The prototypical analgesic used in the treatment of mild to moderate pain. It has anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties and acts as an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase which results in the inhibition of the biosynthesis of prostaglandins. Aspirin also inhibits platelet aggregation and is used in the prevention of arterial and venous thrombosis. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p5)
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
Experimentally induced mammary neoplasms in animals to provide a model for studying human BREAST NEOPLASMS.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
Cells in the body that store FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. WHITE ADIPOCYTES are the predominant type and found mostly in the abdominal cavity and subcutaneous tissue. BROWN ADIPOCYTES are thermogenic cells that can be found in newborns of some species and hibernating mammals.
An adrenocortical steroid that has modest but significant activities as a mineralocorticoid and a glucocorticoid. (From Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1437)
A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Leptin serves as a feedback signal from fat cells to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM in regulation of food intake, energy balance, and fat storage.
Insulin derivatives and preparations that are designed to induce a rapid HYPOGLYCEMIC EFFECT.
An aromatized C18 steroid with a 3-hydroxyl group and a 17-ketone, a major mammalian estrogen. It is converted from ANDROSTENEDIONE directly, or from TESTOSTERONE via ESTRADIOL. In humans, it is produced primarily by the cyclic ovaries, PLACENTA, and the ADIPOSE TISSUE of men and postmenopausal women.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
Cell surface receptors for obesity factor (LEPTIN), a hormone secreted by the WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Upon leptin-receptor interaction, the signal is mediated through the JAK2/STAT3 pathway to regulate food intake, energy balance and fat storage.
A cell surface receptor for INSULIN. It comprises a tetramer of two alpha and two beta subunits which are derived from cleavage of a single precursor protein. The receptor contains an intrinsic TYROSINE KINASE domain that is located within the beta subunit. Activation of the receptor by INSULIN results in numerous metabolic changes including increased uptake of GLUCOSE into the liver, muscle, and ADIPOSE TISSUE.
A basic-leucine zipper transcription factor that is closely related to C-FOS PROTEINS. It forms heterodimeric complexes with C-JUN PROTEINS to regulate GENE transcription.
THIAZOLES with two keto oxygens. Members are insulin-sensitizing agents which overcome INSULIN RESISTANCE by activation of the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPAR-gamma).
Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-fos genes (GENES, FOS). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. c-fos combines with c-jun (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-JUN) to form a c-fos/c-jun heterodimer (TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1) that binds to the TRE (TPA-responsive element) in promoters of certain genes.
A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.
Substances which lower blood glucose levels.
A nuclear transcription factor. Heterodimerization with RETINOID X RECEPTOR ALPHA is important in regulation of GLUCOSE metabolism and CELL GROWTH PROCESSES. It is a target of THIAZOLIDINEDIONES for control of DIABETES MELLITUS.
Intracellular receptors that can be found in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. They bind to extracellular signaling molecules that migrate through or are transported across the CELL MEMBRANE. Many members of this class of receptors occur in the cytoplasm and are transported to the CELL NUCLEUS upon ligand-binding where they signal via DNA-binding and transcription regulation. Also included in this category are receptors found on INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES that act via mechanisms similar to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
The differentiation of pre-adipocytes into mature ADIPOCYTES.
A continuous cell line that is a substrain of SWISS 3T3 CELLS developed though clonal isolation. The mouse fibroblast cells undergo an adipose-like conversion as they move to a confluent and contact-inhibited state.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A polyamine formed from putrescine. It is found in almost all tissues in association with nucleic acids. It is found as a cation at all pH values, and is thought to help stabilize some membranes and nucleic acid structures. It is a precursor of spermine.
A toxic diamine formed by putrefaction from the decarboxylation of arginine and ornithine.
An inhibitor of ORNITHINE DECARBOXYLASE, the rate limiting enzyme of the polyamine biosynthetic pathway.
Biogenic amines having more than one amine group. These are long-chain aliphatic compounds that contain multiple amino and/or imino groups. Because of the linear arrangement of positive charge on these molecules, polyamines bind electrostatically to ribosomes, DNA, and RNA.
A biogenic polyamine formed from spermidine. It is found in a wide variety of organisms and tissues and is an essential growth factor in some bacteria. It is found as a polycation at all pH values. Spermine is associated with nucleic acids, particularly in viruses, and is thought to stabilize the helical structure.
A pyridoxal-phosphate protein, believed to be the rate-limiting compound in the biosynthesis of polyamines. It catalyzes the decarboxylation of ornithine to form putrescine, which is then linked to a propylamine moiety of decarboxylated S-adenosylmethionine to form spermidine.
Agents that increase energy expenditure and weight loss by neural and chemical regulation. Beta-adrenergic agents and serotoninergic drugs have been experimentally used in patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) to treat obesity.
A pentacyclic triterpene that occurs widely in many PLANTS as the free acid or the aglycone for many SAPONINS. It is biosynthesized from lupane. It can rearrange to the isomer, ursolic acid, or be oxidized to taraxasterol and amyrin.

Role of cyclooxygenases COX-1 and COX-2 in modulating adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells. (1/1584)

Cyclooxygenase (COX) catalyses the rate-limiting step of prostanoid biosynthesis. Two COX isoforms have been identified, COX-1, the constitutive form, and COX-2, the inducible form. While COX-2 has been implicated in body fat regulation, the underlying cellular mechanism remains to be elucidated. The present study was undertaken to examine the potential role of COX in modulating adipogenesis and to dissect the relative contribution of the two isoenzymes in this process. COX-2 was found to be expressed in undifferentiated 3T3-L1 cells and down-regulated during differentiation, whereas the cellular level of COX-1 remained relatively constant. Abrogating the activity of either of these two isoenzymes by selective COX inhibitors accelerated cellular differentiation, suggesting that both COX isoenzymes negatively influenced differentiation. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) significantly up-regulated COX-2 expression ( approximately 2-fold) in differentiating 3T3-L1 cells, whereas similar effect was not observed with COX-1 expression. Abrogating the induced COX-2 activity reversed the TNFalpha-induced inhibition of differentiation by approximately 70%, implying a role for COX-2 in mediating TNFalpha signaling. Hence, both COX isoforms were involved in the negative modulation of adipocyte differentiation. COX-2 appeared to be the main isoform mediating at least part of the negative effects of TNFalpha.  (+info)

Isomer-specific regulation of metabolism and PPARgamma signaling by CLA in human preadipocytes. (2/1584)

Trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has previously been shown to be the CLA isomer responsible for CLA-induced reductions in body fat in animal models, and we have shown that this isomer, but not the cis-9,trans-11 CLA isomer, specifically decreased triglyceride (TG) accumulation in primary human adipocytes in vitro. Here we investigated the mechanism behind the isomer-specific, CLA-mediated reduction in TG accumulation in differentiating human preadipocytes. Trans-10,cis-12 CLA decreased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and oxidation, and reduced insulin-dependent glucose transporter 4 gene expression. Furthermore, trans-10,cis-12 CLA reduced oleic acid uptake and oxidation when compared with all other treatments. In parallel to CLA's effects on metabolism, trans-10,cis-12 CLA decreased, whereas cis-9,trans-11 CLA increased, the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) and several of its downstream target genes when compared with vehicle controls. Transient transfections demonstrated that both CLA isomers antagonized ligand-dependent activation of PPARgamma. Collectively, trans-10,cis-12, but not cis-9, trans-11, CLA decreased glucose and lipid uptake and oxidation and preadipocyte differentiation by altering preadipocyte gene transcription in a manner that appeared to be due, in part, to decreased PPARgamma expression.  (+info)

Regulation of ABCA1 expression and cholesterol efflux during adipose differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells. (3/1584)

Adipose cells specialized in energy storage, contain large intracellular triglyceride-rich lipid droplets, are enriched with free cholesterol, and express sterol-regulated transcription factors such as liver X receptor (LXR). The recent identification of the LXR-dependent ATP binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) pathway for cholesterol release from peripheral cells has led us to address the question of the expression and function of ABCA1 in adipocytes. In 3T3-L1 adipose cells, we observed a strong induction of ABCA1 mRNA during adipose differentiation, but only limited variations in ABCA1 protein. Lipid efflux onto apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), which depends on ABCA1, was comparable in adipocytes and preadipocytes, demonstrating a differential regulation of ABCA1 mRNA and cholesterol efflux. We also found that total cell cholesterol remained stable during differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells, but membrane cholesterol was lower in adipocytes than in preadipocytes, suggesting redistribution of cholesterol to the lipid droplet. Finally, we show that under standard lipolytic stimulation, 3T3-L1 adipocytes do not release cholesterol onto apoA-I, a process that required long exposures to lipolytic agents (24 h). In conclusion, despite large induction of ABCA1 mRNA during differentiation, cholesterol efflux through the ABCA1 pathway remains limited in adipocytes and requires prolonged lipolysis. This is consistent with the view of the adipocyte behaving as a cholesterol sink, with plasma cholesterol-buffering properties.  (+info)

Activation of PPARalpha and PPARgamma by environmental phthalate monoesters. (4/1584)

Phthalate esters are widely used as plasticizers in the manufacture of products made of polyvinyl chloride. Mono-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (MEHP) induces rodent hepatocarcinogenesis by a mechanism that involves activation of the nuclear transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPARalpha). MEHP also activates PPAR-gamma (PPARgamma), which contributes to adipocyte differentiation and insulin sensitization. Human exposure to other phthalate monoesters, including metabolites of di-n-butyl phthalate and butyl benzyl phthalate, is substantially higher than that of MEHP, prompting this investigation of their potential for PPAR activation, assayed in COS cells and in PPAR-responsive liver (PPARalpha) and adipocyte (PPARgamma) cell lines. Monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP) and mono-sec-butyl phthalate (MBuP) both increased the COS cell transcriptional activity of mouse PPARalpha, with effective concentration for half-maximal response (EC50) values of 21 and 63 microM, respectively. MBzP also activated human PPARalpha (EC50=30 microM) and mouse and human PPARgamma (EC50=75-100 microM). MEHP was a more potent PPAR activator than MBzP or MBuP, with mouse PPARalpha more sensitive to MEHP (EC50=0.6 microM) than human PPARalpha (EC50=3.2 microM). MEHP activation of PPARgamma required somewhat higher concentrations, EC50=10.1 microM (mouse PPARgamma) and 6.2 microM (human PPARgamma). No significant PPAR activation was observed with the monomethyl, mono-n-butyl, dimethyl, or diethyl esters of phthalic acid. PPARalpha activation was verified in FAO rat liver cells stably transfected with PPARalpha, where expression of several endogenous PPARalpha target genes was induced by MBzP, MBuP, and MEHP. Similarly, activation of endogenous PPARgamma target genes was evidenced for all three phthalates by the stimulation of PPARgamma-dependent adipogenesis in the 3T3-L1 cell differentiation model. These findings demonstrate the potential of environmental phthalate monoesters for activation of rodent and human PPARs and may help to elucidate the molecular basis for the adverse health effects proposed to be associated with human phthalate exposure.  (+info)

Mutational analysis of the hormone-sensitive lipase translocation reaction in adipocytes. (5/1584)

Lipolysis in adipocytes governs the release of fatty acids for the supply of energy to various tissues of the body. This reaction is mediated by hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL), a cytosolic enzyme, and perilipin, which coats the lipid droplet surface in adipocytes. Both HSL and perilipin are substrates for polyphosphorylation by protein kinase A (PKA), and phosphorylation of perilipin is required to induce HSL to translocate from the cytosol to the surface of the lipid droplet, a critical step in the lipolytic reaction (Sztalryd C., Xu, G., Dorward, H., Tansey, J. T., Contreras, J.A, Kimmel, A. R., and Londos, C. (2003) J. Cell Biol. 161, 1093-1103). In the present paper we demonstrate that phosphorylation at one of the two more recently discovered PKA sites within HSL, serines 659 and 660, is also required to effect the translocation reaction. Translocation does not occur when these serines residues are mutated simultaneously to alanines. Also, mutation of the catalytic Ser-423 eliminates HSL translocation, showing that the inactive enzyme does not migrate to the lipid droplet upon PKA activation. Thus, HSL translocation requires the phosphorylation of both HSL and perilipin.  (+info)

Insulin stimulates expression of the pyruvate kinase M gene in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. (6/1584)

M2-type pyruvate kinase (M2-PK) mRNA is produced from the PKM gene by an alternative RNA splicing in adipocytes. We found that insulin increased the level of M2-PK mRNA in 3T3-L1 adipocytes in both time- and dose-dependent manners. This induction did not require the presence of glucose or glucosamine in the medium. The insulin effect was blocked by pharmacological inhibitors of insulin signaling pathways such as wortmannin, an inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), and PD98059, an inhibitor of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) kinase. A stable reporter expression assay showed that the promoter activity of an about 2.2-kb 5'-flanking region of the rat PKM gene was stimulated by insulin, but the extents of these stimulations were lower than those of the mRNA stimulation. Thus, we suggest that insulin increases the level of M2-PK mRNA in adipocytes by acting at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels through signaling pathways involving both PI3K and MAPK kinase.  (+info)

Syntaxin 6 regulates Glut4 trafficking in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. (7/1584)

Insulin stimulates the movement of glucose transporter-4 (Glut4)-containing vesicles to the plasma membrane of adipose cells. We investigated the role of post-Golgi t-soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors (SNAREs) in the trafficking of Glut4 in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Greater than 85% of syntaxin 6 was found in Glut4-containing vesicles, and this t-SNARE exhibited insulin-stimulated movement to the plasma membrane. In contrast, the colocalization of Glut4 with syntaxin 7, 8, or 12/13 was limited and these molecules did not translocate to the plasma membrane. We used adenovirus to overexpress the cytosolic domain of these syntaxin's and studied their effects on Glut4 traffic. Overexpression of the cytosolic domain of syntaxin 6 did not affect insulin-stimulated glucose transport, but increased basal deGlc transport and cell surface Glut4 levels. Moreover, the syntaxin 6 cytosolic domain significantly reduced the rate of Glut4 reinternalization after insulin withdrawal and perturbed subendosomal Glut4 sorting; the corresponding domains of syntaxins 8 and 12 were without effect. Our data suggest that syntaxin 6 is involved in a membrane-trafficking step that sequesters Glut4 away from traffic destined for the plasma membrane. We speculate that this is at the level of traffic of Glut4 into its unique storage compartment and that syntaxin 16 may be involved.  (+info)

HDL-mediated cholesterol uptake and targeting to lipid droplets in adipocytes. (8/1584)

Adipocytes express high levels of the HDL scavenger receptor class B type I in a differentiation-dependent manner. We thus have analyzed the routes of HDL cholesterol trafficking at different phases of adipocyte differentiation in the 3T3-L1 cell line. One novel and salient feature of this paper is the observation of a widespread distribution in the cell cytoplasm of Golgi markers, caveolin-2, and a fluorescent cholesterol analog NBD-cholesterol (NBD-chol), observed in the early phases of adipocyte formation, clearly distinct from that observed in mature fat cells (i.e., with fully formed lipid vesicles). Thus, in cells without visible lipid droplets, Golgi markers (Golgi 58K, Golgin 97, trans-Golgi network 38, Rab 6, and BODIPY-ceramide), caveolin-2, and NBD-chol all colocalize in a widespread distribution in the cell. In contrast, when lipid droplets are fully formed at latter stages, these markers clearly are distributed to distinct cell compartments: a compact juxtanuclear structure for the Golgi markers and caveolin-2, while NDB-chol concentrates in lipid droplets. In addition, disorganization of the Golgi using three different agents (Brefeldin, monensin, and N-ethyl-maleimide) drastically reduces NBD-chol uptake at different phases of adipocyte formation, strongly suggesting that the Golgi apparatus plays a critical role in HDL-mediated NBD uptake and routing to lipid droplets.  (+info)

