3' Untranslated Regions: The sequence at the 3' end of messenger RNA that does not code for product. This region contains transcription and translation regulating sequences.5' Untranslated Regions: The sequence at the 5' end of the messenger RNA that does not code for product. This sequence contains the ribosome binding site and other transcription and translation regulating sequences.Untranslated Regions: The parts of the messenger RNA sequence that do not code for product, i.e. the 5' UNTRANSLATED REGIONS and 3' UNTRANSLATED REGIONS.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.RNA Stability: The extent to which an RNA molecule retains its structural integrity and resists degradation by RNASE, and base-catalyzed HYDROLYSIS, under changing in vivo or in vitro conditions.RNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.MicroRNAs: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs, 21-25 nucleotides in length generated from single-stranded microRNA gene transcripts by the same RIBONUCLEASE III, Dicer, that produces small interfering RNAs (RNA, SMALL INTERFERING). They become part of the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX and repress the translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of target RNA by binding to homologous 3'UTR region as an imperfect match. The small temporal RNAs (stRNAs), let-7 and lin-4, from C. elegans, are the first 2 miRNAs discovered, and are from a class of miRNAs involved in developmental timing.Introns: Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Hu Paraneoplastic Encephalomyelitis Antigens: A family of RNA-binding proteins that are homologues of ELAV protein, Drosophila. They were initially identified in humans as the targets of autoantibodies in patients with PARANEOPLASTIC ENCEPHALOMYELITIS. They are thought to regulate GENE EXPRESSION at the post-transcriptional level.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.RNA Processing, Post-Transcriptional: Post-transcriptional biological modification of messenger, transfer, or ribosomal RNAs or their precursors. It includes cleavage, methylation, thiolation, isopentenylation, pseudouridine formation, conformational changes, and association with ribosomal protein.Exons: The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.Regulatory Sequences, Ribonucleic Acid: Sequences within RNA that regulate the processing, stability (RNA STABILITY) or translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of RNA.Poly A: A group of adenine ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each adenine ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.Regulatory Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Nucleic acid sequences involved in regulating the expression of genes.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Genome, Viral: The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Heterogeneous-Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein D: A heterogeneous-nuclear ribonucleoprotein that has specificity for AU-rich elements found in the 3'-region of mRNA and may play a role in RNA stability. Several isoforms of hnRNP D protein have been found to occur due to alternative mRNA splicing (RNA SPLICING).Genes, Reporter: Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.Codon, Initiator: A codon that directs initiation of protein translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) by stimulating the binding of initiator tRNA (RNA, TRANSFER, MET). In prokaryotes, the codons AUG or GUG can act as initiators while in eukaryotes, AUG is the only initiator codon.Polyadenylation: The addition of a tail of polyadenylic acid (POLY A) to the 3' end of mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). Polyadenylation involves recognizing the processing site signal, (AAUAAA), and cleaving of the mRNA to create a 3' OH terminal end to which poly A polymerase (POLYNUCLEOTIDE ADENYLYLTRANSFERASE) adds 60-200 adenylate residues. The 3' end processing of some messenger RNAs, such as histone mRNA, is carried out by a different process that does not include the addition of poly A as described here.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Polyribosomes: A multiribosomal structure representing a linear array of RIBOSOMES held together by messenger RNA; (RNA, MESSENGER); They represent the active complexes in cellular protein synthesis and are able to incorporate amino acids into polypeptides both in vivo and in vitro. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Alternative Splicing: A process whereby multiple RNA transcripts are generated from a single gene. Alternative splicing involves the splicing together of other possible sets of EXONS during the processing of some, but not all, transcripts of the gene. Thus a particular exon may be connected to any one of several alternative exons to form a mature RNA. The alternative forms of mature MESSENGER RNA produce PROTEIN ISOFORMS in which one part of the isoforms is common while the other parts are different.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.RNA Caps: Nucleic acid structures found on the 5' end of eukaryotic cellular and viral messenger RNA and some heterogeneous nuclear RNAs. These structures, which are positively charged, protect the above specified RNAs at their termini against attack by phosphatases and other nucleases and promote mRNA function at the level of initiation of translation. Analogs of the RNA caps (RNA CAP ANALOGS), which lack the positive charge, inhibit the initiation of protein synthesis.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Ribosomes: Multicomponent ribonucleoprotein structures found in the CYTOPLASM of all cells, and in MITOCHONDRIA, and PLASTIDS. They function in PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS via GENETIC TRANSLATION.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Luciferases: Enzymes that oxidize certain LUMINESCENT AGENTS to emit light (PHYSICAL LUMINESCENCE). The luciferases from different organisms have evolved differently so have different structures and substrates.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Tristetraprolin: A ZINC FINGER MOTIF containing transcription factor that was originally identified as one of the IMMEDIATE-EARLY PROTEINS. It shuttles between the CYTOPLASM and the CELL NUCLEUS and is involved in destabilization of mRNAs for TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR-ALPHA.Ribonucleoproteins: Complexes of RNA-binding proteins with ribonucleic acids (RNA).RNA Splicing: The ultimate exclusion of nonsense sequences or intervening sequences (introns) before the final RNA transcript is sent to the cytoplasm.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Sequence Deletion: Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.RNA, Untranslated: RNA which does not code for protein but has some enzymatic, structural or regulatory function. Although ribosomal RNA (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) and transfer RNA (RNA, TRANSFER) are also untranslated RNAs they are not included in this scope.Myotonic Dystrophy: Neuromuscular disorder characterized by PROGRESSIVE MUSCULAR ATROPHY; MYOTONIA, and various multisystem atrophies. Mild INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY may also occur. Abnormal TRINUCLEOTIDE REPEAT EXPANSION in the 3' UNTRANSLATED REGIONS of DMPK PROTEIN gene is associated with Myotonic Dystrophy 1. DNA REPEAT EXPANSION of zinc finger protein-9 gene intron is associated with Myotonic Dystrophy 2.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.AU Rich Elements: RNA sequences composed of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES and URACIL NUCLEOTIDES, that are located in the 3'UNTRANSLATED REGIONS of MESSENGER RNA molecules that are rapidly degraded. They are also known as AREs.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Codon: A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal (CODON, TERMINATOR). Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER) complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons (CODONS, NONSENSE).RNA Transport: The process of moving specific RNA molecules from one cellular compartment or region to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Heterogeneous-Nuclear Ribonucleoproteins: A family of ribonucleoproteins that were originally found as proteins bound to nascent RNA transcripts in the form of ribonucleoprotein particles. Although considered ribonucleoproteins they are primarily classified by their protein component. They are involved in a variety of processes such as packaging of RNA and RNA TRANSPORT within the nucleus. A subset of heterogeneous-nuclear ribonucleoproteins are involved in additional functions such as nucleocytoplasmic transport (ACTIVE TRANSPORT, CELL NUCLEUS) of RNA and mRNA stability in the CYTOPLASM.Peptide Chain Initiation, Translational: A process of GENETIC TRANSLATION whereby the formation of a peptide chain is started. It includes assembly of the RIBOSOME components, the MESSENGER RNA coding for the polypeptide to be made, INITIATOR TRNA, and PEPTIDE INITIATION FACTORS; and placement of the first amino acid in the peptide chain. The details and components of this process are unique for prokaryotic protein biosynthesis and eukaryotic protein biosynthesis.Picornaviridae: A family of small RNA viruses comprising some important pathogens of humans and animals. Transmission usually occurs mechanically. There are nine genera: APHTHOVIRUS; CARDIOVIRUS; ENTEROVIRUS; ERBOVIRUS; HEPATOVIRUS; KOBUVIRUS; PARECHOVIRUS; RHINOVIRUS; and TESCHOVIRUS.Globins: A superfamily of proteins containing the globin fold which is composed of 6-8 alpha helices arranged in a characterstic HEME enclosing structure.Tombusviridae: A family of RNA plant viruses infecting dicotyledons. Transmission is mainly by mechanical inoculation and through propagative plant material. All species elicit formation of multivesicular inclusion bodies. There are at least eight genera: Aureusvirus, Avenavirus, CARMOVIRUS, Dianthovirus, Machlomovirus, Necrovirus, Panicovirus, and TOMBUSVIRUS.Coronavirus, Bovine: A species of CORONAVIRUS infecting neonatal calves, presenting as acute diarrhea, and frequently leading to death.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Gene Expression Regulation, Viral: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.Iron-Regulatory Proteins: Proteins that regulate cellular and organismal iron homeostasis. They play an important biological role by maintaining iron levels that are adequate for metabolic need, but below the toxicity threshold.