammatory processes by cacospongionolide B, a novel inhibitor of human synovial phospholipase A2.

1. Cacospongionolide B is a novel marine metabolite isolated from the sponge Fasciospongia cavernosa. In in vitro studies, this compound inhibited phospholipase A2 (PLA2), showing selectivity for secretory PLA2 (sPLA2) versus cytosolic PLA2 (cPLA2), and its potency on the human synovial enzyme (group II) was similar to that of manoalide. 2. This activity was confirmed in vivo in the 8 h zymosan-injected rat air pouch, on the secretory enzyme accumulating in the pouch exudate. Cacospongionolide B, that is bioavailable when is given orally, reduced the elevated levels of sPLA2 present in paw homogenates of rats with adjuvant arthritis. 3. This marine metabolite showed topical anti-inflammatory activity on the mouse ear oedema induced by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol acetate (TPA) and decreased carrageenin paw oedema in mice after oral administration of 5, 10 or 20 mg kg(-1). 4. In the mouse air pouch injected with zymosan, cacospongionolide B administered into the pouch, induced a dose-dependent reduction in the levels of eicosanoids and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) in the exudates 4 h after the stimulus. It also had a weak effect on cell migration. 5. The inflammatory response of adjuvant arthritis was reduced by cacospongionolide B, which did not significantly affect eicosanoid levels in serum, paw or stomach homogenates and did not induce toxic effects. 6 Cacospongionolide B is a new inhibitor of sPLA2 in vitro and in vivo, with anti-inflammatory properties in acute and chronic inflammation. This marine metabolite was active after oral administration and able to modify TNFalpha levels, and may offer an interesting approach in the search for new anti-inflammatory agents.  (+info)

(3/836) Human metabolism of mammalian lignan precursors in raw and processed flaxseed.

BACKGROUND: The mammalian lignans enterolactone and enterodiol are produced in the colon by the action of bacteria on the plant precursor secoisolariciresinol diglycoside, which is found in high concentrations in flaxseed. OBJECTIVE: Two experiments were conducted to determine 1) whether there is a dose response in urinary lignan excretion with increasing flaxseed intake, 2) whether flaxseed processing affects lignan excretion, 3) peak plasma lignan concentrations, and 4) plasma lignan concentrations after chronic supplementation. DESIGN: Nine healthy young women supplemented their diets with 5, 15, or 25 g raw or 25 g processed (muffin or bread) flaxseed for 7 d during the follicular phase of their menstrual cycles. Twenty-four-hour urine samples were collected at baseline and on the final day of supplementation. As an adjunct to the 25-g-flaxseed arm, subjects consumed the supplement for an additional day and blood and urine samples were collected at specific intervals. All blood and urine samples were analyzed for enterolactone and enterodiol by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. RESULTS: A dose-dependent urinary lignan response to raw flaxseed was observed (r = 0.72, P < 0.001). The processing of flaxseed as a muffin or bread did not affect the quantity of lignan excretion. Plasma lignan concentrations were greater (P < or = 0.05) than baseline by 9 h after flaxseed ingestion (29.35+/-3.69 and 51.75+/-7.49 nmol/L, respectively). The total plasma area under the curve was higher on the eighth than on the first day (1840.15+/-343.02 and 1027.15+/-95.71 nmol x h/L, respectively). CONCLUSION: Mammalian lignan production from flaxseed precursors is dependent on time and dose but not on processing.  (+info)

(4/836) Evidence that halogenated furanones from Delisea pulchra inhibit acylated homoserine lactone (AHL)-mediated gene expression by displacing the AHL signal from its receptor protein.

Acylated homoserine lactone (AHL)-mediated gene expression controls phenotypes involved in colonization, often specifically of higher organisms, in both marine and terrestrial environments. The marine red alga Delisea pulchra produces halogenated furanones which resemble AHLs structurally and show inhibitory activity at ecologically realistic concentrations in AHL bioassays. Evidence is presented that halogenated furanones displace tritiated OHHL [N-3-(oxohexanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone] from Escherichia coli cells overproducing LuxR with potencies corresponding to their respective inhibitory activities in an AHL-regulated bioluminescence assay, indicating that this is the mechanism by which furanones inhibit AHL-dependent phenotypes. Alternative mechanisms for this phenomenon are also addressed. General metabolic disruption was assessed with two-dimensional PAGE, revealing limited non-AHL-related effects. A direct chemical interaction between the algal compounds and AHLs, as monitored by 1H NMR spectroscopy, was shown not to occur in vitro. These results support the contention that furanones, at the concentrations produced by the alga, can control bacterial colonization of surfaces by specifically interfering with AHL-mediated gene expression at the level of the LuxR protein.  (+info)

(5/836) Adverse events associated with ingestion of gamma-butyrolactone--Minnesota, New Mexico, and Texas, 1998-1999.

