Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Abbreviations as Topic: Shortened forms of written words or phrases used for brevity.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Embryo, Mammalian: The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.New YorkHerpesvirus 2, Saimiriine: The type species of RHADINOVIRUS, in the subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, isolated from squirrel monkeys. It produces malignant lymphomas (LYMPHOMA, MALIGNANT) in inoculated marmosets or owl monkeys.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Authorship: The profession of writing. Also the identity of the writer as the creator of a literary production.Knowledge Bases: Collections of facts, assumptions, beliefs, and heuristics that are used in combination with databases to achieve desired results, such as a diagnosis, an interpretation, or a solution to a problem (From McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed).Editorial Policies: The guidelines and policy statements set forth by the editor(s) or editorial board of a publication.Scientific Misconduct: Intentional falsification of scientific data by presentation of fraudulent or incomplete or uncorroborated findings as scientific fact.Publishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.NIH 3T3 Cells: A continuous cell line of high contact-inhibition established from NIH Swiss mouse embryo cultures. The cells are useful for DNA transfection and transformation studies. (From ATCC [Internet]. Virginia: American Type Culture Collection; c2002 [cited 2002 Sept 26]. Available from Theory: Theoretical construct used in applied mathematics to analyze certain situations in which there is an interplay between parties that may have similar, opposed, or mixed interests. In a typical game, decision-making "players," who each have their own goals, try to gain advantage over the other parties by anticipating each other's decisions; the game is finally resolved as a consequence of the players' decisions.Cytoskeleton: The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Cell Line, Transformed: Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.Telomerase: An essential ribonucleoprotein reverse transcriptase that adds telomeric DNA to the ends of eukaryotic CHROMOSOMES.Tubulin: A microtubule subunit protein found in large quantities in mammalian brain. It has also been isolated from SPERM FLAGELLUM; CILIA; and other sources. Structurally, the protein is a dimer with a molecular weight of approximately 120,000 and a sedimentation coefficient of 5.8S. It binds to COLCHICINE; VINCRISTINE; and VINBLASTINE.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Actin Cytoskeleton: Fibers composed of MICROFILAMENT PROTEINS, which are predominately ACTIN. They are the smallest of the cytoskeletal filaments.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Caveolae: Endocytic/exocytic CELL MEMBRANE STRUCTURES rich in glycosphingolipids, cholesterol, and lipid-anchored membrane proteins that function in ENDOCYTOSIS (potocytosis), transcytosis, and SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Caveolae assume various shapes from open pits to closed vesicles. Caveolar coats are composed of CAVEOLINS.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Caveolin 1: A tyrosine phosphoprotein that plays an essential role in CAVEOLAE formation. It binds CHOLESTEROL and is involved in LIPIDS transport, membrane traffic, and SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.Caveolins: The main structural proteins of CAVEOLAE. Several distinct genes for caveolins have been identified.BooksCercaria: The free-swimming larval forms of parasites found in an intermediate host.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Microscopy: The use of instrumentation and techniques for visualizing material and details that cannot be seen by the unaided eye. It is usually done by enlarging images, transmitted by light or electron beams, with optical or magnetic lenses that magnify the entire image field. With scanning microscopy, images are generated by collecting output from the specimen in a point-by-point fashion, on a magnified scale, as it is scanned by a narrow beam of light or electrons, a laser, a conductive probe, or a topographical probe.Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Theaceae: A plant family of the order THEALES, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida, best known for CAMELLIA SINENSIS, which is the source of Oriental TEA.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Phalloidine: Very toxic polypeptide isolated mainly from AMANITA phalloides (Agaricaceae) or death cup; causes fatal liver, kidney and CNS damage in mushroom poisoning; used in the study of liver damage.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Peroxisomes: Microbodies which occur in animal and plant cells and in certain fungi and protozoa. They contain peroxidase, catalase, and allied enzymes. (From Singleton and Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2nd ed)Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Microbodies: Electron-dense cytoplasmic particles bounded by a single membrane, such as PEROXISOMES; GLYOXYSOMES; and glycosomes.Aspirin: The prototypical analgesic used in the treatment of mild to moderate pain. It has anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties and acts as an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase which results in the inhibition of the biosynthesis of prostaglandins. Aspirin also inhibits platelet aggregation and is used in the prevention of arterial and venous thrombosis. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p5)Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced mammary neoplasms in animals to provide a model for studying human BREAST NEOPLASMS.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Adipocytes: Cells in the body that store FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. WHITE ADIPOCYTES are the predominant type and found mostly in the abdominal cavity and subcutaneous tissue. BROWN ADIPOCYTES are thermogenic cells that can be found in newborns of some species and hibernating mammals.Hemangiosarcoma: A rare malignant neoplasm characterized by rapidly proliferating, extensively infiltrating, anaplastic cells derived from blood vessels and lining irregular blood-filled or lumpy spaces. (Stedman, 25th ed)Reticulin: A scleroprotein fibril consisting mostly of type III collagen. Reticulin fibrils are extremely thin, with a diameter of between 0.5 and 2 um. They are involved in maintaining the structural integrity in a variety of organs.Glass: Hard, amorphous, brittle, inorganic, usually transparent, polymerous silicate of basic oxides, usually potassium or sodium. It is used in the form of hard sheets, vessels, tubing, fibers, ceramics, beads, etc.Mice, Inbred BALB CCell Transformation, Neoplastic: Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Polycarboxylate Cement: Water-soluble low-molecular-weight polymers of acrylic or methacrylic acid that form solid, insoluble products when mixed with specially prepared ZnO powder. The resulting cement adheres to dental enamel and is also used as a luting agent.

Transformation mediated by RhoA requires activity of ROCK kinases. (1/10733)

BACKGROUND: The Ras-related GTPase RhoA controls signalling processes required for cytoskeletal reorganisation, transcriptional regulation, and transformation. The ability of RhoA mutants to transform cells correlates not with transcription but with their ability to bind ROCK-I, an effector kinase involved in cytoskeletal reorganisation. We used a recently developed specific ROCK inhibitor, Y-27632, and ROCK truncation mutants to investigate the role of ROCK kinases in transcriptional activation and transformation. RESULTS: In NIH3T3 cells, Y-27632 did not prevent the activation of serum response factor, transcription of c-fos or cell cycle re-entry following serum stimulation. Repeated treatment of NIH3T3 cells with Y-27632, however, substantially disrupted their actin fibre network but did not affect their growth rate. Y-27632 blocked focus formation by RhoA and its guanine-nucleotide exchange factors Dbl and mNET1. It did not affect the growth rate of cells transformed by Dbl and mNET1, but restored normal growth control at confluence and prevented their growth in soft agar. Y-27632 also significantly inhibited focus formation by Ras, but had no effect on the establishment or maintenance of transformation by Src. Furthermore, it significantly inhibited anchorage-independent growth of two out of four colorectal tumour cell lines. Consistent with these data, a truncated ROCK derivative exhibited weak ability to cooperate with activated Raf in focus formation assays. CONCLUSIONS: ROCK signalling is required for both the establishment and maintenance of transformation by constitutive activation of RhoA, and contributes to the Ras-transformed phenotype. These observations provide a potential explanation for the requirement for Rho in Ras-mediated transformation. Moreover, the inhibition of ROCK kinases may be of therapeutic use.  (+info)

Polarized distribution of Bcr-Abl in migrating myeloid cells and co-localization of Bcr-Abl and its target proteins. (2/10733)

Bcr-Abl plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of Philadelphia chromosome-positive leukemia. Although a large number of substrates and interacting proteins of Bcr-Abl have been identified, it remains unclear whether Bcr-Abl assembles multi-protein complexes and if it does where these complexes are within cells. We have investigated the localization of Bcr-Abl in 32D myeloid cells attached to the extracellular matrix. We have found that Bcr-Abl displays a polarized distribution, colocalizing with a subset of filamentous actin at trailing portions of migrating 32D cells, and localizes on the cortical F-actin and on vesicle-like structures in resting 32D cells. Deletion of the actin binding domain of Bcr-Abl (Bcr-AbI-AD) dramatically enhances the localization of Bcr-Abl on the vesicle-like structures. These distinct localization patterns of Bcr-Abl and Bcr-Abl-AD enabled us to examine the localization of Bcr-Abl substrate and interacting proteins in relation to Bcr-Abl. We found that a subset of biochemically defined target proteins of Bcr-Abl redistributed and co-localized with Bcr-Abl on F-actin and on vesicle-like structures. The co-localization of signaling proteins with Bcr-Abl at its sites of localization supports the idea that Bcr-Abl forms a multi-protein signaling complex, while the polarized distribution and vesicle-like localization of Bcr-Abl may play a role in leukemogenesis.  (+info)

Expression of the naturally occurring truncated trkB neurotrophin receptor induces outgrowth of filopodia and processes in neuroblastoma cells. (3/10733)

We have investigated the effects of the truncated trkB receptor isoform T1 (trkB.T1) by transient transfection into mouse N2a neuroblastoma cells. We observed that expression of trkB.T1 leads to a striking change in cell morphology characterized by outgrowth of filopodia and processes. A similar morphological response was also observed in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells and NIH3T3 fibroblasts transfected with trkB.T1. N2a cells lack endogenous expression of trkB isoforms, but express barely detectable amounts of its ligands, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin-4 (NT-4). The morphological change was ligand-independent, since addition of exogenous BDNF or NT-4 or blockade of endogenous trkB ligands did not influence this response. Filopodia and process outgrowth was significantly suppressed when full-length trkB.TK+ was cotransfected together with trkB.T1 and this inhibitory effect was blocked by tyrosine kinase inhibitor K252a. Transfection of trkB.T1 deletion mutants showed that the morphological response is dependent on the extracellular, but not the intracellular domain of the receptor. Our results suggest a novel ligand-independent role for truncated trkB in the regulation of cellular morphology.  (+info)

Plasma membrane recruitment of RalGDS is critical for Ras-dependent Ral activation. (4/10733)

In COS cells, Ral GDP dissociation stimulator (RalGDS)-induced Ral activation was stimulated by RasG12V or a Rap1/Ras chimera in which the N-terminal region of Rap1 was ligated to the C-terminal region of Ras but not by Rap1G12V or a Ras/Rap1 chimera in which the N-terminal region of Ras was ligated to the C-terminal region of Rap1, although RalGDS interacted with these small GTP-binding proteins. When RasG12V, Ral and the Rap1/Ras chimera were individually expressed in NIH3T3 cells, they localized to the plasma membrane. Rap1Q63E and the Ras/Rap1 chimera were detected in the perinuclear region. When RalGDS was expressed alone, it was abundant in the cytoplasm. When coexpressed with RasG12V or the Rap1/Ras chimera, RalGDS was detected at the plasma membrane, whereas when coexpressed with Rap1Q63E or the Ras/Rap1 chimera, RalGDS was observed in the perinuclear region. RalGDS which was targeted to the plasma membrane by the addition of Ras farnesylation site (RalGDS-CAAX) activated Ral in the absence of RasG12V. Although RalGDS did not stimulate the dissociation of GDP from Ral in the absence of the GTP-bound form of Ras in a reconstitution assay using the liposomes, RalGDS-CAAX could stimulate it without Ras. RasG12V activated Raf-1 when they were coexpressed in Sf9 cells, whereas RasG12V did not affect the RalGDS activity. These results indicate that Ras recruits RalGDS to the plasma membrane and that the translocated RalGDS induces the activation of Ral, but that Rap1 does not activate Ral due to distinct subcellular localization.  (+info)

Id helix-loop-helix proteins inhibit nucleoprotein complex formation by the TCF ETS-domain transcription factors. (5/10733)

The Id subfamily of helix-loop-helix (HLH) proteins plays a fundamental role in the regulation of cellular proliferation and differentiation. Id proteins are thought to inhibit differentiation mainly through interaction with other HLH proteins and by blocking their DNA-binding activity. Members of the ternary complex factor (TCF) subfamily of ETS-domain proteins have key functions in regulating immediate-early gene expression in response to mitogenic stimulation. TCFs form DNA-bound complexes with the serum response factor (SRF) and are direct targets of MAP kinase (MAPK) signal transduction cascades. In this study we demonstrate functional interactions between Id proteins and TCFs. Ids bind to the ETS DNA-binding domain and disrupt the formation of DNA-bound complexes between TCFs and SRF on the c-fos serum response element (SRE). Inhibition occurs by disrupting protein-DNA interactions with the TCF component of this complex. In vivo, the Id proteins cause down-regulation of the transcriptional activity mediated by the TCFs and thereby block MAPK signalling to SREs. Therefore, our results demonstrate a novel facet of Id function in the coordination of mitogenic signalling and cell cycle entry.  (+info)

A cytomegalovirus glycoprotein re-routes MHC class I complexes to lysosomes for degradation. (6/10733)

Mouse cytomegalovirus (MCMV) early gene expression interferes with the major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC class I) pathway of antigen presentation. Here we identify a 48 kDa type I transmembrane glycoprotein encoded by the MCMV early gene m06, which tightly binds to properly folded beta2-microglobulin (beta2m)-associated MHC class I molecules in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). This association is mediated by the lumenal/transmembrane part of the protein. gp48-MHC class I complexes are transported out of the ER, pass the Golgi, but instead of being expressed on the cell surface, they are redirected to the endocytic route and rapidly degraded in a Lamp-1(+) compartment. As a result, m06-expressing cells are impaired in presenting antigenic peptides to CD8(+) T cells. The cytoplasmic tail of gp48 contains two di-leucine motifs. Mutation of the membrane-proximal di-leucine motif of gp48 restored surface expression of MHC class I, while mutation of the distal one had no effect. The results establish a novel viral mechanism for downregulation of MHC class I molecules by directly binding surface-destined MHC complexes and exploiting the cellular di-leucine sorting machinery for lysosomal degradation.  (+info)

Activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1 by UV irradiation is inhibited by wortmannin without affecting c-iun expression. (7/10733)

Activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs)/stress-activated protein kinases is an early response of cells upon exposure to DNA-damaging agents. JNK-mediated phosphorylation of c-Jun is currently understood to stimulate the transactivating potency of AP-1 (e.g., c-Jun/c-Fos; c-Jun/ATF-2), thereby increasing the expression of AP-1 target genes. Here we show that stimulation of JNK1 activity is not a general early response of cells exposed to genotoxic agents. Treatment of NIH 3T3 cells with UV light (UV-C) as well as with methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) caused activation of JNK1 and an increase in c-Jun protein and AP-1 binding activity, whereas antineoplastic drugs such as mafosfamide, mitomycin C, N-hydroxyethyl-N-chloroethylnitrosourea, and treosulfan did not elicit this response. The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor wortmannin specifically blocked the UV-stimulated activation of JNK1 but did not affect UV-driven activation of extracellular regulated kinase 2 (ERK2). To investigate the significance of JNK1 for transactivation of c-jun, we analyzed the effect of UV irradiation on c-jun expression under conditions of wortmannin-mediated inhibition of UV-induced stimulation of JNK1. Neither the UV-induced increase in c-jun mRNA, c-Jun protein, and AP-1 binding nor the activation of the collagenase and c-jun promoters was affected by wortmannin. In contrast, the mitogen-activated protein kinase/ERK kinase inhibitor PD98056, which blocked ERK2 but not JNK1 activation by UV irradiation, impaired UV-driven c-Jun protein induction and AP-1 binding. Based on the data, we suggest that JNK1 stimulation is not essential for transactivation of c-jun after UV exposure, whereas activation of ERK2 is required for UV-induced signaling leading to elevated c-jun expression.  (+info)

