4-Acetamido-4'-isothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic Acid: A non-penetrating amino reagent (commonly called SITS) which acts as an inhibitor of anion transport in erythrocytes and other cells.4,4'-Diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-Disulfonic Acid: An inhibitor of anion conductance including band 3-mediated anion transport.Naphthalenesulfonates: A class of organic compounds that contains a naphthalene moiety linked to a sulfonic acid salt or ester.Receptors, Purinergic P2X: A subclass of purinergic P2 receptors that signal by means of a ligand-gated ion channel. They are comprised of three P2X subunits which can be identical (homotrimeric form) or dissimilar (heterotrimeric form).Purinergic P2 Receptor Antagonists: Compounds that bind to and block the stimulation of PURINERGIC P2 RECEPTORS.Pyridoxal Phosphate: This is the active form of VITAMIN B 6 serving as a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, aminolevulinic acid. During transamination of amino acids, pyridoxal phosphate is transiently converted into pyridoxamine phosphate (PYRIDOXAMINE).Receptors, Purinergic P2: A class of cell surface receptors for PURINES that prefer ATP or ADP over ADENOSINE. P2 purinergic receptors are widespread in the periphery and in the central and peripheral nervous system.Suramin: A polyanionic compound with an unknown mechanism of action. It is used parenterally in the treatment of African trypanosomiasis and it has been used clinically with diethylcarbamazine to kill the adult Onchocerca. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p1643) It has also been shown to have potent antineoplastic properties.1,2-Dihydroxybenzene-3,5-Disulfonic Acid Disodium Salt: A colorimetric reagent for iron, manganese, titanium, molybdenum, and complexes of zirconium. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Stilbenes: Organic compounds that contain 1,2-diphenylethylene as a functional group.Chlorides: Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Bicarbonates: Inorganic salts that contain the -HCO3 radical. They are an important factor in determining the pH of the blood and the concentration of bicarbonate ions is regulated by the kidney. Levels in the blood are an index of the alkali reserve or buffering capacity.Antiporters: Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the opposite direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Chloride Channels: Cell membrane glycoproteins that form channels to selectively pass chloride ions. Nonselective blockers include FENAMATES; ETHACRYNIC ACID; and TAMOXIFEN.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain: A disorder characterized by a reduction of oxygen in the blood combined with reduced blood flow (ISCHEMIA) to the brain from a localized obstruction of a cerebral artery or from systemic hypoperfusion. Prolonged hypoxia-ischemia is associated with ISCHEMIC ATTACK, TRANSIENT; BRAIN INFARCTION; BRAIN EDEMA; COMA; and other conditions.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Bromine Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain bromine as an integral part of the molecule.PhloretinErythrocyte Membrane: The semi-permeable outer structure of a red blood cell. It is known as a red cell 'ghost' after HEMOLYSIS.Bartter Syndrome: A group of disorders caused by defective salt reabsorption in the ascending LOOP OF HENLE. It is characterized by severe salt-wasting, HYPOKALEMIA; HYPERCALCIURIA; metabolic ALKALOSIS, and hyper-reninemic HYPERALDOSTERONISM without HYPERTENSION. There are several subtypes including ones due to mutations in the renal specific SODIUM-POTASSIUM-CHLORIDE SYMPORTERS.Hyperaldosteronism: A condition caused by the overproduction of ALDOSTERONE. It is characterized by sodium retention and potassium excretion with resultant HYPERTENSION and HYPOKALEMIA.Hypokalemia: Abnormally low potassium concentration in the blood. It may result from potassium loss by renal secretion or by the gastrointestinal route, as by vomiting or diarrhea. It may be manifested clinically by neuromuscular disorders ranging from weakness to paralysis, by electrocardiographic abnormalities (depression of the T wave and elevation of the U wave), by renal disease, and by gastrointestinal disorders. (Dorland, 27th ed)Syndrome: A characteristic symptom complex.Sodium-Potassium-Chloride Symporters: A subclass of symporters that specifically transport SODIUM CHLORIDE and/or POTASSIUM CHLORIDE across cellular membranes in a tightly coupled process.Renal Tubular Transport, Inborn Errors: Genetic defects in the selective or non-selective transport functions of the KIDNEY TUBULES.Potassium Channels, Calcium-Activated: Potassium channels whose activation is dependent on intracellular calcium concentrations.Russia (Pre-1917)Awards and PrizesWilliams Syndrome: A disorder caused by hemizygous microdeletion of about 28 genes on