Several studies in mice indicate a role for apolipoprotein E (APOE) in lipid accumulation and adipogenic differentiation in adipose tissue. However, little is yet known if APOE functions in a similar manner in human adipocytes. This prompted us to compare lipid loading and expression of adipocyte differentiation markers in APOE-deficient and control adipocytes using the differentiated human mesenchymal stem cell line hMSC-Tert as well as primary human and mouse adipocytes as model systems. Differentiated hMSC-Tert were stably transduced with or without siRNA targeting APOE while murine adipocytes were isolated from wild type and Apoe knockout mice. Human APOE knockdown hMSC-Tert adipocytes accumulated markedly less triglycerides compared to control cells. This correlated with strongly decreased gene expression levels of adipocyte markers such as adiponectin (ADIPOQ) and fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) as well as the key transcription factor driving adipocyte differentiation, peroxisome ...
It is well known that circulating adiponectin concentrations are reduced in animal models of obesity and in patients with obesity or metabolic syndrome, despite adipocyte hypertrophy or increased body fat (2-6). However, the details of adiponectin production and release have varied among studies, especially in animal models (10,28,29,32,33). This is probably due to the apparently different etiology of the three types of obese animal models: genetic, diet-induced, and hypothalamic obesity (20,34).. VMH lesion-induced hypothalamic obesity in animals is the only obesity model that shows clear derangements of autonomic nervous activities (hyperactivity of the vagus nerve and hypoactivity of sympathetic nerves) compared with genetic (20), diet-induced obesity (34), and other types of hypothalamic obesity (19). Thus, there is a possibility that this animal model has different characteristics of adiponectin production and release, with resultant change of serum adiponectin, compared with those of other ...
Amine oxidase substrates mimic several of the insulin effects on adipocyte differentiation in 3T3 F442A cells. Biochem J. 2001 Jun 15; 356(Pt 3):769-77 ...
The Ca2+-insensitive protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms ε, η, δ and ζ are possible direct downstream targets of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K), and might therefore be involved in insulin signalling. Although isoform-specific changes in PKC expression have been reported for skeletal muscle and liver in insulin-resistant states, little is known about these isoforms in adipocytes. Therefore we studied (1) expression and subcellular localization of these isoforms in murine adipocytes, (2) translocation of specific isoforms to membranes in response to treatment with insulin and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and (3) regulation of expression in insulin-resistant states. The PKC isoforms ε, η, δ and ζ are expressed in adipocytes. Immunoreactivity for all isoforms is higher in the membranes than in the cytosol, but subcellular fractionation by differential centrifugation shows an isoform-specific distribution within the membrane fractions. PMA treatment of adipocytes induces ...
Compared to standard 2D culture systems, new methods for 3D cell culture of adipocytes could provide more physiologically accurate data and a deeper understanding of metabolic diseases such as diabetes. By resuspending living cells in a bioink of nanocellulose and hyaluronic acid, we were able to print 3D scaffolds with uniform cell distribution. After one week in culture, cell viability was 95%, and after two weeks the cells displayed a more mature phenotype with larger lipid droplets than standard 2D cultured cells. Unlike cells in 2D culture, the 3D bioprinted cells did not detach upon lipid accumulation. After two weeks, the gene expression of the adipogenic marker genes PPAR. and FABP4 was increased 2.0- and 2.2-fold, respectively, for cells in 3D bioprinted constructs compared with 2D cultured cells. Our 3D bioprinted culture system produces better adipogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells and a more mature cell phenotype than conventional
Gerin I, Bommer GT, McCoin CS, Sousa KM, Krishnan V, MacDougald OA. Roles for miRNA-378/378* in adipocyte gene expression and lipogenesis. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 299: E198-E206, 2010. First published May 18, 2010; doi:10.1152/ajpendo.00179.2010.-In this study, we explored the roles of microRNAs in adipocyte differentiation and metabolism. We first knocked down Argonaute2 (Ago2), a key enzyme in the processing of micro-RNAs (miRNAs), to investigate a potential role for miRNAs in adipocyte differentiation and/or metabolism. Although we did not observe dramatic differences in adipogenesis between Ago2 knock-down and control 3T3-L1 cells, incorporation of [C-14] glucose or acetate into triacylglycerol, and steady-state levels of triacyglycerol were all reduced, suggesting a role for miRNAs in adipocyte metabolism. To study roles of specific miRNAs in adipocyte biology, we screened for miRNAs that are differentially expressed between preadipocytes and adipocytes for the 3T3-L1 and ST2 cell ...
One of the major findings in the current report is that PIKE-A is critical for adipocyte differentiation. Several lines of evidence support the role of PIKE-A in terminal adipocyte differentiation instead of preadipocyte formation. First, the mature adipocyte marker aP2 is significantly decreased during in vitro adipocyte differentiation in PIKE−/− MEFs, indicating PIKE-A is important for adipocyte differentiation (Fig. 3B and C). Second, PIKE-A expression is increased in fat tissue development of HFD-fed and ob/ob mice, which highlights its function in the process (Fig. 2H). Lastly, HFD induced comparable preadipocyte marker Pref-1 expression in both wild-type and PIKE−/− mice, indicating that formation of new adipocytes is normal in PIKE-null adipose tissue (Fig. 3A). Interestingly, we found a small portion of PIKE−/− MEFs was able to differentiate into mature adipocytes (Fig. 3B), and quantitative analysis revealed a small but statistically significant increment of lipid ...
Uncoupling protein 1 (UCP-1), the specific marker of brown adipose tissue, is transcriptionally activated in response to adrenergic stimuli and thyroid hormones are necessary for its full expression. We describe differences in the regulation of UCP-1 mRNA expression between rat and mouse brown adipocytes in culture, using norepinephrine (NE), triiodothyronine (T3), insulin and retinoic acid (RA). Results: NE and cAMP-elevating agents strongly increase UCP-1 mRNA levels in cultures of mouse adipocytes, but increases are low in those from rat. In rat adipocytes NE poorly increases UCP-1 mRNA expression and T3 markedly increases the adrenergic response of UCP-1, an effect not observed in mouse adipocytes. In the absence of insulin, T3 itself increases UCP-1 mRNA in rat adipocytes and enhances the response to NE, while in mouse adipocytes no effect of T3 is observed. RA by itself stimulates UCP-1 mRNA in mouse adipocytes, but not in those from rat. In rat cultures, RA requires the presence of NE ...
Dr. Rayalam has worked in the areas of obesity, body weight regulation, phytochemicals and adipocyte biochemistry for over 8 years. Her research interests include: 1) to study the adipocyte life cycle and to understand the interaction of adipocytes with other cell types as an approach to address several problems associated with obesity; 2) to develop novel treatment strategies for obesity by inducing transdifferentiation of white to beige adipocytes and to inhibit lipid accumulation in white adipocytes; and 3) to identify combinations of phytochemicals and vitamins that have synergistic anti-adipogenic effects with an ultimate goal of developing pharmaceuticals or nutraceuticals for prevention and treatment of obesity and associated disorders. Aging is accompanied by an accumulation of adipocytes in bone marrow and Dr. Rayalams other interest is to understand the fat-bone interaction and to identify molecular targets for the prevention of weight gain and bone loss associated with aging. Dr. ...
BioAssay record AID 1656 submitted by Burnham Center for Chemical Genomics: High Throughput Imaging Assay for Hepatic Lipid Droplet Formation.
The number of overweight and obese individuals continues to increase in both the U.S. and worldwide. This increase has led to a significant increase in obesity-related medical problems including diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease and cancer. In obesity, the differentiation of adipocytes is suppressed. Although adipocyte differentiation is associated with changes in glucose metabolism, little is known about the potential of enzymes involved in glucose metabolism to modulate this process. Pyruvate kinase (PK) mediates the rate-limiting step of glycolysis. The M2 isoform of PK (PKM2) is expressed in adipocytes but its role in adipogenesis is unknown. Here we demonstrate that PKM2 regulates the differentiation of both human and mouse adipocytes. Silencing of PKM2 in preadipocytes led to increased lipid accumulation, enhanced expression of markers (FABP4, PPARgamma, C/EBPBeta) of adipocyte differentiation and caused a shift in the pattern of enzymes involved in glucose metabolism favoring the ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Lin Mi, Yaosheng Chen, Xueli Zheng, Youlei Li, Qiangling Zhang, Delin Mo, Gongshe Yang].
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A combination of cellular, biochemical, genetic and genomic techniques have revealed a new molecular player in the production of fat cells in mice, which could improve our understanding of obesity.
A benign tumour usually composed of mature adipocytes with ubiquitous localization. Classically lipomas are well circumscribed and develop slowly.. ...
Last August, a few hundred evangelicals packed into the pews at a suburban church in Arlington, Virginia, to hear two men-one black, one white-discuss what they
The retinoblastoma protein (RB) has previously been shown to facilitate adipocyte differentiation by inducing cell cycle arrest and enhancing the transactivation by the adipogenic CCAAT/enhancer binding proteins (C/EBP). We show here that the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma), a nuclear receptor pivotal for adipogenesis, promotes adipocyte differentiation more efficiently in the absence of RB. PPARgamma and RB were shown to coimmunoprecipitate, and this PPARgamma-RB complex also contains the histone deacetylase HDAC3, thereby attenuating PPARgammas capacity to drive gene expression and adipocyte differentiation. Dissociation of the PPARgamma-RB-HDAC3 complex by RB phosphorylation or by inhibition of HDAC activity stimulates adipocyte differentiation. These observations underscore an important function of both RB and HDAC3 in fine-tuning PPARgamma activity and adipocyte differentiation.. Keywords: Thiazolidinediones. ...
The development of mature adipocytes from pre-adipocytes is a highly regulated process. CD24 is a glycophosphatidylinositol-linked cell surface receptor that has been identified as a critical cell surface marker for identifying pre-adipocytes that are able to reconstitute white adipose tissue (WAT) in vivo. Here, we examined the role and regulation of CD24 during adipogenesis in vitro. We found that CD24 mRNA and protein expression is upregulated early during adipogenesis in the 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes and in murine primary pre-adipocytes isolated from subcutaneous and visceral WAT, followed by downregulation in mature adipocytes. CD24 mRNA expression was found to be dependent on increased transcription due to increased promoter activity in response to activation of a preexisting transcriptional regulator. Furthermore, either intracellular cAMP or dexamethasone were sufficient to increase expression in pre-adipocytes, while both additively increased CD24 expression. Preventing the increase in CD24 ...
Comments, concepts and statistics about Pancreatic Lipase Inhibitory Gallotannins from Galla Rhois with Inhibitory Effects on Adipocyte Differentiation in 3T3-L1 Cells.
Common genetic variants at the ARL15 locus are associated with plasma adiponectin, insulin and HDL cholesterol concentrations, obesity, and coronary atherosclerosis. The ARL15 gene encodes a small GTP-binding protein whose function is currently unknown. In this study adipocyte-autonomous roles for ARL15 were investigated using conditional knockdown of Arl15 in murine 3T3-L1 (pre)adipocytes. Arl15 knockdown in differentiated adipocytes impaired adiponectin secretion but not adipsin secretion or insulin action, while in preadipocytes it impaired adipogenesis. In differentiated adipocytes GFP-tagged ARL15 localized predominantly to the Golgi with lower levels detected at the plasma membrane and intracellular vesicles, suggesting involvement in intracellular trafficking. Sequencing of ARL15 in 375 severely insulin resistant patients identified four rare heterozygous variants, including an early nonsense mutation in a proband with femorogluteal lipodystrophy and non classical congenital adrenal ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Beta-mecaptoethanol suppresses inflammation and induces adipogenic differentiation in 3T3-F442A murine preadipocytes. AU - Guo, Wen. AU - Li, Yahui. AU - Liang, Wentao. AU - Wong, Siu. AU - Apovian, Caroline. AU - Kirkland, James L.. AU - Corkey, Barbara E.. PY - 2012/7/23. Y1 - 2012/7/23. N2 - Preadipocytes are present in adipose tissues throughout adult life that can proliferate and differentiate into mature adipocytes in response to environmental cues. Abnormal increase in adipocyte number or size leads to fat tissue expansion. However, it is now recognized that adipocyte hypertrophy is a greater risk factor for metabolic syndrome whereas fat tissue that continues to produce newer and smaller fat cells through preadipocyte differentiation is metabolically healthy. Because adipocyte hypertrophy is often associated with increased oxidant stress and low grade inflammation, both are linked to disturbed cellular redox, we tested how preadipocyte differentiation may be regulated ...
The present results provide direct evidence for a regulatory role of mechanical stress in adipocyte differentiation, mediated through the activation of the ERK/MAPK system. Controversial observations concerning the role of ERK/MAPK in adipocyte differentiation have been reported by several laboratories - the activation of the ERK/MAPK pathway has been shown to be involved in both the inhibition (Font de Mora et al., 1997; Hu et al., 1996; Kim et al., 2001; Shimba et al., 2001) and the promotion (Bost et al., 2002; Klemm et al., 2001; Machinal-Quelin et al., 2002; Prusty et al., 2002; Zhang et al., 1996) of adipocyte differentiation. Along these lines, Prusty et al. recently suggested that stimulation of the ERK/MAPK pathway might have opposing effects in the process of adipogenesis, depending on the time of activation during the differentiation process (Prusty et al., 2002). In the present study, the activated state of ERK1/2 was more prolonged during the induction period in response to the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - CXCL3 positively regulates adipogenic differentiation. AU - Kusuyama, Joji. AU - Komorizono, Anna. AU - Bandow, Kenjiro. AU - Ohnishi, Tomokazu. AU - Matsuguchi, Tetsuya. PY - 2016/10. Y1 - 2016/10. N2 - Chemokines are a family of cytokines inducing cell migration and inflammation. Recent reports have implicated the roles of chemokines in cell differentiation. However, little is known about the functional roles of chemokines in adipocytes. Here, we explored gene expression levels of chemokines and chemokine receptors during adipogenic differentiation. We have found that two chemokines, chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 3 (CXCL3) and CXCL13, as well as CXC chemokine receptor 2(CXCR2), a CXCL3 receptor, are highly expressed in mature adipocytes. When 3T3-L1 cells and ST2 cells were induced to differentiate, both the number of lipid droplets and the expression levels of adipogenic markers were significantly promoted by the addition of CXCL3, but not CXCL13. Conversely, gene knockdown ...
To our knowledge, these are the first results that demonstrate the effects of maternal isocaloric pair-fed high-carbohydrate (LF-HCD) versus high-fat diet (HF-LCD) during gestation and lactation on gene expression and serum levels of formation and resorption markers in bone, as well as adipogenic and lipogenic markers in retroperitoneal fat mass of mice offspring at adolescence. The results of the present study showed that maternal LF-HCD during gestation and lactation lead to up-regulation of Runx2 and Ctnnb1, as well as Runx2, OPG, OPG/RANK-L ratio and Ctnnb1 mRNA expression in bone of female and male offspring, respectively. Also, serum levels of OPG/RNK-L ratio which is the marker of osteogenesis [22] were increased in the LF-HCD-fed group, compared with the HF-LCD. PPARγ2 mRNA expression, as well as other adipogenic genes measured in the current study and serum levels of proteins were increased in the offspring of HF-LCD-fed mothers. Our results showed that mRNA expression of OPG and ...