Products containing gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) are marketed for many claimed purposes, including to induce sleep, release growth hormone, enhance sexual activity and athletic performance, relieve depression, and prolong life. GBL is converted by the body into gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), a drug banned outside of clinical trials approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Recognized manifestations of GHB toxicity include bradycardia, hypothermia, central nervous system depression, and uncontrolled movements. This report describes seven cases of GBL toxicity involving the product "Revivarant," which is labeled as containing 1.82 g of GBL per fluid ounce, reported from two hospital emergency departments (EDs) in Minnesota during October-December 1998 and summarizes an additional 34 cases of GBL toxicity reported to poison centers in New Mexico and Texas during October 1998-January 1999.  (+info)

(6/836) Production of poly(3-hydroxybutyric acid-co-4-hydroxybutyric acid) and poly(4-hydroxybutyric acid) without subsequent degradation by Hydrogenophaga pseudoflava.

A Hydrogenophaga pseudoflava strain was able to synthesize poly(3-hydroxybutyric acid-co-4-hydroxybutyric acid) [P(3HB-co-4HB)] having a high level of 4-hydroxybutyric acid monomer unit (4HB) from gamma-butyrolactone. In a two-step process in which the first step involved production of cells containing a minimum amount of poly(3-hydroxybutyric acid) [P(3HB)] and the second step involved polyester accumulation from the lactone, approximately 5 to 10 mol% of the 3-hydroxybutyric acid (3HB) derived from the first-step culture was unavoidably reincorporated into the polymer in the second cultivation step. Reincorporation of the 3HB units produced from degradation of the first-step residual P(3HB) was confirmed by high-resolution 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. In order to synthesize 3HB-free poly(4-hydroxybutyric acid) [P(4HB)] homopolymer, a three-stage cultivation technique was developed by adding a nitrogen addition step, which completely removed the residual P(3HB). The resulting polymer was free of 3HB. However, when the strain was grown on gamma-butyrolactone as the sole carbon source in a synthesis medium, a copolyester of P(3HB-co-4HB) containing 45 mol% 3HB was produced. One-step cultivation on gamma-butyrolactone required a rather long induction time (3 to 4 days). On the basis of the results of an enzymatic study performed with crude extracts, we suggest that the inability of cells to produce 3HB in the multistep culture was due to a low level of 4-hydroxybutyric acid (4HBA) dehydrogenase activity, which resulted in a low level of acetyl coenzyme A. Thus, 3HB formation from gamma-butyrolactone is driven by a high level of 4HBA dehydrogenase activity induced by long exposure to gamma-butyrolactone, as is the case for a one-step culture. In addition, intracellular degradation kinetics studies showed that P(3HB) in cells was completely degraded within 30 h of cultivation after being transferred to a carbon-free mineral medium containing additional ammonium sulfate, while P(3HB-co-4HB) containing 5 mol% 3HB and 95 mol% 4HB was totally inert in interactions with the intracellular depolymerases. Intracellular inertness could be a useful factor for efficient synthesis of the P(4HB) homopolymer and of 4HB-rich P(3HB-co-4HB) by the strain used in this study.  (+info)

(7/836) Promotion of antibiotic production by high ethanol, high NaCl concentration, or heat shock in Pseudomonas fluorescens S272.

A stress imposed by a continuous feed of high ethanol, high NaCl concentration, or a high temperature shock increased antibiotic production by several times in Pseudomonas fluorescens S272. A tentative bioassay showed that the stress caused about 40-fold elevation in the autoinducer activity. Addition of synthetic autoinducers, N-(3-oxododecanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone or N-(3-oxohexanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone at a concentration of more than 100 micrograms/l to a non-stressed culture also increased the antibiotic production by several times. These results suggested that the antibiotic production in P. fluorescens S272 was regulated by N-acyl-homoserine lactone and the promotive effect by stress occurred through any function that increased the autoinducer production.  (+info)

(8/836) Acyl homoserine-lactone quorum-sensing signal generation.