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Chloramphenicol O-Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the acetylation of chloramphenicol to yield chloramphenicol 3-acetate. Since chloramphenicol 3-acetate does not bind to bacterial ribosomes and is not an inhibitor of peptidyltransferase, the enzyme is responsible for the naturally occurring chloramphenicol resistance in bacteria. The enzyme, for which variants are known, is found in both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. EC 126.96.36.199.Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Hepacivirus: A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE causing parenterally-transmitted HEPATITIS C which is associated with transfusions and drug abuse. Hepatitis C virus is the type species.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.DNA Restriction Enzymes: Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.Transcription Initiation Site: The first nucleotide of a transcribed DNA sequence where RNA polymerase (DNA-DIRECTED RNA POLYMERASE) begins synthesizing the RNA transcript.Polypyrimidine Tract-Binding Protein: A RNA-binding protein that binds to polypyriminidine rich regions in the INTRONS of messenger RNAs. Polypyrimidine tract-binding protein may be involved in regulating the ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of mRNAs since its presence on an intronic RNA region that is upstream of an EXON inhibits the splicing of the exon into the final mRNA product.Sequence Analysis, RNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, sequencing, and information analysis of an RNA SEQUENCE.Gene Library: A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.Alfalfa mosaic virus: The type species of the genus ALFAMOVIRUS that is non-persistently transmitted by aphids.Carmovirus: A genus in the family TOMBUSVIRIDAE mostly found in temperate regions. Some species infecting legumes (FABACEAE) are reported from tropical areas. Most viruses are soil-borne, but some are transmitted by the fungus Olpidium radicale and others by beetles. Carnation mottle virus is the type species.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.RNA Probes: RNA, usually prepared by transcription from cloned DNA, which complements a specific mRNA or DNA and is generally used for studies of virus genes, distribution of specific RNA in tissues and cells, integration of viral DNA into genomes, transcription, etc. Whereas DNA PROBES are preferred for use at a more macroscopic level for detection of the presence of DNA/RNA from specific species or subspecies, RNA probes are preferred for genetic studies. Conventional labels for the RNA probe include radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. RNA probes may be further divided by category into plus-sense RNA probes, minus-sense RNA probes, and antisense RNA probes.Codon, Terminator: Any codon that signals the termination of genetic translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC). PEPTIDE TERMINATION FACTORS bind to the stop codon and trigger the hydrolysis of the aminoacyl bond connecting the completed polypeptide to the tRNA. Terminator codons do not specify amino acids.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Luteovirus: A genus of plant viruses that infects both monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants. Its organisms are persistently transmitted by aphids, and weeds may provide reservoirs of infection.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Flavivirus: A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE containing several subgroups and many species. Most are arboviruses transmitted by mosquitoes or ticks. The type species is YELLOW FEVER VIRUS.RNA, Plant: Ribonucleic acid in plants having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.RNA Isoforms: The different gene transcripts generated from a single gene by RNA EDITING or ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of RNA PRECURSORS.Trinucleotide Repeat Expansion: An increased number of contiguous trinucleotide repeats in the DNA sequence from one generation to the next. The presence of these regions is associated with diseases such as FRAGILE X SYNDROME and MYOTONIC DYSTROPHY. Some CHROMOSOME FRAGILE SITES are composed of sequences where trinucleotide repeat expansion occurs.DNA Mutational Analysis: Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Tobacco: A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Oligonucleotide Probes: Synthetic or natural oligonucleotides used in hybridization studies in order to identify and study specific nucleic acid fragments, e.g., DNA segments near or within a specific gene locus or gene. The probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin.Inverted Repeat Sequences: Copies of nucleic acid sequence that are arranged in opposing orientation. They may lie adjacent to each other (tandem) or be separated by some sequence that is not part of the repeat (hyphenated). They may be true palindromic repeats, i.e. read the same backwards as forward, or complementary which reads as the base complement in the opposite orientation. Complementary inverted repeats have the potential to form hairpin loop or stem-loop structures which results in cruciform structures (such as CRUCIFORM DNA) when the complementary inverted repeats occur in double stranded regions.Retroelements: Elements that are transcribed into RNA, reverse-transcribed into DNA and then inserted into a new site in the genome. Long terminal repeats (LTRs) similar to those from retroviruses are contained in retrotransposons and retrovirus-like elements. Retroposons, such as LONG INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS and SHORT INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS do not contain LTRs.Iron Regulatory Protein 1: A multifunctional iron-sulfur protein that is both an iron regulatory protein and cytoplasmic form of aconitate hydratase. It binds to iron regulatory elements found on mRNAs involved in iron metabolism and regulates their translation. Its RNA binding ability and its aconitate hydrolase activity are dependent upon availability of IRON.RNA, Protozoan: Ribonucleic acid in protozoa having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.Base Pairing: Pairing of purine and pyrimidine bases by HYDROGEN BONDING in double-stranded DNA or RNA.Poly(A)-Binding Proteins: Proteins that bind to the 3' polyadenylated region of MRNA. When complexed with RNA the proteins serve an array of functions such as stabilizing the 3' end of RNA, promoting poly(A) synthesis and stimulating mRNA translation.Selenoproteins: Selenoproteins are proteins that specifically incorporate SELENOCYSTEINE into their amino acid chain. Most selenoproteins are enzymes with the selenocysteine residues being responsible for their catalytic functions.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.RNA, Helminth: Ribonucleic acid in helminths having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.RNA, Antisense: RNA molecules which hybridize to complementary sequences in either RNA or DNA altering the function of the latter. Endogenous antisense RNAs function as regulators of gene expression by a variety of mechanisms. Synthetic antisense RNAs are used to effect the functioning of specific genes for investigative or therapeutic purposes.Consensus Sequence: A theoretical representative nucleotide or amino acid sequence in which each nucleotide or amino acid is the one which occurs most frequently at that site in the different sequences which occur in nature. The phrase also refers to an actual sequence which approximates the theoretical consensus. A known CONSERVED SEQUENCE set is represented by a consensus sequence. Commonly observed supersecondary protein structures (AMINO ACID MOTIFS) are often formed by conserved sequences.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.DNA, Recombinant: Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.Enterovirus B, Human: A species of ENTEROVIRUS infecting humans and containing 36 serotypes. It is comprised of all the echoviruses and a few coxsackieviruses, including all of those previously named coxsackievirus B.Protein Isoforms: Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Plants, Toxic: Plants or plant parts which are harmful to man or other animals.RNA, Fungal: Ribonucleic acid in fungi having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Blotting, Southern: A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: A species of GREEN ALGAE. Delicate, hairlike appendages arise from the flagellar surface in these organisms.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.Selenocysteine: A naturally occurring amino acid in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms. It is found in tRNAs and in the catalytic site of some enzymes. The genes for glutathione peroxidase and formate dehydrogenase contain the TGA codon, which codes for this amino acid.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Plant Tubers: An enlarged underground root or stem of some plants. It is usually rich in carbohydrates. Some, such as POTATOES, are important human FOOD. They may reproduce vegetatively from buds.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Base Composition: The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Haplotypes: The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.DEAD-box RNA Helicases: A large family of RNA helicases that share a common protein motif with the single letter amino acid sequence D-E-A-D (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp). In addition to RNA helicase activity, members of the DEAD-box family participate in other aspects of RNA metabolism and regulation of RNA function.Computational Biology: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.Transgenes: Genes that are introduced into an organism using GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Trinucleotide Repeats: Microsatellite repeats consisting of three nucleotides dispersed in the euchromatic arms of chromosomes.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Potexvirus: A genus of plant viruses in the family FLEXIVIRIDAE, that cause mosaic and ringspot symptoms. Transmission occurs mechanically. Potato virus X is the type species.