A membrane bound member of the TNF superfamily that is expressed on activated B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; and DENDRITIC CELLS. The ligand is specific for the 4-1BB RECEPTOR and may play a role in inducing the proliferation of activated peripheral blood T-LYMPHOCYTES.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that is specific for 4-1BB LIGAND. It is found in a variety of immune cell types including activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; NATURAL KILLER CELLS; and DENDRITIC CELLS. Activation of the receptor on T-LYMPHOCYTES plays a role in their expansion, production of cytokines and survival. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Cell surface receptors that bind NERVE GROWTH FACTOR; (NGF) and a NGF-related family of neurotrophic factors that includes neurotrophins, BRAIN-DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR and CILIARY NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR.
A family of proteins that were originally identified by their ability to cause NECROSIS of NEOPLASMS. Their necrotic effect on cells is mediated through TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR RECEPTORS which induce APOPTOSIS.
Cell surface receptors that bind TUMOR NECROSIS FACTORS and trigger changes which influence the behavior of cells.
A strain of Rattus norvegicus which is a model for spontaneous insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, INSULIN-DEPENDENT).
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Inbred C57BL mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been produced by many generations of brother-sister matings, resulting in a high degree of genetic uniformity and homozygosity, making them widely used for biomedical research, including studies on genetics, immunology, cancer, and neuroscience.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
A membrane glycoprotein and differentiation antigen expressed on the surface of T-cells that binds to CD40 ANTIGENS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and induces their proliferation. Mutation of the gene for CD40 ligand is a cause of HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 1.

4-1BBL cooperates with B7-1 and B7-2 in converting a B cell lymphoma cell line into a long-lasting antitumor vaccine. (1/160)

A20 is a B cell lymphoma that constitutively expresses the costimulatory molecule B7-2 yet grows readily as a tumor in syngeneic BALB/c mice. We have compared the tumorigenicity of A20 variants expressing either B7-1 (A20/B7-1) or B7-2 (A20/B7-2) with an A20 variant expressing B7-1 and B7-2 with 4-1BBL (A20/4-1BBL), a costimulatory member of the TNF family. Mice injected with tumors expressing the vector backbone (A20/CMV) or B7-1 developed tumors within 25 days of s.c. injection. In contrast, mice injected with A20/4-1BBL were tumor free for the 150-day follow-up period, while 25% of mice injected with A20/B7-2 developed tumors. Tumorigenicity experiments using nude mice indicated the requirement for T cells for variant rejection. Almost all mice that resisted the initial tumor challenge were resistant to further challenge with the parental tumor. Splenocytes from these mice showed high CTL lytic activity against the parental tumor, A20, as well as the syngeneic BALB/c lymphoma K46J, but showed background levels of lytic activity against the congenic SCID thymoma line ST-D2 or the allogeneic EL4 thymoma. In vitro blocking experiments with anti-B7-1 plus anti-B7-2 and/or soluble 4-1BB receptor showed B7-1, B7-2, and 4-1BBL all contributed to the CTL activity. Thus, the data show that neither B7-1 or B7-2 alone can confer full immunogenicity to the A20 lymphoma but that the addition of 4-1BBL results in a tumor that is highly immunogenic and can confer long-lasting protection against challenge with parental tumor in vivo.  (+info)

Cutting edge: 4-1BB is a bona fide CD8 T cell survival signal. (2/160)

After recognition of Ag/MHC and ligation of a costimulatory molecule, resting T cells will clonally expand and then delete to very low levels. Previously, it was shown that deletion can be prevented by coinjection of cytokines or proinflammatory agents such as adjuvants. Here, we demonstrate that ligation of 4-1BB blocks deletion of superantigen-activated T cells in the absence of adjuvant or additional cytokine treatment. Nearly 10 times as many staphylococcal enterotoxin A-specific T cells were detected in the spleens of mice injected 21 days previously with staphylococcal enterotoxin A and an agonist anti-4-1BB Ab compared with mice given staphylococcal enterotoxin A and a control IgG. Even though both CD4- and CD8-activated T cells expressed 4-1BB, a higher proportion of CD8 T cells were rescued compared CD4 T cells. These data suggest that although 4-1BB provides costimulation, it may also promote long-term T cell survival.  (+info)

Analysis of 4-1BB ligand (4-1BBL)-deficient mice and of mice lacking both 4-1BBL and CD28 reveals a role for 4-1BBL in skin allograft rejection and in the cytotoxic T cell response to influenza virus. (3/160)

4-1BB ligand (4-1BBL) is a member of the TNF family expressed on activated APC. 4-1BBL binds to 4-1BB (CD137) on activated CD4 and CD8 T cells and in conjunction with strong signals through the TCR provides a CD28-independent costimulatory signal leading to high level IL-2 production by primary resting T cells. Here we report the immunological characterization of mice lacking 4-1BBL and of mice lacking both 4-1BBL and CD28. 4-1BBL-/- mice mount neutralizing IgM and IgG responses to vesicular stomatitis virus that are indistinguishable from those of wild-type mice. 4-1BBL-/- mice show unimpaired CTL responses to lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) and exhibit normal skin allograft rejection but have a weaker CTL response to influenza virus than wild-type mice. 4-1BBL-/-CD28-/- mice retain the CTL response to LCMV, respond poorly to influenza virus, and exhibit a delay in skin allograft rejection. In agreement with these in vivo results, allogeneic CTL responses of CD28-/- but not CD28+/+ T cells to 4-1BBL-expressing APC are substantially inhibited by soluble 4-1BB receptor as is the in vitro secondary response of CD28+ T cells to influenza virus peptides. TCR-transgenic CD28-/- LCMV glycoprotein-specific T cells are insensitive to the presence of 4-1BBL when a wild-type peptide is used, but the response to a weak agonist peptide is greatly augmented by the presence of 4-1BBL. These results further substantiate the idea that different immune responses vary in their dependence on costimulation and suggest a role for 4-1BBL in augmenting suboptimal CTL responses in vivo.  (+info)

4-1BB ligand, a member of the TNF family, is important for the generation of antiviral CD8 T cell responses. (4/160)

4-1BB (CD137) is a costimulatory molecule expressed on activated T cells and interacts with 4-1BB ligand (4-1BBL) on APCs. To investigate the role of 4-1BB costimulation for the development of primary immune responses, 4-1BBL-deficient (4-1BBL-/-) mice were infected with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV). 4-1BBL-/- mice were able to generate CTL and eliminate acute LCMV infection with normal kinetics, but CD8 T cell expansion was 2- to 3-fold lower than in wild-type (+/+) mice. In the same mice, virus-specific CD4 Th and B cell responses were minimally affected, indicating that 4-1BB costimulation preferentially affects CD8 T cell responses. This result contrasts with our earlier work with CD40L-deficient (CD40L-/-) mice, in which the CD8 T cell response was unaffected and the CD4 T cell response was markedly impaired. When both 4-1BBL- and B7-dependent signals were absent, CD8 T cell expansion was further reduced, resulting in lower CTL activity and impairing their ability to clear LCMV. Altogether, these results indicate that T cells have distinct costimulatory requirements: optimal CD8 responses require 4-1BBL-dependent interactions, whereas CD4 responses are minimally affected by 4-1BB costimulation, but require CD40-CD40L and B7-dependent interactions.  (+info)

Critical contribution of OX40 ligand to T helper cell type 2 differentiation in experimental leishmaniasis. (5/160)

