Aspirin: The prototypical analgesic used in the treatment of mild to moderate pain. It has anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties and acts as an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase which results in the inhibition of the biosynthesis of prostaglandins. Aspirin also inhibits platelet aggregation and is used in the prevention of arterial and venous thrombosis. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p5)Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced mammary neoplasms in animals to provide a model for studying human BREAST NEOPLASMS.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Adipocytes: Cells in the body that store FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. WHITE ADIPOCYTES are the predominant type and found mostly in the abdominal cavity and subcutaneous tissue. BROWN ADIPOCYTES are thermogenic cells that can be found in newborns of some species and hibernating mammals.Iodoacetates: Iodinated derivatives of acetic acid. Iodoacetates are commonly used as alkylating sulfhydryl reagents and enzyme inhibitors in biochemical research.Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer: A type of FLUORESCENCE SPECTROSCOPY using two FLUORESCENT DYES with overlapping emission and absorption spectra, which is used to indicate proximity of labeled molecules. This technique is useful for studying interactions of molecules and PROTEIN FOLDING.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.GlycogenGlycogen Synthase: An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of D-glucose from UDPglucose into 1,4-alpha-D-glucosyl chains. EC 126.96.36.199.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Biosensing Techniques: Any of a variety of procedures which use biomolecular probes to measure the presence or concentration of biological molecules, biological structures, microorganisms, etc., by translating a biochemical interaction at the probe surface into a quantifiable physical signal.Corticosterone: An adrenocortical steroid that has modest but significant activities as a mineralocorticoid and a glucocorticoid. (From Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1437)Leptin: A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Leptin serves as a feedback signal from fat cells to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM in regulation of food intake, energy balance, and fat storage.Insulin, Short-Acting: Insulin derivatives and preparations that are designed to induce a rapid HYPOGLYCEMIC EFFECT.Estrone: An aromatized C18 steroid with a 3-hydroxyl group and a 17-ketone, a major mammalian estrogen. It is converted from ANDROSTENEDIONE directly, or from TESTOSTERONE via ESTRADIOL. In humans, it is produced primarily by the cyclic ovaries, PLACENTA, and the ADIPOSE TISSUE of men and postmenopausal women.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Receptors, Leptin: Cell surface receptors for obesity factor (LEPTIN), a hormone secreted by the WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Upon leptin-receptor interaction, the signal is mediated through the JAK2/STAT3 pathway to regulate food intake, energy balance and fat storage.Receptor, Insulin: A cell surface receptor for INSULIN. It comprises a tetramer of two alpha and two beta subunits which are derived from cleavage of a single precursor protein. The receptor contains an intrinsic TYROSINE KINASE domain that is located within the beta subunit. Activation of the receptor by INSULIN results in numerous metabolic changes including increased uptake of GLUCOSE into the liver, muscle, and ADIPOSE TISSUE.Thiazolidinediones: THIAZOLES with two keto oxygens. Members are insulin-sensitizing agents which overcome INSULIN RESISTANCE by activation of the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPAR-gamma).Hypoglycemic Agents: Substances which lower blood glucose levels.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Adipogenesis: The differentiation of pre-adipocytes into mature ADIPOCYTES.3T3-L1 Cells: A continuous cell line that is a substrain of SWISS 3T3 CELLS developed though clonal isolation. The mouse fibroblast cells undergo an adipose-like conversion as they move to a confluent and contact-inhibited state.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.PolyaminesSpermidine: A polyamine formed from putrescine. It is found in almost all tissues in association with nucleic acids. It is found as a cation at all pH values, and is thought to help stabilize some membranes and nucleic acid structures. It is a precursor of spermine.Putrescine: A toxic diamine formed by putrefaction from the decarboxylation of arginine and ornithine.Eflornithine: An inhibitor of ORNITHINE DECARBOXYLASE, the rate limiting enzyme of the polyamine biosynthetic pathway.Biogenic Polyamines: Biogenic amines having more than one amine group. These are long-chain aliphatic compounds that contain multiple amino and/or imino groups. Because of the linear arrangement of positive charge on these molecules, polyamines bind electrostatically to ribosomes, DNA, and RNA.Spermine: A biogenic polyamine formed from spermidine. It is found in a wide variety of organisms and tissues and is an essential growth factor in some bacteria. It is found as a polycation at all pH values. Spermine is associated with nucleic acids, particularly in viruses, and is thought to stabilize the helical structure.Ornithine Decarboxylase: A pyridoxal-phosphate protein, believed to be the rate-limiting compound in the biosynthesis of polyamines. It catalyzes the decarboxylation of ornithine to form putrescine, which is then linked to a propylamine moiety of decarboxylated S-adenosylmethionine to form spermidine.TriterpenesPPAR gamma: A nuclear transcription factor. Heterodimerization with RETINOID X RECEPTOR ALPHA is important in regulation of GLUCOSE metabolism and CELL GROWTH PROCESSES. It is a target of THIAZOLIDINEDIONES for control of DIABETES MELLITUS.Anti-Obesity Agents: Agents that increase energy expenditure and weight loss by neural and chemical regulation. Beta-adrenergic agents and serotoninergic drugs have been experimentally used in patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) to treat obesity.Oleanolic Acid: A pentacyclic triterpene that occurs widely in many PLANTS as the free acid or the aglycone for many SAPONINS. It is biosynthesized from lupane. It can rearrange to the isomer, ursolic acid, or be oxidized to taraxasterol and amyrin.Garlic: One of the Liliaceae used as a spice (SPICES) and traditional remedy. It contains alliin lyase and alliin, which is converted by alliin lyase to allicin, the pungent ingredient responsible for the aroma of fresh cut garlic.Allium: A genus of the plant family Liliaceae (sometimes classified as Alliaceae) in the order Liliales. Many produce pungent, often bacteriostatic and physiologically active compounds and are used as VEGETABLES; CONDIMENTS; and medicament, the latter in traditional medicine.Access to Information: Individual's rights to obtain and use information collected or generated by others.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Journal Impact Factor: A quantitative measure of the frequency on average with which articles in a journal have been cited in a given period of time.Valproic Acid: A fatty acid with anticonvulsant properties used in the treatment of epilepsy. The mechanisms of its therapeutic actions are not well understood. It may act by increasing GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID levels in the brain or by altering the properties of voltage dependent sodium channels.Adipokines: Polypeptides produced by the ADIPOCYTES. They include LEPTIN; ADIPONECTIN; RESISTIN; and many cytokines of the immune system, such as TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR-ALPHA; INTERLEUKIN-6; and COMPLEMENT FACTOR D (also known as ADIPSIN). They have potent autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine functions.Anticonvulsants: Drugs used to prevent SEIZURES or reduce their severity.Epilepsy: A disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of paroxysmal brain dysfunction due to a sudden, disorderly, and excessive neuronal discharge. Epilepsy classification systems are generally based upon: (1) clinical features of the seizure episodes (e.g., motor seizure), (2) etiology (e.g., post-traumatic), (3) anatomic site of seizure origin (e.g., frontal lobe seizure), (4) tendency to spread to other structures in the brain, and (5) temporal patterns (e.g., nocturnal epilepsy). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p313)Hypothalamus: Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Role of cyclooxygenases COX-1 and COX-2 in modulating adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells. (1/1584)Cyclooxygenase (COX) catalyses the rate-limiting step of prostanoid biosynthesis. Two COX isoforms have been identified, COX-1, the constitutive form, and COX-2, the inducible form. While COX-2 has been implicated in body fat regulation, the underlying cellular mechanism remains to be elucidated. The present study was undertaken to examine the potential role of COX in modulating adipogenesis and to dissect the relative contribution of the two isoenzymes in this process. COX-2 was found to be expressed in undifferentiated 3T3-L1 cells and down-regulated during differentiation, whereas the cellular level of COX-1 remained relatively constant. Abrogating the activity of either of these two isoenzymes by selective COX inhibitors accelerated cellular differentiation, suggesting that both COX isoenzymes negatively influenced differentiation. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) significantly up-regulated COX-2 expression ( approximately 2-fold) in differentiating 3T3-L1 cells, whereas similar effect was not observed with COX-1 expression. Abrogating the induced COX-2 activity reversed the TNFalpha-induced inhibition of differentiation by approximately 70%, implying a role for COX-2 in mediating TNFalpha signaling. Hence, both COX isoforms were involved in the negative modulation of adipocyte differentiation. COX-2 appeared to be the main isoform mediating at least part of the negative effects of TNFalpha. (+info)
Isomer-specific regulation of metabolism and PPARgamma signaling by CLA in human preadipocytes. (2/1584)Trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has previously been shown to be the CLA isomer responsible for CLA-induced reductions in body fat in animal models, and we have shown that this isomer, but not the cis-9,trans-11 CLA isomer, specifically decreased triglyceride (TG) accumulation in primary human adipocytes in vitro. Here we investigated the mechanism behind the isomer-specific, CLA-mediated reduction in TG accumulation in differentiating human preadipocytes. Trans-10,cis-12 CLA decreased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and oxidation, and reduced insulin-dependent glucose transporter 4 gene expression. Furthermore, trans-10,cis-12 CLA reduced oleic acid uptake and oxidation when compared with all other treatments. In parallel to CLA's effects on metabolism, trans-10,cis-12 CLA decreased, whereas cis-9,trans-11 CLA increased, the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) and several of its downstream target genes when compared with vehicle controls. Transient transfections demonstrated that both CLA isomers antagonized ligand-dependent activation of PPARgamma. Collectively, trans-10,cis-12, but not cis-9, trans-11, CLA decreased glucose and lipid uptake and oxidation and preadipocyte differentiation by altering preadipocyte gene transcription in a manner that appeared to be due, in part, to decreased PPARgamma expression. (+info)
Regulation of ABCA1 expression and cholesterol efflux during adipose differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells. (3/1584)Adipose cells specialized in energy storage, contain large intracellular triglyceride-rich lipid droplets, are enriched with free cholesterol, and express sterol-regulated transcription factors such as liver X receptor (LXR). The recent identification of the LXR-dependent ATP binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) pathway for cholesterol release from peripheral cells has led us to address the question of the expression and function of ABCA1 in adipocytes. In 3T3-L1 adipose cells, we observed a strong induction of ABCA1 mRNA during adipose differentiation, but only limited variations in ABCA1 protein. Lipid efflux onto apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), which depends on ABCA1, was comparable in adipocytes and preadipocytes, demonstrating a differential regulation of ABCA1 mRNA and cholesterol efflux. We also found that total cell cholesterol remained stable during differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells, but membrane cholesterol was lower in adipocytes than in preadipocytes, suggesting redistribution of cholesterol to the lipid droplet. Finally, we show that under standard lipolytic stimulation, 3T3-L1 adipocytes do not release cholesterol onto apoA-I, a process that required long exposures to lipolytic agents (24 h). In conclusion, despite large induction of ABCA1 mRNA during differentiation, cholesterol efflux through the ABCA1 pathway remains limited in adipocytes and requires prolonged lipolysis. This is consistent with the view of the adipocyte behaving as a cholesterol sink, with plasma cholesterol-buffering properties. (+info)
Activation of PPARalpha and PPARgamma by environmental phthalate monoesters. (4/1584)Phthalate esters are widely used as plasticizers in the manufacture of products made of polyvinyl chloride. Mono-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (MEHP) induces rodent hepatocarcinogenesis by a mechanism that involves activation of the nuclear transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPARalpha). MEHP also activates PPAR-gamma (PPARgamma), which contributes to adipocyte differentiation and insulin sensitization. Human exposure to other phthalate monoesters, including metabolites of di-n-butyl phthalate and butyl benzyl phthalate, is substantially higher than that of MEHP, prompting this investigation of their potential for PPAR activation, assayed in COS cells and in PPAR-responsive liver (PPARalpha) and adipocyte (PPARgamma) cell lines. Monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP) and mono-sec-butyl phthalate (MBuP) both increased the COS cell transcriptional activity of mouse PPARalpha, with effective concentration for half-maximal response (EC50) values of 21 and 63 microM, respectively. MBzP also activated human PPARalpha (EC50=30 microM) and mouse and human PPARgamma (EC50=75-100 microM). MEHP was a more potent PPAR activator than MBzP or MBuP, with mouse PPARalpha more sensitive to MEHP (EC50=0.6 microM) than human PPARalpha (EC50=3.2 microM). MEHP activation of PPARgamma required somewhat higher concentrations, EC50=10.1 microM (mouse PPARgamma) and 6.2 microM (human PPARgamma). No significant PPAR activation was observed with the monomethyl, mono-n-butyl, dimethyl, or diethyl esters of phthalic acid. PPARalpha activation was verified in FAO rat liver cells stably transfected with PPARalpha, where expression of several endogenous PPARalpha target genes was induced by MBzP, MBuP, and MEHP. Similarly, activation of endogenous PPARgamma target genes was evidenced for all three phthalates by the stimulation of PPARgamma-dependent adipogenesis in the 3T3-L1 cell differentiation model. These findings demonstrate the potential of environmental phthalate monoesters for activation of rodent and human PPARs and may help to elucidate the molecular basis for the adverse health effects proposed to be associated with human phthalate exposure. (+info)
Mutational analysis of the hormone-sensitive lipase translocation reaction in adipocytes. (5/1584)Lipolysis in adipocytes governs the release of fatty acids for the supply of energy to various tissues of the body. This reaction is mediated by hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL), a cytosolic enzyme, and perilipin, which coats the lipid droplet surface in adipocytes. Both HSL and perilipin are substrates for polyphosphorylation by protein kinase A (PKA), and phosphorylation of perilipin is required to induce HSL to translocate from the cytosol to the surface of the lipid droplet, a critical step in the lipolytic reaction (Sztalryd C., Xu, G., Dorward, H., Tansey, J. T., Contreras, J.A, Kimmel, A. R., and Londos, C. (2003) J. Cell Biol. 161, 1093-1103). In the present paper we demonstrate that phosphorylation at one of the two more recently discovered PKA sites within HSL, serines 659 and 660, is also required to effect the translocation reaction. Translocation does not occur when these serines residues are mutated simultaneously to alanines. Also, mutation of the catalytic Ser-423 eliminates HSL translocation, showing that the inactive enzyme does not migrate to the lipid droplet upon PKA activation. Thus, HSL translocation requires the phosphorylation of both HSL and perilipin. (+info)
Insulin stimulates expression of the pyruvate kinase M gene in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. (6/1584)M2-type pyruvate kinase (M2-PK) mRNA is produced from the PKM gene by an alternative RNA splicing in adipocytes. We found that insulin increased the level of M2-PK mRNA in 3T3-L1 adipocytes in both time- and dose-dependent manners. This induction did not require the presence of glucose or glucosamine in the medium. The insulin effect was blocked by pharmacological inhibitors of insulin signaling pathways such as wortmannin, an inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), and PD98059, an inhibitor of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) kinase. A stable reporter expression assay showed that the promoter activity of an about 2.2-kb 5'-flanking region of the rat PKM gene was stimulated by insulin, but the extents of these stimulations were lower than those of the mRNA stimulation. Thus, we suggest that insulin increases the level of M2-PK mRNA in adipocytes by acting at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels through signaling pathways involving both PI3K and MAPK kinase. (+info)
Syntaxin 6 regulates Glut4 trafficking in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. (7/1584)Insulin stimulates the movement of glucose transporter-4 (Glut4)-containing vesicles to the plasma membrane of adipose cells. We investigated the role of post-Golgi t-soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors (SNAREs) in the trafficking of Glut4 in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Greater than 85% of syntaxin 6 was found in Glut4-containing vesicles, and this t-SNARE exhibited insulin-stimulated movement to the plasma membrane. In contrast, the colocalization of Glut4 with syntaxin 7, 8, or 12/13 was limited and these molecules did not translocate to the plasma membrane. We used adenovirus to overexpress the cytosolic domain of these syntaxin's and studied their effects on Glut4 traffic. Overexpression of the cytosolic domain of syntaxin 6 did not affect insulin-stimulated glucose transport, but increased basal deGlc transport and cell surface Glut4 levels. Moreover, the syntaxin 6 cytosolic domain significantly reduced the rate of Glut4 reinternalization after insulin withdrawal and perturbed subendosomal Glut4 sorting; the corresponding domains of syntaxins 8 and 12 were without effect. Our data suggest that syntaxin 6 is involved in a membrane-trafficking step that sequesters Glut4 away from traffic destined for the plasma membrane. We speculate that this is at the level of traffic of Glut4 into its unique storage compartment and that syntaxin 16 may be involved. (+info)
HDL-mediated cholesterol uptake and targeting to lipid droplets in adipocytes. (8/1584)Adipocytes express high levels of the HDL scavenger receptor class B type I in a differentiation-dependent manner. We thus have analyzed the routes of HDL cholesterol trafficking at different phases of adipocyte differentiation in the 3T3-L1 cell line. One novel and salient feature of this paper is the observation of a widespread distribution in the cell cytoplasm of Golgi markers, caveolin-2, and a fluorescent cholesterol analog NBD-cholesterol (NBD-chol), observed in the early phases of adipocyte formation, clearly distinct from that observed in mature fat cells (i.e., with fully formed lipid vesicles). Thus, in cells without visible lipid droplets, Golgi markers (Golgi 58K, Golgin 97, trans-Golgi network 38, Rab 6, and BODIPY-ceramide), caveolin-2, and NBD-chol all colocalize in a widespread distribution in the cell. In contrast, when lipid droplets are fully formed at latter stages, these markers clearly are distributed to distinct cell compartments: a compact juxtanuclear structure for the Golgi markers and caveolin-2, while NDB-chol concentrates in lipid droplets. In addition, disorganization of the Golgi using three different agents (Brefeldin, monensin, and N-ethyl-maleimide) drastically reduces NBD-chol uptake at different phases of adipocyte formation, strongly suggesting that the Golgi apparatus plays a critical role in HDL-mediated NBD uptake and routing to lipid droplets. (+info)
Several studies in mice indicate a role for apolipoprotein E (APOE) in lipid accumulation and adipogenic differentiation in adipose tissue. However, little is yet known if APOE functions in a similar manner in human adipocytes. This prompted us to compare lipid loading and expression of adipocyte differentiation markers in APOE-deficient and control adipocytes using the differentiated human mesenchymal stem cell line hMSC-Tert as well as primary human and mouse adipocytes as model systems. Differentiated hMSC-Tert were stably transduced with or without siRNA targeting APOE while murine adipocytes were isolated from wild type and Apoe knockout mice. Human APOE knockdown hMSC-Tert adipocytes accumulated markedly less triglycerides compared to control cells. This correlated with strongly decreased gene expression levels of adipocyte markers such as adiponectin (ADIPOQ) and fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) as well as the key transcription factor driving adipocyte differentiation, peroxisome ...
