The sequence at the 3' end of messenger RNA that does not code for product. This region contains transcription and translation regulating sequences.
The sequence at the 5' end of the messenger RNA that does not code for product. This sequence contains the ribosome binding site and other transcription and translation regulating sequences.
The parts of the messenger RNA sequence that do not code for product, i.e. the 5' UNTRANSLATED REGIONS and 3' UNTRANSLATED REGIONS.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
The extent to which an RNA molecule retains its structural integrity and resists degradation by RNASE, and base-catalyzed HYDROLYSIS, under changing in vivo or in vitro conditions.
Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs, 21-25 nucleotides in length generated from single-stranded microRNA gene transcripts by the same RIBONUCLEASE III, Dicer, that produces small interfering RNAs (RNA, SMALL INTERFERING). They become part of the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX and repress the translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of target RNA by binding to homologous 3'UTR region as an imperfect match. The small temporal RNAs (stRNAs), let-7 and lin-4, from C. elegans, are the first 2 miRNAs discovered, and are from a class of miRNAs involved in developmental timing.
Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
A family of RNA-binding proteins that are homologues of ELAV protein, Drosophila. They were initially identified in humans as the targets of autoantibodies in patients with PARANEOPLASTIC ENCEPHALOMYELITIS. They are thought to regulate GENE EXPRESSION at the post-transcriptional level.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Post-transcriptional biological modification of messenger, transfer, or ribosomal RNAs or their precursors. It includes cleavage, methylation, thiolation, isopentenylation, pseudouridine formation, conformational changes, and association with ribosomal protein.
The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.
Sequences within RNA that regulate the processing, stability (RNA STABILITY) or translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of RNA.
A group of adenine ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each adenine ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.
Nucleic acid sequences involved in regulating the expression of genes.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A heterogeneous-nuclear ribonucleoprotein that has specificity for AU-rich elements found in the 3'-region of mRNA and may play a role in RNA stability. Several isoforms of hnRNP D protein have been found to occur due to alternative mRNA splicing (RNA SPLICING).
Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.
A codon that directs initiation of protein translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) by stimulating the binding of initiator tRNA (RNA, TRANSFER, MET). In prokaryotes, the codons AUG or GUG can act as initiators while in eukaryotes, AUG is the only initiator codon.
The addition of a tail of polyadenylic acid (POLY A) to the 3' end of mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). Polyadenylation involves recognizing the processing site signal, (AAUAAA), and cleaving of the mRNA to create a 3' OH terminal end to which poly A polymerase (POLYNUCLEOTIDE ADENYLYLTRANSFERASE) adds 60-200 adenylate residues. The 3' end processing of some messenger RNAs, such as histone mRNA, is carried out by a different process that does not include the addition of poly A as described here.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
A multiribosomal structure representing a linear array of RIBOSOMES held together by messenger RNA; (RNA, MESSENGER); They represent the active complexes in cellular protein synthesis and are able to incorporate amino acids into polypeptides both in vivo and in vitro. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
A process whereby multiple RNA transcripts are generated from a single gene. Alternative splicing involves the splicing together of other possible sets of EXONS during the processing of some, but not all, transcripts of the gene. Thus a particular exon may be connected to any one of several alternative exons to form a mature RNA. The alternative forms of mature MESSENGER RNA produce PROTEIN ISOFORMS in which one part of the isoforms is common while the other parts are different.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Nucleic acid structures found on the 5' end of eukaryotic cellular and viral messenger RNA and some heterogeneous nuclear RNAs. These structures, which are positively charged, protect the above specified RNAs at their termini against attack by phosphatases and other nucleases and promote mRNA function at the level of initiation of translation. Analogs of the RNA caps (RNA CAP ANALOGS), which lack the positive charge, inhibit the initiation of protein synthesis.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Multicomponent ribonucleoprotein structures found in the CYTOPLASM of all cells, and in MITOCHONDRIA, and PLASTIDS. They function in PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS via GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Enzymes that oxidize certain LUMINESCENT AGENTS to emit light (PHYSICAL LUMINESCENCE). The luciferases from different organisms have evolved differently so have different structures and substrates.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A ZINC FINGER MOTIF containing transcription factor that was originally identified as one of the IMMEDIATE-EARLY PROTEINS. It shuttles between the CYTOPLASM and the CELL NUCLEUS and is involved in destabilization of mRNAs for TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR-ALPHA.
Complexes of RNA-binding proteins with ribonucleic acids (RNA).
The ultimate exclusion of nonsense sequences or intervening sequences (introns) before the final RNA transcript is sent to the cytoplasm.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.
RNA which does not code for protein but has some enzymatic, structural or regulatory function. Although ribosomal RNA (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) and transfer RNA (RNA, TRANSFER) are also untranslated RNAs they are not included in this scope.
Neuromuscular disorder characterized by PROGRESSIVE MUSCULAR ATROPHY; MYOTONIA, and various multisystem atrophies. Mild INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY may also occur. Abnormal TRINUCLEOTIDE REPEAT EXPANSION in the 3' UNTRANSLATED REGIONS of DMPK PROTEIN gene is associated with Myotonic Dystrophy 1. DNA REPEAT EXPANSION of zinc finger protein-9 gene intron is associated with Myotonic Dystrophy 2.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
RNA sequences composed of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES and URACIL NUCLEOTIDES, that are located in the 3'UNTRANSLATED REGIONS of MESSENGER RNA molecules that are rapidly degraded. They are also known as AREs.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal (CODON, TERMINATOR). Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER) complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons (CODONS, NONSENSE).
The process of moving specific RNA molecules from one cellular compartment or region to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A family of ribonucleoproteins that were originally found as proteins bound to nascent RNA transcripts in the form of ribonucleoprotein particles. Although considered ribonucleoproteins they are primarily classified by their protein component. They are involved in a variety of processes such as packaging of RNA and RNA TRANSPORT within the nucleus. A subset of heterogeneous-nuclear ribonucleoproteins are involved in additional functions such as nucleocytoplasmic transport (ACTIVE TRANSPORT, CELL NUCLEUS) of RNA and mRNA stability in the CYTOPLASM.
