4,4'-Diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-Disulfonic Acid: An inhibitor of anion conductance including band 3-mediated anion transport.4-Acetamido-4'-isothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic Acid: A non-penetrating amino reagent (commonly called SITS) which acts as an inhibitor of anion transport in erythrocytes and other cells.Chloride Channels: Cell membrane glycoproteins that form channels to selectively pass chloride ions. Nonselective blockers include FENAMATES; ETHACRYNIC ACID; and TAMOXIFEN.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Chlorides: Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain: A disorder characterized by a reduction of oxygen in the blood combined with reduced blood flow (ISCHEMIA) to the brain from a localized obstruction of a cerebral artery or from systemic hypoperfusion. Prolonged hypoxia-ischemia is associated with ISCHEMIC ATTACK, TRANSIENT; BRAIN INFARCTION; BRAIN EDEMA; COMA; and other conditions.Bicarbonates: Inorganic salts that contain the -HCO3 radical. They are an important factor in determining the pH of the blood and the concentration of bicarbonate ions is regulated by the kidney. Levels in the blood are an index of the alkali reserve or buffering capacity.Chloride-Bicarbonate Antiporters: Electroneutral chloride bicarbonate exchangers that allow the exchange of BICARBONATE IONS exchange for CHLORIDE IONS across the cellular membrane. The action of specific antiporters in this class serve important functions such as allowing the efficient exchange of bicarbonate across red blood cell membranes as they passage through capillaries and the reabsorption of bicarbonate ions by the kidney.Nitric Oxide Synthase: An NADPH-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-ARGININE and OXYGEN to produce CITRULLINE and NITRIC OXIDE.Dementia, Vascular: An imprecise term referring to dementia associated with CEREBROVASCULAR DISORDERS, including CEREBRAL INFARCTION (single or multiple), and conditions associated with chronic BRAIN ISCHEMIA. Diffuse, cortical, and subcortical subtypes have been described. (From Gerontol Geriatr 1998 Feb;31(1):36-44)4,4'-Diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-Disulfonic Acid: An inhibitor of anion conductance including band 3-mediated anion transport.Chlorides: Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.4-Acetamido-4'-isothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic Acid: A non-penetrating amino reagent (commonly called SITS) which acts as an inhibitor of anion transport in erythrocytes and other cells.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Bromine Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain bromine as an integral part of the molecule.PhloretinErythrocyte Membrane: The semi-permeable outer structure of a red blood cell. It is known as a red cell 'ghost' after HEMOLYSIS.Anion Exchange Protein 1, Erythrocyte: A major integral transmembrane protein of the ERYTHROCYTE MEMBRANE. It is the anion exchanger responsible for electroneutral transporting in CHLORIDE IONS in exchange of BICARBONATE IONS allowing CO2 uptake and transport from tissues to lungs by the red blood cells. Genetic mutations that result in a loss of the protein function have been associated with type 4 HEREDITARY SPHEROCYTOSIS.Chloride Channels: Cell membrane glycoproteins that form channels to selectively pass chloride ions. Nonselective blockers include FENAMATES; ETHACRYNIC ACID; and TAMOXIFEN.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Bartter Syndrome: A group of disorders caused by defective salt reabsorption in the ascending LOOP OF HENLE. It is characterized by severe salt-wasting, HYPOKALEMIA; HYPERCALCIURIA; metabolic ALKALOSIS, and hyper-reninemic HYPERALDOSTERONISM without HYPERTENSION. There are several subtypes including ones due to mutations in the renal specific SODIUM-POTASSIUM-CHLORIDE SYMPORTERS.Hyperaldosteronism: A condition caused by the overproduction of ALDOSTERONE. It is characterized by sodium retention and potassium excretion with resultant HYPERTENSION and HYPOKALEMIA.Hypokalemia: Abnormally low potassium concentration in the blood. It may result from potassium loss by renal secretion or by the gastrointestinal route, as by vomiting or diarrhea. It may be manifested clinically by neuromuscular disorders ranging from weakness to paralysis, by electrocardiographic abnormalities (depression of the T wave and elevation of the U wave), by renal disease, and by gastrointestinal disorders. (Dorland, 27th ed)Syndrome: A characteristic symptom complex.Sodium-Potassium-Chloride Symporters: A subclass of symporters that specifically transport SODIUM CHLORIDE and/or POTASSIUM CHLORIDE across cellular membranes in a tightly coupled process.Renal Tubular Transport, Inborn Errors: Genetic defects in the selective or non-selective transport functions of the KIDNEY TUBULES.Potassium Channels, Calcium-Activated: Potassium channels whose activation is dependent on intracellular calcium concentrations.Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Solute Carrier Family 12, Member 1: Na-K-Cl transporter in the ASCENDING LIMB OF LOOP OF HENLE. It mediates active reabsorption of sodium chloride and is inhibited by LOOP DIURETICS such as FUROSEMIDE; and BUMETANIDE. Mutations in the gene encoding SLC12A1 are associated with a BARTTER SYNDROME.Hypercalciuria: Excretion of abnormally high level of CALCIUM in the URINE, greater than 4 mg/kg/day.Chlorides: Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.Chloride-Bicarbonate Antiporters: Electroneutral chloride bicarbonate exchangers that allow the exchange of BICARBONATE IONS exchange for CHLORIDE IONS across the cellular membrane. The action of specific antiporters in this class serve important functions such as allowing the efficient exchange of bicarbonate across red blood cell membranes as they passage through capillaries and the reabsorption of bicarbonate ions by the kidney.Bicarbonates: Inorganic salts that contain the -HCO3 radical. They are an important factor in determining the pH of the blood and the concentration of bicarbonate ions is regulated by the kidney. Levels in the blood are an index of the alkali reserve or buffering capacity.Exocrine Glands: Glands of external secretion that release its secretions to the body's cavities, organs, or surface, through a duct.Antiporters: Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the opposite direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Electrolytes: Substances that dissociate into two or more ions, to some extent, in water. Solutions of electrolytes thus conduct an electric current and can be decomposed by it (ELECTROLYSIS). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Membrane Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.4,4'-Diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-Disulfonic Acid: An inhibitor of anion conductance including band 3-mediated anion transport.Chloride Channels: Cell membrane glycoproteins that form channels to selectively pass chloride ions. Nonselective blockers include FENAMATES; ETHACRYNIC ACID; and TAMOXIFEN.Chlorides: Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Ion Channels: Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Ion Channel Gating: The opening and closing of ion channels due to a stimulus. The stimulus can be a change in membrane potential (voltage-gated), drugs or chemical transmitters (ligand-gated), or a mechanical deformation. Gating is thought to involve conformational changes of the ion channel which alters selective permeability.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Cell Membrane Permeability: A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Invertebrates: Animals that have no spinal column.Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Central Nervous System: The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.Vertebrates: Animals having a vertebral column, members of the phylum Chordata, subphylum Craniata comprising mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fishes.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Protoporphyrins: Porphyrins with four methyl, two vinyl, and two propionic acid side chains attached to the pyrrole rings. Protoporphyrin IX occurs in hemoglobin, myoglobin, and most of the cytochromes.Estrone: An aromatized C18 steroid with a 3-hydroxyl group and a 17-ketone, a major mammalian estrogen. It is converted from ANDROSTENEDIONE directly, or from TESTOSTERONE via ESTRADIOL. In humans, it is produced primarily by the cyclic ovaries, PLACENTA, and the ADIPOSE TISSUE of men and postmenopausal women.Organic Anion Transporters, Sodium-Independent: A subclass of ORGANIC ANION TRANSPORTERS that do not rely directly or indirectly upon sodium ion gradients for the transport of organic ions.Cimetidine: A histamine congener, it competitively inhibits HISTAMINE binding to HISTAMINE H2 RECEPTORS. Cimetidine has a range of pharmacological actions. It inhibits GASTRIC ACID secretion, as well as PEPSIN and GASTRIN output.Sulfasalazine: A drug that is used in the management of inflammatory bowel diseases. Its activity is generally considered to lie in its metabolic breakdown product, 5-aminosalicylic acid (see MESALAMINE) released in the colon. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p907)Methotrexate: An antineoplastic antimetabolite with immunosuppressant properties. It is an inhibitor of TETRAHYDROFOLATE DEHYDROGENASE and prevents the formation of tetrahydrofolate, necessary for synthesis of thymidylate, an essential component of DNA.Taurocholic Acid: The product of conjugation of cholic acid with taurine. Its sodium salt is the chief ingredient of the bile of carnivorous animals. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is used as a cholagogue and cholerectic.Tetrahydrofolates: Compounds based on 5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolate.Isotope Labeling: Techniques for labeling a substance with a stable or radioactive isotope. It is not used for articles involving labeled substances unless the methods of labeling are substantively discussed. Tracers that may be labeled include chemical substances, cells, or microorganisms.Deuteroporphyrins: Porphyrins with four methyl and two propionic acid side chains attached to the pyrrole rings.Skates (Fish): The common name for all members of the Rajidae family. Skates and rays are members of the same order (Rajiformes). Skates have weak electric organs.Sulfobromophthalein: A phenolphthalein that is used as a diagnostic aid in hepatic function determination.Organic Anion Transporters, Sodium-Independent: A subclass of ORGANIC ANION TRANSPORTERS that do not rely directly or indirectly upon sodium ion gradients for the transport of organic ions.Xenopus laevis: The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.Organic Anion Transport Protein 1: A polyspecific transporter for organic cations found primarily in the kidney. It mediates the coupled exchange of alpha-ketoglutarate with organic ions such as P-AMINOHIPPURIC ACID.Organic Anion Transporters: Proteins involved in the transport of organic anions. They play an important role in the elimination of a variety of endogenous substances, xenobiotics and their metabolites from the body.Serum Albumin, Bovine: Serum albumin from cows, commonly used in in vitro biological studies. (From Stedman, 25th ed)p-Aminohippuric Acid: The glycine amide of 4-aminobenzoic acid. Its sodium salt is used as a diagnostic aid to measure effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) and excretory capacity.Chlorides: Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.Oocytes: Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Hepatocytes: The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Erythrocyte Deformability: Ability of ERYTHROCYTES to change shape as they pass through narrow spaces, such as the microvasculature.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Erythrocytes, Abnormal: Oxygen-carrying RED BLOOD CELLS in mammalian blood that are abnormal in structure or function.Ice: The solid substance formed by the FREEZING of water.Anemia, Macrocytic: Anemia characterized by larger than normal erythrocytes, increased mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and increased mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH).Cations: Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Erythrocyte Membrane: The semi-permeable outer structure of a red blood cell. It is known as a red cell 'ghost' after HEMOLYSIS.Buffers: A chemical system that functions to control the levels of specific ions in solution. When the level of hydrogen ion in solution is controlled the system is called a pH buffer.Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Voltage-Dependent Anion Channels: A family of voltage-gated eukaryotic porins that form aqueous channels. They play an essential role in mitochondrial CELL MEMBRANE PERMEABILITY, are often regulated by BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS, and have been implicated in APOPTOSIS.Voltage-Dependent Anion Channel 1: Voltage-dependent anion channel 1 is the major pore-forming protein of the mitochondrial outer membrane. It also functions as a ferricyanide reductase in the PLASMA MEMBRANE.Voltage-Dependent Anion Channel 2: Voltage-dependent anion channel 2 is a low abundance mammalian isoform of VDAC that interacts with the inactive form of BAK PROTEIN.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Hexokinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and a D-hexose to ADP and a D-hexose 6-phosphate. D-Glucose, D-mannose, D-fructose, sorbitol, and D-glucosamine can act as acceptors; ITP and dATP can act as donors. The liver isoenzyme has sometimes been called glucokinase. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.1.1.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Porins: Porins are protein molecules that were originally found in the outer membrane of GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA and that form multi-meric channels for the passive DIFFUSION of WATER; IONS; or other small molecules. Porins are present in bacterial CELL WALLS, as well as in plant, fungal, mammalian and other vertebrate CELL MEMBRANES and MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANES.Mitochondria, Liver: Mitochondria in hepatocytes. As in all mitochondria, there are an outer membrane and an inner membrane, together creating two separate mitochondrial compartments: the internal matrix space and a much narrower intermembrane space. In the liver mitochondrion, an estimated 67% of the total mitochondrial proteins is located in the matrix. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p343-4)Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2: Membrane proteins encoded by the BCL-2 GENES and serving as potent inhibitors of cell death by APOPTOSIS. The proteins are found on mitochondrial, microsomal, and NUCLEAR MEMBRANE sites within many cell types. Overexpression of bcl-2 proteins, due to a translocation of the gene, is associated with follicular lymphoma.Mitochondrial Membranes: The two lipoprotein layers in the MITOCHONDRION. The outer membrane encloses the entire mitochondrion and contains channels with TRANSPORT PROTEINS to move molecules and ions in and out of the organelle. The inner membrane folds into cristae and contains many ENZYMES important to cell METABOLISM and energy production (MITOCHONDRIAL ATP SYNTHASE).Daucus carota: A plant species of the family APIACEAE that is widely cultivated for the edible yellow-orange root. The plant has finely divided leaves and flat clusters of small white flowers.Citric Acid: A key intermediate in metabolism. It is an acid compound found in citrus fruits. The salts of citric acid (citrates) can be used as anticoagulants due to their calcium chelating ability.CitratesNephrolithiasis: Formation of stones in the KIDNEY.Kidney Calculi: Stones in the KIDNEY, usually formed in the urine-collecting area of the kidney (KIDNEY PELVIS). Their sizes vary and most contains CALCIUM OXALATE.Citrate (si)-Synthase: Enzyme that catalyzes the first step of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (CITRIC ACID CYCLE). It catalyzes the reaction of oxaloacetate and acetyl CoA to form citrate and coenzyme A. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 4.1.3.7.Niflumic Acid: An analgesic and anti-inflammatory agent used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.Calcium Oxalate: The calcium salt of oxalic acid, occurring in the urine as crystals and in certain calculi.Anions: Negatively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the anode or positive pole during electrolysis.Sesquiterpenes, Guaiane: SESQUITERPENES cyclized into two adjoining rings, one being 7-carbons and the other is 5-carbons.
*  List of MeSH codes (D02)
... disulfonic acid MeSH D02.455.426.559.389.150.700.550 --- stilbamidines MeSH D02.455.426.559.389.150.700.900 --- tamoxifen MeSH ... diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid MeSH D02.500.375.250 --- fluorescein-5-isothiocyanate MeSH D02.500.375.625 --- 1- ... edetic acid MeSH D02.241.081.038.455 --- egtazic acid MeSH D02.241.081.038.581 --- iodoacetic acid MeSH D02.241.081.038.581.400 ... muramic acids MeSH D02.241.081.844.562 --- neuraminic acids MeSH D02.241.081.844.562.668 --- sialic acids MeSH D02.241.081.844. ...
Disodium 4,4-bis[(4-anilino-6-methoxy-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)amino]stilbene-2,2-disulphonate 3426-43-5 NMR spectrum, Disodium 4,4-bis[(4-anilino-6-methoxy-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)amino]stilbene-2,2-disulphonate H-NMR spectral analysis, Disodium 4,4-bis[(4-anilino-6-methoxy-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)amino]stilbene-2,2-disulphonate C-NMR spectral analysis ect.
Irreversible inhibition, 99.8% of control values for chloride transport in human red blood cells, was obtained by well-established methods of maximum covalent binding of 4,4-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2-disulfonic acid (DIDS). The kinetics of the residual chloride transport (0.2%, 106 pmol.cm-2 x s-1) at 38 degrees C, pH 7.2) was studied by means of 36Cl- efflux. The outside apparent affinity, expressed by Ko1/2,c, was 34 mM, as determined by substituting external KCl by sucrose. The residual flux was reversibly inhibited by a reexposure to DIDS, and by 4,4-dinitrostilbene-2,2-disulfonate (DNDS), phloretin, salicylate, and alpha-bromo-4-hydroxy-3,5-dinitroacetophenone (Killer III) (Borders, C. L., Jr., D. M. Perez, M. W. Lafferty, A. J. Kondow, J. Brahm, M. B. Fenderson, G. L. Breisford, and V. B. Pett. 1989. Bioorganic Chemistry. 17:96-107), to approximately 0.001% of control cells, which is a flux as low as in lipid bilayers. The reversible DIDS inhibition of the residual chloride flux ...
Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion is believed to cause white matter lesions (WMLs), leading to cognitive impairment. Previous studies have shown that inflammation and apoptosis of oligodendrocytes (OLs) are involved in the pathogenesis of WMLs, but effective treatments have not been studied. In this study, 4,4-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2-disulfonic acid (DIDS), a chloride (Cl−) channel blocker, was injected into chronic cerebral ischemia-hypoxia rat models at different time points. Our results showed that DIDS significantly reduced the elevated mRNA levels and protein expression of chloride channel 2 (ClC-2) in neonatal rats induced by ischemia-hypoxia. Meanwhile, DIDS application significantly decreased the concentrations of reactive oxygen species (ROS); and the mRNA levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha TNF-α in neonatal rats with hypoxic-ischemic damage. Myelin staining was weaker in neonatal rats with hypoxic-ischemic damage compared to normal controls
In rat peritoneal mast cells, we have investigated the influence of the chloride transport blocker 4,4-diisothiocyanato-stilbene-2,2-disulfonic acid (DIDS) and the extracellular chloride concentration on the chloride current induced by intracellular application of cyclic AMP (cAMP) and on hexosaminidase secretion from intact cells stimulated with compound 48/80. The inhibition of the Cl-current by extracellular DIDS is voltage and time dependent. Upon depolarization from -10 to +70 mV, the outward current diminishes with millisecond kinetics. The size of the steady state current and the time constant of the decrease both decrease with increasing DIDS concentrations. The steady state current at +70 mV is blocked by DIDS with an IC50 of 2.3 microM. The number of open channels at -10 mV is reduced with an IC50 of 22 microM. The electrophysiological and pharmacological properties of this current are most similar to those of the Cl- current in T lymphocytes activated by osmotic stress (Lewis, R. ...