It is well known that circulating adiponectin concentrations are reduced in animal models of obesity and in patients with obesity or metabolic syndrome, despite adipocyte hypertrophy or increased body fat (2-6). However, the details of adiponectin production and release have varied among studies, especially in animal models (10,28,29,32,33). This is probably due to the apparently different etiology of the three types of obese animal models: genetic, diet-induced, and hypothalamic obesity (20,34).. VMH lesion-induced hypothalamic obesity in animals is the only obesity model that shows clear derangements of autonomic nervous activities (hyperactivity of the vagus nerve and hypoactivity of sympathetic nerves) compared with genetic (20), diet-induced obesity (34), and other types of hypothalamic obesity (19). Thus, there is a possibility that this animal model has different characteristics of adiponectin production and release, with resultant change of serum adiponectin, compared with those of other ...
The Ca2+-insensitive protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms ε, η, δ and ζ are possible direct downstream targets of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K), and might therefore be involved in insulin signalling. Although isoform-specific changes in PKC expression have been reported for skeletal muscle and liver in insulin-resistant states, little is known about these isoforms in adipocytes. Therefore we studied (1) expression and subcellular localization of these isoforms in murine adipocytes, (2) translocation of specific isoforms to membranes in response to treatment with insulin and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and (3) regulation of expression in insulin-resistant states. The PKC isoforms ε, η, δ and ζ are expressed in adipocytes. Immunoreactivity for all isoforms is higher in the membranes than in the cytosol, but subcellular fractionation by differential centrifugation shows an isoform-specific distribution within the membrane fractions. PMA treatment of adipocytes induces ...
Compared to standard 2D culture systems, new methods for 3D cell culture of adipocytes could provide more physiologically accurate data and a deeper understanding of metabolic diseases such as diabetes. By resuspending living cells in a bioink of nanocellulose and hyaluronic acid, we were able to print 3D scaffolds with uniform cell distribution. After one week in culture, cell viability was 95%, and after two weeks the cells displayed a more mature phenotype with larger lipid droplets than standard 2D cultured cells. Unlike cells in 2D culture, the 3D bioprinted cells did not detach upon lipid accumulation. After two weeks, the gene expression of the adipogenic marker genes PPAR. and FABP4 was increased 2.0- and 2.2-fold, respectively, for cells in 3D bioprinted constructs compared with 2D cultured cells. Our 3D bioprinted culture system produces better adipogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells and a more mature cell phenotype than conventional
Gerin I, Bommer GT, McCoin CS, Sousa KM, Krishnan V, MacDougald OA. Roles for miRNA-378/378* in adipocyte gene expression and lipogenesis. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 299: E198-E206, 2010. First published May 18, 2010; doi:10.1152/ajpendo.00179.2010.-In this study, we explored the roles of microRNAs in adipocyte differentiation and metabolism. We first knocked down Argonaute2 (Ago2), a key enzyme in the processing of micro-RNAs (miRNAs), to investigate a potential role for miRNAs in adipocyte differentiation and/or metabolism. Although we did not observe dramatic differences in adipogenesis between Ago2 knock-down and control 3T3-L1 cells, incorporation of [C-14] glucose or acetate into triacylglycerol, and steady-state levels of triacyglycerol were all reduced, suggesting a role for miRNAs in adipocyte metabolism. To study roles of specific miRNAs in adipocyte biology, we screened for miRNAs that are differentially expressed between preadipocytes and adipocytes for the 3T3-L1 and ST2 cell ...
One of the major findings in the current report is that PIKE-A is critical for adipocyte differentiation. Several lines of evidence support the role of PIKE-A in terminal adipocyte differentiation instead of preadipocyte formation. First, the mature adipocyte marker aP2 is significantly decreased during in vitro adipocyte differentiation in PIKE−/− MEFs, indicating PIKE-A is important for adipocyte differentiation (Fig. 3B and C). Second, PIKE-A expression is increased in fat tissue development of HFD-fed and ob/ob mice, which highlights its function in the process (Fig. 2H). Lastly, HFD induced comparable preadipocyte marker Pref-1 expression in both wild-type and PIKE−/− mice, indicating that formation of new adipocytes is normal in PIKE-null adipose tissue (Fig. 3A). Interestingly, we found a small portion of PIKE−/− MEFs was able to differentiate into mature adipocytes (Fig. 3B), and quantitative analysis revealed a small but statistically significant increment of lipid ...
Uncoupling protein 1 (UCP-1), the specific marker of brown adipose tissue, is transcriptionally activated in response to adrenergic stimuli and thyroid hormones are necessary for its full expression. We describe differences in the regulation of UCP-1 mRNA expression between rat and mouse brown adipocytes in culture, using norepinephrine (NE), triiodothyronine (T3), insulin and retinoic acid (RA). Results: NE and cAMP-elevating agents strongly increase UCP-1 mRNA levels in cultures of mouse adipocytes, but increases are low in those from rat. In rat adipocytes NE poorly increases UCP-1 mRNA expression and T3 markedly increases the adrenergic response of UCP-1, an effect not observed in mouse adipocytes. In the absence of insulin, T3 itself increases UCP-1 mRNA in rat adipocytes and enhances the response to NE, while in mouse adipocytes no effect of T3 is observed. RA by itself stimulates UCP-1 mRNA in mouse adipocytes, but not in those from rat. In rat cultures, RA requires the presence of NE ...
Dr. Rayalam has worked in the areas of obesity, body weight regulation, phytochemicals and adipocyte biochemistry for over 8 years. Her research interests include: 1) to study the adipocyte life cycle and to understand the interaction of adipocytes with other cell types as an approach to address several problems associated with obesity; 2) to develop novel treatment strategies for obesity by inducing transdifferentiation of white to beige adipocytes and to inhibit lipid accumulation in white adipocytes; and 3) to identify combinations of phytochemicals and vitamins that have synergistic anti-adipogenic effects with an ultimate goal of developing pharmaceuticals or nutraceuticals for prevention and treatment of obesity and associated disorders. Aging is accompanied by an accumulation of adipocytes in bone marrow and Dr. Rayalams other interest is to understand the fat-bone interaction and to identify molecular targets for the prevention of weight gain and bone loss associated with aging. Dr. ...
BioAssay record AID 1656 submitted by Burnham Center for Chemical Genomics: High Throughput Imaging Assay for Hepatic Lipid Droplet Formation.
The number of overweight and obese individuals continues to increase in both the U.S. and worldwide. This increase has led to a significant increase in obesity-related medical problems including diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease and cancer. In obesity, the differentiation of adipocytes is suppressed. Although adipocyte differentiation is associated with changes in glucose metabolism, little is known about the potential of enzymes involved in glucose metabolism to modulate this process. Pyruvate kinase (PK) mediates the rate-limiting step of glycolysis. The M2 isoform of PK (PKM2) is expressed in adipocytes but its role in adipogenesis is unknown. Here we demonstrate that PKM2 regulates the differentiation of both human and mouse adipocytes. Silencing of PKM2 in preadipocytes led to increased lipid accumulation, enhanced expression of markers (FABP4, PPARgamma, C/EBPBeta) of adipocyte differentiation and caused a shift in the pattern of enzymes involved in glucose metabolism favoring the ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Lin Mi, Yaosheng Chen, Xueli Zheng, Youlei Li, Qiangling Zhang, Delin Mo, Gongshe Yang].
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A benign tumour usually composed of mature adipocytes with ubiquitous localization. Classically lipomas are well circumscribed and develop slowly.. ...
The retinoblastoma protein (RB) has previously been shown to facilitate adipocyte differentiation by inducing cell cycle arrest and enhancing the transactivation by the adipogenic CCAAT/enhancer binding proteins (C/EBP). We show here that the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma), a nuclear receptor pivotal for adipogenesis, promotes adipocyte differentiation more efficiently in the absence of RB. PPARgamma and RB were shown to coimmunoprecipitate, and this PPARgamma-RB complex also contains the histone deacetylase HDAC3, thereby attenuating PPARgammas capacity to drive gene expression and adipocyte differentiation. Dissociation of the PPARgamma-RB-HDAC3 complex by RB phosphorylation or by inhibition of HDAC activity stimulates adipocyte differentiation. These observations underscore an important function of both RB and HDAC3 in fine-tuning PPARgamma activity and adipocyte differentiation.. Keywords: Thiazolidinediones. ...
Comments, concepts and statistics about Pancreatic Lipase Inhibitory Gallotannins from Galla Rhois with Inhibitory Effects on Adipocyte Differentiation in 3T3-L1 Cells.
Common genetic variants at the ARL15 locus are associated with plasma adiponectin, insulin and HDL cholesterol concentrations, obesity, and coronary atherosclerosis. The ARL15 gene encodes a small GTP-binding protein whose function is currently unknown. In this study adipocyte-autonomous roles for ARL15 were investigated using conditional knockdown of Arl15 in murine 3T3-L1 (pre)adipocytes. Arl15 knockdown in differentiated adipocytes impaired adiponectin secretion but not adipsin secretion or insulin action, while in preadipocytes it impaired adipogenesis. In differentiated adipocytes GFP-tagged ARL15 localized predominantly to the Golgi with lower levels detected at the plasma membrane and intracellular vesicles, suggesting involvement in intracellular trafficking. Sequencing of ARL15 in 375 severely insulin resistant patients identified four rare heterozygous variants, including an early nonsense mutation in a proband with femorogluteal lipodystrophy and non classical congenital adrenal ...
The present results provide direct evidence for a regulatory role of mechanical stress in adipocyte differentiation, mediated through the activation of the ERK/MAPK system. Controversial observations concerning the role of ERK/MAPK in adipocyte differentiation have been reported by several laboratories - the activation of the ERK/MAPK pathway has been shown to be involved in both the inhibition (Font de Mora et al., 1997; Hu et al., 1996; Kim et al., 2001; Shimba et al., 2001) and the promotion (Bost et al., 2002; Klemm et al., 2001; Machinal-Quelin et al., 2002; Prusty et al., 2002; Zhang et al., 1996) of adipocyte differentiation. Along these lines, Prusty et al. recently suggested that stimulation of the ERK/MAPK pathway might have opposing effects in the process of adipogenesis, depending on the time of activation during the differentiation process (Prusty et al., 2002). In the present study, the activated state of ERK1/2 was more prolonged during the induction period in response to the ...
To our knowledge, these are the first results that demonstrate the effects of maternal isocaloric pair-fed high-carbohydrate (LF-HCD) versus high-fat diet (HF-LCD) during gestation and lactation on gene expression and serum levels of formation and resorption markers in bone, as well as adipogenic and lipogenic markers in retroperitoneal fat mass of mice offspring at adolescence. The results of the present study showed that maternal LF-HCD during gestation and lactation lead to up-regulation of Runx2 and Ctnnb1, as well as Runx2, OPG, OPG/RANK-L ratio and Ctnnb1 mRNA expression in bone of female and male offspring, respectively. Also, serum levels of OPG/RNK-L ratio which is the marker of osteogenesis  were increased in the LF-HCD-fed group, compared with the HF-LCD. PPARγ2 mRNA expression, as well as other adipogenic genes measured in the current study and serum levels of proteins were increased in the offspring of HF-LCD-fed mothers. Our results showed that mRNA expression of OPG and ...
PEPTIDE - The present invention relates to a peptide that is derived from a milk protein and has an antioxidative effect, an antioxidant that includes the peptide as an active ingredient, and an antioxidative food, drink, or feed that includes the peptide. The present invention also relates to a peptide that is derived from a milk protein and has an adiponectin production promotion effect, an adiponectin production promoter that includes the peptide as an active ingredient, and an adiponectin production promotion food, drink, or feed that includes the peptide. The present invention further relates to a blood adiponectin level increase promotion and/or decrease inhibition agent that includes a component contained in cheese as an active ingredient, and a blood adiponectin level increase promotion and/or decrease inhibition food or drink that includes a component contained in cheese. The present invention to the peptide that consists of an amino acid sequence shown by ...
Adipocytes play an important role in energy storage and metabolism. Adipocyte differentiation is a developmental process that is critical for metabolic homeostasis and nutrient signaling. It is controlled by complex actions involving gene expression and signal transduction. Preadipocytes are present throughout adult life in adipose tissues and can proliferate and differentiate into mature adipocytes according to the energy balance. The proliferation and differentiation of these preadipocytes contribute to increases in adipose tissue mass. In vitro study indicates that different tissue-derived preadipocytes exhibit differently in lipid accumulation, adipogenic transcription factor expression, and TNF?-induced apoptosis. It has also been demonstrated that there is a close relationship between adipocyte differentiation and many physiological and pathological processes including fat metabolism, energy balance, obesity, diabetes, hyperlipidemia and breast cancer. HPA-s from Bioarray Research ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Regulation of gene expression during adipocyte differentiation. T2 - a review.. AU - Gaskins, H. R.. AU - Hausman, G. J.. AU - Martin, R. J.. PY - 1989/9. Y1 - 1989/9. N2 - The differentiation of adipose precursor cells is accompanied by the acquisition of adipocyte-specific messenger (m) RNAs allowing characteristic changes in protein composition. The development of methods for cloning and characterizing individual genes has provided the opportunity to study selective gene expression by adipocytes at the molecular level. In this review, the information obtained to date regarding transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms utilized by adipocytes is summarized. Included are descriptions of conserved DNA sequences found in noncoding regions of adipose genes and of how protein-DNA interactions at these regions are thought to regulate the initiation of transcription. Among the transcription factors implemented in regulation of adipocyte-specific gene expression are ...
Using a subtraction method, we have isolated genes that are induced early in the differentiation of mouse 3T3-L1 preadipocyte cells into adipocytes. These include the genes encoding transcription factors and signalling proteins, as well as unknown genes. Bach1, a transcription factor, and ARA70, a cofactor, were rapidly induced during differentiation. The induction of these two genes was observed only in growth-arrested 3T3-L1 cells, and not in proliferating cells. In NIH-3T3 cells, no induction was observed under either set of conditions. These results strongly indicate that Bach1 and ARA70 have valuable roles at the onset of adipocyte differentiation.. ...
The present study indicates that EERP enhance differentiation of 3T3-L1 adipocytes in part by its potency of PPARγ activation and are capable of reversing inhibitory effects of TNF-α on adipocyte differentiation and adiponectin expression. These results suggest the value of EERP as a diet supplement for prevention and treatment of obesity and obesity-associated disorders ...
Rabbit polyclonal Hormone sensitive lipase antibody validated for WB, IHC and tested in Human. Immunogen corresponding to synthetic peptide
References for Abcams Anti-Hormone sensitive lipase (phospho S853) antibody [EPR2329(2)] (ab109400). Please let us know if you have used this product in your…
In the study, they put mice on chow and HFDs and looked at when recruitment of pre-adipocytes occurs with respect to obesity development. Surprisingly, pre-adipocytes start to get activated within 1 day of HFD exposure, peak at 3 days, and returns to baseline at 5 days. ( although it takes 7-8 weeks for them to fully differentiate into adipocytes and store fat, it seems you can get the "ball rolling" extremely quickly, i guess I need to think carefully next time before I indulge in a cheat meal ...
Creb3l4-KO mice showed adipocyte hyperplasia, lead to improved metabolic parameters. (a) Adipogenic potential of mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) derived from
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Although numerous works have focused on adipocyte differentiation and function as well as alterations under pathophysiological conditions, only a few studies have considered the importance of mitochondrial activity in these situations . In fact, mitochondria play important roles in adipocyte differentiation and function. Pre-adipocytes mature in two steps: differentiation and then hypertrophy. During the early maturation stage, an increased number of mitochondria are required  and 12 E.H. Koh et al., Essential role of mitochondrial function in adiponectin synthesis in adipocytes, Diabetes 56 (2007), pp. 2973-2981., resulting in small adipocytes, which are highly sensitive to insulin and that secrete high levels of adiponectin . By contrast, older adipocytes increase in size (hypertrophy), lose their functional activities and become resistant to insulin. They exhibit decreased numbers of mitochondria with impaired functions and secrete less adiponectin . In addition, ...