Cell growth inhibition by farnesyltransferase inhibitors is mediated by gain of geranylgeranylated RhoB. (8/10733)

Recent results have shown that the ability of farnesyltransferase inhibitors (FTIs) to inhibit malignant cell transformation and Ras prenylation can be separated. We proposed previously that farnesylated Rho proteins are important targets for alternation by FTIs, based on studies of RhoB (the FTI-Rho hypothesis). Cells treated with FTIs exhibit a loss of farnesylated RhoB but a gain of geranylgeranylated RhoB (RhoB-GG), which is associated with loss of growth-promoting activity. In this study, we tested whether the gain of RhoB-GG elicited by FTI treatment was sufficient to mediate FTI-induced cell growth inhibition. In support of this hypothesis, when expressed in Ras-transformed cells RhoB-GG induced phenotypic reversion, cell growth inhibition, and activation of the cell cycle kinase inhibitor p21WAF1. RhoB-GG did not affect the phenotype or growth of normal cells. These effects were similar to FTI treatment insofar as they were all induced in transformed cells but not in normal cells. RhoB-GG did not promote anoikis of Ras-transformed cells, implying that this response to FTIs involves loss-of-function effects. Our findings corroborate the FTI-Rho hypothesis and demonstrate that gain-of-function effects on Rho are part of the drug mechanism. Gain of RhoB-GG may explain how FTIs inhibit the growth of human tumor cells that lack Ras mutations.  (+info)