PEPTIDE - The present invention relates to a peptide that is derived from a milk protein and has an antioxidative effect, an antioxidant that includes the peptide as an active ingredient, and an antioxidative food, drink, or feed that includes the peptide. The present invention also relates to a peptide that is derived from a milk protein and has an adiponectin production promotion effect, an adiponectin production promoter that includes the peptide as an active ingredient, and an adiponectin production promotion food, drink, or feed that includes the peptide. The present invention further relates to a blood adiponectin level increase promotion and/or decrease inhibition agent that includes a component contained in cheese as an active ingredient, and a blood adiponectin level increase promotion and/or decrease inhibition food or drink that includes a component contained in cheese. The present invention to the peptide that consists of an amino acid sequence shown by ...
Adipocytes play an important role in energy storage and metabolism. Adipocyte differentiation is a developmental process that is critical for metabolic homeostasis and nutrient signaling. It is controlled by complex actions involving gene expression and signal transduction. Preadipocytes are present throughout adult life in adipose tissues and can proliferate and differentiate into mature adipocytes according to the energy balance. The proliferation and differentiation of these preadipocytes contribute to increases in adipose tissue mass. In vitro study indicates that different tissue-derived preadipocytes exhibit differently in lipid accumulation, adipogenic transcription factor expression, and TNF?-induced apoptosis. It has also been demonstrated that there is a close relationship between adipocyte differentiation and many physiological and pathological processes including fat metabolism, energy balance, obesity, diabetes, hyperlipidemia and breast cancer. HPA-s from Bioarray Research ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Regulation of gene expression during adipocyte differentiation. T2 - a review.. AU - Gaskins, H. R.. AU - Hausman, G. J.. AU - Martin, R. J.. PY - 1989/9. Y1 - 1989/9. N2 - The differentiation of adipose precursor cells is accompanied by the acquisition of adipocyte-specific messenger (m) RNAs allowing characteristic changes in protein composition. The development of methods for cloning and characterizing individual genes has provided the opportunity to study selective gene expression by adipocytes at the molecular level. In this review, the information obtained to date regarding transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms utilized by adipocytes is summarized. Included are descriptions of conserved DNA sequences found in noncoding regions of adipose genes and of how protein-DNA interactions at these regions are thought to regulate the initiation of transcription. Among the transcription factors implemented in regulation of adipocyte-specific gene expression are ...
Using a subtraction method, we have isolated genes that are induced early in the differentiation of mouse 3T3-L1 preadipocyte cells into adipocytes. These include the genes encoding transcription factors and signalling proteins, as well as unknown genes. Bach1, a transcription factor, and ARA70, a cofactor, were rapidly induced during differentiation. The induction of these two genes was observed only in growth-arrested 3T3-L1 cells, and not in proliferating cells. In NIH-3T3 cells, no induction was observed under either set of conditions. These results strongly indicate that Bach1 and ARA70 have valuable roles at the onset of adipocyte differentiation.. ...
In the nucleus HuR binds to mRNAs containing adenylate-uridylate rich elements in the 3?- untranslated region. HuR may influence expression of its ligand mRNA through regulation of polyadenylation, translocation of the message to the cytosol, stabilization of the mRNA and/or altering its translational efficiency. Suppression of HuR using siRNA resulted in an attenuation of the 3T3-L1 differentiation program, consistent with HuR control of the expression of mRNA ligand (s) critical to the differentiation process. In the current study we begin to identify mRNA ligands of HuR whose regulated expression is necessary for adipogenesis. Originally published in Biochemical and Biophysiological Research Communications Vol. 383, No. 2 2009 ...
The present study indicates that EERP enhance differentiation of 3T3-L1 adipocytes in part by its potency of PPARγ activation and are capable of reversing inhibitory effects of TNF-α on adipocyte differentiation and adiponectin expression. These results suggest the value of EERP as a diet supplement for prevention and treatment of obesity and obesity-associated disorders ...
Rabbit polyclonal Hormone sensitive lipase antibody validated for WB, IHC and tested in Human. Immunogen corresponding to synthetic peptide
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In the study, they put mice on chow and HFDs and looked at when recruitment of pre-adipocytes occurs with respect to obesity development. Surprisingly, pre-adipocytes start to get activated within 1 day of HFD exposure, peak at 3 days, and returns to baseline at 5 days. ( although it takes 7-8 weeks for them to fully differentiate into adipocytes and store fat, it seems you can get the ball rolling extremely quickly, i guess I need to think carefully next time before I indulge in a cheat meal ...
Creb3l4-KO mice showed adipocyte hyperplasia, lead to improved metabolic parameters. (a) Adipogenic potential of mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) derived from
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanism behind adipose tissue wound healing (ATWH). The preadipocyte cell line 3T3-L1 was cultured and expression of adiponectin receptors (AdipoR1/2) was detected by immunohistochemistry and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The concentration of adiponectin secreted at different cell densities was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, while preadipocyte proliferation and migration were determined in vitro by MTT and wound closure assays. AdipoR1/2 were found to be expressed in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. There were no statistically significant differences in the concentrations of adiponectin secreted by cell solutions of different densities (P | 0.05). In addition, adiponectin was seen to promote the growth and migration of preadipocytes. In conclusion, adiponectin may regulate ATWH by promoting preadipocyte proliferation and migration, and its systemic and/or local application is proposed as a promising therapeutic approach for the
Although numerous works have focused on adipocyte differentiation and function as well as alterations under pathophysiological conditions, only a few studies have considered the importance of mitochondrial activity in these situations [11]. In fact, mitochondria play important roles in adipocyte differentiation and function. Pre-adipocytes mature in two steps: differentiation and then hypertrophy. During the early maturation stage, an increased number of mitochondria are required [11] and 12 E.H. Koh et al., Essential role of mitochondrial function in adiponectin synthesis in adipocytes, Diabetes 56 (2007), pp. 2973-2981.[12], resulting in small adipocytes, which are highly sensitive to insulin and that secrete high levels of adiponectin [12]. By contrast, older adipocytes increase in size (hypertrophy), lose their functional activities and become resistant to insulin. They exhibit decreased numbers of mitochondria with impaired functions and secrete less adiponectin [12]. In addition, ...
In a previous study designed to understand the role of Myo1c in GLUT4 trafficking and membrane dynamics, we observed that Myo1c overexpression induced dramatic cortical actin remodeling (membrane ruffling) in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, in a serum- and insulin-independent manner (4). This observation suggested that Myo1c might mediate the effect of insulin on membrane ruffling in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, which is supported by our observation that Myo1c depletion in 3T3-L1 adipocytes does indeed attenuate insulin-induced membrane ruffling (data not shown). Interestingly, expression of Myo1c in cultured adipocytes induces membrane ruffling even in the presence of wortmannin, suggesting that Myo1c may function downstream or independent of PI3K in activating membrane ruffling. Our studies here suggest that formation and maintenance of the Rictor-Myo1c complex are not dependent on insulin, rapamycin, or wortmannin (Fig. 1, 2, and 4). Therefore, to determine the functional relevance of Rictors association with ...
Regional differences in free fatty acid (FFA) handling contribute to diseases associated with particular fat distributions. As cultured rat preadipocytes became differentiated, FFA transfer into preadipocytes increased and was more rapid in single pe
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View mouse Cavin3 Chr7:105480083-105482300 with: phenotypes, sequences, polymorphisms, proteins, references, function, expression
Current epidemics of diabetes mellitus is largely caused by wide spread obesity. The best-established connection between obesity and insulin resistance is the elevated and/or dysregulated levels of circulating free fatty acids that cause and aggravate insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and other hazardous metabolic conditions. Here, we investigated the effect of a major dietary saturated fatty acid, palmitate, on the insulin-sensitizing adipokine adiponectin produced by cultured adipocytes. We have found that palmitate rapidly inhibits transcription of the adiponectin gene and the release of adiponectin from adipocytes. Adiponectin gene expression is controlled primarily by PPARγ and C/EBPα. Using mouse embryonic fibroblasts from C/EBPα-null mice, we have determined that the latter transcription factor may not solely mediate the inhibitory effect of palmitate on adiponectin transcription leaving PPARγ as a likely target of palmitate. In agreement with this model, palmitate
TY - JOUR. T1 - FGF-10 is a growth factor for preadipocytes in white adipose tissue. AU - Yamasaki, Masahiro. AU - Emoto, Hisayo. AU - Konishi, Morichika. AU - Mikami, Tadahisa. AU - Ohuchi, Hideyo. AU - Nakao, Kazuwa. AU - Itoh, Nobuyuki. PY - 1999/4/29. Y1 - 1999/4/29. N2 - FGF-10 is a mesenchymal factor affecting epithelial cells during pattern formation. However, the expression and physiological role of FGF-10 in adults remains to be elucidated. We examined the expression of FGF-10 mRNA in a variety of adult rat tissues, and found to be most abundant in white adipose tissue. In white adipose tissue, FGF-10 mRNA was expressed in preadipocytes but not in mature adipocytes. The expression in white adipose tissue during postnatal development was also examined. The expression level was low at postnatal day 10 (P10). However, FGF-10 mRNA was abundantly detected later on (P28 and P48) when white adipose tissue growth was stimulated. We also examined the activity of recombinant FGF-10 for primary ...
The interactions of four natural compounds including apigenin, naringin, emodin and quercetin were investigated on inhibiting 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation and pancreas lipase activity. Oil Red O staining was conducted to visualise and quantify lipid accumulation. The difference between experimental and calculated results was utilised for determining the interaction types. Interestingly, emodin synergistically interacted with the other three compounds, and the combination of emodin and apigenin exhibited the strongest synergistic effect in both differentiation and pancreas lipase assays. Results implied that the combination of apigenin and emodin may be regarded as a promising complementary therapy for management of overweight or obesity.
ERRERA, Flavia I.V. et al. COL18A1 is highly expressed during human adipocyte differentiation and the SNP c.1136C , T in its frizzled motif is associated with obesity in diabetes type 2 patients. An. Acad. Bras. Ciênc. [online]. 2008, vol.80, n.1, pp.167-177. ISSN 1678-2690. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0001-37652008000100012.. Collagen XVIII can generate two fragments, NC11-728 containing a frizzled motif which possibly acts in Wnt signaling and Endostatin, which is cleaved from the NC1 and is a potent inhibitor of angiogenesis. Collagen XVIII and Wnt signaling have recently been associated with adipogenic differentiation and obesity in some animal models, but not in humans. In the present report, we have shown that COL18A1 expression increases during human adipogenic differentiation. We also tested if polymorphisms in the Frizzled (c.1136C,T; Thr379Met) and Endostatin (c.4349G,A; Asp1437Asn) regions contribute towards susceptibility to obesity in patients with type 2 diabetes (113 obese, BMI ...
Intramuscular fat or marbling is critical for the palatability of beef. In mice, very recent studies show that adipocytes and fibroblasts share a common pool of progenitor cells, with Zinc finger protein 423 (Zfp423) as a key initiator of adipogenic differentiation. To evaluate the role of Zfp423 in intramuscular adipogenesis and marbling in beef cattle, we sampled beef muscle for separation of stromal vascular cells. These cells were immortalized with pCI neo-hEST2 and individual clones were selected by G418. A total of 288 clones (3×96 well plates) were isolated and induced to adipogenesis. The presence of adipocytes was assessed by Oil-Red-O staining. Three clones with high and low adipogenic potential respectively were selected for further analyses. In addition, fibro/adipogenic progenitor cells were selected using a surface marker, platelet derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) α. The expression of Zfp423 was much higher (307.4±61.9%, P|0.05) in high adipogenic cells, while transforming growth
TY - JOUR. T1 - A novel 3T3-L1 preadipocyte variant that expresses PPARγ2 and RXRα but does not undergo differentiation. AU - Baillie, Rebecca A.. AU - Sha, Xiaoming. AU - Thuillier, Philippe. AU - Clarke, Steven D.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2007 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 1998/10. Y1 - 1998/10. N2 - This report describes a novel adipocyte-like cell line termed 3T3- L1/RB1 that was derived from preadipocyte cell line, 3T3-L1. The 3T3-L1/RB1 cells continued to divide after reaching confluence, formed loci, and constitutively expressed a low level of adipose fatty acid binding protein (A-FABP) mRNA. However, 3T3L-1/RB cells did not undergo terminal differentiation as indicated by the failure of insulin and thiazolidendiones to induce the expression of A-FABP, lipoprotein lipase, and fatty acid synthase. We hypothesized that the 3T3-L1/RB1 variant did not respond to differentiation stimuli because it did not express either peroxisomal proliferator activated receptor γ2 (PPARγ2) ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
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Instituto de Neurobiolog a, UNAM, Mexico - Citado por 2.609 - adipocyte biology - obesity - diabetes - insulin resistance - prolactin
Adipocytes are now recognized as endocrine cells secreting adipocytokines, regulating multiple metabolic pathways. In this study, we addressed secretion of microvesicles by 3T3-L1 adipocytes. We found that MFG-E8, one of the exosomal proteins, was present in the microvesicles and was distributed in …
Lipolysis is the bodys mechanism for breaking down fats to make them absorbable and usable. There are two types: gastrointestinal lipolysis, which takes place during digestion, and adipocyte lipolysis, concerned with stored fat, which is often referred to as fat-burning. How can you use it to help achieve your slimming goals?
Use Bio-Rads PrimePCR assays, controls, templates for your target gene. Every primer pair is optimized, experimentally validated, and performance guaranteed.
"Exogenous Sodium Pyruvate Stimulates Adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 Cells". Journal of Cellular Biochemistry. 117 (1): 39-48. doi: ... In the body, one way in which sodium pyruvate provides energy to cells is through pyruvate conversion to acetyl-CoA which then ... It is commonly added to cell culture media as an additional source of energy, but may also have protective effects against ... sodium pyruvate has been used in many experiments involving cell cultures to provide more energy. In adipocytes it was found ...