Infection of inbred mouse strains with Leishmania major is a well characterized model for analysis of T helper (Th)1 and Th2 cell development in vivo. In this study, to address the role of costimulatory molecules CD27, CD30, 4-1BB, and OX40, which belong to the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, in the development of Th1 and Th2 cells in vivo, we administered monoclonal antibody (mAb) against their ligands, CD70, CD30 ligand (L), 4-1BBL, and OX40L, to mice infected with L. major. Whereas anti-CD70, anti-CD30L, and anti-4-1BBL mAb exhibited no effect in either susceptible BALB/c or resistant C57BL/6 mice, the administration of anti-OX40L mAb abrogated progressive disease in BALB/c mice. Flow cytometric analysis indicated that OX40 was expressed on CD4(+) T cells and OX40L was expressed on CD11c(+) dendritic cells in the popliteal lymph nodes of L. major-infected BALB/c mice. In vitro stimulation of these CD4(+) T cells showed that anti-OX40L mAb treatment resulted in substantially reduced production of Th2 cytokines. Moreover, this change in cytokine levels was associated with reduced levels of anti-L. major immunoglobulin (Ig)G1 and serum IgE. These results indicate that anti-OX40L mAb abrogated progressive leishmaniasis in BALB/c mice by suppressing the development of Th2 responses, substantiating a critical role of OX40-OX40L interaction in Th2 development in vivo.  (+info)

Immunomodulatory gene therapy with interleukin 12 and 4-1BB ligand: long- term remission of liver metastases in a mouse model. (6/160)

BACKGROUND: The success of immunomodulatory cancer therapy is frequently hampered by the transient nature of the antitumor immune response. We have shown previously in a mouse model that interleukin 12 (IL-12) generates a strong natural killer (NK) cell-mediated antitumor response and reduces liver metastases induced by a colon carcinoma cell line. However, only a small percentage of the treated animals developed the cytotoxic T-lymphocytic response required for a long-term systemic antitumor immunity. 4-1BB is a co-stimulatory molecule expressed on the surface of activated T cells. Interaction of 4-1BB with its natural ligand (4-1BBL) has been shown to amplify T-cell (especially CD8+)-mediated immunity. In this study, we investigated the effects of adenovirus-mediated gene therapy delivering both IL-12 and 4-1BBL genes on mice with hepatic metastases induced by colon cancer cells. METHODS: Syngeneic BALB/c mice received intrahepatic injection of poorly immunogenic MCA26 colon cancer cells. Various combinations of replication-defective adenoviruses expressing IL-12 and 4-1BBL genes were injected into the established liver tumors. Changes in tumor size and animal survival were then monitored. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: The long-term survival rate of mice treated with the combination of IL-12 and 4-1BBL was significantly improved over that of animals in the control group (P =.0001). In vivo depletion of NK cells or CD8+ T cells completely abolished the long-term survival advantage of the IL-12 plus 4-1BBL-treated animals (P<.002). Moreover, the systemic immunity induced by this combination treatment protected these animals against a subcutaneous challenge with parental MCA26 cells. CONCLUSION: Adenovirus-mediated transfer of IL-12 and 4-1BBL genes directly into liver tumors resulted in tumor regression that required both NK and CD8+ T cells and generated a potent, long-lasting antitumor immunity.  (+info)

4-1BB: still in the midst of darkness. (7/160)

4-1BB is a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily. The receptor functions mainly as a costimulatory molecule in T lymphocytes. In addition, several lines of evidence have shown that interactions between 4-1BB and its ligand are involved in the antigen presentation process and the generation of cytotoxic T cells. Recent studies, however, have demonstrated that 4-1BB plays more diverse roles: Signals through 4-1BB are important for long-term survival of CD8+ T cells and the induction of helper T cell anergy. Clinically, there is great interest in 4-1BB, because T-cell activation induced by anti-4-1BB monoclonal antibodies is highly efficient in the eradication of established tumor cells in mice. Now, since mice deficient in 4-1BB or the 4-1BB ligand are available, subtle roles played by 4-1BB may be revealed in the near future.  (+info)

Rejection of disseminated metastases of colon carcinoma by synergism of IL-12 gene therapy and 4-1BB costimulation. (8/160)

In an orthotopic model of metastatic colon carcinoma established in the liver of mice, we have previously shown that the natural killer (NK) cells were the major effectors after intratumoral delivery of a recombinant adenovirus expressing the murine IL-12 gene. However, tumor cure and long-term survival were achieved only in a minority of animals. In the present study, we generated an effective antitumoral CD8(+ ) T-cell response by the combination of IL-12 gene therapy and systemic delivery of an agonistic monoclonal antibody against 4-1BB, a costimulatory molecule expressed on activated T cells. In the IL-12 plus anti-4-1BB combination treatment, the effective dose of IL-12 could even be reduced even up to 18-fold and still achieved a better efficacy than the maximal dose of either treatment alone. We further demonstrate that the innate and the adaptive antitumoral immune responses were synergistic, as animals bearing hepatic as well as multiple pulmonary metastases were quantitatively cured of their diseases after IL-12 gene therapy + anti-4-1BB combination treatment. Both NK and CD8(+) T cells were necessary in maintaining the long-term antitumor immunity, as depletion of either cell type in the cured animals abolished their abilities to reject tumor cells implanted at distal sites. These results indicate that synergism between innate and adaptive immune responses may be effectively exploited to treat patients with metastatic diseases.  (+info)

4-1BB ligand, also known as CD137L or TNFSF9, is a type II transmembrane protein that belongs to the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily. It is a ligand for the 4-1BB receptor (CD137), which is a costimulatory molecule expressed on activated T cells.

The interaction between 4-1BB and its ligand provides a critical costimulatory signal that enhances T cell activation, proliferation, and survival. This signaling pathway plays an important role in the regulation of immune responses and has been implicated in various physiological and pathological processes, including autoimmunity, infectious diseases, and cancer.

In the context of cancer immunotherapy, agonistic antibodies targeting 4-1BB have shown promise in preclinical and clinical studies as a means to enhance anti-tumor immune responses. The binding of these antibodies to 4-1BB leads to its clustering and activation, which in turn promotes the expansion and survival of tumor-specific T cells, thereby enhancing their ability to eliminate cancer cells.

CD1

A ligand, in the context of biochemistry and medicine, is a molecule that binds to a specific site on a protein or a larger biomolecule, such as an enzyme or a receptor. This binding interaction can modify the function or activity of the target protein, either activating it or inhibiting it. Ligands can be small molecules, like hormones or neurotransmitters, or larger structures, like antibodies. The study of ligand-protein interactions is crucial for understanding cellular processes and developing drugs, as many therapeutic compounds function by binding to specific targets within the body.

Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) receptors are a type of protein molecule found on the surface of certain cells, specifically those associated with the nervous system. They play a crucial role in the development, maintenance, and survival of neurons (nerve cells). There are two main types of NGF receptors:

1. Tyrosine Kinase Receptor A (TrkA): This is a high-affinity receptor for NGF and is primarily found on sensory neurons and sympathetic neurons. TrkA activation by NGF leads to the initiation of various intracellular signaling pathways that promote neuronal survival, differentiation, and growth.
2. P75 Neurotrophin Receptor (p75NTR): This is a low-affinity receptor for NGF and other neurotrophins. It can function as a coreceptor with Trk receptors to modulate their signals or act independently to mediate cell death under certain conditions.

Together, these two types of NGF receptors help regulate the complex interactions between neurons and their targets during development and throughout adult life.

Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) is a type of cytokine, which is a category of proteins that are crucial to cell signaling. TNF plays a significant role in the body's immune response and inflammation process. Specifically, it's primarily produced by activated macrophages as a defensive response against infection, but it can also be produced by other cells such as T-cells and NK cells.

TNF has two types of receptors, TNFR1 and TNFR2, through which it exerts its biological effects. These effects include:

1. Activation of immune cells: TNF helps in the activation of other inflammatory cells like more macrophages and stimulates the release of other cytokines.
2. Cell survival or death: Depending on the context, TNF can promote cell survival or induce programmed cell death (apoptosis), particularly in cancer cells.
3. Fever and acute phase response: TNF is one of the mediators that cause fever and the acute phase reaction during an infection.