chromosome 7q11.23, including the ELASTIN gene. Clinical manifestations include SUPRAVALVULAR AORTIC STENOSIS; MENTAL RETARDATION; elfin facies; impaired visuospatial constructive abilities; and transient HYPERCALCEMIA in infancy. The condition affects both sexes, with onset at birth or in early infancy.Gold Colloid: A suspension of metallic gold particles.Ankyrins: A family of membrane-associated proteins responsible for the attachment of the cytoskeleton. Erythrocyte-related isoforms of ankyrin attach the SPECTRIN cytoskeleton to a transmembrane protein (ANION EXCHANGE PROTEIN 1, ERYTHROCYTE) in the erythrocyte plasma membrane. Brain-related isoforms of ankyrin also exist.Pseudohypoaldosteronism: A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by renal electrolyte transport dysfunctions. Congenital forms are rare autosomal disorders characterized by neonatal hypertension, HYPERKALEMIA, increased RENIN activity and ALDOSTERONE concentration. The Type I features HYPERKALEMIA with sodium wasting; Type II, HYPERKALEMIA without sodium wasting. Pseudohypoaldosteronism can be the result of a defective renal electrolyte transport protein or acquired after KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.Miller Fisher Syndrome: A variant of the GUILLAIN-BARRE SYNDROME characterized by the acute onset of oculomotor dysfunction, ataxia, and loss of deep tendon reflexes with relative sparing of strength in the extremities and trunk. The ataxia is produced by peripheral sensory nerve dysfunction and not by cerebellar injury. Facial weakness and sensory loss may also occur. The process is mediated by autoantibodies directed against a component of myelin found in peripheral nerves. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1313; Neurology 1987 Sep;37(9):1493-8)Chloride-Bicarbonate Antiporters: Electroneutral chloride bicarbonate exchangers that allow the exchange of BICARBONATE IONS exchange for CHLORIDE IONS across the cellular membrane. The action of specific antiporters in this class serve important functions such as allowing the efficient exchange of bicarbonate across red blood cell membranes as they passage through capillaries and the reabsorption of bicarbonate ions by the kidney.Exocrine Glands: Glands of external secretion that release its secretions to the body's cavities, organs, or surface, through a duct.Electrolytes: Substances that dissociate into two or more ions, to some extent, in water. Solutions of electrolytes thus conduct an electric current and can be decomposed by it (ELECTROLYSIS). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Erythrocyte Deformability: Ability of ERYTHROCYTES to change shape as they pass through narrow spaces, such as the microvasculature.Erythrocytes, Abnormal: Oxygen-carrying RED BLOOD CELLS in mammalian blood that are abnormal in structure or function.Ice: The solid substance formed by the FREEZING of water.Anemia, Macrocytic: Anemia characterized by larger than normal erythrocytes, increased mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and increased mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH).Cations: Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Invertebrates: Animals that have no spinal column.Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Central Nervous System: The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.Vertebrates: Animals having a vertebral column, members of the phylum Chordata, subphylum Craniata comprising mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fishes.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
... disulfonic acid MeSH D02.455.426.559.389.150.700.550 --- stilbamidines MeSH D02.455.426.559.389.150.700.900 --- tamoxifen MeSH ... diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid MeSH D02.500.375.250 --- fluorescein-5-isothiocyanate MeSH D02.500.375.625 --- 1- ... edetic acid MeSH D02.241.081.038.455 --- egtazic acid MeSH D02.241.081.038.581 --- iodoacetic acid MeSH D02.241.081.038.581.400 ... muramic acids MeSH D02.241.081.844.562 --- neuraminic acids MeSH D02.241.081.844.562.668 --- sialic acids MeSH D02.241.081.844. ...
4,4'-Diisothiocyano-2,2'-stilbenedisulfonic acid (DIDS) is an anion exchange inhibitor, blocking reversibly, and later irreversibly, exchangers such as chloride-bicarbonate exchanger. Jessen, Flemming; Sjøholm, C; Hoffmann, EK (1986), "Identification of the anion exchange protein of ehrlich cells: A kinetic analysis of the inhibitory effects of 4,4′-diisothiocyano-2,2′-stilbene-disulfonic acid (DIDS) and labeling of membrane proteins with3H-DIDS", Journal of Membrane Biology, 92 (3): 195, doi:10.1007/BF01869388, PMID 3783658 Lane, Michelle; Baltz, Jay M.; Bavister, Barry D. (1999), "Bicarbonate/Chloride Exchange Regulates Intracellular pH of Embryos but Not Oocytes of the Hamster", Biology of Reproduction, 61 (2): 452-457, doi:10.1095/biolreprod61.2.452, PMID 10411526 ...