A process of GENETIC TRANSLATION whereby the formation of a peptide chain is started. It includes assembly of the RIBOSOME components, the MESSENGER RNA coding for the polypeptide to be made, INITIATOR TRNA, and PEPTIDE INITIATION FACTORS; and placement of the first amino acid in the peptide chain. The details and components of this process are unique for prokaryotic protein biosynthesis and eukaryotic protein biosynthesis.
A family of small RNA viruses comprising some important pathogens of humans and animals. Transmission usually occurs mechanically. There are nine genera: APHTHOVIRUS; CARDIOVIRUS; ENTEROVIRUS; ERBOVIRUS; HEPATOVIRUS; KOBUVIRUS; PARECHOVIRUS; RHINOVIRUS; and TESCHOVIRUS.
A superfamily of proteins containing the globin fold which is composed of 6-8 alpha helices arranged in a characterstic HEME enclosing structure.
A family of RNA plant viruses infecting dicotyledons. Transmission is mainly by mechanical inoculation and through propagative plant material. All species elicit formation of multivesicular inclusion bodies. There are at least eight genera: Aureusvirus, Avenavirus, CARMOVIRUS, Dianthovirus, Machlomovirus, Necrovirus, Panicovirus, and TOMBUSVIRUS.
A species of CORONAVIRUS infecting neonatal calves, presenting as acute diarrhea, and frequently leading to death.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.
Proteins that regulate cellular and organismal iron homeostasis. They play an important biological role by maintaining iron levels that are adequate for metabolic need, but below the toxicity threshold.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
An enzyme that catalyzes the acetylation of chloramphenicol to yield chloramphenicol 3-acetate. Since chloramphenicol 3-acetate does not bind to bacterial ribosomes and is not an inhibitor of peptidyltransferase, the enzyme is responsible for the naturally occurring chloramphenicol resistance in bacteria. The enzyme, for which variants are known, is found in both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. EC
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE causing parenterally-transmitted HEPATITIS C which is associated with transfusions and drug abuse. Hepatitis C virus is the type species.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.
The first nucleotide of a transcribed DNA sequence where RNA polymerase (DNA-DIRECTED RNA POLYMERASE) begins synthesizing the RNA transcript.
A RNA-binding protein that binds to polypyriminidine rich regions in the INTRONS of messenger RNAs. Polypyrimidine tract-binding protein may be involved in regulating the ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of mRNAs since its presence on an intronic RNA region that is upstream of an EXON inhibits the splicing of the exon into the final mRNA product.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, sequencing, and information analysis of an RNA SEQUENCE.
A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.
The type species of the genus ALFAMOVIRUS that is non-persistently transmitted by aphids.
A genus in the family TOMBUSVIRIDAE mostly found in temperate regions. Some species infecting legumes (FABACEAE) are reported from tropical areas. Most viruses are soil-borne, but some are transmitted by the fungus Olpidium radicale and others by beetles. Carnation mottle virus is the type species.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
RNA, usually prepared by transcription from cloned DNA, which complements a specific mRNA or DNA and is generally used for studies of virus genes, distribution of specific RNA in tissues and cells, integration of viral DNA into genomes, transcription, etc. Whereas DNA PROBES are preferred for use at a more macroscopic level for detection of the presence of DNA/RNA from specific species or subspecies, RNA probes are preferred for genetic studies. Conventional labels for the RNA probe include radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. RNA probes may be further divided by category into plus-sense RNA probes, minus-sense RNA probes, and antisense RNA probes.
Any codon that signals the termination of genetic translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC). PEPTIDE TERMINATION FACTORS bind to the stop codon and trigger the hydrolysis of the aminoacyl bond connecting the completed polypeptide to the tRNA. Terminator codons do not specify amino acids.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
A genus of plant viruses that infects both monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants. Its organisms are persistently transmitted by aphids, and weeds may provide reservoirs of infection.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE containing several subgroups and many species. Most are arboviruses transmitted by mosquitoes or ticks. The type species is YELLOW FEVER VIRUS.
Ribonucleic acid in plants having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
The different gene transcripts generated from a single gene by RNA EDITING or ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of RNA PRECURSORS.
An increased number of contiguous trinucleotide repeats in the DNA sequence from one generation to the next. The presence of these regions is associated with diseases such as FRAGILE X SYNDROME and MYOTONIC DYSTROPHY. Some CHROMOSOME FRAGILE SITES are composed of sequences where trinucleotide repeat expansion occurs.
Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.
Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.
Synthetic or natural oligonucleotides used in hybridization studies in order to identify and study specific nucleic acid fragments, e.g., DNA segments near or within a specific gene locus or gene. The probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin.
Copies of nucleic acid sequence that are arranged in opposing orientation. They may lie adjacent to each other (tandem) or be separated by some sequence that is not part of the repeat (hyphenated). They may be true palindromic repeats, i.e. read the same backwards as forward, or complementary which reads as the base complement in the opposite orientation. Complementary inverted repeats have the potential to form hairpin loop or stem-loop structures which results in cruciform structures (such as CRUCIFORM DNA) when the complementary inverted repeats occur in double stranded regions.
Elements that are transcribed into RNA, reverse-transcribed into DNA and then inserted into a new site in the genome. Long terminal repeats (LTRs) similar to those from retroviruses are contained in retrotransposons and retrovirus-like elements. Retroposons, such as LONG INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS and SHORT INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS do not contain LTRs.
A multifunctional iron-sulfur protein that is both an iron regulatory protein and cytoplasmic form of aconitate hydratase. It binds to iron regulatory elements found on mRNAs involved in iron metabolism and regulates their translation. Its RNA binding ability and its aconitate hydrolase activity are dependent upon availability of IRON.
Ribonucleic acid in protozoa having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
Pairing of purine and pyrimidine bases by HYDROGEN BONDING in double-stranded DNA or RNA.
Proteins that bind to the 3' polyadenylated region of MRNA. When complexed with RNA the proteins serve an array of functions such as stabilizing the 3' end of RNA, promoting poly(A) synthesis and stimulating mRNA translation.
