4-Aminobutyrate Transaminase: An enzyme that converts brain gamma-aminobutyric acid (GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID) into succinate semialdehyde, which can be converted to succinic acid and enter the citric acid cycle. It also acts on beta-alanine. EC 2.6.1.19.Transaminases: A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of an amino group from a donor (generally an amino acid) to an acceptor (generally a 2-keto acid). Most of these enzymes are pyridoxyl phosphate proteins. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.6.1.Aminobutyrates: Derivatives of BUTYRIC ACID that contain one or more amino groups attached to the aliphatic structure. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the aminobutryrate structure.Iodobenzoates: Benzoic acid esters or salts substituted with one or more iodine atoms.Alanine Transaminase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-alanine and 2-oxoglutarate to pyruvate and L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.6.1.2.Aminocaproates: Amino derivatives of caproic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the amino caproic acid structure.Pyridoxamine: The 4-aminomethyl form of VITAMIN B 6. During transamination of amino acids, PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE is transiently converted into pyridoxamine phosphate.Ketoglutaric Acids: A family of compounds containing an oxo group with the general structure of 1,5-pentanedioic acid. (From Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p442)Aspartate Aminotransferases: Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the conversion of L-aspartate and 2-ketoglutarate to oxaloacetate and L-glutamate. EC 2.6.1.1.Succinate-Semialdehyde Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that plays a role in the GLUTAMATE and butanoate metabolism pathways by catalyzing the oxidation of succinate semialdehyde to SUCCINATE using NAD+ as a coenzyme. Deficiency of this enzyme, causes 4-hydroxybutyricaciduria, a rare inborn error in the metabolism of the neurotransmitter 4-aminobutyric acid (GABA).Pyridoxal Phosphate: This is the active form of VITAMIN B 6 serving as a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, aminolevulinic acid. During transamination of amino acids, pyridoxal phosphate is transiently converted into pyridoxamine phosphate (PYRIDOXAMINE).GABA Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins: A family of plasma membrane neurotransmitter transporter proteins that regulates extracellular levels of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID. They differ from GABA RECEPTORS, which signal cellular responses to GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID. They control GABA reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM through high-affinity sodium-dependent transport.D-Alanine Transaminase: A PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE containing enzyme that catalyzes the reversible transfer of an amino group between D-Alanine and alpha-ketoglutarate to form PYRUVATE and D-GLUTAMATE, respectively. It plays a role in the synthesis of the bacterial CELL WALL. This enzyme was formerly classified as EC 2.6.1.10.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).gamma-Aminobutyric Acid: The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.Glutamates: Derivatives of GLUTAMIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the 2-aminopentanedioic acid structure.Organic Anion Transporters: Proteins involved in the transport of organic anions. They play an important role in the elimination of a variety of endogenous substances, xenobiotics and their metabolites from the body.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
(1/160) A correlation between changes in gamma-aminobutyric acid metabolism and seizures induced by antivitamin B6.

The effects of DL-penicillamine (DL-PeA), hydrazine and toxopyrimidine (TXP, 2-methyl-6-amino-5-hydroxymethylpyrimidine) on gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) metabolism in mouse brain were studied. All these compounds inhibited the activity of glutamate decarboxylase [EC 4.1.1.15] (GAD) and slightly inhibited that of 4-aminobutyrate: 2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase [EC 2.6.1.19] (GABA-T). In contrast, very different effects were observed on GABA levels; hydrazine caused a marked increase, DL-PeA had no effect, and TXP caused a slight decrease in the content of the amino acid. These results could be described by an equation which related the excitable state to changes in the flux of the GABA bypass. Since the values obtained from the equation clearly reflect the seizure activity, it is suggested that the decreased GABA flux might be a cause of convulsions induced by these drugs.  (+info)

(2/160) The irreversible gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transaminase inhibitor gamma-vinyl-GABA blocks cocaine self-administration in rats.

gamma-Vinyl gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) (GVG) is an irreversible inhibitor of GABA transaminase, the primary enzyme involved in GABA metabolism. Acute administration of GVG increases brain GABA levels and blocks cocaine-induced locomotor activity, cocaine-induced lowering of brain stimulation reward thresholds, and cocaine-induced conditioned place preference. To further evaluate the effects of GVG on cocaine-induced reward, we examined its effects on cocaine self-administration in male Wistar rats on fixed ratio 5 and progressive ratio schedules of reinforcement. Additionally, the effects of GVG on operant responding for a food reward were examined on the same two schedules to determine whether the effects of GVG were specific to cocaine reward or generalized to other types of reward. GVG dose dependently decreased responding for cocaine on both schedules of reinforcement, suggesting that GVG attenuated the reward value of the cocaine. Responding for food was also decreased by GVG, suggesting that the effects of increased GABA levels induced by GVG may have a general effect on central reward systems. Data from this and other studies indicate that GVG does not induce motor impairment, decrease spontaneous locomotor activity, or induce catalepsy. Taken together, these data suggest that increases in GABAergic activity induced by GVG have an attenuating effect on centrally mediated reward systems and that the GABA system may be a useful target in the development of new therapeutic strategies for cocaine addiction.  (+info)

(3/160) The mature size of rat 4-aminobutyrate aminotransferase is different in liver and brain.