The term 'Tumor Necrosis Factor' comes from its historical discovery where it was noted to cause necrosis (death) of tumor cells in certain conditions, although this is not its primary function in the body. Overproduction or dysregulation of TNF has been implicated in several diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and some types of cancer.

Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) Receptors are cell surface receptors that bind to tumor necrosis factor cytokines. They play crucial roles in the regulation of a variety of immune cell functions, including inflammation, immunity, and cell survival or death (apoptosis).

There are two major types of TNF receptors: TNFR1 (also known as p55 or CD120a) and TNFR2 (also known as p75 or CD120b). TNFR1 is widely expressed in most tissues, while TNFR2 has a more restricted expression pattern and is mainly found on immune cells.

TNF receptors have an intracellular domain called the death domain, which can trigger signaling pathways leading to apoptosis when activated by TNF ligands. However, they can also activate other signaling pathways that promote cell survival, differentiation, and inflammation. Dysregulation of TNF receptor signaling has been implicated in various diseases, including cancer, autoimmune disorders, and neurodegenerative conditions.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Rats, Inbred BB" is not a widely recognized medical term or abbreviation in human or veterinary medicine. The term "inbred" is used in genetics to describe an organism that has resulted from many generations of mating between closely related individuals, which can lead to a higher incidence of homozygosity (the same allele inherited from both parents) and expression of recessive traits.

The "BB" strain could refer to a specific inbred rat strain, but without more context, it's difficult to provide a precise definition. The BB Wistar rat strain is sometimes used in research, and it has been used as a model for studying various medical conditions such as diabetes and hypertension.

If you are looking for information about a specific scientific study or medical condition related to an "Inbred BB" rat strain, I would be happy to help you if you could provide more context or details.

CD (cluster of differentiation) antigens are cell-surface proteins that are expressed on leukocytes (white blood cells) and can be used to identify and distinguish different subsets of these cells. They are important markers in the field of immunology and hematology, and are commonly used to diagnose and monitor various diseases, including cancer, autoimmune disorders, and infectious diseases.

CD antigens are designated by numbers, such as CD4, CD8, CD19, etc., which refer to specific proteins found on the surface of different types of leukocytes. For example, CD4 is a protein found on the surface of helper T cells, while CD8 is found on cytotoxic T cells.

CD antigens can be used as targets for immunotherapy, such as monoclonal antibody therapy, in which antibodies are designed to bind to specific CD antigens and trigger an immune response against cancer cells or infected cells. They can also be used as markers to monitor the effectiveness of treatments and to detect minimal residual disease (MRD) after treatment.

It's important to note that not all CD antigens are exclusive to leukocytes, some can be found on other cell types as well, and their expression can vary depending on the activation state or differentiation stage of the cells.

CD28 is a co-stimulatory molecule that plays an important role in the activation and regulation of T cells, which are key players in the immune response. It is a type of protein found on the surface of T cells and interacts with other proteins called B7-1 (also known as CD80) and B7-2 (also known as CD86) that are expressed on the surface of antigen-presenting cells (APCs).

When a T cell encounters an APC that is presenting an antigen, the T cell receptor (TCR) on the surface of the T cell recognizes and binds to the antigen. However, this interaction alone is not enough to fully activate the T cell. The engagement of CD28 with B7-1 or B7-2 provides a critical co-stimulatory signal that promotes T cell activation, proliferation, and survival.

CD28 is also an important target for immune checkpoint inhibitors, which are drugs used to treat cancer by blocking the inhibitory signals that prevent T cells from attacking tumor cells. By blocking CD28, these drugs can enhance the anti-tumor response of T cells and improve cancer outcomes.

CD80 (also known as B7-1) is a cell surface protein that functions as a costimulatory molecule in the immune system. It is primarily expressed on antigen presenting cells such as dendritic cells, macrophages, and B cells. CD80 binds to the CD28 receptor on T cells, providing a critical second signal necessary for T cell activation and proliferation. This interaction plays a crucial role in the initiation of an effective immune response against pathogens and tumors.

CD80 can also interact with another receptor called CTLA-4 (cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4), which is expressed on activated T cells. The binding of CD80 to CTLA-4 delivers a negative signal that helps regulate the immune response and prevent overactivation, contributing to the maintenance of self-tolerance and preventing autoimmunity.

In summary, CD80 is an important antigen involved in the regulation of the adaptive immune response by modulating T cell activation and proliferation through its interactions with CD28 and CTLA-4 receptors.

Lymphocyte activation is the process by which B-cells and T-cells (types of lymphocytes) become activated to perform effector functions in an immune response. This process involves the recognition of specific antigens presented on the surface of antigen-presenting cells, such as dendritic cells or macrophages.

The activation of B-cells leads to their differentiation into plasma cells that produce antibodies, while the activation of T-cells results in the production of cytotoxic T-cells (CD8+ T-cells) that can directly kill infected cells or helper T-cells (CD4+ T-cells) that assist other immune cells.

Lymphocyte activation involves a series of intracellular signaling events, including the binding of co-stimulatory molecules and the release of cytokines, which ultimately result in the expression of genes involved in cell proliferation, differentiation, and effector functions. The activation process is tightly regulated to prevent excessive or inappropriate immune responses that can lead to autoimmunity or chronic inflammation.

C57BL/6 (C57 Black 6) is an inbred strain of laboratory mouse that is widely used in biomedical research. The term "inbred" refers to a strain of animals where matings have been carried out between siblings or other closely related individuals for many generations, resulting in a population that is highly homozygous at most genetic loci.

The C57BL/6 strain was established in 1920 by crossing a female mouse from the dilute brown (DBA) strain with a male mouse from the black strain. The resulting offspring were then interbred for many generations to create the inbred C57BL/6 strain.

C57BL/6 mice are known for their robust health, longevity, and ease of handling, making them a popular choice for researchers. They have been used in a wide range of biomedical research areas, including studies of cancer, immunology, neuroscience, cardiovascular disease, and metabolism.

One of the most notable features of the C57BL/6 strain is its sensitivity to certain genetic modifications, such as the introduction of mutations that lead to obesity or impaired glucose tolerance. This has made it a valuable tool for studying the genetic basis of complex diseases and traits.

Overall, the C57BL/6 inbred mouse strain is an important model organism in biomedical research, providing a valuable resource for understanding the genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying human health and disease.

T-lymphocytes, also known as T-cells, are a type of white blood cell that plays a key role in the adaptive immune system's response to infection. They are produced in the bone marrow and mature in the thymus gland. There are several different types of T-cells, including CD4+ helper T-cells, CD8+ cytotoxic T-cells, and regulatory T-cells (Tregs).

CD4+ helper T-cells assist in activating other immune cells, such as B-lymphocytes and macrophages. They also produce cytokines, which are signaling molecules that help coordinate the immune response. CD8+ cytotoxic T-cells directly kill infected cells by releasing toxic substances. Regulatory T-cells help maintain immune tolerance and prevent autoimmune diseases by suppressing the activity of other immune cells.

T-lymphocytes are important in the immune response to viral infections, cancer, and other diseases. Dysfunction or depletion of T-cells can lead to immunodeficiency and increased susceptibility to infections. On the other hand, an overactive T-cell response can contribute to autoimmune diseases and chronic inflammation.

Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-α) is a cytokine, a type of small signaling protein involved in immune response and inflammation. It is primarily produced by activated macrophages, although other cell types such as T-cells, natural killer cells, and mast cells can also produce it.

TNF-α plays a crucial role in the body's defense against infection and tissue injury by mediating inflammatory responses, activating immune cells, and inducing apoptosis (programmed cell death) in certain types of cells. It does this by binding to its receptors, TNFR1 and TNFR2, which are found on the surface of many cell types.

In addition to its role in the immune response, TNF-α has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several diseases, including autoimmune disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and psoriasis, as well as cancer, where it can promote tumor growth and metastasis.

