Iodoacetates: Iodinated derivatives of acetic acid. Iodoacetates are commonly used as alkylating sulfhydryl reagents and enzyme inhibitors in biochemical research.Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer: A type of FLUORESCENCE SPECTROSCOPY using two FLUORESCENT DYES with overlapping emission and absorption spectra, which is used to indicate proximity of labeled molecules. This technique is useful for studying interactions of molecules and PROTEIN FOLDING.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.GlycogenGlycogen Synthase: An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of D-glucose from UDPglucose into 1,4-alpha-D-glucosyl chains. EC 2.4.1.11.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Biosensing Techniques: Any of a variety of procedures which use biomolecular probes to measure the presence or concentration of biological molecules, biological structures, microorganisms, etc., by translating a biochemical interaction at the probe surface into a quantifiable physical signal.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Cytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.Glucose Tolerance Test: A test to determine the ability of an individual to maintain HOMEOSTASIS of BLOOD GLUCOSE. It includes measuring blood glucose levels in a fasting state, and at prescribed intervals before and after oral glucose intake (75 or 100 g) or intravenous infusion (0.5 g/kg).Aspirin: The prototypical analgesic used in the treatment of mild to moderate pain. It has anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties and acts as an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase which results in the inhibition of the biosynthesis of prostaglandins. Aspirin also inhibits platelet aggregation and is used in the prevention of arterial and venous thrombosis. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p5)Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced mammary neoplasms in animals to provide a model for studying human BREAST NEOPLASMS.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Adipocytes: Cells in the body that store FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. WHITE ADIPOCYTES are the predominant type and found mostly in the abdominal cavity and subcutaneous tissue. BROWN ADIPOCYTES are thermogenic cells that can be found in newborns of some species and hibernating mammals.Breast: In humans, one of the paired regions in the anterior portion of the THORAX. The breasts consist of the MAMMARY GLANDS, the SKIN, the MUSCLES, the ADIPOSE TISSUE, and the CONNECTIVE TISSUES.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Neoplasm Metastasis: The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.Thiazolidinediones: THIAZOLES with two keto oxygens. Members are insulin-sensitizing agents which overcome INSULIN RESISTANCE by activation of the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPAR-gamma).Hypoglycemic Agents: Substances which lower blood glucose levels.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Tumor Suppressor Proteins: Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Adipogenesis: The differentiation of pre-adipocytes into mature ADIPOCYTES.3T3-L1 Cells: A continuous cell line that is a substrain of SWISS 3T3 CELLS developed though clonal isolation. The mouse fibroblast cells undergo an adipose-like conversion as they move to a confluent and contact-inhibited state.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.PPAR gamma: A nuclear transcription factor. Heterodimerization with RETINOID X RECEPTOR ALPHA is important in regulation of GLUCOSE metabolism and CELL GROWTH PROCESSES. It is a target of THIAZOLIDINEDIONES for control of DIABETES MELLITUS.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Adipokines: Polypeptides produced by the ADIPOCYTES. They include LEPTIN; ADIPONECTIN; RESISTIN; and many cytokines of the immune system, such as TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR-ALPHA; INTERLEUKIN-6; and COMPLEMENT FACTOR D (also known as ADIPSIN). They have potent autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine functions.Viral Core Proteins: Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.Resistin: A 12-kDa cysteine-rich polypeptide hormone secreted by FAT CELLS in the ADIPOSE TISSUE. It is the founding member of the resistin-like molecule (RELM) hormone family. Resistin suppresses the ability of INSULIN to stimulate cellular GLUCOSE uptake.Adiponectin: A 30-kDa COMPLEMENT C1Q-related protein, the most abundant gene product secreted by FAT CELLS of the white ADIPOSE TISSUE. Adiponectin modulates several physiological processes, such as metabolism of GLUCOSE and FATTY ACIDS, and immune responses. Decreased plasma adiponectin levels are associated with INSULIN RESISTANCE; TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS; OBESITY; and ATHEROSCLEROSIS.Nicotinamide Phosphoribosyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) from nicotinamide and 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate, the rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of the NAD coenzyme. It is also known as a growth factor for early B-LYMPHOCYTES, or an ADIPOKINE with insulin-mimetic effects (visfatin).Leptin: A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Leptin serves as a feedback signal from fat cells to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM in regulation of food intake, energy balance, and fat storage.Hepacivirus: A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE causing parenterally-transmitted HEPATITIS C which is associated with transfusions and drug abuse. Hepatitis C virus is the type species.Hepatitis C Antigens: Antigens of the virions of HEPACIVIRUS, their surface, core, or other associated antigens.Adipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear: Intracellular receptors that can be found in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. They bind to extracellular signaling molecules that migrate through or are transported across the CELL MEMBRANE. Many members of this class of receptors occur in the cytoplasm and are transported to the CELL NUCLEUS upon ligand-binding where they signal via DNA-binding and transcription regulation. Also included in this category are receptors found on INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES that act via mechanisms similar to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.COUP Transcription Factor I: A COUP transcription factor that was originally identified as a homodimer that binds to a direct repeat regulatory element in the chicken albumin promoter. It is a transcription factor that plays an important role in EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.COUP Transcription Factor II: A COUP transcription factor that negatively regulates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and competes with other hormone receptors for the common response element AGGTCA. It can also stimulate transcription of genes involved in the metabolism of GLUCOSE and CHOLESTEROL.Orphan Nuclear Receptors: A broad category of receptor-like proteins that may play a role in transcriptional-regulation in the CELL NUCLEUS. Many of these proteins are similar in structure to known NUCLEAR RECEPTORS but appear to lack a functional ligand-binding domain, while in other cases the specific ligands have yet to be identified.Nuclear Receptor Subfamily 6, Group A, Member 1: An orphan nuclear receptor expressed mainly in the GERM CELLS of GONADS. It functions as a transcription factor that binds to a direct repeat of the sequence AGGTCA and may play a role in the regulation of EMBRYOGENESIS and germ cell differentiation.PPAR alpha: A nuclear transcription factor. Heterodimerization with RETINOID X RECEPTOR GAMMA is important to metabolism of LIPIDS. It is the target of FIBRATES to control HYPERLIPIDEMIAS.Hydrocarbons, FluorinatedTrialkyltin Compounds: Organometallic compounds which contain tin and three alkyl groups.Phthalic Acids: A group of compounds that has the general structure of a dicarboxylic acid-substituted benzene ring. The ortho-isomer is used in dye manufacture. (Dorland, 28th ed)Parabens: Methyl, propyl, butyl, and ethyl esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid. They have been approved by the FDA as antimicrobial agents for foods and pharmaceuticals. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed, p872)Dissertations, Academic as Topic: Dissertations embodying results of original research and especially substantiating a specific view, e.g., substantial papers written by candidates for an academic degree under the individual direction of a professor or papers written by undergraduates desirous of achieving honors or distinction.Libraries, Digital: Libraries in which a major proportion of the resources are available in machine-readable format, rather than on paper or MICROFORM.Toxicogenetics: The study of existing genetic knowledge, and the generation of new genetic data, to understand and thus avoid DRUG TOXICITY and adverse effects from toxic substances from the environment.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Endocrine Disruptors: Exogenous agents, synthetic and naturally occurring, which are capable of disrupting the functions of the ENDOCRINE SYSTEM including the maintenance of HOMEOSTASIS and the regulation of developmental processes. Endocrine disruptors are compounds that can mimic HORMONES, or enhance or block the binding of hormones to their receptors, or otherwise lead to activating or inhibiting the endocrine signaling pathways and hormone metabolism.Diethylhexyl Phthalate: An ester of phthalic acid. It appears as a light-colored, odorless liquid and is used as a plasticizer for many resins and elastomers.Pharmaceutic Aids: Substances which are of little or no therapeutic value, but are necessary in the manufacture, compounding, storage, etc., of pharmaceutical preparations or drug dosage forms. They include SOLVENTS, diluting agents, and suspending agents, and emulsifying agents. Also, ANTIOXIDANTS; PRESERVATIVES, PHARMACEUTICAL; COLORING AGENTS; FLAVORING AGENTS; VEHICLES; EXCIPIENTS; OINTMENT BASES.Luteinizing Hormone: A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Puberty: A period in the human life in which the development of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal system takes place and reaches full maturity. The onset of synchronized endocrine events in puberty lead to the capacity for reproduction (FERTILITY), development of secondary SEX CHARACTERISTICS, and other changes seen in ADOLESCENT DEVELOPMENT.Gonads: The gamete-producing glands, OVARY or TESTIS.Sexual Maturation: Achievement of full sexual capacity in animals and in humans.Prolactin: A lactogenic hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). It is a polypeptide of approximately 23 kD. Besides its major action on lactation, in some species prolactin exerts effects on reproduction, maternal behavior, fat metabolism, immunomodulation and osmoregulation. Prolactin receptors are present in the mammary gland, hypothalamus, liver, ovary, testis, and prostate.Testis: The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.Ovary: The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.Growth Hormone: A polypeptide that is secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Growth hormone, also known as somatotropin, stimulates mitosis, cell differentiation and cell growth. Species-specific growth hormones have been synthesized.Puberty, Delayed: The lack of development of SEXUAL MATURATION in boys and girls at a chronological age that is 2.5 standard deviations above the mean age at onset of PUBERTY in a population. Delayed puberty can be classified by defects in the hypothalamic LHRH pulse generator, the PITUITARY GLAND, or the GONADS. These patients will undergo spontaneous but delayed puberty whereas patients with SEXUAL INFANTILISM will not.Garlic: One of the Liliaceae used as a spice (SPICES) and traditional remedy. It contains alliin lyase and alliin, which is converted by alliin lyase to allicin, the pungent ingredient responsible for the aroma of fresh cut garlic.Allium: A genus of the plant family Liliaceae (sometimes classified as Alliaceae) in the order Liliales. Many produce pungent, often bacteriostatic and physiologically active compounds and are used as VEGETABLES; CONDIMENTS; and medicament, the latter in traditional medicine.Access to Information: Individual's rights to obtain and use information collected or generated by others.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Journal Impact Factor: A quantitative measure of the frequency on average with which articles in a journal have been cited in a given period of time.Peer Review, Research: The evaluation by experts of the quality and pertinence of research or research proposals of other experts in the same field. Peer review is used by editors in deciding which submissions warrant publication, by granting agencies to determine which proposals should be funded, and by academic institutions in tenure decisions.Publishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
(1/1584) Role of cyclooxygenases COX-1 and COX-2 in modulating adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells.