The amino acid sequence predicted from a rat liver cDNA library indicated that the precursor of beta-AlaAT I (4-aminobutyrate aminotransferase, beta-alanine-oxoglutarate aminotransferase) consists of a mature enzyme of 466 amino acid residues and a 34-amino acid terminal segment, with amino acids attributed to the leader peptide. However, the mass of beta-AlaAT I from rat brain was larger than that from rat liver and kidney, as assessed by Western-blot analysis, mass spectroscopy and N-terminal sequencing. The mature form of beta-AlaAT I from the brain had an ISQAAAK- peptide on the N-terminus of the liver mature beta-AlaAT I. Brain beta-AlaAT I was cleaved to liver beta-AlaAT I when incubated with fresh mitochondrial extract from rat liver. These results imply that mature rat liver beta-AlaAT I is proteolytically cleaved in two steps. The first cleavage of the motif XRX( downward arrow)XS is performed by a mitochondrial processing peptidase, yielding an intermediate-sized protein which is the mature brain beta-AlaAT I. The second cleavage, which generates the mature liver beta-AlaAT I, is also carried out by a mitochondrial endopeptidase. The second peptidase is active in liver but lacking in brain.  (+info)

(4/160) Effects of blocking GABA degradation on corticotropin-releasing hormone gene expression in selected brain regions.

PURPOSE: The gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) degradation blocker gamma-vinyl-GABA (VGB) is used clinically to treat seizures in both adult and immature individuals. The mechanism by which VGB controls developmental seizures is not fully understood. Specifically, whether the anticonvulsant properties of VGB arise only from its elevation of brain GABA levels and the resulting activation of GABA receptors, or also from associated mechanisms, remains unresolved. Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), a neuropeptide present in many brain regions involved in developmental seizures, is a known convulsant in the immature brain and has been implicated in some developmental seizures. In certain brain regions, it has been suggested that CRH synthesis and release may be regulated by GABA. Therefore we tested the hypothesis that VGB decreases CRH gene expression in the immature rat brain, consistent with the notion that VGB may decrease seizures also by reducing the levels of the convulsant molecule, CRH. METHODS: VGB was administered to immature, 9-day-old rats in clinically relevant doses, whereas littermate controls received vehicle. RESULTS: In situ hybridization histochemistry demonstrated a downregulation of CRH mRNA levels in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus but not in other limbic regions of VGB-treated pups compared with controls. In addition, VGB-treated pups had increased CRH peptide levels in the anterior hypothalamus, as shown by radioimmunoassay. CONCLUSIONS: These findings are consistent with a reduction of both CRH gene expression and secretion in the hypothalamus, but do not support an indirect anticonvulsant mechanism of VGB via downregulation of CRH levels in limbic structures. However, the data support a region-specific regulation of CRH gene expression by GABA.  (+info)

(5/160) Effect of gonadal steroids and gamma-aminobutyric acid on LH release and dopamine expression and activity in the zona incerta in rats.

A dopaminergic system in the zona incerta stimulates LH release and may mediate the positive feedback effects of the gonadal steroids on LH release. In this study the mechanisms by which steroids might increase dopamine activity in the zona incerta were investigated. In addition, experiments were conducted to determine whether the inhibitory effects of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on LH release in the zona incerta are due to suppression of dopamine activity in this area or conversely whether the stimulatory effects of dopamine on LH release are due to suppression of a tonic inhibitory GABAergic system. Ovariectomized rats were treated s.c. with oil, 5 micrograms oestradiol benzoate or 5 micrograms oestradiol benzoate followed 48 h later by 0.5 mg progesterone, and killed 54 h after the oestradiol benzoate injection. At this time the LH concentrations were suppressed in the oestradiol benzoate group and increased in the group treated with oestradiol benzoate and progesterone. The ratio of tyrosine hydroxylase:beta-actin mRNA in the zona incerta was significantly increased by the oestradiol benzoate treatment, but the addition of progesterone resulted in values similar to those in the control group. At the same time, the progesterone treatment increased tyrosine hydroxylase activity in the zona incerta as indicated by an increase in L-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) accumulation after 100 mg 3-hydroxybenzylhydrazine hydrochloric acid (NSD1015) kg-1 and an increase in dopamine release as indicated by a increase in dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) concentrations (one of the major metabolites of dopamine). Ovariectomized rats treated with oestradiol benzoate plus progesterone were also injected i.p. with 75 mg gamma-acetylenic GABA kg-1 (a GABA transaminase inhibitor) to increase GABA concentrations in the brain. This treatment had no effect on the ratio of tyrosine hydroxylase:beta-actin mRNA but decreased L-DOPA accumulation and DOPAC concentrations in the zona incerta, indicating a post-translational inhibition of dopamine synthesis and release. Treatment of ovariectomized rats with oestradiol benzoate followed by 100 mg L-DOPA i.p. to increase dopamine concentrations in the whole brain had no effect on glutamic acid decarboxylase mRNA expression in the zona incerta, although it increased the glutamic acid decarboxylase:beta-actin mRNA ratio in other hypothalamic areas (that is, the medical preoptic area, ventromedial nucleus and arcuate nucleus). In conclusion, the steroids act to increase dopamine activity in different ways: oestrogen increases tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA expression and progesterone acts after translation to increase tyrosine hydroxylase activity and dopamine release (as indicated by increases in DOPAC concentrations). This latter effect may be due to progesterone removing a tonic GABAergic inhibition from the dopaminergic system.  (+info)

(6/160) The inhibitory effects of (gamma)-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on growth hormone secretion in the goldfish are modulated by sex steroids.