Therapeutic agents that target TNF-α, such as infliximab, adalimumab, and etanercept, have been developed to treat these conditions. However, these drugs can also increase the risk of infections and other side effects, so their use must be carefully monitored.

CD40 ligand (CD40L or CD154) is a type II transmembrane protein and a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily. It is primarily expressed on activated CD4+ T cells, but can also be found on other immune cells such as activated B cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells.

CD40 ligand binds to its receptor, CD40, which is mainly expressed on the surface of antigen-presenting cells (APCs) such as B cells, dendritic cells, and macrophages. The interaction between CD40L and CD40 plays a crucial role in the activation and regulation of the immune response.

CD40L-CD40 signaling is essential for T cell-dependent B cell activation, antibody production, and class switching. It also contributes to the activation and maturation of dendritic cells, promoting their ability to stimulate T cell responses. Dysregulation of CD40L-CD40 signaling has been implicated in various autoimmune diseases, transplant rejection, and cancer.

"Dichotomous Expression of TNF Superfamily Ligands on Antigen-Presenting Cells Controls Post-priming Anti-viral CD4+ T Cell ... DeBenedette, M. A.; Shahinian, A.; Mak, T. W.; Watts, T. H. (1997). "Costimulation of CD28- T lymphocytes by 4-1BB ligand". ...
The CD137/ligand complex is also involved in regulation of the immune system. The CD137 ligand is a type-II transmembrane ... CD137/ligand stimulation has been found to lead to stronger anti-tumor responses due to cytotoxic T cell activation and is ... The CD137 ligand is normally expressed at low levels, but can have increased expression in presence of pathogen associated ... When CD137 then reacts with the CD137 ligand, it leads to CD137 upregulation. This is a form of self regulation or positive ...
Its ligand is ICOSL, expressed mainly on B cells and dendritic cells. The molecule seems to be important in T cell effector ... The ligand for GITR is mainly expressed on antigen presenting cells. Antibodies to GITR have been shown to promote an anti- ... PD-1: short for Programmed Death 1 (PD-1) receptor, has two ligands, PD-L1 and PD-L2. This checkpoint is the target of Merck & ... Binding with its two ligands are CD80 and CD86, expressed on dendritic cells, prompts T cell expansion. CD28 was the target of ...
"Costimulation as a platform for the development of vaccines: a peptide-based vaccine containing a novel form of 4-1BB ligand ...
Binding of the B7 of APC to CTLA-4 of T-cells causes inhibition of the activity of T-cells. There are two major types of B7 ... The B7-CTLA-4 binding suppresses T cell activation. The balance between the opposing signals generated by B7-CD28 and B7-CTLA-4 ... In the TNF family of molecules, the protein 4-1BB (CD137) on the T cell may bind to 4-1BB ligand (4-1BBL) on the APC. The B7 ( ... CTLA-4-knockout mice are unable to stop immune responses, and develop a fatal massive lymphocyte proliferation. Apart from B7-1 ...
Tumor necrosis factor ligand superfamily member 9 also known as 4-1BB ligand or 4-1BBL or CD137L is a protein that in humans is ... Ligand at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) v t e (Articles with short description, Short ... The link with 4-1BBL is largely made up of amino acids from the dynamic loops of the CRD2 and the β sheet of CRD3 of 4-1BB, ... The 4-1BB/4-1BBL complex consists of three monomeric 4-1BBs bound to a trimeric 4-1BBL. Each 4-1BB monomer binds to two 4-1BBLs ...
... ligand binding, CD137 agonist immunoglobulin‐γ 4 (IgG4) monoclonal antibody. It was developed utilizing Medarex's UltiMAb(R) ... 19 (4): 1040-1051. doi:10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-19-0608. PMID 31974274. S2CID 210882192. Qi X, Li F, Wu Y, Cheng C, Han P, Wang J ... Urelumab targets the extracellular domain of CD137 (4-1BB). CD137 is a co-stimulatory molecule that's a member of the tumor ... September 2022). "A humanized 4-1BB-targeting agonistic antibody exerts potent antitumor activity in colorectal cancer without ...
OX40L is the ligand for OX40 (also known as CD134 or TNFRSF4) and is stably expressed on many antigen-presenting cells such as ... Stüber E, Neurath M, Calderhead D, Fell HP, Strober W (May 1995). "Cross-linking of OX40 ligand, a member of the TNF/NGF ... February 2008). "Expression of OX40 ligand in microglia activated by IFN-gamma sustains a protective CD4+ T-cell response in ... April 2004). "Detection and characterization of OX40 ligand expression in human airway smooth muscle cells: a possible role in ...
Wickham, Thomas J. (2003). "Ligand-directed targeting of genes to the site of disease". Nature Medicine. 9 (1): 135-9. doi: ... fused to a natural ligand for a cell-surface receptor. The use of adapter molecules has been shown to increase viral ... "Growth Inhibition of Human Multiple Myeloma Cells by an Oncolytic Adenovirus Carrying the CD40 Ligand Transgene". Clinical ... 9 (4): 138-141. doi:10.1016/0168-9525(93)90209-Z. PMID 8516849. Levine, A. (1997). "P53, the Cellular Gatekeeper for Growth and ...
... is one of the most studied ligands for HAVCR2 (TIM-3) and is expressed on various tumor cells. However, it can also ... "The Tim-3 ligand galectin-9 negatively regulates T helper type 1 immunity". Nature Immunology. 6 (12): 1245-52. doi:10.1038/ ... "Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand activates a lysosomal pathway of apoptosis that is regulated by Bcl-2 ... "A highly conserved tyrosine of Tim-3 is phosphorylated upon stimulation by its ligand galectin-9". Biochemical and Biophysical ...
This can include cytokines, such is IL-2, IL-5, IL-12 and co‐stimulatory ligands. Adding a synthetic control mechanism to ... 1BB). The intracellular signaling domain used defines the generation of a CAR T cell. First generation CARs include only a CD3- ... 1BB. The involvement of these intracellular signaling domains improve T cell proliferation, cytokine secretion, resistance to ... usually taking advantage of ligand/receptor pairs that normally bind to each other. Cytokines, innate immune receptors, TNF ...
It binds to ligand CD70, and plays a key role in regulating B-cell activation and immunoglobulin synthesis. When CD27 binds ... 10 (4): 427-36. doi:10.1038/ni.1717. PMC 4167721. PMID 19270712. Prasad KV, Ao Z, Yoon Y, Wu MX, Rizk M, Jacquot S, Schlossman ... 13 (11): 4-15. Sánchez MJ, Holmes A, Miles C, Dzierzak E (December 1996). "Characterization of the first definitive ... Sturgill ER (November 2017). "TNFR agonists: a review of current biologics targeting OX40, 4-1BB, CD27, and GITR". American ...
... its ligand, OX40L, is also not expressed on resting antigen presenting cells, but is following their activation. Expression of ... which as a TLR9 ligand activates expression of OX40 so that it can be affected. CD134 has been shown to interact with TRAF5 and ... CTLA-4 is down-regulated following OX40 engagement in vivo and the OX40-specific TRAF3 DN defect was partially overcome by CTLA ... TRAF3 may be linked to OX40-mediated memory T cell expansion and survival, and point to the down-regulation of CTLA-4 as a ...