Acyl homoserine lactones (acyl-HSLs) are important intercellular signaling molecules used by many bacteria to monitor their population density in quorum-sensing control of gene expression. These signals are synthesized by members of the LuxI family of proteins. To understand the mechanism of acyl-HSL synthesis we have purified the Pseudomonas aeruginosa RhlI protein and analyzed the kinetics of acyl-HSL synthesis by this enzyme. Purified RhlI catalyzes the synthesis of acyl-HSLs from acyl-acyl carrier proteins and S-adenosylmethionine. An analysis of the patterns of product inhibition indicated that RhlI catalyzes signal synthesis by a sequential, ordered reaction mechanism in which S-adenosylmethionine binds to RhlI as the initial step in the enzymatic mechanism. Because pathogenic bacteria such as P. aeruginosa use acyl-HSL signals to regulate virulence genes, an understanding of the mechanism of signal synthesis and identification of inhibitors of signal synthesis has implications for development of quorum sensing-targeted antivirulence molecules.  (+info)

*  List of MeSH codes (D03)
4,5-tetrahydro-8-chloro-3-methyl-5-phenyl-1h-3-benzazepin-7-ol MeSH D03.438.079.800 --- 2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-7,8-dihydroxy-1- ... 4,5-dihydro-1-(3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-1h-pyrazol-3-amine MeSH D03.383.129.539.200 --- epirizole MeSH D03.383.129.539.487 ... 4-dihydro-2,6-dimethyl-5-nitro-4-(2-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-, methyl ester MeSH D03.383.725.210 --- dimethindene MeSH D03.383. ... 4,6,7,11b-hexahydro-3-isobutyl-9,10-dimethoxy- MeSH D03.438.834.775 --- sparteine MeSH D03.438.834.850 --- tetrabenazine MeSH ...
*  Aceburic acid
... γ-Butyrolactone (GBL) γ-Hydroxybutyraldehyde (GHBAL) γ-Valerolactone (GVL) Aceturic acid Aceglutamide C.R. Ganellin; David J. ... It is the acetyl ester of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB, which is 4-hydroxybutanoic acid), and based on its structural relation to ... Aceburic acid (INN), also known as 4-acetoxybutanoic acid or 4-hydroxybutyric acid acetate, is drug described as an analgesic ... GHB, is likely to behave as a prodrug to it.[citation needed] 1,4-Butanediol (1,4-BD) ...
*  C4H6O2
The molecular formula C4H6O2 may refer to: 1,4-Butynediol γ-Butyrolactone Crotonic acid Diacetyl Diepoxybutane 1,4-Dioxene ...
*  Gamma-Valerolactone
... γ-Butyrolactone (GBL) NIH National Toxicology Program Andresen-Streichert H, Jungen H, Gehl A, Müller A, Iwersen-Bergmann S ( ... 37 (4): 250-4. doi:10.1093/jat/bkt013. PMID 23486087. Fred Smith (31 December 2004). Handbook of Forensic Drug Analysis. ...
*  SCH-50911
Evaluation for the withdrawal syndrome from gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), gamma-butyrolactone (GBL), and 1,4-butanediol (1,4 ...
*  GHB receptor
GHB γ-Butyrolactone (GBL) γ-Hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) γ-Hydroxyvaleric acid (GHV; 4-methyl-GHB) γ-Valerolactone (GVL) trans- ... 2008). "Novel High-Affinity and Selective Biaromatic 4-Substituted gamma-Hydroxybutyric Acid (GHB) Analogues as GHB Ligands: ... 4-hydroxy-but-2-enoic acid, CAS# 430440-66-7) NCS-435 (4-(p-methoxybenzyl)-GHB) UMB66 UMB68 UMB72 UMB86 Gabazine (SR-95531) NCS ... R)-4-[4′-(2-Iodobenzyloxy)phenyl]-GHB]] Amisulpride Levosulpiride Prochlorperazine Sulpiride Sultopride Snead OC (November 2000 ...
*  Polyorthoester
The degradation of the polymer chain sets free the initial diol and γ-butyrolactone, which is further hydrolyzed to 4- ... synthesized from γ-butyrolactone and triethylorthoformate). In polycondensation small molecules are formed (in this case of ... The 4-hydroxybutanoic acid formed is responsible for the locally lowered pH value upon polymer degradation. The commercial use ... Polyorthoesters type II are formed by polyaddition of a α,ω-diol and the diketene acetal 3,9-diethylidene-2,4,8,10- ...
*  Gamma-Butyrolactone
"Gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) Pre-Review Report" (PDF). 4 Jun 2012. Van Cauter, E.; Plat, L.; Scharf, M. B.; Leproult, R.; Cespedes ... γ-Butyrolactone (GBL) is a hygroscopic colorless liquid with a weak characteristic odor and profoundly disgusting taste. ... Vose, J.; Tighe, T.; Schwartz, M.; Buel, E. (2001). "Detection of gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) as a natural component in wine". ... Elliott, S.; Burgess, V. (2005). "The presence of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) and gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) in alcoholic ...
*  Expanding Monomers
An ethanediol derivate and γ-butyrolactone are reacting to a derivate of 1,4,6-trioxa-spiro[4.4]nonane. The third possibility ... The epoxide cyclohexene oxide and the lactone γ-butyrolactone are reacting to the spiro orthoester spiro-7-9-dioxacyclo[4.3.0] ... Hsu, Ying-Gev; Wan, Yen-Shen (15 July 2009). "Cationic photopolymerization of cis-2,3-tetramethylene-1,4,6-trioxaspiro[4,4] ...