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Congress is not expected to accomplish much before the general election season begins in earnest this summer, but there is broad bipartisan support for accelerating the discovery, development, and delivery of promising new therapies.
Funding levels reported in the Fiscal Year 2015 Intra-Agency Collaborations Reporting System (CRS) may not be consistent with funding levels reported under the Estimates of Funding for Various Research, Condition, and Disease Categories (RCDC) at the NIH Office of Budget Website at The current process, implemented in 2008 through the Research, Condition, and Disease Categorization (RCDC) system, uses sophisticated text data mining (categorizing and clustering using words and multiword phrases) in conjunction with NIH-wide definitions used to match projects to categories. RCDC use of data mining improves consistency and eliminates the wide variability in defining the research categories reported. The definitions are a list of terms and concepts selected by NIH scientific experts to define a research category. The research category levels represent the NIHs best estimates based on the category definitions ...
Funding levels reported in the Fiscal Year 2016 Intra-Agency Collaborations Reporting System (CRS) may not be consistent with funding levels reported under the Estimates of Funding for Various Research, Condition, and Disease Categories (RCDC) at the NIH Office of Budget Website at The current process, implemented in 2008 through the Research, Condition, and Disease Categorization (RCDC) system, uses sophisticated text data mining (categorizing and clustering using words and multiword phrases) in conjunction with NIH-wide definitions used to match projects to categories. RCDC use of data mining improves consistency and eliminates the wide variability in defining the research categories reported. The definitions are a list of terms and concepts selected by NIH scientific experts to define a research category. The research category levels represent the NIHs best estimates based on the category definitions ...
The American Society for Microbiology (ASM) is the oldest and largest single life science membership organization in the world. Membership has grown from 59 scientists in 1899 to more than 39,000 members today, with more than one third located outside the United States. The members represent 26 disciplines of microbiological specialization plus a division for microbiology educators.
To address whether MyD88 acts in a cell-autonomous fashion, we generated mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) from WT and MyD88-/- mice. MyD88-/- MEFs were resistant to cell transformation by DMBA/TPA in vitro, as assessed by the focus formation assay (Supplemental Figure 2). MyD88-/- MEFs were similarly resistant to transformation after transfection with RasV12/Myc (Figure 1B and Supplemental Figure 2). This resistance was not due to a general defect in transformation, since MyD88-/- MEFs are readily transformed with SV40 T antigen (7), suggesting a selective role for MyD88 in Ras signaling and transformation. We therefore asked whether MyD88 is involved in the canonical Ras/MAPK signaling pathway. While neither p38 nor Akt phosphorylation was affected by absence of MyD88 (Supplemental Figure 3), Erk MAPK phosphorylation was substantially reduced in MyD88-deficient MEFs treated with FGF (Figure 1C). We then retrovirally transduced MyD88-/- MEFs with MyD88. As shown in Supplemental Figure 4, the ...
The DHFR-G8 cell line was produced by M.C. Hung, et al., in 1986 from the NIH/3T3 mouse fibroblast cell line which was cotransfected with the cNEU-p clone and the pSV2-DHFR plasmid. This cell line was developed from one methotrexate resistant colony by selection in 0.6 uM methotrexate and 10% dialyzed calf serum. These cells contain 50-100 copies of the cNeu-P (normal rat cosmid DNA) and produce approximately 4 x 10(5) molecules of encoded p185 protein per cell.
Aromatične rastline rastejo po vsem svetu in danes imamo dostop do preko 300 različnih eteričnih olj. Pridobivamo jih iz cvetov, korenin, lubja, semen, lupin.. Spoznajte portrete aromatičnih rastlin in se jih naučite uporabljati!
Site-directed mutagenesis of a synthetic gene coding for low-M(r) phosphotyrosine protein phosphatase from bovine liver has been carried out. The two histidine residues in the enzyme have been mutated to glutamine; both single and double mutants were produced. The mutated and non-mutated sequences have been expressed in Escherichia coli as fusion proteins, in which the low-M(r) phosphotyrosine protein phosphatase was linked to the C-terminal end of the maltose-binding protein. The fusion enzymes were easily purified by single-step affinity chromatography. The mutants were studied for their kinetic properties. Both single mutants showed decreased kcat. values (30 and 7% residual activities for His66 and His72 respectively), and alterations of the Ki values relative to four-competitive inhibitors were observed. The kinetic mechanism of p-nitrophenyl phosphate hydrolysis in the presence of both single mutants was determined and compared with that of the non-mutated enzyme. The rate-determining step ...
Posts about ras-transformed cells were significantly more sensitive to PA than their parental cells ---------------------- profound changes in TUMOR CELL and molecular written by didymusjudasthomas
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An NIH Special Interest Group. From [email protected] Tue Feb 27 14:32:34 2001 Received: from ( []) by (8.10.0/8.10.0) with ESMTP id f1RJWXA10933; Tue, 27 Feb 2001 14:32:34 -0500 (EST) Received: from ( []) by (8.10.1/8.10.1) with ESMTP id f1RJWSN25564; Tue, 27 Feb 2001 14:32:28 -0500 (EST) Received: from ( []) by (8.10.1/8.10.1) with ESMTP id f1RJVi024140; Tue, 27 Feb 2001 14:31:44 -0500 (EST) Received: from LIST.NIH.GOV by LIST.NIH.GOV (LISTSERV-TCP/IP release 1.8d) with spool id 75589 for [email protected]; Tue, 27 Feb 2001 14:31:44 -0500 Received: from ( []) by (8.10.1/8.10.1) with ESMTP id f1RJVh024135 for ...
企业荣誉-谱天(天津)生物科技有限公司:谱天所骄傲的合作伙伴a. 蛋白质分析领域:谱天公司与世界顶级蛋白质分析中心有着紧密的合作和业务联系,如美国的NIH、耶鲁医学院、瑞士的苏黎世联邦工学院等著名研究机构,以及美国的Anaspec、德国的JPT等蛋白生物公司。谱天公司还是美国知名蛋白质谱分析专家Balgley博士名下的Bioproximity企业的兄弟公司。谱天的国际合作保证了核心技术与世界同步。临床疾病分析领域:为了获取高质量临床样本进行质谱分析,谱天公司与美国耶鲁大学医学院、杜克大学医学院、
cDNA, FLJ94334, Homo sapiens growth arrest-specific 2 (GAS2), mRNA (Growth arrest-specific 2, isoform CRA_a) contains a PF00307 domain.. cDNA, FLJ94334, Homo sapiens growth arrest-specific 2 (GAS2), mRNA (Growth arrest-specific 2, isoform CRA_a) contains a PF02187 domain.. cDNA, FLJ94334, Homo sapiens growth arrest-specific 2 (GAS2), mRNA (Growth arrest-specific 2, isoform CRA_a) is proteolytically cut by caspase-7 (C14.004) cleavage. SRVD-GKTS.. cDNA, FLJ94334, Homo sapiens growth arrest-specific 2 (GAS2), mRNA (Growth arrest-specific 2, isoform CRA_a) is proteolytically cut by caspase-3 (C14.003) cleavage. SRVD-GKTS.. ...
MDF staff regularly speaks with potential funders and passes the information along to the research community via this space to help increase the breadth and depth of funded research in myotonic dystrophy. In the case of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), annual funding strategies, including pay lines, can be found on the Institute webpages (search "NIAMS," "NINDS," "NHLBI," etc. and "Funding Strategy"). We learned about current funding policies and funding opportunity announcements in a recent meeting with the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI). Currently, there are very few federally funded projects directed at cardiovascular and respiratory involvement of DM. Because of NIHs focus on funding the best science, increased funding for burdensome heart and respiratory system involvement in DM would require an increase in the number and quality of research grant applications.. Is there an opportunity for DM funding from NHLBI? First, NHLBI is part of the interagency Muscular ...
Anyone could give me some idea where I can find a good protocol for the transformation assay using Rat2 cells. The one you look for transformed foci. Do I need to stain the cells? Alex ...
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The small GTPase RhoA controls many cytoskeletal processes, including actin polymerization, F‐actin bundling, myosin‐based contractility, formation of focal adhesions and formation of the contractile ring at cytokinesis (for a review see Van Aelst and DSouza‐Schorey, 1997). In addition, RhoA plays a less well understood role in the control of cell cycle progression, transformation and tumour cell invasiveness. In fibroblasts, activated RhoA is sufficient to induce DNA synthesis (Olson et al., 1995), and cooperates with activated Raf in focus formation assays (Khosravi‐Far et al., 1995; Qiu et al., 1995). Activated Rho GDP/GTP exchange factors (GEFs) are potent oncogenes in focus assays (for a review see Whitehead et al., 1997), and it has been proposed that their ability to induce anchorage‐independent growth arises because they mimic signalling by adhesion receptors (Schwartz et al., 1996). Rho activity is required for transformation by Ras and for induction of DNA synthesis in ...
Proliferation in cardiac fibroblasts (CFs) can be induced by a wide variety of growth factors that recruit multiple signal transduction pathways, including mitogen-activated protein kinase, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and protein kinase C. As a family of dimeric phophoserine-binding proteins, 14-3-3s are associated with a multitude of proteins that regulate signal transduction, apoptosis and checkpoint control pathways. However, it remains unknown whether the 14-3-3 proteins play an active role in cardiac proliferation and alter their expression patterns in response to growth factors in CFs. R18 peptide, an isoform-independent 14-3-3 inhibitor, was used to disrupt 14-3-3 function by adenovirus-mediated transfer of R18-EYFP (AdR18). Our results demonstrate that the 14-3-3 isoforms gamma, zeta and epsilon were highly expressed in CFs and the expression of 14-3-3 epsilon was elevated following serum stimulation. Inhibition of 14-3-3 proteins by AdR18 potentiated mitogen-induced DNA synthesis in ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Acid-soluble precursors and derivatives of phospholipids increase after stimulation of quiescent swiss 3T3 mouse fibroblasts with serum. AU - Warden, Craig H. AU - Friedkin, M.. AU - Geiger, P. J.. PY - 1980/5/30. Y1 - 1980/5/30. N2 - Automated phosphate analysis of acid-soluble pools of phosphate esters was employed to reveal possible biochemical changes during the transition of Swiss 3T3 mouse fibroblasts from quiescence to active replication of DNA. After 12 hours of stimulation with 10% fetal bovine serum the most notable were 3-fold increases in pools of phospholipid precursors and derivatives. These included glycerophosphocholine, glycerophosphoethanolamine, phosphocholine and phosphoethanolamine. Concurrent but less dramatic increases in pools of ATP, CTP and fructose 1,6-diphosphate were also obtained.. AB - Automated phosphate analysis of acid-soluble pools of phosphate esters was employed to reveal possible biochemical changes during the transition of Swiss 3T3 mouse ...
Cloning, purification, and properties of a phosphotyrosine protein phosphatase from Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2).: We describe the isolation and characterizati
HydroPeptide Serum - Anti-Wrinkle Cellular Transformation Serum,This skin transforming formula unites the most advanced skin correcting elements to revive skin at the cellular level, insuring ageless performance, protecting the skins DNA and replenishing
Tálamus je siva možganovina jajčaste somerne[1] oblike v zadajšnjem delu medmožganov (diencefalona) s številnimi jedri.[2] Pomemben je pri prevajanju senzoričnih in motoričnih signalov v možgansko skorjo[1][3] ter uravnavanju zavesti, spanja in budnosti. Talamus predstavlja del kompleksne strukture možganskih jeder hipotalamusa, epitalamusa, pretalamusa (ventralnega talamusa) in dorzalnega talamusa.[4] ...
Readers will note I do a fair amount of talkin about the ways the NIH-funded research game might be fixed. The NIH has recently posted a request for information on they way they do things. I cant overemphasize how important it is that you comment. Each and every one of you. Whether you are a…
Green, Howard; Kehinde, Olaniyi (28 February 1974). "Sublines of mouse 3T3 cells that accumulate lipid". Cell. 1 (3): 113-116. ... "Spontaneous heritable changes leading to increased adipose conversion in 3T3 cells". Cell. 7 (1): 105-13. doi:10.1016/0092-8674 ... 3T3-F4424 cells when implanted into an athymic (nude) mice gave rise to fat pads that were similar to endogenous white adipose ... Spiegelman, BM; Green, H (Sep 25, 1980). "Control of specific protein biosynthesis during the adipose conversion of 3T3 cells ...
3T3 cells Fibrocartilage callus Fibrous connective tissue "Fibroblast". Genetics Home Reference. U.S. National Library of ... The suffix "-blast" is used in cellular biology to denote a stem cell or a cell in an activated state of metabolism. ... Receptors on the surface of fibroblasts also allow regulation of hematopoietic cells and provide a pathway for immune cells to ... Mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) are often used as "feeder cells" in human embryonic stem cell research. However, many ...
Expression of the mutant enzyme in NIH 3T3 cells". The Journal of Clinical Investigation. 86 (1): 351-5. doi:10.1172/JCI114708 ... Collins FS, Rossant J, Wurst W (Jan 2007). "A mouse for all reasons". Cell. 128 (1): 9-13. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.12.018. PMID ... Cell. 154 (2): 452-64. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2013.06.022. PMC 3717207 . PMID 23870131. "Infection and Immunity Immunophenotyping ( ... Surazyński A, Pałka J (2002). "FAK-independent regulation of prolidase activity and collagen biosynthesis in MCF-7 cells". ...
Cohen BD, Green JM, Foy L, Fell HP (Mar 1996). "HER4-mediated biological and biochemical properties in NIH 3T3 cells. Evidence ... Cell. 127 (1): 185-97. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.07.037. PMID 17018285. "Entrez Gene: ERBB4 v-erb-a erythroblastic leukemia viral ... Culouscou JM, Plowman GD, Carlton GW, Green JM, Shoyab M (Sep 1993). "Characterization of a breast cancer cell differentiation ... Carpenter G (Mar 2003). "ErbB-4: mechanism of action and biology". Experimental Cell Research. 284 (1): 66-77. doi:10.1016/ ...
These cells developed into a commonly used cell line NIH 3T3. MEFs treated by mitomycin or gamma rays (such treatment makes MEF ... Finally digest the remains by enzymes to obtain single isolated cells and culture the cells in a tissue culture dishes. MEF ... Cell Biol. 17: 299-313. PMC 2106200 . PMID 13985244. Regad T, Sayers T, Rees R, eds. (2015). Principles of Stem Cell Biology ... which is remarkable in the development of stem cell biology. Fibroblast Embryonic stem cell Jian-ming Xu (2005). "Preparation, ...
Armelin HA (Sep 1973). "Pituitary extracts and steroid hormones in the control of 3T3 cell growth". Proceedings of the National ... For example: FGF15 and FGF19 (FGF15/19) are produced by intestinal cells but act on FGFR4-expressing liver cells to ... "Localisation of a fibroblast growth factor and its effect alone and with hydrocortisone on 3T3 cell growth". Nature. 249 (453 ... FGF23 is produced by bone but acts on FGFR1-expressing kidney cells to regulate the synthesis of vitamin D and phosphate ...
Fusinski, Keith A (2008). Adenovirus 36 E4orf1 gene induces differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells (PhD Dissertation). Wayne State ... and Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) in non small cell lung cancer". Experimental and Molecular Pathology. 89 (3): 222-6. doi: ... Cell. 141 (7): 1135-45. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2010.05.009. PMC 2908380 . PMID 20602997. Mulholland, Selamawit; Gavranich, John B; ... February 2014). "Coxsackievirus B1 is associated with induction of β-cell autoimmunity that portends type 1 diabetes". Diabetes ...
Moremen KW, Touster O (Jun 1985). "Biosynthesis and modification of Golgi mannosidase II in HeLa and 3T3 cells". The Journal of ... Velasco A, Hendricks L, Moremen KW, Tulsiani DR, Touster O, Farquhar MG (Jul 1993). "Cell type-dependent variations in the ... The Journal of Cell Biology. 115 (6): 1521-34. doi:10.1083/jcb.115.6.1521. PMC 2289207 . PMID 1757461. Oka T, Ungar D, Hughson ... Molecular Biology of the Cell. 15 (5): 2423-35. doi:10.1091/mbc.E03-09-0699. PMC 404034 . PMID 15004235. "Entrez Gene: MAN2A1 ...
Virtually all eukaryotic cells form such processes upon Rho activation. Fibroblasts such as Swiss 3T3 cells are often used to ... Before the cell can bud, Cdc42 is used to locate the region of the cell's membrane that will begin to bulge into the new cell. ... Before cells can undergo key processes such as budding, mitosis, or locomotion, it must have some manner of cell polarity. One ... Animal cells form many different shapes based on their function and location in the body. Rho proteins help cells regulate ...
explored 3T3-L1 adipocytes cocultured with RAW264.7 cells to examine this potential interaction. RAW264.7 coculture increases ... There was also a GPR84 downregulation in dentritic cell derived from FcRgamma chain KO mice. In microglial cells, the GPR84 ... EST clones corresponding to hgpr84 were from B cells (leukemia), neuroendocrine lung as well as in microglial cells and ... Ly6G + MDSCs in Lal-/- mice show strong immunosuppression on T cells, which contributes to impaired T cell proliferation and ...
"Vitisin a inhibits adipocyte differentiation through cell cycle arrest in 3T3-L1 cells". Biochemical and Biophysical Research ... and NF-κB activation in RAW 264.7 cells". International Immunopharmacology. 9 (3): 319-323. doi:10.1016/j.intimp.2008.12.005. ...
Kolch W, Heidecker G, Lloyd P, Rapp UR (January 1991). "Raf-1 protein kinase is required for growth of induced NIH/3T3 cells". ... Romero F, Martínez-A C, Camonis J, Rebollo A (June 1999). "Aiolos transcription factor controls cell death in T cells by ... cell migration, inhibition of apoptosis, and cell differentiation. Hereditary gain-of-function mutations of c-Raf are ... "X-linked and cellular IAPs modulate the stability of C-RAF kinase and cell motility". Nat. Cell Biol. 10 (12): 1447-55. doi: ...
"Hindered diffusion of inert tracer particles in the cytoplasm of mouse 3T3 cells". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 84 (14): 4910- ... Examples of these processes include signal transduction from the cell membrane to sites within the cell, such as the cell ... cell signaling, and the generation of action potentials in excitable cells such as endocrine, nerve and muscle cells. The ... without damaging the other cell membranes, only about one quarter of cell protein was released. These cells were also able to ...
"Regulated expression of three C/EBP isoforms during adipose conversion of 3T3-L1 cells". Genes Dev. 5 (9): 1538-52. doi:10.1101 ... "C/EBPalpha arrests cell proliferation through direct inhibition of Cdk2 and Cdk4". Mol. Cell. 8 (4): 817-28. doi:10.1016/S1097- ... CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha is a transcription factor involved in the differentiation of certain Blood cells. For ... and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. A recent study has found that higher levels of CEBPA methylation are directly ...