... induces mitochondrial impairment in 3T3-L1 adipocytes". Mol. Cell. Biochem. 340 (1-2): 41-8. doi:10.1007/s11010-010-0398-5. ... domain that stimulates 3T3-L1 preadipocytes proliferation". Gene. 379: 132-40. doi:10.1016/j.gene.2006.05.008. PMID 16815647. ... "Over-expression of NYGGF4 inhibits glucose transport in 3T3-L1 adipocytes via attenuated phosphorylation of IRS-1 and Akt". ... effects on insulin resistance are reversed by metformin in 3T3-L1 adipocytes". J. Bioenerg. Biomembr. 44 (6): 665-71. doi: ...
Fusinski, Keith A (2008). Adenovirus 36 E4orf1 gene induces differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells (PhD Dissertation). Wayne State ... Cell. 141 (7): 1135-45. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2010.05.009. PMC 2908380. PMID 20602997. Gavranich, John B; Chang, Anne B (2015). " ... and Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) in non small cell lung cancer". Experimental and Molecular Pathology. 89 (3): 222-6. doi: ... February 2014). "Coxsackievirus B1 is associated with induction of β-cell autoimmunity that portends type 1 diabetes". Diabetes ...
explored 3T3-L1 adipocytes cocultured with RAW264.7 cells to examine this potential interaction. RAW264.7 coculture increases ... There was also a GPR84 downregulation in dentritic cell derived from FcRgamma chain KO mice. In microglial cells, the GPR84 ... EST clones corresponding to hgpr84 were from B cells (leukemia), neuroendocrine lung as well as in microglial cells and ... Ly6G + MDSCs in Lal-/- mice show strong immunosuppression on T cells, which contributes to impaired T cell proliferation and ...
"Vitisin a inhibits adipocyte differentiation through cell cycle arrest in 3T3-L1 cells". Biochemical and Biophysical Research ... and NF-κB activation in RAW 264.7 cells". International Immunopharmacology. 9 (3): 319-323. doi:10.1016/j.intimp.2008.12.005. ...
In 3T3-L1 adipocytes, OGA inhibition with PUGNAc inhibited insulin-mediated glucose uptake. PUGNAc treatment also inhibited ... cells. PDAC cells have some dependency upon O-GlcNAc for survival as OGT knockdown selectively inhibited PDAC cell ... In a mouse model, mice injected with cells expressing PFK1 S529A mutant showed lower tumor growth than mice injected with cells ... This effect was not observed in proliferating cells and undifferentiated myoblastic cells. AMPK phosphorylation of OGT T444 has ...
Cao Z, Umek RM, McKnight SL (Oct 1991). "Regulated expression of three C/EBP isoforms during adipose conversion of 3T3-L1 cells ... Cell. Biol. 18 (10): 5880-7. doi:10.1128/mcb.18.10.5880. PMC 109174. PMID 9742105. Zhang F, Lin M, Abidi P, Thiel G, Liu J ( ... Cell. 4 (5): 735-43. doi:10.1016/s1097-2765(00)80384-6. PMID 10619021. Liu YW, Tseng HP, Chen LC, Chen BK, Chang WC (July 2003 ... Cell. Biol. 23 (12): 4066-82. doi:10.1128/mcb.23.12.4066-4082.2003. PMC 156132. PMID 12773552. Mo X, Kowenz-Leutz E, Xu H, ...
Cao Z, Umek RM, McKnight SL (Sep 1991). "Regulated expression of three C/EBP isoforms during adipose conversion of 3T3-L1 cells ... CEBPD is involved in regulation of apoptosis and cell proliferation. It probably acts as tumor suppressor. One study in mice ... Cell Biology. 29 (12): 1525-39. doi:10.1016/S1357-2725(97)00083-6. PMID 9570146. Zhu Y, Saunders MA, Yeh H, Deng WG, Wu KK (Mar ... Cytogenetics and Cell Genetics. 70 (3-4): 188-91. doi:10.1159/000134030. PMID 7789168. Cleutjens CB, van Eekelen CC, van Dekken ...
December 1997). "Insulin has a limited effect on the cell cycle progression in 3T3 L1 fibroblasts". Molecules and Cells. 7 (6 ... "High-resolution tracking of cell division suggests similar cell cycle kinetics of hematopoietic stem cells stimulated in vitro ... Also, due to this stable linkage, once incorporated within cells, the dye is not transferred to adjacent cells. CFSE is ... August 1998). "Helper T cell differentiation is controlled by the cell cycle". Immunity. 9 (2): 229-37. doi:10.1016/S1074-7613( ...
Cao Z, Umek RM, McKnight SL (Sep 1991). "Regulated expression of three C/EBP isoforms during adipose conversion of 3T3-L1 cells ... In contrast, ectopic expression of C/EBPβ and δ in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes promotes adipogenesis, even in the absence of ... C/EBPβ plays a role in neuronal differentiation, in learning, in memory processes, in glial and neuronal cell functions, and in ... These proteins are found in hepatocytes, adipocytes, hematopoietic cells, spleen, kidney, brain, and many other organs. C/EBP ...
"Identification of novel putative membrane proteins selectively expressed during adipose conversion of 3T3-L1 cells". ... and also on the cell membrane, which indicates that MC2 needs MRAP to reach the cell membrane. In addition to cell trafficking ... MRAP mutations were found to disable the movement of MC2 to the cell surface of adrenal gland cells; this would make MC2 ... In fat cells, where MC2 is expressed, MRAP was found to facilitate MC2 activated lipolysis and therefore regulating energy ...
1,25-(OH)2D3 transiently but strongly induces Insig-2 expression in 3T3-L1 cells. This novel regulatory circuit may also play ... Ka SO, Kim KA, Kwon KB, Park JW, Park BH (May 2009). "Silibinin attenuates adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes through a ... a functional vitamin D response element in the murine Insig-2 promoter and its potential role in the differentiation of 3T3-L1 ... March 2009). "Activation of PPARalpha and PPARgamma reduces triacylglycerol synthesis in rat hepatoma cells by reduction of ...
Choi BH, Kim YH, Ahn IS, Ha JH, Byun JM, Do MS (2009). "The inhibition of inflammatory molecule expression on 3T3-L1 adipocytes ... The first is a short signal sequence that targets the hormone for secretion outside the cell; next is a short region that ... Adiponectin was first characterised in 1995 in differentiating 3T3-L1 adipocytes (Scherer PE et al.). In 1996 it was ... The exact mechanism of regulation is unknown, but adiponectin could be regulated by post-translational mechanisms in cells. A ...
Expression of E1 alpha mRNA and subunit in maple-syrup-urine-disease and 3T3-L1 cells". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. ... The BCKD enzyme complex can be found in the mitochondria, an organelle known as the powerhouse of the cell. All three amino ... When these byproducts start to accumulate it produces a toxic environment for cells and tissues, specifically in the nervous ... Cytogenetics and Cell Genetics. 50 (4): 236-7. doi:10.1159/000132768. PMID 2805821. Fisher CW, Chuang JL, Griffin TA, Lau KS, ...
"Insulin responsiveness of glucose transporter 4 in 3T3-L1 cells depends on the presence of sortilin". Molecular Biology of the ... As a sorting receptor on the cell surface and on the endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi apparatus within the cell, sortilin is ... as it has been detected in several cancer cell lines. Notably, human cancerous epithelial cells exhibited increased levels of ... In humans, sortilin is expressed over a wide range of cell types and tissues such as the brain, spinal cord, adrenal gland, ...
"ArPIKfyve-PIKfyve interaction and role in insulin-regulated GLUT4 translocation and glucose transport in 3T3-L1 adipocytes". ... PIKfyve inhibitors cause cell death also in A-375 melanoma cells, which depend on autophagy for growth and proliferation, due ... Cell. 127 (3): 635-48. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.09.026. PMID 17081983. S2CID 7827573.. ... "PIKfyve regulates CaV1.2 degradation and prevents excitotoxic cell death". The Journal of Cell Biology. 187 (2): 279-94. doi: ...
"Role of EHD1 and EHBP1 in perinuclear sorting and insulin-regulated GLUT4 recycling in 3T3-L1 adipocytes". J. Biol. Chem. 279 ( ... Cell. 15 (5): 2410-22. doi:10.1091/mbc.E03-10-0733. PMC 404033. PMID 15020713. Guilherme A, Soriano NA, Furcinitti PS, Czech MP ... doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.09.026. PMID 17081983. S2CID 7827573. v t e. ... 2006). "Global, in vivo, and site-specific phosphorylation dynamics in signaling networks". Cell. 127 (3): 635-48. ...
"Synthesis and accumulation of a receptor regulatory protein associated with lipid droplet accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells". J. ... 2001). "PGRL is a major CD81-associated protein on lymphocytes and distinguishes a new family of cell surface proteins". J. ... 2006). "Contrasting effects of EWI proteins, integrins, and protein palmitoylation on cell surface CD9 organization". J. Biol. ...
"ArPIKfyve-PIKfyve interaction and role in insulin-regulated GLUT4 translocation and glucose transport in 3T3-L1 adipocytes". ... Cell Res. 313 (11): 2404-16. doi:10.1016/j.yexcr.2007.03.024. PMC 2475679. PMID 17475247. Zhang Y, Zolov SN, Chow CY, Slutsky ... Cell. Biol. 24 (23): 10437-47. doi:10.1128/MCB.24.23.10437-10447.2004. PMC 529046. PMID 15542851. Sbrissa D, Ikonomov OC, Fu Z ... 1996). "Isolation of a cDNA clone, TRX encoding a human T-cell lymphotrophic virus type-I Tax1 binding protein". Biochim. ...
"APS Facilitates c-Cbl Tyrosine Phosphorylation and GLUT4 Translocation in Response to Insulin in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes". Mol. Cell ... In Burkitt lymphoma cell lines, it is tyrosine phosphorylated in response to B cell receptor stimulation. Because it binds Shc ... has a negative regulatory role in B cell proliferation". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 330 (3): 1005-13. doi:10.1016/j.bbrc. ... an adaptor molecule containing PH and SH2 domains that is tyrosine phosphorylated upon B-cell receptor stimulation". Oncogene. ...
Viravaidya K, Shuler ML (2004). "Incorporation of 3T3-L1 cells to mimic bioaccumulation in a microscale cell culture analog ... These include the descending limb cells, thin ascending limb cells, thick ascending limb cells, cortical collecting duct cells ... was developed and included lung cells, drug-metabolizing liver and fat cells. The cells were linked in a 2D fluidic network ... agreeing with earlier findings of improved cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions due to dynamic perfusion, or increased ...
Studies with 3T3-L1 cells have shown chemerin expression is low in pre-differentiated adipocytes but its expression and ... Studies using mature human adipocytes, 3T3-L1 cells, and in vivo studies in mice showed chemerin stimulates the phosphorylation ... It was found incubation of 3T3-L1 cells with recombinant human chemerin protein facilitated insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. ... "Chemerin enhances insulin signaling and potentiates insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes". FEBS Lett. 582 (5 ...
In vitro studies on differentiation have used the pre-committed preadipocyte lineage, such as 3T3-L1 and 3T3-F442A cell line, ... Green H, Kehinde O (28 February 1974). "Sublines of mouse 3T3 cells that accumulate lipid". Cell. 1 (3): 113-116. doi:10.1016/ ... PPARγ is necessary and sufficient to promote fat cell differentiation. PPARγ is required for embryonic stem cells (ES cells) ... "Regulated expression of three C/EBP isoforms during adipose conversion of 3T3-L1 cells". Genes & Development. 5 (9): 1538-52. ...
It suppresses lipid accumulation through repression of C/EBPα-activated GLUT4-mediated glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 cells. LC ... suppresses lipid accumulation through repression of C/EBPα-activated GLUT4-mediated glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 cells. Fujimori K ...
AD-36 infection can induce cellular differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and stem cells derived from human adipose tissue. ...
"Role of SNAP23 in insulin-induced translocation of GLUT4 in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Mediation of complex formation between syntaxin4 ... "Interaction of Munc-18-2 with syntaxin 3 controls the association of apical SNAREs in epithelial cells". Journal of Cell ... "Role of SNAP23 in insulin-induced translocation of GLUT4 in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Mediation of complex formation between syntaxin4 ... "Relocation of the t-SNARE SNAP-23 from lamellipodia-like cell surface projections regulates compound exocytosis in mast cells ...
"Cineromycin B isolated from Streptomyces cinerochromogenes inhibits adipocyte differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells via Krüppel-like ... "Cineromycin B isolated from Streptomyces cinerochromogenes inhibits adipocyte differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells via Krüppel-like ...
... appears necessary and sufficient for the differentiation of mouse 3T3-L1 fibroblast cells into adipocytes (i.e. fat ... Finally, cultured human skin cells, which are rich in ALOXE3 readily convert arachidonic acid as well as 12S-hydroperoxy- ... Pace-Asciak CR (2015). "Pathophysiology of the hepoxilins". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular and Cell Biology of ... Molecular and Cell Biology of Lipids. 1841 (3): 390-400. doi:10.1016/j.bbalip.2013.08.005. PMID 23954555. Krieg P, Marks F, ...
The overexpression of FITM2 was also displayed when the 3T3-L1 cells were combined with rosiglitazone (a PPAR γ agonist). This ... FITM2 has been identified as being overexpressed throughout the time 3T3-L1 (from the adipocyte cell line) is being ... when lipid droplets have been identified to build-up which results in the adipocyte phenotype that is seen in the 3T3-L1 cells ... Lastly, a shRNA-facilitated reduction in FITM2 in adipocytes (3T3-L1) or even a knockdown of it in the embryos of zebrafish ...
"Testosterone inhibits adipogenic differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells: nuclear translocation of androgen receptor complex with beta- ... The mesoderm-derived epithelial cells of the sex cords in developing testes become the Sertoli cells, which will function to ... These are Leydig cells. Soon after they differentiate, Leydig cells begin to produce androgens. ... Dihydrotestosterone increased the number of BrdU cells, while flutamide inhibited these cells. ...
Enhanced inhibition of adipogenesis and induction of apoptosis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes with combinations of resveratrol and ... Plant Cell. 1999-10, 9 (10): 1767-1780. PMC 157020. PMID 12237347. doi:10.1105/tpc.9.10.1767.. ... Formation of transient covalent protein and DNA adducts by quercetin in cells with and without oxidative enzyme activity. Chem ... Paliwal S; Sundaram, J; Mitragotri, S. Induction of cancer-specific cytotoxicity towards human prostate and skin cells using ...
januar 2006). "Testosterone inhibits adipogenic differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells: nuclear translocation of androgen receptor ... "Androgen receptor in human skeletal muscle and cultured muscle satellite cells: up-regulation by androgen treatment". The ... complex with beta-catenin and T-cell factor 4 may bypass canonical Wnt signaling to down-regulate adipogenic transcription ...
OXA stimulates glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and that increased energy uptake is stored as lipids (triacylglycerol). OXA ... Leptin is a hormone produced by fat cells and acts as a long-term internal measure of energy state. Ghrelin is a short-term ... lipid accumulation and adiponectin secretion from 3T3-L1 adipocytes and isolated primary rat adipocytes". Diabetologia. 54 (7 ... Orexin-producing cells have recently been shown to be inhibited by leptin (through the leptin receptor pathway), but are ...
"Molecular analysis and chromosomal mapping of amplified genes isolated from a transformed mouse 3T3 cell line". Somatic Cell ... traversing start control point of mitotic cell cycle. • negative regulation of cell cycle arrest. • protein ubiquitination. • ... from the transformed mouse cell line 3T3-DM. Mdm2 overexpression, in cooperation with oncogenic Ras, promotes transformation of ... cell nucleus. • nucleoplasm. • nucleolus. • macromolecular complex. Biological process. • negative regulation of signal ...
... was first characterised in 1995 in differentiating 3T3-L1 adipocytes (Scherer PE et al.).[25] In 1996 it was ... negative regulation of cell migration. • positive regulation of fatty acid metabolic process. • brown fat cell differentiation ... negative regulation of heterotypic cell-cell adhesion. • response to ethanol. • negative regulation of inflammatory response. • ... "The inhibition of inflammatory molecule expression on 3T3-L1 adipocytes by berberine is not mediated by leptin signaling". ...
"Potential role of Gab1 and phospholipase C-gamma in osmotic shock-induced glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes". Hormone and ... cell projection. • cell-cell junction. • ruffle. • plasma membrane. • COP9 signalosome. • lamellipodium. • Schaffer collateral ... T cell receptor signaling pathway. • cell migration. • leukocyte migration. • calcium-mediated signaling. • epidermal growth ... "Cell. 138 (3): 514-24. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2009.05.028. PMC 4764080. PMID 19665973.. ...