Selenoproteins are proteins that specifically incorporate SELENOCYSTEINE into their amino acid chain. Most selenoproteins are enzymes with the selenocysteine residues being responsible for their catalytic functions.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Ribonucleic acid in helminths having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
RNA molecules which hybridize to complementary sequences in either RNA or DNA altering the function of the latter. Endogenous antisense RNAs function as regulators of gene expression by a variety of mechanisms. Synthetic antisense RNAs are used to effect the functioning of specific genes for investigative or therapeutic purposes.
A theoretical representative nucleotide or amino acid sequence in which each nucleotide or amino acid is the one which occurs most frequently at that site in the different sequences which occur in nature. The phrase also refers to an actual sequence which approximates the theoretical consensus. A known CONSERVED SEQUENCE set is represented by a consensus sequence. Commonly observed supersecondary protein structures (AMINO ACID MOTIFS) are often formed by conserved sequences.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.
A species of ENTEROVIRUS infecting humans and containing 36 serotypes. It is comprised of all the echoviruses and a few coxsackieviruses, including all of those previously named coxsackievirus B.
Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Plants or plant parts which are harmful to man or other animals.
Ribonucleic acid in fungi having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
A species of GREEN ALGAE. Delicate, hairlike appendages arise from the flagellar surface in these organisms.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
A naturally occurring amino acid in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms. It is found in tRNAs and in the catalytic site of some enzymes. The genes for glutathione peroxidase and formate dehydrogenase contain the TGA codon, which codes for this amino acid.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
An enlarged underground root or stem of some plants. It is usually rich in carbohydrates. Some, such as POTATOES, are important human FOOD. They may reproduce vegetatively from buds.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.
A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.
A large family of RNA helicases that share a common protein motif with the single letter amino acid sequence D-E-A-D (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp). In addition to RNA helicase activity, members of the DEAD-box family participate in other aspects of RNA metabolism and regulation of RNA function.
A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.
Genes that are introduced into an organism using GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Microsatellite repeats consisting of three nucleotides dispersed in the euchromatic arms of chromosomes.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
A genus of plant viruses in the family FLEXIVIRIDAE, that cause mosaic and ringspot symptoms. Transmission occurs mechanically. Potato virus X is the type species.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.
Sequences found near the 3' end of MESSENGER RNA that direct the cleavage and addition of multiple ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES to the 3' end of mRNA.
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
Any DNA sequence capable of independent replication or a molecule that possesses a REPLICATION ORIGIN and which is therefore potentially capable of being replicated in a suitable cell. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The process of germ cell development in the female from the primordial germ cells through OOGONIA to the mature haploid ova (OVUM).
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Small, linear single-stranded RNA molecules functionally acting as molecular parasites of certain RNA plant viruses. Satellite RNAs exhibit four characteristic traits: (1) they require helper viruses to replicate; (2) they are unnecessary for the replication of helper viruses; (3) they are encapsidated in the coat protein of the helper virus; (4) they have no extensive sequence homology to the helper virus. Thus they differ from SATELLITE VIRUSES which encode their own coat protein, and from the genomic RNA; (=RNA, VIRAL); of satellite viruses. (From Maramorosch, Viroids and Satellites, 1991, p143)
A family of double-stranded RNA-binding proteins that are related to NFATC TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS. In addition to binding to RNA, nuclear factor 90 proteins form heterodimeric complexes that regulate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and may play a role in T-CELL activation.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of RNA. It includes EC 3.1.26.-, EC 3.1.27.-, EC 3.1.30.-, and EC 3.1.31.-.
A form of GENE LIBRARY containing the complete DNA sequences present in the genome of a given organism. It contrasts with a cDNA library which contains only sequences utilized in protein coding (lacking introns).
A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)
The degree of similarity between sequences. Studies of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and NUCLEIC ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY provide useful information about the genetic relatedness of genes, gene products, and species.
Family of retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (myc) originally isolated from an avian myelocytomatosis virus. The proto-oncogene myc (c-myc) codes for a nuclear protein which is involved in nucleic acid metabolism and in mediating the cellular response to growth factors. Truncation of the first exon, which appears to regulate c-myc expression, is crucial for tumorigenicity. The human c-myc gene is located at 8q24 on the long arm of chromosome 8.
Immature ERYTHROCYTES. In humans, these are ERYTHROID CELLS that have just undergone extrusion of their CELL NUCLEUS. They still contain some organelles that gradually decrease in number as the cells mature. RIBOSOMES are last to disappear. Certain staining techniques cause components of the ribosomes to precipitate into characteristic "reticulum" (not the same as the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM), hence the name reticulocytes.
A plant genus of the family MALVACEAE. Members contain CITRIC ACID; MALATES; ANTHOCYANINS; FLAVONOIDS; GLYCOSIDES; DIETARY FIBER; and LIGNANS. Hibiscus sabdariffa is common constituent of HERBAL TEAS. Hibiscus cannabinus is a source of hemp fiber for TEXTILES.
Factors that are involved in directing the cleavage and POLYADENYLATION of the of MESSENGER RNA near the site of the RNA 3' POLYADENYLATION SIGNALS.
The protoplasm and plasma membrane of plant, fungal, bacterial or archaeon cells without the CELL WALL.
Enzymes that catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of single-stranded regions of DNA or RNA molecules while leaving the double-stranded regions intact. They are particularly useful in the laboratory for producing "blunt-ended" DNA molecules from DNA with single-stranded ends and for sensitive GENETIC TECHNIQUES such as NUCLEASE PROTECTION ASSAYS that involve the detection of single-stranded DNA and RNA.
Nucleotide sequences located at the ends of EXONS and recognized in pre-messenger RNA by SPLICEOSOMES. They are joined during the RNA SPLICING reaction, forming the junctions between exons.
A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.
A plant genus of the family ZINGIBERACEAE, order Zingiberales, subclass Zingiberidae. Elettaria cardamomum (L.) Maton is the source of Cardamom used in SPICES.
A species of the genus FLAVIVIRUS which causes an acute febrile and sometimes hemorrhagic disease in man. Dengue is mosquito-borne and four serotypes are known.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
The proportion of one particular in the total of all ALLELES for one genetic locus in a breeding POPULATION.
A cell line generated from human embryonic kidney cells that were transformed with human adenovirus type 5.