1BB. Additionally, with the approval of the several new bsAb since 2022, and new mechanisms for improving efficacy like ... achieved through the mediation of BsAb to inactivate either the RTKs or their ligand, reduces the possibility of the escape ... to interfere with receptor signaling and inactivate signaling ligands, and to force association of protein complexes. BsAbs ... Other popular targets are CD3, HER2, PD-1, PD-L1, EGFR, CTLA-4, etc., which as well as immune targets of PD-1, PD-L1, BCMA, ...
The encoded protein and its ligand play a role in the development and organization of lymphoid tissue and transformed cells. ... 28 (4): 169-75. doi:10.1016/j.it.2007.02.005. PMID 17336158. Browning JL, Ngam-ek A, Lawton P, et al. (1993). "Lymphotoxin beta ... 271 (25): 14661-4. doi:10.1074/jbc.271.25.14661. PMID 8663299. Matsumoto M, Hsieh TY, Zhu N, et al. (1997). "Hepatitis C virus ... 1998). "TRAF-4 expression in epithelial progenitor cells. Analysis in normal adult, fetal, and tumor tissues". Am. J. Pathol. ...
... due to ligand-defective apo B; 144010; APOB Hypercholesterolemia, familial; 143890; LDLR Hypercholesterolemia, familial, 3; ... 1BB; 612877; DSG2 Cardiomyopathy, dilated, 1CC; 613122; NEXN Cardiomyopathy, dilated, 1D; 601494; TNNT2 Cardiomyopathy, dilated ... 4; 604352; GPR98 COPD, rate of decline of lung function in; 606963; MMP1 Coproporphyria; 121300; CPOX Cornea plana congenita, ... KRAS Noonan syndrome 4; 610733; SOS1 Noonan syndrome 5; 611553; RAF1 Noonan syndrome 6; 613224; NRAS Noonan-like syndrome with ...
Binding of a ligand to a monomeric receptor tyrosine kinase stabilizes interactions between two monomers to form a dimer, after ... 147 (4): 934-946. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2011.08.052. PMC 3220604. PMID 22078888. Holt LJ, Tuch BB, Villén J, Johnson AD, Gygi SP, ... Over the last 4 years, dozens of studies have been published, each identifying thousands of sites, many of which were ... 37 (Pt 4): 627-641. doi:10.1042/BST0370627. ISSN 1470-8752. PMID 19614568. Rogakou EP, Pilch DR, Orr AH, Ivanova VS, Bonner WM ...
Human 4-1BB Ligand (TNFSF9), Animal-Free Recombinant Protein, PeproTech®  at Fishersci.com ... ligand) superfamily member 9; tumor necrosis factor (ligand) superfamily, member 9; tumor necrosis factor ligand 5 A; tumor ... CD 137 Ligand; CD 137 L; CD137 Ligand; CD137L; Cd157l; CDw137L; costimulatory molecule; homolog of mouse 4-1 BB-L; Ly63l; ... CD137 ligand (CD137L) is a type II membrane protein and part of the TNF superfamily. CD137L is a co-stimulatory molecule that ...
PE anti-mouse 4-1BB Ligand (CD137L) Antibody - 4-1BB ligand, also known as CD137L, is a 97 kD member of the TNF superfamily ... Ligand/Receptor 4-1BB (CDw137) Cell Type B cells, Dendritic cells, Macrophages, T cells Biology Area Costimulatory Molecules, ... 4-1BBL, CD137L, TNFSF9, 4-1BB Ligand Isotype Rat IgG2a, κ Ave. Rating Submit a Review Product Citations publications Mouse B ... 4. Pollok KE, et al. 1994. Eur. J. Immunol. 24:367.. 5. Goodwin RG, et al. 1993. Eur. J. Immunol. 23:2631. ...
Human 4-1BB Ligand / TNFSF9 (71-254) Protein, Fc Tag, active trimer, premium grade (41L-H5269) by ACRO Biosystems ... Tumor necrosis factor ligand superfamily member 9 (4-1BBL) is also known as 4-1BB ligand, CD137L or TNFSF9, which is a cytokine ... Tumor necrosis factor ligand superfamily member 9 (4-1BBL) is also known as 4-1BB ligand, CD137L or TNFSF9, which is a cytokine ... As for diseases, 4-1BBL is involved in cancers, infectious diseases and autoimmune diseases.. Accession:. NP_003802.1. ...
The ligand is specific for the 4-1BB RECEPTOR and may play a role in inducing the proliferation of activated peripheral blood T ... "4-1BB Ligand" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "4-1BB Ligand" by people in this website by year, and whether " ... Below are the most recent publications written about "4-1BB Ligand" by people in Profiles. ...
Tumor expression of 4-1BB ligand sustains tumor lytic T cells. / Zhang, Hua; Merchant, Melinda S.; Chua, Kevin S. et al. In: ... Tumor expression of 4-1BB ligand sustains tumor lytic T cells. In: Cancer Biology and Therapy. 2003 ; Vol. 2, No. 5. pp. 579- ... Tumor expression of 4-1BB ligand sustains tumor lytic T cells. Hua Zhang, Melinda S. Merchant, Kevin S. Chua, Chand Khanna, Lee ... Tumor expression of 4-1BB ligand sustains tumor lytic T cells. Cancer Biology and Therapy. 2003 Sep;2(5):579-586. doi: 10.4161/ ...
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"Dichotomous Expression of TNF Superfamily Ligands on Antigen-Presenting Cells Controls Post-priming Anti-viral CD4+ T Cell ... DeBenedette, M. A.; Shahinian, A.; Mak, T. W.; Watts, T. H. (1997). "Costimulation of CD28- T lymphocytes by 4-1BB ligand". ...
The 4B4-1 monoclonal antibody specifically binds to CD137 which is also known as 4-1BB, and ILA (induced by lymphocyte ... The 4B4-1 monoclonal antibody specifically binds to CD137 which is also known as 4-1BB, and ILA (induced by lymphocyte ... Development References (4). * Garni-Wagner BA, Lee ZH, Kim YJ, Wilde C, Kang CY, Kwon BS. 4-1BB is expressed on CD45RAhiROhi ... Therapeutic potential of 4-1BB (CD137) as a regulator for effector CD8(+) T cells. J Hematother Stem Cell Res. 2001; 10(4):441- ...
Shi Yong Neo,1 Ying Yang,1,2 Julien Record,3 Ran Ma,1 Xinsong Chen,1 Ziqing Chen,1 Nicholas P. Tobin,1 Emily Blake,4 Christina ... To inhibit STAT3, the selective small-molecule inhibitor GPB730 (N-[(4R,7R,9R,11S)-11-hydroxy-9-methyl-2-oxo-3-oxatricyclo [5.3 ... Figure 4. Tumor cells stimulate NK cells to translocate CD73 into the cell membrane and the extracellular space. (A) Maximum ... Scale bar: 10 μm (n = 4). (B) Overall mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) of CD73 staining per cell comparing CD73+ and CD73- NK ...
Regulation of Fas and Fas-ligand expression in NK cells by cytokines and the involvement of Fas-ligand in NK/LAK cell-mediated ... They can be activated rapidly via germ-line encoded receptors that recognize the presence of stress ligands or absence of self- ... Functional NK cell repertoires are maintained through IL-2Rα and Fas ligand. J Immunol (2014) 192:3889-97. doi:10.4049/jimmunol ... In parallel with the changes in CD16 expression, apoptosis-mediating receptors and ligands such as TRAIL, FAS, and FAS-L were ...
Programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) is expressed on the surface of tumor cells and its level is a key determinant of the ... and OX-40 ligand (OX-40L/CD252) are important regulators of effector cytotoxic T-cells activity. This study demonstrates that ... is suppressed while expression of immunosuppressive molecule programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1/CD274) is enhanced in ... 2018; 52(4):1305-1316 [PubMed] Related Publications A-kinase anchor protein 12 (AKAP12; also known as Gravin) functions as a ...
EPH-related receptor tyrosine kinase ligand 1; Immediate early response protein B61;Epgl1; Epl1; Lerk1Gene Names:... ... 4-1BB ligand receptor;CDw137;T-cell antigen... ... EPH-Related Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Ligand 4; LERK-4; EFNA4; ...