Cyclooxygenase (COX) catalyses the rate-limiting step of prostanoid biosynthesis. Two COX isoforms have been identified, COX-1, the constitutive form, and COX-2, the inducible form. While COX-2 has been implicated in body fat regulation, the underlying cellular mechanism remains to be elucidated. The present study was undertaken to examine the potential role of COX in modulating adipogenesis and to dissect the relative contribution of the two isoenzymes in this process. COX-2 was found to be expressed in undifferentiated 3T3-L1 cells and down-regulated during differentiation, whereas the cellular level of COX-1 remained relatively constant. Abrogating the activity of either of these two isoenzymes by selective COX inhibitors accelerated cellular differentiation, suggesting that both COX isoenzymes negatively influenced differentiation. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) significantly up-regulated COX-2 expression ( approximately 2-fold) in differentiating 3T3-L1 cells, whereas similar effect was not observed with COX-1 expression. Abrogating the induced COX-2 activity reversed the TNFalpha-induced inhibition of differentiation by approximately 70%, implying a role for COX-2 in mediating TNFalpha signaling. Hence, both COX isoforms were involved in the negative modulation of adipocyte differentiation. COX-2 appeared to be the main isoform mediating at least part of the negative effects of TNFalpha.  (+info)

(2/1584) Isomer-specific regulation of metabolism and PPARgamma signaling by CLA in human preadipocytes.

Trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has previously been shown to be the CLA isomer responsible for CLA-induced reductions in body fat in animal models, and we have shown that this isomer, but not the cis-9,trans-11 CLA isomer, specifically decreased triglyceride (TG) accumulation in primary human adipocytes in vitro. Here we investigated the mechanism behind the isomer-specific, CLA-mediated reduction in TG accumulation in differentiating human preadipocytes. Trans-10,cis-12 CLA decreased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and oxidation, and reduced insulin-dependent glucose transporter 4 gene expression. Furthermore, trans-10,cis-12 CLA reduced oleic acid uptake and oxidation when compared with all other treatments. In parallel to CLA's effects on metabolism, trans-10,cis-12 CLA decreased, whereas cis-9,trans-11 CLA increased, the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) and several of its downstream target genes when compared with vehicle controls. Transient transfections demonstrated that both CLA isomers antagonized ligand-dependent activation of PPARgamma. Collectively, trans-10,cis-12, but not cis-9, trans-11, CLA decreased glucose and lipid uptake and oxidation and preadipocyte differentiation by altering preadipocyte gene transcription in a manner that appeared to be due, in part, to decreased PPARgamma expression.  (+info)

(3/1584) Regulation of ABCA1 expression and cholesterol efflux during adipose differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells.