In a previous study designed to understand the role of Myo1c in GLUT4 trafficking and membrane dynamics, we observed that Myo1c overexpression induced dramatic cortical actin remodeling (membrane ruffling) in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, in a serum- and insulin-independent manner (4). This observation suggested that Myo1c might mediate the effect of insulin on membrane ruffling in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, which is supported by our observation that Myo1c depletion in 3T3-L1 adipocytes does indeed attenuate insulin-induced membrane ruffling (data not shown). Interestingly, expression of Myo1c in cultured adipocytes induces membrane ruffling even in the presence of wortmannin, suggesting that Myo1c may function downstream or independent of PI3K in activating membrane ruffling. Our studies here suggest that formation and maintenance of the Rictor-Myo1c complex are not dependent on insulin, rapamycin, or wortmannin (Fig. 1, 2, and 4). Therefore, to determine the functional relevance of Rictors association with ...
Regional differences in free fatty acid (FFA) handling contribute to diseases associated with particular fat distributions. As cultured rat preadipocytes became differentiated, FFA transfer into preadipocytes increased and was more rapid in single pe
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View mouse Cavin3 Chr7:105480083-105482300 with: phenotypes, sequences, polymorphisms, proteins, references, function, expression
Current epidemics of diabetes mellitus is largely caused by wide spread obesity. The best-established connection between obesity and insulin resistance is the elevated and/or dysregulated levels of circulating free fatty acids that cause and aggravate insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and other hazardous metabolic conditions. Here, we investigated the effect of a major dietary saturated fatty acid, palmitate, on the insulin-sensitizing adipokine adiponectin produced by cultured adipocytes. We have found that palmitate rapidly inhibits transcription of the adiponectin gene and the release of adiponectin from adipocytes. Adiponectin gene expression is controlled primarily by PPARγ and C/EBPα. Using mouse embryonic fibroblasts from C/EBPα-null mice, we have determined that the latter transcription factor may not solely mediate the inhibitory effect of palmitate on adiponectin transcription leaving PPARγ as a likely target of palmitate. In agreement with this model, palmitate
TY - JOUR. T1 - FGF-10 is a growth factor for preadipocytes in white adipose tissue. AU - Yamasaki, Masahiro. AU - Emoto, Hisayo. AU - Konishi, Morichika. AU - Mikami, Tadahisa. AU - Ohuchi, Hideyo. AU - Nakao, Kazuwa. AU - Itoh, Nobuyuki. PY - 1999/4/29. Y1 - 1999/4/29. N2 - FGF-10 is a mesenchymal factor affecting epithelial cells during pattern formation. However, the expression and physiological role of FGF-10 in adults remains to be elucidated. We examined the expression of FGF-10 mRNA in a variety of adult rat tissues, and found to be most abundant in white adipose tissue. In white adipose tissue, FGF-10 mRNA was expressed in preadipocytes but not in mature adipocytes. The expression in white adipose tissue during postnatal development was also examined. The expression level was low at postnatal day 10 (P10). However, FGF-10 mRNA was abundantly detected later on (P28 and P48) when white adipose tissue growth was stimulated. We also examined the activity of recombinant FGF-10 for primary ...
Intramuscular fat or marbling is critical for the palatability of beef. In mice, very recent studies show that adipocytes and fibroblasts share a common pool of progenitor cells, with Zinc finger protein 423 (Zfp423) as a key initiator of adipogenic differentiation. To evaluate the role of Zfp423 in intramuscular adipogenesis and marbling in beef cattle, we sampled beef muscle for separation of stromal vascular cells. These cells were immortalized with pCI neo-hEST2 and individual clones were selected by G418. A total of 288 clones (3×96 well plates) were isolated and induced to adipogenesis. The presence of adipocytes was assessed by Oil-Red-O staining. Three clones with high and low adipogenic potential respectively were selected for further analyses. In addition, fibro/adipogenic progenitor cells were selected using a surface marker, platelet derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) α. The expression of Zfp423 was much higher (307.4±61.9%, P|0.05) in high adipogenic cells, while transforming growth
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
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Visfatin is an adipokine highly expressed in visceral AT (adipose tissue) of humans and rodents, the production of which seems to be dysregulated in excessive fat accumulation and conditions of insulin resistance. EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid), an n−3 PUFA (polyunsaturated fatty acid), has been demonstrated to exert beneficial effects in obesity and insulin resistance conditions, which have been further linked to its reported ability to modulate adipokine production by adipocytes. TNF-α (tumour necrosis factor-α) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine whose production is increased in obesity and is involved in the development of insulin resistance. Control of adipokine production by some insulin-sensitizing compounds has been associated with the stimulation of AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase). The aim of the present study was to examine in vitro the effects of EPA on visfatin production and the potential involvement of AMPK both in the absence or presence of TNF-α. Treatment with the ...
Expression of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) in adipocytes of white adipose tissue (WAT) produces "white adipocytes" with characteristics of brown fat and leads to a reduction of adiposity and its metabolic complications. Although BMP4 is known to induce commitment of pluripotent stem cells to the adipocyte lineage by producing cells that possess the characteristics of preadipocytes, its effects on the mature white adipocyte phenotype and function were unknown. Forced expression of a BMP4 transgene in white adipocytes of mice gives rise to reduced WAT mass and white adipocyte size along with an increased number of a white adipocyte cell types with brown adipocyte characteristics comparable to those of beige or brite adipocytes. These changes correlate closely with increased energy expenditure, improved insulin sensitivity, and protection against diet-induced obesity and diabetes. Conversely, BMP4-deficient mice exhibit enlarged white adipocyte morphology and impaired insulin sensitivity. We ...
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In contrast to the published studies, which demonstrated associations between average adipocyte size and serum levels or secretion, our study is unique because it investigated the secretory capacity of adipocyte fractions from the same individual separated by cell size. The results obtained by the technique clearly suggest that only the very large adipocytes are dysregulated. Adipocyte hypertrophy appears to cause a differentially impaired secretion between pro- and antiinflammatory adipokines shifting the immunological balance toward the expression of proinflammatory proteins. Thisabnormal function of adipocytes may play an important role in the development of a chronic low-grade proinflammatory state in obesity, which is considered to build the common soil for the development of insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and atherosclerosis (5, 68 ...
The presentations reflected the early development of LipidomicNet, the European Union Framework VII project focused on the structure of lipid droplets and their function in human health and disease that kicked off just last year. Lipid droplet formation is a hallmark of "energy-overload" metabolic diseases that are a major heath concern. One goal of LipidomicNet is to integrate lipid structure profiles with proteome and transcriptome analysis to reveal the interrelationship between gene expression and lipid droplet formation.. The project also manages the LipidomicNetWiki (www.lipidomicnet.org), in close collaboration with LIPID Metabolites and Pathways Strategy (LIPID MAPS) and Lipid Bank-Japan. One hope is that those investigators who "bump" into lipid metabolism in their work will take advantage of the LipidomicsWiki to help sort out the cellular responses to metabolic stress.. All members of the Lipidomics Expertise Platform are allowed to edit and add content to LipidomicNet-Wiki, so I ...
Adapter protein involved in invadopodia and podosome formation and extracellular matrix degradation. Binds matrix metalloproteinases (ADAMs), NADPH oxidases (NOXs) and phosphoinositides. Acts as an organizer protein that allows NOX1- or NOX3-dependent reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and ROS localization. Plays a role in mitotic clonal expansion during the immediate early stage of adipocyte differentiation (By similarity).
Adiponectin is an adipocyte specific secreted protein that circulates in the plasma. It is induced during adipocyte differentiation and its secretion is stimulated by insulin. Mouse adiponectin shares about 83% amino acid identity with that human. Adiponectin plays a role in various physiological processes such as energy homeostasis and obesity. Adiponectin is reduced in obese humans, and decreased level is associated with insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia.
The broad area of research that I am interested in is obesity and cardiovascular disease (CVD). My group is particularly focused on deciphering the cellular events and the molecular mechanisms regulating adipocyte energy dissipation in response to oxidative stress. The overreaching goal of our research is to understand the basic regulation of adipocyte function and to identify factors that can be used to reprogram these cells into energetically more active cells for the treatment of obesity.
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Escalating trends of obesity and associated type 2 diabetes (T2D) has prompted an increase in the use of alternative and complementary functional foods. Momordica charantia or bitter melon (BM) that is traditionally used to treat diabetes and complications has been demonstrated to alleviate hyperglycemia as well as reduce adiposity in rodents. However, its effects on human adipocytes remain unknown. The objective of our study was to investigate the effects of BM juice (BMJ) on lipid accumulation and adipocyte differentiation transcription factors in primary human differentiating preadipocytes and adipocytes. Commercially available cryopreserved primary human preadipocytes were treated with and without BMJ during and after differentiation. Cytotoxicity, lipid accumulation, and adipogenic genes mRNA expression was measured by commercial enzymatic assay kits and semi-quantitative RT-PCR (RT-PCR). Preadipocytes treated with varying concentrations of BMJ during differentiation demonstrated significant
Betanin, a natural pigment that presents ubiquitously in plants, has been reported to show biological effects. However, not much is known on the effectiveness of betanin in regulating fat accumulation. Therefore, the aim of this study is to explore the inhibitory effect of betanin on adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and its mechanism action. The results show betanin significantly inhibited oil red O-stained material (OROSM) and triglyceride levels in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, indicating betanin inhibited lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In addition, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) expression was significantly inhibited in the betanin-treated adipocytes, implying that betanin suppressed the cellular PPARγexpression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Moreover, the suppression of lipid accumulation by betanin occurred by decreasing the gene expression of PPARγ, CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα) and sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c). Taken together, these
TY - JOUR. T1 - Dinucleotide repeat polymorphism at the hormone sensitive lipase (LIPE) locus. AU - Levitt, R. C.. AU - Jedlicka, A. E.. AU - Nouri, N.. PY - 1992/5/1. Y1 - 1992/5/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0026864835&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0026864835&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1093/hmg/1.2.139. DO - 10.1093/hmg/1.2.139. M3 - Comment/debate. C2 - 1301154. AN - SCOPUS:0026864835. VL - 1. JO - Human Molecular Genetics. JF - Human Molecular Genetics. SN - 0964-6906. IS - 2. ER - ...
Fat tissue is the most important energy depot in vertebrates. The release of free fatty acids (FFAs) from stored fat requires the enzymatic activity of lipases. We showed that genetic inactivation of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) in mice increases adipose mass and leads to triacylglycerol deposition in multiple tissues. ATGL-deficient mice accumulated large amounts of lipid in the heart, causing cardiac dysfunction and premature death. Defective cold adaptation indicated that the enzyme provides FFAs to fuel thermogenesis. The reduced availability of ATGL-derived FFAs leads to increased glucose use, increased glucose tolerance, and increased insulin sensitivity. These results indicate that ATGL is rate limiting in the catabolism of cellular fat depots and plays an important role in energy homeostasis.. ...
Adipose Tissue Development Endocrine Development can be very useful guide, and Adipose Tissue Development Endocrine Development play an important role in your products. The problem is that once you have gotten your nifty new product, the Adipose Tissue Development Endocrine Development gets a brief glance, maybe a once over, but it often tends to get discarded or lost with the original packaging. ...
Phosphorylation of adipose triglyceride lipase Ser(404) is not related to 5-AMPK activation during moderate-intensity exercise in humans
Lipolysis involves a number of components including signaling pathways, droplet-associated proteins, and lipases such as hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL). We used surface enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectroscopy to identify cellular proteins that might interact with HSL and potentially influence lipolysis. Using recombinant HSL as bait on protein chips, clusters of proteins of 14.7-18.9, 25.8-26.8, 36.1, 44.3-49.1, and 53.7 kDa were identified that interact with HSL, particularly when lysates were examined from beta-agonist treated mouse adipocytes. The ability to detect these interacting proteins was markedly diminished when the adipocytes were treated with insulin. A very similar pattern of proteins was identified when anti-HSL IgG was used as the bait. Following immunocapture, the identification of the prominent 53.7 kDa protein was carried out by tryptic digestion and MS analysis and determined to be vimentin. The interaction of HSL with vimentin, and its hormonal ...
Abstract: Nitric oxide (NO) stimulates mitochondrial biogenesis. We recently reported that adiponectin synthesis is regulated by mitochondrial function in adipocytes. This study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) plays an important role in adiponectin synthesis by producing NO and enhancing mitochondrial function in adipocytes. We examined the effects of eNOS knockdown on adiponectin synthesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and also examined plasma adiponectin levels and the mitochondria in adipose tissue of eNOS knockout (eNOS-/-) mice with and without chronic administration of a NO donor. In cultured 3T3-L1 adipocytes, eNOS siRNA decreased rosiglitazone-induced adiponectin secretion, which was associated with decreases in mitochondrial proteins and biogenesis factors. Plasma adiponectin concentrations were reduced in adult eNOS-/- mice compared with age-matched wild-type mice. Mitochondrial contents in adipose tissue were reduced in eNOS-/- mice, and this was ...
The Adipocyte Differentiation Toolkit for Adipose-derived MSCs and Preadipocytes (ATCC PCS-500-050) contains medium and reagents designed both to induce adipogenesis in actively proliferating Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells (ATCC PCS-500-011) and Preadipocytes (ATCC PCS-210-010) with high efficiency and to support maturation of derived adipocytes during lipid accumulation.
Tetracera indica Merr. (Family: Dilleniaceae), known to the Malay as Mempelas paya, is one of the medicinal plants used in the treatment of diabetes in Malaysia. However, no proper scientific study has been carried out to verify the traditional claim of T. indica as an antidiabetic agent. Hence, the aims of the present study were to determine the in vitro antidiabetic potential of the T. indica stems ethanol extract, subfractions and isolated compounds. The ethanol extract and its subfractions, and isolated compounds from T. indica stems were subjected to cytotoxicity test using MTT viability assay on 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes. Then, the test groups were subjected to the in vitro antidiabetic investigation using 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes and differentiated adipocytes to determine the insulin-like and insulin sensitizing activities. Rosiglitazone was used as a standard antidiabetic agent. All compounds were also subjected to fluorescence glucose (2-NBDG) uptake test on
Adipocytes and fat cells play critical roles in the regulation of energy homeostasis. Adipogenesis (adipocyte differentiation) is regulated via a complex process including coordinated changes in hormone sensitivity and gene expression. According to the study by the Osaka University of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Prostaglandins (PGs), which are lipid mediators, are associated with the regulation of PPARγ function in adipocytes. Prostacyclin promotes the differentiation of adipocyte-precursor cells to adipose cells via activation of the expression of C/EBPβ and δ. These proteins are important transcription factors in the activation of the early phase of adipogenesis, and they activate the expression of PPARγ, which event precedes the maturation of adipocytes. PGE(2) and PGF(2α) strongly suppress the early phase of adipocyte differentiation by enhancing their own production via receptor-mediated elevation of the expression of cycloxygenase-2, and they also suppress the function of PPARγ(24). ...
Dermal adipose tissue (also known as dermal white adipose tissue and herein referred to as dWAT) has been the focus of much discussion in recent years. However, dWAT remains poorly characterized. The fate of the mature dermal adipocytes and the origin of the rapidly reappearing dermal adipocytes at different stages remain unclear. Here, we isolated dermal adipocytes and characterized dermal fat at the cellular and molecular level. Together with dWATs dynamic responses to external stimuli, we established that dermal adipocytes are a distinct class of white adipocytes with high plasticity. By combining pulse-chase lineage tracing and single-cell RNA sequencing, we observed that mature dermal adipocytes undergo dedifferentiation and redifferentiation under physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Upon various challenges, the dedifferentiated cells proliferate and redifferentiate into adipocytes. In addition, manipulation of dWAT highlighted an important role for mature dermal adipocytes ...
Bone chips were obtained by minimally irrigated implant drilling technique from 10 human donors. Isolated cells were studied with respect to their colony-forming efficiency, surface marker expression by immunofluorescence staining, fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis and self-renewal potency. To verify the differentiation activity, in vitro osteogenic and adipogenic gene expressions were evaluated by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and in vitro formation of mineralized nodule and adipocytes was also evaluated. In vivo bone-forming activity was assessed by ectopic transplantation in immunocompromised mice (n = 5 ...
PKB decreases lipolysis by activation of phosphodiesterase 3B (PDE3B). This enzyme is responsible for the breakdown of cAMP to 5AMP resulting in less activation of protein kinase A (PKA). PKA usually phosphorylates (and activates) Hormone Sensitive Lipase (HSL) which converts triacylglycerides into free fatty acids and glycerol. Since there is less activation of HSL with less PKA, lipolysis is reduced. This effect is further established by reduced phosphorylation of perilipin by PKA. This is a protein bound to the surface of fat droplets in adipocytes which prevent lipolysis by blocking HSL access ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Vimentin binds IRAP and is involved in GLUT4 vesicle trafficking. AU - Hirata, Yohko. AU - Hosaka, Toshio. AU - Iwata, Takeo. AU - Le, Chung T K. AU - Jambaldorj, Bayasgalan. AU - Teshigawara, Kiyoshi. AU - Harada, Nagakatsu. AU - Sakaue, Hiroshi. AU - Sakai, Tohru. AU - Yoshimoto, Katsuhiko. AU - Nakaya, Yutaka. PY - 2011/2/4. Y1 - 2011/2/4. N2 - Insulin-responsive aminopeptidase (IRAP) and GLUT4 are two major cargo proteins of GLUT4 storage vesicles (GSVs) that are translocated from a postendosomal storage compartment to the plasma membrane (PM) in response to insulin. The cytoplasmic region of IRAP is reportedly involved in retention of GSVs. In this study, vimentin was identified using the cytoplasmic domain of IRAP as bait. The validity of this interaction was confirmed by pull-down assays and immunoprecipitation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In addition, it was shown that GLUT4 translocation to the PM by insulin was decreased in vimentin-depleted adipocytes, presumably due to ...