4,4-diisothiocyano-trans-stilbene-2,2-disulfonic acid 53005-05-3 route of synthesis, 4,4-diisothiocyano-trans-stilbene-2,2-disulfonic acid chemical synthesis methods, 4,4-diisothiocyano-trans-stilbene-2,2-disulfonic acid synthetic routes ect.
Intracellular potentials of BSC-1 kidney epithelial cells known to express a Na+-HCO3- symport ranged between -40 and -70 mV, mean value Vm = -55.1 +/- 10.1 mV. Lowering HCO3- at constant partial pressure of CO2 (PCO2) or complete removal of HCO3-/CO2, rapidly depolarized, whereas readding HCO3- hyperpolarized Vm (40 +/- 8 mV/decade HCO3- at constant PCO2). This response was largely reduced by 1 mM 4,4-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2-disulfonic acid (DIDS) (which depolarized Vm to about -20 mV) and in Na+-free medium, but Ba2+ had no effect. In HCO3(-)-Ringer, Na+ removal rapidly depolarized Vm (by 32 +/- 7 mV), and readdition hyperpolarized Vm. This was reduced in HCO3(-)-free medium or by 1 mM DIDS, but not by amiloride (10(-5) and 10(-3) M) or ouabain (10(-4) M). In the absence of HCO3- and/or Na+, steady-state Vm was reduced to -12 +/- 5 mV. Cl- removal had no effect on the responses to Na+ and/or HCO3- and led to a slow steady-state depolarization. Both in the presence and absence of HCO3-, ...
4,4-Bis[(4,6-diamino-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)amino]stilbene-2,2-disulfonic acid/ACM10586079 can be provided in Alfa Chemistry. We are dedicated to provide our customers the best products and services.
120-98-9 - HTYRTGGIOAMLRR-UHFFFAOYSA-N - 5-Amino-4-hydroxybenzene-1,3-disulphonic acid - Similar structures search, synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information.
Microvillous membrane vesicles from the term human placental syncytiotrophoblast were used to characterize further the properties of a transport mechanism for bile acids. Taurocholate (TC) uptake into an osmotically reactive intravesicular space was temperature dependent and independent of sodium. TC uptake (2 microM) was markedly inhibited by 250 microM taurine and glycine-conjugated cholate and chenodeoxycholate and unconjugated cholate but not by chenodeoxycholate, deoxycholate, etianic acid, bromosulfophthalein, pyruvate, lactate, alanine, or taurine. The initial rate of TC uptake was inhibited significantly by the anion transport inhibitor 4,4-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2-disulfonic acid (DIDS) but was not inhibited significantly by 4-acetamido-4-isothiocyanostilbene-2,2-disulfonic acid, amiloride, or furosemide. Preincubation of vesicles with DIDS in the presence of TC partially blocked the action of the inhibitor. Efflux of 5 microM TC from membrane vesicles was stimulated by the ...
We developed convenient synthetic routes for the preparation of para-benzene disulfonic acid (H2BDS) and its tetrachloro (H2BDSCl4) and tetrafluoro (H2BDSF4) derivatives. The reaction of these acids with zinc nitrate in DMF led to single crystals of [Zn(BDS)(DMF)2] (triclinic, P [[1 with combining macron]] , Z ...
The present invention provides for a system and two methods for forming electrically conductive pathways. These pathways can be connected with a microchip in order to form a radio frequency identification tag. A first method uses a thermal transfer ribbon, coated with a conductive material that is engaged with a receiver substrate. A thermal print head will heat a composition on the thermal transfer ribbon in order to transfer it to the receiver substrate. This transfer composition forms the electrically conductive pathway or antenna. In an alternative method, a receiver substrate is heated in order to react conductive material thereon. This receiver substrate is also heated by a thermal print head to form an electrically conductive pathway.
Introduction: Adult hearts contain c-Kit+ endogenous cardiac stem cells (eCSCs) that are being studied for regenerative therapy. eCSCs express volume-dependent Cl- channels (ICl,vol) activated under hemodynamic stress. Here, we examined the changes in eCSC Cl- channels caused by experimental congestive heart failure (CHF).. Methods: c-Kit+ eCSCs isolated from healthy (CTL) and CHF (tachypaced) dog hearts were magnetically purified with c-Kit antibodies. Cl- channel expression in freshly isolated cells was studied with patch clamp and qPCR.. Results: Under isotonic conditions, ionic currents were barely detectable in CTL eCSCs (Fig. A). The current observed was time-independent and reversed at values close to the calculated Cl- equilibrium potential (ECl-≈ -40 mV). This current was insensitive to TEA-Cl but inhibited by the Cl- channel blocker DIDS. When cells were superfused with hypo-osmotic solution (0.7T), an outward current with unchanged reversal potential was activated, and completely ...
The effect of isoproterenol on the electrophysiological properties of the S2 proximal segment of the rabbit was examined. Isoproterenol at 10(-8) to 10(-4) M depolarized the basolateral membrane voltage (Vb) in a dose-dependent manner. Propranolol attenuated the isoproterenol-induced depolarization. These possible mechanisms of cell depolarization were explored. The role of luminal Na(+)-organic solute cotransport was negligible, since the removal of organic solute did not change the depolarization. Basolateral Na(+)-(HCO3-) cotransport was supported by the finding that 4,4-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2-disulfonic acid inhibited isoproterenol-induced depolarization. Basolateral K+ conductance was suggested by the finding that the application of Ba2+ blocked the isoproterenol-induced depolarization. Na(+)-K(+)-adenosine-triphosphatase (ATPase) was questionable. Although ouabain blocked isoproterenol-induced depolarization, the removal of Na+ did not inhibit the depolarization. Further experiment ...
phacolysin: cpd not in Chemline 7/14/83; RN in 9th CI Form Index for 5,12-dihydroquinoxalino(2,3-b)phenazine-2,9-disulfonic acid (phacolysin in Negwer, 5th ed, #3514; MF=C18H12N4O6S2): 1790-56-3; different structure given for phacolysin in UD 24:43a (C21H17NO6S2) than in Negwer, 5th ed, #3514
Tea plant is known to be a hyper-accumulator of fluoride (F). Over-intake of F has been shown to have adverse effects on human health, e.g., dental fluorosis. Thus, understanding the mechanisms fluoride accumulation and developing potential approaches to decrease F uptake in tea plants might be beneficial for human health. In the present study, we found that pretreatment with the anion channel inhibitor NPPB reduced F accumulation in tea plants. Simultaneously, we observed that NPPB triggered Ca2+ efflux from mature zone of tea root and significantly increased relative CaM in tea roots. Besides, pretreatment with the Ca2+ chelator (EGTA) and CaM antagonists (CPZ and TFP) suppressed NPPB-elevated cytosolic Ca2+ fluorescence intensity and CaM concentration in tea roots, respectively. Interestingly, NPPB-inhibited F accumulation was found to be significantly alleviated in tea plants pretreated with either Ca2+ chelator (EGTA) or CaM antagonists (CPZ and TFP). In addition, NPPB significantly depolarized
To identify the sinusoidal bile acid uptake system(s) of skate liver, photoaffinity labeling and kinetic transport studies were performed in isolated plasma membranes as well as intact hepatocytes. In both preparations photoaffinity labeling with the photolabile bile salt derivative (7,7-azo-3 alpha, 12 alpha-dihydroxy-5 beta-[3 beta-3H]cholan-24-oyl)-2-aminoethanesulfonate revealed the presence of a predominant bile salt binding polypeptide with an apparent molecular weight of 54,000. The labeling of this polypeptide was inhibited by taurocholate and cholate in a concentration-dependent manner and was virtually abolished by 1 mM of the anion transport inhibitor 4,4-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2-disulfonic acid. Kinetic studies of hepatic uptake with taurocholate, cholate, and the photoreactive bile salt derivative indicated the involvement of a single transport system, and all three substrates mutually competed with the uptake of each other. Finally, irreversible inhibition of the bile salt ...