Adipose cells specialized in energy storage, contain large intracellular triglyceride-rich lipid droplets, are enriched with free cholesterol, and express sterol-regulated transcription factors such as liver X receptor (LXR). The recent identification of the LXR-dependent ATP binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) pathway for cholesterol release from peripheral cells has led us to address the question of the expression and function of ABCA1 in adipocytes. In 3T3-L1 adipose cells, we observed a strong induction of ABCA1 mRNA during adipose differentiation, but only limited variations in ABCA1 protein. Lipid efflux onto apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), which depends on ABCA1, was comparable in adipocytes and preadipocytes, demonstrating a differential regulation of ABCA1 mRNA and cholesterol efflux. We also found that total cell cholesterol remained stable during differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells, but membrane cholesterol was lower in adipocytes than in preadipocytes, suggesting redistribution of cholesterol to the lipid droplet. Finally, we show that under standard lipolytic stimulation, 3T3-L1 adipocytes do not release cholesterol onto apoA-I, a process that required long exposures to lipolytic agents (24 h). In conclusion, despite large induction of ABCA1 mRNA during differentiation, cholesterol efflux through the ABCA1 pathway remains limited in adipocytes and requires prolonged lipolysis. This is consistent with the view of the adipocyte behaving as a cholesterol sink, with plasma cholesterol-buffering properties.  (+info)

(4/1584) Activation of PPARalpha and PPARgamma by environmental phthalate monoesters.

Phthalate esters are widely used as plasticizers in the manufacture of products made of polyvinyl chloride. Mono-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (MEHP) induces rodent hepatocarcinogenesis by a mechanism that involves activation of the nuclear transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPARalpha). MEHP also activates PPAR-gamma (PPARgamma), which contributes to adipocyte differentiation and insulin sensitization. Human exposure to other phthalate monoesters, including metabolites of di-n-butyl phthalate and butyl benzyl phthalate, is substantially higher than that of MEHP, prompting this investigation of their potential for PPAR activation, assayed in COS cells and in PPAR-responsive liver (PPARalpha) and adipocyte (PPARgamma) cell lines. Monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP) and mono-sec-butyl phthalate (MBuP) both increased the COS cell transcriptional activity of mouse PPARalpha, with effective concentration for half-maximal response (EC50) values of 21 and 63 microM, respectively. MBzP also activated human PPARalpha (EC50=30 microM) and mouse and human PPARgamma (EC50=75-100 microM). MEHP was a more potent PPAR activator than MBzP or MBuP, with mouse PPARalpha more sensitive to MEHP (EC50=0.6 microM) than human PPARalpha (EC50=3.2 microM). MEHP activation of PPARgamma required somewhat higher concentrations, EC50=10.1 microM (mouse PPARgamma) and 6.2 microM (human PPARgamma). No significant PPAR activation was observed with the monomethyl, mono-n-butyl, dimethyl, or diethyl esters of phthalic acid. PPARalpha activation was verified in FAO rat liver cells stably transfected with PPARalpha, where expression of several endogenous PPARalpha target genes was induced by MBzP, MBuP, and MEHP. Similarly, activation of endogenous PPARgamma target genes was evidenced for all three phthalates by the stimulation of PPARgamma-dependent adipogenesis in the 3T3-L1 cell differentiation model. These findings demonstrate the potential of environmental phthalate monoesters for activation of rodent and human PPARs and may help to elucidate the molecular basis for the adverse health effects proposed to be associated with human phthalate exposure.  (+info)

(5/1584) Mutational analysis of the hormone-sensitive lipase translocation reaction in adipocytes.

Lipolysis in adipocytes governs the release of fatty acids for the supply of energy to various tissues of the body. This reaction is mediated by hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL), a cytosolic enzyme, and perilipin, which coats the lipid droplet surface in adipocytes. Both HSL and perilipin are substrates for polyphosphorylation by protein kinase A (PKA), and phosphorylation of perilipin is required to induce HSL to translocate from the cytosol to the surface of the lipid droplet, a critical step in the lipolytic reaction (Sztalryd C., Xu, G., Dorward, H., Tansey, J. T., Contreras, J.A, Kimmel, A. R., and Londos, C. (2003) J. Cell Biol. 161, 1093-1103). In the present paper we demonstrate that phosphorylation at one of the two more recently discovered PKA sites within HSL, serines 659 and 660, is also required to effect the translocation reaction. Translocation does not occur when these serines residues are mutated simultaneously to alanines. Also, mutation of the catalytic Ser-423 eliminates HSL translocation, showing that the inactive enzyme does not migrate to the lipid droplet upon PKA activation. Thus, HSL translocation requires the phosphorylation of both HSL and perilipin.  (+info)

(6/1584) Insulin stimulates expression of the pyruvate kinase M gene in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

M2-type pyruvate kinase (M2-PK) mRNA is produced from the PKM gene by an alternative RNA splicing in adipocytes. We found that insulin increased the level of M2-PK mRNA in 3T3-L1 adipocytes in both time- and dose-dependent manners. This induction did not require the presence of glucose or glucosamine in the medium. The insulin effect was blocked by pharmacological inhibitors of insulin signaling pathways such as wortmannin, an inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), and PD98059, an inhibitor of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) kinase. A stable reporter expression assay showed that the promoter activity of an about 2.2-kb 5'-flanking region of the rat PKM gene was stimulated by insulin, but the extents of these stimulations were lower than those of the mRNA stimulation. Thus, we suggest that insulin increases the level of M2-PK mRNA in adipocytes by acting at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels through signaling pathways involving both PI3K and MAPK kinase.  (+info)

(7/1584) Syntaxin 6 regulates Glut4 trafficking in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

Insulin stimulates the movement of glucose transporter-4 (Glut4)-containing vesicles to the plasma membrane of adipose cells. We investigated the role of post-Golgi t-soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors (SNAREs) in the trafficking of Glut4 in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Greater than 85% of syntaxin 6 was found in Glut4-containing vesicles, and this t-SNARE exhibited insulin-stimulated movement to the plasma membrane. In contrast, the colocalization of Glut4 with syntaxin 7, 8, or 12/13 was limited and these molecules did not translocate to the plasma membrane. We used adenovirus to overexpress the cytosolic domain of these syntaxin's and studied their effects on Glut4 traffic. Overexpression of the cytosolic domain of syntaxin 6 did not affect insulin-stimulated glucose transport, but increased basal deGlc transport and cell surface Glut4 levels. Moreover, the syntaxin 6 cytosolic domain significantly reduced the rate of Glut4 reinternalization after insulin withdrawal and perturbed subendosomal Glut4 sorting; the corresponding domains of syntaxins 8 and 12 were without effect. Our data suggest that syntaxin 6 is involved in a membrane-trafficking step that sequesters Glut4 away from traffic destined for the plasma membrane. We speculate that this is at the level of traffic of Glut4 into its unique storage compartment and that syntaxin 16 may be involved.  (+info)

(8/1584) HDL-mediated cholesterol uptake and targeting to lipid droplets in adipocytes.