Occurrence of hyperplasia (negative morphology value) or hypertrophy (positive morphology value) was independent of sex and body weight but correlated with fasting plasma insulin levels and insulin sensitivity, independent of adipocyte volume (β-coefficient = 0.3, P , 0.0001). Total adipocyte number and morphology were negatively related (r = −0.66); i.e., the total adipocyte number was greatest in pronounced hyperplasia and smallest in pronounced hypertrophy. The absolute number of new adipocytes generated each year was 70% lower (P , 0.001) in hypertrophy than in hyperplasia, and individual values for adipocyte generation and morphology were strongly related (r = 0.7, P , 0.001). The relative death rate (∼10% per year) or mean age of adipocytes (∼10 years) was not correlated with morphology. ...
In this study, we have continued to investigate the roles of the E2F and pocket proteins in the regulation of adipocyte differentiation. It was previously shown that hormone-induced adipogenesis is promoted by the loss of either E2F4 or p107 and p130 (25, 26). It seemed highly likely that the shared activity of E2F4 and p107/p130 simply reflects their participation in transcriptionally repressive complexes. However, our current analyses of compound mutant MEFs do not support this hypothesis. Instead, they suggest that the E2F and pocket proteins contribute to the regulation of adipocyte differentiation through three distinct mechanisms. Moreover, each one of these can be separated from effects on cell cycle control.. The first mechanism involves the E2F4 transcription factor. We have found that E2F4 loss predisposes MEFs to undergo adipogenesis. This phenotype includes increasing the proportion of cells that differentiate in response to the standard hormone treatment as well as enabling ...
LYRM7 Fragment MS Protein Standard, is a protein fragment containing a 50-150 amino acid sequence identical to part of a human LYRM7 protein target. The fragment MS Protein Standard represents a new category of using heavy isotope labeled (15N, 13C) Lysine and Arginine residues resulting in more than 99% isotope incorporation, as internal MS standards offering distinct advantages to existing products for relative and absolute quantification.
Interestingly, the protein levels of GLUT4, PPARg and Leptin are independent of insulin. It would thus appear that insulin controls the translocation of GLUT4 to the cell surface, not the amount of GLUT4 in an adipocyte. The results of the PPARg and leptin also fly in the face of what I have blogged on before, even small adipocytes contain the same amount of leptin as large adipocytes. And PPARg does not appear to predict adipocyte size in this data set. ( I would of expected larger adipocytes to have higher PPARg, and vice versa for the small adipocytes. *shrug ...
PRRX2 - Prrx2 - Rat, 4 unique 29mer shRNA constructs in retroviral GFP vector shRNA available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
This study was to evaluate the phenolic content and composition of Carthamus tinctorius L. seed extract (CSE) and to further assess its antioxidant and anti-adipogenic activities using various radical scavenging systems and 3T3-L1 cells. Our results show that the total phenolic and flavonoid contents of CSE were 126.0 ± 2.4 mg GAE/g and 62.2 ± 1.9 mg QE/g, respectively. The major phenolic compounds in CSE was (−)-epigallocatechin (109.62 mg/g), with a 4-hydroxy benzhydrazide derivative and gallocatechin present at 18.28 mg/g and 17.02 mg/g, respectively. CSE exhibited remarkable radical scavenging activities, FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power) and reducing power in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) value of CSE (0.1 mg/mL) was 62.9 ± 4.7 μM TE (trolox equivalent)/g. During adipogenesis, CSE significantly inhibited fat accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells compared with control cells. Overall, these results indicate that CSE might be a valuable source
TY - JOUR. T1 - Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ and its role in adipocyte homeostasis and thiazolidinedione-mediated insulin sensitization. AU - Wang, Qiong A.. AU - Zhang, Fang. AU - Jiang, Lei. AU - Ye, Risheng. AU - An, Yu. AU - Shao, Mengle. AU - Tao, Caroline. AU - Gupta, Rana K. AU - Scherer, Philipp E. PY - 2018/5/1. Y1 - 2018/5/1. N2 - Adipose tissue is a dynamic organ that makes critical contributions to whole-body metabolic homeostasis. Although recent studies have revealed that different fat depots have distinct molecular signatures, metabolic functions and adipogenic mechanisms, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is still widely viewed as the master regulator of adipogenesis and critical for maintaining mature adipocyte function. Using an inducible, adipocyte-specific knockout system, we explored the role of PPARγ in mature adipocytes in vivo. Short-term PPARγ deficiency in adipocytes reduces whole-body insulin sensitivity, but adipocytes are ...
Keratinocytes play an important role in skin irritation. In an attempt to investigate mechanistic bases of human skin irritation response, we recently identified the upregulation by skin irritants of adipose differentiation related protein (ADRP) in reconstituted human epidermis. ADRP is a lipid-storage-droplet-associated protein, governing deposition and release of lipids from droplets. The purpose of this study was to characterize, in a human keratinocyte cell line (NCTC 2544), sodium-dodecyl-sulfate-induced ADRP expression, to identify the biochemical events that lead to ADRP expression, and to understand its function in sodium dodecyl sulfate cytotoxicity. Sodium dodecyl sulfate induced a concentration- and time-related production of ADRP that was associated with lipid droplet accumulation. Lipid accumulation following sodium dodecyl sulfate treatment was due to intracellular redistribution rather than lipid neosynthesis, as indicated by equivalent 14C-oleate and 14C-acetate incorporations. ...
Results and Conclusions: Pretreatment with either artepillin C (C3) or its derivative (C4) significantly inhibited TNF-α-mediated downregulation of adiponectin expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Interestingly, C3 strongly activated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) transcriptional activity. Treatment of adipocytes with C3 resulted in the upregulation of adiponectin and fatty acid-binding protein 4 expression, but C4 did not significantly induce PPARγ transactivation. C4 did, however, inhibit the TNF-α-induced c-Jun-NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling that is involved in adiponectin expression. Molecular docking studies based on hPPARγ with C3 and JNK1 with C4 clearly supported our experimental results. These data demonstrate that 1) both C3 and C4 significantly inhibit the TNF-α-mediated downregulation of adiponectin in adipocytes, 2) C3 functions as a PPARγ agonist, and its inhibition of the effect of TNF-α is due to this PPARγ transactivation, and 3) C4 is an ...
International Journal of Endocrinology is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that provides a forum for scientists and clinicians working in basic and translational research. The journal publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies that provide insights into the endocrine system and its associated diseases at a genomic, molecular, biochemical and cellular level.
Commentary on: The Effects of Fat Harvesting and Preparation, Air Exposure, Obesity, and Stem Cell Enrichment on Adipocyte Viability Prior to Graft Transplantation ...
Obesity is an increasing health problem worldwide, and nonsurgical strategies to treat obesity have remained rather inefficient. We here show that acute loss of TGF-β-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) in adipocytes results in an increased rate of apoptotic adipocyte death and increased numbers of M2 macrophages in white adipose tissue. Mice with adipocyte-specific TAK1 deficiency have reduced adipocyte numbers and are resistant to obesity induced by a high-fat diet or leptin deficiency. In addition, adipocyte-specific TAK1-deficient mice under a high-fat diet showed increased energy expenditure, which was accompanied by enhanced expression of the uncoupling protein UCP1. Interestingly, acute induction of adipocyte-specific TAK1 deficiency in mice already under a high-fat diet was able to stop further weight gain and improved glucose tolerance. Thus, loss of TAK1 in adipocytes reduces the total number of adipocytes, increases browning of white adipose tissue, and may be an attractive strategy to treat ...
CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein δ (CEBPD) is expressed in hypoxic kidney tubular cells in vivo. (a) Mice were exposed to 8% O2 for 6 h using a hypoxia chamber
Adipocytes arise from mesodermal stem cells, which have the capacity to differentiate into a variety of other cell types, including myocytes (1). Once committed to the adipocyte lineage, preadipocytes can remain quiescent, multiply, or undergo differentiation and become adipocytes. 3T3-L1 and 3T3-F442A cells are established mouse preadipocyte models. Both cell lines can be induced to differentiate in cell culture, but 3T3-F442A cells are thought to be arrested at a later point in development (2). Studies of these cellular models have revealed some of the molecular events that orchestrate adipogenesis, including the role of C/EBPs and PPARγ in mediating the expression of adipocyte-specific genes (3, 4).. Wnts are a family of paracrine and autocrine factors that regulate cell growth and cell fate (5). Signaling is initiated when Wnt ligands bind to transmembrane receptors of the Frizzled family. In the canonical Wnt signaling pathway, Frizzleds signal through Dishevelled to inhibit the kinase ...
Interesting link Nige. Especially that only WHEN you see insulin resistance does VitD status correlate with adiponectin. So Im a bit skeptical about whether VitD supplementation will improve insulin sensitivity by improving adiponectin production. That would be an interesting study. ...
Adipose tissue progenitors (or precursors), often located in the vicinity of the vascular network, constitute a heterogeneous population. They can be discriminated through their capacity to differentiate into mature adipocytes and also by their level of commitment into the adipocyte differentiation program. The application of flow cytometry using various markers as well as single-cell RNA sequencing has enabled the identification of multiple cell populations. The CD9hi progenitors exhibited very limited adipogenic capacity with a high propensity for the production of extracellular matrix components. CD9hi progenitors include mesothelial cells, whose contribution in adipose tissue remodeling is currently unresolved. Further investigations are still needed to establish the relationship between these various populations of progenitors. In addition, a better understanding of the critical functional determinants and whether acquired phenotypes are reversible is needed ...
The role of lypolysis is complex yet serves purpose to energy maintenance and balance. During times of stress and once immediate glycogen stores are not able to re-synthesize ATP efficiently, the outcome will be increased fat mobilisation for energy synthesis.The way in which we activate the metabolism of fats through energy is through activation of our G-coupled protein re...ceptors. Once G-coupled protein receptors are activated a cascade of interaction take place:1. Camp is released2. Camp stimulates protein kinase A3. Protein kinase A stimulates hormone sensitive lipase which catabolises fat for energyThis process, however, must be initiated through activation of G-coupled protein receptors. As such, a high lactic threshold must be attained to warrant this activation. Lactic acid accumulation leads to the activation and release of heat shock proteins which then activate ghrelin release which in turn activates HGH release creating an environment for eventual fat metabolism.
Obesity has spread worldwide and become a common health problem in modern society. One typical feature of obesity is the excessive accumulation of fat in adipocytes, which occurs through the following two physiological phenomena: hyperplasia (increase in quantity) and hypertrophy (increase in size) of adipocytes. In clinical and scientific research, the accurate quantification of the number and diameter of adipocytes is necessary for assessing obesity. In this study, we present a new automatic adipocyte counting system, AdipoCount, which is based on image processing algorithms. Comparing with other existing adipocyte counting tools, AdipoCount is more accurate and supports further manual correction. AdipoCount counts adipose cells by the following three-step process: 1) It detects the image edges, which are used to segment the membrane of adipose cells; 2) It uses a watershed-based algorithm to re-segment the missing dyed membrane; and 3) It applies a domain connectivity analysis to count the cells. The
Background Exhibits a cytosolic function in lipogenesis, adipogenic differentiation, and lipid homeostasis by increasing the activity of ACLY, possibly preventing its dephosphorylation. May act as a transcriptional repressor....
Description: A sandwich quantitative ELISA assay kit for detection of Human Adipose Differentiation Related Protein (ADRP) in samples from serum, plasma, tissue homogenates, cell lysates, cell culture supernates or other biological fluids ...
By stimulating the synthesis of AQP8 into adipocytes, Actiporine 8G maintains mitochondrial homeostasis and reactivates lipolysis by adipocytes. This action allows the decrease of adipocytes volume.
Prrx2 - Prrx2 (untagged) - Mouse paired related homeobox 2 (Prrx2), (10ug) available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
CTRP7兔多克隆抗体(ab115449)可与人样本反应并经WB, IHC, ICC实验严格验证。中国75%以上现货，所有产品均提供质保服务，可通过电话、电邮或微信获得本地专属技术支持。
Adipocyte differentiation is a developmental process that is critical for metabolic homeostasis and nutrient signaling. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) mediates nutrient signaling to regulate cell growth, proliferation, and diverse cellular differentiation. It has been reported that rapamycin, the inhibitor of mTOR and an immunosuppressant, blocks adipocyte differentiation, but the mechanism underlying this phenomenon remains unknown. Here we show that mTOR plays a critical role in 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation and that mTOR kinase activity is required for this process. Rapamycin specifically disrupted the positive transcriptional feedback loop between CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-alpha and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-gamma), two key transcription factors in adipogenesis, by directly targeting the transactivation activity of PPAR-gamma. In addition, we demonstrate for the first time that PPAR-gamma activity is dependent on amino acid sufficiency, ...
White adipose tissue includes subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue (SAT and VAT) with different metabolic features. SAT protects from metabolic disorders, while VAT promotes them. The proliferative and adipogenic potentials of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) are critical for maintaining adipose tissue homeostasis through driving adipocyte hyperplasia and inhibiting pathological hypertrophy. However, it remains to be elucidated the critical molecules that regulate different potentials of subcutaneous and visceral ADSCs (S-ADSCs, V-ADSCs) and mediate distinct metabolic properties of SAT and VAT. CD90 is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein on various cells, which is also expressed on ADSCs. However, its expression patterns and differential regulation on S-ADSCs and V-ADSCs remain unclear. S-ADSCs and V-ADSCs were detected for CD90 expression. Proliferation, colony formation, cell cycle, mitotic clonal expansion, and adipogenic differentiation were assayed in S-ADSCs, V-ADSCs, or CD90
Females are in general more insulin sensitive than males. To investigate if this is a direct effect of sex-steroids (SS) in white adipose tissue (WAT), we developed a male mouse model over expressing the aromatase enzyme, converting testosterone (T) to estradiol (E2), specifically in WAT (Ap2-arom mice). Adipose tissue E2 levels were increased while circulating SS levels were unaffected in male Ap2-arom mice. Importantly, male Ap2-arom mice were more insulin sensitive compared with WT mice and exhibited increased serum adiponectin levels and upregulated expression of Glut4 and Irs1 in WAT. The expression of markers of macrophages and immune cell infiltration was markedly decreased in WAT of male Ap2-arom mice. The adipogenesis was enhanced in male Ap2-arom mice, supported by elevated Pparg expression in WAT and enhanced differentiation of pre-adipocyte into mature adipocytes. In summary, increased adipose tissue aromatase activity reduces adipose tissue inflammation and improves insulin ...
The present study demonstrates that PPARγ-activating ARBs induce adiponectin protein expression at a post-transcriptional level, independently of their AT1R-blocking properties. In addition, AT2R activation resulted in adiponectin upregulation. The PPARγ-activating ARB irbesartan improved parameters of insulin sensitivity in obese Zucker rats, which was associated with the prevention of adiponectin serum depletion.. We and others could recently demonstrate that a subset of ARBs including irbesartan has the potential to activate the insulin-sensitizing nuclear hormone receptor PPARγ, completely independent from their AT1R blocking properties.8,10 PPARγ activation has been shown to stimulate adiponectin expression in adipocytes and to upregulate adiponectin plasma levels in animals and humans.6,11 In the present study, pharmacological antagonism of PPARγ completely blocked irbesartan-induced adiponectin expression in vitro. In addition, adiponectin expression in adipocytes and fat tissue was ...
Preadipocyte factor-1 (Pref-1) is a transmembrane protein highly expressed in preadipocytes. Pref-1 expression is, however, completely abolished in adipocytes. The extracellular domain of Pref-1 undergoes two proteolytic cleavage events that generate 50 and 25 kDa soluble products. To understand the function of Pref-1, we generated transgenic mice that express the full ectodomain corresponding to the large cleavage product of Pref-1 fused to human immunoglobulin-γ constant region. Mice expressing the Pref-1/hFc transgene in adipose tissue, driven by the adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (aP2, also known as aFABP) promoter, showed a substantial decrease in total fat pad weight. Moreover, adipose tissue from transgenic mice showed reduced expression of adipocyte markers and adipocyte-secreted factors, including leptin and adiponectin, whereas the preadipocyte marker Pref-1 was increased. Pref-1 transgenic mice with a substantial, but not complete, loss of adipose tissue exhibited ...