... (EC 2.3.1.201, WbpD, WlbB) is an enzyme with systematic name acetyl-CoA:UDP-2-acetamido-3-amino-2,3-dideoxy-alpha-D-glucuronate N-acetyltransferase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction acetyl-CoA + UDP-2-acetamido-3-amino-2,3-dideoxy-alpha-D-glucuronate ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } CoA + UDP-2,3-diacetamido-2,3-dideoxy-alpha-D-glucuronate This enzyme participates in the biosynthetic pathway for UDP-alpha-D-ManNAc3NAcA (UDP-2,3-diacetamido-2,3-dideoxy-alpha-D-mannuronic acid). Westman, E.L.; McNally, D.J.; Charchoglyan, A.; Brewer, D.; Field, R.A.; Lam, J.S. (2009). "Characterization of WbpB, WbpE, and WbpD and reconstitution of a pathway for the biosynthesis of UDP-2,3-diacetamido-2,3-dideoxy-D-mannuronic acid in Pseudomonas aeruginosa". J. Biol. Chem. 284: 11854-11862. doi:10.1074/jbc.M808583200. PMC 2673254 . PMID 19282284. Larkin, A.; Imperiali, B. (2009). "Biosynthesis of UDP-GlcNAc(3NAc)A by ...
4,4'-Diisothiocyano-2,2'-stilbenedisulfonic acid (DIDS) is an anion exchange inhibitor, blocking reversibly, and later irreversibly, exchangers such as chloride-bicarbonate exchanger. Jessen, Flemming; Sjøholm, C; Hoffmann, EK (1986), "Identification of the anion exchange protein of ehrlich cells: A kinetic analysis of the inhibitory effects of 4,4′-diisothiocyano-2,2′-stilbene-disulfonic acid (DIDS) and labeling of membrane proteins with3H-DIDS", Journal of Membrane Biology, 92 (3): 195, doi:10.1007/BF01869388, PMID 3783658 Lane, Michelle; Baltz, Jay M.; Bavister, Barry D. (1999), "Bicarbonate/Chloride Exchange Regulates Intracellular pH of Embryos but Not Oocytes of the Hamster", Biology of Reproduction, 61 (2): 452-457, doi:10.1095/biolreprod61.2.452, PMID 10411526 ...
Cos allargat i recobert d'escates. Línia lateral única i situada al llarg de tot el cos. Boca terminal i protràctil. 1 única i allargada aleta dorsal, la qual té 4-7 espines curtes i 19-27 radis tous. Aleta anal més curta que la dorsal, amb 1-2 espines i 17-25 radis tous. Aletes pelvianes amb 1 espina i 5 radis tous. Aleta caudal de truncada a força semilunar i amb 13-15 radis ramificats. La inserció de les aletes pelvianes es troba per sota o una mica abans de les pectorals.[5][6] ...
... (or signaling: see American and British English differences) is a form of extracellular signalling mediated by purine nucleotides and nucleosides such as adenosine and ATP. It involves the activation of purinergic receptors in the cell and/or in nearby cells, thereby regulating cellular functions. The purinergic signalling complex of a cell is sometimes referred to as the "purinome". Purinergic receptors, represented by several families, are among the most abundant receptors in living organisms and appeared early in evolution. Among invertebrates, the purinergic signalling system has been found in bacteria, amoeba, ciliates, algae, fungi, anemones, ctenophores, platyhelminthes, nematodes, crustacea, molluscs, annelids, echinoderms, and insects. In green plants, extracellular ATP and other nucleotides induce an increase in the cytosolic concentration of calcium ions, in addition to other downstream changes that influence plant growth and modulate responses to stimuli. In ...
Adrian K, Bernhard MK, Breitinger HG, Ogilvie A (Sep 2000). "Expression of purinergic receptors (ionotropic P2X1-7 and metabotropic P2Y1-11) during myeloid differentiation of HL60 cells". Biochim Biophys Acta 1492 (1): 127-38. PMID 11004484. Cite uses deprecated parameter ...