*  BioAmber
Gamma-Butyrolactone & Polyurethanes), And Segment Forecasts To 2020". Grand View Research. September 2015. Retrieved 2015-11-18 ... The major uses of 1,4 BDO are in the production of THF and polybutylene terephthalate, or PBT. THF is used to produce spandex ... Global 1,4-butanediol market size was estimated at US$4.72 billion in 2013. 2009 Frost & Sullivan Biorenewable Chemicals ... May 4, 2011. Retrieved 2013-10-01. "BioAmber Closes $30 Million Financing with LANXESS and Existing Investors". PR Newswire. ...
*  1,4-Butanediol
At about 200 °C in the presence of soluble ruthenium catalysts, the diol undergoes dehydrogenation to form butyrolactone. World ... gamma-butyrolactone) as a Class C controlled substance. In Germany, the drug is not explicitly illegal, but might also be ... 1,4-Butanediol is also used as a recreational drug known by some users as "One Comma Four", "Liquid Fantasy", "One Four Bee" or ... 1,4-Butanediol was detected by GC-MS. The production plant seems to have intended to cut costs by replacing less toxic 1,5- ...
*  GABA receptor agonist
4-Butanediol Baclofen GABA Gabamide GABOB gamma-Butyrolactone (GBL) gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) gamma-Hydroxyvaleric acid ( ...
*  3,4-Epoxycyclohexylmethyl-3',4'-epoxycyclohexane carboxylate
"Improved thermosets obtained from cycloaliphatic epoxy resins and γ-butyrolactone with lanthanide triflates as initiators. I. ... 3,4-Epoxycyclohexylmethyl-3',4'-epoxycyclohexane carboxylate (ECC) is a cycloaliphatic epoxy resin which is used in many ... Record of 3,4-Epoxycyclohexylmethyl-3',4'-epoxycyclohexancarboxylat in the GESTIS Substance Database of the Institute for ... 4′-epoxycyclohexancarboxylate in photoinitiated cationic polymerizations". Journal of Polymer Science Part A: Polymer Chemistry ...
*  1,2,4-Butanetriol
... by using 3-hydroxy-gamma-butyrolactone as a chiral synthon Niu, W (2003). "Microbial synthesis of the energetic material ... 1,2,4-Butanetriol is also used as a precursor for two cholesterol-lowering drugs, Crestor and Zetia, which are derived from D-3 ... 1,2,4-Butanetriol is a clear or slightly yellow, odorless, hygroscopic, flammable, viscous liquid. It is an alcohol with three ... 1,2,4-Butanetriol can be prepared synthetically by several different methods such as hydroformylation of glycidol and ...
*  Gamma-Hydroxyvaleric acid
γ-Valerolactone (GVL) acts as a prodrug to GHV, analogously to how γ-butyrolactone (GBL) is a prodrug to GHB. 1,4-Butanediol (1 ... γ-Hydroxyvaleric acid (GHV), also known as 4-methyl-GHB, is a designer drug related to γ-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB). It is ... 4-BD) Aceburic acid Valerenic acid Valeric acid Carter LP; Chen W; Wu H; Mehta AK; Hernandez RJ; Ticku MK; Coop A; Koek W; ... France CP (April 2005). "Comparison of the behavioral effects of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) and its 4-methyl-substituted ...
*  1-Tetralone
For the reaction of benzene with γ-butyrolactone, the use of solid acidic catalysts based on zeolites and aluminosilicates was ... The acylation of benzene with γ-butyrolactone with excess aluminum chloride produces 1-tetralone in yields of 91-96%. A ... 4-Phenylbutanoic acid can also be quantitatively converted into 1-tetralone by heating to 180 °C and addition of catalytic ... The starting compound 4-phenylbutanoic acid (whose sodium salt sodium phenylbutyrate is used to treat hyperammonaemia) is ...
*  Succinic acid
Gamma-Butyrolactone & Polyurethanes), And Segment Forecasts To 2020". Grand View Research. September 2015. Retrieved 2015-11-18 ... 1,4-Butanediol (BDO) can be synthesized using succinic as a precursor. The automotive and electronics industries heavily rely ... In humans, three HIF prolyl 4-hydroxylases regulate the stability of HIFs. Hydroxylation of two prolyl residues in HIF1α ... ISBN 978-0-85404-182-4. Record in the GESTIS Substance Database of the Institute for Occupational Safety and Health "Product ...