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Viral Nonstructural Proteins: Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.RNA 3' Polyadenylation Signals: Sequences found near the 3' end of MESSENGER RNA that direct the cleavage and addition of multiple ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES to the 3' end of mRNA.3T3 Cells: Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.Replicon: Any DNA sequence capable of independent replication or a molecule that possesses a REPLICATION ORIGIN and which is therefore potentially capable of being replicated in a suitable cell. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Oogenesis: The process of germ cell development in the female from the primordial germ cells through OOGONIA to the mature haploid ova (OVUM).Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.RNA, Satellite: Small, linear single-stranded RNA molecules functionally acting as molecular parasites of certain RNA plant viruses. Satellite RNAs exhibit four characteristic traits: (1) they require helper viruses to replicate; (2) they are unnecessary for the replication of helper viruses; (3) they are encapsidated in the coat protein of the helper virus; (4) they have no extensive sequence homology to the helper virus. Thus they differ from SATELLITE VIRUSES which encode their own coat protein, and from the genomic RNA; (=RNA, VIRAL); of satellite viruses. (From Maramorosch, Viroids and Satellites, 1991, p143)Nuclear Factor 90 Proteins: A family of double-stranded RNA-binding proteins that are related to NFATC TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS. In addition to binding to RNA, nuclear factor 90 proteins form heterodimeric complexes that regulate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and may play a role in T-CELL activation.Endoribonucleases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of RNA. It includes EC 3.1.26.-, EC 3.1.27.-, EC 3.1.30.-, and EC 3.1.31.-.Genomic Library: A form of GENE LIBRARY containing the complete DNA sequences present in the genome of a given organism. It contrasts with a cDNA library which contains only sequences utilized in protein coding (lacking introns).Cell-Free System: A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)Sequence Homology: The degree of similarity between sequences. Studies of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and NUCLEIC ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY provide useful information about the genetic relatedness of genes, gene products, and species.Genes, myc: Family of retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (myc) originally isolated from an avian myelocytomatosis virus. The proto-oncogene myc (c-myc) codes for a nuclear protein which is involved in nucleic acid metabolism and in mediating the cellular response to growth factors. Truncation of the first exon, which appears to regulate c-myc expression, is crucial for tumorigenicity. The human c-myc gene is located at 8q24 on the long arm of chromosome 8.Reticulocytes: Immature ERYTHROCYTES. In humans, these are ERYTHROID CELLS that have just undergone extrusion of their CELL NUCLEUS. They still contain some organelles that gradually decrease in number as the cells mature. RIBOSOMES are last to disappear. Certain staining techniques cause components of the ribosomes to precipitate into characteristic "reticulum" (not the same as the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM), hence the name reticulocytes.Hibiscus: A plant genus of the family MALVACEAE. Members contain CITRIC ACID; MALATES; ANTHOCYANINS; FLAVONOIDS; GLYCOSIDES; DIETARY FIBER; and LIGNANS. Hibiscus sabdariffa is common constituent of HERBAL TEAS. Hibiscus cannabinus is a source of hemp fiber for TEXTILES.mRNA Cleavage and Polyadenylation Factors: Factors that are involved in directing the cleavage and POLYADENYLATION of the of MESSENGER RNA near the site of the RNA 3' POLYADENYLATION SIGNALS.Protoplasts: The protoplasm and plasma membrane of plant, fungal, bacterial or archaeon cells without the CELL WALL.Single-Strand Specific DNA and RNA Endonucleases: Enzymes that catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of single-stranded regions of DNA or RNA molecules while leaving the double-stranded regions intact. They are particularly useful in the laboratory for producing "blunt-ended" DNA molecules from DNA with single-stranded ends and for sensitive GENETIC TECHNIQUES such as NUCLEASE PROTECTION ASSAYS that involve the detection of single-stranded DNA and RNA.RNA Splice Sites: Nucleotide sequences located at the ends of EXONS and recognized in pre-messenger RNA by SPLICEOSOMES. They are joined during the RNA SPLICING reaction, forming the junctions between exons.Oligodeoxyribonucleotides: A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.Elettaria: A plant genus of the family ZINGIBERACEAE, order Zingiberales, subclass Zingiberidae. Elettaria cardamomum (L.) Maton is the source of Cardamom used in SPICES.Dengue Virus: A species of the genus FLAVIVIRUS which causes an acute febrile and sometimes hemorrhagic disease in man. Dengue is mosquito-borne and four serotypes are known.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Oocytes: Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).Xenopus: An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Gene Frequency: The proportion of one particular in the total of all ALLELES for one genetic locus in a breeding POPULATION.HEK293 Cells: A cell line generated from human embryonic kidney cells that were transformed with human adenovirus type 5.RNA Viruses: Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.Ribosome Subunits, Small, Eukaryotic: The small subunit of the 80s ribosome of eukaryotes. It is composed of the 18S RIBOSOMAL RNA and 32 different RIBOSOMAL PROTEINS.Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Plant Viruses: Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.Point Mutation: A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.Enterovirus: A genus of the family PICORNAVIRIDAE whose members preferentially inhabit the intestinal tract of a variety of hosts. The genus contains many species. Newly described members of human enteroviruses are assigned continuous numbers with the species designated "human enterovirus".Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein: A RNA-binding protein that is found predominately in the CYTOPLASM. It helps regulate GENETIC TRANSLATION in NEURONS and is absent or under-expressed in FRAGILE X SYNDROME.
5' untranslated region 252 bp long. 3' untranslated region 1,129 bp long. 10 splice isoforms that encode good proteins, ... In this same region of the promoter, there is also a TATA-binding factor sequence, which helps in the positioning of RNA ... The protein is highly conserved in the DUF776 region amongst vertebrates, and also at the C-terminus in eukaryotes. Using tools ... 30 (2): 171-3. doi:10.1136/jmg.30.2.171. PMC 1016280 . PMID 8445626. Clerk A, Kemp TJ, Zoumpoulidou G, Sugden PH (April 2007 ...
... untranslated region is ~100 nucleotides in length. Viral replication is cytoplasmic. Entry into the host cell is achieved by ... The genome is linear, 5.9-7 kilobases in length with a capped 5' end and a polyadenylated 3' end. The genome encodes 5 proteins ... The TGB 2 (molecular weight 11 kDa) and TGB 3 (molecular weight 10 kDa) proteins associate with the endoplasmic reticulum. The ... 2 and 3 - and the coat protein. The RNA is translated giving rise to the viral RNA polymerase. This in turn produces a negative ...
... untranslated region. The longer transcript is present at higher levels in proliferating tissues and cells, suggesting that this ... untranslated region may function as a trans-acting regulatory RNA. Prohibitins may have multiple functions including: ... untranslated region of prohibitin and cellular immortalization". Experimental Cell Research. 224 (1): 128-35. doi:10.1006/excr. ... Wang S, Nath N, Fusaro G, Chellappan S (Nov 1999). "Rb and prohibitin target distinct regions of E2F1 for repression and ...
... untranslated region (3'UTR) of the pseudogene PTENP1 in a DICER-dependent manner. A new mechanism has recently been shown in ... untranslated region (3'UTR) induces organ adhesion by regulating miR-199a* functions". PLoS ONE. 4 (2): e4527. doi:10.1371/ ... untranslated region modulates endogenous microRNA functions". PLoS ONE. 5 (10): e13599. Bibcode:2010PLoSO...513599L. doi: ... untranslated region regulates endogenous microRNA functions in tumorigenesis and angiogenesis". Nucleic Acids Research. 39 (8 ...
... untranslated region". Nucleic Acids Research. 20 (23): 6413. doi:10.1093/nar/20.23.6413. PMC 334538 . PMID 1475204. Shirakawa H ... "High-mobility group protein 2 may be involved in the locus control region regulation of the beta-globin gene cluster". ... 517 (1-3): 167-71. doi:10.1016/S0014-5793(02)02614-5. PMID 12062430. Fan Z, Beresford PJ, Zhang D, Xu Z, Novina CD, Yoshida A, ... 124 (3): 519-27. doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.jbchem.a022143. PMID 9722660. Aidinis V, Bonaldi T, Beltrame M, Santagata S, ...
... untranslated region". Virus Research. Special Issue: Functions of the ends of positive strand RNA virus genomes. 206: 53-61. ... untranslated regions (UTRs). The 5'UTRs are 95-101 nucleotides long in Dengue virus. There are two conserved structural ... Clyde K, Harris E; (2006). "RNA Secondary Structure in the Coding Region of Dengue Virus Type 2 Directs Translation Start Codon ... Brinton MA, Dispoto JH (1988). "Sequence and secondary structure analysis of the 5'-terminal region of flavivirus genome RNA". ...
... untranslated regions (UTRs) of the mRNAs of some cytokines and promotes their degradation. For example, TTP is a component of a ... untranslated region of cyclooxygenase-2 mRNA. A polyadenylation variant in a cancer cell line lacks the binding site". J. Biol ... 91 (3): 217-22. doi:10.1007/BF00218259. PMID 8478004. Lai WS, Carballo E, Thorn JM, et al. (2000). "Interactions of CCCH zinc ... ZFP36 has been shown to interact with 14-3-3 protein family members, such as YWHAH, and with NUP214, a member of the nuclear ...
... untranslated region in Salmonella enterica hilD mRNA". Nucleic Acids Research. 42 (9): 5894-5906. doi:10.1093/nar/gku222. ISSN ... The 3' UTR of mRNA hilD, a master regulator of Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI-1), is a prokaryotic example of ... López-Garrido, Javier; Puerta-Fernández, Elena; Casadesús, Josep (2014-05-01). "A eukaryotic-like 3' ...