Tellam JT, Macaulay SL, McIntosh S, Hewish DR, Ward CW, James DE (1997). "Characterization of Munc-18c and syntaxin-4 in 3T3-L1 ... "Interaction of Munc-18-2 with syntaxin 3 controls the association of apical SNAREs in epithelial cells". J. Cell Sci. 111 (17 ... "Human syntaxin 3 is localized apically in human intestinal cells". J. Cell Sci. 110 (18): 2207-14. PMID 9378770. Galli T, ... Cell. 9 (6): 1437-48. doi:10.1091/mbc.9.6.1437. PMC 25366. PMID 9614185. Riento K, Galli T, Jansson S, Ehnholm C, Lehtonen E, ...
... system and AMPK pathway in 3T3-L1 cells". Food Chem. Toxicol. 48 (2): 716-21. doi:10.1016/j.fct.2009.12.001. PMID 19963029. Lin ...
These cells are similar to human primary preadipocytes, and may or may not become a popular model instead of Mouse 3T3-L1 cells ... It has been suggested that SGBS type II may be caused by duplication of the GPC4 gene, which helps to regulate cell division ... The function of this gene is to produce a protein that acts as a cell surface receptor that binds to transcription factors. ... SGBS Cells are a unique tool to study the function of Human adipocyte biology. ...
"Role of SNAP23 in insulin-induced translocation of GLUT4 in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Mediation of complex formation between syntaxin4 ... Cell. 83 (1): 111-9. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(95)90239-2. PMID 7553862. S2CID 675343. Pérez-Brangulí F, Muhaisen A, Blasi J (Jun ... The Journal of Cell Biology. 143 (4): 957-71. doi:10.1083/jcb.143.4.957. PMC 2132958. PMID 9817754. Nishimura Y, Hayashi M, ... Journal of Cell Science. 112. 112 (6): 845-54. PMID 10036234. Margittai M, Otto H, Jahn R (Mar 1999). "A stable interaction ...
... suppresses lipid accumulation through repression of C/EBPα-activated GLUT4-mediated glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 cells. Fujimori K ...
... nih 3t3 cells MeSH A11.251.210.700.775 - Swiss 3t3 cells MeSH A11.251.210.700.775.800 - 3t3-l1 cells MeSH A11.251.210.955 - ... nih 3t3 cells MeSH A11.329.228.900.775 - Swiss 3t3 cells MeSH A11.329.228.900.775.800 - 3t3-l1 cells MeSH A11.329.228.950 - ... cho cells MeSH A11.251.210.505 - l cells (cell line) MeSH A11.251.210.520 - llc-pk1 cells MeSH A11.251.210.700 - 3t3 cells MeSH ... cos cells MeSH A11.329.228.505 - l cells MeSH A11.329.228.900 - 3t3 cells MeSH A11.329.228.900.080 - balb 3t3 cells MeSH ...
"A role for Sp1 in transcriptional regulation of phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase in liver and 3T3-L1 adipocytes". ... Cell Metabolism. 3 (5): 321-31. doi:10.1016/j.cmet.2006.03.007. PMID 16679290. Song J, da Costa KA, Fischer LM, Kohlmeier M, ... Cell. 75 (3): 451-62. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(93)90380-9. PMID 8106172. S2CID 29083916. Li Z, Agellon LB, Allen TM, Umeda M, ... Molecular and Cell Biology of Lipids. 1831 (3): 626-32. doi:10.1016/j.bbalip.2012.07.017. PMID 22877991. "Entrez Gene: PEMT". ...
Goalstone ML, Draznin B (1996). "Effect of insulin on farnesyltransferase activity in 3T3-L1 adipocytes". J. Biol. Chem. 271 ( ... 1994). "The processing pathway of prelamin A". J. Cell Sci. 107 (1): 61-7. PMID 8175923. Omer CA, Kral AM, Diehl RE, et al. ( ... 2001). "The helical domain of GBP-1 mediates the inhibition of endothelial cell proliferation by inflammatory cytokines". EMBO ... design of macrocyclic compounds with improved pharmacokinetics and excellent cell potency". J. Med. Chem. 45 (12): 2388-409. ...
"Characterization of Munc-18c and syntaxin-4 in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Putative role in insulin-dependent movement of GLUT-4". The ... In melanocytic cells STXBP1 gene expression may be regulated by MITF. The STXBP1 gene is expressed in the brain and spinal cord ... The protein participates in the secretory pathway between the Golgi apparatus and cell membrane. Mutations in the STXBP1 cause ... The Journal of Cell Biology. 129 (1): 105-20. doi:10.1083/jcb.129.1.105. PMC 2120371. PMID 7698978. Pevsner J, Hsu SC, Scheller ...
"Hyperosmotic stress inhibits insulin receptor substrate-1 function by distinct mechanisms in 3T3-L1 adipocytes". The Journal of ... LNCaP prostate cancer cells increase cell adhesion and diminish cell motility via IGF-1 independent mechanism, when IRS-1 is ... Overexpression of PTEN in MCF-7 epithelial breast cancer cells inhibits cell growth by inhibiting MAPK pathway. ERK ... Decreased anchorage- dependent/independent cell growth and initiation of cell death under low growth factor and estrogen ...
"Potential role of Gab1 and phospholipase C-gamma in osmotic shock-induced glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes". Horm. Metab. ... SH3 domain-binding site in SLP-76 required for T-cell receptor-mediated activation of PLC-gamma1 and NFAT". Mol. Cell. Biol. 21 ... linker for activation of T cells) required for recruitment and activation of signalling proteins in T cells". Biochem. J. 356 ( ... the ZAP-70 tyrosine kinase substrate that links T cell receptor to cellular activation". Cell. 92 (1): 83-92. doi:10.1016/S0092 ...
"Inhibitory Effect of Phenolic Acids on the Proliferation of 3T3-L1 Preadipocytes in Relation to Their Antioxidant Activity". ... Naringenin has also been shown to reduce hepatitis C virus production by infected hepatocytes (liver cells) in cell culture. ... This seems to be secondary to naringenin's ability to inhibit the secretion of very-low-density lipoprotein by the cells. The ... Mucsi, I.; Prágai, B. M. (1985-07-01). "Inhibition of virus multiplication and alteration of cyclic AMP level in cell cultures ...
... can affect adipogenesis in fat cells. The effects of HA on adipogenesis were investigated in vitro in 3T3-L1 cells and in vivo ... In vitro adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells was inhibited by treating them with exogenous hyaluronidase (HYAL) and with 4- ... 3T3-L1 cells were induced to differentiate into adipocytes for 5 days. (b) Transient transfection of 3T3-L1 cells with siRNA ... Reduction in HA levels and inhibition of adipogenesis in 3T3-L1. We treated 3T3-L1 cells with exogenous HYAL or 4-MU, which ...
Every Step of the Way, a Wide Range of Cell Health Products. Maintaining healthy cells is the key to experimental success and ... weve highlighted the technologies and products within cell biology that are critical to maintaining optimal cell health. No ... To give you confidence in the health of your cells every step of the way, ... Embryonic mouse fibroblast; Properties: contact inhibition; transformation; transfection; cell biology; ability to ...
Subsequently, culture of 4T1 cells in 3T3-L1 adipocyte-conditioned medium (Ad-CM) and co-culture of 3T3-L1 and 4T1 cells using ... Aspirin inhibited inflammatory MCP-1 adipokine production by 3T3-L1 adipocytes and the cell growth and migration of 4T1 cells. ... α or conditioned medium from RAW264.7 cells. In 4T1 cells, treatment with aspirin decreased cell viability and migration, ... The aim of this study is to investigate the anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects of aspirin on 3T3-L1 adipocytes, 4T1 ...
Therefore, we demonstrated that FA is a positive regulator of HO-1 in 3T3-L1, and may be an effective bioactive compound to ... We investigated whether HO-1 can be activated by FA and suppress adipogenic factors in 3T3-L1. Our results showed that FA ... In addition, HO-1 inhibitor stimulated lipid accumulation, while FA attenuated lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 treated with HO-1 ... Keywords: Ferulic acid; 3T3-L1; HO-1; adipogenesis; obesity Ferulic acid; 3T3-L1; HO-1; adipogenesis; obesity ...
... we elucidated that Buddleja officinalis Maximowicz extract significantly inhibited lipid accumulation during 3T3-L1 adipocyte ... When their adipose tissue morphology was investigated for histochemical staining, the distribution of cell size in the high-fat ... Buddleja officinalis Maximowicz Extract Inhibits Lipid Accumulation on Adipocyte Differentiation in 3T3-L1 Cells and High-Fat ... "Buddleja officinalis Maximowicz Extract Inhibits Lipid Accumulation on Adipocyte Differentiation in 3T3-L1 Cells and High-Fat ...
This study investigated the changes in the soluble proteome of 3T3-L1 cells upon expression of the WT and the mutant (R316Q) ... Exogenous Expressions of FTO Wild-Type and R316Q Mutant Proteins Caused an Increase in HNRPK Levels in 3T3-L1 Cells as ... Protein extracts prepared from 3T3-L1 cells expressing either the WT or the mutant FTO proteins were used in DIGE experiments. ... This increase may codictate the metabolic changes occurring in the cell and may attribute a significance to HNRNPK in FTO- ...
In this research, we investigated whether melatonin induces apoptosis in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were ... Melatonin Induces Apoptotic Cell Death in 3T3-L1 Preadipocytes].. May 12, 2020 ... A cell viability assay kit was used for determining cell viability. Cell death marker proteins were assessed by Western blot ... In conclusion, melatonin can induce apoptosis of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes via p-ERK decrease. ...
Capsaicin and nonivamide similarly modulate outcome measures of mitochondrial energy metabolism in HepG2 and 3T3-L1 cells ... Capsaicin and nonivamide similarly modulate outcome measures of mitochondrial energy metabolism in HepG2 and 3T3-L1 cells C. M ... accumulation was reduced to a similar extent after treatment with both test substances during the maturation of 3T3-L1 cells by ... tissue-specific effects of capsaicin and nonivamide on parameters of mitochondrial energy metabolism in 3T3-L1 and HepG2 cells ...
Modulation by Leptin, Insulin and Corticosterone of Oleoyl-estrone Synthesis in Cultured 3T3 L1 Cells M. Esteve; M. Esteve ... Insulin and Corticosterone of Oleoyl-estrone Synthesis in Cultured 3T3 L1 Cells. Biosci Rep 1 December 2001; 21 (6): 755-763. ... Preadipocytes (3T3 L1) were used between 7 and 14 days after differentiation; they were incubated with 44 nM 3H-esterone. The ... Cells were harvested, washed in buffer and homogenized, and protein was measured. Lipid extracts of cell homogenates were used ...
During adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 cells, RK (300 μM) significantly reduced lipid accumulation and downregulated the expression of ... During adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 cells, RK (300 μM) significantly reduced lipid accumulation and downregulated the expression of ... These results suggest that RK inhibited lipid accumulation by regulating autophagy in 3T3-L1 cells and Ovx-induced obese rats. ... Raspberry Ketone Reduced Lipid Accumulation in 3T3-L1 Cells and Ovariectomy-Induced Obesity in Wistar Rats by Regulating ...
Agonist activity at PPAR-gamma in mouse 3T3-L1 cells assessed as adipocyte differentiation at 1 to 1000 nM after 6 days by Oil ...
HOP receptor variant seems to be responsible for PACAP-mediated calcium influx in many cell types, the HOP sequence might also ... whereas the HIP-isoform was present in subconfluent 3T3-L1 fibroblasts only. At the protein level, the mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes ... Receptors for NPY and PACAP differ in expression and activity during adipogenesis in the murine 3T3-L1 fibroblast cell line Br ... and of neuropeptide Y at the mRNA and protein levels in the 3T3-L1 fibroblast line during differentiation into adipocytes. ...
... we have compared 3T3-L1 cells treated to differentiate in the presence of BRL49653 with untreated 3T3-L1 cells and identified ... L1 cells was JunD and a complex of Fra-1 and JunD was formed on a consensus AP-1 binding element in differentiated 3T3-L1 cells ... The Transcription Factor Fos-Related Antigen 1 Is Induced by Thiazolidinediones During Differentiation of 3T3-L1 Cells. Tatjana ... The Transcription Factor Fos-Related Antigen 1 Is Induced by Thiazolidinediones During Differentiation of 3T3-L1 Cells. Tatjana ...
... of cell proliferation when NMMG cells are cultured in the presence of conditioned media from Swiss 3T3 or 3T3-L1 cells. We ... Cell-cell communication between mouse mammary epithelial cells and 3T3-L1 preadipocytes: Effect on triglyceride accumulation ... acting on a cell line, 3T3-L1, long used as a model for adipogenesis. In this paper, we demonstrate that this inhibitory effect ... The results presented herein contribute to the understanding of cell-cell communication in a model of a normal mammary gland. ...
The induction of these two genes was observed only in growth-arrested 3T3-L1 cells, and not in proliferating cells. In NIH-3T3 ... Induction of Bach1 and ARA70 gene expression at an early stage of adipocyte differentiation of mouse 3T3-L1 cells. Makoto ... Induction of Bach1 and ARA70 gene expression at an early stage of adipocyte differentiation of mouse 3T3-L1 cells ... Induction of Bach1 and ARA70 gene expression at an early stage of adipocyte differentiation of mouse 3T3-L1 cells ...
In this study, we investigated the effect of shikonin on adipocyte differentiation and its mechanism of action in 3T3-L1 cells ... Oil Red O staining was performed to determine the lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells. To elucidate the anti-adipogenic ... To investigate the effects of shikonin on adipocyte differentiation, 3T3-L1 cells were induced to differentiate using 3- ... To further confirm that shikonin inhibits adipogenic differentiation through downregulation of ERK 1/2 activity, 3T3-L1 cells ...
TJF extract effectively inhibited lipid accumulation and the expression of PPARγ and C/EBPα in 3T3-L1 cells. TJF also increased ... we evaluated the inhibitory effect of and the mechanism underlying the effect of TJF extract on adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells. ... The effects of TJF extract on cell viability were analyzed using a 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide ... Effect of TJF extract on adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells. 3T3-L1 cells were exposed to a hormonal mixture for 8 d in ...
Bethell, D. R., & Pegg, A. E. (1981). Polyamines are needed for the differentiation of 3T3-L1 fibroblasts into adipose cells. ... Bethell, Delia R. ; Pegg, Anthony E. / Polyamines are needed for the differentiation of 3T3-L1 fibroblasts into adipose cells. ... When non-proliferating 3T3-L1 fibroblasts were stimulated to differentiate into adipose cells, there was a dramatic increase in ... Polyamines are needed for the differentiation of 3T3-L1 fibroblasts into adipose cells. / Bethell, Delia R.; Pegg, Anthony E. ...
While the magnitude of the insulin-stimulated translocation of GLUT4 is smaller than mouse 3T3-L1 adipocytes, HeLa cells offer ... in HeLa cells. Here we report the characterisation of this system compared to 3T3-L1 adipocytes. We show that insulin promotes ... Fusion of these vesicles results in increased numbers of GLUT4 molecules at the cell surface. In an attempt to overcome some of ... containing vesicles from intracellular stores to the cell surface. ...
Effect of Rare Earth Elements on Proliferation and Fatty Acids Accumulation of 3T3-L1 Cells - Rare Earth Elements;3T3-L1 Cells; ... on proliferation and fatty acids accumulation in 3T3-L1 cell cultures. In Experiment 1, 3T3-L1 preadipocytes in 96-well plates ... confluent 3T3-L1 preadipocytes but inhibits cell proliferation only in preconfluent cells. J. Nutr. 129:602- 606 ... Effect of Rare Earth Elements on Proliferation and Fatty Acids Accumulation of 3T3-L1 Cells. He, M.L.; Yang, W.Z.; Hidari, H.; ...
The cells were determined for proliferation, differentiation, fat accumulation as well as the protein expressions of molecular ... Methods and Results The 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were induced to differentiate in the presence or absence of UA for 6 days. ... Conclusions Ursolic acid inhibited 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation and adipogenesis through the LKB1/AMPK pathway. There is ... the present study was conducted to investigate the effect of UA on adipogenesis and mechanisms of action in 3T3-L1 ...
3T3-L1 adipocytes were solubilized in cell lysis buffer containing 20 mmol/l Tris, pH 7.5, 140 mmol/l NaCl, 1% Nonidet P-40, 1 ... Effect of chronic GH treatment on 2-DOG uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. 3T3-L1 adipocytes were serum-starved in the absence (•) or ... Effect of chronic GH treatment on insulin-stimulated translocation of Akt in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. 3T3-L1 adipocytes were serum- ... Effect of chronic GH treatment on tyrosine phosphorylation of cellular proteins in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. 3T3-L1 adipocytes were ...
... we established a 3T3-L1 cell line stably expressing IκBα-DN, a nondegradable mutant of NF-κB inhibitor IκB-α (37-39). 3T3-L1 ... Cell culture.. 3T3-L1 cells were purchased from American Type Culture Collection (Rockville, MD), maintained as fibroblasts, ... Effects of TNF-α on protein levels of IR, IRS-1, AKT, GLUT1, and GLUT4 in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. A: 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated ... Time-dependent effects of TNF-α on ACRP30 and GLUT4 gene expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. A: 3T3-L1 adipocytes were untreated ( ...