*  Ring-opening polymerization
As an example of copolymerization of non-homopolymerizable monomers, γ-butyrolactone (BL) and ε-caprolactone (CL) show that the ... γ-Butyrolactone, and Ethylene Carbonate or 1,2-Propylene Carbonate". Macromolecules. 37 (18): 6755-6762. Bibcode:2004MaMol.. ... "Oligomerization and copolymerization of γ-butyrolactone - a monomer known as unable to homopolymerize, 1. Copolymerization with ... For example, 4, 6 and 7-membered rings of cyclic esters polymerize through CROP. When considering the ring size of the monomer ...
*  Smart cosubstrate
The formation of a thermodynamically stable gamma-butyrolactone as a co-product drives the reaction to completion while ... ChemCatChem 6 (4):973-976. doi:10.1002/cctc.201300841 Zuhse R, Leggewie C, Hollmann F, Kara S (2015) Scaling-Up of "Smart ... The use of 1,4-butanediol as an intelligent cosubstrate has also been validated in non-aqueous media using a commercial ADH. ... The use of 1,4-butanediol as a smart cosubstrate for cofactor regeneration was the next step towards more sustainable redox ...
*  DEA list of chemicals
... and salts of optical isomers Hydriodic acid Benzaldehyde Nitroethane Gamma butyrolactone (Other names include: GBL; Dihydro-2 ( ... N-phenethyl-4-piperidone (NPP) Iodine Ergocristine and its salts These chemicals are designated as those that are used in the ... 4-Hydroxybutanoic acid lactone; gamma-hydroxybutyric acid lactone) Red Phosphorus White Phosphorus (Other names: Yellow ... 4-Methylenedioxyphenyl-2-propanone Methylamine Ethylamine Propionic anhydride Isosafrole Safrole Piperonal N-Methylephedrine, ...
*  Gamma-Hydroxybutyraldehyde
γ-Butyrolactone 3-Hydroxybutanal Thomas L. Lemke; David A. Williams (24 January 2012). Foye's Principles of Medicinal Chemistry ... 4-butanediol (1,4-BD). Like 1,4-BD, it also behaves as a prodrug to GHB when taken exogenously. However, as with all aliphatic ...
*  Helenin
A comparative study of human and animal sensitivity to alpha-methylene-gamma-butyrolactone and derivatives". The British ... 66 (4): 186-9. doi:10.1016/s0367-326x(99)00122-7. PMID 20095126. Stampf, J (August 1978). "Allergic contact dermatitis due to ...
*  Beer
... phenylethyl alcohol and gamma-butyrolactone, secondary products of alcoholic fermentation". Comptes rendus hebdomadaires des ... 79 (4): 283-288. doi:10.1002/j.2050-0416.1973.tb03541.x. Ribéreau-Gayon, P.; Sapis, J. C. (1965). "On the presence in wine of ... Some beers, such as table beer are of such low alcohol content (1%-4%) that they are served instead of soft drinks in some ... Protz, Roger (4 December 2004). "The Complete Guide to World Beer". Retrieved 21 September 2010. When people of the ancient ...
*  Streptomyces virginiae
Kinoshita, H; Ipposhi, H; Okamoto, S; Nakano, H; Nihira, T; Yamada, Y (November 1997). "Butyrolactone autoregulator receptor ... 155 (Pt 4): 1250-9. doi:10.1099/mic.0.022467-0. PMID 19332826. Hopwood, David A. (2007). Streptomyces in nature and medicine : ... ISBN 4-431-54607-3. List of Streptomyces species LPSN bacterio.net Straininfo of Streptomyces virginiae UniProt Deutsche ... ISBN 3-642-75617-4. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) Atta-ur-Rahman, edited by (1997). Studies in Natural Products ...
*  Ethanol fermentation
... phenylethyl alcohol and gamma-butyrolactone, secondary products of alcoholic fermentation". Comptes rendus hebdomadaires des ... Clara M. Szlavko, Journal of the Institute of Brewing, July-August 1973, Volume 79, Issue 4, pages 283-288, doi:10.1002/j.2050- ...
*  List of designer drugs
... γ-Butyrolactone GHV, γ-Hydroxyvaleric acid (4-Methyl-GHB) GVL, γ-Valerolactone Afloqualone Etaqualone, 2-Ethylnormethaqualone ... 2C-B-AN, Brolphetaminil 2C-B-FLY 2C-C 2C-D, 2C-M 2C-E, "Europa" 2C-G 2C-iP, "Jelena" 2C-I 2C-P 2C-T-2 2C-T-4 2C-T-7 2C-T-21 βk- ... "4-methyl-N,N-DMC". Cayman Chemical. Retrieved 7 April 2015. Weiß JA, Taschwer M, Kunert O, Schmid MG (2014). "Analysis of a new ... 4-AcO-DALT, Dalcetin 4-AcO-DET, Ethacetin 4-AcO-DiPT, Ipracetin 4-AcO-DMT, Psilacetin 4-AcO-DPT, Depracetin 4-AcO-EiPT, ...