Double-labelling studies at the electron microscopic level demonstrated that gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-immunoreactive nerve endings are associated with growth-hormone-secreting cells in the proximal pars distalis of the goldfish pituitary gland, suggesting that GABA may be important for the control of growth hormone release in this species. An in vitro assay for GABA-transaminase activity demonstrated that the pituitary is a site for the metabolism of GABA to succinic acid. In vitro, GABA or the GABA antagonists bicuculline and saclofen did not affect the rate of growth hormone release from dispersed pituitary cells in static incubation. In contrast, intracerebroventricular injection of GABA reduced serum growth hormone levels within 30 min. During the seasonal gonadal cycle, intraperitoneal injection of GABA was without effect in sexually regressed goldfish, but caused a significant decrease in serum growth hormone levels in sexually recrudescent animals. Intraperitoneal implantation of solid silastic pellets containing oestradiol increased serum GH levels fivefold in sexually regressed and recrudescent goldfish; in both groups, GABA suppressed the oestradiol-stimulated increase in circulating growth hormone levels. The effect of oestradiol on basal serum growth hormone levels was specific since progesterone and testosterone were without effect. However, in recrudescent animals treated with progesterone and testosterone, the inhibitory effects of GABA on serum growth hormone levels were absent, indicating a differential role for these steroids in growth hormone release. Taken together, these results demonstrate that GABA has an inhibitory effect on growth hormone release in goldfish.  (+info)

(7/160) Recovery of visual field constriction following discontinuation of vigabatrin.

Epilepsy patients treated with vigabatrin may develop symptomatic or asymptomatic concentric visual field constriction due to GABA-associated retinal dysfunction. The prevalence and course of this side effect are not established yet; in previously reported adult patients the visual disturbances seem to be irreversible. We present two patients with a significant improvement of visual field constriction and retinal function after the discontinuation of vigabatrin. These findings suggest that vigabatrin-associated retinal changes are at least partly reversible in some patients, and that these patients may benefit significantly from a withdrawal of vigabatrin. Larger scale clinical studies are needed to identify predictive factors both for the occurrence and reversibility of vigabatrin-associated visual field defects.  (+info)

(8/160) Increased mesolimbic GABA concentration blocks heroin self-administration in the rat.

Opiate reinforcement has been hypothesized to be mediated by an inhibition of mesolimbic gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) release that subsequently disinhibits ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine neurons. In support of this hypothesis, this study demonstrates that when administered directly into the lateral ventricle, the VTA, or the ventral pallidum, but not the nucleus accumbens, gamma-vinyl-GABA (GVG, an irreversible GABA-transaminase inhibitor, 20-50 microg) dose dependently blocked heroin (0.06 mg/kg) self-administration (SA), as assessed by an increase in heroin SA at low doses of GVG and an initial increase followed 1 to 2 h later by a blockade of heroin SA at higher GVG doses. This effect lasted 3 to 5 days. In drug-naive rats, intra-VTA GVG pretreatment also prevented or delayed acquisition of heroin SA for 2 days. This GVG effect was prevented or reversed by systemic or intra-VTA pretreatment with the GABA(B) antagonist 2-hydroxysaclofen, but not the GABA(A) antagonist bicuculline. Similarly, coadministration of heroin with aminooxy-acetic acid (1-4 mg/kg) or ethanolamine-O-sulfate (50-100 mg/kg), two reversible GABA transaminase inhibitors, dose dependently reduced heroin reinforcement. Coadministration of (+/-)-nipecotic acid (0.1-5 mg/kg) with heroin, or intra-VTA or -ventral pallidum pretreatment with (+/-)-nipecotic acid (10 microg) or NO-711 (2 microg), two GABA uptake inhibitors, significantly increased heroin SA behavior, an effect also blocked by systemic 2-hydroxysaclofen, but not bicuculline. Taken together, these experiments, for the first time, demonstrate that pharmacological elevation of mesolimbic GABA concentration blocks heroin reinforcement by activating GABA(B) receptors, supporting the GABAergic hypothesis of opiate reinforcement and the incorporation of GABA agents in opiate abuse treatment.  (+info)