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
The small subunit of the 80s ribosome of eukaryotes. It is composed of the 18S RIBOSOMAL RNA and 32 different RIBOSOMAL PROTEINS.
PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.
Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.
A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.
A genus of the family PICORNAVIRIDAE whose members preferentially inhabit the intestinal tract of a variety of hosts. The genus contains many species. Newly described members of human enteroviruses are assigned continuous numbers with the species designated "human enterovirus".
A RNA-binding protein that is found predominately in the CYTOPLASM. It helps regulate GENETIC TRANSLATION in NEURONS and is absent or under-expressed in FRAGILE X SYNDROME.
A group of simple proteins that yield basic amino acids on hydrolysis and that occur combined with nucleic acid in the sperm of fish. Protamines contain very few kinds of amino acids. Protamine sulfate combines with heparin to form a stable inactive complex; it is used to neutralize the anticoagulant action of heparin in the treatment of heparin overdose. (From Merck Index, 11th ed; Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p692)
5' untranslated region 252 bp long. 3' untranslated region 1,129 bp long. 10 splice isoforms that encode good proteins, ... In this same region of the promoter, there is also a TATA-binding factor sequence, which helps in the positioning of RNA ... The protein is highly conserved in the DUF776 region amongst vertebrates, and also at the C-terminus in eukaryotes. Using tools ... 30 (2): 171-3. doi:10.1136/jmg.30.2.171. PMC 1016280. PMID 8445626. Clerk A, Kemp TJ, Zoumpoulidou G, Sugden PH (April 2007). " ...
... untranslated region is ~100 nucleotides in length. Viral replication is cytoplasmic. Entry into the host cell is achieved by ... The genome is linear, 5.9-7 kilobases in length with a capped 5' end and a polyadenylated 3' end. The genome encodes 5 proteins ... The TGB 2 (molecular weight 11 kDa) and TGB 3 (molecular weight 10 kDa) proteins associate with the endoplasmic reticulum. The ... 2 and 3 - and the coat protein. The RNA is translated giving rise to the viral RNA polymerase. This in turn produces a negative ...
... untranslated region. The longer transcript is present at higher levels in proliferating tissues and cells, suggesting that this ... untranslated region may function as a trans-acting regulatory RNA. Prohibitins may have multiple functions including: ... untranslated region of prohibitin and cellular immortalization". Experimental Cell Research. 224 (1): 128-35. doi:10.1006/excr. ... Wang S, Nath N, Fusaro G, Chellappan S (Nov 1999). "Rb and prohibitin target distinct regions of E2F1 for repression and ...
... are untranslated regions in the genome of viruses in the genus Flavivirus. The Flavivirus positive-oriented, ... Untranslated Regions of the Flaviviral Genome". Viruses. 9 (6): 137. doi:10.3390/v9060137. ISSN 1999-4915. PMC 5490814. PMID ... After recruitment of NS5, the two loop regions of S3 (TL) and SSD (SSL) are considered to interact with NS5 to promote ... The capsid-coding hairpin region (cHP) actually lies in the ORF of the viral genome and is followed by the 5'CS (conserved ...
... untranslated region). TMEM247 codes only for one variant. The promoter region of TMEM247 has a huge variety of predicted ... The three regions of the protein that remain are predicted to be outside of the membrane it resides in on the N- and C-terminus ... Anchor base positions are based on distance from the start of the gene's promoter region, which itself is 1302 base pairs long ... TMEM247 has a promoter region that also contains a significant number of predicted development-related binding sites, such as ...
... untranslated region (3'UTR) of the pseudogene PTENP1 in a DICER-dependent manner. A new mechanism has recently been shown in ... untranslated region (3'UTR) induces organ adhesion by regulating miR-199a* functions". PLOS ONE. 4 (2): e4527. doi:10.1371/ ... untranslated region modulates endogenous microRNA functions". PLOS ONE. 5 (10): e13599. Bibcode:2010PLoSO...513599L. doi: ... untranslated region regulates endogenous microRNA functions in tumorigenesis and angiogenesis". Nucleic Acids Research. 39 (8 ...
... untranslated region". Nucleic Acids Research. 20 (23): 6413. doi:10.1093/nar/20.23.6413. PMC 334538. PMID 1475204. Shirakawa H ... "High-mobility group protein 2 may be involved in the locus control region regulation of the beta-globin gene cluster". ... 517 (1-3): 167-71. doi:10.1016/S0014-5793(02)02614-5. PMID 12062430. S2CID 84792445. Fan Z, Beresford PJ, Zhang D, Xu Z, Novina ... 215 (3): 325-334. doi:10.1083/jcb.201608026. PMC 5100296. PMID 27799366. Loss of HMGB2 (High-mobility group protein box 2) ...
Untranslated regions (UTR) contain hairpin loops. The 3' UTR comprises 123 nucleotides and the 5' UTR comprises 18 nucleotides ... Also, a N-terminal acetylation site is present at amino acid 3. A Signal cleavage site is present between amino acids 11 and 12 ... Secondary structure of c9orf135 5' UTR loop structure of c9orf135 of mRNA 3' UTR loop structure of c9orf135 mRNA It is likely ...
... untranslated region". Virus Research. Special Issue: Functions of the ends of positive strand RNA virus genomes. 206: 53-61. ... untranslated regions (UTRs). The 5'UTRs are 95-101 nucleotides long in Dengue virus. There are two conserved structural ... Clyde K, Harris E (2006). "RNA Secondary Structure in the Coding Region of Dengue Virus Type 2 Directs Translation Start Codon ... Brinton MA, Dispoto JH (1988). "Sequence and secondary structure analysis of the 5'-terminal region of flavivirus genome RNA". ...
... untranslated regions (UTRs) of the mRNAs of some cytokines and promotes their degradation. For example, TTP is a component of a ... untranslated region of cyclooxygenase-2 mRNA. A polyadenylation variant in a cancer cell line lacks the binding site". J. Biol ... ZFP36 has been shown to interact with 14-3-3 protein family members, such as YWHAH, and with NUP214, a member of the nuclear ... 91 (3): 217-22. doi:10.1007/BF00218259. PMID 8478004. S2CID 35926610. Lai WS, Carballo E, Thorn JM, et al. (2000). " ...