3T3-L1 cells are widely used cell line for studying adipogenesis because it can differentiate into an adipocyte-like phenotype ... 3T3-L1 cells are widely used cell line for studying adipogenesis because it can differentiate into an adipocyte-like phenotype ... 3T3-L1 cells are widely used cell line for studying adipogenesis because it can differentiate into an adipocyte-like phenotype ... 3T3-L1 cells are widely used cell line for studying adipogenesis because it can differentiate into an adipocyte-like phenotype ...
Cells and reagents. Mouse embryonic fibroblast 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes were obtained from the Cell Bank of the Chinese Academy of ... Lipid accumulation in the differentiated 3T3-L1 cells was evaluated using OilRedO dye and ,90% of the cells exhibited an ... A) JTW-medicated serum effects on 3T3-L1 adipocyte viability determined by MTT assay. (B) Glucose consumption by 3T3-L1 ... A) JTW-medicated serum effects on 3T3-L1 adipocyte viability determined by MTT assay. (B) Glucose consumption by 3T3-L1 ...
Gene Expression during 3T3-L1 Cell Differentiation. * Author(s) / Creator(s). *Fu, A. ... a study was undertaken to examine the changes that occur daily in global gene expression as 3T3-L1 cells differentiate from ... Global gene expression patterns spanning 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation. Canadian Journal of Animal Science, 84(3), 367- ... microarray to allow the time-course analysis of the gene expression profile in these differentiating cells. Self-organizing ...
The data indicated that that EECV treatment increased differentiation and lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells, which indicates ... Hence, we aimed to investigate the chemical constituents and adipogenic modulatory properties of C. vulgaris in 3T3-L1 pre- ... research findings confirmed that the EECV effectively modulates the lipid accumulation and differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells ... Also, EECV treatments increased the concentration of glycerol releases as compared with control cells. Troglitazone is a PPAR-γ ...
... on 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and human red blood cells exposed to oxidative stress Septembre-Malaterre A. S. Hatia L. Janci ... on 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and human red blood cells exposed to oxidative stress. EuroFoodChem XVII, May 2013, Istanbul, Turkey. ⟨ ...
The Impacts of Testosterone on Insulin Sensitivity in C57BL/6 Mice, 3T3-L1 Adipocytes and HepG2 Liver Cells and Their Related ... PartⅡThe impacts of testosterone on insulin sensitivity in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and its related molecular mechanismsObjectives:To ... glucose to differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Phosphorylation and protein expression of insulin receptor(InsR) and its ... PartⅢThe impacts of testosterone on insulin sensitivity in HepG2 liver cells and its related molecular mechanismsObjectives:Our ...
Effects of hexane fraction on the expression of lipid metabolism-related genes in 3T3-L1 cells. The cells were cultured in the ... Adipogenesis or the process of fat cell formation in 3T3-L1 cells is known to be sequentially regulated by a network of ... Oil red O staining of the 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The 3T3-L1 adipocytes were washed twice with phosphate buffered saline at pH 7.4 ... the root extract apparently lowered the lipid levels in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The amounts of accumulated lipid in the 3T3-L1 ...
  • We investigated the receptor expression and activity of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) and of neuropeptide Y at the mRNA and protein levels in the 3T3-L1 fibroblast line during differentiation into adipocytes. (nih.gov)
  • Both neuropeptides induced an increase of intracellular calcium in mature adipocytes, which was absent in the precursor cells. (nih.gov)
  • As the PAC(1)-HOP receptor variant seems to be responsible for PACAP-mediated calcium influx in many cell types, the HOP sequence might also mediate the increase in intracellular calcium in adipocytes. (nih.gov)
  • Using a subtraction method, we have isolated genes that are induced early in the differentiation of mouse 3T3-L1 preadipocyte cells into adipocytes. (biochemj.org)
  • The 3T3-L1 cell line is one of the best characterized and reliable models for studying the conversion of preadipocytes to adipocytes. (scirp.org)
  • After the growth arrest, cells are committed to becoming adipocytes. (scirp.org)
  • Insulin-stimulated glucose transport is a characteristic property of adipocytes and muscle cells and involves the regulated delivery of glucose transporter (GLUT4)-containing vesicles from intracellular stores to the cell surface. (peerj.com)
  • In an attempt to overcome some of the limitations associated with both primary and cultured adipocytes, we expressed an epitope- and GFP-tagged version of GLUT4 (HA-GLUT4-GFP) in HeLa cells. (peerj.com)
  • Here we report the characterisation of this system compared to 3T3-L1 adipocytes. (peerj.com)
  • While the magnitude of the insulin-stimulated translocation of GLUT4 is smaller than mouse 3T3-L1 adipocytes, HeLa cells offer a useful, experimentally tractable, human model system. (peerj.com)
  • He Y, Li Y, Zhao T, Wang Y, Sun C (2013) Ursolic Acid Inhibits Adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes through LKB1/AMPK Pathway. (plos.org)
  • These results indicate that cellular insulin resistance induced by chronic GH treatment in 3T3-L1 adipocytes is caused by uncoupling between activation of PI 3-kinase and its downstream signals, which is specific to the insulin-stimulated PI 3-kinase pathway. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • By using 3T3-L1 adipocytes and oligonucleotide microarrays, we identified 142 known genes reproducibly upregulated by at least threefold after 4 h and/or 24 h of TNF-α treatment, and 78 known genes downregulated by at least twofold after 24 h of TNF-α incubation. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Correspondingly, 24-h exposure of 3T3-L1 adipocytes to TNF-α resulted in reduced protein levels of GLUT4 and several insulin signaling proteins, including the insulin receptor, insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1), and protein kinase B (AKT). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • 3T3-L1 adipocytes expressing IκBα-DN, a nondegradable NF-κB inhibitor, exhibited normal morphology, global gene expression, and insulin responses. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Moreover, extensive cell death occurred in IκBα-DN-expressing adipocytes after 2 h of TNF-α treatment. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • TNF-α treatment of a number of cell lines, including primary human adipocytes, rat hepatoma Fao cells, human embryonic kidney 293 cells, and NIH-3T3 fibroblasts, has been shown to result in immediate inhibition of insulin-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of IR and IRS-1 ( 18 - 20 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In contrast, short-term TNF-α treatment (15 min to 2 h) of 3T3-L1 adipocytes promotes insulin-mediated tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS-1 ( 21 ), whereas long-term TNF-α exposure (6 h to 5 days) diminishes tyrosine phosphorylation of both IR and IRS-1 ( 22 , 23 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Fluorescence lifetime images were taken for 2 week during differentiation procedure of 3T3-L1 cells into adipocytes. (elsevier.com)
  • Our results suggest that fluorescence lifetime imaging can be a very powerful tool to monitor lipid droplet formation in adipocytes from 3T3-L1 cells. (elsevier.com)
  • Fully differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes - rendered insulin resistance by dexamethasone treatment - were cultured in medium containing JTW-medicated rat serum. (portlandpress.com)
  • JTW-medicated serum induced effects on 3T3-L1 adipocytes could be partially inhibited by treatment with the AMPK inhibitor compound C. In conclusion, JTW-medicated serum increased glucose consumption by IR adipocytes partially through the activation of the AMPK pathway, and JTW was more effective on glucose consumption than either RC or cinnamon alone. (portlandpress.com)
  • We examined the effects of alliin in lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) stimulated 3T3-L1 adipocytes by RT-PCR, Western blot, and microarrays analysis of 22,000 genes. (hindawi.com)
  • Incubation of cells for 24 h with 100 μ mol/L alliin prevented the increase in the expression of proinflammatory genes, IL-6, MCP-1, and Egr-1 in 3T3-L1 adipocytes exposed to 100 ng/mL LPS for 1 h. (hindawi.com)
  • Hence, we aimed to investigate the chemical constituents and adipogenic modulatory properties of C. vulgaris in 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Each extract was then applied to 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes upon induction with a mixture of insulin, 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine, and dexamethasone, for anti-adipogenesis assay. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It is characterized at the cellular level by an increase in the number and/or size of adipocytes, round lipid-filled cells, that differentiate from their fibroblast-like precursor cells present in adipose tissue. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The influence of treatment with HCV core protein (70R or 70Q) on adipokine production by both 3T3-L1 and human adipocytes were examined with real-time PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and triglyceride content was also analyzed. (nih.gov)
  • First, we treated mouse 3T3-L1 cells, which differentiated into adipocytes, with HCV core recombinant protein. (nih.gov)
  • Since it has been reported that adipocytes secrete adipokines such as IL-6, TNF-α, adiponectin, and leptin, we examined mRNA expressions of these adipokines in 3T3-L1 cells treated with 2 pmol/l of GST, 70R, and 70Q protein by qRT-PCR. (nih.gov)
  • Methods: To determine glucose uptake effect of MFSCE, we carried out glucose uptake assay in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. (kci.go.kr)
  • Results: When MFSCE was treated to adipocytes at the concentration of 0.5, 1, 2.5, and 5 μg/mL, 2-deoxyglucose-6-phosphate uptake was elevated approximately 1.8-fold compared to cells not treated with MFSCE. (kci.go.kr)
  • It indicated that MFSCE enhances glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. (kci.go.kr)
  • Cell line models for differentiation: Preadipocytes and adipocytes. (pharmatutorjournal.com)
  • We aimed to determine whether ES could effectively induce fat loss and improve muscle metabolic profiles through increases in lipolysis- and lipid metabolism-associated protein expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and C2C12 skeletal muscle cells, respectively, to uncover the direct effects of ES on adipocytes and skeletal muscle cells. (e-pan.org)
  • 0.01) of 3T3-L1 adipocytes. (e-pan.org)
  • These findings suggest that ES extracts decreased TG content, presumably by increasing lipase in adipocytes and metabolism-associated protein expression as well as mitochondrial biogenesis in muscle cells. (e-pan.org)
  • 24 or 48 h) on gene expression using real-time RT-PCR in 3 distinct models: N-1 hypothalamic neurons, 3T3-L1 adipocytes and male CD-1 mice. (karger.com)
  • VPA also induced the expression of CEBP αin 3T3-L1 adipocytes , but had no effect on other target genes, and TSA suppressed fiaf and socs-3 .Subsequently, CEBPα was overexpressed (24 h) or silenced using RNAi (24 and 48 h) in N-1 neurons. (karger.com)
  • 3T3-L1 is an embryonic mouse fibroblast cell line widely used in the study of adipose tissue as its cells can differentiate into adipocytes under proper conditions. (altogen.com)
  • Together, these data indicated that BP exerted anti-adipogenic activity by inhibiting the expression of PPARγ and C-EBPβ and the Akt signaling pathway in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. (duhnnae.com)
  • We determined the effect of butyrate and other short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) on rates of lipolysis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. (peerj.com)
  • 7] Zebisch K, Voigt V, Wabitsch M, Brandsch M. Protocol for effective differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells to adipocytes. (edu.pl)
  • After the cells were differentiated into mature adipocytes , they were induced with 1 μmol·L-1 DEX for 96 h to establish IR model. (bvsalud.org)
  • Objective To explore the effect of the action time of inducers on the differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells to adipocytes . (bvsalud.org)
  • Conclusions The modified procedure for the differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells to adipocytes can increase the differentiation rate and thus may be applied for establishing adipocyte models. (bvsalud.org)
  • When inducing the differentiated cells with cinnamon it is found to modulate expression in FOXO1 in the 3T3-L1 cells, thus leading to inhibitory effects on the adipocytes. (onu.edu)
  • These results indicate that the intake of certain fatty acids may affect serum adiponectin levels in mice and adiponectin gene expression in mouse WAT and 3T3-L1 adipocytes. (worc.ac.uk)
  • Here we show that nutritional fatty acids, whose circulating levels are often increased in obesity, activate TLR4 signaling in adipocytes and macrophages and that the capacity of fatty acids to induce inflammatory signaling in adipose cells or tissue and macrophages is blunted in the absence of TLR4. (nih.gov)
  • Simple, rapid & convenient method to differentiate 3T3-L1 preadipocytes to adipocytes (for 100 ml differentiation medium). (promocell.com)
  • Indinavir (up to 100 µmol/l) was added to the glucose transport solution after insulin stimulation of wild-type L6 muscle cells, L6 cells over-expressing either GLUT4myc or GLUT1myc, 3T3-L1 adipocytes, isolated mouse brown or white adipocytes, and isolated mouse muscle preparations. (springer.com)
  • The effect of indinavir on glucose uptake was variable in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, averaging 45% and 67% inhibition of basal and maximally insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, respectively. (springer.com)
  • The glucose transporter GLUT4 is generally thought to be the major contributor to insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in adipocytes and skeletal muscle, based on its restricted tissue distribution and its capacity to translocate from intracellular pools to the cell surface in response to insulin. (springer.com)
  • Interestingly, most of these cells, as well as adipocytes, are considered to be of mesodermal origin. (biologists.org)
  • At concentrations required for PPARγ activation and ANGPTL4 induction in colon adenocarcinoma cells, SCFA do not stimulate PPARγ in mouse 3T3-L1 and human SGBS adipocytes, suggesting that SCFA act as selective PPARγ modulators (SPPARM), which is supported by coactivator peptide recruitment assay and structural modeling. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Preadipocytes are fibroblastoid cells committed to becoming round lipid-laden adipocytes. (pnas.org)
  • Adipocytes compose the majority of cells in adipose tissue and play a critical role in normal physiology, but their dysfunction is also at the center of a diverse range of diseases, including obesity, diabetes, and lipodystrophies ( 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • Characterization of insulin-responsive GLUT4 storage vesicles isolated from 3T3-L1 adipocytes. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Prolonged insulin stimulation down-regulates GLUT4 through oxidative stress-mediated retromer inhibition by a protein kinase CK2-dependent mechanism in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. (semanticscholar.org)
  • This revealed that suppression of miRNA-205 alone correlated selectively with increased cell proliferation and lipid formation of adipocytes. (omicsonline.org)
  • Melatonin Induces Apoptotic Cell Death in 3T3-L1 Preadipocytes]. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • In this research, we investigated whether melatonin induces apoptosis in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were cultured until confluence and then treated with 0, 10, 100, and 1000 μM melatonin for 1, 3, and 5 days. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • In conclusion, melatonin can induce apoptosis of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes via p-ERK decrease. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • Confluent 3T3-L1 preadipocytes can be differentiated synchronously by a defined adipogenic cocktail. (scirp.org)