... untranslated region of vimentin mRNA". Nucleic Acids Res. 25 (16): 3362-70. doi:10.1093/nar/25.16.3362. PMC 146884 . PMID ... High levels of DNA methylation in the promotor region have also been associated with markedly decreased survival in hormone ... 262 (3): 1320-5. PMID 3027087. Brown MJ, Hallam JA, Liu Y, Yamada KM, Shaw S (2001). "Cutting edge: integration of human T ... Vimentin has been shown to interact with: DSP MEN1 MYST2 PLEC PKN1 SPTAN1 UPP1 YWHAZ PRKCI The 3' UTR of Vimentin mRNA has been ...
... untranslated regions". Mol Cell Biol. 3 (10): 1738-45. PMC 370035 . PMID 6646120. "Entrez Gene: TUBA1B tubulin, alpha 1b". ... Reductive methylation studies of the Lys 394 region". Biophys. J. 64 (3): 792-802. doi:10.1016/S0006-3495(93)81440-1. PMC ... 22 (3): 698-707. PMID 11826099. Saugstad JA, Yang S, Pohl J, et al. (2002). "Interaction between metabotropic glutamate ... doi:10.1016/S0006-291X(02)00269-3. PMID 12054644. Cowan NJ, Dobner PR, Fuchs EV, Cleveland DW (Jan 1984). "Expression of human ...
Untranslated Region) to the germ line cells. Translation can be inhibited by cis regulatory elements in the transcript's 5' and ... untranslated regions of mRNAs in human diseases". Biology of the Cell. 101 (5): 251-62. doi:10.1042/BC20080104. PMID 19275763. ... After the duplication event, the N-terminal region acquired Zn-knuckle domains which are now conserved in invertebrates. ... and arginine methylation in a conserved region of mice, Xenopus and Drosophila Vasa genes. One of main function of Vasa protein ...
... untranslated region (3'UTR). The microtubule cytoskeleton also plays a role in localizing bicoid. The posterior group genes ... BMP-4 mainly acts in trunk and tail region of the embryo while a different set of signals work in the head region. Xwnt-8 is ... The gap genes are directly influenced by the maternal genes and are expressed in local and overlapping regions along the ... Hans Spemann named this region the organizer and the induction of the dorsal axis the primary induction. The organizer is ...
Untranslated Regions". Molecular and Cell Biology. 3 (10): 1738-1739, 1742. doi:10.1128/mcb.3.10.1738. PMC 370035 . PMID ... untranslated regions". Molecular and Cellular Biology. 3 (10): 1738-45. doi:10.1128/mcb.3.10.1738. PMC 370035 . PMID 6646120. ... 3 (7): 1-2. doi:10.1098/rsob.130061. PMC 3728923 . PMID 23864552. Poirier, K.; Keays, D. A.; Francis, F.; Saillour, Y.; Bahi, N ... doi:10.1016/S0955-0674(00)00173-3. PMID 11163133. Miller FD, Naus CC, Durand M, Bloom FE, Milner RJ (December 1987). "Isotypes ...
... untranslated regions". Mol. Cell. Biol. 3 (10): 1738-45. PMC 370035 . PMID 6646120. KATNB1 human gene location in the UCSC ... 127 (3): 635-48. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.09.026. PMID 17081983. Toyo-Oka K, Sasaki S, Yano Y, et al. (2006). "Recruitment of ... 109 (3): 561-7. PMID 8907702. McNally FJ, Vale RD (1993). "Identification of katanin, an ATPase that severs and disassembles ... 75 (3): 419-29. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(93)90377-3. PMID 8221885. Cowan NJ, Dobner PR, Fuchs EV, Cleveland DW (1984). "Expression ...
Untranslated regions (UTR) were looked at for c9orf135. Both of the UTR had hairpin loops that were present. The 3' UTR has a ... Also, a N-terminal acetylation site occurred at amino acid 3. Finally, there was a Signal cleavage site between amino acid 11 ... Secondary structure of c9orf135 5' UTR loop structure of c9orf135 of mRNA 3' UTR loop structure of c9orf135 mRNA c9orf135 is ...
... untranslated region". Biochemistry. Biokhimiia. 71 (12): 1377-1384. doi:10.1134/s0006297906120145. ISSN 0006-2979. PMID ... Those downstream from this region are unable to do so. Thus, nonsense codons lie more than 50-54 nucleotides upstream from the ... Ribosomes translating the mRNA eventually translate into the 3'poly-A tail region of transcripts and stalls. As a result, it ... adenylation or cryptic polyadenylation signals within the coding region of a gene. This lack of a stop codon results a ...
... untranslated region (3'UTR), has been shown to interact with one copy of R2 protein during TPRT. This fragment has been shown ... The 5′ R2 protein binding site occurs in a region that spans part of the 5' UTR and the start of the R2 ORF. This region also ... untranslated regions of diverse R2 RNAs". RNA. 10 (6): 978-87. doi:10.1261/rna.5216204. PMC 1370589 . PMID 15146081. Eickbush, ... regions of R2 retrotransposon RNAs reveal a novel conserved pseudoknot and regions that evolve under different constraints. J ...
... untranslated region. Mutations which change amino acid residues 12, 13 or 61 activate the potential of N-ras to transform ... 48 (4): 950-3. PMID 3276402. Hirai H, Kobayashi Y, Mano H, et al. (1987). "A point mutation at codon 13 of the N-ras oncogene ... 5 (3): 582-5. PMC 366752 . PMID 3887133. Brown R, Marshall CJ, Pennie SG, Hall A (1984). "Mechanism of activation of an N-ras ... 70 (3-4): 183-5. doi:10.1159/000134028. PMID 7789166. Kodaki T, Woscholski R, Hallberg B, et al. (1995). "The activation of ...
... untranslated region". Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 396 (2): 435-9. doi:10.1016/j.bbrc.2010.04.112. PMID 20417621. Jian, P.; Li, ... "MicroRNA-1285 inhibits the expression of p53 by directly targeting its 3' ...
... untranslated regions or within introns. Trans-regulatory elements control the transcription of a distant gene. Promoters ... The DNA material in chromosomes is composed of "coding" and "noncoding" regions. The coding regions are known as genes and ... of conserved DNA represented in noncoding regions. Linkage mapping often identifies chromosomal regions associated with a ... Non-protein coding regions . . . are not related directly to making proteins, [and] have been referred to as "junk" DNA.' The ...
... untranslated region. It is an deletion/insertion polymorphism (DIP). The 9-repeat and the 10-repeat are the most common alleles ... 2007). "Dopamine transporter 3'-UTR VNTR genotype and ADHD: a pharmaco-behavioural genetic study with methylphenidate". ... It is polymorphism as a 40 base pairs VNTR in the 3' ...
... untranslated region regulates endogenous microRNA functions in tumorigenesis and angiogenesis". Nucleic Acids Research. 39 (8 ... MicroRNA 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Hodzic, J.; Giovannetti, E.; Calvo, B. D.; Adema, A. D.; Peters, G. J. (2011). "Regulation of ... 17 (3): 227-238. doi:10.1177/1933719109351935. PMID 19923380. Lee, K. -H.; Chen, Y. -L.; Yeh, S. -D.; Hsiao, M.; Lin, J. -T.; ... Jeyapalan, Z.; Deng, Z.; Shatseva, T.; Fang, L.; He, C.; Yang, B. B. (2010). "Expression of CD44 3'- ...
... untranslated region of mRNAs. CSTF2 has been shown to interact with CSTF3, SUB1, SYMPK, BARD1 and BRCA1. GRCh38: Ensembl ... 1996). "The RNA 3' cleavage factors CstF 64 kDa and CPSF 100 kDa are concentrated in nuclear domains closely associated with ... Kleiman, F E; Manley J L (March 2001). "The BARD1-CstF-50 interaction links mRNA 3' end formation to DNA damage and tumor ... The protein is a member of the cleavage stimulation factor (CSTF) complex that is involved in the 3' end cleavage and ...
... untranslated regions (3'-UTR). The 1.1-kb 3'-UTR of human ET-1 accounts for over 50% of the transcript length and features long ... untranslated region of human endothelin-1 in vascular endothelial cells. Contribution to transcript lability and the cellular ... with varying regions of expression and binding to at least four known endothelin receptors, ETA, ETB1, ETB2 and ETC. Earliest ... Some 3'-UTR AU-rich elements (AREs) play important regulatory roles in cytokine and proto-oncogene expression by influencing ...