Cao Z, Umek RM, McKnight SL (Oct 1991). "Regulated expression of three C/EBP isoforms during adipose conversion of 3T3-L1 cells ... Cell. Biol. 18 (10): 5880-7. doi:10.1128/mcb.18.10.5880. PMC 109174 . PMID 9742105. Zhang F, Lin M, Abidi P, Thiel G, Liu J ( ... Cell. 4 (5): 735-43. doi:10.1016/s1097-2765(00)80384-6. PMID 10619021. Liu YW, Tseng HP, Chen LC, Chen BK, Chang WC (July 2003 ... Cell. Biol. 23 (12): 4066-82. doi:10.1128/mcb.23.12.4066-4082.2003. PMC 156132 . PMID 12773552. Mo X, Kowenz-Leutz E, Xu H, ...
"Regulated expression of three C/EBP isoforms during adipose conversion of 3T3-L1 cells". Genes & Development. 5 (9): 1538-52. ... CEBPD is involved in regulation of apoptosis and cell proliferation. It probably acts as tumor suppressor. One study in mice ... Cell Biology. 29 (12): 1525-39. doi:10.1016/S1357-2725(97)00083-6. PMID 9570146. Zhu Y, Saunders MA, Yeh H, Deng WG, Wu KK (Mar ... Cytogenetics and Cell Genetics. 70 (3-4): 188-91. doi:10.1159/000134030. PMID 7789168. Cleutjens CB, van Eekelen CC, van Dekken ...
"Modulation of alpha-actinin levels affects cell motility and confers tumorigenicity on 3T3 cells". J. Cell Sci. 107 (7): 1773- ... "Interaction of alpha-actinin with the cadherin/catenin cell-cell adhesion complex via alpha-catenin". J. Cell Biol. 130 (1): 67 ... Alpha actinin is an actin-binding protein with multiple roles in different cell types. In nonmuscle cells, the cytoskeletal ... and alpha-actinin-binding protein localized at cell-cell adherens junctions". J. Biol. Chem. 278 (6): 4103-11. doi:10.1074/jbc. ...
"Requirement for ras proto-oncogene function during serum-stimulated growth of NIH 3T3 cells". Nature. 313 (5999): 241-3. ... Cyclin D1 is expressed in all adult human tissues with the exception of cells derived from bone marrow stem cell lines (both ... Amplification of the CCND1 gene is present in: non-small cell lung cancers (30-46%) head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (30- ... Chromosomal translocation around the cyclin D1 gene locus is often seen in B mantle cell lymphoma. In mantle cell lymphoma, ...
"Entrez Gene: MDM4 Mdm4, transformed 3T3 cell double minute 4, p53 binding protein (mouse)". Strachan GD, Jordan-Sciutto KL, ... regulates p53-induced growth arrest and neuronal cell death during early embryonic mouse development". Mol. Cell. Biol. 22 (15 ... Cell. Biol. 22 (21): 7562-71. doi:10.1128/MCB.22.21.7562-7571.2002. PMC 135668 . PMID 12370303. Badciong JC, Haas AL (2003). " ... Sabbatini P, McCormick F (2002). "MDMX inhibits the p300/CBP-mediated acetylation of p53". DNA Cell Biol. 21 (7): 519-25. doi: ...
"Bone morphogenetic protein-2 causes commitment and differentiation in C3H10T1/2 and 3T3 cells". Growth Factors. 9 (1): 57-71. ... "Regeneration of Thyroid Function by Transplantation of Differentiated Pluripotent Stem Cells". Cell Stem Cell. 17 (5): 527-42. ... If these cells also receive signals from FGF, they will differentiate into the spinal cord; in the absence of FGF the cells ... Also in conjunction with FGF2 it can produce progenitor thyroid cells from pluripotent stem cells in mice and hmans. BMP4 has ...
Cao Z, Umek RM, McKnight SL (Sep 1991). "Regulated expression of three C/EBP isoforms during adipose conversion of 3T3-L1 cells ... C/EBPβ plays a role in neuronal differentiation, in learning, in memory processes, in glial and neuronal cell functions, and in ... In contrast, ectopic expression of C/EBPβ and δ in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes promotes adipogenesis, even in the absence of ... These proteins are found in hepatocytes, adipocytes, hematopoietic cells, spleen, kidney, brain, and many other organs. C/EBP ...
... coated it with 3T3 mouse cells to form connective tissue and topped it up with human bone cells in order to create a stronger ... The 3T3 mouse cells all come from a mouse who lived in the 1970s. The research and development of "Victimless Leather" has been ... To idealize the "victimless" of the jacket, immortalized cell lines or cells that divide and multiply forever once they are ... Victimless Leather - a prototype of a stitch-less jacket, grown from cell cultures into a layer of tissue supported by a coat ...
Ram, P. T.; Horvath, C. M.; Iyengar, R (2000). "Stat3-mediated transformation of NIH-3T3 cells by the constitutively active ... His laboratory focuses on how cell signals are routed and processed through cellular signaling networks within cells to ... "Stat3-mediated transformation of NIH-3T3 cells by the constitutively active Q205L Galphao protein". Science. 287 (5450): 142-4 ... Cell. 133 (4): 666-80. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2008.04.025. PMC 2728678 . PMID 18485874. Bhalla, U. S.; Iyengar, R (1999). "Emergent ...
December 1997). "Insulin has a limited effect on the cell cycle progression in 3T3 L1 fibroblasts". Molecules and Cells. 7 (6 ... "High-resolution tracking of cell division suggests similar cell cycle kinetics of hematopoietic stem cells stimulated in vitro ... Carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester (CFSE) is a fluorescent cell staining dye. CFSE is cell permeable and covalently couples ... October 2004). "'Proliferative' and 'synthetic' airway smooth muscle cells are overlapping populations". Immunology and Cell ...
"Human spectrin Src homology 3 domain binding protein 1 regulates macropinocytosis in NIH 3T3 cells". J. Cell Sci. 113 (21): ... Cell. Neurosci. 16 (3): 244-57. doi:10.1006/mcne.2000.0865. PMID 10995551. Fan PD, Goff SP (2000). "Abl Interactor 1 Binds to ... Cell. Biol. 20 (20): 7591-601. doi:10.1128/MCB.20.20.7591-7601.2000. PMC 86315 . PMID 11003655. Xu J, Ziemnicka D, Merz GS, ... Cell. 15 (1): 91-8. doi:10.1091/mbc.E03-06-0427. PMC 307530 . PMID 14565974. Lanzetti L, Rybin V, Malabarba MG, Christoforidis ...
"Testosterone inhibits adipogenic differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells: nuclear translocation of androgen receptor complex with beta- ... The mesoderm-derived epithelial cells of the sex cords in developing testes become the Sertoli cells, which will function to ... These are Leydig cells. Soon after they differentiate, Leydig cells begin to produce androgens. ... Dihydrotestosterone increased the number of BrdU cells, while flutamide inhibited these cells. ...
The 3T3 cell line has become the standard fibroblast cell line. Todaro and Green originally obtained their 3T3 cells from Swiss ... Cellosaurus entry for 3T3 Nikon MicroscopyU Digital Video Gallery: 3T3 Cell Motility - a set of films of 3T3 cells in culture. ... These cells are also contact inhibited. The cells are sensitive to sarcoma virus and leukemia virus focus formation. 3T3 cells ... 3T3 cells. Specifically, "3T3-L1" is one of the current lines. Swiss 3T3 can be inhibited by temazepam and other ...
Tumorigenic 3T3 cells maintain an alkaline intracellular pH under physiological conditions.. R J Gillies, R Martinez-Zaguilan, ... Tumorigenic 3T3 cells maintain an alkaline intracellular pH under physiological conditions.. R J Gillies, R Martinez-Zaguilan, ... Tumorigenic 3T3 cells maintain an alkaline intracellular pH under physiological conditions.. R J Gillies, R Martinez-Zaguilan, ... Tumorigenic 3T3 cells maintain an alkaline intracellular pH under physiological conditions. Message Subject (Your Name) has ...
3T3 cells (RSV-transformed) Application: Western Blotting Control,biological,biology supply,biology supplies,biology product ... 3T3 cells (RSV-transformed) from Exalpha Biologicals, Inc., ... 3T3 cells (RSV-transformed). Source: Cell Lysate. Form: Ready ... pLivSelect PCR Cloning Kit L (Without competent cells) from Bio S&T. 2. CopyRight pSMART VC BamHI Cloning Kit (without cells) ... CopyRight pEZ BAC Blunt Cloning Kit (without cells) from Lucigen. 10. CopyRight pEZ BAC BamHI Cloning Kit (without cells) from ...
In order to keep the antigens in their native forms, cells were fixed in acetone-methanol. The cells are arrayed on a 12-well ( ... 3T3 cells were cultured in DMEM with 4 mM L-glutamine and harvested at the log phase of growth. ... 3T3 cell line slides ( mouse: embryo ) from GeneTex,Mouse NIH / ... Mouse NIH / 3T3 cells were cultured in DMEM with 4 mM L- ... A - 20 cell line slides ( mouse: B lymphocyte; reticulum cell sarcoma ) from GeneTex. 8. 293 cell line slides ( human: kidney; ...
The culture was counterstained for DNA in the cell nucleus with DAPI. Images were recorded in grayscale with a 12-bit digital ... The culture of embryonic Swiss mouse fibroblast cells presented in the digital image above was labeled with MitoTracker Red ... Embryonic Swiss Mouse Fibroblast Cells (3T3 Line). The culture of embryonic Swiss mouse fibroblast cells presented in the ... The culture was counterstained for DNA in the cell nucleus with DAPI. Images were recorded in grayscale with a 12-bit digital ...
Expression of an exogenous eukaryotic DNA methyltransferase gene induces transformation of NIH 3T3 cells. J Wu, J P Issa, J ... Expression of an exogenous eukaryotic DNA methyltransferase gene induces transformation of NIH 3T3 cells ... Expression of an exogenous eukaryotic DNA methyltransferase gene induces transformation of NIH 3T3 cells ... Expression of an exogenous eukaryotic DNA methyltransferase gene induces transformation of NIH 3T3 cells ...
3t3 cells include Monitoring Cell-autonomous Circadian Clock Rhythms of Gene Expression Using Luciferase Bioluminescence ... Generation of Human CD40-activated B cells, A Macrophage Reporter Cell Assay to Examine Toll-Like Receptor-Mediated NF-kB/AP- ... Site-specific Transfection of Adherent Cells with siRNA Using Microelectrode Arrays (MEA), A Quantitative Evaluation of Cell ... Cell Analyzer as a Tool to Delineate Molecular Pathways Involved in Neurotoxicity and Neuroprotection in a Neuronal Cell Line ...
NIH 3T3 whole cell lysate (TPA stimulated) Lysates datasheet (ab14878). Abcam offers quality products including antibodies, ... NIH 3T3 cells are established from a NIH Swiss mouse embryo. These cells are highly contact inhibited and are sensitive to ... Cell line: NIH/3T3 (Mouse embryonic fibroblast).. Cells were cultured in medium supplemented with 50 ng/ml TPA (phorbol, 12- ... NIH 3T3 whole cell lysate (TPA stimulated). See all NIH 3T3 lysates. ...
EWS/FLI1-induced manic fringe renders NIH 3T3 cells tumorigenic [1].. *NIH 3T3 cells transfected with the cDNA of this protein ... Biological context of NIH 3T3 Cells. *Transformants of NIH 3T3 cells induced by transfection with MMTV LTR-p21 hybrid DNA have ... Disease relevance of NIH 3T3 Cells. *Overexpression of MFNG in NIH 3T3 cells renders them tumorigenic in mice with severe ... Stimulation of alpha 1 (I) procollagen gene expression in NIH-3T3 cells by the human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) Tax ...
Heparan sulfates of mouse cells. Analysis of parent and transformed 3T3 cell lines. Underhill, C.B., Keller, J.M. J. Cell. ... Disease relevance of BALB 3T3 Cells. *Loss of Fv-1 restriction in Balb/3T3 cells following infection with a single N tropic ... Biological context of BALB 3T3 Cells. *Infection of BALB/c 3T3 cells with the Smith strain of MCMV resulted in strong down- ... In addition to NIH 3T3 cells, the c-mos negative regulatory sequence was active in BALB/3T3 cells, PC12 rat pheochromocytoma ...
... nih 3t3 cells include Proliferation and Differentiation of Murine Myeloid Precursor 32D/G-CSF-R Cells, Expression of ... Electroporation of Adherent Cells on Indium-Tin Oxide, The Submerged Printing of Cells onto a Modified Surface Using a ... Gradient Strain Chip for Stimulating Cellular Behaviors in Cell-laden Hydrogel, Real-Time Impedance-based Cell Analyzer as a ... A Cell-based Assay to Determine the Oncogenic Potential of a Gene, A Functional Assay for Gap Junctional Examination; ...
3t3 cells are an immortal cell line widely used in biological research. Magnification: x1000 when printed 10cm wide. - Stock ... Confocal light micrograph of a 3t3 (mouse fibroblast) cell in culture. The nucleus is blue. Protein fibres making up the cells ... The cytoskeleton is a network of structural proteins, such as actin and tubulin, that supports the cells organelles and other ... Keywords: 3t3, biological, biology, cancer, cell, cells, coloured, confocal light micrograph, culture, cultured, cytoskeletal, ...
... in a spontaneously transformed derivative of mouse 3T3 cells. Toward that goal, we have... ... Somatic Cell cDNA Library cDNA Clone Mapping Study Cell Hybrid These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. ... Molecular analysis and chromosomal mapping of amplified genes isolated from a transformed mouse 3T3 cell line. ... these cells and have isolated cDNA clones representing sequences that are amplified and overexpressed in these 3T3-DM cells. ...
When NIH 3T3 cells were depleted of their glucosylceramide based glycosphingolipid mass, the caveolar structure remained intact ... Caveolar structure and protein sorting are maintained in NIH 3T3 cells independent of glycosphingolipid depletion.. Shu L1, Lee ... When the GPI-linked protein B61 was inducibly expressed in these cells, sorting to caveolar membranes occurred normally, even ... Glycosphingolipids have been proposed to be critical components of clustered lipids within cell membranes that serve as rafts ...
Homocysteine and alpha-lipoic acid regulate p44/42 MAP kinase phosphorylation in NIH/3T3 cells.. Shi SS1, Day RM, Halpner AD, ... phosphorylation were examined in NIH/3T3 fibroblasts. Cells grown in serum-containing media had constitutive levels of MAPK ... Treatment of cells with 20 microM Hcy for 0-60 min resulted in a transient enhancement of MAPK phosphorylation. In contrast, 20 ... The effect of alphaLA appears to be serum-dependent because Hcy or alphaLA treatment of serum-deprived cells activated MAPK ...
Proto-oncogene activation and genomic instability of cadmium-induced cell transformation in BALB/c-3T3 cells.. ... and point mutation of cancer-related genes associated with Cd-induced cell transformation in BALB/c-3T3 cells were studied. Six ... Among 10 Cd-induced transformed cell lines, significant gene amplification was found for c-myc and c-jun in 50% and 80% of the ... These results suggest that cell transformation induced by Cd may be attributed, at least in part, to gene amplification of c- ...
... can affect adipogenesis in fat cells. The effects of HA on adipogenesis were investigated in vitro in 3T3-L1 cells and in vivo ... In vitro adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells was inhibited by treating them with exogenous hyaluronidase (HYAL) and with 4- ... 3T3-L1 cells were induced to differentiate into adipocytes for 5 days. (b) Transient transfection of 3T3-L1 cells with siRNA ... Reduction in HA levels and inhibition of adipogenesis in 3T3-L1. We treated 3T3-L1 cells with exogenous HYAL or 4-MU, which ...
Every Step of the Way, a Wide Range of Cell Health Products. Maintaining healthy cells is the key to experimental success and ... weve highlighted the technologies and products within cell biology that are critical to maintaining optimal cell health. No ... To give you confidence in the health of your cells every step of the way, ... Embryonic mouse fibroblast; Properties: contact inhibition; transformation; transfection; cell biology; ability to ...
Every Step of the Way, a Wide Range of Cell Health Products. Maintaining healthy cells is the key to experimental success and ... weve highlighted the technologies and products within cell biology that are critical to maintaining optimal cell health. No ... To give you confidence in the health of your cells every step of the way, ... matter how you are using your cells, you can count on these products to help keep them healthy. ...
The 3T3 cell presented in this section was part of an adherent culture stained for F-actin with Alexa Fluor 568 conjugated to ... Embryonic Swiss Mouse Fibroblast Cells (3T3). Soon after the 3T3 line was introduced, the scientists that developed the line ... View a smaller image of the embryonic Swiss mouse fibroblast (3T3) cell. ... The 3T3 cell presented in the digital image above was part of an adherent culture stained for F-actin with Alexa Fluor 568 ...
Embryonic Swiss Mouse Fibroblast Cells (3T3). At the time of their establishment, 3T3 cells were different than most other cell ... However, 3T3 cells, it was quickly realized, were not normal cells either, since they are capable of growing indefinitely. In ... due to examination of 3T3 cells and subsequent research it has become widely accepted that for immortalization of cells to take ... View a larger image of the embryonic Swiss mouse fibroblast (3T3) cells. ...
A monolayer culture of Swiss mouse embryo cells was immunofluorescently labeled with primary mouse anti-alpha-tubulin ... View a larger image of the embryonic Swiss mouse fibroblast (3T3) cell. ... Embryonic Swiss Mouse Fibroblast Cells (3T3). The history of synthetic fluorescent probes dates back over a century to the late ... The cell nuclei were counterstained with SYTOX Green. Images were recorded in grayscale with a QImaging Retiga Fast-EXi camera ...
View a smaller image of the embryonic Swiss mouse fibroblast (3T3) cells. ... Embryonic Swiss Mouse Fibroblast Cells (3T3). An important membrane polypeptide in peroxisomes, the peroxisomal membrane ...
Subsequently, culture of 4T1 cells in 3T3-L1 adipocyte-conditioned medium (Ad-CM) and co-culture of 3T3-L1 and 4T1 cells using ... Aspirin inhibited inflammatory MCP-1 adipokine production by 3T3-L1 adipocytes and the cell growth and migration of 4T1 cells. ... α or conditioned medium from RAW264.7 cells. In 4T1 cells, treatment with aspirin decreased cell viability and migration, ... The aim of this study is to investigate the anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects of aspirin on 3T3-L1 adipocytes, 4T1 ...
... an adherent culture of Swiss mouse embryo cells was treated with a cocktail of mouse anti-histones (pan) and rabbit anti-PMP 70 ... View a smaller image of the embryonic Swiss mouse fibroblast (3T3) cell. ... Embryonic Swiss Mouse Fibroblast Cells (3T3). An important membrane polypeptide in peroxisomes, the peroxisomal membrane ... In a double immunofluorescence labeling experiment, presented above, an adherent culture of Swiss mouse embryo cells was ...
  • The BALB/3T3 mouse embryo cell line, noted for its marked postconfluence inhibition of proliferation, anchorage dependence, and high serum requirement, and frequently studied as a prototype nontumorigenic "fibroblast" line that is compared with tumorigenic sublines transformed with various agents, produced tumors within 2 to 3 months when an average of 3 × 10 4 cells were implanted s.c. attached to 1- × 5- × 10-mm polycarbonate platelets. (
  • The cultured tumor cells showed loss of both postconfluence inhibition of proliferation and anchorage dependence. (
  • In order to analyze whether some of the products in the mevalonic acid biosynthetic pathway may be of importance in the control of G 1 traverse and cell proliferation of SV-3T3 cells, cholesterol, Coenzyme Q, and dolichol were added as supplements to cells treated with 25-OH. (
  • Indeed, since the overall length of the cell cycle appears to depend in large part on the length of the G 1 phase, it is likely that this cell cycle period must be compressed as much as possible for rapid proliferation, potentially requiring the transfer of activities present in the G 1 phase of quiescent cells to other cell cycle periods when they continuously cycle ( 26 ). (