Over the past decade, great progress has been made in understanding the complexity of adipose tissue biology and its role in metabolism. This includes new insights into the multiple layers of adipose tissue heterogeneity, not only differences between white and brown adipocytes, but also differences in white adipose tissue at the depot level and even heterogeneity of white adipocytes within a single depot. These inter- and intra-depot differences in adipocytes are developmentally programmed and contribute to the wide range of effects observed in disorders with fat excess (overweight/obesity) or fat loss (lipodystrophy). Recent studies also highlight the underappreciated dynamic nature of adipose tissue, including potential to undergo rapid turnover and dedifferentiation and as a source of stem cells. Finally, we explore the rapidly expanding field of adipose tissue as an endocrine organ, and how adipose tissue communicates with other tissues to regulate systemic metabolism both centrally and ...
G. Zhang, L. Qin, H. Sheng, K.W. Yeung, H.Y. Yeung, W.H. Cheung, J. Griffith, C.W. Chan, K.M. Lee, K.S. Leung, Epimedium-derived phytoestrogen exert beneficial effect on preventing steroid-associated osteonecrosis in rabbits with inhibition of both thrombosis and lipid-deposition, Bone, 2007, 40, 3, ...
Type II diabetes is one of the most common diseases afflicting people today. Understanding how this disease works, not only on a cellular level and between different organs and tissues, but also how it affects whole body level homeostasis is crucial for enhancement of its treatment. We use model-bases analysis as a tool for distinguishing different biological hypothesis on the system behavior.. The Insulin Receptor (IR), is located in the cell membrane as a dimer, and thus has the potential two bind two different insulin molecules. It can also undergo a series of phosphorylations, as well as having the ability to become internalized, and thus be removed from the cells censing area. However, it can then be recycled back to the membrane again. The major target of IR is the Insulin Receptor Substrate 1 (IRS1). IRS1 in turn mediates the signal further downstream through Protein Kinase B (PBK) and mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR). In adipocytes the end result is the translocation of internal ...
Chemerin is a leukocyte chemoattractant and adipokine with important immune and metabolic roles. Chemerin, secreted in an inactive form prochemerin, undergoes C-terminal proteolytic cleavage to generate active chemerin, a ligand for the chemokine-like receptor-1 (CMKLR1). We previously identified that adipocytes secrete and activate chemerin. Following treatment with the obesity-associated inflammatory mediator TNF alpha, unknown adipocyte mechanisms are altered resulting in an increased ratio of active to total chemerin production. Based on these findings we hypothesized adipocytes produce proteases capable of modifying chemerin and its ability to activate CMKRL1. 3T3-L1 adipocytes expressed mRNA of immunocyte and fibrinolytic proteases known to activate chemerin in vitro. Following treatment with a general protease inhibitor cocktail (PIC), the TNF alpha-stimulated increase in apparent active chemerin concentration in adipocyte media was amplified 10-fold, as measured by CMKLR1 activation. ...
Fat burning hormones need the help of fat burning enzymes to get their job done. Fasting will sky rocket the activity of two of the most important fat burning enzymes in your body. Adipose tissue HSL (Hormone Sensitive Lipase) is the enzyme responsible for allowing your fat cells to release fat so it can be burned as energy in your muscles. Muscle tissue LPL (Lipoprotein Lipase) is the enzyme responsible for allowing your muscle cells to take up fat so it can be burnt as a fuel. Fasting increases both of these enzymes to optimize fat burning - A perfect combination. ...
There is a physiologic limit to adipocyte cell size. Adipocytes in the mouse inguinal and epididymal fat pads can increase in size three- and seven-fold, respectively, during 12 weeks of HFF (62). Cell size correlates strongly with the frequency of adipocyte death. The percentage of dead epididymal adipocytes increases progressively from 0.1% at one week to as much as 16% at 12 weeks of HFF (62). Independent of how adipocytes die - from necrosis or apoptosis - the reaction of AT to adipocyte death can be likened to the initiation of a wound healing response, triggering a considerable increase in immune cell infiltration. Monocyte recruitment and differentiation to proinflammatory macrophages are of particular importance. These macrophages surround the dead adipocytes, forming what is described histologically as "crown-like structures" (62-64). Concomitantly, activated myofibroblasts in the area secrete collagen to maintain the integrity of the damaged tissue (65). As macrophages and neutrophils ...
Dr. Marlatt is interested in the role of dietary and exercise interventions to facilitate healthy aging and metabolic health as it relates to women, particularly in the transition through menopause. She currently is focusing her research efforts on the impact of a drug intervention in post-menopausal women; the impact of hormones and race on adipogenesis and adipocyte morphology; as well as intermittent hypoxia in individuals with diabetes ...
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Perform reliable qPCR with Bio-Rads pre-validated LYRM2 primer pair, for the Rabbit genome. Designed for SYBR Green-based detection.
Sun T, Fu M, Bookout AL, Kliewer SA, Mangelsdorf DJ (2009). "MicroRNA let-7 Regulates 3T3-L1 Adipogenesis". Mol Endocrinol. 23 ... Dröge P, Davey CA (2008). "Do cells let-7 determine stemness?". Cell Stem Cell. 2 (1): 8-9. doi:10.1016/j.stem.2007.12.003. ... "let-7 regulates self renewal and tumorigenicity of breast cancer cells". Cell. 131 (6): 1109-23. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2007.10.054 ... and IL6 links inflammation to cell transformation". Cell. 139 (4): 693-706. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2009.10.014. PMC 2783826 . PMID ...
December 1997). "Insulin has a limited effect on the cell cycle progression in 3T3 L1 fibroblasts". Molecules and Cells. 7 (6 ... "High-resolution tracking of cell division suggests similar cell cycle kinetics of hematopoietic stem cells stimulated in vitro ... Carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester (CFSE) is a fluorescent cell staining dye. CFSE is cell permeable and covalently couples ... October 2004). "'Proliferative' and 'synthetic' airway smooth muscle cells are overlapping populations". Immunology and Cell ...
Fusinski, Keith A (2008). Adenovirus 36 E4orf1 gene induces differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells (PhD Dissertation). Wayne State ... and Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) in non small cell lung cancer". Experimental and Molecular Pathology. 89 (3): 222-6. doi: ... Cell. 141 (7): 1135-45. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2010.05.009. PMC 2908380 . PMID 20602997. Mulholland, Selamawit; Gavranich, John B; ... February 2014). "Coxsackievirus B1 is associated with induction of β-cell autoimmunity that portends type 1 diabetes". Diabetes ...
Expression of E1 alpha mRNA and subunit in maple-syrup-urine-disease and 3T3-L1 cells". J. Biol. Chem. 263 (18): 9007-14. PMID ... Cell Genet. 50 (4): 236-7. doi:10.1159/000132768. PMID 2805821.. *. Fisher CW, Chuang JL, Griffin TA, et al. (1989). "Molecular ... "A T-to-A substitution in the E1 alpha subunit gene of the branched-chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase complex in two cell lines ... state of branched-chain 2-oxo acid dehydrogenase in a branched-chain acyltransferase deficient human fibroblast cell line". J. ...
explored 3T3-L1 adipocytes cocultured with RAW264.7 cells to examine this potential interaction. RAW264.7 coculture increases ... There was also a GPR84 downregulation in dentritic cell derived from FcRgamma chain KO mice. In microglial cells, the GPR84 ... EST clones corresponding to hgpr84 were from B cells (leukemia), neuroendocrine lung as well as in microglial cells and ... Ly6G + MDSCs in Lal-/- mice show strong immunosuppression on T cells, which contributes to impaired T cell proliferation and ...
"Vitisin a inhibits adipocyte differentiation through cell cycle arrest in 3T3-L1 cells". Biochemical and Biophysical Research ... and NF-κB activation in RAW 264.7 cells". International Immunopharmacology. 9 (3): 319-323. doi:10.1016/j.intimp.2008.12.005. ...
"Regulated expression of three C/EBP isoforms during adipose conversion of 3T3-L1 cells". Genes Dev. 5 (9): 1538-52. doi:10.1101 ... "C/EBPalpha arrests cell proliferation through direct inhibition of Cdk2 and Cdk4". Mol. Cell. 8 (4): 817-28. doi:10.1016/S1097- ... CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha is a transcription factor involved in the differentiation of certain Blood cells. For ... and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. A recent study has found that higher levels of CEBPA methylation are directly ...
Cao Z, Umek RM, McKnight SL (Oct 1991). "Regulated expression of three C/EBP isoforms during adipose conversion of 3T3-L1 cells ... Cell. Biol. 18 (10): 5880-7. doi:10.1128/mcb.18.10.5880. PMC 109174 . PMID 9742105. Zhang F, Lin M, Abidi P, Thiel G, Liu J ( ... Cell. 4 (5): 735-43. doi:10.1016/s1097-2765(00)80384-6. PMID 10619021. Liu YW, Tseng HP, Chen LC, Chen BK, Chang WC (July 2003 ... Cell. Biol. 23 (12): 4066-82. doi:10.1128/mcb.23.12.4066-4082.2003. PMC 156132 . PMID 12773552. Mo X, Kowenz-Leutz E, Xu H, ...
"Regulated expression of three C/EBP isoforms during adipose conversion of 3T3-L1 cells". Genes & Development. 5 (9): 1538-52. ... CEBPD is involved in regulation of apoptosis and cell proliferation. It probably acts as tumor suppressor. One study in mice ... Cell Biology. 29 (12): 1525-39. doi:10.1016/S1357-2725(97)00083-6. PMID 9570146. Zhu Y, Saunders MA, Yeh H, Deng WG, Wu KK (Mar ... Cytogenetics and Cell Genetics. 70 (3-4): 188-91. doi:10.1159/000134030. PMID 7789168. Cleutjens CB, van Eekelen CC, van Dekken ...
Cao Z, Umek RM, McKnight SL (Sep 1991). "Regulated expression of three C/EBP isoforms during adipose conversion of 3T3-L1 cells ... In contrast, ectopic expression of C/EBPβ and δ in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes promotes adipogenesis, even in the absence of ... C/EBPβ plays a role in neuronal differentiation, in learning, in memory processes, in glial and neuronal cell functions, and in ... These proteins are found in hepatocytes, adipocytes, hematopoietic cells, spleen, kidney, brain, and many other organs. C/EBP ...
1,25-(OH)2D3 transiently but strongly induces Insig-2 expression in 3T3-L1 cells. This novel regulatory circuit may also play ... Ka SO, Kim KA, Kwon KB, Park JW, Park BH (May 2009). "Silibinin attenuates adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes through a ... a functional vitamin D response element in the murine Insig-2 promoter and its potential role in the differentiation of 3T3-L1 ... March 2009). "Activation of PPARalpha and PPARgamma reduces triacylglycerol synthesis in rat hepatoma cells by reduction of ...
"Insulin responsiveness of glucose transporter 4 in 3T3-L1 cells depends on the presence of sortilin". Molecular Biology of the ... As a sorting receptor on the cell surface and on the endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi apparatus within the cell, sortilin is ... as it has been detected in several cancer cell lines. Notably, human cancerous epithelial cells exhibited increased levels of ... In addition, two hydrophobic loops have been detected in this domain and act to anchor the protein in the cell membrane. In ...
"ArPIKfyve-PIKfyve interaction and role in insulin-regulated GLUT4 translocation and glucose transport in 3T3-L1 adipocytes". ... and expression of a novel Zn2+-binding FYVE finger-containing phosphoinositide kinase in insulin-sensitive cells". Mol. Cell. ... "PIKfyve regulates CaV1.2 degradation and prevents excitotoxic cell death". J. Cell Biol. 187 (2): 279-94. doi:10.1083/jcb. ... Cell. 19 (10): 4273-86. doi:10.1091/mbc.E08-04-0405. PMC 2555960 . PMID 18653468. Jin N, Chow CY, Liu L, Zolov SN, Bronson R, ...
"ArPIKfyve-PIKfyve interaction and role in insulin-regulated GLUT4 translocation and glucose transport in 3T3-L1 adipocytes". ... Cell Res. 313 (11): 2404-16. doi:10.1016/j.yexcr.2007.03.024. PMC 2475679 . PMID 17475247. Zhang Y, Zolov SN, Chow CY, Slutsky ... Cell. Biol. 24 (23): 10437-47. doi:10.1128/MCB.24.23.10437-10447.2004. PMC 529046 . PMID 15542851. Sbrissa D, Ikonomov OC, Fu Z ... 1996). "Isolation of a cDNA clone, TRX encoding a human T-cell lymphotrophic virus type-I Tax1 binding protein". Biochim. ...
"APS Facilitates c-Cbl Tyrosine Phosphorylation and GLUT4 Translocation in Response to Insulin in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes". Mol. Cell ... In Burkitt lymphoma cell lines, it is tyrosine phosphorylated in response to B cell receptor stimulation. Because it binds Shc ... has a negative regulatory role in B cell proliferation". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 330 (3): 1005-13. doi:10.1016/j.bbrc. ... an adaptor molecule containing PH and SH2 domains that is tyrosine phosphorylated upon B-cell receptor stimulation". Oncogene. ...
"Synthesis and accumulation of a receptor regulatory protein associated with lipid droplet accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells". J. ... 2001). "PGRL is a major CD81-associated protein on lymphocytes and distinguishes a new family of cell surface proteins". J. ... 2006). "Contrasting effects of EWI proteins, integrins, and protein palmitoylation on cell surface CD9 organization". J. Biol. ...
"APS facilitates c-Cbl tyrosine phosphorylation and GLUT4 translocation in response to insulin in 3T3-L1 adipocytes". Molecular ... and vinculin-binding protein localized at cell-cell and cell-matrix adherens junctions". The Journal of Cell Biology. 144 (5): ... In non-muscle cells, CAP/Ponsin inhibits cell spreading and focal adhesion turnover, as its siRNA-mediated knockdown resulted ... multifuntional c-Cbl binding protein in insulin receptor signaling in 3T3-L1 adipocytes". Molecular and Cellular Biology. 18 (2 ...
It suppresses lipid accumulation through repression of C/EBPα-activated GLUT4-mediated glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 cells. LC ... suppresses lipid accumulation through repression of C/EBPα-activated GLUT4-mediated glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 cells. Fujimori K ...
Studies with 3T3-L1 cells have shown chemerin expression is low in pre-differentiated adipocytes but its expression and ... Studies using mature human adipocytes, 3T3-L1 cells, and in vivo studies in mice showed chemerin stimulates the phosphorylation ... Interestingly, it was found incubation of 3T3-L1 cells with recombinant human chemerin protein facilitated insulin-stimulated ... "Chemerin enhances insulin signaling and potentiates insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes". FEBS Lett. 582 (5 ...
AD-36 infection can induce cellular differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and stem cells derived from human adipose tissue. ...
Choi BH, Kim YH, Ahn IS, Ha JH, Byun JM, Do MS (2009). "The inhibition of inflammatory molecule expression on 3T3-L1 adipocytes ... The first is a short signal sequence that targets the hormone for secretion outside the cell; next is a short region that ... Adiponectin was first characterised in 1995 in differentiating 3T3-L1 adipocytes (Scherer PE et al.). In 1996 it was ... The exact mechanism of regulation is unknown, but adiponectin could be regulated by post-translational mechanisms in cells. A ...
"Role of EHD1 and EHBP1 in perinuclear sorting and insulin-regulated GLUT4 recycling in 3T3-L1 adipocytes". J. Biol. Chem. 279 ( ... Cell. 15 (5): 2410-22. doi:10.1091/mbc.E03-10-0733. PMC 404033 . PMID 15020713. Guilherme A, Soriano NA, Furcinitti PS, Czech ... 2006). "Global, in vivo, and site-specific phosphorylation dynamics in signaling networks". Cell. 127 (3): 635-48. doi:10.1016/ ...
... was first characterised in 1995 in differentiating 3T3-L1 adipocytes (Scherer PE et al.). In 1996 it was ... negative regulation of cell migration. • positive regulation of fatty acid metabolic process. • brown fat cell differentiation ... negative regulation of heterotypic cell-cell adhesion. • response to ethanol. • negative regulation of inflammatory response. • ... "The inhibition of inflammatory molecule expression on 3T3-L1 adipocytes by berberine is not mediated by leptin signaling". ...
"Cineromycin B isolated from Streptomyces cinerochromogenes inhibits adipocyte differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells via Krüppel-like ... "Cineromycin B isolated from Streptomyces cinerochromogenes inhibits adipocyte differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells via Krüppel-like ...
... appears necessary and sufficient for the differentiation of mouse 3T3-L1 fibroblast cells into adipocytes (i.e. fat ... Finally, cultured human skin cells, which are rich in ALOXE3 readily convert arachidonic acid as well as 12S-hydroperoxy- ... is far greater in the skin cells isolated from subjects with psoriasis. These results suggest that ALOXE3 and its orthologs ... cells); the function of Aloxe3 in this differentiation appears to be to its metabolism 12R-HpETE into hepoxilins A3 or B3 which ...
"Testosterone inhibits adipogenic differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells: nuclear translocation of androgen receptor complex with beta- ... The mesoderm-derived epithelial cells of the sex cords in developing testes become the Sertoli cells, which will function to ... These are Leydig cells. Soon after they differentiate, Leydig cells begin to produce androgens. ... Dihydrotestosterone increased the number of BrdU cells, while flutamide inhibited these cells. ...