... untranslated region". Journal of Immunology. 165 (1): 292-6. doi:10.4049/jimmunol.165.1.292. PMID 10861064. Schulte LN, Eulalio ... 10 (3): 170-81. doi:10.1038/nri2711. PMID 20154735. Hammer M, Mages J, Dietrich H, Schmitz F, Striebel F, Murray PJ, Wagner H, ... IL-10 is capable of inhibiting synthesis of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-3, TNFα and GM-CSF made by cells ... 3 (6): 591-601. doi:10.1016/S0969-2126(01)00193-9. PMID 8590020. Lazear HM, Nice TJ, Diamond MS (July 2015). "Interferon-λ: ...
... such as untranslated regions, regulatory elements, non-protein-coding genes, and chromosomal structural elements) under ... 维基媒体基金会是按美国国內稅收法501(c)(
... untranslated region of the DMPK gene on chromosome 19 (Aslanidis et al., 1992; Brook et al., 1992; Harley et al., 1992; ... untranslated region of the myotonic dystrophy kinase cDNA inhibits myoblast differentiation in vitro. J. Biol. Chem. 272, 29626 ... 1992). Cloning of the essential myotonic dystrophy region and mapping of the putative defect. Nature 355, 548-551. ... 1992). Expansion of an unstable DNA region and phenotypic variation in myotonic dystrophy. Nature 355, 545-546. ...
... untranslated region of the myotonic dystrophy protein kinase (DMPK) on chromosome 19 (reviewed in ). Expansion of the CTG ... Table 3 Lymphocyte, memory B-cell populations, and serology. Full size table. ... 3.. CSL Behring Ltd. Intragam P Product Information. AU PI 1400. 2014. ... Table 3). Serology testing showed protective levels of IgG to diphtheria, Haemophilus influenzae, and tetanus, and low to ...
... untranslated region (3UTR) is emerging as critically important in regulating gene expression at posttranscriptional levels. ... untranslated region in human cancer Cell Oncol. 2007;29(1):1-17. doi: 10.1155/2007/586139. ... untranslated region (3UTR) is emerging as critically important in regulating gene expression at posttranscriptional levels. ...
Untranslated Regions and Fewer MicroRNA Target Sites. By Rickard Sandberg, Joel R. Neilson, Arup Sarma, Phillip A. Sharp, ... Untranslated Regions and Fewer MicroRNA Target Sites. By Rickard Sandberg, Joel R. Neilson, Arup Sarma, Phillip A. Sharp, ... Untranslated Regions and Fewer MicroRNA Target Sites ... Untranslated Regions and Fewer MicroRNA Target Sites. *Rickard ... regulatory regions, possibly because less control is required over RNA functions. ...
... untranslated regions (3 UTRs) and particularly long 3 UTRs have been shown to act as a new class of post-transcriptional ... untranslated regions (3 UTRs) and particularly long 3 UTRs have been shown to act as a new class of post-transcriptional ... Deletion of AU-rich 3 UTRs increased mRNA levels, whereas deletion of 3 UTRs with normal AU content resulted in slight or no ... Deletion of AU-rich 3 UTRs increased mRNA levels, whereas deletion of 3 UTRs with normal AU content resulted in slight or no ...
... untranslated region of mRNA molecules specifying inflammatory mediators. D Caput, B Beutler, K Hartog, R Thayer, S Brown-Shimer ... untranslated region of mRNA molecules specifying inflammatory mediators. D Caput, B Beutler, K Hartog, R Thayer, S Brown-Shimer ... untranslated region of mRNA molecules specifying inflammatory mediators. D Caput, B Beutler, K Hartog, R Thayer, S Brown-Shimer ... untranslated region of mRNA molecules specifying inflammatory mediators Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from ...
... untranslated region. We introduced a 51 nucleotide AT sequence from a human lymphokine gene, GM-CSF, into the 3 untranslated ... untranslated region of GM-CSF mRNA mediates selective mRNA degradation.. Shaw G, Kamen R. ... region of the rabbit beta-globin gene. Our experiments demonstrate that this caused the otherwise stable beta-globin mRNA to ... The mRNAs of transiently expressed genes frequently contain an AU-rich sequence in the 3 ...
... untranslated region of hepatitis C virus RNA genome.. Luo G1.. Author information. 1. Department of Virology, Bristol-Myers ... untranslated region (3 UTR) of the hepatitis C virus RNA genome. Two cellular proteins, with estimated molecular masses of 58 ... an RNA containing the variable region of the 3 UTR with a deletion of both poly(U) tract and 98 nt failed to compete for ... In addition to binding to the conserved 98 nucleotides (nt) of the 3 UTR, p58 also binds to the poly(U) tract of the 3 UTR. ...
... regions which are composed of two regions, one region from an 3′ untranslated region of a stable eukaryotic mRNA, and an ... The present invention describes the use of hybrid short 3′ untranslated (3′UTR) ... Eukaryotic messenger RNA (mRNA) contains three regions, 5′ untranslated region (5′UTR), protein coding region, and 3′ ... untranslated region of a stable eukaryotic mRNA.. In a preferred embodiment, the first region or the two regions comprise the 3 ...
... untranslated region (3-UTR) of KRAS and let-7g, and its association with development of lung cancer in the patients with COPD. ... untranslated region of KRAS compromises its interaction with hsa-let-7g and contributes to the development of lung cancer in ... and that introduction of rs712 minor allele into 3-UTR significantly compromised the miRNA/mRNA interaction by using a ... Our study demonstrated that KRAS 3-UTR rs712 polymorphism interfered with miRNA/mRNA interaction, and showed that the minor ...
... untranslated region: strain-specific polymorphisms and motifs regulating IGF-I in osteoblasts.. [Spenser S Smith, Catherine B ... untranslated region (UTR) is polymorphic between C3H and B6. Luciferase-Igf1 3 UTR reporter constructs showed that these ... The Igf1 coding region is nonpolymorphic, but its 3 ... polymorphic regions did not affect UTR function. IGF-I splice ... The Igf1 3 UTR encoded by exon 6 contains alternative polyadenylation sites. Proximal site use produces a short 3 UTR of ...
... untranslated region (3′-UTR) contains two exclusively linked, polymorphic sites at positions 811 (C/T) and 1125 (G/A), which ... untranslated region of the human Sep15 gene. Cancer Res. 2001;61:2307-10.Google Scholar ... untranslated region of the selenoprotein 15-kDa (Sep15) gene and breast cancer in Caucasian women. ... 3.Department of Blood Group Serology and Transfusion MedicineMedical University of ViennaViennaAustria ...
Untranslated Region Sequencing Resolves Expression of Gene Families Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from ... Untranslated Region Sequencing Resolves Expression of Gene Families. Andrea L. Eveland, Donald R. McCarty, Karen E. Koch ... untranslated region (UTR) of messenger RNAs (mRNAs). Resulting sequences resolve gene-specific transcripts independent of a ... untranslated region (UTR) is rich in single-feature polymorphisms that distinguish closely related transcripts (Bhattramakki et ...
... untranslated region functions as a cis-acting translational repressor.. B L Black, J Lu, E N Olson ... untranslated region functions as a cis-acting translational repressor. Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you ... untranslated region (UTR) and fused it to the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) reporter gene. Here, we show by CAT assay ... untranslated region functions as a cis-acting translational repressor. ...
Untranslated Region (3′UTR) Induces Organ Adhesion by Regulating miR-199a* Functions. Daniel Y. Lee,1,2 Tatiana Shatseva,1,2 ... untranslated region (3′UTR) of the target mRNAs, leading to translational repression -. By silencing various target mRNAs ... It is expected that there is no endogenous miRNA bind to this fragment as it is in the coding region. The PCR product was then ... 2008;3:e1719. [PMC free article] [PubMed]. 9. Hua Z, Lv Q, Ye W, Wong CK, Cai G, et al. MiRNA-directed regulation of VEGF and ...
... untranslated region in mammalian mRNAs. Shuo Gu,1 Lan Jin,1 Feijie Zhang,1 Peter Sarnow,2 and Mark A. Kay1 ... untranslated regions (3UTR) of mRNAs to down-regulate their expression when the appropriate miRNA is bound to target mRNA. To ... These results show that while miRNA-mediated translational inhibition was limited to targets in the untranslated region, RNAi- ... Duursma AM, Kedde M, Schrier M, le Sage C, Agami R. miR-148 targets human DNMT3b protein coding region. Rna. 2008;14:872-7. [ ...
The Protein Zfand5 Binds and Stabilizes mRNAs with AU-rich Elements in Their 3 prime Untranslated Regions ...
... untranslated region. J Biol Chem 2000; 275, 11750-11757.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Untranslated Region in Cancer Cells. In: Yazici Z., Folco G.C., Drazen J.M., Nigam S., Shimizu T. (eds) Advances in ... This pentamer, frequently located in or near a U rich region, has been associated with the regulation of the stability of a ... 3.Division of Clinical PharmacologyVanderbilt University School of Medicine, The Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer CenterNashvilleUSA ...