We used the pH-sensitive fluorescent dye BCECF to study intracellular pH (pHi) regulation in primary cultures of rat astrocytes and C6 glioma cells. Both cell types contain three pH-regulating transporters: (1) alkalinizing Na+/H+ exchange; (2) alkalinizing Na+ + HCO3 −/Cl−exchange; and (3) acidifying Cl−/HCO3− exchange. Na+/H+ exchange was most evident in the absence of CO2; recovery from acidification was Na+ dependent and amiloride sensitive. Exposure to CO2 caused a cell alkalinization that was inhibited by DIDS, dependent on external Na+, and inhibited 75% in the absence of Cl− (thus mediated by Na+ + HCO3−/Cl− exchange). When pHi was increased above the normal steady-state pHi, a DIDS-inhibitable and Na+ -independent acidifying recovery was evident, indicating the presence of Cl− /HCO3−exchange. Astrocytes, but not C6 cells, contain a fourth pH-regulating transporter, Na+ −HCO3− cotransport; in the presence of CO2, depolarization caused an alkalinization of 0.12 +− 0.01 (n
A list of famous quotations and authors that contain the term 1,2-dihydroxybenzene-3,5-disulfonic acid disodium salt - from the Quotes.net website.
Journal: Trends Biotechnol. Trans-resveratrol is a phenolic plant compound that has been recognized for its benefits on human health. Currently, increasing demand for trans-resveratrol for nutraceutical, cosmetic, and putatively pharmaceutic uses makes its production from sustainable sourcing a necessity. In this context, the use of biotechnology through recombinant microorganisms and plant cell suspensions is particularly promising because it represents a reliable alternative method of trans-resveratrol production under controlled conditions. Tailoring yeast or bacteria with genes that encode enzymes of the trans-resveratrol pathway and further elicitation of plant-cell metabolism might represent powerful strategies for increased trans-resveratrol bioproduction. This review aims at describing and comparing these different available methods, with a focus on their respective advantages, limits and perspectives as a basis for scale-up in large culture volumes.. post to: CiteULike ...
17513-39-2 - MQEFUMUDBDZXHE-UHFFFAOYSA-N - Benz(a)anthracene-7(12H)-one, 12-hydroxy-12-methyl- - Similar structures search, synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information.
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Stilbene derivatives of the formula ##STR1## wherein X is chlorine or bromine, R|sub|1|/sub| is hydrogen, carboxyl, cyano, C|sub|1|/sub| -C|sub|6|/sub| -alkyl or a non-chromophorically esterified carb
A new distilbene compound, 4,4-dichloromercuric-2,2,2,2-bistilbene tetrasulfonic acid (DCMBT), has been synthesized for use in studies of anion and water transport in the human red cell. DCMBT combines features of both the specific stilbene anion transport inhibitor, DIDS, and the mercurial water transport inhibitor, pCMBS. This new compound inhibits anion transport almost completely with a Ki of 15 microM. DCMBT also inhibits water transport by about 15-20% with a Ki of about 8 microM. Treatment of red cells with DIDS inhibits the effect of DCMBT on water transport, suggesting that anion transport and water transport are mediated by the same protein ...
Sicherheitshinweise: P261-P280a-P305+P351+P338-P304+P340-P405-P501a Avoid breathing dust/fume/gas/mist/vapours/spray. Wear protective gloves and eye/face protection. IF IN EYES: Rinse cautiously with water for several minutes. Remove contact lenses, if present and easy to do. Continue rinsing. IF INHALED: Remove to fresh air and keep at rest in a position comfortable for breathing. Store locked up. Dispose of contents/container in accordance with local/regional/national/international regulations. ...
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The mechanism(s) and driving forces for biliary excretion of sulfate were investigated in canalicular rat liver plasma membrane vesicles (cLPM). Incubation of cLPM vesicles in the presence of an inside-to-outside (in, out) bicarbonate gradient (50 mM in, 5 mM out, pH 8.0 in and out), but not pH (pH 8.0 in, 6.0 out) or out-to-in sodium gradients, stimulated sulfate uptake 10-fold compared with the absence of bicarbonate and approximately 2-fold above sulfate equilibrium ("overshoot"). Initial rates of this bicarbonate gradient-driven sulfate uptake were saturable with increasing concentrations of sulfate (apparent Km, approximately 0.3 mM) and could be inhibited by probenecid, N-(4-azido-2-nitrophenyl)-2-aminoethylsulfonate, acetazolamide, furosemide,4-acetamido-4-isothiocyanostilbene-2,2-disulfonic acid, and 4,4-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2-disulfonic acid (IC50, approximately 40 microM). Cisinhibition of initial bicarbonate gradient-stimulated sulfate uptake and transstimulation of sulfate ...
4,4-Diisothiocyano-2,2-stilbenedisulfonic acid (DIDS) is an anion exchange inhibitor, blocking reversibly, and later irreversibly, exchangers such as chloride-bicarbonate exchanger. Jessen, Flemming; Sjøholm, C; Hoffmann, EK (1986), "Identification of the anion exchange protein of ehrlich cells: A kinetic analysis of the inhibitory effects of 4,4′-diisothiocyano-2,2′-stilbene-disulfonic acid (DIDS) and labeling of membrane proteins with3H-DIDS", Journal of Membrane Biology, 92 (3): 195, doi:10.1007/BF01869388, PMID 3783658 Lane, Michelle; Baltz, Jay M.; Bavister, Barry D. (1999), "Bicarbonate/Chloride Exchange Regulates Intracellular pH of Embryos but Not Oocytes of the Hamster", Biology of Reproduction, 61 (2): 452-457, doi:10.1095/biolreprod61.2.452, PMID 10411526 ...
In the present study, we first characterized the biophysical and pharmacological properties of a volume-regulated inwardly rectifying Cl− current, ICl.ir, in mammalian heart. In both atrial and ventricular myocytes of mouse and guinea pig heart, ICl.ir activated slowly on hyperpolarization with a biexponential time course. The current was very sensitive to changes in cell volume. Whereas hypertonic cell shrinkage diminished the current, hypotonic cell swelling increased the current and accelerated the activation kinetics. ICl.ir exhibited strong inward rectification with a reversal potential close to the estimated ECl in symmetrical Cl− and physiological asymmetrical Cl− conditions. The anion selectivity sequence of ICl.ir was Cl−,I−≫Asp−. Although ICl.ir was strongly blocked by Cd2+ and the carboxylic acid derivative, 9-AC, it was not sensitive to inhibition by effective blockers of ICl.vol such as TMX and the disulfonic stilbene derivative, SITS. All these properties clearly ...
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Furthermore, the inhibitor pharmacology of the VACC also confirms that they are VACCs. Conventional chloride channel blockers such as NPPB and DIDS significantly inhibited the volume-activated currents, indicating that they are chloride channels (21). In various cell types, DIDS has been shown to inhibit VACCs in voltage-dependent fashion (26, 32, 33) in addition to inhibiting calcium-activated chloride channels (1, 3), outwardly rectifying chloride channels (5), and ATP release (5) but does not inhibit CFTR (1, 10). Thus the voltage-dependent inhibition of volume-activated current by DIDS implies that chloride conductance via CFTR may not play a major role in RVD in cholangiocytes, and this conclusion is consistent with the previous finding that cAMP agonists had no significant effect on RVD in cholangiocytes (6). The VACCs are also inhibited by glybenclamide (Fig. 5C), which is a known inhibitor of CFTR, VACCs, as well as ATP-sensitive potassium channels (27). Moreover, the significant ...
In the present work we found that SLC26A9 is a Cl− channel regulated by the WNK kinases. Previous work used pHi measurements with the pH-sensitive fluorescent dye BCECF to conclude that SLC26A9 is a DIDS-sensitive Cl−-HCO3− exchanger (J. Xu et al. 2005). The only evidence for Cl−-HCO3− exchange activity was an increase in pHi in response to removal of Cl−o. However, the mode of transport responsible for this activity was not determined. In the present work, we measured membrane potential, current, pHi and Cl−i in Xenopus oocytes and current in HEK cells. Expression of SLC26A9 in the two cell types resulted in a large Cl− current. Importantly, HCO3− had no effect on the reversal potential or the Cl− current mediated by SLC26A9. Moreover, HCO3− had no effect on the SLC26A9-mediated Cl− influx or efflux. In comparison, slc26a3 and slc26a6 mediate large HCO3− fluxes, HCO3− shifted the reversal potential according to the stoichiometry of the exchange and HCO3− markedly ...
The application discloses certain stilbene compounds, pharmaceutical compositions thereof, method of treating thereof, method of diagnosis therewith, and method for the preparation thereof. The compounds and compositions are useful for diagnosis of leukemia types, the treatment of dermatological disorders, and as differentiation-inducing agents for neoplastic cells.