Adipocytes express high levels of the HDL scavenger receptor class B type I in a differentiation-dependent manner. We thus have analyzed the routes of HDL cholesterol trafficking at different phases of adipocyte differentiation in the 3T3-L1 cell line. One novel and salient feature of this paper is the observation of a widespread distribution in the cell cytoplasm of Golgi markers, caveolin-2, and a fluorescent cholesterol analog NBD-cholesterol (NBD-chol), observed in the early phases of adipocyte formation, clearly distinct from that observed in mature fat cells (i.e., with fully formed lipid vesicles). Thus, in cells without visible lipid droplets, Golgi markers (Golgi 58K, Golgin 97, trans-Golgi network 38, Rab 6, and BODIPY-ceramide), caveolin-2, and NBD-chol all colocalize in a widespread distribution in the cell. In contrast, when lipid droplets are fully formed at latter stages, these markers clearly are distributed to distinct cell compartments: a compact juxtanuclear structure for the Golgi markers and caveolin-2, while NDB-chol concentrates in lipid droplets. In addition, disorganization of the Golgi using three different agents (Brefeldin, monensin, and N-ethyl-maleimide) drastically reduces NBD-chol uptake at different phases of adipocyte formation, strongly suggesting that the Golgi apparatus plays a critical role in HDL-mediated NBD uptake and routing to lipid droplets.  (+info)