Gamma-Butyrolactone(GBL) CAS No. 96-48-0 /Agriculture and Food  Gamma-Butyrolactone(GBL) CAS No. 96-48-0 /Agriculture and Food
Gamma-Butyrolactone (GBL) Gamma-Butyrolactone (GBL) Gamma-Butyrolactone (GBL) has widespread industrial use. It is a common ... Gamma-Butyrolactone (GBL) Gamma-Butyrolactone (GBL) Gamma-Butyrolactone (GBL) has widespread industrial use. It is a common ... Gamma-Butyrolactone(GBL) CAS No. 96-48-0 Purity: 99.9% up Place of Origin: China gamma-butyrolactone CAS 96-48-0 Name of gamma- ... Gamma-Butyrolactone(GBL) CAS No. 96-48-0 Gamma-Butyrolactone(GBL) CAS No. 96-48-0 Purity: 99.9% up Place of Origin: China gamma ...
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China Organic Solvents Gam Butyrolactone Fat Loss - China Butyrolactone, Gam-Butyrolactone  China Organic Solvents Gam Butyrolactone Fat Loss - China Butyrolactone, Gam-Butyrolactone
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Sell 100% Real GBL Gamma Butyrolactone Wheel Cleaner Safe Shipment - steroidshormones  Sell 100% Real GBL Gamma Butyrolactone Wheel Cleaner Safe Shipment - steroidshormones
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where oh where to find butyrolactone?! - Bombshock  where oh where to find butyrolactone?! - Bombshock
You Are Here: Home » Old Forums Archive » Drugs » where oh where to find butyrolactone?! ... I am looking for Gamma-butryolactone, or butyrolactone!! This shit has become a real pain in the ass to track down since the ... Posted by Rebo on 4:08 pm on Mar. 14, 2002. ... where oh where to find butyrolactone?!. In: Drugs , comment : 0 ...
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100% Purity GBL Gamma-Butyrolactone for Wheel Cleaner Safe with Fast Safe Shipment Suppliers and Manufacturers - China Factory ...  100% Purity GBL Gamma-Butyrolactone for Wheel Cleaner Safe with Fast Safe Shipment Suppliers and Manufacturers - China Factory ...
... purity GBL gamma-butyrolactone for wheel cleaner safe with fast safe shipment in China. Factory direct sales of Pharmatical Raw ... Gamma-Butyrolactone-butyrolactone (γ-Butyrolactone or GBL) is a hygroscopic colorless liquid having a weak characteristic odor ... 8615527046746 Quick detail Description Gamma-Butyrolactone-butyrolactone (γ-Butyrolactone or GBL) is a hygroscopic colorless ... GBL can be used to produce a-pyrrolidone, 1-Methyl-2-pyrrolidinone , polyvinyl pyrrolidone, and α-Acetyl-γ-butyrolactone, etc. ...
more infohttp://www.sendisteroids.com/pharmatical-raw-materials/100-purity-gbl-gamma-butyrolactone-for-wheel.html
China supplier Gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) / 1,4 bdo : Pharmaceutical Chemicals  China supplier Gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) / 1,4 bdo : Pharmaceutical Chemicals
4-diol Cas 49851-31-2 α-Bromovalerophenone Cas 1451-83-8 2-bromo-1-(3-methylphenyl)propan-1-one Cas 13956-29-1 CBD POWDER / CBD ... Cas 506-59-2 Dimethylamine hydrochloride Cas 593-81-7 Trimethylamine hydrochloride Cas 872-50-4 N-methylpyrrolidin-2-one Cas ... pyridinecarboxylate Cas 40064-34-4 4-piperidone monohydrate hydrochloride Cas 593-51-1 Methylamine hydrochloride Cas 1451-82-7 ... oil High Yield Powder PMK Glycidate Cas 13605-48-6 Lowest price BMK powder CAS 16648-44-5 Cas 99918-43-1 N-phenylpiperidin-4- ...
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517-23-7 - alpha-Acetyl-gamma-butyrolactone, 98+% - 2-Acetylbutyrolactone - 3-Acetyl-4,5-dihydro-2(3H)-furanone - B22967 - Alfa...  517-23-7 - alpha-Acetyl-gamma-butyrolactone, 98+% - 2-Acetylbutyrolactone - 3-Acetyl-4,5-dihydro-2(3H)-furanone - B22967 - Alfa...