... can affect adipogenesis in fat cells. The effects of HA on adipogenesis were investigated in vitro in 3T3-L1 cells and in vivo ... In vitro adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells was inhibited by treating them with exogenous hyaluronidase (HYAL) and with 4- ... 3T3-L1 cells were induced to differentiate into adipocytes for 5 days. (b) Transient transfection of 3T3-L1 cells with siRNA ... Reduction in HA levels and inhibition of adipogenesis in 3T3-L1. We treated 3T3-L1 cells with exogenous HYAL or 4-MU, which ...
Every Step of the Way, a Wide Range of Cell Health Products. Maintaining healthy cells is the key to experimental success and ... weve highlighted the technologies and products within cell biology that are critical to maintaining optimal cell health. No ... To give you confidence in the health of your cells every step of the way, ... Embryonic mouse fibroblast; Properties: contact inhibition; transformation; transfection; cell biology; ability to ...
Subsequently, culture of 4T1 cells in 3T3-L1 adipocyte-conditioned medium (Ad-CM) and co-culture of 3T3-L1 and 4T1 cells using ... Aspirin inhibited inflammatory MCP-1 adipokine production by 3T3-L1 adipocytes and the cell growth and migration of 4T1 cells. ... α or conditioned medium from RAW264.7 cells. In 4T1 cells, treatment with aspirin decreased cell viability and migration, ... The aim of this study is to investigate the anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects of aspirin on 3T3-L1 adipocytes, 4T1 ...
Therefore, we demonstrated that FA is a positive regulator of HO-1 in 3T3-L1, and may be an effective bioactive compound to ... We investigated whether HO-1 can be activated by FA and suppress adipogenic factors in 3T3-L1. Our results showed that FA ... In addition, HO-1 inhibitor stimulated lipid accumulation, while FA attenuated lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 treated with HO-1 ... Keywords: Ferulic acid; 3T3-L1; HO-1; adipogenesis; obesity Ferulic acid; 3T3-L1; HO-1; adipogenesis; obesity ...
... we elucidated that Buddleja officinalis Maximowicz extract significantly inhibited lipid accumulation during 3T3-L1 adipocyte ... When their adipose tissue morphology was investigated for histochemical staining, the distribution of cell size in the high-fat ... Buddleja officinalis Maximowicz Extract Inhibits Lipid Accumulation on Adipocyte Differentiation in 3T3-L1 Cells and High-Fat ... "Buddleja officinalis Maximowicz Extract Inhibits Lipid Accumulation on Adipocyte Differentiation in 3T3-L1 Cells and High-Fat ...
This study investigated the changes in the soluble proteome of 3T3-L1 cells upon expression of the WT and the mutant (R316Q) ... Exogenous Expressions of FTO Wild-Type and R316Q Mutant Proteins Caused an Increase in HNRPK Levels in 3T3-L1 Cells as ... Protein extracts prepared from 3T3-L1 cells expressing either the WT or the mutant FTO proteins were used in DIGE experiments. ... This increase may codictate the metabolic changes occurring in the cell and may attribute a significance to HNRNPK in FTO- ...
Here, we used the fluorescent indicator protein (FLIPglu-600µ) to monitor cytosolic glucose dynamics in mouse 3T3-L1 cells in ... The results show that cells exhibit a low resting cytosolic glucose concentration. However, in cells with inhibited glycogen ... In untreated cells with sensitive glycogen synthase activation, insulin stimulation did not result in a change in the cytosolic ... It has been thought for a long time that glucose entering the cytosol is swiftly phosphorylated in most cell types; hence the ...
Capsaicin and nonivamide similarly modulate outcome measures of mitochondrial energy metabolism in HepG2 and 3T3-L1 cells ... Capsaicin and nonivamide similarly modulate outcome measures of mitochondrial energy metabolism in HepG2 and 3T3-L1 cells C. M ... accumulation was reduced to a similar extent after treatment with both test substances during the maturation of 3T3-L1 cells by ... tissue-specific effects of capsaicin and nonivamide on parameters of mitochondrial energy metabolism in 3T3-L1 and HepG2 cells ...
Modulation by Leptin, Insulin and Corticosterone of Oleoyl-estrone Synthesis in Cultured 3T3 L1 Cells M. Esteve; M. Esteve ... Insulin and Corticosterone of Oleoyl-estrone Synthesis in Cultured 3T3 L1 Cells. Biosci Rep 1 December 2001; 21 (6): 755-763. ... Preadipocytes (3T3 L1) were used between 7 and 14 days after differentiation; they were incubated with 44 nM 3H-esterone. The ... Cells were harvested, washed in buffer and homogenized, and protein was measured. Lipid extracts of cell homogenates were used ...
Agonist activity at PPAR-gamma in mouse 3T3-L1 cells assessed as adipocyte differentiation at 1 to 1000 nM after 6 days by Oil ...
HOP receptor variant seems to be responsible for PACAP-mediated calcium influx in many cell types, the HOP sequence might also ... whereas the HIP-isoform was present in subconfluent 3T3-L1 fibroblasts only. At the protein level, the mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes ... Receptors for NPY and PACAP differ in expression and activity during adipogenesis in the murine 3T3-L1 fibroblast cell line Br ... and of neuropeptide Y at the mRNA and protein levels in the 3T3-L1 fibroblast line during differentiation into adipocytes. ...
... we have compared 3T3-L1 cells treated to differentiate in the presence of BRL49653 with untreated 3T3-L1 cells and identified ... L1 cells was JunD and a complex of Fra-1 and JunD was formed on a consensus AP-1 binding element in differentiated 3T3-L1 cells ... The Transcription Factor Fos-Related Antigen 1 Is Induced by Thiazolidinediones During Differentiation of 3T3-L1 Cells. Tatjana ... The Transcription Factor Fos-Related Antigen 1 Is Induced by Thiazolidinediones During Differentiation of 3T3-L1 Cells. Tatjana ...
The induction of these two genes was observed only in growth-arrested 3T3-L1 cells, and not in proliferating cells. In NIH-3T3 ... Induction of Bach1 and ARA70 gene expression at an early stage of adipocyte differentiation of mouse 3T3-L1 cells. Makoto ... Induction of Bach1 and ARA70 gene expression at an early stage of adipocyte differentiation of mouse 3T3-L1 cells ... Induction of Bach1 and ARA70 gene expression at an early stage of adipocyte differentiation of mouse 3T3-L1 cells ...
In this study, we investigated the effect of shikonin on adipocyte differentiation and its mechanism of action in 3T3-L1 cells ... Oil Red O staining was performed to determine the lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells. To elucidate the anti-adipogenic ... To investigate the effects of shikonin on adipocyte differentiation, 3T3-L1 cells were induced to differentiate using 3- ... To further confirm that shikonin inhibits adipogenic differentiation through downregulation of ERK 1/2 activity, 3T3-L1 cells ...
TJF extract effectively inhibited lipid accumulation and the expression of PPARγ and C/EBPα in 3T3-L1 cells. TJF also increased ... we evaluated the inhibitory effect of and the mechanism underlying the effect of TJF extract on adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells. ... The effects of TJF extract on cell viability were analyzed using a 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide ... Effect of TJF extract on adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells. 3T3-L1 cells were exposed to a hormonal mixture for 8 d in ...
Bethell, D. R., & Pegg, A. E. (1981). Polyamines are needed for the differentiation of 3T3-L1 fibroblasts into adipose cells. ... Bethell, Delia R. ; Pegg, Anthony E. / Polyamines are needed for the differentiation of 3T3-L1 fibroblasts into adipose cells. ... When non-proliferating 3T3-L1 fibroblasts were stimulated to differentiate into adipose cells, there was a dramatic increase in ... Polyamines are needed for the differentiation of 3T3-L1 fibroblasts into adipose cells. / Bethell, Delia R.; Pegg, Anthony E. ...
Effect of Rare Earth Elements on Proliferation and Fatty Acids Accumulation of 3T3-L1 Cells - Rare Earth Elements;3T3-L1 Cells; ... on proliferation and fatty acids accumulation in 3T3-L1 cell cultures. In Experiment 1, 3T3-L1 preadipocytes in 96-well plates ... confluent 3T3-L1 preadipocytes but inhibits cell proliferation only in preconfluent cells. J. Nutr. 129:602- 606 ... Effect of Rare Earth Elements on Proliferation and Fatty Acids Accumulation of 3T3-L1 Cells. He, M.L.; Yang, W.Z.; Hidari, H.; ...
ROS-like effects of 1 in 3T3-L1 cells were suppressed by the addition of bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE), one of a ... The effects of 1 on 3T3-L1 cells during adipogenesis were compared with those of ROS. Both 1 and ROS increased lipid ... ERK1/2 and JNK in 3T3-L1 cells. In contrast, unlike ROS, the induction of proteins involved in lipogenesis was partial. ... in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. In the present study, we attempted to isolate from V. trifolia those compounds that showed ROS-like ...
The cells were determined for proliferation, differentiation, fat accumulation as well as the protein expressions of molecular ... Methods and Results The 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were induced to differentiate in the presence or absence of UA for 6 days. ... Conclusions Ursolic acid inhibited 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation and adipogenesis through the LKB1/AMPK pathway. There is ... the present study was conducted to investigate the effect of UA on adipogenesis and mechanisms of action in 3T3-L1 ...
3T3-L1 cells are widely used cell line for studying adipogenesis because it can differentiate into an adipocyte-like phenotype ... 3T3-L1 cells are widely used cell line for studying adipogenesis because it can differentiate into an adipocyte-like phenotype ... 3T3-L1 cells are widely used cell line for studying adipogenesis because it can differentiate into an adipocyte-like phenotype ... 3T3-L1 cells are widely used cell line for studying adipogenesis because it can differentiate into an adipocyte-like phenotype ...
3T3-L1 adipocytes were solubilized in cell lysis buffer containing 20 mmol/l Tris, pH 7.5, 140 mmol/l NaCl, 1% Nonidet P-40, 1 ... Effect of chronic GH treatment on 2-DOG uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. 3T3-L1 adipocytes were serum-starved in the absence (•) or ... Effect of chronic GH treatment on insulin-stimulated translocation of Akt in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. 3T3-L1 adipocytes were serum- ... Effect of chronic GH treatment on tyrosine phosphorylation of cellular proteins in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. 3T3-L1 adipocytes were ...
... we established a 3T3-L1 cell line stably expressing IκBα-DN, a nondegradable mutant of NF-κB inhibitor IκB-α (37-39). 3T3-L1 ... Cell culture.. 3T3-L1 cells were purchased from American Type Culture Collection (Rockville, MD), maintained as fibroblasts, ... Effects of TNF-α on protein levels of IR, IRS-1, AKT, GLUT1, and GLUT4 in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. A: 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated ... Time-dependent effects of TNF-α on ACRP30 and GLUT4 gene expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. A: 3T3-L1 adipocytes were untreated ( ...
Cells and reagents. Mouse embryonic fibroblast 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes were obtained from the Cell Bank of the Chinese Academy of ... Lipid accumulation in the differentiated 3T3-L1 cells was evaluated using OilRedO dye and ,90% of the cells exhibited an ... A) JTW-medicated serum effects on 3T3-L1 adipocyte viability determined by MTT assay. (B) Glucose consumption by 3T3-L1 ... A) JTW-medicated serum effects on 3T3-L1 adipocyte viability determined by MTT assay. (B) Glucose consumption by 3T3-L1 ...
Gene Expression during 3T3-L1 Cell Differentiation. * Author(s) / Creator(s). *Fu, A. ... a study was undertaken to examine the changes that occur daily in global gene expression as 3T3-L1 cells differentiate from ... Global gene expression patterns spanning 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation. Canadian Journal of Animal Science, 84(3), 367- ... microarray to allow the time-course analysis of the gene expression profile in these differentiating cells. Self-organizing ...
The data indicated that that EECV treatment increased differentiation and lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells, which indicates ... Hence, we aimed to investigate the chemical constituents and adipogenic modulatory properties of C. vulgaris in 3T3-L1 pre- ... research findings confirmed that the EECV effectively modulates the lipid accumulation and differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells ... Also, EECV treatments increased the concentration of glycerol releases as compared with control cells. Troglitazone is a PPAR-γ ...
AdipocytesBiolProteinPreadipocyteAccumulation in 3T3-L1 cellsFibroblastsAdipogenicEmbryonicConfluentAdipocytic differentiation of 3T3-L1 cellsInhibitionInhibitsGenesSkeletal muscleAMPKDifferentiation processDifferentiate into an adipocyte-like phenotypeFibroblast cellsPreadipocytes were differentiatedViabilityEndothelialVivoEpithelialProteinsMetabGrowth and differentiationLipid dropletsAdiponectin
- We investigated the receptor expression and activity of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) and of neuropeptide Y at the mRNA and protein levels in the 3T3-L1 fibroblast line during differentiation into adipocytes. (nih.gov)
- Both neuropeptides induced an increase of intracellular calcium in mature adipocytes, which was absent in the precursor cells. (nih.gov)
- As the PAC(1)-HOP receptor variant seems to be responsible for PACAP-mediated calcium influx in many cell types, the HOP sequence might also mediate the increase in intracellular calcium in adipocytes. (nih.gov)
- Using a subtraction method, we have isolated genes that are induced early in the differentiation of mouse 3T3-L1 preadipocyte cells into adipocytes. (biochemj.org)
- The 3T3-L1 cell line is one of the best characterized and reliable models for studying the conversion of preadipocytes to adipocytes. (scirp.org)
- After the growth arrest, cells are committed to becoming adipocytes. (scirp.org)
- He Y, Li Y, Zhao T, Wang Y, Sun C (2013) Ursolic Acid Inhibits Adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes through LKB1/AMPK Pathway. (plos.org)
- Both 1 and ROS increased lipid accumulation, the expression of adiponectin and GLUT4 in the cell membrane and decreased both the size of adipocytes and the phosphorylation of IRS-1, ERK1/2 and JNK in 3T3-L1 cells. (mdpi.com)
- ROS-like effects of 1 in 3T3-L1 cells were suppressed by the addition of bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE), one of a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) antagonists, suggesting that the action of 1 on adipocytes is mediated by PPARγ. (mdpi.com)
- Fluorescence lifetime images were taken for 2 week during differentiation procedure of 3T3-L1 cells into adipocytes. (elsevier.com)
- Our results suggest that fluorescence lifetime imaging can be a very powerful tool to monitor lipid droplet formation in adipocytes from 3T3-L1 cells. (elsevier.com)
- These results indicate that cellular insulin resistance induced by chronic GH treatment in 3T3-L1 adipocytes is caused by uncoupling between activation of PI 3-kinase and its downstream signals, which is specific to the insulin-stimulated PI 3-kinase pathway. (diabetesjournals.org)
- By using 3T3-L1 adipocytes and oligonucleotide microarrays, we identified 142 known genes reproducibly upregulated by at least threefold after 4 h and/or 24 h of TNF-α treatment, and 78 known genes downregulated by at least twofold after 24 h of TNF-α incubation. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Correspondingly, 24-h exposure of 3T3-L1 adipocytes to TNF-α resulted in reduced protein levels of GLUT4 and several insulin signaling proteins, including the insulin receptor, insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1), and protein kinase B (AKT). (diabetesjournals.org)
- 3T3-L1 adipocytes expressing IκBα-DN, a nondegradable NF-κB inhibitor, exhibited normal morphology, global gene expression, and insulin responses. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Moreover, extensive cell death occurred in IκBα-DN-expressing adipocytes after 2 h of TNF-α treatment. (diabetesjournals.org)
- TNF-α treatment of a number of cell lines, including primary human adipocytes, rat hepatoma Fao cells, human embryonic kidney 293 cells, and NIH-3T3 fibroblasts, has been shown to result in immediate inhibition of insulin-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of IR and IRS-1 ( 18 - 20 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- In contrast, short-term TNF-α treatment (15 min to 2 h) of 3T3-L1 adipocytes promotes insulin-mediated tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS-1 ( 21 ), whereas long-term TNF-α exposure (6 h to 5 days) diminishes tyrosine phosphorylation of both IR and IRS-1 ( 22 , 23 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- Fully differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes - rendered insulin resistance by dexamethasone treatment - were cultured in medium containing JTW-medicated rat serum. (portlandpress.com)
- JTW-medicated serum induced effects on 3T3-L1 adipocytes could be partially inhibited by treatment with the AMPK inhibitor compound C. In conclusion, JTW-medicated serum increased glucose consumption by IR adipocytes partially through the activation of the AMPK pathway, and JTW was more effective on glucose consumption than either RC or cinnamon alone. (portlandpress.com)
- Hence, we aimed to investigate the chemical constituents and adipogenic modulatory properties of C. vulgaris in 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes. (biomedcentral.com)
- Each extract was then applied to 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes upon induction with a mixture of insulin, 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine, and dexamethasone, for anti-adipogenesis assay. (biomedcentral.com)
- It is characterized at the cellular level by an increase in the number and/or size of adipocytes, round lipid-filled cells, that differentiate from their fibroblast-like precursor cells present in adipose tissue. (biomedcentral.com)
- The influence of treatment with HCV core protein (70R or 70Q) on adipokine production by both 3T3-L1 and human adipocytes were examined with real-time PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and triglyceride content was also analyzed. (nih.gov)
- First, we treated mouse 3T3-L1 cells, which differentiated into adipocytes, with HCV core recombinant protein. (nih.gov)
- Since it has been reported that adipocytes secrete adipokines such as IL-6, TNF-α, adiponectin, and leptin, we examined mRNA expressions of these adipokines in 3T3-L1 cells treated with 2 pmol/l of GST, 70R, and 70Q protein by qRT-PCR. (nih.gov)
- We examined the effects of alliin in lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) stimulated 3T3-L1 adipocytes by RT-PCR, Western blot, and microarrays analysis of 22,000 genes. (hindawi.com)
- Incubation of cells for 24 h with 100 μ mol/L alliin prevented the increase in the expression of proinflammatory genes, IL-6, MCP-1, and Egr-1 in 3T3-L1 adipocytes exposed to 100 ng/mL LPS for 1 h. (hindawi.com)