Temporal segregation of 4-1BB versus CD28-mediated costimulation: 4-1BB ligand influences T cell numbers late in the primary ...
The 4-1BB receptor (CDw137), a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, has been shown to costimulate the ... 6E9 is a rat IgG2A anti-human CD40 ligand mAb that does not react with mouse CD40 ligand and was provided by Dr. Tony Siadak ( ... ELISAs for monitoring ligand blocking of 4-1BB-Ig were performed as described previously 8. For anti-SRBC responses, mice were ... I. In vivo expression of CD40 ligand, cytokines, and antibody production delineates sites of cognate T-B cell interactions ...
... lability of ligand X, and strength of plati- num-acetamide bond), the oopening complexes were later formulated as [Pt2{CH3C(O) ... 4-1BB ligand, a member of the TNF family, is important for the generation of antiviral CD8 T cell responses. Dose prediction in ...
4: Methylation analysis of CNN2 gene in ESCA (A): Waterfall plot of the methylation level of the CNN2 gene. The correlations ... 4, results of survival analysis also showed that higher DNA methylation level of CpG at cite cg22902083 correlated with better ... Immobilized MHC class I chain-related protein A synergizes with IL-15 and soluble 4-1BB ligand to expand NK cells with high ... A total of 14 methylation sites were found (Table 4). Among them, cg22902083 had a significant correlation with the prognosis ...
... trimerizes upon binding to CD137 ligand (CD137L) to induce cell stimulatory transcriptional and epigenetic changes.1 2 The ... 4-1BB ligand-mediated costimulation of human T cells induces CD4 and CD8 T cell expansion, cytokine production, and the ... Background CD137 (4-1BB) represents a costimulatory pathway that promotes T, NK, and dendritic cell effector functions ... Segal, N.H., et al., Phase I study of single-agent utomilumab (PF-05082566), a 4-1BB/CD137 agonist, in patients with advanced ...
The antibody can also be used to isolate cells that have an FITC-labeled ligand on their surface. ... F910 Tosoh R40 and R28 Protein A Mix-N-Go ELISA Kit is intended for use in quantitating the recombinant Protein A ligands used ... F965 Avantor Protein A Mix-N-Go ELISA Kit is intended for use in quantitating the recombinant Protein A ligands used in the ... 4-1BB Receptor/TNFRSF9, human, RC214-25R, Bio Basic Storage Condition : -15~-20℃ Shipping Condition : RT ...
4-1BB Receptor/TNFRSF9, human, RC214-25R, Bio Basic Storage Condition : -15~-20℃ Shipping Condition : RT ... 4-1BB Ligand/TNFSF9, human, RC214-25, Bio Basic Storage Condition : -15~-20℃ Shipping Condition : RT ...
CD137 Ligand Tumor Necrosis Factor (Ligand) Superfamily, Member 9 Tumor Necrosis Factor Ligand Superfamily Member 9 ... CD137 Ligand. Tumor Necrosis Factor (Ligand) Superfamily, Member 9. Tumor Necrosis Factor Ligand Superfamily Member 9. ... Tumor Necrosis Factor Ligand Superfamily Member 13 [D12.644.276.374.750.656] Tumor Necrosis Factor Ligand Superfamily Member 13 ... Tumor Necrosis Factor Ligand Superfamily Member 14 [D12.644.276.374.750.690] Tumor Necrosis Factor Ligand Superfamily Member 14 ...
Product Information Construction A DNA sequence encoding the human FLT3 Ligand(NP_001450.2)was expressed with a His tag at the ... FLT3 ligand is a growth factor that regulates the proliferation of early hematopoietic cells. FLT 3-ligand binds to cells ... Unlike SCF, FLT3 ligand has no effect on mast cells. Multiple subtypes of FLT3-ligands have been identified. ... The FLT3 ligand itself does not stimulate the proliferation of early hematopoietic cells, but rather synergistically induces ...
It also accounts for approximately 4 percent of cancer deaths in women. However, because it is usually diagnosed early, it is… ... It also accounts for approximately 4 percent of cancer deaths in women. However, because it is usually diagnosed early, it is ... It also accounts for approximately 4 percent of cancer deaths in women. However, because it is usually diagnosed early, it is ... a CD19 Targeted 4-1BB Ligand) in Combination With Obinutuzumab and in Combination With Glofitamab Following a Pre-Treatment ...
GITR Ligand GM-CSF GPR183 GPR19 GPR56 GPR83 Granulysin Granzyme A Granzyme K H-2 H-2Db H-2Dd H-2Dk H-2Kb H-2Kb bound to ... 3C4 (mIC2/4) 3C7 3D12 3D4 3D6.112 3E12 3E7 3F3 3F9 3G7A02 3G8 3H5 41A 429 (MVCAM.A) 42D1 43A3 47 49-H4 4A6 4A9 4B12 4B2.9 4B4-1 ... HIM3-4 HIM6 HIP1 HIP2 HIP8 HIR2 HIT2 HIT3a HIT8a HK1.4 HK5.3 HLADQ1 HLy-9.1.25 HM-CCR5 HM34 HM36 HM40-3 HM47 HM48-1 HM79-12 HM? ... DJR2-4 (7-8) DJR3 DL-101 DOR7D2A4 DREG-56 DTA-1 Duha59 Duno85 DX2 DX22 DX27 DX5 DX9 E11 E11/19 E13-161.7 E18 E8N1 Eat-2 EBVCS-5 ...
4. Target. Target. Exodus-3 8. 1. 0.18. -0.81. 0.25. 0.89. CCL5 2,002. Target. Target. CCL3 1,427. 500. 0.30. -0.70. 0.35. 0.89 ... 4. Target. Target. Exodus-2 27. 1. 0.10. -0.85. 0.25. 0.84. 4-1BB Ligand 135. Target. Target. CD137 474. 33. 0.13. -0.84. 0.24 ... 4-1BB Receptor 20. Target. Target. 4-1BB Ligand 135. 9. 0.17. -0.72. 0.45. 0.85. ... BMP-4 1,255. Target. Target. BMP-2 3,889. 399. 0.18. -0.78. 0.32. 0.83. ...
Evaluation of OX40 Ligand as a Costimulator of Human Antiviral Memory CD8 T Cell Responses: Comparison with B7.1 and 4-1BBL1 ... Costimulatory ligand 4-1BBL (CD137L) as an efficient adjuvant for human antiviral cytotoxic T cell responses. Proc. Natl. Acad ... B7.1 is the classic costimulatory ligand, acting with its receptor CD28 to provide the second signal required for T cell ... The titration of influenza peptide from 2 to 0.1 μM with the different costimulatory ligands was also conducted for three ...
Residual Affinity Ligands Detection Kits. *Residual Cell Culture Materials Detection Kits. *Residual Enzyme ELISA Kit ... PD-L1x4-1BB; DuoBody-PD-L1x4-1BB; GEN1046; BNT-311. Phase 2 Clinical. Genmab A/S, Biontech Se. Solid tumours; Squamous Cell ... Immobilized Human 4-1BB Ligand, Mouse IgG2a Fc Tag, low endotoxin (Cat. No. 41L-H5254) at 2 μg/mL (100 μL/well) can bind ... Immobilized Biotinylated Human 4-1BB, Fc,Avitag (Cat. No. 41B-H82F8) at 1 μg/mL (100 μL/well) on streptavidin (Cat. No. STN- ...
4-1BB-mediated immunotherapy of rheumatoid arthritis. Seo SK, Choi JH, Kim YH, Kang WJ, Park HY, Suh JH, Choi BK, Vinay DS, ... Blocking 4-1BB/4-1BB ligand interactions prevents herpetic stromal keratitis. Seo SK, Park HY, Choi JH, Kim WY, Kim YH, Jung HW ... 4. The tryptophan metabolite 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid suppresses T cell responses by inhibiting dendritic cell activation. Lee ... 7. Protective role of V-set and immunoglobulin domain-containing 4 expressed on kupffer cells during immune-mediated liver ...
  • Its receptor, CD137/4-1BB, is found on a variety of cells, including inflamed endothelial cells, where its expression enhances extravasation of CD137L expressing monocytes. (fishersci.com)
  • The ligand is specific for the 4-1BB RECEPTOR and may play a role in inducing the proliferation of activated peripheral blood T-LYMPHOCYTES. (rush.edu)
  • The group of common γ-chain receptor cytokines encompassing interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-9, IL-15, and IL-21 has been studied intensively over the recent years. (frontiersin.org)