Complementary microRNA profiling revealed that shortened 3 UTRs are enriched for target sites of macrophage-expressed miRNAs, ... with systematic shifts towards increased cassette exon inclusion and shortening of Tandem 3 UTRs post-infection. These ... results therefore provide the first genome-wide empirical support for the idea that actively regulated shifts towards shorter 3 ... Untranslated Regions and Increased Exon Inclusion Are Evolutionarily Conserved Features of Innate Immune Responses to Infection ...
Untranslated Region and Mediates Potential 5′-3′-End Cross Talks of Mouse Hepatitis Virus RNA. Peiyong Huang, Michael M. C. Lai ... long untranslated region (3′-UTR) (21). When MHV is passaged at a high multiplicity of infection in cell culture, defective- ... untranslated region of the coronavirus RNA is required for subgenomic mRNA transcription from a defective interfering RNA.J. ... untranslated region (3′-UTR) of mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) RNA regulates the replication of and transcription from the viral ...
Characterization of untranslated regions of the salmonid alphavirus 3 (SAV3) genome and construction of a SAV3 based replicon. ... untranslated regions (UTR) of a SAV3 isolated from Atlantic salmon in Norway. The sequences of the UTRs are very similar to ...
We show that many genes have 3UTR regions extending beyond currently known gene regions and provide a method to identify such ... untranslated regions (UTRs) of transcripts are not well characterized for many genes and often extend beyond the annotated ... We verified 8 of the predictions by PCR and found all of the predicted regions to be expressed. The method can be extended to ... These extensions have a similar conservation as known 3UTRs, which is distinctly higher than intergenic regions. ...
... untranslated region. Suzanne MIYAMOTO, John A. CHIORINI, Elena URCELAY, Brian SAFER. Biochemical Journal May 01, 1996, 315 (3) ... These activities might be modulated by sequence elements contained within the untranslated regions of the eIF-2α gene. ... untranslated region (UTR) of eIF-2α, only two of which are normally utilized in human and mouse tissues. A functional role for ... Regulation of gene expression for translation initiation factor eIF-2α: importance of the 3′ untranslated region ...
... untranslated region, Archives of Virology" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands ... "Molecular characterization of a foot-and-mouth disease virus containing a 57-nucleotide insertion in the 3′ ... Genetic adaptation to untranslated region-mediated enterovirus growth deficits by mutations in the nonstructural proteins 3AB ... A region of the 5′ noncoding region of foot-and-mouth disease virus RNA directs efficient internal initiation of protein ...
... untranslated regions of chloroplast transcripts are important determinants of mRNA accumulation and stability, Plant Molecular ... untranslated regions (3′ UTRs) of plastid mRNAs is an inverted repeat (IR) sequence that can fold into a stem-loop structure. ... untranslated regions (3′ UTRs) of plastid mRNAs is an inverted repeat (IR) sequence that can fold into a stem-loop structure. ... untranslated regions of chloroplast transcripts are important determinants of mRNA accumulation and stability. Rott, Ruth; ...
3'UTRPolymorphismTumorSequenceSingle nucleotide poRegulationPolymorphismsMicroRNAMiRNAsGene expressionTranscriptsProfilingEukaryoticUpstreamIntronsVariantsRegulates2002ProteinsDifferentiation1996ViralGeneticFunctionalSusceptibilityCharacterization3'UTRsMurine and humanDescriptorAllelesRegulatory regionsGastricPolymorphicFragmentsHighly conserved
- The messenger RNA 3'-untranslated region (3'UTR) is emerging as critically important in regulating gene expression at posttranscriptional levels. (nih.gov)
- In animals, with few exceptions, most of the known miRNAs form an imperfect duplex/hybrid, with sequences located solely in the 3'UTR region of target mRNA (base-pairing of a minimum 7 nucleotide seed sequence is required) 10 - 12 . (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- We show that many genes have 3'UTR regions extending beyond currently known gene regions and provide a method to identify such regions based on microarray expression data. (biomedcentral.com)
- The 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) of a gene does not belong to the protein coding sequence, however it plays an important role in posttranscriptional regulation [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- The 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) of mRNA is the binding target of microRNA and RNA binding proteins. (biomedcentral.com)
- The objective of the present study was to explore the molecular mechanism by which a single nucleotide polymorphism (rs712) interferes with interaction between 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) of KRAS and let-7g, and its association with development of lung cancer in the patients with COPD. (dovepress.com)
- Our study demonstrated that KRAS 3'-UTR rs712 polymorphism interfered with miRNA/mRNA interaction, and showed that the minor allele was associated with an elevated risk for development of lung cancer in COPD. (dovepress.com)
- The rs5275 polymorphism in the 3' untranslated region of the PTGS2 gene was associated with a decrease in breast cancer risk. (biomedcentral.com)
- We have identified a single nucleotide polymorphism within the miR‐502 seed binding region in the 3′‐UTR of the SET8 gene. (aacrjournals.org)
- These data suggest that the miR‐502 binding site single nucleotide polymorphism in the 3′‐UTR of SET8 modulates SET8 expression and contributes to the early development of breast cancer, either independently or together with the TP53 codon 72 single nucleotide polymorphism. (aacrjournals.org)
- 2014). 'Association of a miR-502-Binding Site Single Nucleotide Polymorphism in the 3'-Untranslated Region of SET8 and the TP53 Codon 72 Polymorphism with Cervical Cancer in the Chinese Population', Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , 15(16), pp. 6505-6510. (waocp.org)
- Effects of leptin receptor gene 3'-untranslated region polymorphism on metabolic profiles in young Japanese men. (elsevier.com)
- We investigated the effects of leptin receptor gene 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) polymorphism on clinical and metabolic parameters in 221 young Japanese men aged 21 to 28 years. (elsevier.com)
- The polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method was used to identify a pentanucleotide (CTTTA) insertion in 3'-UTR of the leptin receptor gene. (elsevier.com)
- These findings suggest that serum HDL-cholesterol and apoA-I levels are influenced by the leptin receptor gene 3'-UTR polymorphism in young Japanese men. (elsevier.com)
- Identification of association between rs1057317 polymorphism in TLR4 3'-untranslated region and the susceptibility to osteoporosis. (cdc.gov)
- It has been proved that the expression of TLR4 is associated with a reduced risk of osteoporosis (OP). One single-nucleotide polymorphism located within the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) of TLR4 may "generate" binding site of miR-34a and thereby associated with risk of OP. Bioinformatics analysis and luciferase reporter assay were used to specify the effect of polymorphisms on the interaction between miR-34a and TLR4 gene. (cdc.gov)
- The regulatory association between rs1057317 polymorphism in TLR4 3'-UTR led to an inhibitory effect on the expression of TLR4 by miR-34a, which may explain the observed association between the polymorphism and the susceptibility to OP. (cdc.gov)
- C 3′-UTR polymorphisms were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis or by TaqMan allelic discrimination assays. (ecerm.org)
- The G2964A 3'-untranslated region polymorphism of the signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 gene is associated with endometriosis in South Indian women. (ox.ac.uk)
- METHODS: The single-nucleotide polymorphism, G2964A, in the 3'-untranslated region (UTR) of the STAT6 gene was tested for association in a case-control study of 232 affected women and 210 women with no evidence of disease. (ox.ac.uk)
- CONCLUSIONS: We report for the first time an association between the STAT6 G2964A 3'-UTR polymorphism and endometriosis in South Indian women. (ox.ac.uk)
- Experiments performed with the HLA-G positive cell lines JEG-3 (choricarcinoma) and FON (melanoma), and with the HLA-G negative cell lines M8 (melanoma) and U251MG (glioblastoma) showed that the HLA-G 3′UTR polymorphism influences the response to endogenous cellular factors and may vary according to the cell type. (unesp.br)
- Polymorphism of the 3? (cnr.it)
- Genetic polymorphism in the 3? (cnr.it)
- Using enzymatic amplification followed by sequencing of amplified fragments, a VNTR polymorphism in the 3? (cnr.it)
- The 3' untranslated region of tumor necrosis factor alpha mRNA is a target of the mRNA-stabilizing factor HuR. (ox.ac.uk)
- Posttranscriptional regulation is important for tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) expression in monocytes and macrophages, and an AU-rich element (ARE) in the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of TNF-alpha mRNA is implicated in control of its translation and mRNA stability. (ox.ac.uk)
- The significance of this instability, and of this region of the CEA 3' UTR in general, to CEA expression was analyzed in the HT29 cell line, colonic tumor cells which overexpress CEA upon induction with sodium butyrate. (elsevier.com)