... , often abbreviated AOA or AOAA, is a compound that inhibits 4-aminobutyrate aminotransferase (GABA-T) activity in vitro and in vivo, leading to less gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) being broken down. Subsequently, the level of GABA is increased in tissues. At concentrations high enough to fully inhibit 4-aminobutyrate aminotransferase activity, aminooxyacetic acid is indicated as a useful tool to study regional GABA turnover in rats. Aminooxyacetic acid is a general inhibitor of pyridoxal phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzymes (this includes GABA-T). It functions as an inhibitor by attacking the Schiff base linkage between PLP and the enzyme, forming oxime type complexes. Aminooxyacetic acid inhibits aspartate aminotransferase, another PLP-dependent enzyme, which is an essential part of the malate-aspartate shuttle. The inhibition of the malate-aspartate shuttle prevents the reoxidation of cytosolic NADH by the mitochondria in nerve ...
Two enzymes convert L-amino acids to D-amino acids. D-Amino-acid racemase, a PLP-dependent enzyme, racemizes amino acids via the formation of the alpha-iminoacids, where the stereogenic center is lost. L-amino-acid oxidases convert L-amino acids to the alpha-ketoacids, which are susceptible to reductive amination. Some amino acids are prone to racemization, one example being lysine, which racemizes via formation pipecolic acid. In peptides, L-amino acid residues slowly racemize, resulting in the formation of some D-amino acid residues. Racemization occurs via deprotonation of the methyne that is alpha to the amido group. Rates increase with pH. Many D-amino acids found in higher organisms are derived from microbial sources. The D-alanine in peptidoglycans that comprise bacterial cell walls ...
... or tryptophan synthetase is an enzyme that catalyzes the final two steps in the biosynthesis of tryptophan. It is commonly found in Eubacteria, Archaebacteria, Protista, Fungi, and Plantae. However, it is absent from Animalia. It is typically found as an α2β2 tetramer. The α subunits catalyze the reversible formation of indole and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (G3P) from indole-3-glycerol phosphate (IGP). The β subunits catalyze the irreversible condensation of indole and serine to form tryptophan in a pyridoxal phosphate (PLP) dependent reaction. Each α active site is connected to a β active site by a 25 angstrom long hydrophobic channel contained within the enzyme. This facilitates the diffusion of indole formed at α active sites directly to β active sites in a process known as substrate channeling. The active sites of tryptophan synthase are allosterically coupled. Subunits: Tryptophan synthase typically exists as an α-ββ-α complex. The α and β subunits have ...
... catalyzed by aminotransferase occurs in two stages. In the first step, the α amino group of an aminoacid is transferred to the enzyme, producing the corresponding α-keto acid and the aminated enzyme. During the second stage, the amino group is transferred to the keto acid acceptor, forming the amino acid product while regenerating the enzyme. The chirality of an amino acid is determined during transamination. For the reaction to complete, aminotransferases require participation of aldehyde containing coenzyme, pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP), a derivative of Pyridoxine (Vitamin B6). The amino group is accommodated by conversion of this coenzyme to pyridoxamine-5'-phosphate (PMP). PLP is covalently attached to the enzyme via a Schiff Base linkage formed by the condensation of its aldehyde group with the ε-amino group of an enzymatic Lys residue. The Schiff base, which is conjugated to the enzymes pyridinium ring is the ...
GAD67 and GAD65 are also regulated differently post-translationally. Both GAD65 and GAD67 are regulated via phosphorylation of a dynamic catalytic loop,[10][11] but the regulation of these isoforms differs; GAD65 is activated by phosphorylation while GAD67 is inhibited by phosphorylation. GAD67 is predominantly found activated (~92%), whereas GAD65 is predominantly found inactivated (~72%).[12] GAD67 is phosphorylated at threonine 91 by protein kinase A (PKA), while GAD65 is phosphorylated, and therefore regulated by, protein kinase C (PKC). Both GAD67 and GAD65 are also regulated post-translationally by Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP); GAD is activated when bound to PLP and inactive when not bound to PLP.[12] Majority of GAD67 is bound to PLP at any given time, whereas GAD65 binds PLP when GABA is needed for neurotransmission.[12] This reflects the functional properties of the two isoforms; GAD67 must be active at all times for normal cellular functioning, and is therefore constantly activated by ...