... untranslated region in Salmonella enterica hilD mRNA". Nucleic Acids Research. 42 (9): 5894-5906. doi:10.1093/nar/gku222. PMC ... The 3′ UTR of mRNA hilD, a master regulator of Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI-1), is a prokaryotic example of ... López-Garrido J, Puerta-Fernández E, Casadesús J (May 2014). "A eukaryotic-like 3′ ...
... untranslated region of vimentin mRNA". Nucleic Acids Research. 25 (16): 3362-70. doi:10.1093/nar/25.16.3362. PMC 146884. PMID ... High levels of DNA methylation in the promoter region have also been associated with markedly decreased survival in hormone ... 262 (3): 1320-5. doi:10.1016/S0021-9258(19)75789-5. PMID 3027087. Brown MJ, Hallam JA, Liu Y, Yamada KM, Shaw S (July 2001). " ... Vimentin has been shown to interact with: DSP MEN1 MYST2 PKN1 PRKCI PLEC SPTAN1 UPP1 YWHAZ The 3' UTR of Vimentin mRNA has been ...
... untranslated regions (UTRs) along with introns. Overprinting refers to a type of overlap in which all or part of the sequence ... However, these overlap regions are known to be less important for replication compared to the overlap regions that were highly ... The spacer domain of the polymerase and the pre-S1 region of a surface protein of HBV, for example, had a percentage of ... In tombusviruses, the proteins p19 and p22 are encoded by overlapping genes that form a 549 nt coding region, and p19 is shown ...
... untranslated regions". Mol Cell Biol. 3 (10): 1738-45. doi:10.1128/mcb.3.10.1738. PMC 370035. PMID 6646120. "Entrez Gene: ... Reductive methylation studies of the Lys 394 region". Biophys. J. 64 (3): 792-802. Bibcode:1993BpJ....64..792S. doi:10.1016/ ... 22 (3): 698-707. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.22-03-00698.2002. PMC 6758498. PMID 11826099. Saugstad JA, Yang S, Pohl J, et al. (2002 ... doi:10.1016/S0006-291X(02)00269-3. PMID 12054644. Cowan NJ, Dobner PR, Fuchs EV, Cleveland DW (Jan 1984). "Expression of human ...
Untranslated Regions". Molecular and Cellular Biology. 3 (10): 1738-1739, 1742. doi:10.1128/mcb.3.10.1738. PMC 370035. PMID ... untranslated regions". Molecular and Cellular Biology. 3 (10): 1738-45. doi:10.1128/mcb.3.10.1738. PMC 370035. PMID 6646120. ... 3 (7): 130061. doi:10.1098/rsob.130061. PMC 3728923. PMID 23864552. Poirier, K.; Keays, D. A.; Francis, F.; Saillour, Y.; Bahi ... 363 (Pt 3): 599-608. doi:10.1042/0264-6021:3630599. PMC 1222513. PMID 11964161. Overview of all the structural information ...
Untranslated Region to the germ line cells. Translation can be inhibited by cis regulatory elements in the transcript's 5' and ... untranslated regions of mRNAs in human diseases". Biology of the Cell. 101 (5): 251-62. doi:10.1042/BC20080104. PMID 19275763. ... After the duplication event, the N-terminal region acquired Zn-knuckle domains which are now conserved in invertebrates. ... and arginine methylation in a conserved region of mice, Xenopus and Drosophila Vasa genes. One of main function of Vasa protein ...
... untranslated regions (UTR) are complementary and highly conserved. The S segment encodes two proteins: the nucleoprotein (N) ... despite the fact that the viruses were collected from temporally distinct regions spanning a 10 to 26 year period. This level ... 9 (3): 295-9. doi:10.1089/vbz.2008.0128. PMID 19534626. Hubálek, Z.; Rudolf, I.; Bakonyi, T.; Kazdová, K.; Halouzka, J.; ... The incubation period of the virus lasts about 3 to 7 days. TAHV disease can progress to involve the central nervous system, ...
... untranslated region (3'UTR). The microtubule cytoskeleton also plays a role in localizing bicoid. The posterior group genes ... BMP-4 mainly acts in trunk and tail region of the embryo while a different set of signals work in the head region. Xwnt-8 is ... The gap genes are directly influenced by the maternal genes and are expressed in local and overlapping regions along the ... Hans Spemann named this region the organizer and the induction of the dorsal axis the primary induction. The organizer is ...
... untranslated regions". Mol. Cell. Biol. 3 (10): 1738-45. doi:10.1128/mcb.3.10.1738. PMC 370035. PMID 6646120. KATNB1 human gene ... 127 (3): 635-48. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.09.026. PMID 17081983. S2CID 7827573. Toyo-Oka K, Sasaki S, Yano Y, et al. (2006). " ... 109 (3): 561-7. doi:10.1242/jcs.109.3.561. PMID 8907702. McNally FJ, Vale RD (1993). "Identification of katanin, an ATPase that ... 75 (3): 419-29. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(93)90377-3. PMID 8221885. S2CID 10264319. Cowan NJ, Dobner PR, Fuchs EV, Cleveland DW ( ...
... untranslated region of Xenopus Vg1 mRNA". Nucleic Acids Res. 36 (17): 5530-5539. doi:10.1093/nar/gkn530. ISSN 0305-1048. PMC ... This ribozyme was identified from in vitro studies that showed that the Vg1 mRNA was cleaved within the 3′ UTR in the absence ... Studying the Vg1 mRNA 3′UTR a manganese-dependent ribozyme was predicted to exist. This ribozyme was shown to be located ... It was identified in the 3′ UTR of Xenopus Vg1 mRNA transcripts and mouse beta-actin mRNA. ...
... untranslated region". Biochemistry. Biokhimiia. 71 (12): 1377-84. doi:10.1134/s0006297906120145. PMID 17223792. S2CID 1527080. ... Those downstream from this region are unable to do so. Thus, nonsense codons lie more than 50-54 nucleotides upstream from the ... Ribosomes translating the mRNA eventually translate into the 3'poly-A tail region of transcripts and stalls. As a result, it ... adenylation or cryptic polyadenylation signals within the coding region of a gene. This lack of a stop codon results a ...