- There are four main categories of cancer vaccines: (1) peptide vaccines, (2) cellular vaccines, including tumor cell and immune cell vaccines, (3) viral vector vaccines, and (4) nucleic acid vaccines, including DNA and RNA vaccines. (hindawi.com)
- Since the 3'-untranslated region is normally not conserved, we reasoned that this sequence might play a regulatory role. (pnas.org)
- A conserved AU sequence from the 3' untranslated region of GM-CSF mRNA mediates selective mRNA degradation. (nih.gov)
- We introduced a 51 nucleotide AT sequence from a human lymphokine gene, GM-CSF, into the 3' untranslated region of the rabbit beta-globin gene. (nih.gov)
- An episomal expression vector system for monitoring sequence-specific effects on mRNA stability in human cell lines," Plasmid, 1995, vol. 33, No. 3, pp. 198-207. (freepatentsonline.com)
- To establish the functional importance of target localization in the 3' UTR, we modified the stop codon to extend the coding region of the transgene reporter through the miRNA target sequence. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- The 3' UTR of COX-2 mRNA contains 22 copies of a conserved AU-rich sequence element (ARE), the AUUUA pentamer. (springer.com)
- Based on this reasoning, the 5′ and 3′ ends of the genome have been proposed to interact during viral RNA replication so that the 3′-end sequence can affect the initiation of RNA synthesis ( 20 ). (asm.org)
- These activities might be modulated by sequence elements contained within the untranslated regions of the eIF-2α gene. (biochemj.org)
- The sequence and structure of the 3′-untranslated regions of chloroplast transcripts are. (deepdyve.com)
- This 'robust alignment' approach demonstrated more extensive homologies in the 3′UTR than had been recognized previously and revealed the presence of similar DRs, either intact or as sequence 'remnants', in all the MBFV subgroups. (microbiologyresearch.org)
- The sequence at the 3' end of messenger RNA that does not code for product. (ucdenver.edu)
- In molecular genetics, an untranslated region (or UTR) refers to either of two sections, one on each side of a coding sequence on a strand of mRNA. (wikipedia.org)
- If it is found on the 5' side, it is called the 5' UTR (or leader sequence), or if it is found on the 3' side, it is called the 3' UTR (or trailer sequence). (wikipedia.org)
- This sequence is found 3-10 base pairs upstream from the initiation codon. (wikipedia.org)
- Although no relationship between EGFR overexpression and the length of a CA dinucleotide repeat in intron 1 was observed, a variant A13/A14 repeat sequence within the 3′-untranslated region (3′-UTR) of the EGFR gene was identified, which was mutated by either mononucleotide or dinucleotide adenosine deletions in 64% of MSI cell lines and 69% of MSI colon tumors. (elsevier.com)
- Furthermore, the 3'-UTR contains the sequence AAUAAA that directs addition of several hundred adenine residues called the poly(A) tail to the end of the mRNA transcript. (wikipedia.org)
- The primary signal used is the nuclear polyadenylation signal (PAS) with the sequence AAUAAA located toward the end of the 3'-UTR. (wikipedia.org)
- Cycloxigenase-2 is encoded by the prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2) gene, which presents sequence variations in the promoter region (PR) and in the 3′-untranslated region (3′-UTR). (figshare.com)
- Complete genome sequence of Montana Myotis leukoencephalitis virus, phylogenetic analysis and comparative study of the 3′ untranslated region of flaviviruses with no known vector. (microbiologyresearch.org)
- We demonstrate that the oligo-A region of the CEA 3' UTR does in fact exhibit sequence instability. (elsevier.com)
- Although we could demonstrate that activity of the exogenous CEA promoter was markedly elevated in cells induced to differentiate, the data demonstrate no sequence or orientation-specific effect of the 3' UTR of CEA on expression from a CEA promoter. (elsevier.com)
- The 3 terminal region consisting of the coat protein (CP) coding sequence and 3 untranslated region (3 UTR) was cloned and sequenced from seven isolates. (bvsalud.org)
- Sequence comparisons revealed considerable genetic diversity among the isolates in their CP and 3 UTR, making CdMV one of the highly variable members of Potyviridae. (bvsalud.org)
- When a repressor protein binds to the silencer region of DNA, RNA polymerase is prevented from transcribing the DNA sequence into RNA. (wikipedia.org)
- Here, we characterize the sequence variation and haplotype structure of the MEFV 3' gene region (from exon 5 to the 3' UTR) in seven human populations. (biomedsearch.com)
- Luciferase reporter assays revealed that miR-4455 inhibited VASP expression by targeting the 3′-UTR sequence of VASP. (springer.com)
- In the 3' UTR region, 13 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and one indel were found, whereas this region was found to be monomorphic among animals of the Holstein Friesian breed. (scielo.org.za)
- To compare single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the 3′-untranslated region (3′UTR) of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-G in placentas between spontaneous preterm birth and preeclampsia pregnancies. (biomedcentral.com)
- Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in the 3' UTR of another gene have also been associated with susceptibility to preterm birth. (wikipedia.org)
- Differential expression of the long Igf1 3' UTR isoform may be a possible mechanism for enhanced IGF-I regulation in B6 vs. C3H mice. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- The study was initiated by the hypothesis that the non-coding 3′UTR plays a role in the regulation of miRNA function. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- We conclude that the 3′-end processing of CYP3A4 contributes to the quantitative regulation of CYP3A4 gene expression through alternative polyadenylation, which may serve as a regulatory mechanism explaining changes of CYP3A4 expression and activity during hepatocyte differentiation and liver development and in response to drug induction. (aspetjournals.org)
- To explore the possible relationship between regulated expression of DAT and ADHD, we focused on 3'-untranslated region (UTR) of DAT mRNA, and investigated the role of 3'-UTR in the regulation of DAT expression and function. (nii.ac.jp)
- A thorough understanding of these alterations and their impact upon 3′UTR-directed posttranscriptional gene regulation will uncover promising new targets for therapeutic intervention. (iospress.com)
- The fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans employs posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression as part of the transcriptome reprogramming that accompanies cellular stress ( 1 - 3 ). (asm.org)
- These results indicate the involvement of multiple regulatory elements in the CCN1 3′-UTR and suggest the complexity of the miRNA action as well as the 3′-UTR-mediated gene regulation. (elsevier.com)
- Hence, the computational RNA-seq method for the estimation of the 3′ UTR landscape would be useful as a tool for studying not only the functional roles of 3′ UTR but also gene regulation by 3′ UTR in a cell type-specific context. (rna-seqblog.com)
- We conclude that the oligo- A-containing region of the 3' UTR of CEA (204 bp beginning at nucleotide 24229) does not play a substantial role in the regulation of CEA expression. (elsevier.com)
- Bordonaro, M & Augenlicht, L 1997, ' The 3' untranslated region of the carcinoembryonic antigen gene plays a minimal role in the regulation of gene expression ', Cell Growth and Differentiation , vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 353-360. (elsevier.com)
- A QPCR-based reporter system to study post-transcriptional regulation via the 3' untranslated region of mRNA in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (chalmers.se)
- Post-transcriptional regulation via the 3' untranslated region (3' UTR) of mRNA is an important factor in governing eukaryotic gene expression. (chalmers.se)
- The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is a complex and highly interconnected brain region critically implicated in the regulation of higher-order cognitive functions such as working memory, attention or behavioral flexibility 1 . (nature.com)
- IGF-I 3' untranslated region: strain-specific polymorphisms and motifs regulating IGF-I in osteoblasts. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- For example, associations between polymorphisms in the HLA-G 3′UTR region and development of colorectal cancer have been discovered. (wikipedia.org)
- Implication of HLA-G 3' untranslated region polymorphisms in human papillomavirus infection. (cdc.gov)
- To identify the associations between polymorphisms of the 3′-untranslated region (UTR) of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase ( MTHFR ) gene, which codes for an important regulatory enzyme primarily involved in folate metabolism, and idiopathic recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) in Korean women. (ecerm.org)
- Deletion analysis of the 3′-UTR indicated a distinct functional element in the proximal half, whereas a putative target for microRNA-181s was predicted in silico in the distal half. (elsevier.com)
- C is the genetic variant associated with epilepsy in males, and the related haplotype "CTTACATGACGA" / "CT C TA" in the region of chr2: 165991297-165989081, which has high site accessibility for microRNA binding, is the genetic protective factor against epilepsy in males. (biomedcentral.com)