Cette enzyme utilise le phosphate de pyridoxal comme cofacteur[2]. Chez les archées et les eucaryotes, la formation du sélénocystéinyl-ARNtSec se déroule en effet en deux étapes[3],[4],[5] : la O-phosphoséryl-ARNtSec kinase catalyse tout d'abord la phosphorylation d'un L-séryl-ARNtSec en O-phosphoL-séryl-ARNtSec, lequel est ensuite converti en L-sélénocystéinyl-ARNtSec par la O-phosphoséryl-ARNt:sélénocystéinyl-ARNt synthase. ...
在人体中,组氨酸脱羧酶由HDC基因编码。[4][5]. 生物胺组织胺在许多生理过程中有重要的调节作用,包括神经传递、胃酸分泌、平滑肌舒张。从组氨酸到组织胺的生物合成由L-组氨酸脱羧酶催化。这个同源二聚体酶是一个依赖磷酸吡哆醛(PLP)的脱羧酶,并对其底物组氨酸有高度特异性。[4]. ...
... disulfonic acid. NHE. =. sodium-proton exchange. PKA. =. protein kinase A. PKC. =. protein kinase C. ... diisothiocyano-stilbene-2,2′- ... Novelty and Significance: 1) What Is New, 2) What Is Relevant? ... Na+/H+ and Cl−/HCO3− exchanges were enhanced in erythrocytes of all patients with Bartter-like syndrome (Table 2⇓) partly due ... Two hundred micromoles per liter of the red blood cell suspension was treated with 4 mCi/L 86Rb as a radioactive analogue of ...
... disulfonic acid (DIDS), a chloride (Cl−) channel blocker, was injected into chronic cerebral ischemia-hypoxia rat models at ... Furthermore, the elevated number of caspase-3 and neural/glial antigen 2 (NG-2) double-labeled positive cells was attenuated by ... Our results showed that DIDS significantly reduced the elevated mRNA levels and protein expression of chloride channel 2 (ClC-2 ... disulfonic acid (DIDS), a chloride (Cl−) channel blocker, was injected into chronic cerebral ischemia-hypoxia rat models at ...
... disulfonic acid (DIDS). The kinetics of the residual chloride transport (0.2%, 106 pmol.cm-2 x s-1) at 38 degrees C, pH 7.2) ... diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2-disulfonic acid binding.. P K Gasbjerg, J Funder, J Brahm ... The outside apparent affinity, expressed by Ko1/2,c, was 34 mM, as determined by substituting external KCl by sucrose. The ... Kinetics of residual chloride transport in human red blood cells after maximum covalent 4,4-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2- ...
... disulfonic acid (DIDS) protects isolated mitochondria against Tat-induced mitochondrial membrane permeabilization (MMP), ... diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2- ... Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 * tat Gene Products, Human ... Pharmacologic inhibitors of the permeability transition pore, Bax/Bak inhibitors, and recombinant Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL proteins do ...
... disulfonic Acid / analogs & derivatives * 4-Acetamido-4-isothiocyanatostilbene-2,2-disulfonic Acid / pharmacology ... Diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2-Disulfonic Acid * 4-Acetamido-4-isothiocyanatostilbene-2,2- ... Rather, its preferential site of action and that of iodoacetic acid were identified by radiolabeling studies and microsequence ... acetate exhibits a much lower capacity for cell entry and that the structural analog alpha-cyano-3-hydroxycinnamic acid ...
... disulfonic acid, but not by small anionic compounds, such as lactic acid and acetic acid. The inhibitory effect of pravastatin ... diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2′- ...
... disulfonic acid, but not by small anionic compounds, such as lactic acid and acetic acid. The inhibitory effect of pravastatin ... diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2′- ...
... disulfonic acid), ouabain, rotenone, BSA, and alanine-proline were purchased from Sigma Chemical Co. (St. Louis, MO). KCN was ... diisothiocyanostilbene-2, 2′- ... the monocarboxylic acid benzoic acid (100 μM), the nonspecific ... As both enalaprilat and temocaprilat are dicarboxylic acids and enalapril is a monocarboxylic acid, it is plausible that ... Benzoic acid, a putative substrate of the monocarboxylate transporter MCT2 (Garcia et al., 1995) and not of Oatp1 (Pang et al ...