*  Succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency
Under normal conditions, SSADH works with the enzyme GABA transaminase to convert GABA to succinic acid. Succinic acid can then ... Vigabatrin is an irreversible inhibitor of GABA transaminases which leads to decreased levels of GHB and elevation of GABA. ... Parviz, M.; Vogel, K.; Gibson, K.M.; Pearl, P.L. (2014). "Disorders of GABA Metabolism: SSADH and GABA-transaminase ... The absence of SSADH leads to a 30-fold increase of GHB and a 2-4 fold increase of GABA in the brains of patients with SSADH ...
*  4-aminobutyrate transaminase
Aurich, Harald (1961). "Über die β-Alanin-α-Ketoglutarat-Transaminase aus Neurospora crassa" [On the beta-alanine-alpha- ... Scott, E. M; Jakoby, W. B (1959). "Soluble γ-Aminobutyric-Glutamic Transaminase from Pseudomonas fluorescens". The Journal of ... Gibson, K; Vogel, Kara; Parviz, Mahsa; Pearl, Phillip (2015). "Disorders of GABA metabolism: SSADH and GABA-transaminase ... This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically the transaminases, which transfer nitrogenous groups. The ...
*  4-aminobutyrate-pyruvate transaminase
... pyruvate transaminase (EC 2.6.1.96, aminobutyrate aminotransferase, gamma-aminobutyrate aminotransaminase, gamma-aminobutyrate ... aminobutyrate transaminase, GABA aminotransferase, GABA transaminase, GABA transferase, POP2 (gene)) is an enzyme with ... gamma-aminobutyric acid pyruvate transaminase, gamma-aminobutyric acid transaminase, gamma-aminobutyric transaminase, 4- ... and potential functions for an Arabidopsis γ-aminobutyrate transaminase that utilizes both pyruvate and glyoxylate". J. Exp. ...
*  4-aminobutyrate aminotransferase
... may refer to: 4-aminobutyrate transaminase, an enzyme 4-aminobutyrate-pyruvate transaminase, ...
*  Gamma-aminobutyric acid aminotransferase
... may refer to: 4-aminobutyrate-pyruvate transaminase, an enzyme 4-aminobutyrate ... transaminase, an enzyme. ...
*  Rosmarinic acid
... is a potential anxiolytic as it acts as a GABA transaminase inhibitor, more specifically on 4-aminobutyrate ... using an in vitro measure of GABA transaminase activity. Awad R, Muhammad A, Durst T, Trudeau VL and Arnason JT, Phytother Res ... transaminase. Rosmarinic acid also inhibits the expression of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase via its cyclooxygenase-inhibiting ... Thus, chemically, rosmarinic acid is an ester of caffeic acid with 3,4-dihydroxyphenyllactic acid, but biologically, it is ...
*  Gamma-Aminobutyric acid
GABA reuptake inhibitors: deramciclane, hyperforin, tiagabine.[citation needed] GABA-transaminase inhibitors: gabaculine, ... GABA-transaminase) deficiency Dawson RM, Elliot DC, Elliot WH, Jones KM, eds. (1959). Data for Biochemical Research. Oxford: ... transaminase genes in plants or Pseudomonas syringae reduce bacterial virulence". Plant J. 64 (2): 318-30. doi:10.1111/j.1365- ... GABA transaminase enzyme catalyzes the conversion of 4-aminobutanoic acid (GABA) and 2-oxoglutarate (α-ketoglutarate) into ...
*  List of MeSH codes (D08)
... leucine transaminase MeSH D08.811.913.477.700.550 --- l-lysine 6-transaminase MeSH D08.811.913.477.700.700 --- ornithine-oxo- ... beta-alanine-pyruvate transaminase MeSH D08.811.913.477.700.347 --- d-alanine transaminase MeSH D08.811.913.477.700.470 --- ... alanine transaminase MeSH D08.811.913.477.700.120 --- 2-aminoadipate transaminase MeSH D08.811.913.477.700.200 --- 4- ... aminobutyrate transaminase MeSH D08.811.913.477.700.225 --- aspartate aminotransferases MeSH D08.811.913.477.700.225.249 --- ...
*  GABA transaminase
... glycine GABA transaminase is targeted by multiple antiepileptic and analgesic drugs referred to as GABA transaminase inhibitors ... A GABA transaminase is an enzyme that catalyzes chemical reactions. There are two types of this enzyme: 4-aminobutyrate ... Sherif, Fathi M; Saleem Ahmed, S (1995). "Basic aspects of GABA-transaminase in neuropsychiatric disorders". Clinical ... transaminase, which catalyzes the chemical reaction: 4-aminobutanoate + 2-oxoglutarate ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } ...
*  ABAT
Rainesalo S, Saransaari P, Peltola J, Keränen T (Mar 2003). "Uptake of GABA and activity of GABA-transaminase in platelets from ... Jeremiah S, Povey S (Jul 1981). "The biochemical genetics of human gamma-aminobutyric acid transaminase". Annals of Human ... Cohen BI (Dec 2001). "GABA-transaminase, the liver and infantile autism". Medical Hypotheses. 57 (6): 673-4. doi:10.1054/mehy. ... GABA-transaminase) deficiency". Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease. 22 (4): 414-27. doi:10.1023/A:1005500122231. PMID ...