Alfa Aesar is a leading manufacturer and supplier of research chemicals, pure metals and materials for a wide span of applications.
more infohttps://www.alfa.com/en/catalog/B22967/
PubChem Compound (MeSH Keyword) for PubMed (Select 15858574) - PubChem Compound - NCBI  PubChem Compound (MeSH Keyword) for PubMed (Select 15858574) - PubChem Compound - NCBI
gamma-Butyrolactone; 4-Butyrolactone; dihydrofuran-2(3H)-one .... MW: 86.090. g/mol MF: C4H6O2. IUPAC name: oxolan-2-one. ... C4H7NO2. IUPAC name: (3R)-3-aminooxolan-2-one. Create Date: 2006-07-29. ... C4H7NO2. IUPAC name: (3S)-3-aminooxolan-2-one. Create Date: 2005-06-24. ... Rule of 5 (4) Compounds satisfied Lipinski's Rule of Five in evaluating druglikeness. Query: (-5:5[LOGP]) AND (0:500[MOLWT]) ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pccompound?LinkName=pubmed_pccompound_mesh&from_uid=15858574
Clinical Briefs: Clinical Briefs - American Family Physician  Clinical Briefs: Clinical Briefs - American Family Physician
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has issued a warning about use of products containing gamma butyrolactone (GBL). ... GBL is also known by the chemical names 2(3H)-furanone dihydro; butyrolactone; 4-butyrolactone; dihydro-2(3H)-furanone; 4- ... butanolide; 2(3H)-furanone, dihydro; tetrahydro-2-furanone; and butyrolactone gamma. According to the FDA, brand names include ... It affects nearly 4 million Americans-and slightly more than one half of these persons receive care at home. The prevalence of ...
more infohttps://www.aafp.org/afp/1999/0301/p1325.html
Overexpression of Akt inhibits NGF-induced growth arrest and neuronal differentiation of PC12 cells.  Overexpression of Akt inhibits NGF-induced growth arrest and neuronal differentiation of PC12 cells.
When treated with some growth arrest-inducing agents such as sodium nitroprusside, forskolin and butyrolactone I, cells ... 87414-49-1/butyrolactone I; 9061-61-4/Nerve Growth Factor; 96-48-0/4-Butyrolactone; EC 2.7.11.1/Akt1 protein, rat; EC 2.7.11.1/ ... 4-Butyrolactone / analogs & derivatives*, pharmacology. Animals. CDC2 Protein Kinase / metabolism. Cell Differentiation / ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Overexpression-Akt-inhibits-NGF-induced/11112692.html
Spectral Database Index:
        ATR-IR - Solvents - Bio‑Rad Sadtler  Spectral Database Index: ATR-IR - Solvents - Bio‑Rad Sadtler
Butyrolactone; 1,4-Butanolide; ?-Butyrolactone; Tetrahydro-2-furanone; Dihydro-2(3H)-furanone; 4-Hydroxybutyric acid, ?-lactone ... Dihydro-2(3H)-furanone; Butyrolactone; 4-Hydroxybutyric acid, ?-Lactone; 1,2-Butanolide; 4-Hydroxybutanoic acid lactone. ... trans-4-Methylcyclohexanol. trans-Butenoic acid; α-Crotonic acid; ß-Methylacrylic acid; 3-Methylacrylic acid; (E)-2-Butenoic ... ß-4-Methylcyclohexanol; cis-Hexahydro-p-cresol; cis-p-Methylcyclohexyl alcohol. ß-N-Amylene; sym-Ethylmethylethylene; sym- ...
more infohttp://www.knowitall.com/literature/indices/Spectral_Index.asp?cc=WLX
US5258149A - Process of making a membrane for high efficiency removal of low density lipoprotein-cholesterol from whole blood 
...  US5258149A - Process of making a membrane for high efficiency removal of low density lipoprotein-cholesterol from whole blood ...
4-Butyrolactone is the preferred solvent.. At least about 8.0 wt. % and up to about 35.0 wt. % polysulfone in solvent should be ... 4. The process of claim 1 wherein the submerged membrane is vacuum degassed between step (c) and step (d). ... Non-Patent Citations (4). * Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party. Title. ... 4-butyrolactone and blends of 4-butyrolactone and N-methylpyrrolidone are the preferred solvents. Other solvents are discussed ...
more infohttps://patents.google.com/patent/US5258149A/en
KEGG ENZYME: 1.6.5.10  KEGG ENZYME: 1.6.5.10
The enzyme from hog liver is inhibited by dicoumarol and folic acid derivatives but not by 2,4-dinitrophenol [1].. ... NADPH-specific quinone reductase is induced by 2-methylene-4-butyrolactone in Escherichia coli. ...
more infohttps://www.genome.jp/dbget-bin/www_bget?ec:1.6.5.10
Directed discovery of greener cosolvents: new cosolvents for use in ionic liquid based organic electrolyte solutions for...  Directed discovery of greener cosolvents: new cosolvents for use in ionic liquid based organic electrolyte solutions for...