In the present study, we demonstrate a robust activation of extrasynaptic GlyRs in CA3 pyramidal neurons of the neonatal hippocampus caused by endogenous, nonsynaptically released glycine. The conclusion that glycine acts as a major endogenous agonist of GlyRs gains strong support from the finding that the frequency of GlyR openings was facilitated by blocking glycine uptake via GlyT1. Furthermore, we show that the release of glycine is not dependent on extracellular Ca2+ ions, neuronal activity, or reverse operation of GlyT1. At a physiological concentration of extracellular glycine, the nonsynaptic activation of GlyRs has an inhibitory action in the neonatal hippocampus.. Pharmacological inhibition of GlyT1 led to a dramatic increase in the effect of exogenous glycine, which implies a very high efficacy of uptake by the transporter. The increase in nonsynaptic GlyR current caused by the transport blocker NFPS indicates that GlyT1 operates in a net uptake mode in neonatal hippocampal slices ...
Patches of freshly isolated epithelial cells from eel Anguilla anguilla intestine bathed by the same solution on both sides in the cell-attached configuration had conductances of 57.0+/−1.8 pS (for positive voltages) and 13.3+/−0.7 pS (for negative voltages) (means +/− s.e.m., N=25). Electrical activity was spontaneous in the cell-attached configuration, but was frequently lost after excision. In inside-out patches, channel activity was restored by strong hyperpolarization (−150 mV for 5 s) or depolarization (+150 mV for 5 s). Channel activity was inhibited by the Cl- transport blocker DIDS (1 mmol l-1). The membrane potential measured using the nystatin slow whole-cell technique in primary cultured eel intestine epithelial cells was −35.4+/−1.0 mV (N=14), similar to the expected equilibrium potential for Cl- (−38.2 mV). Removal of Cl- from the bath or application of DIDS caused 16 mV and 6-7 mV depolarizing shifts in reversal potential, respectively. In one experiment, DIDS also ...
The volume-sensitive chloride current (IClVol) exhibit a time-dependent decay presumably due to channel inactivation. In this work, we studied the effects of chloride ions (Cl−) and H+ ions on IClVol decay recorded in HEK-293 and HL-60 cells using the whole-cell patch clamp technique. Under control conditions ([Cl−]e = [Cl−]i = 140 mM and pHi = pHe = 7.3), IClVol in HEK cells shows a large decay at positive voltages but in HL-60 cells IClVol remained constant independently of time. In HEK-293 cells, simultaneously raising the [Cl−]e and [Cl−]i from 25 to 140 mM (with pHe = pHi = 7.3) increased the fraction of inactivated channels (FIC). This effect was reproduced by elevating [Cl−]i while keeping the [Cl−]e constant. Furthermore, a decrease in pHe from 7.3 to 5.5 accelerated current decay and increased FIC when [Cl−] was 140 mM but not 25 mM. In HL-60 cells, a slight IClVol decay was seen when the pHe was reduced from 7.3 to 5.5. Our data show that inactivation of IClVol can be ...
Fabrication of conductive pathways, microcircuits and microstructures in microfluidic networks - Disclosed herein are a variety of microfluidic devices and solid, typically electrically conductive devices that can be formed using such devices as molds. In certain embodiments, the devices that are formed comprise conductive pathways formed by solidifying a liquid metal present in one or more microfluidic channels (such devices hereinafter referred to as "microsolidic" devices). In certain such devices, in which electrical connections can be formed and/or reformed between regions in a microfluidic structure; in some cases, the devices/circuits formed may be flexible and/or involve flexible electrical components. In certain embodiments, the solid metal wires/conductive pathways formed in microfluidic channel(s) may remain contained within the microfluidic structure. In certain such embodiments, the conductive pathways formed may be located in proximity to other microfluidic channel(s) of the ...
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An anisotropically-conductive film or a substrate having a surface coated with an anisotropically-conductive coating, said film or coating being formed by solidifying a composition comprising(i) a solidifiable ferrofluid composition, the ferrofluid comprising a colloidal suspension of ferromagnetic particles in a non-magnetic carrier, and(ii) a plurality of electrically-conductive particles, dispersed in the ferrofluid,the electrically-conductive particles having been arrayed in a non-random pattern by application of a substantially uniform magnetic field to the composition in a liquid state and having been locked in position by solidification of the composition.The composition is solidified in an A-stage, usually involving a primary cure. In end-use application of the film or coating, the composition usually undergoes a B-stage or secondary cure. The film or coated substrate is an article of manufacture for bonding conductors in the electronics industry.
Effect of apical bath CO2 on apical membrane Na/2HCO3 cotransporter. (A) 0.5 mM DIDS was added to the apical bath to obtain initial control response. The DIDS-i
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The increased steady state myocardial pHi in the SHR in nominally bicarbonate-free buffer provides evidence for hyperactivity of the Na+-H+ exchanger in the hypertensive and/or hypertrophic myocardium. This evidence was further strengthened by the following findings: (1) the faster recovery from the intracellular acid load induced by switching from HEPES to CO2/HCO3− buffer and the suppression of this difference when the Na+-H+ exchanger was inhibited, (2) the greater effect of blocking the Na+-H+ exchanger with EIPA in SHR myocardium exposed to HEPES-buffer, and (3) the lack of effect of the disulfonic derivative SITS on resting pHi in SHR myocardium in HEPES buffer bubbled with oxygen, ruling out a possible role of alkalinizing bicarbonate-dependent mechanisms.32 A still unanswered question in the present study is whether the hyperactivity of the Na+-H+ exchanger that we detected is a characteristic of the hypertensive animals or of the hypertrophic myocardium itself. Further experiments are ...
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Benz(a)anthracene-6-methanol | C19H14O | CID 186994 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more.
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1) We have prepared murine monoclonal antibodies to the membrane domain of the human erythrocyte anion transport protein (band 3). (2) All of these antibodies react with regions of the protein located at the cytoplasmic surface of the red cell. (3) One of the antibodies reacts with an epitope present on a cytoplasmic loop of the protein located between the C-terminus and a point 168 amino acids from the C-terminus. The other antibodies recognize different epitopes on the C-terminal tail of the protein and the sequences likely to be involved in these epitopes are defined. (4) Our results show that the C-terminus of the red-cell anion transport protein is located on the cytoplasmic side of the red-cell membrane. (5) None of the antibodies inhibited sulphate exchange transport when introduced into resealed red-cell membranes; however, the bivalent form of one of the antibodies reduced the inhibitory potency of 4-acetamido-4-isothiocyanatostilbene disulphonate on sulphate exchange transport in ...
Benzenesulfonic acid, 2,2-(1,2-ethenediyl)bis[ 5-[[4,6-bis(phenylamino)-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl]amino ]-, disodium salt disodium 4,4-bis[(4,6-dianilino-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)amino]stilbene-2,2-disulphonate cellu-brite fluorescent brightening agent 9 (c.i. 40621) 4,4-bis(2,4-dianilino-1,3,5-triazin-6-ylamino)stilbene-2,2-disulfonic acid disodium salt 4,4-bis[[4,6-bis(phenylamino)-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl]amino]stilbene-2,2-disulfonic acid disodium salt c.i.40621 fluorescent brightener 9 ...
Intracellular pH regulation was studied in semitendinosus muscle fibers from frog (Rana pipiens). Intracellular pH (pHi) was measured with recessed-tip glass microelectrodes and membrane potential with conventional microelectrodes. Fibers had their connections between the surface and transverse tubular membrane disrupted (detubulation) with the formamide shock technique. Fibers were approximately 80% detubulated as determined by the decrease in membrane capacitance and the loss of contractile capability. The initial rate of pHi recovery from acidification to approximately 6.8 (no CO2) was dependent on external buffering power, reaching a maximum of approximately 0.6 pH/h at 50 mM HEPES, indicating that the rate of pHi recovery in frog muscle is limited by the diffusion of buffer through an external unstirred layer. In detubulated fibers, pHi recovery from acidification due to both the amiloride-sensitive Na+/H+ and the 4-acetamido-4-isothiocyanostilbene-2,2-disulfonic acid (SITS)-sensitive (Na+ +
Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is critical in normal B cells to initiate somatic hypermutation and immunoglobulin class switch recombination. Accumulating evidence suggests that AID is also prooncogenic, inducing cancer-promoting mutations or chromosome rearrangements. In this context, we find that AID is expressed in |40% of primary human chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cases, consistent with other reports. Using a combination of human B lymphoid leukemia cells and mouse models, we now show that AID expression can be harnessed for antileukemic effect, after inhibition of the RAD51 homologous recombination (HR) factor with 4,4-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2-2-disulfonic acid (DIDS). As a proof of principle, we show that DIDS treatment inhibits repair of AID-initiated DNA breaks, induces apoptosis, and promotes cytotoxicity preferentially in AID-expressing human CLL. This reveals a novel antineoplastic role of AID that can be triggered by inhibition of HR, suggesting a potential new
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0017] Also provided herein is a method of identifying an agent that is an inhibitor of a calcium-activated chloride channel comprising: (a) contacting a cell and a candidate agent in a test sample, (under conditions and for a time sufficient) to permit interaction between the candidate agent and the cell, wherein the cell comprises (i) a calcium-activated chloride channel and (ii) a cytoplasmic indicator protein that binds halide; (b) adding to the test sample (i) at least one calcium-elevating agonist and (ii) iodide, under conditions and for a time sufficient for the calcium-elevating agonist to bind to the cell (i.e., to permit binding of the calcium-elevating agonist to the cell), wherein binding of the calcium-elevating agonist to the cell increases the level of calcium ion (Ca2+) in the cell; and (c) determining the level of iodide influx in the presence of the candidate agent and comparing the level of iodide influx in the presence of the candidate agent with the level of iodide influx in ...