... disulfonic acid (2) * adult (2) * bodily secretions (2) Filters. * Has Multimedia (1) ... diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2- ... Tissue-specific expression of alpha-2-macroglobulin by choroid ...
... disulfonic acid binding. J Gen Physiol. 1993 May101(5):715-32.PubMed ID8393066 ... diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2- ... Fig.2), the apparent permeability was reduced to 1.2×10^-6cm/ ... Gasbjerg PK, Funder J, Brahm J. Kinetics of residual chloride transport in human red blood cells after maximum covalent 4,4- ... The permeability calculated from the irreversible-DIDS-inhibited bicarbonate efflux (Fig.2) is 1.7×10^-6 cm/sec at pH 7.8, ...
... disulfonic acid (DIDS) was obtained from Invitrogen. The bath solution for HEK293 cells (solution A) contained 145 mM NaCl, 1 ... diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2′-disulfonic acid; GFP, green fluorescent protein; HEK, human embryonic kidney. ... 2 (C and D), we measured the Clo− dependency of HCO3− and Cl− transport. To measure the transport at close to the resting pHi ... 2 D. It is clear that the slc26a3-mediated Cl− and HCO3− fluxes have the same dependency on Clo−. Interestingly, the Clo− ...
... disulfonic acid. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants.[provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]. Expression. ... diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2- ... Transcript Variant: This variant (4) differs in the 5 UTR ... Variants 1, 2, 3 and 4 encode the same protein.. Source sequence(s). AI963799, AK075248, AK315132, BC035900, DA290933 Consensus ... Transcript Variant: This variant (3) differs in the 5 UTR compared to variant 1. Variants 1, 2, 3 and 4 encode the same ...
... disulfonic acid (DIDS), and anthracene-9-carboxylic acid (A-9-C), on Ca2+ signalling in rat pulmonary artery smooth muscle ... Diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2-disulfonic acid. *Furthermore, Trk1p-mediated chloride conductance was blocked by 4,4- ... disulfonic acid inhibits CD3-T cell antigen receptor-stimulated Ca2+ influx in human T lymphocytes. Rosoff, P.M., Hall, C., ... disulfonic acid of the plasma membrane (Ca(2+)+Mg2+)ATPase from kidney proximal tubules. Guilherme, A., Meyer-Fernandes, J.R., ...
... disulfonic acid (DIDS) and its dihydro derivative (H2DIDS) J Membr Biol 29(1-2):147-77. ... diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2′-disulfonic acid, disodium salt (DIDS). Aliquots were taken for ektacytometry or gradient ... stilbene disulfonic acid derivatives), a chloride channel inhibitor NS1652, and the inhibitor of the KNHE, HOE-642. Our data ... of band 3 have been found to be less efficient in transporting anions and have a decreased affinity to stilbene disulfonic acid ...
... disulfonic acid and protonophore carbonylcyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone, respectively. These observations ... diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2- ... The initial uptakes of L-[(14)C]lactic acid which are driven by ... Anion antiport mechanism is involved in transport of lactic acid across intestinal epithelial brush-border membrane.. Tamai I1 ... Kinetic analysis of L-[(14)C]lactic acid uptake revealed the involvement of two saturable processes in the presence of both ...
... disulfonic acid (DIDS) and an antibody against the ClC-3 channels, but accelerated by increases in the intracellular ATP:ADP ... diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2- ... The cyanobacterial amino acid β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) ... The amino acid sequence of eEF2 is highly conserved in different organisms. eEF2 from S. cerevisiae contains 842 amino acids. ... The amino acid sequence of eEF2 is highly conserved in different organisms. eEF2 from S. cerevisiae contains 842 amino acids. ...
... disulfonic acid (DIDS) stimulates K+ efflux into the portal space in proportion to choleresis (13), suggesting a functional ... diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2′- ... The overall sequence identity at the amino acid level is 90%. ... The longer deduced isoform (4.2a) has 30 additional NH3-terminal amino acids, which identifies this as a new isoform. The short ... A maltose-binding protein/Kir4.2 fusion protein containing the final, COOH-terminal 170 amino acid residues of the channel was ...
Thus, fugu-NBCe1 represents the first ortholog-based tool to study amino acid substitutions in NBCe1 and how those change ion ... Thus, fugu-NBCe1 represents the first ortholog-based tool to study amino acid substitutions in NBCe1 and how those change ion ... Thus, fugu-NBCe1 represents the first ortholog-based tool to study amino acid substitutions in NBCe1 and how those change ion ... Thus, fugu-NBCe1 represents the first ortholog-based tool to study amino acid substitutions in NBCe1 and how those change ion ...