  • CusabioProtein Description: Extracellular DomainAlternative Name (s) : CD137;ILA;TNFRSF9;4-1BB ligand receptor;CDw137;T-cell antigen. (joplink.net)
  • The 4-1BB receptor (CDw137), a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, has been shown to costimulate the activation of T cells. (rupress.org)
  • Crystal structures of the human 4-1BB receptor bound to its ligand 4-1BBL reveal covalent receptor dimerization as a potential signaling amplifier. (bmj.com)
  • El ligando es específico para el RECEPTOR 4-1BB y puede desempeñar un papel en la indución de la proliferación de los LINFOCITOS T activados de la sangre periférica. (bvsalud.org)
  • FLT 3-ligand binds to cells expressing tyrosine kinase receptor FLT3. (biofargo.com)
  • 4-1BB, is also known as CD137, is a type 2 transmembrane glycoprotein receptor belonging to the TNF superfamily.CD137 can be expressed by activated T cells, but to a larger extent on CD8 than on CD4 T cells. (kactusbio.cn)
  • 1)Vinay D S , Kwon B S. 4-1BB (CD137), an inducible costimulatory receptor, as a specific target for cancer therapy[J]. BMB Reports, 2014, 47(3):122-129. (kactusbio.cn)
  • The 3H3 monoclonal antibody reacts with mouse 4-1BB, a TNF receptor superfamily member also known as CD137. (bioxcell.com)
  • 4-1BB is a TNF receptor family member that signals via a complex that includes TRAF family members and the c-IAPs to upregulate NF-kappaB and ERK, and has been implicated in memory T-cell survival. (bioxcell.com)
  • CD137 ligand (CD137L) is a type II membrane protein and part of the TNF superfamily. (fishersci.com)
  • 4-1BB ligand, also known as CD137L, is a 97 kD member of the TNF superfamily present on antigen-presenting cells (dendritic cells and macrophages) and activated B and T lymphocytes. (biolegend.com)
  • Tumor necrosis factor ligand superfamily member 9 (4-1BBL) is also known as 4-1BB ligand, CD137L or TNFSF9, which is a cytokine that binds to TNFRSF9. (2bscientific.com)
  • The extracellular domain of CD137, comprised of four cysteine-rich domains (CRD-I, CRD-II, CRD-III, CRD-IV), trimerizes upon binding to CD137 ligand (CD137L) to induce cell stimulatory transcriptional and epigenetic changes. (bmj.com)
  • In this study, we evaluated the role of OX40L in costimulation of human antiviral CD8 T cell responses and compared it with two other important costimulators, B7.1 (CD80) and 4-1BBL (CD137L). (aai.org)
  • Synergistic or additive effects were observed when OX40L costimulation was combined with 4-1BBL (CD137L) or B7.1 (CD80) costimulation. (aai.org)
  • 4-1BBL interacts with 4-1BB (CD137) to induce T and B cell costimulation. (biolegend.com)
  • Autologous Ewing's tumors expressed 4-1BBL, and tumor-induced T cell proliferation and activation required costimulation by 4-1BBL. (johnshopkins.edu)
  • They further demonstrate a potential new therapeutic role for 4-1BBL mediated costimulation in expanding tumor reactive CTLs for use in the adoptive immunotherapy of cancer. (johnshopkins.edu)
  • 4-1BB ligand-mediated costimulation of human T cells induces CD4 and CD8 T cell expansion, cytokine production, and the development of cytolytic effector function. (bmj.com)
  • Costimulation of T cell responses with monoclonal antibody agonists (mAb-AG) targeting 4-1BB showed robust anti-tumor activity in preclinical models, but their clinical development was hampered by low efficacy (Utomilumab) or severe liver toxicity (Urelumab). (bioxcell.com)
  • Stimulation of PBL with anti-CD3/4-1BBL, but not anti-CD3/anti-CD28 induced tumor lytic effectors. (johnshopkins.edu)
  • Similarly, in a xenograft model, anti-CD3/4-1BBL expanded T cells controlled primary growth and prevented metastasis of autologous tumors while nonactivated and anti-CD3/anti-CD28 activated CD8+ cells did not. (johnshopkins.edu)
  • Absence of TIGIT, TIM-3 and CTLA-4, alone or combined, was beneficial to CD28- T cells. (bvsalud.org)
  • The second involves a network of co-inhibitory and co-stimulatory molecules pathways such as CD80/CD86-CD28/cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4), inducible co-stimulator (ICOS)-ICOS ligand (ICOSL), programmed death-1 (PD-1), programme death ligand-1/2 (PD-L1/PD-L2), 4-1BB-4-1BB ligand (4-1BBL), CD40-CD154 ligand, OX40-OX40 ligand and CD27-CD70. (biomedcentral.com)
  • CAR comprises an extracellular, cancer-specific antibody fused with the intracellular signaling activation domains of CD3 and co-activation ligands, such as CD28 or 4-1BB [ 17 , 18 ], which provide engineered T cells with an MHC‐independent mechanism through which to kill cancer cells directly. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Background CD137 (4-1BB) represents a costimulatory pathway that promotes T, NK, and dendritic cell effector functions favorable for antitumor immunity. (bmj.com)
  • Upon binding its ligand 4-1BBL, 4-1BB provides costimulatory signals to both CD4 and CD8 T cells through the activation of NF-κB, c-Jun and p38 downstream pathways. (bioxcell.com)
  • 4-1BB is a 39 kDa transmembrane protein expressed by T lymphocytes, NK cells, dendritic cells, granulocytes, and mast cells. (bioxcell.com)
  • B-cell activating factor ( BAFF ) also known as tumor necrosis factor ligand superfamily member 13B is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TNFSF13B gene . (wikidoc.org)
  • BAFF is a cytokine that belongs to the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) ligand family. (wikidoc.org)
  • [4] BAFF is the natural ligand of three unusual tumor necrosis factor receptors named BAFF-R (BR3), TACI (transmembrane activator and calcium modulator and cyclophilin ligand interactor), and BCMA (B-cell maturation antigen), all of which have differing binding affinities for it. (wikidoc.org)
  • All FcgammaRs can crosslink anti-41BB antibodies to strengthen co-stimulation, but activating FcgammaR-induced antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity compromises anti-tumor immunity by deleting 4-1BB(+) cells. (bioxcell.com)
  • As a proof of this concept, we have developed LVGN6051, a humanized 4-1BB mAb-AG that shows high anti-tumor efficacy in the absence of liver toxicity in a mouse model of cancer immunotherapy. (bioxcell.com)
  • Recombinant Human 4-1BB/TNFRSF9 Protein is expressed from HEK293 with His tag at the C-Terminus. (kactusbio.cn)
  • Product Information Protein sequence A DNA sequence encoding the human 4-1BB Ligand (NP_003802.1) was expressed with a Fc-tag at the C-terminus. (biofargo.com)
  • Streptavidin is a tetrameric protein providing 4 high-affinity biotin binding sites. (acrobiosystems.com)
  • Platelet factor-4 is a 70-amino acid protein that is released from the alpha-granules of activated platelets and binds with high affinity to heparin. (wikidoc.org)
  • [5] TACI binds worst since its affinity is higher for a protein similar to BAFF, called a proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL). (wikidoc.org)
  • All these ligands act as homotrimers (i.e. three of the same molecule) interacting with homotrimeric receptors, [6] although BAFF has been known to be active as either a hetero- or homotrimer (can aggregate into 60-mer depending on the primary structure of the protein). (wikidoc.org)