The phenotypically plastic neurons of the embryonic mouse striatum were used to explore mechanisms of catecholamine differentiation in culture. De novo transcription and translation of the CA biosynthetic enzyme, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), was induced in striatal neurons exposed, simultaneously or sequentially, to the growth factor, acidic fibroblast growth factor (aFGF) and a catecholamine. Although dopamine was the most potent aFGF partner (ED50 = 4 microM), a number of substances, including dopamine (D1) receptor agonists, beta-adrenoceptor agonists, and dopamine uptake inhibitors also trigger TH induction when accompanied by aFGF. However, since none of the receptor antagonists nor transport blockers tested could inhibit dopamines action, the mechanism remains obscure. Structure-activity analysis suggests that effective aFGF partners all contain an amine group separated from a catechol nucleus by two carbons. Thus, TH expression can be novelly induced by the synergistic interaction of aFGF, ...
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The 2003 Memphis Tigers football team represented the University of Memphis in the 2003 NCAA Division I-A football season. Memphis competed as a member of the Conference USA. The team was led by head coach Tommy West. The Tigers played their home games at the Liberty Bowl Memorial Stadium.. ...
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The stilbene derivative DG172 was developed as a highly selective inhibitory PPARβ/δ ligand. Here, we describe a novel PPARβ/δ-independent, yet highly specific effect of DG172 on the differentiation of bone marrow cells (BMCs). DG172 strongly augmented GM-CSF-induced differentiation of primary BMCs from Ppard null mice into two specific populations, characterized as mature (CD11chiMHCIIhi) and immature (CD11chiMHCIIlo) dendritic cells. IL-4 synergized with DG172 to shift the differentiation from MHCIIlo cells to mature dendritic cells in vitro. The promotion of DC differentiation occurred at the expense of differentiation to granulocytic Gr1+Ly6B+ cells. In agreement with these findings, transcriptome analyses showed a strong DG172-mediated repression of genes encoding neutrophilic markers in both differentiating wildtype and Ppard null cells, while macrophage/DC marker genes were upregulated. DG172 also inhibited the expression of transcription factors driving granulocytic differentiation ...
Phenyl 4,7,8,9-tetra-O-acetyl-2-thio-N-acetyl-a-D-neuraminic acid methyl ester - CAS-RN:[155155-64-9] - Methyl 5-Acetamido-4,7,8,9-tetra-O-acetyl-3,5-dideoxy-2-S-phenyl-2-thio-D-glycero-D-galacto-2-nonulopyranosylonate; Methylphenyl (6R )-5-acetamido-4-O-acetyl-3,5-dideoxy-2-thio-6-[(1S,2R)-1,2,3-triacetoxypropyl]-L-threo-hex-2-ulopyranosidonate
The influence of polarization on the effects of amiloride (2609463) and 4,4-diisothiocyano-stilbene-2,2-disulfonic-acid (67483130) (DIDS) on the contractile responses of epithelial and airway smooth muscle to ATP were examined. Tracheal segments isolated from male English-short-hair-guinea-pigs were mounted in a culture bath where they could be perfused from the serosal (extraluminal) or mucosal
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The effect of 4,4′-diisothiocyanato-stilbene-2,2′-disulfonate on CO2 permeability of the red blood cell membrane: It has long been assumed that the red cell mem
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Almost all aspects of cardiac function are sensitive to modest changes of temperature. We have examined the thermal sensitivity of intracellular pH regulation in the heart. To do this we determined the temperature sensitivity of pHi, intracellular buffering capacity, and the activity of sarcolemmal acid-extrusion proteins, Na+-H+ exchange (NHE) and Na+-HCO3- co-transport (NBC) in guinea-pig isolated ventricular myocytes. pHi was recorded fluorimetrically with acetoxymethyl (AM)-loaded carboxy-SNARF-1 at either 27 or 37 degrees C. At 27 degrees C, intrinsic (non-CO2-dependent) buffering power (betai) was approximately 60% of that at 37 degrees C. Acid-extrusion (Je) through NHE was approximately 50% slower than at 37 degrees C, consistent with a Q10 of approximately 2. In 5% CO2/HCO3--buffered conditions, in the presence of 30 microM cariporide to inhibit NHE, acid extrusion via NBC was also slowed at 27 degrees C, suggestive of a comparable Q10. Resting pHi at 27 degrees C was similar in Hepes- or 5%
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... , Authors: Velayuthan C Padmakumar, Stuart H Yuspa. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol.
AbstractBackground and Aim:Our previous proteomic research found that chloride intracellular channel 1 (CLIC1) was upregulated in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissues with portal vein tumor thrombus. The present study aimed to determine the role of CLIC1 in HCC invasion.Methods:Immunohistochemistr
Calcium-dependent chloride channels are required for normal electrolyte and fluid secretion, olfactory perception, and neuronal and smooth muscle excitability. The molecular identity of these membrane proteins is still unclear. Treatment of bronchial epithelial cells with interleukin-4 (IL-4) causes increased calcium-dependent chloride channel activity, presumably by regulating expression of the corresponding genes. We performed a global gene expression analysis to identify membrane proteins that are regulated by IL-4. Transfection of epithelial cells with specific small interfering RNA against each of these proteins shows that TMEM16A, a member of a family of putative plasma membrane proteins with unknown function, is associated with calcium-dependent chloride current, as measured with halide-sensitive fluorescent proteins, short-circuit current, and patch-clamp techniques. Our results indicate that TMEM16A is an intrinsic constituent of the calcium-dependent chloride channel. Identification of ...
RefSeq Summary (NM_001288): Chloride channels are a diverse group of proteins that regulate fundamental cellular processes including stabilization of cell membrane potential, transepithelial transport, maintenance of intracellular pH, and regulation of cell volume. Chloride intracellular channel 1 is a member of the p64 family; the protein localizes principally to the cell nucleus and exhibits both nuclear and plasma membrane chloride ion channel activity. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
Read "Permeant Anions Control Gating of Calcium-dependent Chloride Channels, The Journal of Membrane Biology" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
CLIC1 antibody, N-term (chloride intracellular channel 1) for IHC-P, WB. Anti-CLIC1 pAb (GTX48722) is tested in Human, Mouse samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Anoctamins and Bestrophins are two kinds of calcium-activated chloride channels. Anoctamins were shown to be Ca-activated Cl channels in 2008 and are responsible for the classical CaCCs that are widely expressed in many tissues, especially epithelia. Bestrophins are more restricted in their expression and play more specialized roles. Bestrophin-1 is expressed in the retinal pigment epithelium and certain mutations in bestrophin-1 cause degeneration of the retina and blindness. Bestrophin-2 is expressed in goblet cells in colon and may play a role in bicarbonate secretion in this tissue. We are interested in understanding how both anoctamins and bestrophins are regulated by calcium. We are identifying the calcium binding sites and the molecular links between the calcium sensor and the channel gate using a combination of both whole-cell and single channel electrophysiological mesurements and mutagenesis. We are dissecting the signaling protein network associated with these channels using ...
BACKGROUND: Dents disease, an X-linked renal tubular disorder, is characterized by low-molecular-weight proteinuria, hypercalciuria, nephrocalcinosis, nephrolithiasis, and progressive renal failure. Dents disease results from mutations of the voltage-gated chloride channel CLC-5. METHODS: We studied the effect of zero and high citrate diet on renal function of ClC-5 knockout mice and wild-type mice. The mice were placed in metabolic cages from which the urine was collected. Mice were sacrificed to obtain serum and tissues for analysis. RESULTS: ClC-5 knockout mice fed zero or high citrate diet had significantly increased urinary calcium excretion compared with wild-type mice fed the same diets. Nine-month-old ClC-5 knockout mice on a zero citrate diet had significantly decreased glomerular filtration rate (GFR), whereas 9-month-old ClC-5 knockout mice on a high citrate diet had normal renal function. ClC-5 knockout mice fed a zero citrate diet had significantly increased tubular atrophy, ...