Unlabeled biotin and the structural analogs with free carboxyl groups (thioctic acid, desthiobiotin) but not those with blocked ... Unlabeled biotin and the structural analogs with free carboxyl groups (thioctic acid, desthiobiotin) but not those with blocked ... Unlabeled biotin and the structural analogs with free carboxyl groups (thioctic acid, desthiobiotin) but not those with blocked ... Unlabeled biotin and the structural analogs with free carboxyl groups (thioctic acid, desthiobiotin) but not those with blocked ...
2#-disulfonic acid, 100 mm Tricine-KOH, pH 8.0). Control experiments with membranes from yeast cells harboring the empty vector ... 4#-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2#-disulfonic acid also effectively inhibited GspPT-mediated import of [32P]phosphate (data not ... 2A), AMP, UMP, gluconate-6-P, ribulose-1,5-bisP, ADP-Glc, UDP-Glc, UDP-Gal, α-ketoglutaric acid, malic acid, pyruvic acid, or ... fatty acids, several amino acids, nucleic acids, and the reductive assimilation of inorganic ions like nitrate and sulfate ( ...
... disulfonic acid (DIDS) and bromosulphalein (BSP). We tested the efficiency of these drugs on HSP70 secretion and confirmed the ... diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2- ... Serum adipocyte fatty acid binding protein as a new biomarker ... Adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein is released from adipocytes by a non-conventional mechanism. Int. J. Obes. 38:1251-1254. ... Identification of fatty acid binding protein 4 as an adipokine that regulates insulin secretion during obesity. Mol. Metab. 3: ...
2#-disulfonic acid, 100 mm Tricine-KOH, pH 8.0). Control experiments with membranes from yeast cells harboring the empty vector ... 4#-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2#-disulfonic acid also effectively inhibited GspPT-mediated import of [32P]phosphate (data not ... 2A), AMP, UMP, gluconate-6-P, ribulose-1,5-bisP, ADP-Glc, UDP-Glc, UDP-Gal, α-ketoglutaric acid, malic acid, pyruvic acid, or ... fatty acids, several amino acids, nucleic acids, and the reductive assimilation of inorganic ions like nitrate and sulfate ( ...
... disulfonic acid (DIDS) to block non-CFTR Cl− channels, followed by forskolin and IBMX to increase cellular concentrations of ... diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2′- ... E) to (H) are H&E stain and (I) to (M) are periodic acid-Schiff ... Protein was measured with the bicinchoninic acid (BCA) assay (Thermo Fisher). Protein (10 to 25 mg) was used per lane as ... CFTR+/+ (n = 5) combined with CFTR+/ΔF508 (n = 4); CFTRΔF508/ΔF508 (n = 11). Compared to an earlier study that showed ...
... disulfonic acid (DIDS) and an antibody against the ClC-3 channels, but accelerated by increases in the intracellular ATP:ADP ... diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2- ...
The researchers found that, in macrophages from Alzheimers patients, 1,25D3 potentiated the 4,4-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2- ... disulfonic acid-sensitive chloride channel (CIC-3) currents in type I and II cells. In addition, 1,25D3 upregulated CIC-3 mRNA ...