*  3T3-L1
... is a cell line derived from (mouse) 3T3 cells that is used in biological research on adipose tissue. 3T3-L1 cells have a ... 3T3-L1 cells of the adipocyte morphology increase the synthesis and accumulation of triglycerides and acquire the signet ring ... These cells are also sensitive to lipogenic and lipolytic hormones and drugs, including epinephrine, isoproterenol, and insulin ... Green H, Kehinde O (1975). "An established preadipose cell line and its differentiation in culture. II. Factors affecting the ...
*  Infections associated with diseases
Fusinski, Keith A (2008). Adenovirus 36 E4orf1 gene induces differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells (PhD Dissertation). Wayne State ... and Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) in non small cell lung cancer". Experimental and Molecular Pathology. 89 (3): 222-6. doi: ... Cell. 141 (7): 1135-45. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2010.05.009. PMC 2908380 . PMID 20602997. Mulholland, Selamawit; Gavranich, John B; ... February 2014). "Coxsackievirus B1 is associated with induction of β-cell autoimmunity that portends type 1 diabetes". Diabetes ...
*  GPR84
explored 3T3-L1 adipocytes cocultured with RAW264.7 cells to examine this potential interaction. RAW264.7 coculture increases ... There was also a GPR84 downregulation in dentritic cell derived from FcRgamma chain KO mice. In microglial cells, the GPR84 ... EST clones corresponding to hgpr84 were from B cells (leukemia), neuroendocrine lung as well as in microglial cells and ... Ly6G + MDSCs in Lal-/- mice show strong immunosuppression on T cells, which contributes to impaired T cell proliferation and ...
*  Vitisin A (stilbenoid)
"Vitisin a inhibits adipocyte differentiation through cell cycle arrest in 3T3-L1 cells". Biochemical and Biophysical Research ... and NF-κB activation in RAW 264.7 cells". International Immunopharmacology. 9 (3): 319-323. doi:10.1016/j.intimp.2008.12.005. ...
*  CEBPA
"Regulated expression of three C/EBP isoforms during adipose conversion of 3T3-L1 cells". Genes Dev. 5 (9): 1538-52. doi:10.1101 ... "C/EBPalpha arrests cell proliferation through direct inhibition of Cdk2 and Cdk4". Mol. Cell. 8 (4): 817-28. doi:10.1016/S1097- ... CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha is a transcription factor involved in the differentiation of certain Blood cells. For ... and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. A recent study has found that higher levels of CEBPA methylation are directly ...
*  CEBPB
Cao Z, Umek RM, McKnight SL (Oct 1991). "Regulated expression of three C/EBP isoforms during adipose conversion of 3T3-L1 cells ... Cell. Biol. 18 (10): 5880-7. doi:10.1128/mcb.18.10.5880. PMC 109174 . PMID 9742105. Zhang F, Lin M, Abidi P, Thiel G, Liu J ( ... Cell. 4 (5): 735-43. doi:10.1016/s1097-2765(00)80384-6. PMID 10619021. Liu YW, Tseng HP, Chen LC, Chen BK, Chang WC (July 2003 ... Cell. Biol. 23 (12): 4066-82. doi:10.1128/mcb.23.12.4066-4082.2003. PMC 156132 . PMID 12773552. Mo X, Kowenz-Leutz E, Xu H, ...
*  CEBPD
"Regulated expression of three C/EBP isoforms during adipose conversion of 3T3-L1 cells". Genes & Development. 5 (9): 1538-52. ... CEBPD is involved in regulation of apoptosis and cell proliferation. It probably acts as tumor suppressor. One study in mice ... Cell Biology. 29 (12): 1525-39. doi:10.1016/S1357-2725(97)00083-6. PMID 9570146. Zhu Y, Saunders MA, Yeh H, Deng WG, Wu KK (Mar ... Cytogenetics and Cell Genetics. 70 (3-4): 188-91. doi:10.1159/000134030. PMID 7789168. Cleutjens CB, van Eekelen CC, van Dekken ...
*  Ccaat-enhancer-binding proteins
Cao Z, Umek RM, McKnight SL (Sep 1991). "Regulated expression of three C/EBP isoforms during adipose conversion of 3T3-L1 cells ... In contrast, ectopic expression of C/EBPβ and δ in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes promotes adipogenesis, even in the absence of ... C/EBPβ plays a role in neuronal differentiation, in learning, in memory processes, in glial and neuronal cell functions, and in ... These proteins are found in hepatocytes, adipocytes, hematopoietic cells, spleen, kidney, brain, and many other organs. C/EBP ...
*  INSIG2
1,25-(OH)2D3 transiently but strongly induces Insig-2 expression in 3T3-L1 cells. This novel regulatory circuit may also play ... Ka SO, Kim KA, Kwon KB, Park JW, Park BH (May 2009). "Silibinin attenuates adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes through a ... a functional vitamin D response element in the murine Insig-2 promoter and its potential role in the differentiation of 3T3-L1 ... March 2009). "Activation of PPARalpha and PPARgamma reduces triacylglycerol synthesis in rat hepatoma cells by reduction of ...
*  BCKDHA
Expression of E1 alpha mRNA and subunit in maple-syrup-urine-disease and 3T3-L1 cells". J. Biol. Chem. 263 (18): 9007-14. PMID ... Cell Genet. 50 (4): 236-7. doi:10.1159/000132768. PMID 2805821. Fisher CW, Chuang JL, Griffin TA, et al. (1989). "Molecular ... "A T-to-A substitution in the E1 alpha subunit gene of the branched-chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase complex in two cell lines ... phenotypes in cultured maple syrup urine disease cells. Complete E1 alpha cDNA sequence and mRNA and subunit contents of the ...
*  Sortilin 1
"Insulin responsiveness of glucose transporter 4 in 3T3-L1 cells depends on the presence of sortilin". Molecular Biology of the ... As a sorting receptor on the cell surface and on the endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi apparatus within the cell, sortilin is ... as it has been detected in several cancer cell lines. Notably, human cancerous epithelial cells exhibited increased levels of ... In addition, two hydrophobic loops have been detected in this domain and act to anchor the protein in the cell membrane. In ...
*  PTGFRN
"Synthesis and accumulation of a receptor regulatory protein associated with lipid droplet accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells". J. ... 2001). "PGRL is a major CD81-associated protein on lymphocytes and distinguishes a new family of cell surface proteins". J. ... 2006). "Contrasting effects of EWI proteins, integrins, and protein palmitoylation on cell surface CD9 organization". J. Biol. ...
*  Carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester
December 1997). "Insulin has a limited effect on the cell cycle progression in 3T3 L1 fibroblasts". Molecules and Cells. 7 (6 ... "High-resolution tracking of cell division suggests similar cell cycle kinetics of hematopoietic stem cells stimulated in vitro ... Also, due to this stable linkage, once incorporated within cells the dye is not transferred to adjacent cells. CFSE is commonly ... August 1998). "Helper T cell differentiation is controlled by the cell cycle". Immunity. 9 (2): 229-37. doi:10.1016/S1074-7613( ...
*  Avicularin
It suppresses lipid accumulation through repression of C/EBPα-activated GLUT4-mediated glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 cells. LC ... suppresses lipid accumulation through repression of C/EBPα-activated GLUT4-mediated glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 cells. Fujimori K ...
*  Chemerin
Studies with 3T3-L1 cells have shown chemerin expression is low in pre-differentiated adipocytes but its expression and ... Studies using mature human adipocytes, 3T3-L1 cells, and in vivo studies in mice showed chemerin stimulates the phosphorylation ... Interestingly, it was found incubation of 3T3-L1 cells with recombinant human chemerin protein facilitated insulin-stimulated ... "Chemerin enhances insulin signaling and potentiates insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes". FEBS Lett. 582 (5 ...
*  Adenovirus serotype 36
AD-36 infection can induce cellular differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and stem cells derived from human adipose tissue. ...
*  Streptomyces cinerochromogenes
"Cineromycin B isolated from Streptomyces cinerochromogenes inhibits adipocyte differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells via Krüppel-like ... "Cineromycin B isolated from Streptomyces cinerochromogenes inhibits adipocyte differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells via Krüppel-like ...
*  ALOXE3
... appears necessary and sufficient for the differentiation of mouse 3T3-L1 fibroblast cells into adipocytes (i.e. fat ... Finally, cultured human skin cells, which are rich in ALOXE3 readily convert arachidonic acid as well as 12S-hydroperoxy- ... is far greater in the skin cells isolated from subjects with psoriasis. These results suggest that ALOXE3 and its orthologs ... cells); the function of Aloxe3 in this differentiation appears to be to its metabolism 12R-HpETE into hepoxilins A3 or B3 which ...
*  FITM2
The overexpression of FITM2 was also displayed when the 3T3-L1 cells were combined with rosiglitazone (a PPAR γ agonist). This ... FITM2 has been identified as being overexpressed throughout the time 3T3-L1 (from the adipocyte cell line) is being ... when lipid droplets have been identified to build-up which results in the adipocyte phenotype that is seen in the 3T3-L1 cells ... Lastly, a shRNA-facilitated reduction in FITM2 in adipocytes (3T3-L1) or even a knockdown of it in the embryos of zebrafish ...
*  Carnitine palmitoyltransferase I
Brown NF, Hill JK, Esser V, Kirkland JL, Corkey BE, Foster DW, McGarry JD (Oct 1997). "Mouse white adipocytes and 3T3-L1 cells ... is found throughout the body on the mitochondria of all cells except for skeletal muscle cells and brown adipose cells. The ... Cell. 150 (5): 1068-81. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2012.08.011. PMC 3477804 . PMID 22939629. Shrivastav S, Zhang L, Okamoto K, Lee H, ... is highly expressed in heart and skeletal muscle cells and brown adipose cells. A third isoform, the brain isoform (CPT1C), was ...
*  KLF7
... suppresses expression of Kruppel-like factor 7 and increases expression and secretion of adiponectin protein in 3T3-L1 cells". ... Cell. Biol. 24 (3): 1058-69. doi:10.1128/MCB.24.3.1058-1069.2004. PMC 321422 . PMID 14729953. Ota T, Suzuki Y, Nishikawa T, et ... Cell Res. 291 (2): 340-51. doi:10.1016/S0014-4827(03)00408-7. PMID 14644156. Strausberg RL, Feingold EA, Grouse LH, et al. ( ... Suzuki S, Chuang LF, Doi RH, Chuang RY (2004). "Identification of opioid-regulated genes in human lymphocytic cells by ...
*  Phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate
Acute insulin treatment increases PtdIns(3,5)P2 levels in 3T3L1 adipocytes, both in isolated membranes and intact cells to ... ArPIKfyve-PIKfyve interaction and role in insulin-regulated GLUT4 translocation and glucose transport in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Exp ... The response to hyperosmotic challenge is not conserved in most tested mammalian cells except for differentiated 3T3L1 ... 5-bisphosphate rise in hyperosmotically stressed 3T3-L1 adipocytes, mediated by ArPIKfyve-PIKfyve pathway. J Biol Chem. 2005 ...
*  Ludwigia octovalvis
... system and AMPK pathway in 3T3-L1 cells". Food Chem. Toxicol. 48: 716-21. doi:10.1016/j.fct.2009.12.001. PMID 19963029. Lin, WS ...
*  David James (cell biologist)
"Rapid activation of Akt2 is sufficient to stimulate GLUT4 translocation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes". Cell Metab. 7 (4): 348-56. doi: ... "Insulin Increases Cell Surface GLUT4 Levels by Dose Dependently Discharging GLUT4 into a Cell Surface Recycling Pathway". Mol. ... Cell. Biol. 24 (14): 6456-66. doi:10.1128/MCB.24.14.6456-6466.2004. PMC 434240 . PMID 15226445. Larance M, Ramm G, Stöckli J, ... David Ernest James (born Sydney 1958) is a cell biologist who discovered the glucose transporter GLUT4. He has also been ...
*  C-jun
Overexpression of c-jun in 3T3-L1 cells (a preadipocytic non-tumoral cell line that resembles human liposarcoma) can block or ... and those cells exhibit cell cycle defect. Overexpression of c-jun in cells results in decreased level of p53 and p21, and ... In cells absent of c-jun, the expression of p53 (cell cycle arrest inducer) and p21 (CDK inhibitor and p53 target gene) is ... Studies have shown that c-jun is required for progression through the G1 phase of the cell cycle, and c-jun null cells show ...
*  Syntaxin 3
Tellam JT, Macaulay SL, McIntosh S, Hewish DR, Ward CW, James DE (1997). "Characterization of Munc-18c and syntaxin-4 in 3T3-L1 ... "Interaction of Munc-18-2 with syntaxin 3 controls the association of apical SNAREs in epithelial cells". J. Cell Sci. 111 ( Pt ... "Human syntaxin 3 is localized apically in human intestinal cells". J. Cell Sci. 110 ( Pt 18) (18): 2207-14. PMID 9378770. Galli ... Cell. 9 (6): 1437-48. doi:10.1091/mbc.9.6.1437. PMC 25366 . PMID 9614185. Riento K, Galli T, Jansson S, Ehnholm C, Lehtonen E, ...
Roles for miRNA-378/378*in adipocyte gene expression and lipogenesis