*  Gamma-aminobutyrate aminotransaminase
... may refer to: 4-aminobutyrate-pyruvate transaminase, an enzyme 4-aminobutyrate ... transaminase, an enzyme. ...
*  POP2
The Shadow and the Flame 4-aminobutyrate-pyruvate transaminase, an enzyme Pop 2 (mixtape), a 2017 mixtape by Charli XCX. ...
*  List of EC numbers (EC 2)
... aspartate transaminase EC 2.6.1.2: alanine transaminase EC 2.6.1.3: cysteine transaminase EC 2.6.1.4: glycine transaminase EC ... neamine transaminase EC 2.6.1.94: 2'-deamino-2'-hydroxyneamine transaminase EC 2.6.1.95: neomycin C transaminase EC 2.6.1.96: 4 ... aminobutyrate---pyruvate transaminase EC 2.6.1.97: archaeosine synthase EC 2.6.1.98: UDP-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-ribo-hexuluronate ... 6-trideoxyglucose transaminase EC 2.6.1.35: glycine-oxaloacetate transaminase EC 2.6.1.36: L-lysine 6-transaminase EC 2.6.1.37 ...
*  N6-acetyl-beta-lysine transaminase
In enzymology, a N6-acetyl-beta-lysine transaminase (EC 2.6.1.65) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction 6-acetamido ... This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically the transaminases, which transfer nitrogenous groups. The ... conversion of 6-N-acetyl-L-beta-lysine to 3-keto-6-acetamidohexanoate and of 4-aminobutyrate to succinic semialdehyde by ... different transaminases". Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 197 (1): 226-35. doi:10.1016/0003-9861(79)90240-6. PMID 44448. Molecular and ...
*  Succinic semialdehyde
It is formed from GABA by the action of GABA transaminase and further oxidised to become succinic acid, which enters TCA cycle ... Succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency 4-aminobutyrate aminotransferase Lide, David R. (1998), Handbook of Chemistry ...
*  Gabaculine
... a new potent inhibitor of gamma-aminobutyrate transaminase, on brain gamma-aminobutyrate content and convulsions in mice" (PDF ... Rando, Robert; Bangerter, F.W. (May 13, 1977). "The In Vivo Inhibition of GABA-transaminase by Gabaculine" (PDF). Biochemical ... gabaculine is extremely potent and toxic when compared to other GABA transaminase inhibitors, with an ED50 of 35 mg/kg and LD50 ... which acts as a potent and irreversible GABA transaminase inhibitor, and also a GABA reuptake inhibitor. Gabaculine is also ...
*  Succinate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase (NADP+)
... succinic semialdehyde transaminase gene (gabT) and characterization of the succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase gene (gabD)". J ... 2 H+ This enzyme participates in the degradation of glutamate and 4-aminobutyrate. Bartsch, K.; von Johnn-Marteville, A.; ...
*  Aminooxyacetic acid
I. The inhibition of gamma-aminobutyric acid-alpha-ketoglutaric acid transaminase in vitro and in vivo by U-7524 (amino- ... Wolfgang Löscher; Dagmar Hönack; Martina Gramer (1989). "Use of Inhibitors of γ-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) Transaminase for the ... Aminooxyacetic acid, often abbreviated AOA or AOAA, is a compound that inhibits 4-aminobutyrate aminotransferase (GABA-T) ... At concentrations high enough to fully inhibit 4-aminobutyrate aminotransferase activity, aminooxyacetic acid is indicated as a ...
Kynurenine aminotransferase 3/glutamine transaminase L/cysteine conjugate beta-lyase 2 is a major glutamine transaminase in the...  Kynurenine aminotransferase 3/glutamine transaminase L/cysteine conjugate beta-lyase 2 is a major glutamine transaminase in the...
... cysteine and aminobutyrate. The large spectrum of amino acid substrates of KAT1 and KAT3 supports the proposed role of the ... Glutamine transaminase activity assay using phenylpyruvate as a co-substrate. A glutamine transaminase activity assay using ... KAT1 is identical to glutamine transaminase K (GTK), a kidney type transaminase and cysteine conjugate beta-lyase 1 (CCBL1). ... Mouse KAT3 is a major glutamine transaminase in the kidney although it was named a liver type transaminase. ...
more infohttp://pubmedcentralcanada.ca/pmcc/articles/PMC5613967/
4-aminobutyrate transaminase - Wikipedia  4-aminobutyrate transaminase - Wikipedia
Aurich, Harald (1961). "Über die β-Alanin-α-Ketoglutarat-Transaminase aus Neurospora crassa" [On the beta-alanine-alpha- ... Scott, E. M; Jakoby, W. B (1959). "Soluble γ-Aminobutyric-Glutamic Transaminase from Pseudomonas fluorescens". The Journal of ... Gibson, K; Vogel, Kara; Parviz, Mahsa; Pearl, Phillip (2015). "Disorders of GABA metabolism: SSADH and GABA-transaminase ... This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically the transaminases, which transfer nitrogenous groups. The ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/4-aminobutyrate_transaminase