Thus, γ-butyrolactone is identified as a suitable OES former for dissolution of microcrystalline cellulose and biobased γ- ... Thus, γ-butyrolactone is identified as a suitable OES former for dissolution of microcrystalline cellulose and biobased γ- ... Thus, γ-butyrolactone is identified as a suitable OES former for dissolution of microcrystalline cellulose and biobased γ- ... Thus, γ-butyrolactone is identified as a suitable OES former for dissolution of microcrystalline cellulose and biobased γ- ...
more infohttps://researchportal.bath.ac.uk/en/publications/directed-discovery-of-greener-cosolvents-new-cosolvents-for-use-i
Jaffé, Hans. H. -
                  Component of : Early Ideas in the History of Quantum Chemistry.  Jaffé, Hans. H. - Component of : Early Ideas in the History of Quantum Chemistry.
4. Symmetry, Orbitals and Spectra, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 1971. With M. Orchin.. 5. Answer Book for "Symmetry, ... Barbara J. Quattrone, The Basicities of 2- and 4-Phenyl azopyridine, August, 1969.. * Donn M. Storch, Mathematical Basis of ... The Wallach Rearrangement of 4-Phenyl and 4-Phenoxyazoxybenzene, August, 1971.. * Suh Bong Rhee, The Photoisomerization of ... Adnan Abu Saleh, The Luminescence of Cis and Trans 2-(p-Dimethylaminobenzylidene)-4-butyrolactone, August, 1975.. * Constantin ...
more infohttp://www.quantum-chemistry-history.com/Jaffe1.htm
Spectroscopic investigation of the solvatochromic behavior of a new synthesized non symmetric viologen dye: Study of the...  Spectroscopic investigation of the solvatochromic behavior of a new synthesized non symmetric viologen dye: Study of the...
Without zinc chloride, some cationic dyes are not stable in 4-butyrolactone, and the results are low. The stability of cationic ... Automated determination of the p K a values of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid in cosolventâ€"water mixtures and related solvent effects ... Cationic dyes in acrylic fibers have been accurately determined spectrophotometrically in the solution of the sample in 4- ... butyrolactone containing 1.0 to 10 g/l. ZnCl2. ...
more infohttp://connection.ebscohost.com/c/articles/51880400/spectroscopic-investigation-solvatochromic-behavior-new-synthesized-non-symmetric-viologen-dye-study-solvent-solute-interactions
Publications | Department of Molecular Biology  Publications | Department of Molecular Biology
Vibrio harveyi quorum sensing: a coincidence detector for two autoinducers controls gene expression. EMBO J. 2003 ;22(4):870-81 ...
more infohttps://molbio.princeton.edu/publications?f%5Bkeyword%5D=356
ELECTROGENESE CORTICALE PDF  ELECTROGENESE CORTICALE PDF
Effets du 4 butyrolactone et du 4 hydroxybutyrate de sodium sur l'E. Etude polygrapbique des differentes phases du sommeil au ...
more infohttp://fc-gubkin.ru/electrogenese-corticale-79/
Tren Anabolic Steroid manufacturer - quality Oral Anabolic Steroids, Injectable Anabolic Steroids  Tren Anabolic Steroid manufacturer - quality Oral Anabolic Steroids, Injectable Anabolic Steroids
High Purity Pharma Raw Materials γ-Butyrolactone GBL Safe Steroid Solvent 96-48-0 ... Methenolone Enanthate Muscle Building Anabolic Steroids Weight Gain 303-42-4 Methasterone Superdrol Muscle Building Anabolic ... Aromasin Steroid Estrogen Blockers 107868-30-4 Anti Inflammatory Treatment 120511-73-1 Anti Estrogen Steroids Anastrozole ... Methenolone Enanthate Muscle Building Anabolic Steroids Weight Gain 303-42-4 Methasterone Superdrol Muscle Building Anabolic ...
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  • Gamma - butyrolactone ( GBL ) CAS No.: 96-48-0 Properties:Colorless and transparent oily liquid with a smell similar to that of acetone, the boiling point is 204oC. (ecplaza.net)
  • It is the acetyl ester of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB, which is 4-hydroxybutanoic acid), and based on its structural relation to GHB, is likely to behave as a prodrug to it. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, γ-butyrolactone is identified as a suitable OES former for dissolution of microcrystalline cellulose and biobased γ-valerolactone as a marginally less efficient, but significantly safer, alternative. (bath.ac.uk)
  • The gene encoding a 4-hydroxybutyryl-Co A transferase has been isolated from bacteria and integrated into the genome of bacteria also expressing a polyhydroxyalkanoate synthase, to yield an improved production process for 4HB-containing polyhydroxyalkanoates using transgenic organisms, including both bacteria and plants. (patents.com)
  • Regardless of the presence of exogenously-added AHLs, all rhizobial strains tested were able to develop sessile biomass on a glass surface, with OD570 values ranging from 0.4 to ∼5.0 (Figure 4). (nih.gov)