  • Among its related pathways are Salivary secretion and Transport of glucose and other sugars, bile salts and organic acids, metal ions and amine compounds . (genecards.org)
  • It was found that MDR1 activity and its inhibition by cyclosporine A or flufenamic acid were unaffected by hypotonicity alone or in combination with Cl - channel blockers. (elsevier.com)
  • Thus, fugu-NBCe1 represents the first ortholog-based tool to study amino acid substitutions in NBCe1 and how those change ion and voltage dependence. (elsevier.com)
  • Multiple alignment of AkMLC2f amino acid sequences with MLC2 from other species. (bioz.com)
  • Nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of Akmlc2f cDNA. (bioz.com)
  • We have functionally characterized Na+-driven bicarbonate transporter (NBC)4, originally cloned from human heart by Pushkin et al. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Citrate excretion was sensitive to anion channel blockers, such as niflumic acid and anthracene-9-carboxylic acid. (oup.com)
  • The outside apparent affinity, expressed by Ko1/2,c, was 34 mM, as determined by substituting external KCl by sucrose. (rupress.org)
  • In the present work, we provide the first evidence that ClC-4 protein is functionally expressed on the surface of the intestinal epithelium and hence, is appropriately localized to act as a therapeutic target in this CF-affected tissue. (jove.com)
  • We show using confocal and electron microscopy that ClC-4 co-localizes with CFTR in the brush border membrane of the epithelium lining intestinal crypts in mouse and human tissues. (jove.com)
  • In the present study, fatty acid (FA) transport is characterized with regard to its specificity and susceptibility to inhibition by protein modifiers. (wustl.edu)
  • The kidney biopsies of patients with Bartter's syndrome showed juxtaglomerular hyperplasia, and elevated prostaglandin levels were found in their blood 2 and urine. (ahajournals.org)
  • An appreciation of the functional properties of the cytoplasmic fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) has advanced with the recent demonstration that an extracellular form secreted by adipocytes regulates a wide range of physiological functions. (rupress.org)
  • Permeation of long-chain fatty acid into adipocytes. (wustl.edu)
  • Pronase but not trypsin treatment of intact cells reduces fatty acid influx. (wustl.edu)
  • Although voltage dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC1) involved in regulating QCT-induced apoptotic cell death has been established, the role of voltage dependent anion channel 2 (VDAC2) in QCT-induced toxicity remains unclear. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • The rate of citrate release from IPG cells was not affected by the concentration of aluminum (0 and 50 µM), soluble P i (0 or 2 mM) and the pH (4.5-5.6) of the medium, suggesting that anion channels would not be regulated by such external conditions. (oup.com)
  • Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Biomembranes , 1372 (2), 244-254. (elsevier.com)
  • Biochimica et Biophysica Acta , 1135 (2), 180-3. (elsevier.com)
  • A biologic function for an "orphan" messenger: D-myo-inositol 3,4,5,6-tetrakisphosphate selectively blocks epithelial calcium-activated chloride channels. (ac.be)
  • Requires for normal levels of gastric acid secretion, secretory membrane development, parietal cell maturation and/or differentiation and at least secondarily for chief cell differentiation (By similarity). (genecards.org)
  • These acid-loading and acid-extruding transport mechanisms together with the Na(+), K(+), ATPase may be sufficient to account not only for pH(i) regulation in brain endothelial cells but also for the net secretion of HCO(-)(3) across the blood-brain barrier. (edu.au)
  • Following relatively small acid loads with pH(i) approximately 6.5, HCO(-)(3) influx accounted for most of the acid extrusion from the cell with both Cl(-)-independent and Cl(-)-dependent, Na(+)-dependent transporters involved. (edu.au)
  • The findings that [14C] acetate exhibits a much lower capacity for cell entry and that the structural analog alpha-cyano-3-hydroxycinnamic acid inhibits pyruvate release provide additional support for the presence of a pyruvate transporter. (nih.gov)
  • and was later shown to function as a SO 4 = transporter. (rupress.org)
  • The Cl(-)-independent component has the same properties as the NBC-like transporter previously shown to account for most of the acid extrusion near the resting pH(i). (edu.au)
  • This exchange had the same properties as the AE-like transporter previously identified as a major acid loader near resting pH(i). (edu.au)
  • The cell viability was assessed by the MTT (3-(4, 5-Dimethythiazol-2 yl)- diphenytetra zolium bromide) assay. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Pharmacologic inhibitors of the permeability transition pore, Bax/Bak inhibitors, and recombinant Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL proteins do not reduce Tat-induced MMP. (nih.gov)
  • Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of plasma membrane proteins from cells treated with [ 3 H] 4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonate shows a peak of radioactivity at about M(r) = 85,000. (wustl.edu)
  • Sensory neurons signal for an increase in rat gastric mucosal blood flow in the face of pending acid injury. (naver.com)
  • Transport activities involved in intracellular pH (pH(i)) recovery after acid or alkali challenge were investigated in cultured rat brain microvascular endothelial cells by monitoring pH(i) using a pH-sensitive dye. (edu.au)
  • After correcting for a 4.4-fold lower apparent Stern-Volmer constant for intravesicular lucigenin, a maximum rate of Cl(-) transport of 31 nmol m(-2) sec(-1) was calculated, in good agreement with values obtained for the plant vacuolar membrane using other techniques. (ox.ac.uk)