4-aminobutyrate-pyruvate transaminase - Wikipedia  4-aminobutyrate-pyruvate transaminase - Wikipedia
... pyruvate transaminase (EC 2.6.1.96, aminobutyrate aminotransferase, gamma-aminobutyrate aminotransaminase, gamma-aminobutyrate ... aminobutyrate transaminase, GABA aminotransferase, GABA transaminase, GABA transferase, POP2 (gene)) is an enzyme with ... gamma-aminobutyric acid pyruvate transaminase, gamma-aminobutyric acid transaminase, gamma-aminobutyric transaminase, 4- ... and potential functions for an Arabidopsis γ-aminobutyrate transaminase that utilizes both pyruvate and glyoxylate". J. Exp. ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/4-aminobutyrate%E2%80%94pyruvate_transaminase
gabT - 4-aminobutyrate transaminase - Bacillus megaterium (strain ATCC 14581 / DSM 32 / JCM 2506 / NBRC 15308 / NCIMB 9376 /...  gabT - 4-aminobutyrate transaminase - Bacillus megaterium (strain ATCC 14581 / DSM 32 / JCM 2506 / NBRC 15308 / NCIMB 9376 /...
tr,A0A0B6ASF7,A0A0B6ASF7_BACMB 4-aminobutyrate transaminase OS=Bacillus megaterium (strain ATCC 14581 / DSM 32 / JCM 2506 / ... 4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., ...
more infohttps://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/A0A0B6ASF7
4-Aminobutyrate aminotransferase (GABA-transaminase) deficiency - Semantic Scholar  4-Aminobutyrate aminotransferase (GABA-transaminase) deficiency - Semantic Scholar
GABA-transaminase, GABA-T, EC 2.6.1.19) deficiency (McKusick 137150), an inborn error of GABA degradation, has until now been ... A neuron-glia interaction involving GABA Transaminase contributes to sleep loss in sleepless mutants. *W Chen, Sarah E. Maguire ... Identification of a Familial Mutation Associated with GABA-Transaminase Deficiency Disease. *Lali K. Medina-Kauwe, William L. ... Essential arginine residues at the pyridoxal phosphate binding site of brain gamma-aminobutyrate aminotransferase.. *Godfrey ...
more infohttps://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/4-Aminobutyrate-aminotransferase-deficiency-Medina-Kauwe-Tobin/456181b92b5612e0ffae06bfaac9ed426d716e05
Glutamate decarboxylase - Wikipedia  Glutamate decarboxylase - Wikipedia
14 (4): 280-6. doi:10.1038/nsmb1228. PMID 17384644.. *^ a b c Battaglioli G, Liu H, Martin DL (August 2003). "Kinetic ... doi:10.1016/S1474-4422(11)70039-4. PMID 21419704.. *^ Manto MU, Hampe CS, Rogemond V, Honnorat J (February 2011). "Respective ... doi:10.1016/S1381-1177(00)00114-4.. *^ Feldblum S, Erlander MG, Tobin AJ (April 1993). "Different distributions of GAD65 and ... Several truncated transcripts and polypeptides of GAD67 are detectable in the developing brain,[4] however their function, if ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/GAD_antibodies
Tyrosine hydroxylase - Wikipedia  Tyrosine hydroxylase - Wikipedia
ISBN 978-0-470-12316-4. PMID 8638482.. *^ a b c Nagatsu T (1995). "Tyrosine hydroxylase: human isoforms, structure and ... 4 (7): 578-85. doi:10.1038/nsb0797-578. PMID 9228951.. *^ Goodwill KE, Sabatier C, Stevens RC (Sep 1998). "Crystal structure of ... 14 (4): 455-67. doi:10.2174/092986707779941023. PMID 17305546.. *^ Thöny B, Auerbach G, Blau N (Apr 2000). "Tetrahydrobiopterin ... 26 (22): 6910-4. doi:10.1021/bi00396a007. PMID 2892528.. *. Le Bourdellès B, Boularand S, Boni C, Horellou P, Dumas S, Grima B ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tyrosine_3-monooxygenase
MSMEG 2487 - 4-aminobutyrate aminotransferase - Mycobacterium smegmatis (strain ATCC 700084 / mc(2)155) - MSMEG 2487 gene &...  MSMEG 2487 - 4-aminobutyrate aminotransferase - Mycobacterium smegmatis (strain ATCC 700084 / mc(2)155) - MSMEG 2487 gene &...
PIRSF000521. Transaminase_4ab_Lys_Orn. 2 hits. Superfamily database of structural and functional annotation ... 4-aminobutyrate aminotransferaseImported. ,p>Information which has been imported from another database using automatic ... tr,A0QV88,A0QV88_MYCS2 4-aminobutyrate aminotransferase OS=Mycobacterium smegmatis (strain ATCC 700084 / mc(2)155) OX=246196 GN ... 4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., ...
more infohttp://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/A0QV88
Optimization of culture conditions for gamma-aminobutyric acid production in fermented adzuki bean milk.  Optimization of culture conditions for gamma-aminobutyric acid production in fermented adzuki bean milk.