  • 1999. Conjugated linoleic acid inhibits differentiation of pre- and post- confluent 3T3-L1 preadipocytes but inhibits cell proliferation only in preconfluent cells. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • As adipogenesis plays a critical role in obesity, the present study was conducted to investigate the effect of UA on adipogenesis and mechanisms of action in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. (plos.org)
  • The 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were induced to differentiate in the presence or absence of UA for 6 days. (plos.org)
  • Antiobesity effects of ginsenoside Rg1 on 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and high fat diet-induced obese mice mediated by AMPK. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • The adenylyl cyclase system of preadipocytes resembled that of undifferentiated 3T3‐L1 cells. (elsevier.com)
  • 3T3-L1 preadipocytes in logarithmic growth phase were selected, and induced with 10 mg·L-1 insulin (Ins), 0.25 mmol·L-1 dexamethasone (DEX) and 0.5 mmol·L-1 3-isobutyl-methylxanthine( IBMX ) for 48 h and then with 10 mg·L-1 Ins for 48 h. (bvsalud.org)
  • Our results demonstrate that melatonin, acting via MT2 receptors, stimulates proliferation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and this action could be due to the enhancement in antioxidative enzyme activities and attenuation of lipid peroxidation by this indole. (edu.pl)
  • Prusty, D., Park, B.H., Davis, K.E. and Farmer, S.R. (2002) Activation of MEK/ERK signaling promotes adipogenesis by enhancing peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ(PPARγ) and C/EBPα gene expression during the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. (scirp.org)
  • Furthermore, primary preadipocytes and adipose-derived stem cells have shown promise in treating multiple conditions ( 3 - 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • Interestingly, many of the genes repressed early after the addition of adipogenic stimuli to confluent preadipocytes are regulators of cell structure ( 26 - 28 ). (pnas.org)
  • When their adipose tissue morphology was investigated for histochemical staining, the distribution of cell size in the high-fat diet groups was hypertrophied compared with those from Buddleja officinalis Maximowicz extract-treated mice. (mdpi.com)
  • Long-term exposure of cultured cells (1-5 days) ( 13 ) or animals ( 14 ) to TNF-α induces insulin resistance, whereas neutralization of TNF-α in fa/fa Zucker rats for 3 days increases insulin sensitivity, reduces hyperinsulinemia, and increases insulin receptor (IR) tyrosine kinase activity in adipose tissue ( 5 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • 3T3-L1 is a cell line derived from (mouse) 3T3 cells that is used in biological research on adipose tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Objectives: We investigated whether membrane free stem cell extract from adipose tissue (MFSCE) has anti-diabetic effect. (kci.go.kr)
  • The same reduction in levels of adiponectin gene expression was observed in epididymal adipose tissue of animals chronically fed soybean and coconut diets and in 3T3-L1 cells treated with palmitic, linoleic, EPA, and DHA acids. (worc.ac.uk)
  • Adipose tissue is a highly specialized compartment of cells actively involved in maintaining global metabolic homeostasis through lipid synthesis and storage, adipokine secretion, and insulin responsiveness ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • Insulin regulates glucose transport in muscle and adipose tissue by triggering the translocation of a facilitative glucose transporter, GLUT4, from an intracellular compartment to the cell surface. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In addition, the highly galloylated compound 2 was also found to induce potent inhibition of adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells. (scicombinator.com)
  • The levels of lipid accumulation were measured, along with the changes in the expression of genes and proteins associated with adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells. (duhnnae.com)
  • In addition, HO-1 inhibitor stimulated lipid accumulation, while FA attenuated lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 treated with HO-1 inhibitor. (mdpi.com)
  • In this study, we elucidated that Buddleja officinalis Maximowicz extract significantly inhibited lipid accumulation during 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation. (mdpi.com)
  • During adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 cells, RK (300 μM) significantly reduced lipid accumulation and downregulated the expression of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα), peroxisome proliferation-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4), and fatty acid synthase (FAS). (nih.gov)
  • These results suggest that RK inhibited lipid accumulation by regulating autophagy in 3T3-L1 cells and Ovx-induced obese rats. (nih.gov)
  • We have demonstrated a regulation of triglyceride accumulation by protein factors synthesized by normal mouse mammary gland epithelial cells (NMMG), acting on a cell line, 3T3-L1, long used as a model for adipogenesis. (scielo.org.ar)
  • Oil Red O staining was performed to determine the lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • TJF extract effectively inhibited lipid accumulation and the expression of PPARγ and C/EBPα in 3T3-L1 cells. (scirp.org)
  • The present study including two experiments was designed to determine the effect of media containing different rare earth elements (REE) on proliferation and fatty acids accumulation in 3T3-L1 cell cultures. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • The cells were determined for proliferation, differentiation, fat accumulation as well as the protein expressions of molecular targets that regulate or are involved in fatty acid synthesis and oxidation. (plos.org)
  • The data indicated that that EECV treatment increased differentiation and lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells, which indicates positive regulation of adipogenic and lipogenic activity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The present research findings confirmed that the EECV effectively modulates the lipid accumulation and differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells through AMPK-α mediated signalling pathway. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 3T3-L1 cells of the adipocyte morphology increase the synthesis and accumulation of triglycerides and acquire the signet ring appearance of adipose cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The objective of this study is to investigate the seeding cell number required to obtain optimum lipid accumulation during adipocyte differentiation using the 3T3-L1 cell line. (edu.pl)
  • In the study, seeding the number of 10.96×104 cells produced very significantly higher lipid accumulation, as compared with seeding the number of 5.48×104 cells. (edu.pl)
  • In vitro adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells was inhibited by treating them with exogenous hyaluronidase (HYAL) and with 4-methylumbelliferone, which inhibited the synthesis of HA in a concentration-dependent manner. (nature.com)
  • The phosphorylation of ERK1/2 during the early stages of adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells was inhibited by shikonin. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this study, we evaluated the inhibitory effect of and the mechanism underlying the effect of TJF extract on adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells. (scirp.org)
  • The active extract was further fractionated by a sequential solvent partitioning method, and the resulting fractions were examined for their abilities to inhibit adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Overall, this study explored the inhibitory effects of Phoenix dactylifera L. seed extract on adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells on the molecular level. (rbmb.net)
  • The effects of HA on adipogenesis were investigated in vitro in 3T3-L1 cells and in vivo in high-fat diet-feeding C57BL/6J mice. (nature.com)
  • Adipocyte differentiation has previously been studied in vitro , using specific cell lines to establish ideal conditions for differentiation. (nature.com)
  • The lipase activity in the pellet fraction was increased 3- to 4-fold after maximal lipolytic stimulation of intact cells, whereas phosphorylation of the enzyme in vitro yielded 1.4- to 1.6-fold stimulation in all subcellular fractions from untreated cells. (elsevier.com)
  • Limitations of our studies include the use of an in vitro immortalized 17984313 cell line model. (itkinhibitor.com)
  • To identify the cells responsible for the differentiation MK lineages in adipose tissues, this study examined whether the preadipocyte cell line 3T3-L1 and fibroblast cell line 3T3 differentiated into MK lineages in vitro. (elsevier.com)
  • This study clearly shows in vitro differentiation from 3T3-L1 cells, not from 3T3 cells, into MK lineages. (elsevier.com)
  • In the present work, we show that imprinted genes are coexpressed in a network that is regulated at the transition from proliferation to quiescence and differentiation during fibroblast cell cycle withdrawal, adipogenesis in vitro, and muscle regeneration in vivo. (nih.gov)
  • In-vitro cell models are essential for validating the efficacy of drug candidates. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In vitro models of adipogenesis, such as the extensively studied committed preadipocyte cell line 3T3-L1 cells, have elucidated two major phases of adipogenesis: commitment and terminal differentiation ( 6 , 7 ). (pnas.org)
  • [2] Subsequent studies revealed that the dye can be used to monitor lymphocyte proliferation , both in vitro and in vivo , due to the progressive halving of CFSE fluorescence within daughter cells following each cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • Resveratrol exerts anti-obesity effects in high-fat diet obese mice and displays differential dosage effects on cytotoxicity, differentiation and lipolysis in 3T3-L1 cells. (pharmatutorjournal.com)
  • Cell Models and their Application for Studying Adipogenic Differentiation in Relation to Obesity. (pharmatutorjournal.com)
  • This study examined the anti-obesity effect and mechanism of action of blueberry peel extracts BPE in 3T3-L1 cells and high-fat diet HFD-induced obese rats. (duhnnae.com)
  • 3] Ruiz-Ojeda FJ, Rupérez AI, Gomez-Llorente C, Gil A, Aguilera CM. Cell Models and Their Application for Studying Adipogenic Differentiation in Relation to Obesity: A Review. (edu.pl)
  • The anti-obesity effect of Lethariella cladonioides in 3T3-L1 cells and obese mice. (edu.pl)
  • Ursolic acid inhibited 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation and adipogenesis through the LKB1/AMPK pathway. (plos.org)
  • The effects of toll-like receptor (TLR)2/4 inhibition on IL-6 production by 3T3-L1 induced by HCV core protein were examined. (nih.gov)
  • Inhibition of p110β or p110δ alone was also not sufficient to block insulin signalling to PKB in these cells, but, when added in combination with p110α inhibitors, they are able to significantly attenuate insulin signalling. (biochemj.org)
  • In this cell, fractional inhibition of glucose uptake by indinavir correlated positively with the fold-stimulation of glucose uptake by insulin, and was higher with sub-maximal insulin concentrations. (springer.com)
  • We found a regulation of cell proliferation when NMMG cells are cultured in the presence of conditioned media from Swiss 3T3 or 3T3-L1 cells. (scielo.org.ar)
  • The proliferation rate of the cells was measured and compared by a non-isotope method-XTT method. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • The aim of the study was to examine the effects of melatonin on cell proliferation, antioxidative enzyme activities and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration in 3T3-L1 preadipocyte cell culture. (edu.pl)
  • We found that melatonin (10-3 and 10-6 M/L) stimulated cell proliferation in dose- and time-depending manner, and this effect was inhibited by a relatively selective MT2 receptor antagonist - luzindole (10-4 M/L). Melatonin, increased activities of manganese containing and copper-zinc containing superoxide dismutase (MnSOD and Cu/ZnSOD) isoenzymes, catalase, glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase after 24 h of incubation. (edu.pl)
  • Delta like-1 (Dlk1)/preadipocyte factor-1 (Pref-1)/fetal antigen-1 (FA1) is a novel surface marker for embryonic chondroprogenitor cells undergoing lineage progression from proliferation to prehypertrophic stages. (wiley.com)
  • By the use of fluorescent antibodies against different lymphocyte cell surface markers it is also possible to follow the proliferation behaviour of different lymphocyte subsets. (wikipedia.org)
  • 3T3-L1 cells are widely used cell line for studying adipogenesis because it can differentiate into an adipocyte-like phenotype under appropriate conditions. (elsevier.com)
  • 3T3-L1 cells have a fibroblast-like morphology, but, under appropriate conditions, the cells differentiate into an adipocyte-like phenotype. (wikipedia.org)
  • Confluent 3T3-L1 cells were treated with dexamethasone, 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine and insulin for 45 hours (induction period), followed by incubation with insulin for 9 additional days (maturation period). (biologists.org)
  • To identify novel genes that potentially mediate the effects of TZDs, we have isolated genes that are differentially expressed during thiazolidinedione-stimulated differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The induction of these two genes was observed only in growth-arrested 3T3-L1 cells, and not in proliferating cells. (biochemj.org)
  • Differences in the expression of adipogenesis-related genes between the treated and untreated cells were determined from their mRNA and protein levels. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Hexane-soluble fraction of the root extract also inhibited adipocyte differentiation and decreased the mRNA levels of various adipogenic genes in the differentiating cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Further, treating 3T3-L1 cells with Phoenix dactylifera L. seed extract reduced adipogenesis through the downregulation of PPAR-γ and CEBP-α, and adipocyte-specific genes involved in fatty acid metabolism including ap2, ACACA, and FAS. (rbmb.net)
  • A systems-level approach to parental genomic imprinting: the imprinted gene network includes extracellular matrix genes and regulates cell cycle ex. (nih.gov)
  • some of the genes and proteins which are modulated in 3D cultures in comparison with 2D cultures across various cell lines are listed below. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Shi, Z.-D., Abraham, G., and Tarbell, J. M. (2010) Shear stress modulation of smooth muscle cell marker genes in 2-D and 3-D depends on mechanotransduction by heparan sulfate proteoglycans and ERK1/2. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Here we report that the transcriptional repressor transcription factor 7-like 1 (TCF7L1) binds and directly regulates the expression of cell structure genes. (pnas.org)
  • The repressed cell structure genes are not enriched as genomic targets for PPARγ or C/EBPα ( 8 , 9 ), suggesting a role for an as-yet unknown transcriptional repressor in regulation of cell shape during adipocyte differentiation. (pnas.org)
  • This study evaluates the role of rhuGSN for its antioxidant and wound healing properties in murine fibroblasts (3T3-L1 cell line). (osdd.net)
  • Following incubation of primary human skeletal muscle cells (hSkMCs) and murine AML12 hepatocytes with WISP1 and insulin, insulin signalling was analysed by western blotting. (springer.com)
  • In the present study the control of lipolysis in these cells was investigated. (elsevier.com)
  • Protein extracts prepared from 3T3-L1 cells expressing either the WT or the mutant FTO proteins were used in DIGE experiments. (hindawi.com)
  • Furthermore, melatonin not only increased Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) but decreased B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) expression as dose increases from 0 to 1000 μM. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • Cells were harvested, washed in buffer and homogenized, and protein was measured. (portlandpress.com)
  • Using mRNA differential display, we have compared 3T3-L1 cells treated to differentiate in the presence of BRL49653 with untreated 3T3-L1 cells and identified Fos-related antigen 1 (Fra-1), a member of the Fos protein family, as a novel molecular target for BRL49653 action in 3T3-L1 cells. (aspetjournals.org)
  • A) The protein level of IL-6 was significantly increased, and the protein levels of (B) adiponectin and (C) leptin were significantly reduced in cells treated with 70Q for 48 h compared with 70R and GST protein. (nih.gov)
  • The level of IL-6 mRNA expression was significantly increased in 3T3-L1 cells treated with 70Q for 24 h compared with wild HCV core protein (Fig 1A). (nih.gov)