- Variants in the gene 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) may associate with gene expression by altering miRNAs binding. (jcancer.org)
- The 3'-UTR contains both binding sites for regulatory proteins as well as microRNAs (miRNAs). (wikipedia.org)
- To screen novel miRNAs targeting EZH2 3' untranslated region (UTR) in recombinational MCF-7 breast cancer cells over-expressing EZH2 3' UTR and quantitative analyze the expressions of the screened miRNA in breast cancer cells and tissues. (bvsalud.org)
- Novel targeted miRNAs that can not be predicted by bioinformatics software were successfully screened from MCF-7 breast cancer cells over-expressing EZH2 3' UTR. (bvsalud.org)
- Here, we show by CAT assay that the MEF2A 3' UTR dramatically inhibits CAT gene expression in vivo and that this inhibition is due to an internal region within the highly conserved 3' UTR. (asm.org)
- The 3' UTR plays a critical role in translation termination as well as post-transcriptional gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
- However, it is now known that the untranslated region of mRNA is involved in many regulatory aspects of gene expression in eukaryotic organisms. (wikipedia.org)
- The 3′-untranslated region (UTR) is known to be a critical regulator of post-transcriptional events that determine the gene expression at the RNA level. (elsevier.com)
- Reporter gene analysis revealed that the entire 3′-UTR profoundly repressed gene expression in cis in different types of the cells, to which both the proximal and distal-halves of the 3′-UTR segments contributed almost equally. (elsevier.com)
- The 3'-UTR often contains regulatory regions that post-transcriptionally influence gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
- We have used our reporter system to evaluate the consequences on gene expression from varying the 3' UTR, a problem often encountered during C-terminal tagging of proteins. (chalmers.se)
- Mutations affecting either decapping (lsm1Delta) or deadenylation (pop2Delta) were also found to affect reporter gene expression in a highly 3' UTR-dependent manner. (chalmers.se)
- Our results using this set-up clearly indicate that the common strategy used for C-terminal tagging, with concomitant replacement of the native 3' UTR, will very likely provide incorrect conclusions on gene expression. (chalmers.se)
- The 3′-UTR profile resolved 12 unique cellulose synthase ( CesA ) transcripts in maize ovaries and identified previously uncharacterized members of a histone H1 gene family. (plantphysiol.org)
- Our results demonstrate the potential of 3′-UTR profiling for resolving gene- and allele-specific transcripts. (plantphysiol.org)
- Therefore, probes have been designed to recognize the 3' ends of transcripts, which comprises mostly the 3' untranslated region. (biomedcentral.com)
- Three transcripts were found in HepaRG cells and liver tissues: one represented a canonical mRNA with full-length 3′-untranslated region (UTR), one had a shorter 3′-UTR, and one contained partial intron-6 retention. (aspetjournals.org)
- The alternative mRNA transcripts were validated by either rapid amplification of cDNA 3′-end or endpoint polymerase chain reaction (PCR). (aspetjournals.org)
- Quantification of the transcripts by RNA-Seq and real time quantitative PCR revealed that the CYP3A4 transcript with shorter 3′-UTR was preferentially expressed in developed livers, differentiated hepatocytes, and in rifampicin- and phenobarbital-induced hepatocytes. (aspetjournals.org)
- During nuclear maturation of primary transcripts, both ends of mRNA are post‐transcriptionally modified through the addition of a 7‐methyl‐guanosine cap structure at the 5′ end and a polyadenosine tail at the 3′ end. (els.net)
- The present invention describes the use of hybrid short 3′ untranslated (3′UTR) regions which are composed of two regions, one region from an 3′ untranslated region of a stable eukaryotic mRNA, and another region from the downstream end of an 3′ untranslated region of another eukaryotic mRNA that contains a polyadenylation (polyA) signal. (freepatentsonline.com)
- Hughes MJ and Andrews DW (1997) A single nucleotide is a sufficient 5′ untranslated region for translation in an eukaryotic in vitro system. (els.net)
- In addition, expression profiles obtained by custom-designed microarrays on three different developmental systems (myoblast differentiation, male gonadal ridge formation, embryonic stem cell differentiation) showed that uaRNA expression is highly regulated and tissue-specific, and might be either concordant or discordant with respect to the upstream coding region depending on the cell type and on the developmental stage. (unimi.it)
- The reason why introns are not considered untranslated regions is that the introns are spliced out in the process of RNA splicing. (wikipedia.org)
- This duplication mechanism produces a copy of the parental gene that should not contain introns, and usually does not contain cis-regulatory regions. (ebscohost.com)
- We systematically searched for variants in the 3'-UTR of CUL3 using the Ensembl database. (jcancer.org)
- In the present study, we searched for variants in the 3'-UTR of CUL3 and performed a case-control study to test whether these variants are associated with ESCC susceptibility. (jcancer.org)
- Different PR (rs689465, rs689466, rs20417) and 3′-UTR (rs5275) variants were generated by site-directed mutagenesis, and combined in haplotypes to access expression levels using a reporter system (luciferase) in human cells (MCF-7 and HEK293FT). (figshare.com)
- Variants in the 3′-UTR of MTHFR are potential biomarkers for RPL. (ecerm.org)
- The 3′-untranslated region (3′-UTR) of mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) RNA regulates the replication of and transcription from the viral RNA. (asm.org)
- Pan, YX , Chen, H & Kilberg, MS 2005, ' Interaction of RNA-binding proteins HuR and AUF1 with the human ATF3 mRNA 3′-untranslated region regulates its amino acid limitation-induced stabilization ', Journal of Biological Chemistry , vol. 280, no. 41, pp. 34609-34616. (illinois.edu)
- West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne fl avivirus genotype in Texas in 2002, and further studies showed belonging to the Japanese encephalitis serogroup that this genotype had spread throughout the Upper Texas and maintained in an enzootic cycle between mosquitoes Gulf Coast and to other regions in the United States ( 5 ). (cdc.gov)
- Two cellular proteins, with estimated molecular masses of 58 kDa (p58) and 35 kDa (p35), respectively, were found to specifically bind to the 3' UTR. (nih.gov)
- Several host cell proteins have previously been shown to interact with this regulatory region. (asm.org)
- This fraction also contained proteins which formed two distinct ARE-specific complexes with the TNF-alpha mRNA 3' UTR in electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs). (ox.ac.uk)
- The 3'-UTR also has silencer regions which bind to repressor proteins and will inhibit the expression of the mRNA. (wikipedia.org)
- e-PROPAINOR (www.math.iitb.ac.in/epropainor/) is a web-server based on extension of PROPAINOR for prediction and computational function elucidation of 3-D structure of proteins. (psu.edu)
- The genetic structure of these gene regions in Turkish native cattle breeds was found to be quite different from those of other cattle breeds that had been studied in the past. (scielo.org.za)
- These results corroborate the previous associations between amounts of plasma sHLA-G levels and 3′UTR haplotypes in healthy individuals and reinforce that 3′UTR typing may be a predictor of the genetic predisposition of an individual to express different levels of HLA-G. (unesp.br)
- Nile virus (WNV) during 1999-2005 suggested that the States north to Canada and south to the Caribbean region, virus had reached genetic homeostasis in North America. (cdc.gov)
- The 3′-untranslated region (3′-UTR) contains two exclusively linked, polymorphic sites at positions 811 (C/T) and 1125 (G/A), which result in two functional haplotypes: 811C/1125G or 811T/1125A. (springer.com)
- Massively parallel functional annotation of 3' untranslated regions. (ucsf.edu)
- A functional SNP in the regulatory region of the decay-accelerating factor gene associates with extr. (biomedsearch.com)
- Here we report the cloning and characterization of the 5'- and 3'- untranslated regions (UTR) of a SAV3 isolated from Atlantic salmon in Norway. (uib.no)
- Characterization of the mutant virus (A24-3′UTR8110) revealed no significant differences in virus growth, translation efficiency or virulence in cattle compared to the A24 wild-type virus. (deepdyve.com)
- The frequency of different disease alleles is extremely high in multiple populations from the Mediterranean region, suggesting heterozygote advantage. (biomedsearch.com)
- These features are suggestive of balancing selection having acted on this region to maintain one or more selected alleles. (biomedsearch.com)
- The 5′ and 3′ regulatory regions of the HLA-G gene are polymorphic and balancing selection probably maintains this variability. (unesp.br)
- Here, we computationally address the evolutionary origin of promoter and other cis-regulatory regions in retrogenes using a total of 94 Drosophila retroposition events we recently identified. (ebscohost.com)
- Additionally, transposable elements do not appear to substantially provide regulatory regions to retrogenes. (ebscohost.com)
- Conclusion: We conclude that retrogenes' regulatory regions mostly do not represent a random set of existing regulatory regions. (ebscohost.com)