4-aminobutyrate Transaminase. An enzyme that converts brain gamma-aminobutyric acid (GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID) into succinate ... It is an irreversible inhibitor of 4-AMINOBUTYRATE TRANSAMINASE, the enzyme responsible for the catabolism of GAMMA- ...
more infohttps://www.bioportfolio.com/resources/pmarticle/1956598/Optimization-of-culture-conditions-for-gamma-aminobutyric-acid-production-in-fermented-adzuki.html
UniProt/TrEMBL: A0A0B5ERQ5 STRA4  UniProt/TrEMBL: A0A0B5ERQ5 STRA4
DR Pfam; PF00202; Aminotran_3; 1. DR PIRSF; PIRSF000521; Transaminase_4ab_Lys_Orn; 2. DR SUPFAM; SSF53383; SSF53383; 1. DR ... DE SubName: Full=4-aminobutyrate transaminase {ECO:0000313,EMBL:AJE81965.1}; GN ORFNames=SLNWT_1589 {ECO:0000313,EMBL: ... DR GO; GO:0003867; F:4-aminobutyrate transaminase activity; IEA:InterPro. DR GO; GO:0030170; F:pyridoxal phosphate binding; IEA ...
more infohttp://www.genome.jp/dbget-bin/www_bget?tr:A0A0B5ERQ5_STRA4
UniProt/TrEMBL: O86823 STRCO  UniProt/TrEMBL: O86823 STRCO
DR Pfam; PF00202; Aminotran_3; 1. DR PIRSF; PIRSF000521; Transaminase_4ab_Lys_Orn; 2. DR SUPFAM; SSF53383; SSF53383; 1. DR ... Ontology (3) GO (3) Gene (4) KEGG ORTHOLOGY (1) KEGG GENES (1) NCBI-Gene (2) Protein sequence (2) RefSeq(pep) (2) DNA sequence ... DR GO; GO:0003867; F:4-aminobutyrate transaminase activity; IEA:InterPro. DR GO; GO:0030170; F:pyridoxal phosphate binding; IEA ... 1) EMBL (1) Protein domain (6) InterPro (4) Pfam (1) PROSITE (1) Literature (1) PubMed (1) All databases (17) Download RDF ...
more infohttp://www.genome.jp/dbget-bin/www_bget?tr:O86823_STRCO
KEGG SSDB Paralog Search Result: bpl:BURPS1106A A0396  KEGG SSDB Paralog Search Result: bpl:BURPS1106A A0396
bpl:BURPS1106A_0532 2,4-diaminobutyrate 4-transaminase K00836 450 712 ( -) 168 0.348 445 -, bpl:BURPS1106A_A2215 2,4- ... bpl:BURPS1106A_3101 beta-alanine--pyruvate transaminase K00822 442 550 ( -) 131 0.312 410 -, bpl:BURPS1106A_0412 ... diaminobutyrate 4-transaminase K00836 927 677 ( -) 160 0.340 406 -, bpl:BURPS1106A_A3154 aminotransferase, class III 448 593 ... 4-aminobutyrate transaminase; K00823 4-aminobutyrate aminotransferase. Update status:. T00480 (apre,bapi,bgg,bhan,bths,cchv,ceh ...
more infohttp://www.kegg.jp/ssdb-bin/ssdb_paralog?org_gene=bpl:BURPS1106A_A0396
KEGG T01719: GPOL c10680  KEGG T01719: GPOL c10680
2.6.1.22 (S)-3-amino-2-methylpropionate transaminase. GPOL_c10680 (gabT). 2.6.1.48 5-aminovalerate transaminase. GPOL_c10680 ( ... GABA (gamma-Aminobutyrate) shunt. Brite. KEGG Orthology (KO) [BR:gpo00001]. 09100 Metabolism. 09101 Carbohydrate metabolism. ... 3-amino-2-methylpropionate transaminase / 5-aminovalerate transaminase [EC:2.6.1.19 2.6.1.22 2.6.1.48]. ... 2.6.1 Transaminases. 2.6.1.19 4-aminobutyrate---2-oxoglutarate transaminase. GPOL_c10680 (gabT). ...
more infohttps://www.kegg.jp/dbget-bin/www_bget?gpo:GPOL_c10680
Human Metabolome Database: Showing metabocard for L-2,4-diaminobutyric acid (HMDB0006284)  Human Metabolome Database: Showing metabocard for L-2,4-diaminobutyric acid (HMDB0006284)
Catalyzes the conversion of gamma-aminobutyrate and L-beta-aminoisobutyrate to succinate semialdehyde and methylmalonate ... L-2,4-diaminobutyric acid. Description. L-3-Amino-isobutanoic acid is a component of branched-chain amino acid biosynthesis and ... 1. 4-aminobutyrate aminotransferase, mitochondrial. General function:. Involved in 4-aminobutyrate transaminase activity. ... Showing metabocard for L-2,4-diaminobutyric acid (HMDB0006284). IdentificationTaxonomyOntologyPhysical propertiesSpectra ...
more infohttp://www.hmdb.ca/metabolites/HMDB06284
ABAT 293 Cell Lysate | Abbiotec  ABAT 293 Cell Lysate | Abbiotec
GABA transaminase; (S)-3-amino-2-methylpropionate transaminase; 4-aminobutyrate aminotransferase, mitochondrial; ABAT; FLJ17813 ... GABA transferase; GABA aminotransferase; gamma-amino-N-butyrate transaminase; 4-aminobutyrate transaminase; GABA-T; L-AIBAT; ... Antigen standard for 4-aminobutyrate aminotransferase (ABAT), nuclear gene encoding mitochondrial protein, transcript variant 2 ...
more infohttps://www.abbiotec.com/lysates/abat-293-cell-lysate
Effect of NC-1100 [1-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-diphenylmethylpiperazinyl) ethanol dihydrochloride] on gamma-aminobutyric acid ...  Effect of NC-1100 [1-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-diphenylmethylpiperazinyl) ethanol dihydrochloride] on gamma-aminobutyric acid ...
4-diphenylmethylpiperazinyl) ethanol dihydrochloride] on gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) metabolism in rat brain: analysis using ... the activity of GABA-transaminase:succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase was found to be significantly reduced in the cerebellum ... Mesh terms: 4-Aminobutyrate Transaminase/metabolism; Amino Acids/metabolism; Animals; Brain/drug effects; Cerebrovascular ... Amino Acids, Glutamate Decarboxylase, Nerve Tissue Proteins, 4-Aminobutyrate Transaminase, Vasodilator Agents, tamolarizine, ...