- Conflicting results for morusin activity during adipogenic differentiation are reported in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and cancer cells. (mdpi.com)
- To elucidate the influence of morusin on fat metabolism, their anti-obesity effects and molecular mechanism were investigated in 3T3-L1 cells and primary adipocytes. (mdpi.com)
- Morusin at a dose of less than 20 µM does not induce any significant change in the viability of 3T3-L1 adipocytes. (mdpi.com)
- The accumulation of intracellular lipid droplets in 3T3-L1 adipocytes stimulated with 0.5 mM 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine, 1 µM dexamethasone, 10 µg/mL insulin in DMEM containing 10% FBS (MDI)-significantly reduces in a dose-dependent manner after morusin treatment. (mdpi.com)
- Also, the expression of adipogenic transcription factors ( PPARγ and C/EBPα ) and lipogenic proteins ( aP2 and FAS ) are significantly attenuated by exposure to the compound in MDI-stimulated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. (mdpi.com)
- Moreover, morusin treatment induces glycerol release in the primary adipocytes of SD rats and enhances lipolytic protein expression (HSL, ATGL, and perilipin) in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. (mdpi.com)
- Estrogen suppressed Acrp30 in mice and 3T3-L1 adipocytes. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Cell line models for differentiation: Preadipocytes and adipocytes. (pharmatutorjournal.com)
- In addition, the diazepam treatment of adipocytes was able to positively modulate the TSPO protein expression, an effect that we did not observe in cells treated with clonazepam, a central benzodiazepine ligand. (usp.br)
- Thus, it is possible that the activation of TSPO by diazepam was able to modulate TNF-α-induced activation of NF-kB, promoting the reduction of lipolysis and increased of TSPO gene expression and PPAR-γ gene and protein expression, reestablishment of cellular homeostasis, which would increase cell survival, mitochondrial activity, and adipogenic activity of adipocytes. (usp.br)
- 3T3-L1 is an embryonic mouse fibroblast cell line widely used in the study of adipose tissue as its cells can differentiate into adipocytes under proper conditions. (altogen.com)
- Together, these data indicated that BP exerted anti-adipogenic activity by inhibiting the expression of PPARγ and C-EBPβ and the Akt signaling pathway in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. (duhnnae.com)
- Confluent 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were differentiated into adipocytes in DMII medium for 6 days. (biomedcentral.com)
- B) CAF increased lipolytic activity in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. (biomedcentral.com)
- 24 or 48 h) on gene expression using real-time RT-PCR in 3 distinct models: N-1 hypothalamic neurons, 3T3-L1 adipocytes and male CD-1 mice. (karger.com)
- VPA also induced the expression of CEBP αin 3T3-L1 adipocytes , but had no effect on other target genes, and TSA suppressed fiaf and socs-3 .Subsequently, CEBPα was overexpressed (24 h) or silenced using RNAi (24 and 48 h) in N-1 neurons. (karger.com)
- Here we show that nutritional fatty acids, whose circulating levels are often increased in obesity, activate TLR4 signaling in adipocytes and macrophages and that the capacity of fatty acids to induce inflammatory signaling in adipose cells or tissue and macrophages is blunted in the absence of TLR4. (nih.gov)
- This study assesses the effect of SDG on the development of diet-induced obesity in mice and the effect of the SDG metabolite enterodiol (END) on adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. (nih.gov)
- Differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated with 0, 5, 10 and 20 mumol/l END and then assayed for mRNA expression of adipogenesis-related genes and DNA binding activity of PPARgamma to the PPAR response element consensus sequence. (nih.gov)
- END induced adipogenesis-related gene mRNA expression including adiponectin, leptin, glucose transporter 4 and PPARgamma, and induced PPARgamma DNA binding activity in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. (nih.gov)
- Adipose tissue comprises stromal and vascular cells, including innate and adaptive immune cells, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells, in addition to adipocytes. (diabetesjournals.org)
- We determined the effect of butyrate and other short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) on rates of lipolysis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. (peerj.com)
- Indinavir (up to 100 µmol/l) was added to the glucose transport solution after insulin stimulation of wild-type L6 muscle cells, L6 cells over-expressing either GLUT4myc or GLUT1myc, 3T3-L1 adipocytes, isolated mouse brown or white adipocytes, and isolated mouse muscle preparations. (springer.com)
- The effect of indinavir on glucose uptake was variable in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, averaging 45% and 67% inhibition of basal and maximally insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, respectively. (springer.com)
- The glucose transporter GLUT4 is generally thought to be the major contributor to insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in adipocytes and skeletal muscle, based on its restricted tissue distribution and its capacity to translocate from intracellular pools to the cell surface in response to insulin. (springer.com)
- Interestingly, most of these cells, as well as adipocytes, are considered to be of mesodermal origin. (biologists.org)
- At concentrations required for PPARγ activation and ANGPTL4 induction in colon adenocarcinoma cells, SCFA do not stimulate PPARγ in mouse 3T3-L1 and human SGBS adipocytes, suggesting that SCFA act as selective PPARγ modulators (SPPARM), which is supported by coactivator peptide recruitment assay and structural modeling. (biomedsearch.com)
- Berberine treatment resulted in increased AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and L6 myotubes, increased GLUT4 translocation in L6 cells in a phosphatidylinositol 3′ kinase-independent manner, and reduced lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. (diabetesjournals.org)
- TZDs stimulate the proliferation of small adipocytes that secrete adipokines such as adiponectin, which have been shown to stimulate AMPK activity in muscle and liver cells ( 7 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- When mouse 3T3-L1 preadipocytes are induced to differentiate into adipocytes, they change from an extended fibroblast-like morphology to a rounded one. (portlandpress.com)
- Treatment of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes with the broad MMP inhibitor Ilomastat or the more restricted MMP-2 Inhibitor I prevented their differentiation into adipocytes in a dose-dependent manner, as evidenced by absence of triglyceride accumulation. (portlandpress.com)
- In particular, it has been shown that in vitro mouse satellite cells can directly differentiate into adipocytes ( 11 - 13 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- Cycloastragenol, a triterpene aglycone derived from Radix astragali, suppresses the accumulation of cytoplasmic lipid droplet in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. (nih.gov)
- The image-based Nile red staining analyses revealed that CAG dose dependently reduced cytoplasmic lipid droplet in 3T3-L1 adipocytes with the IC50 value of 13.0 μM. (nih.gov)
- Here we quantify the size, dynamics, and frequency of single vesicle exocytosis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. (nih.gov)
- 3T3-L1 adipocytes were electroporated with VAMP2 and/or GLUT4 and imaged by SDCM and TIRFM. (nih.gov)
- 3T3-L1 adipocytes electroporated with VAMP2-pHluorin were imaged by 3D time-lapse SDCM. (nih.gov)
- We applied this approach to profile the absolute levels of key TFs, including PPARγ and RXRα, during terminal differentiation of mouse 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes. (nature.com)
- The aim of this study was to demonstrate the effect of TBWE on anti-adipogenesis and pro-oxidant enzyme in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. (mdpi.com)
- Activation of this pathway by insulin or amino acids has been shown to cause increased serine phosphorylation of IRS-1, disruption of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase) signaling, and inhibition of glucose transport in L6 myocytes and 3T3-L1 adipocytes ( 20 - 23 ). (pnas.org)
- Mouse 3T3-L1 and primary adipocytes activated T cells in an antigen-specific, contact-dependent manner, indicating that adipocyte MHCII is functional. (nih.gov)
- MHCII family gene induction in A,B) differentiated primary human adipocytes and C,D) mouse 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and adipocytes cultured for 24hrs with PBS (NC, vehicle), IFNγ, TNFα, IL-1β or IL-6. (nih.gov)
- E) IFNγ dose-response of CIITA expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. (nih.gov)
- Characterization of insulin-responsive GLUT4 storage vesicles isolated from 3T3-L1 adipocytes. (semanticscholar.org)
- Prolonged insulin stimulation down-regulates GLUT4 through oxidative stress-mediated retromer inhibition by a protein kinase CK2-dependent mechanism in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. (semanticscholar.org)
- This revealed that suppression of miRNA-205 alone correlated selectively with increased cell proliferation and lipid formation of adipocytes. (omicsonline.org)
- EST clones corresponding to hgpr84 were from B cells (leukemia), neuroendocrine lung as well as in microglial cells and adipocytes. (wikipedia.org)
- explored 3T3-L1 adipocytes cocultured with RAW264.7 cells to examine this potential interaction. (wikipedia.org)
- RAW264.7 coculture increases GPR84 expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, and incubation with capric acid can inhibit TNFα-induced adiponectin release. (wikipedia.org)
- Adiponectin was first characterised in 1995 in differentiating 3T3-L1 adipocytes (Scherer PE et al. (wikipedia.org)
- In 2007, adiponectin was identified as a transcript highly expressed in preadipocytes (precursors of fat cells) differentiating into adipocytes. (wikipedia.org)
- Adipogenesis is the process of cell differentiation by which pre-adipocytes become adipocytes. (wikipedia.org)
- The transition of the fibroblast cells to mature adipocytes is one of the best characterized processes of cellular differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
- and when treated in cell culture with a combination of adipogenic effectors, they can differentiate into adipocytes. (wikipedia.org)
- Studies with 3T3-L1 cells have shown chemerin expression is low in pre-differentiated adipocytes but its expression and secretion increases both during and after differentiation in vitro. (wikipedia.org)
- Studies using mature human adipocytes, 3T3-L1 cells, and in vivo studies in mice showed chemerin stimulates the phosphorylation of the MAPKs, ERK1, and ERK2, which are involved in mediating lipolysis. (wikipedia.org)
- The response to hyperosmotic challenge is not conserved in most tested mammalian cells except for differentiated 3T3L1 adipocytes. (wikipedia.org)
- Acute insulin treatment increases PtdIns(3,5)P2 levels in 3T3L1 adipocytes, both in isolated membranes and intact cells to promote insulin effect on GLUT4 cell surface translocation and glucose transport. (wikipedia.org)
- Characterization of Munc-18c and syntaxin-4 in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. (wikipedia.org)
- Insulin infusion in rats has seen increased levels of heme-oxygenase 1 expression, blocked by inhibited activation of PI3K or protein kinase C. miR-872 levels are reduced with inhibition of adipocytes of the 3T3-L1 cell line, along with those of miRNAs-155 and -183. (wikipedia.org)
- Role of SNAP23 in insulin-induced translocation of GLUT4 in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. (wikipedia.org)
- Lane's laboratory published widely cited early studies of the insulin receptor and made extensive use of the 3T3-L1 cell line for investigating cellular differentiation processes leading to adipocytes. (wikipedia.org)
- Testosterone and DHT treatment of murine 3T3-L1 or human SGBS adipocytes for 24 h significantly decreased the mRNA expression of LKB1 via the androgen receptor and consequently reduced the activation of AMPK by phosphorylation. (wikipedia.org)
- CMKLR1 shows wide RNA expression profile but is notably high in plasmacytoid dendritic cells, macrophages, cardiomyocytes, adipocytes and endothelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
- OGT is involved in the resistance of insulin in muscle cells and adipocytes by inhibiting the Threonine 308 phosphorylation of AKT1, increasing the rate of IRS1 phosphorylation (at Serine 307 and Serine 632/635), reducing insulin signaling, and glycosylating components of insulin signals. (wikipedia.org)
- Protein extracts prepared from 3T3-L1 cells expressing either the WT or the mutant FTO proteins were used in DIGE experiments. (hindawi.com)
- Here, we used the fluorescent indicator protein (FLIPglu-600µ) to monitor cytosolic glucose dynamics in mouse 3T3-L1 cells in which glucose utilization for glycogen synthesis was inhibited. (mdpi.com)
- Cells were harvested, washed in buffer and homogenized, and protein was measured. (portlandpress.com)
- Using mRNA differential display, we have compared 3T3-L1 cells treated to differentiate in the presence of BRL49653 with untreated 3T3-L1 cells and identified Fos-related antigen 1 (Fra-1), a member of the Fos protein family, as a novel molecular target for BRL49653 action in 3T3-L1 cells. (aspetjournals.org)
- The cells were determined for proliferation, differentiation, fat accumulation as well as the protein expressions of molecular targets that regulate or are involved in fatty acid synthesis and oxidation. (plos.org)
- Differences in the expression of adipogenesis-related genes between the treated and untreated cells were determined from their mRNA and protein levels. (biomedcentral.com)
- The effects of toll-like receptor (TLR)2/4 inhibition on IL-6 production by 3T3-L1 induced by HCV core protein were examined. (nih.gov)
- A) The protein level of IL-6 was significantly increased, and the protein levels of (B) adiponectin and (C) leptin were significantly reduced in cells treated with 70Q for 48 h compared with 70R and GST protein. (nih.gov)
- The level of IL-6 mRNA expression was significantly increased in 3T3-L1 cells treated with 70Q for 24 h compared with wild HCV core protein (Fig 1A). (nih.gov)
- Similar to the changes in mRNA expression, the protein level of IL-6 was significantly increased in 70Q cells (Fig 2A), and the levels of adiponectin and leptin were significantly reduced in 70Q cells (Fig 2B and 2C). (nih.gov)
- Moreover, 70Q HCV protein augmented the IL-6 production and reduced adiponectin production from 3T3-L1 cells in a dose-dependent manner (Fig 3A and 3B) and IL-6 production was higher and adiponectin production were lower in the cells treated with 70Q compared to 70R in each concentration. (nih.gov)
- Overall, the results of the present study provide strong evidence that morusin inhibits adipogenesis by regulating the insulin receptor signaling, cell cycle and adipogenic protein expression as well as stimulating lipolysis by enhancing glycerol release and lipolytic proteins expression. (mdpi.com)
- Protein expression of Lamin A/C in 3T3-L1 cells. (altogen.com)
- At 72 hours post-transfection the cells were analyzed by Western Blot for protein expression levels (normalized by total protein, 10 µg of total protein loaded per each well). (altogen.com)
- The treatment of LCE also decreased the mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-α (C/EBPα), and sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP1) in 3T3-L1 cells. (bvsalud.org)
- Western blot analysis showed that the PPARγ, C/EBPα, and SREBP1 protein levels in both 3T3-L1 and MADSC were reduced in a dose-dependent manner. (bvsalud.org)
- In this study, the selectivity of indinavir towards GLUT4 was tested in skeletal muscle L6 cells overexpressing either myc-tagged GLUT4 protein or myc-tagged GLUT1 protein. (springer.com)
- In contrast, triglyceride content in differentiated BMSCs or 3T3-L1 cells was suppressed as a result of membrane ER-α signaling through several kinases to inhibit carbohydrate response element-binding protein-α and -β. (nih.gov)
- His previous research helped to elucidate the mechanisms of cell killing mediated by cytotoxic T cells, including the discovery of the cytotoxic pore-forming protein, perforin. (nature.com)
- Although we find that p110α is necessary for insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of PKB (protein kinase B) in several cell lines, we find that this is not the case in HepG2 hepatoma cells. (biochemj.org)
- CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha is a transcription factor involved in the differentiation of certain Blood cells. (wikipedia.org)
- Also, the encoded protein can interact with CDK2 and CDK4, thereby inhibiting these kinases and causing growth arrest in cultured cells. (wikipedia.org)
- This protein is expressed in the mammalian nervous system and plays a significant role in the development and function of nerve cells. (wikipedia.org)
- At the cellular level, sortilin functions in protein transport between the Golgi apparatus, endosome, lysosome, and plasma membrane, leading to its involvement in multiple biological processes such as glucose and lipid metabolism as well as neural development and cell death. (wikipedia.org)
- In addition, two hydrophobic loops have been detected in this domain and act to anchor the protein in the cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
- Interestingly, it was found incubation of 3T3-L1 cells with recombinant human chemerin protein facilitated insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. (wikipedia.org)
- In mammalian cells, PtdIns(3,5)P2 is synthesized from and turned over to PtdIns3P by a unique protein complex containing two enzymes with opposite activities: the phosphoinositide kinase PIKfyve and the Sac1 domain-containing PtdIns(3,5)P2 5-phosphatase, Sac3/Fig4. (wikipedia.org)
- The essential role of the PAS complex in PtdIns(3,5)P2 synthesis and turnover is supported by data from siRNA-mediated protein silencing and heterologous expression of the PAS complex components in various cell types as well as by data from genetic knockout of the PAS complex proteins. (wikipedia.org)
- Other stimuli, including mitogenic signals such as IL-2 and UV light in lymphocytes, activation of protein kinase C by PMA in platelets and EGF stimulation of COS cells, also increase PtdIns(3,5)P2 levels. (wikipedia.org)
- In the kidney, KKLF protein was localized in interstitial cells, mesangial cells, and nephron segments where CLC-K1 and CLC-K2 were not expressed. (wikipedia.org)
- The encoded protein appears to have many functions and may be involved in a variety of cellular processes, including alternative splicing, cell cycle regulation, RNA 3'-end formation, tumorigenesis, and regulation of human immunodeficiency virus gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
- Melanocortin 2 Receptor accessory protein (MRAP) traps MC5R protein inside cells. (wikipedia.org)