 | DIAL.pr - BOREAL  Roles for miRNA-378/378*in adipocyte gene expression and lipogenesis | DIAL.pr - BOREAL
Although we did not observe dramatic differences in adipogenesis between Ago2 knock-down and control 3T3-L1 cells, ... we screened for miRNAs that are differentially expressed between preadipocytes and adipocytes for the 3T3-L1 and ST2 cell lines ... When overexpressed in ST2 mesenchymal precursor cells, miRNA378/378* increases the size of lipid droplets and incorporation of ... Triglycerides - metabolism ; Transfection ; Stem Cells - physiology ; Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction ; ...
more infohttps://dial.uclouvain.be/pr/boreal/object/boreal:33716
nih 3t3, 3t3-l1 Cells | Thermo Fisher Scientific - US  nih 3t3, 3t3-l1 Cells | Thermo Fisher Scientific - US
Every Step of the Way, a Wide Range of Cell Health Products. Maintaining healthy cells is the key to experimental success and ... we've highlighted the technologies and products within cell biology that are critical to maintaining optimal cell health. No ... To give you confidence in the health of your cells every step of the way, ... Embryonic mouse fibroblast; Properties: contact inhibition; transformation; transfection; cell biology; ability to ...
more infohttp://www.thermofisher.com/us/en/home/technical-resources/cell-lines/n/cell-lines-detail-334.html
Aspirin Breaks the Crosstalk between 3T3-L1 Adipocytes and 4T1 Breast Cancer Cells by Regulating Cytokine Production  Aspirin Breaks the Crosstalk between 3T3-L1 Adipocytes and 4T1 Breast Cancer Cells by Regulating Cytokine Production
Subsequently, culture of 4T1 cells in 3T3-L1 adipocyte-conditioned medium (Ad-CM) and co-culture of 3T3-L1 and 4T1 cells using ... Aspirin inhibited inflammatory MCP-1 adipokine production by 3T3-L1 adipocytes and the cell growth and migration of 4T1 cells. ... α or conditioned medium from RAW264.7 cells. In 4T1 cells, treatment with aspirin decreased cell viability and migration, ... The aim of this study is to investigate the anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects of aspirin on 3T3-L1 adipocytes, 4T1 ...
more infohttp://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0147161
Molecules | Free Full-Text | Modulation of HO-1 by Ferulic Acid Attenuates Adipocyte Differentiation in 3T3-L1 Cells  Molecules | Free Full-Text | Modulation of HO-1 by Ferulic Acid Attenuates Adipocyte Differentiation in 3T3-L1 Cells
Therefore, we demonstrated that FA is a positive regulator of HO-1 in 3T3-L1, and may be an effective bioactive compound to ... We investigated whether HO-1 can be activated by FA and suppress adipogenic factors in 3T3-L1. Our results showed that FA ... In addition, HO-1 inhibitor stimulated lipid accumulation, while FA attenuated lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 treated with HO-1 ... Keywords: Ferulic acid; 3T3-L1; HO-1; adipogenesis; obesity Ferulic acid; 3T3-L1; HO-1; adipogenesis; obesity ...
more infohttp://www.mdpi.com/1420-3049/22/5/745
IJMS | Free Full-Text | Insulin Induces an Increase in Cytosolic Glucose Levels  in 3T3-L1 Cells with Inhibited Glycogen...  IJMS | Free Full-Text | Insulin Induces an Increase in Cytosolic Glucose Levels in 3T3-L1 Cells with Inhibited Glycogen...
Here, we used the fluorescent indicator protein (FLIPglu-600µ) to monitor cytosolic glucose dynamics in mouse 3T3-L1 cells in ... The results show that cells exhibit a low resting cytosolic glucose concentration. However, in cells with inhibited glycogen ... In untreated cells with sensitive glycogen synthase activation, insulin stimulation did not result in a change in the cytosolic ... It has been thought for a long time that glucose entering the cytosol is swiftly phosphorylated in most cell types; hence the ...
more infohttp://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/15/10/17827
Exogenous Expressions of FTO Wild-Type and R316Q Mutant Proteins Caused an Increase in HNRPK Levels in 3T3-L1 Cells as...  Exogenous Expressions of FTO Wild-Type and R316Q Mutant Proteins Caused an Increase in HNRPK Levels in 3T3-L1 Cells as...
This study investigated the changes in the soluble proteome of 3T3-L1 cells upon expression of the WT and the mutant (R316Q) ... Exogenous Expressions of FTO Wild-Type and R316Q Mutant Proteins Caused an Increase in HNRPK Levels in 3T3-L1 Cells as ... Protein extracts prepared from 3T3-L1 cells expressing either the WT or the mutant FTO proteins were used in DIGE experiments. ... This increase may codictate the metabolic changes occurring in the cell and may attribute a significance to HNRNPK in FTO- ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2017/8216180/abs/
Capsaicin and nonivamide similarly modulate outcome measures of mitochondrial energy metabolism in HepG2 and 3T3-L1 cells -...  Capsaicin and nonivamide similarly modulate outcome measures of mitochondrial energy metabolism in HepG2 and 3T3-L1 cells -...
Capsaicin and nonivamide similarly modulate outcome measures of mitochondrial energy metabolism in HepG2 and 3T3-L1 cells ... Capsaicin and nonivamide similarly modulate outcome measures of mitochondrial energy metabolism in HepG2 and 3T3-L1 cells C. M ... accumulation was reduced to a similar extent after treatment with both test substances during the maturation of 3T3-L1 cells by ... tissue-specific effects of capsaicin and nonivamide on parameters of mitochondrial energy metabolism in 3T3-L1 and HepG2 cells ...
more infohttp://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlelanding/2017/fo/c7fo01626c
AID 744061 - Agonist activity at PPAR-gamma in mouse 3T3-L1 cells assessed as adipocyte differentiation at 1 to 1000 nM after 6...  AID 744061 - Agonist activity at PPAR-gamma in mouse 3T3-L1 cells assessed as adipocyte differentiation at 1 to 1000 nM after 6...
Agonist activity at PPAR-gamma in mouse 3T3-L1 cells assessed as adipocyte differentiation at 1 to 1000 nM after 6 days by Oil ...
more infohttps://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/bioassay/744061
The Transcription Factor Fos-Related Antigen 1 Is Induced by Thiazolidinediones During Differentiation of 3T3-L1 Cells |...  The Transcription Factor Fos-Related Antigen 1 Is Induced by Thiazolidinediones During Differentiation of 3T3-L1 Cells |...
... we have compared 3T3-L1 cells treated to differentiate in the presence of BRL49653 with untreated 3T3-L1 cells and identified ... L1 cells was JunD and a complex of Fra-1 and JunD was formed on a consensus AP-1 binding element in differentiated 3T3-L1 cells ... The Transcription Factor Fos-Related Antigen 1 Is Induced by Thiazolidinediones During Differentiation of 3T3-L1 Cells. Tatjana ... The Transcription Factor Fos-Related Antigen 1 Is Induced by Thiazolidinediones During Differentiation of 3T3-L1 Cells. Tatjana ...
more infohttp://molpharm.aspetjournals.org/content/59/3/567
Shikonin suppresses ERK 1/2 phosphorylation during the early stages of adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells | BMC...  Shikonin suppresses ERK 1/2 phosphorylation during the early stages of adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells | BMC...
In this study, we investigated the effect of shikonin on adipocyte differentiation and its mechanism of action in 3T3-L1 cells ... Oil Red O staining was performed to determine the lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells. To elucidate the anti-adipogenic ... To investigate the effects of shikonin on adipocyte differentiation, 3T3-L1 cells were induced to differentiate using 3- ... To further confirm that shikonin inhibits adipogenic differentiation through downregulation of ERK 1/2 activity, 3T3-L1 cells ...
more infohttps://bmccomplementalternmed.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1472-6882-13-207
Induction of Bach1 and ARA70 gene expression at an early stage of adipocyte differentiation of mouse 3T3-L1 cells | Biochemical...  Induction of Bach1 and ARA70 gene expression at an early stage of adipocyte differentiation of mouse 3T3-L1 cells | Biochemical...
The induction of these two genes was observed only in growth-arrested 3T3-L1 cells, and not in proliferating cells. In NIH-3T3 ... Induction of Bach1 and ARA70 gene expression at an early stage of adipocyte differentiation of mouse 3T3-L1 cells. Makoto ... Induction of Bach1 and ARA70 gene expression at an early stage of adipocyte differentiation of mouse 3T3-L1 cells ... Induction of Bach1 and ARA70 gene expression at an early stage of adipocyte differentiation of mouse 3T3-L1 cells ...
more infohttp://www.biochemj.org/content/361/3/629
Effect of Rare Earth Elements on Proliferation and Fatty Acids Accumulation of 3T3-L1 Cells | Korea Science  Effect of Rare Earth Elements on Proliferation and Fatty Acids Accumulation of 3T3-L1 Cells | Korea Science
Effect of Rare Earth Elements on Proliferation and Fatty Acids Accumulation of 3T3-L1 Cells - Rare Earth Elements;3T3-L1 Cells; ... on proliferation and fatty acids accumulation in 3T3-L1 cell cultures. In Experiment 1, 3T3-L1 preadipocytes in 96-well plates ... confluent 3T3-L1 preadipocytes but inhibits cell proliferation only in preconfluent cells. J. Nutr. 129:602- 606 ... Effect of Rare Earth Elements on Proliferation and Fatty Acids Accumulation of 3T3-L1 Cells. He, M.L.; Yang, W.Z.; Hidari, H.; ...
more infohttp://www.koreascience.or.kr/article/ArticleFullRecord.jsp?cn=E1DMBP_2006_v19n1_119
Gene Expression during 3T3-L1 Cell... | ERA  Gene Expression during 3T3-L1 Cell... | ERA