  • Similar to the changes in mRNA expression, the protein level of IL-6 was significantly increased in 70Q cells (Fig 2A), and the levels of adiponectin and leptin were significantly reduced in 70Q cells (Fig 2B and 2C). (nih.gov)
  • Moreover, 70Q HCV protein augmented the IL-6 production and reduced adiponectin production from 3T3-L1 cells in a dose-dependent manner (Fig 3A and 3B) and IL-6 production was higher and adiponectin production were lower in the cells treated with 70Q compared to 70R in each concentration. (nih.gov)
  • Protein expression of Lamin A/C in 3T3-L1 cells. (altogen.com)
  • At 72 hours post-transfection the cells were analyzed by Western Blot for protein expression levels (normalized by total protein, 10 µg of total protein loaded per each well). (altogen.com)
  • Basal glycerol release from cell monolayers was 437 nmol/mg protein per hr, and could be stimulated approximately 6-fold by exposure to 1 μM isoproterenol. (elsevier.com)
  • however, disruption and incubation of untreated cells in the presence of ATP and either cyclic AMP or the catalytic subunit from cAMP-dependent protein kinase did not. (elsevier.com)
  • RAW 264.7 cells upon stimulation with lipopolysaccharide secrete a protein mediator(s) that suppresses lipoprotein lipase activity in differentiated 3T3-L1 cells. (elsevier.com)
  • Although we find that p110α is necessary for insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of PKB (protein kinase B) in several cell lines, we find that this is not the case in HepG2 hepatoma cells. (biochemj.org)
  • In this study, the selectivity of indinavir towards GLUT4 was tested in skeletal muscle L6 cells overexpressing either myc-tagged GLUT4 protein or myc-tagged GLUT1 protein. (springer.com)
  • 1974. An established pre-adipose cell line and its differentiation in culture. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • An established preadipose cell line and its differentiation in culture. (wikipedia.org)
  • Methanolic extracts on adipocyte 3T3-L1cell line and found the phytochemical compounds of Terminalia arjunaleaves have more inhibitory scavenging and more antidiabetic activities. (pharmatutorjournal.com)
  • The 3T3-L1 cell line was established in 1974 from a Swiss albino mouse (Mus musculus) embryo. (altogen.com)
  • This cell line exhibits fibroblast morphology and is very similar to the 3T3 cell line, from which it is derived. (altogen.com)
  • This cell line has been known to double nearly every 14 hours. (altogen.com)
  • Progressing from a rapidly dividing to a confluent and contact inhibited state, 3T3-L1 cell line undergoes a pre-adipose to adipose-like conversion. (altogen.com)
  • Altogen Biosystems provides lipid-based transfection kits for the 3T3-L1 cell line. (altogen.com)
  • To observe effect of Mori Folium-containing serum on glucose consumption and cell activity of fat cell line 3T3-L1 insulin resistance (IR) model, in order to screen out the optimal concentration of drug-containing serum , detect effect of Mori Folium on the content of inflammatory factors, and explore the possible mechanism. (bvsalud.org)
  • A ) Saturated FFAs induce IL-6 mRNA in the RAW264.7 macrophage cell line. (nih.gov)
  • Materials and Methods: The mouse 3T3-L1 cell line was used as a model for adipogenesis. (scirp.org)
  • This increases the numbers of functional transporters at the cell surface thereby raising the V max for glucose entry into the cell ( Klip, McGraw & James, 2019 ). (peerj.com)
  • In insulin target cells, such as adipose and skeletal muscle cells, insulin-stimulated glucose transport is mostly achieved by the translocation of GLUT4 from the intracellular storage pool to the plasma membrane (PM), which is mediated by a PI 3-kinase-dependent pathway ( 14 , 15 , 16 , 17 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Glucose content in the supernatant of cells was detected by glucose oxidase after serum containing Mori Folium cultured for 12,24,36, 72 h. (bvsalud.org)
  • Cell-surface density of glucose transporters was not affected. (springer.com)
  • The contributions of GLUT1 and GLUT4 to glucose uptake in cells and tissues that express both isoforms have not been directly assessed. (springer.com)
  • Commonly used measurements of the total cellular content or of the subcellular location of a given glucose transporter (GLUT) isoform provide only an indirect and incomplete assessment of their functional importance to overall glucose influx into cells. (springer.com)
  • Thus, in cells expressing multiple isoforms of glucose transporters, a direct, 'functional' measurement of the glucose influx through a specific transporter isoform is required to decipher its relative contribution to the overall influx of glucose. (springer.com)
  • This finding could explain the observed ability of forskolin to inhibit more potently insulin-stimulated rather than basal glucose uptake in cells that express both GLUT1 and GLUT4 [ 11 ]. (springer.com)
  • In this system, the IC 50 of indinavir on glucose uptake was 50 to 100 µmol/l for cells expressing GLUT4, greater than 500 µmol/l for those expressing GLUT2, and even higher for GLUT1, GLUT3 or a GLUT8 mutant directed to the cell surface [ 13 ]. (springer.com)
  • Thus, it is important that the cell model used in testing drug candidates is physiologically relevant and closely mimics in-vivo conditions by expressing appropriate receptors, drug transporters and essential proteins for cell growth and survival. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Cells grown in 3D environment ( 3D scaffolds , 3D hydrogels , 3D multiwell plates and 3D bioreactors ) influences the spatial organization of receptors and interactions with neighboring cells, thereby influencing the gene expression and cellular behavior 2 . (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Differential regulation of mannose 6-phosphate receptors and their ligands during the myogenic development of C2 cells. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The mRNA profile of the PAC(1) receptor isoforms showed the HOP sequence, whereas the HIP-isoform was present in subconfluent 3T3-L1 fibroblasts only. (nih.gov)
  • The levels of mRNA are shown as ratios relative to GST treated cells. (nih.gov)
  • On the other hand, 70Q induced significant reduce in mRNA expressions of adiponectin and leptin compared to control (GST), though the differences between 70R and 70Q-treated cells did not reach statistical significance due to wide variation of data range (Fig 1B and 1C). (nih.gov)
  • siRNAs targeting Lamin A/C mRNA or non-silencing control siRNA were transfected into 3T3L1 cells following the recommended protocol. (altogen.com)
  • 2 VDR and COUP-TFII Expression during Adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 Cells 0h 4h 8h 18h 1D 2D 3D 4D 5D 6D 7D 8D VDR COUP-TFII 0 6 12 18 24h 2d 3 4 5 6 7 8d Induction MediumDifferentiation Medium mRNA Fu et al. (slideplayer.com)
  • To further confirm that shikonin inhibits adipogenic differentiation through downregulation of ERK 1/2 activity, 3T3-L1 cells were treated with shikonin in the presence of FGF-2, an activator, or PD98059, an inhibitor, of the ERK1/2 signaling pathway. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Phloretin inhibits interleukin-1β-induced COX-2 and ICAM-1 in human lung epithelial cells. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • The apple polyphenol phloretin inhibits colorectal cancer cell growth. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • The effects of TJF extract on cell viability were analyzed using a 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, and the anti-adipogenic effect was measured by oil red O staining. (scirp.org)
  • This study focuses on the morphology changes in 3T3-L1 adipocyte cells after being treated by cinnamon extract that mimics cell differentiation observed in some 3-dimensional models. (onu.edu)
  • Etesami B, Ghaseminezhad S, Nowrouzi A, Rashidipour M, Yazdanparast R. Investigation of 3T3-L1 Cell Differentiation to Adipocyte, Affected by Aqueous Seed Extract of Phoenix Dactylifera L. rbmb.net. (rbmb.net)
  • 3T3-L1 cells were cultured in adipocyte differentiation media with or without varying doses of Phoenix dactylifera L. extract (0.312-1 mg/ml). (rbmb.net)
  • Different doses of ES extracts (0.2, 0.5, and 1.0 mg/mL) were added to cells (0.2 ES, 0.5 ES, and 1.0 ES, respectively) for 72 h and compared to the vehicle control (control). (e-pan.org)
  • Fluorometric measurement of 5-lipoxygenase activity in various tissues/cell extracts, biological fluids, and purified proteins. (promocell.com)
  • Sea buckthorn leaf extracts protect neuronal PC-12 cells from oxidative stress. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Further, EECV treatment decreased AMPK-α expression as compared with control and metformin treated cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 17. A method for selecting non-toxic AMPK activators, which have adipogenesis enhancing activity in 3T3-L1 cells. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Taken together, these results demonstrated an inhibitory effect of BP on adipogenesis through the down-regulation of C-EBPβ, C-EBPα, and PPARγ and the reduction of the phospho-Akt adipogenic factor in 3T3-L1 cells. (duhnnae.com)
  • We conclude that (i) SCFA potently stimulate ANGPTL4 synthesis in human colon adenocarcinoma cells and (ii) SCFA transactivate and bind to PPARγ. (biomedsearch.com)
  • However, Zfp423 also has been identified as a regulator of neurologic development ( 18 ), suggesting that other factors also may be involved in specifying adipogenic competency and commitment of precursor cells upstream of PPARγ. (pnas.org)
  • Methods According to the 'Cocktail' method , 3T3-L1 cells were divided into three groups according to the action time of inducers,with the action time being 2,3 or 4 days,respectively. (bvsalud.org)
  • Materials and Methods Cell Culture and Treatment with type 1 IFNs Mouse skeletal muscle cells were cultured in 6-well plates, with growth medium consisting of DMEM supplemented with 20% fetal bovine serum. (itkinhibitor.com)
  • PromoCell supplies a variety of fluorometric or colorimetric cell-based and cell-free assay kits for metabolic studies which are based on enzymatic and non-enzymatic methods. (promocell.com)
  • [4] In addition, unlike other methods, CFSE-labeled viable cells can be recovered for further analysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gene Expression during 3T3-L1 Cell. (ualberta.ca)
  • In order to discover more about the genetic basis of this process, a study was undertaken to examine the changes that occur daily in global gene expression as 3T3-L1 cells differentiate from preadipocyte to adipocyte. (ualberta.ca)
  • Duplicate RNA samples were collected daily during the differentiation process and probed with the Affymetrix U74Av2 GeneChip® microarray to allow the time-course analysis of the gene expression profile in these differentiating cells. (ualberta.ca)
  • Global gene expression patterns spanning 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation. (ualberta.ca)
  • At 48 hours post-transfection the cells were analyzed by qRT-PCR for Lamin A/C gene expression levels. (altogen.com)
  • abstract = "When non-proliferating 3T3-L1 fibroblasts were stimulated to differentiate into adipose cells, there was a dramatic increase in the intracellular level of the polyamine, spermidine. (elsevier.com)
  • abstract = "3T3-L1 cells have been a useful model system for studying adipocyte differentiation and metabolism. (elsevier.com)
  • Mori Folium can significantly improve IR status of 3T3-L1 cells , and its mechanism may be related to inhibiting TNF-α and promoting the expressions of insulin signaling pathway proteins . (bvsalud.org)
  • Platelets are produced from megakaryocytes (MKs), although the pathway leading from stem cells to MK lineages are not yet fully understood. (elsevier.com)
  • These results establish an effective role of rhuGSN against oxidative stress induced by HO and in wound healing of 3T3-L1 fibroblast cells. (osdd.net)
  • 3T3-L1 could be useful for studying fibroblast cells, or mammalian embryonic tissue. (altogen.com)
  • A cell viability assay kit was used for determining cell viability. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • Cells pretreated with 0.375 and 0.75 g/mL rhuGSN for 24 h exhibited a significant increase in viability in a MTT assay. (osdd.net)
  • rhuGSN at 12.5 and 25 g/mL concentration showed an enhanced cell migration after 20 h of injury in a scratch wound healing assay. (osdd.net)
  • We have developed a high-throughput microdialysis-capillary electrophoresis (MD-CE) assay for monitoring branched chain amino acid (BCAA) uptake/release dynamics in 3T3-L1 cells. (umn.edu)
  • The MD-CE assay was used to assess the metabolism dynamics of 3T3-L1 cells over time, confirming the utility of the assay. (umn.edu)
  • A simple, sensitive and reliable colorimetric assay to detect 6-Phosphogluconate (6-PGA) levels in various tissues/cells. (promocell.com)
  • Cell morphology was observed using inverted microscope and adipose content were detected by Oil red 'O' staining and detection of triglyceride. (bvsalud.org)
  • The specific mechanism mediating the effects of BP revealed that insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt was strongly decreased, and its downstream substrate, phospho-GSK3β, was downregulated by BPE treatment in 3T3-L1 cells. (duhnnae.com)
  • To give you confidence in the health of your cells every step of the way, we've highlighted the technologies and products within cell biology that are critical to maintaining optimal cell health. (thermofisher.com)
  • The cells were then harvested for fatty acids analysis by gas chromatography. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • Short-chain fatty acids stimulate angiopoietin-like 4 synthesis in human colon adenocarcinoma cells by activating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Here, we show that transcription and secretion of ANGPTL4 in human T84 and HT29 colon adenocarcinoma cells is highly induced by physiological concentrations of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA). (biomedsearch.com)
  • Human skeletal muscle cells were cultured in 6well plates and treated with human IFN-b as previously described. (itkinhibitor.com)
  • This study investigated the changes in the soluble proteome of 3T3-L1 cells upon expression of the WT and the mutant (R316Q) FTO proteins. (hindawi.com)
  • We examined whether WISP1 expression and circulating levels are altered in type 2 diabetes and whether WISP1 affects insulin signalling in muscle cells and hepatocytes. (springer.com)
  • Expression of FOXO1 correlates with fat mobilization and breakdown in the cells. (onu.edu)
  • This study highlights promising morphological changes in fat cells as well as preliminary FOXO1 expression results. (onu.edu)
  • Stimulation of TLR4 activates proinflammatory pathways and induces cytokine expression in a variety of cell types. (nih.gov)
  • 293T cells were transiently transfected with TLR4/MD-2 expression vectors, with or without dominant negative MyD88 (MyD88-DN), and an NF-κB luciferase reporter and were then treated with a 200 μM oleate/palmitate mixture or 100 ng/ml LPS as a positive control. (nih.gov)
  • 3T3-L1 cells were treated with S1P and expression of early adipogenesis transcription markers was measured by real time PCR. (scirp.org)
  • Further, our results indicate that the degree of functional redundancy is linked to the relative levels of expression of each isoform in the target cells. (biochemj.org)
  • TCF7L1 is induced by cell contact in adipogenic cell lines, and ectopic expression of TCF7L1 alleviates the confluency requirement for adipocytic differentiation of precursor cells. (pnas.org)
  • To assess the possible functional roles of miRNAs in adipogenesis, we also analyzed their expression in 3T3-L1 cells during growth and differentiation. (omicsonline.org)
  • Antioxidant and Wound Healing Property of Gelsolin in 3T3-L1 Cells. (osdd.net)
  • This study investigated the effects of cyclic stretching on adipocyte differentiation of mouse preadipocyte 3T3-L1 cells. (biologists.org)
  • In NIH-3T3 cells, no induction was observed under either set of conditions. (biochemj.org)
  • Cells were cultured in megakaryocyte lineage induction medium. (elsevier.com)
  • Results clearly show that the lifetime of Nile red in lipid droplets are smaller than those in cell membrane. (elsevier.com)
  • However, doubling the seeding number into 21.92×104 cells did not increase the lipid droplets significantly. (edu.pl)
  • This study found that the optimum seeding number to obtain the maximum lipid droplets during 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation was 10.96×104 cells. (edu.pl)
  • Nile red dyes are attached to lipids in 3T3-L1 cells. (elsevier.com)
  • Subcellular fractionation of stimulated cells revealed a redistribution of triglyceride lipase activity: loss from the infranatant fraction and increase in the pellet fraction. (elsevier.com)