Membrane Ion Transport in Bartters Syndrome | Hypertension  Membrane Ion Transport in Bartter's Syndrome | Hypertension
... disulfonic acid. NHE. =. sodium-proton exchange. PKA. =. protein kinase A. PKC. =. protein kinase C. ... diisothiocyano-stilbene-2,2′- ... Novelty and Significance: 1) What Is New, 2) What Is Relevant? ... Na+/H+ and Cl−/HCO3− exchanges were enhanced in erythrocytes of all patients with Bartter-like syndrome (Table 2⇓) partly due ... Two hundred micromoles per liter of the red blood cell suspension was treated with 4 mCi/L 86Rb as a radioactive analogue of ...
more infohttp://hyper.ahajournals.org/content/30/6/1338
IJMS | Free Full-Text | 4,4-Diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2-disulfonic Acid (DIDS) Ameliorates Ischemia-Hypoxia-Induced White...  IJMS | Free Full-Text | 4,4'-Diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic Acid (DIDS) Ameliorates Ischemia-Hypoxia-Induced White...
... disulfonic acid (DIDS), a chloride (Cl−) channel blocker, was injected into chronic cerebral ischemia-hypoxia rat models at ... Furthermore, the elevated number of caspase-3 and neural/glial antigen 2 (NG-2) double-labeled positive cells was attenuated by ... Our results showed that DIDS significantly reduced the elevated mRNA levels and protein expression of chloride channel 2 (ClC-2 ... disulfonic acid (DIDS), a chloride (Cl−) channel blocker, was injected into chronic cerebral ischemia-hypoxia rat models at ...
more infohttp://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/16/5/10457
Kinetics of residual chloride transport in human red blood cells after maximum covalent 4,4-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2...  Kinetics of residual chloride transport in human red blood cells after maximum covalent 4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'...
... disulfonic acid (DIDS). The kinetics of the residual chloride transport (0.2%, 106 pmol.cm-2 x s-1) at 38 degrees C, pH 7.2) ... diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2-disulfonic acid binding.. P K Gasbjerg, J Funder, J Brahm ... The outside apparent affinity, expressed by Ko1/2,c, was 34 mM, as determined by substituting external KCl by sucrose. The ... Kinetics of residual chloride transport in human red blood cells after maximum covalent 4,4-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2- ...
more infohttp://jgp.rupress.org/content/101/5/715
Permeability of Cl- to red cell calculated fr - Human Homo sapiens - BNID 110732  Permeability of Cl- to red cell calculated fr - Human Homo sapiens - BNID 110732
... disulfonic acid binding. J Gen Physiol. 1993 May101(5):715-32.PubMed ID8393066 ... diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2- ... Fig.2), the apparent permeability was reduced to 1.2×10^-6cm/ ... Gasbjerg PK, Funder J, Brahm J. Kinetics of residual chloride transport in human red blood cells after maximum covalent 4,4- ... The permeability calculated from the irreversible-DIDS-inhibited bicarbonate efflux (Fig.2) is 1.7×10^-6 cm/sec at pH 7.8, ...
more infohttps://bionumbers.hms.harvard.edu/bionumber.aspx?s=n&v=2&id=110732
Coupling Modes and Stoichiometry of Cl−/HCO3− Exchange by slc26a3 and slc26a6 | JGP  Coupling Modes and Stoichiometry of Cl−/HCO3− Exchange by slc26a3 and slc26a6 | JGP
... disulfonic acid (DIDS) was obtained from Invitrogen. The bath solution for HEK293 cells (solution A) contained 145 mM NaCl, 1 ... diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2′-disulfonic acid; GFP, green fluorescent protein; HEK, human embryonic kidney. ... 2 (C and D), we measured the Clo− dependency of HCO3− and Cl− transport. To measure the transport at close to the resting pHi ... 2 D. It is clear that the slc26a3-mediated Cl− and HCO3− fluxes have the same dependency on Clo−. Interestingly, the Clo− ...
more infohttp://jgp.rupress.org/content/127/5/511
Uptake of Enalapril and Expression of Organic Anion Transporting Polypeptide 1 in Zonal, Isolated Rat Hepatocytes | Drug...  Uptake of Enalapril and Expression of Organic Anion Transporting Polypeptide 1 in Zonal, Isolated Rat Hepatocytes | Drug...
... disulfonic acid), ouabain, rotenone, BSA, and alanine-proline were purchased from Sigma Chemical Co. (St. Louis, MO). KCN was ... diisothiocyanostilbene-2, 2′- ... the monocarboxylic acid benzoic acid (100 μM), the nonspecific ... As both enalaprilat and temocaprilat are dicarboxylic acids and enalapril is a monocarboxylic acid, it is plausible that ... Benzoic acid, a putative substrate of the monocarboxylate transporter MCT2 (Garcia et al., 1995) and not of Oatp1 (Pang et al ...
more infohttp://dmd.aspetjournals.org/content/28/7/801?ijkey=4d40247068224af2d8a50521a70669500ed37e18&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha
MDR1/P-glycoprotein function. I. Effect of hypotonicity and inhibitors on rhodamine 123 exclusion<...  MDR1/P-glycoprotein function. I. Effect of hypotonicity and inhibitors on rhodamine 123 exclusion<...
... disulfonic acid, chloride channel, cyclosporine A, drug efflux, flufenamic acid, multidrug resistance", ... diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2-disulfonic acid, 4- acetamido-4-isothiocyanostilbene-2,2- ... It was found that MDR1 activity and its inhibition by cyclosporine A or flufenamic acid were unaffected by hypotonicity alone ... It was found that MDR1 activity and its inhibition by cyclosporine A or flufenamic acid were unaffected by hypotonicity alone ...
more infohttps://augusta.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/mdr1p-glycoprotein-function-i-effect-of-hypotonicity-and-inhibito
DI-fusion Purification and reconstitution of an outwardly rectified Cl-...  DI-fusion Purification and reconstitution of an outwardly rectified Cl-...
Disulfonic Acid -- pharmacology. Animals. Antibodies. Blotting, Western. Calcium Channels -- biosynthesis -- isolation & ... Diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2- ... Référence The American journal of physiology, 275, 2 Pt 1, page ... A biologic function for an "orphan" messenger: D-myo-inositol 3,4,5,6-tetrakisphosphate selectively blocks epithelial calcium- ... The American journal of physiology, 275, 2 Pt 1, page (C449-C458). ...
more infohttps://difusion.ulb.ac.be/vufind/Record/ULB-DIPOT:oai:dipot.ulb.ac.be:2013/109296/Details
Anion antiport mechanism is involved in transport of lactic acid across intestinal epithelial brush-border membrane.  - PubMed ...  Anion antiport mechanism is involved in transport of lactic acid across intestinal epithelial brush-border membrane. - PubMed ...
... disulfonic acid and protonophore carbonylcyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone, respectively. These observations ... diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2- ... The initial uptakes of L-[(14)C]lactic acid which are driven by ... Anion antiport mechanism is involved in transport of lactic acid across intestinal epithelial brush-border membrane.. Tamai I1 ... Kinetic analysis of L-[(14)C]lactic acid uptake revealed the involvement of two saturable processes in the presence of both ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11018672?dopt=Abstract
DiVA - Search result  DiVA - Search result
... disulfonic acid (DIDS) and an antibody against the ClC-3 channels, but accelerated by increases in the intracellular ATP:ADP ... diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2- ... The cyanobacterial amino acid β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) ... The amino acid sequence of eEF2 is highly conserved in different organisms. eEF2 from S. cerevisiae contains 842 amino acids. ... The amino acid sequence of eEF2 is highly conserved in different organisms. eEF2 from S. cerevisiae contains 842 amino acids. ...
more infohttp://www.diva-portal.org/smash/resultList.jsf?dswid=0&searchType=SUBJECT&language=en&onlyFullText=false&af=%5B%5D&aq=%5B%5B%7B%22categoryId%22%3A%2211552%22%7D%5D%5D
Plus it  Plus it
... disulfonic acid were also found to be potent inhibitors of hPCFT/hHCP1, but hemin was found to exhibit only minimal inhibitory ... diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2′-disulfonic acid are inhibitors of pH-sensitive folate transport in the small intestine (Perry and ... Poe M (1977) Acidic dissociation constants of folic acid, dihydrofolic acid, and methotrexate. J Biol Chem 252: 3724-3728. ... disulfonic acid are potent inhibitors of hPCFT/HCP1, whereas the inhibitory effects of several organic anions, such as estrone ...
more infohttp://jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/322/2/469
Expression of sodium-independent organic anion uptake systems of skate liver in Xenopus laevis oocytes  - edoc  Expression of sodium-independent organic anion uptake systems of skate liver in Xenopus laevis oocytes - edoc
... disulfonic acid (100 microM; 57%), bumetanide (100 microM; 48%), taurocholate (200 microM; 51%), and cholate (200 microM; 45 ... diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2- ...
more infohttp://edoc.unibas.ch/3739/
Plus it  Plus it
... disulfonic acid, but not by small anionic compounds, such as lactic acid and acetic acid. The inhibitory effect of pravastatin ... diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2′- ...