  • Signaling in cell proliferation, cell migration, and apoptosis is highly affected by osmotic stress and changes in cell volume, although the mechanisms underlying the significance of cell volume as a signal in cell growth and death are poorly understood. (
  • Increasing evidence now supports the conclusion that signaling in cell volume control cooperates with signaling in cell proliferation, cell migration, and apoptosis. (
  • As discussed by Hoffmann and Ussing ( 27 ), the term "volume regulation" may lead to the misconception that cells have one preferred volume, which is not the case since the "preferred" volume may highly depend on the differential and functional state of the cell, such as in secreting epithelia ( 21 , 27 ) and in cells during growth and proliferation per se. (
  • Therefore, it is important to identify the level of cross-talk between signaling pathways in cell volume regulation, cell proliferation, and apoptosis to understand the potential role of changes in cell volume as a direct signal controlling cell growth and death in tissue homeostasis and developmental processes. (
  • We show here that this cannot account for the stimulation of proliferation or migration by thrombin of Swiss 3T3 cells. (
  • complicating our understanding of the mechanisms of stimulation of cell proliferation by this hormone. (
  • The present study including two experiments was designed to determine the effect of media containing different rare earth elements (REE) on proliferation and fatty acids accumulation in 3T3-L1 cell cultures. (
  • The proliferation rate of the cells was measured and compared by a non-isotope method-XTT method. (
  • 1999. Conjugated linoleic acid inhibits differentiation of pre- and post- confluent 3T3-L1 preadipocytes but inhibits cell proliferation only in preconfluent cells. (
  • MicroRNAs are a group of newly discovered, small, non-coding RNAs and have been demonstrated to play a regulatory role in cell proliferation. (
  • Thus, the hypothesis for my research is that microRNA plays a role in mediating zinc-dependent cell proliferation. (
  • The overall objective was to determine whether microRNAs are involved in zinc-dependent cell proliferation in mouse fibroblast 3T3 cells. (
  • Cell proliferation was measured by cell cycle analysis using flow cytometry. (
  • In the absence of quiescence induction, zinc-depletion for 24 or 48 h inhibited cell proliferation by 10.4% and 16.0% compared to control. (
  • Regardless of the status of quiescence, zinc replenishment at 1.25 μM nearly brought cell proliferation back to the level observed in the DMSO control, showing a zinc-dependent cell proliferation in 3T3 cells. (
  • Interaction between MDM2 and the tumor suppressor genes p53 and Rb lead to deregulate cell proliferation and apoptosis. (
  • These compounds were characterized for in vitro inhibition on human T-cells proliferation and IL-2 production. (
  • The compounds showed significant immunosuppressive effect on IL-2 production as well as on phytohemagglutinin stimulated T-cell proliferation in a dose dependent manner. (
  • Ly6G + MDSCs in Lal-/- mice show strong immunosuppression on T cells, which contributes to impaired T cell proliferation and function in vivo. (
  • CEBPD is involved in regulation of apoptosis and cell proliferation. (
  • Independent of CDK, cyclin D1 binds to nuclear receptors (including estrogen receptor α, thyroid hormone receptor, PPARγ and AR ) to regulate cell proliferation, growth, and differentiation. (
  • Cyclin D1 also binds to histone acetylases and histone deacetylases to regulate cell proliferation and cell differentiation genes in the early to mid-G1 phase. (
  • After injury, mature terminally differentiated kidney cells dedifferentiate into more primordial versions of themselves and then differentiate into the cell types needing replacement in the damaged tissue Macrophages can self-renew by local proliferation of mature differentiated cells. (
  • Not long after FGF1 and FGF2 were isolated, another group isolated a pair of heparin-binding growth factors that they named HBGF-1 and HBGF-2, while a third group isolated a pair of growth factors that caused proliferation of cells in a bioassay containing blood vessel endothelium cells, which they called ECGF1 and ECGF2. (
  • Removing MDM2 simultaneously with the H2AK119 E3 ligase Ring1B/RNF2 further induced these genes and synthetically arrested cell proliferation. (
  • The p120 protein displays a dramatic increase in expression at the G1/S transition suggesting that p120 regulates the cell cycle and nucleolar activity that is required for cell proliferation. (
  • ERK mediates cell proliferation via the phosphorylation of p27Kip1, thus accelerating the degradation rate of p27Kip1. (
  • Human pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells treated with fasudil showed a decrease in cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. (
  • They activate mitogenic responses and regulate growth and proliferation of many cells. (
  • His work, in collaboration with his colleague and close friend Christopher Marshall, made seminal contributions to our understanding of cell signalling in animal cells, in particular the role of Rho and Ras small GTPases in regulating a variety of cellular functions such as proliferation, morphology and migration. (
  • Subsequent studies revealed that the dye can be used to monitor lymphocyte proliferation, both in vitro and in vivo, due to the progressive halving of CFSE fluorescence within daughter cells following each cell division. (
  • By the use of fluorescent antibodies against different lymphocyte cell surface markers it is also possible to follow the proliferation behaviour of different lymphocyte subsets. (
  • When large or small deletions and missense mutations occur along the GPC3 gene, GPC3 can no longer negatively regulate Hedgehog signaling during development, therefore increasing cell proliferation and the risk of developing cancer. (
  • M-CSF (or CSF-1) is a hematopoietic growth factor that is involved in the proliferation, differentiation, and survival of monocytes, macrophages, and bone marrow progenitor cells. (
  • Cancer occurs when a somatic cell which normally cannot divide undergoes mutations which cause de-regulation of the normal cell cycle controls leading to uncontrolled proliferation. (
  • Transfective over-expression of calponin 2 inhibited cell proliferation. (
  • Overexpression of c-jun in cells results in decreased level of p53 and p21, and exhibits accelerated cell proliferation. (
  • The cyclic change of the c-jun protein levels is significant in the proliferation and apoptosis of glandular epithelial cells. (
  • Caveolar structure and protein sorting are maintained in NIH 3T3 cells independent of glycosphingolipid depletion. (
  • When the GPI-linked protein B61 was inducibly expressed in these cells, sorting to caveolar membranes occurred normally, even in the presence of glucosylceramide depletion. (
  • In a double immunofluorescence labeling experiment, presented above, an adherent culture of Swiss mouse embryo cells was treated with a cocktail of mouse anti-histones (pan) and rabbit anti-PMP 70 (peroxisomal membrane protein) primary antibodies, followed by goat anti-mouse and anti-rabbit secondary antibodies conjugated to Alexa Fluor 568 and Alexa Fluor 488, respectively, to target the nuclear histone proteins and peroxisomes. (
  • We show that c-Fos (the c-fos protooncogene product), which is an intrinsically unstable nuclear protein, is metabolically highly stabilized, and greatly enhances the transforming efficiency of NIH 3T3 cells, by Mos. (
  • Protein extracts prepared from 3T3-L1 cells expressing either the WT or the mutant FTO proteins were used in DIGE experiments. (
  • Here, we used the fluorescent indicator protein (FLIPglu-600µ) to monitor cytosolic glucose dynamics in mouse 3T3-L1 cells in which glucose utilization for glycogen synthesis was inhibited. (
  • Evidence for GO induced autophagy includes increased levels of isoform B-II microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3), aggregation of green fluorescence protein-tagged LC3, and increased numbers of autophagic vacuoles in cells. (
  • Treatment of intact NIH 3T3 cells with 12- O -tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) causes a rapid redistribution (stabilization) of protein kinase C to the particulate fraction. (
  • An apparently pure nuclear fraction prepared from NIH 3T3 cells was found to contain 25-30% of the total membrane-associated protein kinase C activity when isolated in the presence of Ca 2+ . (
  • Nuclei purified from untreated human promyelocytic leukemic HL-60 cells contain higher amounts of chelator-stable, detergent-extractable protein kinase C activity compared with control NIH 3T3 cells. (
  • However, TPA treatment of HL-60 cells does not enhance the amount of protein kinase C found tightly associated with the nuclear fraction. (
  • Immunohistochemical studies with polyclonal antibodies directed against protein kinase C further indicate that TPA treatment of NIH 3T3 cells does significantly enhance the amount of protein kinase C found tightly associated with the nucleus and cytoskeleton, whereas exposure of HL-60 cells to TPA does not appreciably alter the amount of protein kinase C observed to be associated with the nuclear fraction. (
  • The TPA-mediated association (activation) of protein kinase C to the nuclear and cytoskeletal fractions with NIH 3T3 cells is further supported by the enhanced phosphorylation of specific endogenous proteins noted when purified nuclei and cytoskeletal preparations are incubated with [γ- 32 P]ATP. (
  • Cells were harvested, washed in buffer and homogenized, and protein was measured. (
  • pp60c-src, the cellular homolog of the Rous sarcoma virus transforming protein, does not completely transform cells even when present at high levels, but has been shown to be involved in polyomavirus-induced transformation when activated by polyomavirus middle T (pmt)-antigen binding. (
  • Interestingly, in quiescent cells the restriction point is identical to the G 1 arrest point induced by other conditions, including protein synthesis inhibitors and amino acid deprivation ( 29 ). (
  • For example, passage through G 1 phase in quiescent and proliferating cells exhibits several important molecular differences, including expression of the cyclin-inhibitory protein p27 kip1 ( 3 ), Cdc6 ( 42 ), and Fos and related proteins ( 14 ), and formation of a complex between E2F and the retinoblastoma protein (Rb)-related p130 ( 19 , 34 ). (
  • Induction of tumor promotor-inducible genes in murine 3T3 cell lines and tetradecanoyl phorbol acetate-nonproliferative 3T3 variants can occur through protein kinase C-dependent and -independent pathways. (
  • Using mRNA differential display, we have compared 3T3-L1 cells treated to differentiate in the presence of BRL49653 with untreated 3T3-L1 cells and identified Fos-related antigen 1 (Fra-1), a member of the Fos protein family, as a novel molecular target for BRL49653 action in 3T3-L1 cells. (
  • Growth control and apoptosis in mammalian cells are highly regulated by receptor tyrosine kinase receptors (RTKs), which, upon ligand-dependent activation, launch the activation of a series of downstream signal transduction pathways, including MAPKs and the cell survival-promoting protein kinase B (Akt) ( 33 , 45 ). (
  • Cell/Tissue Protein Lysate-Mouse 3T3 (Balb), murine embryo lysate-Alpha Diagnostic International Inc. (
  • Cell/Tissue Protein Lysate-Mouse 3T3 (Embryonic Fibroblast) Whole Cell lysate-Alpha Diagnostic International Inc. (
  • Mitogen-activated S6 kinase is stimulated via protein kinase C-dependent and independent pathways in Swiss 3T3 cells. (
  • Soluble extracts prepared from quiescent Swiss mouse 3T3 cells that had been briefly exposed to various mitogens exhibited a 2- to 3-fold elevation in phosphorylating activities toward ribosomal protein S6 and a synthetic peptide, Arg-Arg-Leu-Ser-Ser-Leu-Arg-Ala (RRLSSLRA), patterned after a phosphorylation site sequence from S6. (
  • Thus, in Swiss 3T3 cells the G protein-coupled thrombin receptor can potentiate the EGF tyrosine kinase receptor response when activated by EGF, and this appears to be due to the subcellular concentration of the receptor with downstream effectors and not to the overall ability of EGF to induce receptor transphosphorylation. (
  • In general, clones expressing the gene encoding L68Q cystatin C secreted slightly lower amounts of the protein than clones expressing wild-type human cystatin C. Both immunofluorescence cytochemistry and western blotting experiments showed an increased accumulation of cystatin C in cells expressing the gene encoding L68Q cystatin C compared with cells expressing the gene for the wild-type protein. (
  • Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cell Iysate displays proteins expressed in bovine kidney and PC12 (rat phaeochromocytoma) cell Iysate can be expected to mirror the protein expression of cells and tissues of neuroectodermal origin. (
  • In agreement with previous observations, volume per cell and mg protein per cell decrease with increasing cell density. (
  • Differences in the expression of adipogenesis-related genes between the treated and untreated cells were determined from their mRNA and protein levels. (
  • The myc-encoded protein was translated at higher levels in malignant than in normal lymphoid cells. (
  • The effects of toll-like receptor (TLR)2/4 inhibition on IL-6 production by 3T3-L1 induced by HCV core protein were examined. (
  • A) The protein level of IL-6 was significantly increased, and the protein levels of (B) adiponectin and (C) leptin were significantly reduced in cells treated with 70Q for 48 h compared with 70R and GST protein. (
  • The level of IL-6 mRNA expression was significantly increased in 3T3-L1 cells treated with 70Q for 24 h compared with wild HCV core protein (Fig 1A). (
  • Similar to the changes in mRNA expression, the protein level of IL-6 was significantly increased in 70Q cells (Fig 2A), and the levels of adiponectin and leptin were significantly reduced in 70Q cells (Fig 2B and 2C). (
  • Moreover, 70Q HCV protein augmented the IL-6 production and reduced adiponectin production from 3T3-L1 cells in a dose-dependent manner (Fig 3A and 3B) and IL-6 production was higher and adiponectin production were lower in the cells treated with 70Q compared to 70R in each concentration. (
  • Besides, the MDM2 protein also promotes RB (retinoblastoma) protein degradation in a proteasome-dependent manner in human tumor cell lines. (
  • MDM2 protein is reduced or absent in the p53 null cells compared to the p53 positive cells, Whereas, Pirh2 expression is not affected by the status of p53. (
  • Each Rho protein affects numerous proteins downstream, all of which having roles in various cell processes. (
  • CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha is a transcription factor involved in the differentiation of certain Blood cells. (
  • Also, the encoded protein can interact with CDK2 and CDK4, thereby inhibiting these kinases and causing growth arrest in cultured cells. (
  • Alpha actinin is an actin-binding protein with multiple roles in different cell types. (
  • The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the highly conserved cyclin family, whose members are characterized by a dramatic periodicity in protein abundance throughout the cell cycle. (
  • Cyclin D1 is a protein required for progression through the G1 phase of the cell cycle. (
  • This protein is expressed in the mammalian nervous system and plays a significant role in the development and function of nerve cells. (
  • They showed that opposing gradients of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and Nodal, two transforming growth factor family members that act as morphogens, are sufficient to induce molecular and cellular mechanisms required to organize, in vivo or in vitro, uncommitted cells of the zebrafish blastula animal pole into a well-developed embryo. (
  • TCTP is a multifunctional and highly conserved protein that existed ubiquitously in different eukaryote species and distributed widely in various tissues and cell types. (
  • TCTP was originally described as a growth related protein of tumor cells. (
  • Research in 1997 shown that TCTP is not a tumor- or tissue-specific protein, but is expressed ubiquitously from plants to mammals TCTP is a 20-25 kDa protein abundantly and ubiquitously expressed in the cell. (
  • The protein is transcribed in more that 500 different tissues and cell types, hTCTP gene is one of the top 10 most ubiquitously expressed genes in humans by examining 1753 libraries from kinds of tissues, but differed considerably in their quantity and ratio of expression, the expression is lower in kidney and renal cells. (
  • TCTP has properties of a tubulin binding protein that associates with microtubules in a cell cycle-dependent manner. (
  • Downregulation of the protein levels by siRNA in HTR-8/SVneo (Homo sapiens placenta cells) was associated with a reduced cellular calcium-uptake activity and buffering capacity. (
  • Translationally Controlled Tumor Protein (TCTP/tpt1) is a regulator of the cancer stem cell compartment, the tumor reversion, tumor progression and certain forms of inflammatory diseases. (
  • 1994). "Signaling through transforming G protein-coupled receptors in NIH 3T3 cells involves c-Raf activation. (
  • At the cellular level, sortilin functions in protein transport between the Golgi apparatus, endosome, lysosome, and plasma membrane, leading to its involvement in multiple biological processes such as glucose and lipid metabolism as well as neural development and cell death. (
  • In addition, two hydrophobic loops have been detected in this domain and act to anchor the protein in the cell membrane. (
  • Interestingly, it was found incubation of 3T3-L1 cells with recombinant human chemerin protein facilitated insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. (
  • The murine double minute (mdm2) oncogene, which codes for the Mdm2 protein, was originally cloned, along with two other genes (mdm1 and mdm3) from the transformed mouse cell line 3T3-DM. (
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a nucleolar antigen expressed in proliferating cells. (
  • In smooth muscle cells, this protein co-expresses with other family members in the nucleus and in stress fibers, suggesting diverse functions in signal transduction. (
  • Fbx15, otherwise known as Fbxo15, is a protein expressed in undifferentiated embryonic stem cells. (
  • Its functions contribute to biological processes including signal transduction, apoptosis, autophagy, protein homeostasis, and cell growth and differentiation. (
  • Ultimately, its role in protein folding contributes to its function in signal transduction, apoptosis, protein homeostasis, and cell growth and differentiation. (
  • The ability of cancer cells to use HSF1 in a unique manner gives this protein significant clinical implications for therapies and prognoses. (
  • The activity of this protein has been implicated in controlling cell growth and differentiation. (