  • 2015). "c-IAP ubiquitin protein ligase activity is required for 4-1BB signaling and CD8(+) memory T-cell survival" Eur J Immunol 45(9): 2672-2682. (bioxcell.com)
  • FLT3 ligand is a growth factor that regulates the proliferation of early hematopoietic cells. (biofargo.com)
  • The FLT3 ligand itself does not stimulate the proliferation of early hematopoietic cells, but rather synergistically induces growth and differentiation with other CSFs and interleukins. (biofargo.com)
  • Unlike SCF, FLT3 ligand has no effect on mast cells. (biofargo.com)
  • Here we show that isotype and intrinsic agonistic strength co-determine the efficacy and toxicity of anti-4-1BB mAb-AG. (bioxcell.com)
  • Furthermore, 4-1BBL may play a role in cognate interactions between T-cells and B-cells/macrophages. (2bscientific.com)
  • The purity of Human 4-1BB is greater than 95% as determined by SEC-HPLC. (kactusbio.cn)
  • Exons 1, 2 and most of exon 3 encode the N-terminal extracellular domain while the remainder of exon 3 and exon 4 encode transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains. (wikidoc.org)
  • Dose response curve for Human 4-1BB Ligand Trimer, hFc Tag with the EC50 of 3.3ng/ml determined by ELISA. (kactusbio.cn)
  • This cytokine is a ligand for receptors TNFRSF13B /TACI, TNFRSF17 /BCMA, and TNFRSF13C /BAFF-R. This cytokine is expressed in B cell lineage cells, and acts as a potent B cell activator. (wikidoc.org)
  • This effect was most pronounced in the progression towards metaphase, too as 4-1BB Ligand Inhibitors products inside metaphase itself (video recordings of cells undergoing regular and prolonged, aberrant mitosis, see Supplemental Figure 6). (calcium-channel.com)
  • The majority of cases involved programmed death1/programmed death ligand 1 (PD1/PD-L1) inhibitors, and most occurred in patients with hematologic malignancies. (medscape.com)
  • The TKS-1 antibody inhibits binding of soluble 4-1BB to 4-1BBL in vitro . (biolegend.com)
  • The 4B4-1 monoclonal antibody specifically binds to CD137 which is also known as 4-1BB, and ILA (induced by lymphocyte activation). (bdbiosciences.com)
  • Here we show that anti-mouse 4-1BB monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) inhibit thymus-dependent antibody production by B cells. (rupress.org)
  • Methods We investigated the molecular and cellular effects of AGEN2373 (CRD-IV-binding, IgG1), a conditionally active CD137-targeting agonist antibody designed to bind and induce CD137 signaling upon FcγR cross-linking while permitting ligand binding to CD137. (bmj.com)
  • The antibody can also be used to isolate cells that have an FITC-labeled ligand on their surface. (gen9bio.com)
  • The 3H3 antibody is an agonistic antibody that has been shown to stimulate 4-1BB signaling in vivo . (bioxcell.com)
  • The antibody solution should be stored at the stock concentration at 4°C. Do not freeze. (bioxcell.com)
  • 2019). "Optimization of 4-1BB antibody for cancer immunotherapy by balancing agonistic strength with FcgammaR affinity" Nat Commun 10(1): 2141. (bioxcell.com)
  • 4-1BBL induces the proliferation of activated peripheral blood T-cells. (2bscientific.com)
  • 4-1BB Ligand" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (rush.edu)
  • Agonistic anti-4-1BB antibodies have been reported to induce T cell mediated antitumor immunity. (bioxcell.com)
  • Human 4-1BB Ligand (71-254), premium grade on SDS-PAGE under non-reducing (NR) condition. (2bscientific.com)
  • Immobilized Human 4-1BB, Mouse IgG2a Fc Tag, low endotoxin (Cat. (2bscientific.com)
  • No. 41B-H5256) at 2 ug/mL (100 uL/well) can bind Human 4-1BB Ligand (71-254), premium grade (Cat. (2bscientific.com)
  • Immobilized Human 4-1BB, His Tag (Cat. (2bscientific.com)
  • The gene for human PF4 is located on human chromosome 4 . (wikidoc.org)
  • The human platelet factor 4 kills malaria parasites within erythrocytes by selectively lysing the parasite's digestive vacuole. (wikidoc.org)
  • Human 4-1BB on Tris-Bis PAGE under reduced condition. (kactusbio.cn)
  • Immobilized Human 4-1BB, His Tag at 1μg/ml (100μl/Well) on the plate. (kactusbio.cn)
  • Many other functions have been found to be exerted by activin, including roles in cell proliferation, differentiation , apoptosis , [3] metabolism , homeostasis , immune response , wound repair , [4] and endocrine function. (wikidoc.org)
  • 12. 4-1BB-mediated immunotherapy of rheumatoid arthritis. (kseh.kr)
  • They can be activated rapidly via germ-line encoded receptors that recognize the presence of stress ligands or absence of self-antigens on target cells ( 1 - 5 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • For isolated CD8 T cells, 4-1BBL was also the most consistent costimulator, followed by B7.1. (aai.org)
  • 7. Protective role of V-set and immunoglobulin domain-containing 4 expressed on kupffer cells during immune-mediated liver injury by inducing tolerance of liver T- and natural killer T-cells. (kseh.kr)
  • Here, we show that effector and memory T cells from mice expressing a dominant negative E3-inactive c-IAP2 (c-IAP2(H570A) ) have impaired signaling downstream of 4-1BB. (bioxcell.com)
  • While intrinsically strong agonistic anti-4-1BB can activate 4-1BB in the absence of FcgammaRs, weak agonistic antibodies rely on FcgammaRs to activate 4-1BB. (bioxcell.com)
  • 4-1BB ligand, a member of the TNF family, is important for the generation of antiviral CD8 T cell responses. (forextrading-madeeasy.com)
  • 13. Blocking 4-1BB/4-1BB ligand interactions prevents herpetic stromal keratitis. (kseh.kr)
  • This suggests balancing agonistic activity with the strength of FcgammaR interaction as a strategy to engineer 4-1BB mAb-AG with optimal therapeutic performance. (bioxcell.com)
  • 4. The tryptophan metabolite 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid suppresses T cell responses by inhibiting dendritic cell activation. (kseh.kr)
  • The results presented herein demonstrate that BRCA14P, with all 4 key SQ-cluster serine residues mutated to alanines mimicking un-phosphoryl. (calcium-channel.com)
  • Exon 1 encodes residues 1-16, exon 2 residues 17-35, exon 3 residues 36-63 and exon 4 residues 64-128. (wikidoc.org)
  • In the erythrocyte glycophorin C makes up ~4% of the membrane sialoglycoproteins . (wikidoc.org)
  • As for diseases, 4-1BBL is involved in cancers, infectious diseases and autoimmune diseases. (2bscientific.com)
  • The importance of the 4-1BB pathway has been underscored in a number of diseases, including cancer. (bioxcell.com)
  • In total T cell cultures, at low Ag dose, 4-1BBL provided the most potent costimulus for influenza-specific CD8 T cell expansion, followed by B7.1 (CD80) and then OX40L. (aai.org)
  • Sixteen BALB/c mice (6 weeks of age) were inoculated intranasally with 10 2 -10 5 TCID 50 /animal (30 μL), and 4 mice were inoculated intraperitoneally with 10 5 TCID 50 /animal (30 μL). (cdc.gov)
  • Despite the similar names glycophorin C and D are unrelated to the other three glycophorins which encoded on chromosome 4 at location 4q28-q31. (wikidoc.org)

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