... untranslated region (3'UTR), has been shown to interact with one copy of R2 protein during TPRT. This fragment has been shown ... The 5′ R2 protein binding site occurs in a region that spans part of the 5' UTR and the start of the R2 ORF. This region also ... untranslated regions of diverse R2 RNAs". RNA. 10 (6): 978-987. doi:10.1261/rna.5216204. PMC 1370589. PMID 15146081. Eickbush, ... regions of R2 retrotransposon RNAs reveal a novel conserved pseudoknot and regions that evolve under different constraints. J ...
There are untranslated regions at the 5' and 3' ends of the genome. These vary with the 5' end being between 72 and 730 and the ... 3' end 121 to 442 nucleotides in length. The function of the two smaller open reading frames is not known but they appear to be ...
The 5' untranslated region of MIF4GD mRNA transcripts is relatively short, at a length of around 137 nucleotides, and is ... untranslated region is longer, at a length of approximately 510 nucleotides. The 3' UTR is also predicted to form stem-loops, ... The promoter region of MIF4GD is approximately 1137 nucleotide base pairs long, and is predicted to interact with various ... 28 (3): 1182-1194. doi:10.1128/mcb.01500-07. ISSN 0270-7306. PMC 2223387. PMID 18025107. Neusiedler, Julia; Mocquet, Vincent; ...
The region between the second homeodomain and TAD is predicted to be disordered. DUX4 transcripts can be spliced to produce ... This gene is located within a D4Z4 macrosatellite repeat array in the subtelomeric region of chromosome 4q35. The D4Z4 repeat ... Exons 2 and 3 encode for the three prime untranslated region (3′-UTR). In certain haplotypes, exon 3 contains a polyadenylation ... Only one copy of exon 3 is present, telomeric to the D4Z4 repeat array. The open reading frame (ORF) is entirely contained ...
... untranslated region. Mutations which change amino acid residues 12, 13 or 61 activate the potential of N-ras to transform ... 48 (4): 950-3. PMID 3276402. Hirai H, Kobayashi Y, Mano H, et al. (1987). "A point mutation at codon 13 of the N-ras oncogene ... 5 (3): 582-5. doi:10.1128/mcb.5.3.582. PMC 366752. PMID 3887133. Brown R, Marshall CJ, Pennie SG, Hall A (1984). "Mechanism of ... 70 (3-4): 183-5. doi:10.1159/000134028. PMID 7789166. Kodaki T, Woscholski R, Hallberg B, et al. (1995). "The activation of ...
three-prime untranslated region See 3' untranslated region. thymidine (T, dT) One of the four standard nucleosides used in DNA ... untranslated region (UTR) Either of two non-coding sequences which are transcribed along with a protein-coding sequence, and ... A typical mRNA transcript includes one such region immediately upstream of the coding sequence, known as the 5' untranslated ... untranslated region. trait trans On the opposite side; across from; acting from a different molecule. Contrast cis. trans- ...
These untranslated regions of genome are important for the DNA replication, with the untranslated region on the 5' side being ... ends of the genome there are untranslated regions . ... The 3' end of the genome encodes a polyA tail while the 5' end ... 86 (3): 1292-1296. doi:10.1128/JVI.06087-11. ISSN 0022-538X. PMC 3264344. PMID 22114344. "Cardiovirus ~ ViralZone page". ... "Structure and Genome Release Mechanism of the Human Cardiovirus Saffold Virus 3". Journal of Virology. 90 (17): 7628-7639. doi: ...
... untranslated region". Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 396 (2): 435-9. doi:10.1016/j.bbrc.2010.04.112. PMID 20417621. Jian, P.; Li, ... "MicroRNA-1285 inhibits the expression of p53 by directly targeting its 3' ...
... untranslated region. It is a deletion/insertion polymorphism (DIP). The 9-repeat and the 10-repeat are the most common alleles ... 2007). "Dopamine transporter 3'-UTR VNTR genotype and ADHD: a pharmaco-behavioural genetic study with methylphenidate". ... It is polymorphism as a 40 base pairs VNTR in the 3' ...
These works remain untranslated, except that key parts of Das Problem der Souveränität und die Theorie des Völkerrechts appear ... Region. Western philosophy. School. Legal positivism. Institutions. University of Vienna. University of Cologne. Institut ... ISBN 3-511-00058-0. *^ Kelsen, Hans (1920), Der soziologische und der juristische Staatsbegriff, Tübingen: Mohr. ; reprinted, ... Kelsen, Hans (1937). "The function of the pure theory of law." In A. Reppy (ed.) Law: A Century of Progress 1835-1935, 3 vols ...
... whose husband Pavel Gubarev declared himself the Donetsk Region governor and after that was arrested by the Security Service of ... "Idiot's Guide to Chaos: Some Passages from Dugin's "4th PT" Left Untranslated Into English". Kali Tribune ... Retrieved 3 March 2022.. *^ a b Jones, Sam; Hope, Kerin; Weaver, Courtney (28 January 2015). "Alarm bells ring over Syriza's ... 978-3-030-22059-4. . OCLC 1112419471. S2CID 202323563.. *^ a b Umland, Andreas (July 2010). "Aleksandr Dugin's Transformation ...
Both major parties of Kurdistan, an autonomous region in Northern Iraq, vow to fight Turkish troops if they enter Kurdistan to ... See also blog post with link to original untranslated letter as well as news article, all three last retrieved 27 June 2007. ... US President Bill Clinton remarks "(Hussein's) regime threatens the safety of his people, the stability of his region, and the ... 3 September 1996 *The US launched Operation Desert Strike with a series of cruise missile attacks on Iraqi targets in Kut, ...
একটি করোনাভাইরাসের জন্য জিনোম অর্গানাইজেশন হলো 5'-লিডার-UTR (Untranslated Region) -রেপ্লিকেজ/ ট্রান্সক্রিপটেজ-স্পাইক (S) - ... Microbiology। 17 (3): 181-192। ডিওআই:10.1038/s41579-018-0118-9। পিএমআইডি 30531947। Different SARS-CoV strains isolated from ... 3): 605-14। ডিওআই:10.1016/j.antiviral.2013.09.028। পিএমআইডি 24121034। পিএমসি 3889862 । See Figure 2.. ... 66005-3। পিএমআইডি 16877062। Nevertheless, the interaction between S protein and receptor remains the principal, if not sole, ...