  • Immunofluorescence and antibody techniques were used to localise the mutant V12rac1 protein after being microinjected into the cytoplasm of confluent serum-starved Swiss 3T3 cells. (
  • Another group discovered a novel cDNA species encoding a protein with similar structure to COX-1 while studying phorbol-ester-induced genes in Swiss 3T3 cells. (
  • This protein preferentially binds to the SH3 domain of c-Abl kinase, and acts as a regulator of MAPK1/ERK2 kinase, which may contribute to its ability to reduce the tumorigenic phenotype in cells. (
  • In the kidney, KKLF protein was localized in interstitial cells, mesangial cells, and nephron segments where CLC-K1 and CLC-K2 were not expressed. (
  • The encoded protein appears to have many functions and may be involved in a variety of cellular processes, including alternative splicing, cell cycle regulation, RNA 3'-end formation, tumorigenesis, and regulation of human immunodeficiency virus gene expression. (
  • The function of this gene is to produce a protein that acts as a cell surface receptor that binds to transcription factors. (
  • Four transcript variants encoding three different isoforms (a proteoglycan, glycoprotein and cell surface protein) have been found for this gene. (
  • Proceedings of the Royal Society Series B: Biological Sciences 147: 268-73 Staeheli P, Haller O, Boll W, Lindenmann J, Weissmann C. (1986) Mx protein: constitutive expression in 3T3 cells transformed with cloned Mx cDNA confers selective resistance to influenza virus. (
  • Pastan, with his colleague Jesse Roth, was the first to clearly demonstrate the presence of specific protein receptors on the surface of animal cells. (
  • The persistent stromal expression of c-jun protein may prevent stromal cells from entering into apoptosis during the late secretory phase. (
  • Tropomyosin is a two-stranded alpha-helical coiled coil protein found in cell cytoskeletons. (
  • In mammalian cells, PtdIns(3,5)P2 is synthesized from and turned over to PtdIns3P by a unique protein complex containing two enzymes with opposite activities: the phosphoinositide kinase PIKfyve and the Sac1 domain-containing PtdIns(3,5)P2 5-phosphatase, Sac3/Fig4. (
  • The essential role of the PAS complex in PtdIns(3,5)P2 synthesis and turnover is supported by data from siRNA-mediated protein silencing and heterologous expression of the PAS complex components in various cell types as well as by data from genetic knockout of the PAS complex proteins. (
  • Other stimuli, including mitogenic signals such as IL-2 and UV light in lymphocytes, activation of protein kinase C by PMA in platelets and EGF stimulation of COS cells, also increase PtdIns(3,5)P2 levels. (
  • In addition to inducing necrosis and apoptosis, ROS induces autophagic cell death. (
  • Here we show that cotransfection, but not solo transfection, of expression plasmids for c-src and either adenovirus E1A, v-myc, c-myc, or the 5' half of polyomavirus large T (pltN) antigen into NIH 3T3 cells induces anchorage-independent growth, enhanced focus formation, and, for pltN cotransfection, tumorigenicity in adult NFS mice. (
  • However, thrombin induces the subcellular clustering of the EGF receptor at filamentous actin-containing structures at the leading edge and actin arcs of migrating cells in association with other signaling molecules, including Shc and phospholipase Cγ1. (
  • For example, forced expression of constitutively active forms of RhoA, Rac1, and Cdc42 in serum-starved Swiss 3T3 cells induces actin stress fibers, membrane ruffles, and filopodia, respectively ( 1 ). (
  • 1,25-(OH)2D3 transiently but strongly induces Insig-2 expression in 3T3-L1 cells. (
  • It inhibits cell movement and induces nuclear extrusion. (
  • This cell line was established from NIH Swiss mouse embryo cultures in the same manner as the original random bred 3T3 and the inbred BALB/c 3T3. (
  • The tumors, as well as others arising from implants of BALB/3T3 cells attached to 3-mm glass beads, were given the histological diagnosis of "vasoformative saroma" because the tumor cells frequently formed vascular channels. (
  • That the tumors were derived from BALB/3T3 cells and not host cells was proved when tumors arising in BALB/c × C57BL/6 F 1 hybrids were shown to be transplantable to BALB/c but not to C57BL/6 mice. (
  • We conclude that BALB/3T3 cells are preneoplastic and give rise to different spontaneously transformed clones bearing unique tumor rejection antigens when implanted in vivo attached to a solid substrate. (
  • The kinetics of acidification of diferric human transferrin in BALB/c mouse 3T3 cells were determined by flow cytometry using a modification of the fluorescein-rhodamine fluorescence ratio technique. (
  • We have compared the effects of ellipticine, several of its analogues, and two aza-analogue ellipticine derivatives (BD-40 and BR-1376) on cell cycle progression of BALB/c 3T3 mouse cells under different growth conditions. (
  • MDM2 was originally cloned from transformed Balb/c3T3 cell line called 3T3DM and was identified as an amplified oncogene in murine cell lines. (
  • Abnormal regional increases in DNA methylation, which have potential for causing gene inactivation and chromosomal instability, are consistently found in immortalized and tumorigenic cells. (
  • Using DNAs from a panel of Chinese hamster-mouse somatic cell hybrids together with in situ hybridization protocols for gene mapping studies, we have found that these DM-associated, amplified DNA sequences originate from mouse chromosome 10, region C1-C3. (
  • Among 10 Cd-induced transformed cell lines, significant gene amplification was found for c-myc and c-jun in 50% and 80% of the cell lines, respectively. (
  • Knockdown of autophagy-related gene 5 inhibited basal autophagy and diminished oxidative stress-induced autophagy and cell death. (
  • By co-transfecting NIH3T3 murine fibroblast and murine B78 H1 melanoma cells with pSG5tag and pSV2neo, we obtained clones expressing the mRNA of the bacterial tag gene coding for N3-methyladenine-DNA glycosylase I (Gly I), which specifically repairs N3-methyladenine. (
  • We also analyzed TIS gene expression in three TPA-nonproliferative variants (3T3-TNR2, 3T3-TNR9, and A31T6E12A). (
  • From a practical point of view the stimulatory effect of microinjected pBR322 on cellular DNA synthesis has a more immediate interest, because pBR322 is the vector most commonly used for molecular cloning and 3T3 cells are very frequently used for gene transfer experiments. (
  • Gene Expression during 3T3-L1 Cell. (
  • In order to discover more about the genetic basis of this process, a study was undertaken to examine the changes that occur daily in global gene expression as 3T3-L1 cells differentiate from preadipocyte to adipocyte. (
  • Duplicate RNA samples were collected daily during the differentiation process and probed with the Affymetrix U74Av2 GeneChip® microarray to allow the time-course analysis of the gene expression profile in these differentiating cells. (
  • Global gene expression patterns spanning 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation. (
  • An active src gene was identified in three acute lymphoid leukaemias and in one non-Hodgkin lymphoma of T-cell origin. (
  • Human DNAs coding oncoviral antigens or onc gene-specific proteins could be transfected into NIH 3T3 cells. (
  • Normal cellular homologs of v-Raf and v-Mil were soon found in both the mouse and chicken genome (hence the name c-Raf for the normal cellular Raf gene), and it became clear that these too had a role in regulating growth and cell division. (
  • Mutations, amplification and overexpression of this gene, which alters cell cycle progression, are observed frequently in a variety of tumors and may contribute to tumorigenesis. (
  • Amplification of the CCND1 gene is present in: non-small cell lung cancers (30-46%) head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (30-50%) pancreatic carcinomas (25%) bladder cancer (15%) pituitary adenomas (49-54%) breast carcinoma (13%) Cyclin D1 overexpression is strongly correlated to ER+ breast cancer and deregulation of cyclin D1 is associated with hormone therapy resistance in breast cancer. (
  • Inside the cell nucleus, the cellular RNA polymerase II acts to promote early gene expression. (
  • The molecular mechanisms by which the virus reproduces and alters cell function were previously unknown, and research into SV40 vastly increased biologists' understanding of gene expression and the regulation of cell growth. (
  • In mice having a beta-galactosidase gene knocked into the Fbx15 locus, stain was detected in ES cells, early embryos (from two-cell to blastocyst stages), and testis tissue. (
  • Reporter gene analyses demonstrated that the ES cell-specific expression required this 18-bp enhancer element located approximately 500 nucleotides upstream from the transcription initiation site. (
  • After the process of iPS Cells the right cells have to be chosen, so this gene Fbx15 can be used. (
  • This gene is a selection device to see which cells are pluripotent. (
  • Further DNA testing showed that the transforming sequences in the two cancer cell lines were the same, and the gene was later characterised as N-ras, a member of the Ras gene family. (
  • This gene was identified by its ability to suppress the tumorigenicity of Hela cells in nude mice. (
  • It has been suggested that SGBS type II may be caused by duplication of the GPC4 gene, which helps to regulate cell division and growth. (
  • citation needed] Introduction of a viral gene that partially deregulates the cell cycle (e.g., the adenovirus type 5 E1 gene was used to immortalize the HEK 293 cell line). (
  • Pastan pioneered the field of receptor biology in animal cells and identified a major receptor mediated pathway of gene regulation in bacteria. (
  • These studies serve as a paradigm for the mechanism of action of cyclic AMP and steroid hormones on gene expression in animal cells. (
  • Gene splicing techniques are used to make chimeric proteins in which the Fv of an antibody, preferentially binding to a cancer cell, is attached to a potent bacterial toxin. (
  • Besides being one of the first 3 laboratories to obtain the DNA sequence of the EGF receptor, they showed that the EGF receptor gene was amplified, rearranged and over-expressed in many cancer cells including squamous cell carcinomas, and with Doug Lowy showed that over-expression of the EGF receptor in the presence of EGF is sufficient to transform normal 3T3 cells and therefore is a proto-oncogene. (
  • miR-872 has been found to be expressed in sertoli cells and to post-transcriptionally target the Sod-1 gene, which encodes the copper/zinc-binding superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD-1) enzyme. (
  • RET is an abbreviation for "rearranged during transfection", as the DNA sequence of this gene was originally found to be rearranged within a 3T3 fibroblast cell line following its transfection with DNA taken from human lymphoma cells. (
  • Monocytes derived from Cnn2 gene knockout mice proliferated faster than wild type control cells. (
  • In cells absent of c-jun, the expression of p53 (cell cycle arrest inducer) and p21 (CDK inhibitor and p53 target gene) is increased, and those cells exhibit cell cycle defect. (
  • Overexpression of IRS-1 resulted in inhibition of basal autophagy, and reduced oxidative stress-induced autophagy and cell death. (
  • CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that overexpression of IRS-1 promotes cells growth, inhibits basal autophagy, reduces oxidative stress-induced autophagy, and diminishes oxidative stress-mediated autophagy-dependent cell death. (
  • Overexpression was significantly more frequent in the low-grade type of B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (B-NHL) than in the intermediate/high grade types of lymphoma and the overexpression was also significantly more frequent in the advanced rather than the earlier stages of B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL). (
  • The transient overexpression of TCTP in HeLa cells prevented them from undergoing etoposide-induced apoptosis. (
  • Overexpression of RhoA or activated RhoA in NIH 3T3 cells increased phosphorylation of MBS and MLC. (
  • In addition KLF15 overexpression in combination with insulin, glucocorticoid, and cAMP stimulated adipogenesis in H295R cells. (
  • Cells have now lost their contact inhibition. (
  • A continuous cell line of high contact-inhibition established from Nih Swiss mouse embryo cultures. (
  • Inhibition of MBD2 attenuates tumorigenesis, metastasis, and reverses the hypomethylation of metastatic genes in cell culture and in vivo. (
  • 3) cells which possess EGF receptors but lack PDGF receptors do not exhibit a PDGF-mediated inhibition of 125 I-EGF binding. (
  • It is thus likely that cell swelling via activation of ERK1/2 and cell shrinkage via activation of the p38 and JNK pathway and inhibition of the PDGFR signaling pathway may act as key players in the regulation of tissue homeostasis. (
  • In addition, the highly galloylated compound 2 was also found to induce potent inhibition of adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells. (
  • Over the cell densities used for transport experiments the 3T3 cell goes from exponential growth to density dependent inhibition of growth (4 x 10 4 to 4 x 10 5 cell cm -2 ) whereas the SV40 3T3 maintains exponential or near exponential growth (4 x 10 4 to 1 x 10 6 cell cm -2 ). (
  • At high cell densities, where growth inhibition occurs in the 3T3 cell but not the SV40 3T3, the furosemide sensitive component doubles in both cell lines. (
  • Reversion of inhibition was accelerated if cells were cultured for 3 days with adipogenic medium containing CB. (
  • His current projects address the impact of cell cycle inhibition on tumor cell survival, and the hallmarks of cancer during the evolution of tumor progression seeking to find new therapeutic avenues. (
  • However, when the ability of all these compounds to kill tumor cells in cell culture was investigated, it turned out that the antitumor potency did not at all depend on whether or not the respective compound could inhibit COX-2, showing that inhibition of COX-2 was not required for the anticancer effects. (
  • The expression of calponin 2 in NIH/3T3 cells was decreased when cytoskeleton tension was reduced after blebbstatin inhibition of myosin II motors. (
  • Introduction: Cancer cells are hallmarked by global DNA hypomethylation and regional hypermethylation of tumor suppressor genes. (
  • Genes involved in tumorgenesis, bone degradation, or with no known function that were induced in both MBD2 and HA-Ras expressing cell lines were chosen for further study. (
  • Knocking down selected candidate genes' mRNA in MBD2 overexpressing NIH-3T3 cells resulted in attenuated tumorigenesis while knocking down MBD2 in HA-RAS cells significantly reduced these genes' expression levels. (
  • Identification of genes that function to protect cells from radiation damage is an essential step in understanding the molecular mechanisms by which mammalian cells cope with ionizing radiation. (
  • We isolated a group of genes that are rapidly and transiently induced in 3T3 cells by tetradecanoyl phorbol acetate (TPA). (
  • The induction of these two genes was observed only in growth-arrested 3T3-L1 cells, and not in proliferating cells. (
  • MEF 3T3 cells were either plated on fibronectin and allowed to culture for 30 minutes or grown in suspension to analyze genes induced by fibronectin stimulation (serum-free DMEM). (
  • Hexane-soluble fraction of the root extract also inhibited adipocyte differentiation and decreased the mRNA levels of various adipogenic genes in the differentiating cells. (
  • Genes coding for transporter proteins that confer multidrug resistance to the cells have also been found to be activated by CEBPB. (
  • They form characteristic cell clusters in suspension culture that express a set of genes associated with pluripotency and can differentiate into endodermal, ectodermal and mesodermal cells both in vitro and in vivo. (
  • The transcription of several G1/S genes is essential for cells to proceed through the cell cycle. (
  • It is expressed during coexpression of Oct3/4, c-Myc, Klf4, and SOX2, four genes identified to be important in embryonic stem cell self-renewal and differentiation repression. (
  • The genes activated by HSF1 under heat shock conditions have been recently shown to differ from those activated in malignant cancer cells, and this cancer-specific HSF1 panel of genes has indicated poor prognosis in breast cancer. (
  • SGEF was discovered during a screen for androgen-responsive genes in human prostate cancer cells. (
  • The Mos/MAP kinase pathway stabilizes c-Fos by phosphorylation and augments its transforming activity in NIH 3T3 cells. (
  • The present findings also suggest that, in general, the ERK pathway may regulate the cell fate and function by affecting the metabolic stability of c-Fos. (
  • This is the first report of dynamic measurements of cytosolic glucose levels in cells devoid of the glycogen synthesis pathway. (
  • In addition we show that transient activation of the MAPK pathway is sufficient to drive chronic cell-cycle progression. (
  • To further confirm that shikonin inhibits adipogenic differentiation through downregulation of ERK 1/2 activity, 3T3-L1 cells were treated with shikonin in the presence of FGF-2, an activator, or PD98059, an inhibitor, of the ERK1/2 signaling pathway. (
  • We found that hypoosmolarity (cell swelling at 211 mosM) induced the phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of ERK1/2, most likely via a pathway independent of PDGFR-β and MEK1/2. (
  • The present research findings confirmed that the EECV effectively modulates the lipid accumulation and differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells through AMPK-α mediated signalling pathway. (
  • This meant that the cells can change their differentiation pathway. (
  • FGFs secreted by hypoblasts during avian gastrulation play a role in stimulating a Wnt signaling pathway that is involved in the differential movement of Koller's sickle cells during formation of the primitive streak. (
  • The response to mating pheromones as described in Hartwell's experiments is unsurprising considering the antagonistic biochemical interactions between the mating pathway and the G1 cyclins that promote cell cycle progression. (
  • He has also been responsible for the molecular dissection of the intracellular trafficking pathways that regulate GLUT4 translocation to the cell surface, the topological mapping of the insulin signal transduction pathway, the creation of a method for studying in vivo metabolism in small animals, and the use of this method to gain insights into whole-animal fuel metabolism and homeostasis. (
  • NHEJ is evolutionarily conserved throughout all kingdoms of life and is the predominant double-strand break repair pathway in mammalian cells. (
  • In collaboration with Mark Willingham, he developed and used video intensified microscopy to visualize fluorescently labeled insulin and EGF forming clusters on the surface of living cells prior to entry through the endocytic pathway. (
  • These studies identified the pathway by which growth factors enter cells and established a mechanism that helped explain down-regulation of receptors and the loss of growth factor responsiveness. (