Gene Expression during 3T3-L1 Cell Differentiation. * Author(s) / Creator(s). *Fu, A. ... a study was undertaken to examine the changes that occur daily in global gene expression as 3T3-L1 cells differentiate from ... Global gene expression patterns spanning 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation. Canadian Journal of Animal Science, 84(3), 367- ... microarray to allow the time-course analysis of the gene expression profile in these differentiating cells. Self-organizing ...
more infohttps://era.library.ualberta.ca/items/5fca2c9c-40d0-47a3-810d-7d70f2fde7b5
Fluorescence lifetime imaging of lipids during 3T3-L1 cell differentiation<...  Fluorescence lifetime imaging of lipids during 3T3-L1 cell differentiation<...
3T3-L1 cells are widely used cell line for studying adipogenesis because it can differentiate into an adipocyte-like phenotype ... 3T3-L1 cells are widely used cell line for studying adipogenesis because it can differentiate into an adipocyte-like phenotype ... 3T3-L1 cells are widely used cell line for studying adipogenesis because it can differentiate into an adipocyte-like phenotype ... 3T3-L1 cells are widely used cell line for studying adipogenesis because it can differentiate into an adipocyte-like phenotype ...
more infohttps://yonsei.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/fluorescence-lifetime-imaging-of-lipids-during-3t3-l1-cell-differ
Insulin treatment of untransfected 3T3 L1 cells quickly induc - eaux atorvastatin20mg com  Insulin treatment of untransfected 3T3 L1 cells quickly induc - eaux atorvastatin20mg com
HomeUncategorizedInsulin treatment of untransfected 3T3 L1 cells quickly induc. Insulin treatment of untransfected 3T3 L1 cells ... the lineage of each cell, and how cells move to reside in their final position. The purpose of this study was to investigate ... Together, these data show that BCR/ABL promotes histamine production side effects for tadalafil in CML cells and that certain ... Fundamental to understanding organogenesis is the ability to determine when and where specific cell types are generated, ...
more infohttp://eaux.atorvastatin20mg.com/insulin-treatment-of-untransfected-3t3-l1-cells-quickly-induc/
Basal and PGF2α-stimulated secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines from 3T3-L1 adipocyte-like cells  Basal and PGF2α-stimulated secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines from 3T3-L1 adipocyte-like cells
3T3-L1 preadipocytes are useful model for physiological, pharmacological and cell signaling studies. Differentiation of 3T3-L1 ... It is concluded that pro-inflammatory phenotype of differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocyte-like cells, induced by PGF2α is ... PGG enhanced H2O2 production of in PGF2α-treated cells. ... murine fibroblasts into adipocyte-like cells was conducted in ... regulating the metabolism and activity of various cell types and body functions. ...
more infohttps://biodiscovery.pensoft.net/article/17757
Changes in protein levels of adipokines in 3T3-L1 cells | Open-i  Changes in protein levels of adipokines in 3T3-L1 cells | Open-i
Changes in protein levels of adipokines in 3T3-L1 cells treated with HCV core protein.(A) The protein level of IL-6 was ... The levels of mRNA are shown as ratios relative to GST treated cells. Mentions: First, we treated mouse 3T3-L1 cells, which ... pone.0131346.g002: Changes in protein levels of adipokines in 3T3-L1 cells treated with HCV core protein.(A) The protein level ... pone.0131346.g002: Changes in protein levels of adipokines in 3T3-L1 cells treated with HCV core protein.(A) The protein level ...
more infohttps://openi.nlm.nih.gov/detailedresult.php?img=PMC4487891_pone.0131346.g002&req=4
Ivy gourd (Coccinia grandis L. Voigt) root suppresses adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells | Lipids in Health and Disease ...  Ivy gourd (Coccinia grandis L. Voigt) root suppresses adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells | Lipids in Health and Disease ...
Effects of hexane fraction on the expression of lipid metabolism-related genes in 3T3-L1 cells. The cells were cultured in the ... Adipogenesis or the process of fat cell formation in 3T3-L1 cells is known to be sequentially regulated by a network of ... Oil red O staining of the 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The 3T3-L1 adipocytes were washed twice with phosphate buffered saline at pH 7.4 ... the root extract apparently lowered the lipid levels in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The amounts of accumulated lipid in the 3T3-L1 ...
more infohttps://lipidworld.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1476-511X-13-88
The Impacts of Testosterone on Insulin Sensitivity in C57BL/6 Mice, 3T3-L1 Adipocytes and HepG2 Liver Cells and Their Related...  The Impacts of Testosterone on Insulin Sensitivity in C57BL/6 Mice, 3T3-L1 Adipocytes and HepG2 Liver Cells and Their Related...
The Impacts of Testosterone on Insulin Sensitivity in C57BL/6 Mice, 3T3-L1 Adipocytes and HepG2 Liver Cells and Their Related ... PartⅡThe impacts of testosterone on insulin sensitivity in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and its related molecular mechanismsObjectives:To ... glucose to differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Phosphorylation and protein expression of insulin receptor(InsR) and its ... PartⅢThe impacts of testosterone on insulin sensitivity in HepG2 liver cells and its related molecular mechanismsObjectives:Our ...
more infohttps://www.dissertationtopic.net/doc/1553226
Blueberry Peel Extracts Inhibit Adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 Cells and Reduce High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity - pdf descargar  Blueberry Peel Extracts Inhibit Adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 Cells and Reduce High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity - pdf descargar
Blueberry Peel Extracts Inhibit Adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 Cells and Reduce High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity. . Biblioteca virtual ... This study examined the anti-obesity effect and mechanism of action of blueberry peel extracts BPE in 3T3-L1 cells and high-fat ... Blueberry Peel Extracts Inhibit Adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 Cells and Reduce High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity - Descarga este documento ... Blueberry Peel Extracts Inhibit Adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 Cells and Reduce High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity. ...
more infohttp://libros.duhnnae.com/2017/jun8/149828047433-Blueberry-Peel-Extracts-Inhibit-Adipogenesis-in-3T3-L1-Cells-and-Reduce-High-Fat-Diet-Induced-Obesity.php
  • Duplicate RNA samples were collected daily during the differentiation process and probed with the Affymetrix U74Av2 GeneChip® microarray to allow the time-course analysis of the gene expression profile in these differentiating cells. (ualberta.ca)
  • 3T3-L1 could be useful for studying fibroblast cells, or mammalian embryonic tissue. (altogen.com)
  • The primary mouse embryonic fibroblast cells were transferred (the "T") every 3 days (the first "3"), and inoculated at the rigid density of 7005300000000000000♠3×105 cells per 20 cm2 dish (the second "3") continuously. (wikipedia.org)
  • This action of androgens is supported by a hormone from Sertoli cells, Müllerian inhibitory hormone (MIH), which prevents the embryonic Müllerian ducts from developing into fallopian tubes and other female reproductive tract tissues in male embryos. (wikipedia.org)
  • The levels of mRNA are shown as ratios relative to GST treated cells. (nih.gov)
  • On the other hand, 70Q induced significant reduce in mRNA expressions of adiponectin and leptin compared to control (GST), though the differences between 70R and 70Q-treated cells did not reach statistical significance due to wide variation of data range (Fig 1B and 1C). (nih.gov)
  • Hexane-soluble fraction of the root extract also inhibited adipocyte differentiation and decreased the mRNA levels of various adipogenic genes in the differentiating cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • siRNAs targeting Lamin A/C mRNA or non-silencing control siRNA were transfected into 3T3L1 cells following the recommended protocol. (altogen.com)
  • In humans, chemerin mRNA is highly expressed in white adipose tissue, liver and lung while its receptor, CMKLR1 is predominantly expressed in immune cells as well as adipose tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Methanolic extracts on adipocyte 3T3-L1cell line and found the phytochemical compounds of Terminalia arjunaleaves have more inhibitory scavenging and more antidiabetic activities. (pharmatutorjournal.com)
  • A processing problem is difficult to extract the intercellular useful component, which is the most problematic solid body, and cell wall filling substance, which is the most problem in the processing of seaweeds. (omicsonline.org)
  • Transcriptional dynamics of human umbilical cord blood T helper cells cultured in absence and presence of cytokines promoting Th1 or Th2 differentiation was studies. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, unlike other methods, CFSE-labeled viable cells can be recovered for further analysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been suggested that SGBS type II may be caused by duplication of the GPC4 gene, which helps to regulate cell division and growth. (wikipedia.org)