- The function of this gene is to produce a protein that acts as a cell surface receptor that binds to transcription factors. (wikipedia.org)
- The cyclic change of the c-jun protein levels is significant in the proliferation and apoptosis of glandular epithelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
- The persistent stromal expression of c-jun protein may prevent stromal cells from entering into apoptosis during the late secretory phase. (wikipedia.org)
- This membrane protein enjoys the double choice of another form of topological alternatives of being targeted to either apical or basolateral surface of an epithelial cell in a regulated way depending on various contexts. (wikipedia.org)
- However, in ER-positive breast cancer cell line MCF-7, estradiol caused a dose-dependent decrease in LKB1 transcript and protein expression leading to a significant decrease in the phosphorylation of the LKB1 target AMPK. (wikipedia.org)
- LKB1 is a primary upstream kinase of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a necessary element in cell metabolism that is required for maintaining energy homeostasis. (wikipedia.org)
- Protein kinase C controls the cell cycle, so chemicals that interact with it can have pro-proliferative or anti-proliferative effects. (wikipedia.org)
- A nuclear gtpase that enhances PI3kinase activity and is regulated by protein 4.1N". Cell. (wikipedia.org)
- It acts as a tethering protein, which along with other proteins, retain GLUT4 within cells in the absence of insulin. (wikipedia.org)
- The β-cells promote their protein transcription in response to nutrients. (wikipedia.org)
- In order for cells to grow and proliferate by manufacturing more proteins, the cells must ensure that they have the resources available for protein production. (wikipedia.org)
- Thus, for protein production, and therefore mTORC1 activation, cells must have adequate energy resources, nutrient availability, oxygen abundance, and proper growth factors in order for mRNA translation to begin. (wikipedia.org)
- Even if a cell has the proper energy for protein synthesis, if it does not have the amino acid building blocks for proteins, no protein synthesis will occur. (wikipedia.org)
- Furthermore, since insulin is a factor that is secreted by pancreatic beta cells upon glucose elevation in the blood, its signaling ensures that there is energy for protein synthesis to take place. (wikipedia.org)
- The activity of this protein has been implicated in controlling cell growth and differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
- They showed that opposing gradients of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and Nodal, two transforming growth factor family members that act as morphogens, are sufficient to induce molecular and cellular mechanisms required to organize, in vivo or in vitro, uncommitted cells of the zebrafish blastula animal pole into a well-developed embryo. (wikipedia.org)
- Ursolic acid inhibited 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation and adipogenesis through the LKB1/AMPK pathway. (plos.org)
- In order to discover more about the genetic basis of this process, a study was undertaken to examine the changes that occur daily in global gene expression as 3T3-L1 cells differentiate from preadipocyte to adipocyte. (ualberta.ca)
- Global gene expression patterns spanning 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation. (ualberta.ca)
- The aim of the study was to examine the effects of melatonin on cell proliferation, antioxidative enzyme activities and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration in 3T3-L1 preadipocyte cell culture. (edu.pl)
- This study investigated the effects of cyclic stretching on adipocyte differentiation of mouse preadipocyte 3T3-L1 cells. (biologists.org)
- This proliferative effect of MVECs on human preadipocytes was significantly greater from endothelial cells isolated from adipose tissue than from dermally derived MVECs ( 4 ), suggesting that endothelial cells from human adipose tissue have unique activities necessary for preadipocyte proliferation. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Delta like-1 (Dlk1)/preadipocyte factor-1 (Pref-1)/fetal antigen-1 (FA1) is a novel surface marker for embryonic chondroprogenitor cells undergoing lineage progression from proliferation to prehypertrophic stages. (wiley.com)
- Oil Red O staining was performed to determine the lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells. (biomedcentral.com)
- The data indicated that that EECV treatment increased differentiation and lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells, which indicates positive regulation of adipogenic and lipogenic activity. (biomedcentral.com)
- During adipogenesis, CSE significantly inhibited fat accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells compared with control cells. (mdpi.com)
- The mRNA profile of the PAC(1) receptor isoforms showed the HOP sequence, whereas the HIP-isoform was present in subconfluent 3T3-L1 fibroblasts only. (nih.gov)
- When non-proliferating 3T3-L1 fibroblasts were stimulated to differentiate into adipose cells, there was a dramatic increase in the intracellular level of the polyamine, spermidine. (elsevier.com)
- Bethell, DR & Pegg, AE 1981, ' Polyamines are needed for the differentiation of 3T3-L1 fibroblasts into adipose cells ', Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications , vol. 102, no. 1, pp. 272-278. (elsevier.com)
- This study evaluates the role of rhuGSN for its antioxidant and wound healing properties in murine fibroblasts (3T3-L1 cell line). (osdd.net)
- Mezerein has been shown to have two effects in chick embryo fibroblasts (CEF cells) that are associated with cancer. (wikipedia.org)
- The tumor microenvironment (TME) is the cellular environment in which the tumor exists, including surrounding blood vessels, immune cells, fibroblasts, bone marrow-derived inflammatory cells, lymphocytes, signaling molecules and the extracellular matrix (ECM). (wikipedia.org)
- hESCs can be generated by SCNT using dermal fibroblasts nuclei from both a middle-aged 35-year-old male and an elderly, 75-year-old male, suggesting that age-associated changes are not necessarily an impediment to SCNT-based nuclear reprogramming of human cells. (wikipedia.org)
- We investigated whether HO-1 can be activated by FA and suppress adipogenic factors in 3T3-L1. (mdpi.com)
- The effects of TJF extract on cell viability were analyzed using a 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, and the anti-adipogenic effect was measured by oil red O staining. (scirp.org)
- Confluent 3T3-L1 preadipocytes can be differentiated synchronously by a defined adipogenic cocktail. (scirp.org)
- Hexane-soluble fraction of the root extract also inhibited adipocyte differentiation and decreased the mRNA levels of various adipogenic genes in the differentiating cells. (biomedcentral.com)
- Cell Models and their Application for Studying Adipogenic Differentiation in Relation to Obesity. (pharmatutorjournal.com)
- Taken together, these results demonstrated an inhibitory effect of BP on adipogenesis through the down-regulation of C-EBPβ, C-EBPα, and PPARγ and the reduction of the phospho-Akt adipogenic factor in 3T3-L1 cells. (duhnnae.com)
- This study was to evaluate the phenolic content and composition of Carthamus tinctorius L. seed extract (CSE) and to further assess its antioxidant and anti-adipogenic activities using various radical scavenging systems and 3T3-L1 cells. (mdpi.com)
- The PPARγ agonist pioglitazone partially rescued the adipogenic defect in CGL cells. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Mesenchymal progenitor cells can differentiate along either adipogenic or myogenic pathways. (diabetesjournals.org)
- In contrast, ectopic expression of C/EBPβ and δ in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes promotes adipogenesis, even in the absence of adipogenic stimuli. (wikipedia.org)
- 3T3-L1 could be useful for studying fibroblast cells, or mammalian embryonic tissue. (altogen.com)
- The primary mouse embryonic fibroblast cells were transferred (the "T") every 3 days (the first "3"), and inoculated at the rigid density of 7005300000000000000♠3×105 cells per 20 cm2 dish (the second "3") continuously. (wikipedia.org)
- This action of androgens is supported by a hormone from Sertoli cells, Müllerian inhibitory hormone (MIH), which prevents the embryonic Müllerian ducts from developing into fallopian tubes and other female reproductive tract tissues in male embryos. (wikipedia.org)
- Studies show that OGT alleles are vital for embryogenesis, and that OGT is necessary for intracellular glycosylation and embryonic stem cell vitality. (wikipedia.org)
- Progressing from a rapidly dividing to a confluent and contact inhibited state, 3T3-L1 cell line undergoes a pre-adipose to adipose-like conversion. (altogen.com)
- Confluent 3T3-L1 cells were treated with dexamethasone, 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine and insulin for 45 hours (induction period), followed by incubation with insulin for 9 additional days (maturation period). (biologists.org)
- Taken together, these results suggest that MMPs, and notably MMP-2 and MMP-9, may be necessary mediators of adipocytic differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells. (portlandpress.com)
- PPAR γ agonists also promote adipocytic differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells and stimulate the uptake of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) by macrophages, leading to foam cell formation in the arterial wall [ 13 , 14 ]. (hindawi.com)
- In addition, the highly galloylated compound 2 was also found to induce potent inhibition of adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells. (mdpi.com)
- In this cell, fractional inhibition of glucose uptake by indinavir correlated positively with the fold-stimulation of glucose uptake by insulin, and was higher with sub-maximal insulin concentrations. (springer.com)
- We concluded that extranuclear and nuclear ER-α collaborate to suppress adipocyte development, but inhibition of lipid synthesis in mature cells does not involve nuclear ER-α. (nih.gov)
- We report that blockade of cholesterol trafficking through lysosome by a newly identified inhibitor of angiogenesis, itraconazole, leads to inhibition of mTOR activity in endothelial cells. (pnas.org)
- Moreover, other known inhibitors of endosomal/lysosomal cholesterol trafficking as well as siRNA knockdown of Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC) 1 and NPC2 also cause inhibition of mTOR in endothelial cells. (pnas.org)
- Inhibition of p110β or p110δ alone was also not sufficient to block insulin signalling to PKB in these cells, but, when added in combination with p110α inhibitors, they are able to significantly attenuate insulin signalling. (biochemj.org)
- Here, we show that BBR inhibits the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes induced by DM and suppresses the mitotic clonal expansion of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes in a time- and dose-dependent manner. (nih.gov)
- In non-muscle cells, CAP/Ponsin inhibits cell spreading and focal adhesion turnover, as its siRNA-mediated knockdown resulted in enhanced PAK/MEK/ERK activation and cell migration. (wikipedia.org)
- This process inhibits the ATP-sensitive potassium ion channels of the cell causing the Potassium ion channel to close and not function anymore. (wikipedia.org)
- To identify novel genes that potentially mediate the effects of TZDs, we have isolated genes that are differentially expressed during thiazolidinedione-stimulated differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells. (aspetjournals.org)
- The induction of these two genes was observed only in growth-arrested 3T3-L1 cells, and not in proliferating cells. (biochemj.org)
- Further, treating 3T3-L1 cells with Phoenix dactylifera L. seed extract reduced adipogenesis through the downregulation of PPAR-γ and CEBP-α, and adipocyte-specific genes involved in fatty acid metabolism including ap2, ACACA, and FAS. (rbmb.net)
- A systems-level approach to parental genomic imprinting: the imprinted gene network includes extracellular matrix genes and regulates cell cycle ex. (nih.gov)
- some of the genes and proteins which are modulated in 3D cultures in comparison with 2D cultures across various cell lines are listed below. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Shi, Z.-D., Abraham, G., and Tarbell, J. M. (2010) Shear stress modulation of smooth muscle cell marker genes in 2-D and 3-D depends on mechanotransduction by heparan sulfate proteoglycans and ERK1/2. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Genes coding for transporter proteins that confer multidrug resistance to the cells have also been found to be activated by CEBPB. (wikipedia.org)
- There is an increased risk that the tumor cells will mutate other genes. (wikipedia.org)
- Hypoxia also causes the upregulation of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF1-α), which induces angiogenesis and is associated with poorer prognosis and the activation of genes associated with metastasis, leading, for instance, to increased cell migration and also ECM remodeling. (wikipedia.org)
- Activation of PPAR γ by thiazolidinediones (TZDs) leads to altered metabolism in adipose tissue, skeletal muscle cells, and liver, resulting in insulin sensitization [ 12 ]. (hindawi.com)
- This molecular function enables sortilin to participate in various biological processes, including the transport of GLUT4 to the plasma membrane of fat and skeletal muscle cells in response to insulin. (wikipedia.org)
- The liver isoform (CPT1A or CPTI-L) is found throughout the body on the mitochondria of all cells except for skeletal muscle cells and brown adipose cells. (wikipedia.org)
- The muscle isoform (CPT1B or CPTI-M) is highly expressed in heart and skeletal muscle cells and brown adipose cells. (wikipedia.org)
- To evaluate the direct effect of AST on lipid accumulation in hepatocytes with IR and elucidate the underlying mechanisms, we induced IR in HepG2 cells, and used compound C and 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-D-ribofuranoside (AICAR) (an AMPK inhibitor and agonist, respectively) as control substances. (frontiersin.org)
- Activation of AMPK-related kinases by LKB1 plays vital roles maintaining cell polarity thereby inhibiting inappropriate expansion of tumour cells. (wikipedia.org)
- 3T3-L1 cells are widely used cell line for studying adipogenesis because it can differentiate into an adipocyte-like phenotype under appropriate conditions. (elsevier.com)
- 3T3-L1 cells have a fibroblast-like morphology, but, under appropriate conditions, the cells differentiate into an adipocyte-like phenotype. (wikipedia.org)
- Cells pretreated with 0.375 and 0.75 g/mL rhuGSN for 24 h exhibited a significant increase in viability in a MTT assay. (osdd.net)
- Oil Red-O staining and MTT assay were utilized to confirm adipocyte differentiation and cell viability, respectively. (hindawi.com)
- Stevioside was noncytotoxic to 3T3-L1 cells as cell viability was reduced by a maximum of 17%, making it impossible to determine its IC 50 . (hindawi.com)
- The cell viability assay was performed after the differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells for 7 days. (bvsalud.org)
- There were reductions in mitochondrial Ca++ overload, mitochondrial depolarization, increased cell viability and improved function in the whole heart. (wikipedia.org)
- These new capillaries are formed by the migration and replication of microvascular endothelial cells (MVECs) from established blood vessels ( 2 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- We showed that itraconazole inhibited the cell cycle progression of endothelial cells in the G1 phase. (pnas.org)
- E) Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) levitated for 60 minutes (left images) and 4 hours (right images) (Scale bar, 50 μm). (wikipedia.org)
- See: Tumor-associated endothelial cells 80-90% of cancer are carcinomas, or cancers that form in the epithelial tissue. (wikipedia.org)
- Thus, it is important that the cell model used in testing drug candidates is physiologically relevant and closely mimics in-vivo conditions by expressing appropriate receptors, drug transporters and essential proteins for cell growth and survival. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Although SREBP1 can be controlled by cholesterol levels in cultured cells, this does not seem to occur in vivo , leaving the question of its mechanism of activation unresolved ( 22 ). (pnas.org)
- Standard monolayer cell culturing on tissue culture plastic has notably improved our understanding of basic cell biology, but it does not replicate the complex 3D architecture of in vivo tissue, and it can significantly modify cell properties. (wikipedia.org)
- Differentiated airway epithelial cells can revert into stable and functional stem cells in vivo. (wikipedia.org)
- Notably, human cancerous epithelial cells exhibited increased levels of sortilin as compared to normal epithelial tissues. (wikipedia.org)
- At about week 6, epithelial sex cords develop within the forming testes and incorporate the germ cells as they migrate into the gonads. (wikipedia.org)
- The mesoderm-derived epithelial cells of the sex cords in developing testes become the Sertoli cells, which will function to support sperm cell formation. (wikipedia.org)
- The product of this gene regulates epithelial-mesenchymal interactions and epithelial cell morphogenesis and activation. (wikipedia.org)
- When expressed by mesenchymal cells it can instruct epithelial morphogenesis at epithelial mesenchymal interfaces. (wikipedia.org)
- One of the identified proteins was heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K, which displayed more than 2.6- and 3.7-fold increases in its abundance in the WT and the mutant FTO expressing cells, respectively. (hindawi.com)
- Bottom: immunoblots of representative cell subfraction proteins. (nih.gov)
- Cells employ at least two sensor proteins, Scap and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase, to monitor the levels of membrane sterols and to regulate cholesterol biosynthesis ( 11 ). (pnas.org)
- CAP/Ponsin is part of a small family of adaptor proteins that regulate cell adhesion, growth factor signaling and cytoskeletal formation. (wikipedia.org)
- In the cells of mammals, the construction of lipid droplets is a process that is strictly controlled, using hormone induced signals, proteins related to droplets, and lipases as well. (wikipedia.org)
- Results clearly show that the lifetime of Nile red in lipid droplets are smaller than those in cell membrane. (elsevier.com)
- Oil Red O staining was used to visualize the changes in lipid droplets in 3T3-L1 cells and mouse adipose-derived stem cells (MADSCs). (bvsalud.org)
- Results The results of BODIPY staining showed that the lipid droplets in the control group gradually became larger with the differentiation of the cells, while the lipid droplets in the experimental group firstly became larger, and then appeared smaller after Ad36 was added on the fourth day. (bvsalud.org)
- When FITM2 has a mutation in its fourth transmembrane domain that happens to be a gain-of-function one, is found overexpressed in cells, it has unfailingly caused the buildup of TG rich lipid droplets. (wikipedia.org)