more infohttps://muscimol.xyz/2770051
Find Research Outputs
             - Fujita Health University  Find Research Outputs - Fujita Health University
Nabeshima, T., Sivam, S. P. & Ho, I. K., 17-09-1984, In : European Journal of Pharmacology. 104, 3-4, p. 211-221 11 p.. ... Kameyama, T., Nabeshima, T., Kamei, H. & Matsuno, K., 04-02-1985, In : Neuroscience Letters. 53, 3, p. 263-266 4 p.. Research ... Nabeshima, T., Yamada, K. & Kameyama, T., 02-09-1983, In : European Journal of Pharmacology. 92, 3-4, p. 199-205 7 p.. Research ... Fontenot, H. J., Wilson, R. D. & Nabeshima, T., 01-01-1983, In : Research Communications in Substances of Abuse. 4, 2, p. 164- ...
more infohttps://pure.fujita-hu.ac.jp/en/publications/?format=&page=180
2-oxoglutarate regulates binding of hydroxylated hypoxia-inducible factor to prolyl hydroxylase domain 2<...  2-oxoglutarate regulates binding of hydroxylated hypoxia-inducible factor to prolyl hydroxylase domain 2<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - 2-oxoglutarate regulates binding of hydroxylated hypoxia-inducible factor to prolyl hydroxylase domain 2. AU - Domene,Carmen. AU - Abboud,Martine I.. AU - McAllister,Tom E. AU - Leung,Ivanhoe K. H.. AU - Chowdhury,Rasheduzzaman. AU - Jorgensen,Christian. AU - Mecinović,Jasmin. AU - Lippl,Kerstin. AU - Hancock,Rebecca L. AU - Hopkinson,Richard J. AU - Kawamura,Akane. AU - Claridge,Timothy D.W.. AU - Schofield,Christopher J.. PY - 2018/3/9. Y1 - 2018/3/9. N2 - Prolyl hydroxylation of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-α, as catalysed by the Fe(II)/2-oxoglutarate (2OG)-dependent prolyl hydroxylase domain (PHD) enzymes, has a hypoxia sensing role in animals. We report that binding of prolyl-hydroxylated HIF-α to PHD2 is ~50 fold hindered by prior 2OG binding; thus, when 2OG is limiting, HIF-α degradation might be inhibited by PHD binding. AB - Prolyl hydroxylation of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-α, as catalysed by the Fe(II)/2-oxoglutarate (2OG)-dependent prolyl hydroxylase domain ...
more infohttps://researchportal.bath.ac.uk/en/publications/2-oxoglutarate-regulates-binding-of-hydroxylated-hypoxia-inducibl
Bruce E Dale - Publications
     - MSU Scholars  Bruce E Dale - Publications - MSU Scholars
Kim, S. & Dale, B. E. Jul 1 2015 In : Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining. 9, 4, p. 422-434 13 p.. Research output: ... Dale, B. E. & Ong, R. G. 2014 In : Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining. 8, 4, p. 487-503 17 p.. Research output: Contribution ... 4 others Landick, R., Piotrowski, J., Ong, R. G. & Zhang, Y. Nov 14 2015 In : Biotechnology for Biofuels. 8, 1, 356. Research ... 4, p. 341-345 5 p.. Research output: Contribution to journal › Article ...
more infohttps://scholars.opb.msu.edu/en/persons/bruce-e-dale-2/publications/?type=%2Fdk%2Fatira%2Fpure%2Fresearchoutput%2Fresearchoutputtypes%2Fcontributiontojournal%2Farticle
Tyrosine hydroxylase  Tyrosine hydroxylase
4 (7): 578-85. doi:10.1038/nsb0797-578. PMID 9228951.. *↑ Goodwill KE, Sabatier C, Stevens RC (Sep 1998). "Crystal structure of ... 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Haavik J, Toska K (Jun 1998). "Tyrosine hydroxylase and Parkinson's disease". Molecular Neurobiology. 16 (3): 285 ... 14 (4): 455-67. doi:10.2174/092986707779941023. PMID 17305546.. *↑ Thöny B, Auerbach G, Blau N (Apr 2000). "Tetrahydrobiopterin ... ISBN 978-0-470-12316-4. PMID 8638482.. *1 2 3 Nagatsu T (1995). "Tyrosine hydroxylase: human isoforms, structure and regulation ...
more infohttps://ipfs.io/ipfs/QmXoypizjW3WknFiJnKLwHCnL72vedxjQkDDP1mXWo6uco/wiki/Tyrosine_hydroxylase_inhibitor.html
  • Effect of NC-1100 [1-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-diphenylmethylpiperazinyl) ethanol dihydrochloride] on gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) metabolism in rat brain: analysis using stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rat. (muscimol.xyz)
  • Several truncated transcripts and polypeptides of GAD 67 are detectable in the developing brain, [4] however their function, if any, is unknown. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tyrosine hydroxylase catalyzes the reaction in which L -tyrosine is hydroxylated in the meta position to obtain L -3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine ( L -DOPA). (wikipedia.org)