  • Thus, via PtdIns(3,5)P2 production, PIKfyve participates in several aspects of endosome dynamics, thereby affecting a number of trafficking pathways that emanate from or traverse the endosomal system en route to the trans-Golgi network or later compartments along the endocytic pathway. (
  • However, in cells with inhibited glycogen synthase activation, insulin induced a robust increase in cytosolic free glucose. (
  • The insulin-induced increase in cytosolic glucose in these cells is due to an imbalance between the glucose transported into the cytosol and the use of glucose in the cytosol. (
  • In untreated cells with sensitive glycogen synthase activation, insulin stimulation did not result in a change in the cytosolic glucose level. (
  • Insulin receptor substrate-1 prevents autophagy-dependent cell death caused by oxidative stress in mouse NIH/3T3 cells. (
  • In a second series of experiments, cells were incubated for 48 hr with different concentrations of leptin, insulin or corticosterone, and compared with controls (plain medium). (
  • Overall uptake of estrone (i.e., the sum of free and acyl-estrone) by cells was not affected by leptin or corticosterone, but strongly reduced by insulin. (
  • To investigate the effects of shikonin on adipocyte differentiation, 3T3-L1 cells were induced to differentiate using 3-isobutyl-1-methylzanthine, dexamethasone, and insulin (MDI) for 8 days in the presence of 0-2 μM shikonin. (
  • in contrast, cells treated with RA and then supplemented with nonadipogenic medium containing insulin, but without the retinoid, did not undergo differentiation. (
  • These receptors are highly expressed on pancreatic beta cells and are critical regulators of glucose homoestasis by modulating insulin secretion. (
  • This molecular function enables sortilin to participate in various biological processes, including the transport of GLUT4 to the plasma membrane of fat and skeletal muscle cells in response to insulin. (
  • He demonstrated that growth factors controlled cell cycle regulatory events and has actively studied these processes, including platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) and insulin-like growthfactor-1 (IGF-1) signal transduction. (
  • These cells are also sensitive to lipogenic and lipolytic hormones and drugs, including epinephrine, isoproterenol, and insulin. (
  • ArPIKfyve facilitates insulin-regulated GLUT4 translocation to the cell surface. (
  • In contrast, while ellipticine and its derivatives caused identical effects in cells recovering from serum starvation, BD-40 and BR-1376 did not block cells in G 2 phase and did not prevent the completion of the first division round occurring after serum addition to quiescent cells. (
  • For comparison, in quiescent cells, all four of the inhibitors of cell cycle progression tested (anti-Ras, anti-cyclin D1, serum removal, and cycloheximide) became ineffective at essentially the same point in G 1 phase, approximately 4 h prior to the beginning of DNA synthesis. (
  • These studies demonstrate a fundamental difference in mitogenic signal transduction between quiescent and cycling NIH 3T3 cells and reveal a sequence of signaling events required for cell cycle progression in proliferating NIH 3T3 cells. (
  • The cell cycle requirements for peptide growth factors have been demonstrated in cells rendered quiescent by growth factor deprivation ( 24 ). (
  • While results obtained with quiescent cells are important, there is reason to believe the situation might be different for cells continuously progressing through the cell cycle. (
  • A fundamental feature in the action of most mitogenic agents when added to quiescent cells in serum-free medium is that they exhibit striking synergistic effects when applied in specific combinations. (
  • In this paper, some of our recent results on the early signals and responses elicited by multiple growth-promoting agents in quiescent cultures of Swiss 3T3 cells will be summarized. (
  • When pBR322 is manually microinjected into the nuclei of quiescent Swiss 3T3 cells it stimulates the incorporation of [ 3 H]thymidine into DNA. (
  • The preliminary evidence seems to indicate that the integrity of the pBR322 genome is important for the stimulation of cellular DNA synthesis in quiescent Swiss 3T3 cells. (
  • Moreover, they can make this transition even in the absence of noticeable injuries and are capable of replenishing entire gastric units, in essence serving as quiescent "reserve" stem cells. (
  • The expression of calponin 2 decreases to lower levels in quiescent adult smooth muscle cells while the expression of calponin 1 is up-regulated. (
  • In quiescent cells, the PtdIns(3,5)P2 levels, typically quantified by HPLC, are the lowest amongst the constitutively present phosphoinositides. (
  • A follow-up heat dehydration process has been performed to ensure the attachment of cells and the stability of cellular proteins. (
  • Glycosphingolipids have been proposed to be critical components of clustered lipids within cell membranes that serve as rafts for the attachment and sorting of proteins to the cell membrane. (
  • Using a monoclonal antibody directed against a related family of nuclear pore complex proteins, the adherent culture of Swiss mouse embryo cells presented above was imaged after being fixed, permeabilized, and treated with primary mouse antibodies followed by goat anti-mouse secondary antibodies conjugated to Alexa Fluor 568 (red fluorescence). (
  • This study investigated the changes in the soluble proteome of 3T3-L1 cells upon expression of the WT and the mutant (R316Q) FTO proteins. (
  • One of the identified proteins was heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K, which displayed more than 2.6- and 3.7-fold increases in its abundance in the WT and the mutant FTO expressing cells, respectively. (
  • Colocalisation studies in cells were performed by double staining with antibodies against human cystatin C and marker proteins for lysosomes, the Golgi apparatus, or the endoplasmic reticulum, and evaluated by confocal microscopy. (
  • Likewise, Jurkat cells express the proteins unique to human T-cells. (
  • Such targets include the Rho-activated phosphorylation of myosin, which leads to cellular contractile activity ( 2 ), and the phosphorylation of proteins of the ezrin-moesin-radixin group to promote their ability to link actin filaments to cell membranes ( 3 ). (
  • Filamin efficiently crosslinks actin filaments and is a docking site for various cell surface receptors and certain intracellular proteins involved in signal transduction or endocytosis ( 16 - 22 ). (
  • All G proteins are "molecular switches", and Rho proteins play a role in organelle development, cytoskeletal dynamics, cell movement, and other common cellular functions. (
  • Rho/Rac proteins are involved in a wide variety of cellular functions such as cell polarity, vesicular trafficking, the cell cycle and transcriptomal dynamics. (
  • Rho proteins help cells regulate changes in shape throughout their life-cycle. (
  • One of the most obvious changes to cell morphology controlled by Rho proteins is the formation of lamellipodia and filopodia, projecting processes that look like "fingers" or "feet" and often propel cells or growth cones across surfaces. (
  • As a sorting receptor on the cell surface and on the endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi apparatus within the cell, sortilin is involved in the transport of a wide variety of intracellular proteins between the trans-Golgi network, endosome, lysosome, and secretory granules, as well as the plasma membrane. (
  • EBF1 controls the expression of key proteins required for B cell differentiation, signal transduction and function. (
  • S100 proteins are localized in the cytoplasm and/or nucleus of a wide range of cells, and involved in the regulation of a number of cellular processes such as cell cycle progression and differentiation. (
  • In the cells of mammals, the construction of lipid droplets is a process that is strictly controlled, using hormone induced signals, proteins related to droplets, and lipases as well. (
  • The HSR plays a protective role by ensuring proper folding and distribution of proteins within cells. (
  • It localizes preferentially to the trans-Golgi network (TGN) of mammalian cells and regulates, for example, the secretory transport of bone-specific proteins from the Golgi complex. (
  • The cells are used for a wide variety of purposes, from testing toxicity of compounds or drugs to production of eukaryotic proteins. (
  • Artificial expression of key proteins required for immortality, for example telomerase which prevents degradation of chromosome ends during DNA replication in eukaryotes Hybridoma technology, specifically used for the generation of immortalized antibody-producing B cell lines, where an antibody-producing B cell is fused with a myeloma (B cell cancer) cell. (
  • Pastan is currently developing a new therapy for cancer by making fusion proteins composed of the Fv portion of monoclonal antibodies directed at receptor proteins on cancer cells fused to a genetically modified form of a powerful bacterial toxin, Pseudomonas exotoxin A. Three of these genetically engineered proteins, which he named recombinant immunotoxins (RITs), are being tested in humans with various forms of cancer. (
  • 2.5D cell cultures are similarly grown on top of a thin layer of ECM, and diluted structural ECM proteins are mixed to the medium added above the cells and substrate. (
  • The levels of mRNA are shown as ratios relative to GST treated cells. (
  • On the other hand, 70Q induced significant reduce in mRNA expressions of adiponectin and leptin compared to control (GST), though the differences between 70R and 70Q-treated cells did not reach statistical significance due to wide variation of data range (Fig 1B and 1C). (
  • In humans, chemerin mRNA is highly expressed in white adipose tissue, liver and lung while its receptor, CMKLR1 is predominantly expressed in immune cells as well as adipose tissue. (
  • Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) mediates the production of the vasodilator nitric oxide (NO). Pulmonary arterial cell cultures treated with fasudil showed a significant increase in eNOS mRNA levels in a dose dependent manner, and the half-life of eNOS mRNA increased 2-folds. (
  • In addition, HO-1 inhibitor stimulated lipid accumulation, while FA attenuated lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 treated with HO-1 inhibitor. (
  • In this study, we elucidated that Buddleja officinalis Maximowicz extract significantly inhibited lipid accumulation during 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation. (
  • Oil Red O staining was performed to determine the lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells. (
  • TJF extract effectively inhibited lipid accumulation and the expression of PPARγ and C/EBPα in 3T3-L1 cells. (
  • The data indicated that that EECV treatment increased differentiation and lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells, which indicates positive regulation of adipogenic and lipogenic activity. (
  • It suppresses lipid accumulation through repression of C/EBPα-activated GLUT4-mediated glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 cells. (
  • February 1996, volume 116, issue 2, pages 148-157 (article in Japanese) Avicularin, a plant flavonoid, suppresses lipid accumulation through repression of C/EBPα-activated GLUT4-mediated glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 cells. (
  • Homocysteine and alpha-lipoic acid regulate p44/42 MAP kinase phosphorylation in NIH/3T3 cells. (
  • Cells grown in serum-containing media had constitutive levels of MAPK phosphorylation as determined by Western blot analysis using the phospho-specific MAPK antibody. (
  • Treatment of cells with 20 microM Hcy for 0-60 min resulted in a transient enhancement of MAPK phosphorylation. (
  • The effect of alphaLA appears to be serum-dependent because Hcy or alphaLA treatment of serum-deprived cells activated MAPK phosphorylation. (
  • Thus, alphaLA and Hcy can either induce common signal transduction pathways or differentially modulate MAPK phosphorylation, depending on the state of the cell. (
  • Conversely, hyperosmolarity (cell shrinkage at 582 mosM) moved nuclear and phosphorylated ERK1/2 to the cytoplasm and induced the phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of p38 and phosphorylation of JNK1/2. (
  • A431, a human epidermoid carcinoma cell line, and the EGF-stimulated A431 Iysates are used as negative and positive controls, respectively, when studying the phosphorylation cascade initiated by ligand binding to receptor tyrosine kinases. (
  • Although phosphorylation of filamin occurs in vitro and in cells and may affect its actin-binding properties ( 25 ), little information is available about filamin's cellular regulation. (
  • The small guanosine triphosphatase Rho is implicated in myosin light chain (MLC) phosphorylation, which results in contraction of smooth muscle and interaction of actin and myosin in nonmuscle cells. (
  • 1233-1239, 1986) that 25-OH inhibits the cell cycle traverse of SV-3T3 cells specifically in early G 1 . (
  • these saw that a 20% reduction in the amount of water in a cell inhibits metabolism, with metabolism decreasing progressively as the cell dries out and all metabolic activity halting when the water level reaches 70% below normal. (
  • Another group found that CB inhibits the ability of HeLa cells to undergo cytokinesis by decomposition of the contractile ring. (
  • This may result in differential responses by different cell types during exposure to tumor promoters. (
  • In microglial cells, the GPR84 induction with interleukin-1 (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) was also demonstrated. (
  • Down-regulation of TCTP can induce tumor reversion, and in combination with some drugs that decrease the level of TCTP and will lead to kill tumor cells. (
  • TCTP knockdown in primary mammary tumor cells, results in increased p53 expression and a decreased number of stem-like cancer cells. (
  • The fine regulation of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) by sortilin is required for both neuronal and tumor cell survival. (
  • Furthermore, it appears that sortilin participates in the progression of breast cancer and contributes to tumor cell adhesion and invasion. (
  • Moreover, a recent study with various malignant tumor cells showed that celecoxib could inhibit the growth of these cells, even though some of these cancer cells didn't even contain COX-2. (
  • One of these compounds, 2,5-dimethyl-celecoxib, which entirely lacks the ability to inhibit COX-2, actually turned out to display stronger anticancer activity than celecoxib itself and this anticancer effect could also be verified in highly drug-resistant tumor cells and in various animal tumor models. (
  • The knockdown of Sam68 expression in PyMT-derived mammary cells reduced the number of lung tumor foci in athymic mice, suggesting that Sam68 is also required for mammary tumor metastasis. (
  • Inappropriate NHEJ can lead to translocations and telomere fusion, hallmarks of tumor cells. (
  • FGD1 is also transiently associated with and required for the formation of membrane protrusions on invasive tumor cells. (
  • PKM2 is expressed in some differentiated tissues, such as lung, fat tissue, retina, and pancreatic islets, as well as in all cells with a high rate of nucleic acid synthesis, such as normal proliferating cells, embryonic cells, and especially tumor cells. (
  • When PKM2 is mainly in the less active dimeric form, which is the case in tumor cells, all glycolytic intermediates above pyruvate kinase accumulate and are channelled into synthetic processes, which branch off from glycolytic intermediates such as nucleic acid-, phospholipid-, and amino acid synthesis. (
  • Nucleic acids, phospholipids, and amino acids are important cell building-blocks, which are greatly needed by highly proliferating cells, such as tumor cells. (
  • In tumor cells, PKM2 is mainly in the dimeric form and has, therefore, been termed Tumor M2-PK. (
  • The dimerization of PKM2 in tumor cells is induced by direct interaction of PKM2 with different oncoproteins (pp60v-src, HPV-16 E7, and A-Raf). (
  • N-cadherin expression in levitated human glioblastoma cells was identical to the expression seen in human tumor xenografts grown in immunodeficient mice, while standard 2D culture showed much weaker expression that did not match xenograft distribution as shown in the picture below. (
  • Based on these results, we conclude that ligand-dependent activation of PDGFR-β and its downstream effectors Akt, MEK1/2, and ERK1/2 is strongly modulated (inhibited) by hyperosmotic cell shrinkage, whereas cell swelling does not seem to affect the activation of the receptor but rather to activate ERK1/2 via a different mechanism. (
  • Thus, the EGF receptor subcellular localization which is altered by thrombin appears to be an important determinant of the efficacy of downstream EGF receptor signaling in cell migration. (
  • Hepatocyte growth factor regulates cell growth, cell motility, and morphogenesis by activating a tyrosine kinase signaling cascade after binding to the proto-oncogenic c-Met receptor. (
  • It also mediates the interaction between proNGF and the p75NTR:sortilin complex by acting as a co-receptor to signal cell death. (
  • RARRES2 is thought to act as a cell surface receptor. (
  • He then proceeded to study hormone interactions with living cells using fluorescence photo-bleaching to visualize polypeptide hormone-receptor complexes bound to the membrane of living cells. (
  • The RET proto-oncogene encodes a receptor tyrosine kinase for members of the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) family of extracellular signalling molecules. (
  • In Burkitt lymphoma cell lines, it is tyrosine phosphorylated in response to B cell receptor stimulation. (
  • One of the earliest events in the response of mammalian cells to mitogens is activation of Na+/H+ exchange, which increases intracellular pH (pHin) in the absence of HCO3- or at external pH values below 7.2. (
  • Glucose is an important source of energy for mammalian cells and enters the cytosol via glucose transporters. (
  • The role of alkylation of the N3 position of adenine in the cytotoxicity of alkylating agents in mammalian cells is still undefined. (
  • That osmotic stress activates MAPKs was first described in Saccharomyces cerevisiae ( 28 ) and later also in mammalian cells ( 67 ). (
  • These results, although of a preliminary nature, are of interest because they indicate that a prokaryotic genome may alter the cell cycle of mammalian cells. (
  • Immortalized cell lines are widely used as a simple model for more complex biological systems, for example for the analysis of the biochemistry and cell biology of mammalian (including human) cells. (
  • Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells are a model mammalian cell line used in biomedical research. (
  • Following the initial isolation in 1958 of epithelial cells from the kidney tubule of an adult Cocker Spaniel by S. H. Madin and N. B. Darby, the cell line bearing their name was employed primarily as a model for viral infection of mammalian cells. (
  • Through the 1970s, the MDCK cell line found new use as a model for mammalian epithelial tissue. (