... untranslated sequences of eukaryotic mRNAs Five prime untranslated region Three prime untranslated region UTRome Grillo, ... a collection of sequences and regulatory motifs of the untranslated regions of eukaryotic mRNAs". Nucleic Acids Res. 38 (Suppl_ ...
... differences in their DNA sequences are almost exclusively synonymous substitutions or in the three prime untranslated region, ... A third, more modified paralog to these genes exists in the same region, HSPA1L, which shares a 90% homology with the other two ... "Genomic structure of the spermatid-specific hsp70 homolog gene located in the class III region of the major histocompatibility ... 289 (3): 1402-1414. doi:10.1074/jbc.M113.521997. PMC 3894324. PMID 24318877. Liu J, Xia J, Cho KH, Clapham DE, Ren D (June 2007 ...
... untranslated region (3' UTR) of multiple target mRNAs. This binding in turn results in an inhibition of translation of the ... miR-137 is embedded within a CpG island, a genomic region containing high frequency of CpG dinucleotides, and is reported to be ... a region of the brain with significant plasticity and continuous production of new neurons. miR-137 is also found to be ... 52 (3): 1193-1199. doi:10.1167/iovs.10-5272. PMID 21051724. Tarantino C, Paolella G, Cozzuto L, et al. (September 2010). "miRNA ...
The PhotoRC motif RNAs are located upstream of, and presumably in the 5′ untranslated regions (5′ UTRs), of genes that are ... 11 (3): R31. doi:10.1186/gb-2010-11-3-r31. PMC 2864571. PMID 20230605. Page for PhotoRC-I at Rfam Page for PhotoRC-II at Rfam v ...
Over time the region's Mongols were completely Tibetanized but continued to enjoy prestige among the Tibetans as Gushri Khan's ... Shakabpa and Mullin's histories both being based on untranslated Tibetan chronicles. The respected Reting Rinpoche was recalled ... de:Dagpo (Region)[circular reference] Mullin 2001, p. 105. Mullin 2001, p. 111. Mullin 2001, pp. 107-9. Mullin 2001, p. 109. ... from the Lhasa region of Ü to this province, which was the stronghold of the Karma Kagyu school and their patrons, the rising ...
It is located in the presumed 5' untranslated regions of nuoG genes. This gene and the downstream genes probably comprise an ... 11 (3): R31. doi:10.1186/gb-2010-11-3-r31. PMC 2864571. PMID 20230605. Page for nuoG RNA at Rfam v t e (Orphaned articles from ...
East of this region is the Ganges river with dark blue waters and strange creatures living in it, but these creatures do not ... He sought original untranslated Sanskrit texts from India to help resolve some of these issues. At age 27, he began his ... This region has the city of Mayura, densely populated and with a great deva temple near the Ganges river. The heretics call it ... This region is fertile, people love mangoes, they produce cloth and gold. The climate is hot, the people are genial and good by ...
... this family of short interspersed nuclear elements is often found in the untranslated region of the 3' end of many genes and is ... Insertion of a SINE upstream of a coding region may result in exon shuffling or changes to the regulatory region of the gene. ... The regions coding miRNA can be independent RNA-genes often being anti-sense to neighboring protein-coding genes, or can be ... SINEs have 50-500 base pair internal regions which contain a tRNA-derived segment with A and B boxes that serve as an internal ...
The Welsh Celtic Scholar John Rhys had discussed a region just in the vicinity of St. David's or Mynyw, referred to in the ... some parts of it also still remain untranslated and unpublished due to its poor condition. They were discovered among a ... Cáin Law broadly applied to entire tribes, regions, all under a High King. Urradas law was at a more local level. The character ... This kingdom includes the region of Galloway, a name that derives from the old Irish of 'Gallgaidhel', which means 'foreigner( ...
... untranslated region". FEBS Lett. 216 (2): 281-6. doi:10.1016/0014-5793(87)80706-8. PMID 3582677. Killen PD, Francomano CA, ... 176 (3): 617-24. doi:10.1111/j.1432-1033.1988.tb14321.x. PMID 2844531. Pöschl E, Pollner R, Kühn K (1988). "The genes for the ... 30 (3): 158-64. doi:10.1159/000199100. PMID 6389236. v t e (Genes on human chromosome 13, Collagens, All stub articles, Human ... 60 (3): 251-62. doi:10.1016/0021-9150(86)90172-3. PMID 3089234. Soininen R, Huotari M, Hostikka SL, et al. (1988). "The ...
He also studied English, which he viewed as an "alloy" of French and German, by repeatedly reading the same untranslated novel ... which had demanded cession over Romanian monastery estates in that region. On orders from Ioan Lahovary, he also began ... 248/1903, p. 3 "Revue de la presse. Le Dr Gaster et les juifs de Roumanie", in L'Écho Sioniste, Vol. 5, Issue 6, June 1904, p. ... 3/2006 Marghiloman, I, p. 299 Boia (2010), p. 295 Boia (2010), p. 297; Secrieru, p. 31 Boia (2010), pp. 45, 295 Boia (2010), pp ...
... untranslated region of Tobacco Mosaic Virus known as omega. Osbourn then moved into medical research through a British Heart ... 14 (3): 309-314. doi:10.1038/nbt0396-309. PMID 9630891. S2CID 23088502. Vaughan, T. J.; Osbourn, J. K.; Tempest, P. R. (30 June ... Chodorge, M (3 December 2018). "Engineering of a GLP-1 analogue peptide/anti-PCSK9 antibody fusion for type 2 diabetes ... 3 (4): 293-302. doi:10.1016/S1380-2933(97)10007-0. PMID 9530562. Osbourn, JK (1996). "Generation of a panel of related human ...
David Whitmer is quoted as stating that he saw just the untranslated portion of the plates sitting on the table with the sword ... At the time, churches in the region contended so vigorously for souls that western New York later became known as the "burned- ... implying that they did not examine untranslated parts, such as the sealed portion. In one interview, David Whitmer said that " ... the plates were returned untranslated to Wiley and Fugate in Kinderhook. Smith did not express reservations about the plates to ...