more infohttp://jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/306/2/703
Plus it  Plus it
... disulfonic acid (DIDS) stimulates K+ efflux into the portal space in proportion to choleresis (13), suggesting a functional ... diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2′- ... The overall sequence identity at the amino acid level is 90%. ... The longer deduced isoform (4.2a) has 30 additional NH3-terminal amino acids, which identifies this as a new isoform. The short ... A maltose-binding protein/Kir4.2 fusion protein containing the final, COOH-terminal 170 amino acid residues of the channel was ...
more infohttp://ajpgi.physiology.org/content/282/2/G233
Journal of Alzheimers Disease - Volume 29, issue 1 - Journals - IOS Press  Journal of Alzheimer's Disease - Volume 29, issue 1 - Journals - IOS Press
The quinolines 2-(4-methylphenyl)-6-methyl quinoline (THQ-4S) and 2-(4-aminophenyl)-6-methylquinoline (THQ-55) inhibited …in ... Genomic and Nongenomic Signaling Induced by 1α,25(OH) 2-Vitamin D 3 Promotes the Recovery of Amyloid-β Phagocytosis by ... 2 -vitamin D3 (1,25D3) and blocked by the nuclear vitamin D receptor (VDR) antagonist (23S)-25-dehydro-1α(OH)-vitamin D3 -26,23 ... 2-disulfonic acid-sensitive chloride channel (i.e., ClC-3) currents in both Type I and II AD macrophages, but curcumin only ...
more infohttps://content.iospress.com/journals/journal-of-alzheimers-disease/29/1
Unconventional secretion of FABP4 by endosomes and secretory lysosomes | JCB  Unconventional secretion of FABP4 by endosomes and secretory lysosomes | JCB
... disulfonic acid (DIDS) and bromosulphalein (BSP). We tested the efficiency of these drugs on HSP70 secretion and confirmed the ... diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2- ... Serum adipocyte fatty acid binding protein as a new biomarker ... Adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein is released from adipocytes by a non-conventional mechanism. Int. J. Obes. 38:1251-1254. ... Identification of fatty acid binding protein 4 as an adipokine that regulates insulin secretion during obesity. Mol. Metab. 3: ...
more infohttp://jcb.rupress.org/content/217/2/649
http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0042452/00001  http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0042452/00001
... isothiocyanostilbene disulfonic acid pHi intracellular pH pHe extracellular pH PAGE 12. 12 Abstract of Dissertation presented ... diisothiocyanostilbene 2,2 disulfonic acid (DIDS) was purchased from Sigma Aldrich; 4 acetamido 4 isothiocyanostilbene 2,2 ... The coincidence of high lactic acid out put and low pHe has led to a popular belief that lactic acid is the source of the acid ... The pHi was measured using the distribution of the weak acid [7 14 C] benzoic acid as describ ed in in Chapter 2. The pHi of ...
more infohttp://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0042452/00001
CFTR gene transfer to human cystic fibrosis pancreatic duct cells using a Sendai virus vector. | UK CF Gene Therapy Consortium  CFTR gene transfer to human cystic fibrosis pancreatic duct cells using a Sendai virus vector. | UK CF Gene Therapy Consortium
... disulfonic acid (H2-DIDS), but not by a specific CFTR inhibitor, CFTR(inh)-172. Our data show that SeV vector is a potential ... The cAMP stimulated Cl-/HCO3- exchange was inhibited by dihydro-4,4-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2- ... diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2-disulfonic acid (H2-DIDS), but not by a specific CFTR inhibitor, CFTR(inh)-172. Our data show that ... The cAMP stimulated Cl-/HCO3- exchange was inhibited by dihydro-4,4- ...
more infohttp://cfgenetherapy.org.uk/publications/publication/221
Cryohydrocytosis: increased activity of cation carriers in red cells from a patient with a band 3 mutation | Haematologica  Cryohydrocytosis: increased activity of cation carriers in red cells from a patient with a band 3 mutation | Haematologica
... disulfonic acid (DIDS) and its dihydro derivative (H2DIDS) J Membr Biol 29(1-2):147-77. ... diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2′-disulfonic acid, disodium salt (DIDS). Aliquots were taken for ektacytometry or gradient ... stilbene disulfonic acid derivatives), a chloride channel inhibitor NS1652, and the inhibitor of the KNHE, HOE-642. Our data ... of band 3 have been found to be less efficient in transporting anions and have a decreased affinity to stilbene disulfonic acid ...
more infohttp://www.haematologica.org/content/95/2/189
  • It was found that MDR1 activity and its inhibition by cyclosporine A or flufenamic acid were unaffected by hypotonicity alone or in combination with Cl - channel blockers. (elsevier.com)
  • The longer deduced isoform (4.2a) has 30 additional NH 3 -terminal amino acids, which identifies this as a new isoform. (physiology.org)
  • 5-Nitro-2-(3-phenyl-propylamino)benzoic acid (NPPB), furosemide, and niflumate blocked the malaria-induced transport of monovalent cations, neutral amino acids, sugars, nucleosides, and monovalent anions. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Concanamycin A, an inhibitor of V-type ATPase, had no effect on the rates of acid extrusion. (edu.au)
  • Intrathecal injection of a VDAC1 inhibitor significantly reversed the pain hypersensitivity and reduced the over-expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). (readbyqxmd.com)
  • Although voltage dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC1) involved in regulating QCT-induced apoptotic cell death has been established, the role of voltage dependent anion channel 2 (VDAC2) in QCT-induced toxicity remains unclear. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • The rate of citrate release from IPG cells was not affected by the concentration of aluminum (0 and 50 µM), soluble P i (0 or 2 mM) and the pH (4.5-5.6) of the medium, suggesting that anion channels would not be regulated by such external conditions. (oup.com)
  • The outside apparent affinity, expressed by Ko1/2,c, was 34 mM, as determined by substituting external KCl by sucrose. (rupress.org)
  • An appreciation of the functional properties of the cytoplasmic fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) has advanced with the recent demonstration that an extracellular form secreted by adipocytes regulates a wide range of physiological functions. (rupress.org)
  • Formation of alpha-tocopherol complexes with fatty acids. (naver.com)
  • and was later shown to function as a SO 4 = transporter. (rupress.org)
  • The Cl(-)-independent component has the same properties as the NBC-like transporter previously shown to account for most of the acid extrusion near the resting pH(i). (edu.au)
  • This exchange had the same properties as the AE-like transporter previously identified as a major acid loader near resting pH(i). (edu.au)
  • After correcting for a 4.4-fold lower apparent Stern-Volmer constant for intravesicular lucigenin, a maximum rate of Cl(-) transport of 31 nmol m(-2) sec(-1) was calculated, in good agreement with values obtained for the plant vacuolar membrane using other techniques. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Fifteen patients (9 women and 6 men) aged 16 to 36 years (mean±SEM, 28±4 years) with hypokalemic hyponatremic hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis, hyperreninemic hyperaldosteronism, normotension, and no peripheral edema were chosen as the study group. (ahajournals.org)
  • 3 Some mechanisms have been proposed to explain this constellation of findings, such as resistance to the pressor action of angiotensin II, 1 primary prostaglandin excess, 4 and a defect in Na + handling. (ahajournals.org)
  • These acid-loading and acid-extruding transport mechanisms together with the Na(+), K(+), ATPase may be sufficient to account not only for pH(i) regulation in brain endothelial cells but also for the net secretion of HCO(-)(3) across the blood-brain barrier. (edu.au)
  • Transport activities involved in intracellular pH (pH(i)) recovery after acid or alkali challenge were investigated in cultured rat brain microvascular endothelial cells by monitoring pH(i) using a pH-sensitive dye. (edu.au)
  • Fig.2), the apparent permeability was reduced to 1.2×10^-6cm/sec. (harvard.edu)
  • These data suggest that human small arteries maintain pHi by Na+/H+ exchange and Na(+)-dependent HCO3(-) exchange in response to an acid load, and Na(+)-independent Cl-/HCO3(-) exchange to counteract intracellular alkalosis. (mysciencework.com)
  • Fifteen volunteers (10 women and 5 men, aged 18 to 37 years, mean±SEM, 25±2 years) were enrolled into the control group after the results of routine blood tests had been obtained and determined to be normal. (ahajournals.org)
  • Following an alkali challenge, the major component of the acid loading leading to recovery of pH(i) occurred by Cl(-)/HCO(-)(3) exchange. (edu.au)
  • Intracellular Cl- depletion of arteries did not affect the rate of pHi recovery in PSS from an acid load. (mysciencework.com)
  • In the course of these studies we discovered that the commercially available CAIX antibody from Novus Biologicals, NB-100, recognizes a beta-tubulin by using 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. (ufl.edu)
  • This observation, as well as the absolute E(rev) values, are consistent with a 2:1 stoichiometry. (ox.ac.uk)