  • PtdIns5P, made by PIKfyve kinase activity in mammalian cells, is not detected in budding yeast. (
  • however, later studies indicate that Naa11 is not expressed in the human cell lines HeLa and HEK293 or in cancerous tissues, and NAA11 transcripts were only detected in testicular and placental tissues. (
  • The origins of some immortal cell lines, for example HeLa human cells, are from naturally occurring cancers. (
  • Major examples include human HeLa cells that were obtained from a cervical cancer, mouse Raw 264.7 cells that were subjected to mutagenesis and then selected for cells which are able to undergo division. (
  • Only when Green and associates demonstrated in the late 1970s that pre-adipose 3T3 cells injected into athymic mice developed into mature pads of fat did the concept begin to gain widespread acceptance. (
  • When their adipose tissue morphology was investigated for histochemical staining, the distribution of cell size in the high-fat diet groups was hypertrophied compared with those from Buddleja officinalis Maximowicz extract-treated mice. (
  • Only the MBD2 cell lines were highly tumorigenic and invasive when injected into Nude mice while also showing a remarkable ability to invade and degrade bone tissue when injected into the tibia of SCID mice. (
  • 3T3-F4424 cells when implanted into an athymic (nude) mice gave rise to fat pads that were similar to endogenous white adipose tissue. (
  • There was also a GPR84 downregulation in dentritic cell derived from FcRgamma chain KO mice. (
  • Ablating lysosomal acid lipase (Lal-/-) in mice led to aberrant expansion of myeloid-derived suppressive cells (MDSCs) (>40% in the blood, and >70% in the bone marrow) that arise from dysregulated production of myeloid progenitor cells in the bone marrow. (
  • Deletion of calponin 2 in macrophages also significantly attenuated the development of atherosclerosis lesions in apolipoprotein E knockout (ApoE-/-) mice The expression of calponin 2 is significantly increased in cells cultured on hard versus soft gel substrates that produce high or low traction force and cytoskeleton tension. (
  • Mice harboring a single activated allele of pdgfrb show a number of postnatal phenotypes including reduced differentiation of aortic vascular smooth muscle cells and brain pericytes. (
  • Mouse NIH/3T3 cell lysate was prepared by homogenization in modified RIPA buffer(50 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.4, 1% Triton X-100, 0.2% sodium deoxycholate, 0.2% sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS), 1 mM sodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate,1 mM phenylmethyl-sulfonyl flouride, 5 µg/ml of aprotinin, 5 µg/ml of leupeptin). (
  • NIH/3T3 cell lysate is ready to load on SDS-PAGE for Western blotting, 20 µg per lane is recommended for mini gel. (
  • Mast cells were shown to maintain the phenotype of their in vivo lung counterparts (ie, scroll granules predominated, and numerous lipid bodies were present). (
  • This ultrastructural phenotype differs from that of mast cells that develop in cocultures of human cord blood cells and 3T3 cells, where developing mast cells with crystalline granules and few lipid bodies prevail, a phenotype much like that of human skin mast cells in vivo (Furitsu, Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1989, 86:10039-10043). (
  • Recently it has been shown that upregulation of IFRD1 in vivo in injured muscle potentiates muscle regeneration by increasing the production of staminal muscle cells (satellite cells). (
  • Standard monolayer cell culturing on tissue culture plastic has notably improved our understanding of basic cell biology, but it does not replicate the complex 3D architecture of in vivo tissue, and it can significantly modify cell properties. (
  • This hypothesis has recently been challenged by the observation that transfection of NIH 3T3 cells with yeast H(+)-ATPase renders them tumorigenic. (
  • The cells are arrayed on a 12-well (5 mm) adhesive coated slide, with each wells surface specifically treated to enhance cellular attachment and to minimize background staining. (
  • Novel techniques were used to determine when in the cell cycle of proliferating NIH 3T3 cells cellular Ras and cyclin D1 are required. (
  • Foremost among the positive proliferative signaling pathways in fibroblast-like cells is the one involving peptide growth factors and cellular Ras ( 30 ). (
  • The results demonstrate that the regulation of vinculin expression in cells can affect, in a major way, cell shape and motility, and that decreased vinculin expression can induce cellular changes reminiscent of those found in transformed cells. (
  • The cellular concentration of phosphocholine has been reported to be significantly elevated in Ha-ras-transformed NIH 3T3 cells, but not in v-sis transformants (J. C. Lacal, J. Moscat, and S. A. Aaronson, Nature [London] 330:269-271, 1987). (
  • To gain an understanding of the mechanisms by which these synergistic effects arise, we studied the initial cellular responses associated with the interaction of mitogenic factors and hormones with the cell, including changes in cation fluxes, cyclic nucleotides and cellular phosphoproteins. (
  • However, we still know little as to the function of a change in cell volume as a direct signal in the regulation of these cellular parameters. (
  • The evidence clearly shows that this increased incorporation that is detected by in situ autoradiography in microinjected cells represents cellular DNA synthesis and not DNA repair or plasmid replication. (
  • Detecting effects of low levels of cytochalasin B in 3T3 fibroblast cultures by analysis of electrical noise obtained from cellular micromotion. (
  • The suffix "-blast" is used in cellular biology to denote a stem cell or a cell in an activated state of metabolism. (
  • His laboratory focuses on how cell signals are routed and processed through cellular signaling networks within cells to discover new drug targets for complex diseases. (
  • The researchers were able to identify the minimal conditions and factors that would be sufficient for starting the cascade of molecular and cellular processes to instruct pluripotent cells to organize the embryo. (
  • screened for and characterized temperature sensitive mutants, also known as cell division cycle mutants (cdc mutants), that display arrested cellular development at various stages of the cycle. (
  • Only postmitotic cells younger than three hours arrested cellular division in these conditions, while cells older than four hours were insensitive to the absence of growth factors. (
  • Nonmuscle tropomyosin isoforms function in all cells, both muscle and nonmuscle cells, and are involved in a range of cellular pathways that control and regulate the cell's cytoskeleton and other key cellular functions. (
  • The dynamic mechanical behavior of cell-ECM and cell-cell interactions is known to influence a vast range of cellular functions, including necrosis, differentiation, adhesion, migration, locomotion, and growth. (
  • First, a continuous displacement field is computed from a pair of images: the first image being the reference configuration of microspheres surrounding an isolated cell, and the second image being the same isolated cell surrounded by microspheres that are now displaced due to the cellular-generated tractions. (
  • For example, cellular migration velocities and plithotaxis are observed alongside a computed stress variation map of a monolayer sheet of cells, in an approach termed monolayer stress microscopy. (
  • Retinoic acid (RA), at 1-10 microM, inhibited adipose conversion of 3T3-F442A cells as determined by the activities of lipogenic enzymes, glycerophosphate dehydrogenase (GPD) and malic enzyme. (
  • The results show that cells exhibit a low resting cytosolic glucose concentration. (
  • David Ernest James (born Sydney 1958) is a cell biologist who discovered the glucose transporter GLUT4. (
  • When PKM2 is mainly in the highly active tetrameric form, which is the case in differentiated tissues and most normal proliferating cells, glucose is converted to pyruvate under the production of energy. (
  • The culture of embryonic Swiss mouse fibroblast cells presented in the digital image above was labeled with MitoTracker Red CMXRos and Alexa Fluor 488 conjugated to phalloidin, targeting the mitochondrial network and filamentous actin, respectively. (
  • Indeed, it has been proposed that a change in cell volume acts as an immediate signal that impinges on the apoptotic death process ( 7 , 13 , 18 , 39 , 47 , 48 , 58 , 73 ) as well as on progression through the cell cycle ( 36 - 38 ). (
  • Studies have shown that c-jun is required for progression through the G1 phase of the cell cycle, and c-jun null cells show increased G1 arrest. (
  • These data provide strong experimental evidence that neu oncogene expression is sufficient for the induction of metastasis in the 3T3 cell system and supply a molecular basis supporting the correlations found in clinical observation. (
  • These results suggest that the increased expression of N3-methyladenine-DNA glycosylase is not necessarily a crucial mechanism for the resistance of cells to alkylating agents. (
  • To study the effect of reduced vinculin expression on cell behavior, 3T3 cells were transfected with an antisense vinculin cDNA construct, and clones displaying decreased vinculin levels down to 10-30% of control levels were isolated. (
  • METHODS: Expression vectors for wild-type and L68Q cystatin C were constructed and used to transfect mouse NIH/3T3 cells. (
  • Expression of dominant negative RalA delays border cell migration in Drosophila oogenesis ( 9 ), and transfection of the guanine nucleotide releasing stimulator of RalA affects cell morphology ( 10 ), suggesting a linkage between RalA and the actin cytoskeleton. (
  • Further, EECV treatment decreased AMPK-α expression as compared with control and metformin treated cells. (
  • Commitment of adipocyte differentiation in 3T3 cells is inhibited by retinoic acid, and the expression of lipogenic enzymes is modulated through cytoskeleton stabilization. (
  • Recently it has been shown that epigenetic modification of the distal promoter region of CEBPA has resulted in downregulation of CEBPA expression in pancreatic cancer cells, lung cancer, and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. (
  • C/EBPβ plays a role in neuronal differentiation, in learning, in memory processes, in glial and neuronal cell functions, and in neurotrophic factor expression. (
  • Moreover, ectopic expression of C/EBPα in various fibroblast cell lines promotes adipogenesis. (
  • These transcription factors promote Cln1/2 expression, and enhance the cell cycle response by forming a positive feedback loop, as Cln1/2 promotes SBF activation and Whi5 export. (
  • Lacking of Fbx15 leads to normal embryonic development, but it is often used as a downstream identifier to check for stem cell pluripotency and also Oct3/4 activation, as Oct3/4 deactivation leads to a complete lack of Fbx15 expression. (
  • The effect of calponin 2 on facilitating the velocity of cell adhesion was also shown with prostate cancer cells expression high or low levels of calponin 2. (
  • In their report, the authors speculated that the "histotypic expression" by which MDCK cells formed structures reminiscent of their tissue of origin might be fruitfully applied to the study of other tissues. (
  • Tumorigenic 3T3 cells maintain an alkaline intracellular pH under physiological conditions. (
  • Alexa Fluor 568 conjugated to phalloidin was utilized to label the 3T3 cell culture presented in the digital image above for intracellular filamentous actin, while DAPI was used to target DNA in the cell nuclei. (
  • The interaction with heparan suflate allows hepatocyte growth factor to form a complex with c-Met that is able to transduce intracellular signals leading to cell division and cell migration. (
  • CFSE is cell permeable and covalently couples, via its succinimidyl group, to intracellular molecules, notably, to intracellular lysine residues and other amine sources. (
  • As CFDA-SE, which is non-fluorescent, enters the cytoplasm of cells, intracellular esterases remove the acetate groups and convert the molecule to the fluorescent ester. (
  • The host cell cycle is also modulated by the toxin, which can act as an intracellular mitogen. (
  • Subsequent to embryonic development, it is generally believed that a small amount of mesenchymal cells survive in small blood vessels and other locations in the body, which can be called upon to differentiate into specialized cells when needed. (
  • Similarly, differentiation of adipose from pericytes and mesenchymal cells is suppressed. (
  • At the time of their establishment, 3T3 cells were different than most other cell lines in regard to the fact they did not induce tumors to develop when injected into murine species. (
  • A similar decrease in Coenzyme Q synthesis was also achieved by treating the cells with cholesterol-poor serum. (
  • Considered together with the fact that the activity of HMG CoA reductase and incorporation of mevalonic acid into dolichol were unaffected following serum-free treatment, the results suggest that maintenance of a certain level of de novo synthesis of dolichol may contribute to the capability of SV-3T3 cells to proliferate in serum-free medium. (
  • and (b) synthesis of oleoyl-estrone from cell estrone. (
  • At a certain point following stimulation to reenter the cell cycle, the continued presence of a variety of growth factors became unnecessary for continuation through G 1 phase and the initiation of DNA synthesis ( 25 ). (
  • Hartwell not only identified the mutant, cdc28, which arrests in very early stages of the cell cycle, but he also recognised that the presence of mating factors could result in similar phenotypes of inhibited bud formation and lack of DNA synthesis. (
  • 3T3-L1 cells of the adipocyte morphology increase the synthesis and accumulation of triglycerides and acquire the signet ring appearance of adipose cells. (
  • COX-1 is responsible for the synthesis of prostaglandin and thromboxane in many types of cells, including the gastro-intestinal tract and blood platelets. (
  • This bacterium can be effectively treated with β-lactam antibiotics, which inhibit cell wall synthesis. (
  • 3T3 cells can be transformed with SV40 and some other polyomaviruses. (
  • The components of unidirectional K influx and efflux were investigated in the 3T3 cell and the SV40 transformed 3T3 cell in exponential and stationary growth phase. (
  • Total unidirectional K influx and effluxin the 3T3 cell is approximately double that of the SV40 3T3 cell at all cell densities investigated. (
  • No comparable drop occurs in the SV40 3T3 cell at equivalent cell densities (64% versus 56% of total influx). (
  • In 1962, Bernice Eddy described the SV40 oncogenic function inducing sarcoma and ependymomas in hamsters inoculated with monkeys cells infected with SV40. (
  • citation needed] SV40 is capable of multiplicity reactivation (MR). MR is the process by which two or more virus genomes containing otherwise lethal damage interact within an infected cell to form a viable virus genome. (
  • Yamamato and Shimojo observed MR when SV40 virions were irradiated with UV light and allowed to undergo multiple infection of host cells. (
  • p27Kip1 is a cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor which down-regulates cell cycle by binding cyclin-CDK complex. (
  • For example, Hsc70 regulates the nuclear accumulation of cyclin D1, which is a key player in G1 to S phase cell cycle transition. (
  • IQGAP1 regulates the localization of mDia1 to the leading edge to cells. (
  • Sam68 has also been shown to re-localize in the cytoplasm near the plasma membrane, where it functions to transport and regulate the translation of certain mRNAs and regulates cell migration. (
  • PIKfyve negatively regulates Ca2+-dependent exocytosis in neuroendocrine cells without affecting voltage-gated calcium channels. (
  • Differential translation of virogenic and oncogenic sequences in malignant lymphoproliferative diseases and transfection of coding DNAs into NIH 3T3 cells. (
  • The spontaneously immortalized cells with stable growth rate were established after 20 to 30 generations in culture, and then named '3T3' cells. (
  • 3T3 cells are often used in the cultivation of keratinocytes, with the 3T3 cells secreting growth factors favourable to these kinds of cells. (
  • We also show that these cells are serum-independent for growth and that they glycolyze much more rapidly than phenotypically normal cells. (
  • Mouse NIH / 3T3 cells were cultured in DMEM with 4 mM L-glutamine and harvested at the log phase of growth. (
  • low dosages of GO promoted cell growth, while high doses induced cell death. (
  • Moreover, the effect is not specifically a function of the presence of the viral genome, but is a reflection of the overall growth rate and physiological state of the cell. (
  • Both drug series were found to stop cell growth and block cells in G 2 phase in exponentially growing cultures and cultures released from a thymidine double block. (
  • Growth-arrested cells begin to express late markers of differentiation at d 3. (
  • This suggests that polyamines are needed in the processes of differentiation as well as their established requirement for cell growth. (
  • A preadipose 3T3 cell variant highly sensitive to adipogenic factors and to human growth hormone. (
  • They have been alternately referred to as "pluripotent" growth factors and as "promiscuous" growth factors due to their multiple actions on multiple cell types. (
  • These experimental results show strong evidence for a commitment point to enter mitosis, and consequently suggest that the cell is capable of sensing its environment for cues like growth factors before committing. (
  • The activity of Cln3 correlates with cell growth rate. (
  • Retinoids exert biologic effects such as potent growth inhibitory and cell differentiation activities and are used in the treatment of hyperproliferative dermatological diseases. (
  • In S. cerevisiae, Naa10 function is not essential but yNAA10Δ cells display severe defects including de-repression of the silent mating type locus (HML), failure to enter Go phase, temperature sensitivity, and impaired growth. (
  • MDCK cells are used for a wide variety of cell biology studies including cell polarity, cell-cell adhesions (termed adherens junctions), collective cell motility, as well as responses to growth factors. (
  • We investigated whether HO-1 can be activated by FA and suppress adipogenic factors in 3T3-L1. (
  • The effects of TJF extract on cell viability were analyzed using a 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, and the anti-adipogenic effect was measured by oil red O staining. (
  • Victimless Leather - a prototype of a stitch-less jacket, grown from cell cultures into a layer of tissue supported by a coat shaped polymer layer. (
  • For example, supposed thyroid lines were actually melanoma cells, supposed prostate tissue was actually bladder cancer, and supposed normal uterine cultures were actually breast cancer. (
  • Co-culturing of different cell types can be achieved at the onset of levitation, by mixing different cell types in before levitation or by magnetically guiding 3D cultures in an invasion assay format. (