2000). "Characterization of the 5'-flanking and 5'-untranslated regions of the cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate-responsive ... untranslated region of human type 2 iodothyronine deiodinase mRNA contains a functional selenocysteine insertion sequence ... The 3' UTR of Sec-containing genes have a common stem-loop structure, the Sec insertion sequence (SECIS), which is necessary ... 144 (3): 937-946. doi:10.1210/en.2002-220960. PMID 12586771. Ambroziak M, Pachucki J, Chojnowski K, et al. (2003). "Pax-8 ...
... has two variant transcripts that differ only in the 5' untranslated region (UTR), but both encode the same protein. ... 1 (3). Golan, Neev (July 2008). "Identification of Tmem10/Opalin as an oligodendrocyte enriched gene using expression profiling ... updated 3 Feb. 2019 ExPASy Compute pI/Mw tool https://web.expasy. ...
An untranslated region (UTR) is found at both ends of the picornavirus genome. The 5' UTR is usually longer, being around 500- ... The outer surface of the capsid is composed of regions of VP1, VP2, and VP3. Around each of the vertices is a canyon lined with ... RNA synthesis, though, is hypothesized to occur in this region. The 3' end NCR of poliovirus is not necessary for negative- ... Also, the 3' end elements of viral RNA are significant and efficient for RNA replication of picornaviruses. The 3' end of ...
... untranslated region. Ischaemic preconditioning brings about reduced miR-711 levels, with downregulated cardiac myocyte levels ... 7 (3): 871-7. doi:10.1039/c0mb00230e. PMID 21183973. Page for mir-711 microRNA precursor family at Rfam v t e (Rfam pages ... miR-711 has been found to target and suppress Heat Shock Protein 70.3 in vitro at a post-transcriptional level via its 3' ...
2 Alu repeat sequences are present in the three prime untranslated regions. The VPS13B gene is also known as: CHS1 COH1 Cohen ... VPS13B is a large gene; It spans a genomic DNA sequence region of about 864 kilobase pairs, or 846,000 base pairs. The VPS13B ... The pattern of alternative splicing in the VS13B gene is complex in the analyzed regions including exons 28B and 28. This ... 84 (3): 536-49. doi:10.1016/j.ygeno.2004.04.012. PMID 15498460. Kolehmainen J, Black GC, Saarinen A, Chandler K, Clayton-Smith ...
... a god who takes the souls to the lower regions Siginarugan: a god who takes the souls to the lower regions Bangle: carries the ... is left untranslated. Apparently the Spanish chronicler did not know the Tagalog name of this deity. They could be referring to ... Tanguban is divided into two regions: one is Maca or "kasanáan ng tuwa" ("a thousand joys") where the good souls temporarily ... the region beyond the Langit; the god of the heavens and the punisher of crime; also referred as Magindusa, the deity who gives ...
... untranslated region of human corticotropin receptor cDNA". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Cell Research. 1356 ... Sebag JA, Hinkle PM (January 2009). "Regions of melanocortin 2 (MC2) receptor accessory protein necessary for dual topology and ... 196 (3): 465-72. doi:10.1677/JOE-07-0299. PMID 18310442. Park SY, Walker JJ, Johnson NW, Zhao Z, Lightman SL, Spiga F (May 2013 ... 11 (3): 274-80. doi:10.1210/mend.11.3.9898. PMID 9058374. Naville D, Barjhoux L, Jaillard C, Saez JM, Durand P, Bégeot M (April ...
... untranslated region and bind to the TATA box to activate the transcription of oxidative stress related genes. SNPs in TATA ... The Pribnow box has a 6 bp region centered around the -10 position and an 8-12 bp sequence around the -35 region that are both ... In bacteria, promoter regions may contain a Pribnow box, which serves an analogous purpose to the eukaryotic TATA box. ... TBP binds to the minor groove of the TATA box via a region of antiparallel β sheets in the protein. Three types of molecular ...
A helical region between amino acids 610-655 was predicted to be a coiled coil motif. A PHYRE2 protein structure prediction ... A potential stem loop region at the 3 prime end of the first exon (and thus, the end of the promoter) was predicted by the ... The potential SH3-binding domain exists within a low complexity region with an unusually high number of amino acids with oxygen ... The potential SH3-binding domain is located on a predicted region of disorder, further supporting a protein-protein binding ...
The 5' un-translated region of isoform 1 is relatively short and is predicted to fold into several stem loop domains within ... conserved areas of the un-translated region. The longest polypeptide of transmembrane protein 217 consists of 229 amino acids. ... "Predict Location of Transmembrane Helices and Location of Intervening Loop Regions". Biology Workbench. San Diego Supercomputer ... 215 (3): 403-410. doi:10.1006/jmbi.1990.9999. PMID 2231712. Kent, W.J. (2002). "BLAT- the BLAST-like alignment tool". Genome ...
... untranslated region of human renin mRNA and differentially modulate renin expression". J. Biol. Chem. 278 (45): 44894-903. doi: ... untranslated region of human renin mRNA and differentially modulate renin expression". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 278 ... untranslated region of renin mRNA, thereby regulating renin protein expression. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000138029 - ... The HADHB protein catalyzes the final step of beta-oxidation, in which 3-ketoacyl CoA is cleaved by the thiol group of another ...
... untranslated region of BCS1L mRNA in mitochondrial complex III deficiency". Mitochondrion. 9 (5): 299-305. doi:10.1016/j.mito. ... 15 (3): 479-87. doi:10.1002/j.1460-2075.1996.tb00380.x. PMC 449966. PMID 8599931. Andersson B, Wentland MA, Ricafrente JY, Liu ... doi:10.1016/S0378-1119(97)00411-3. PMID 9373149. Lubianca Neto JF, Lu L, Eavey RD, Flores MA, Caldera RM, Sangwatanaroj S, ...
All known flg-Rhizobiales RNAs are located in the presumptive 5' untranslated regions of operons that contain genes whose ... 11 (3): R31. doi:10.1186/gb-2010-11-3-r31. PMC 2864571. PMID 20230605. Page for flg-Rhizobiales RNA at Rfam v t e (Articles ...

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