The sequence at the 3' end of messenger RNA that does not code for product. This region contains transcription and translation regulating sequences.
The sequence at the 5' end of the messenger RNA that does not code for product. This sequence contains the ribosome binding site and other transcription and translation regulating sequences.
The parts of the messenger RNA sequence that do not code for product, i.e. the 5' UNTRANSLATED REGIONS and 3' UNTRANSLATED REGIONS.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
The extent to which an RNA molecule retains its structural integrity and resists degradation by RNASE, and base-catalyzed HYDROLYSIS, under changing in vivo or in vitro conditions.
Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs, 21-25 nucleotides in length generated from single-stranded microRNA gene transcripts by the same RIBONUCLEASE III, Dicer, that produces small interfering RNAs (RNA, SMALL INTERFERING). They become part of the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX and repress the translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of target RNA by binding to homologous 3'UTR region as an imperfect match. The small temporal RNAs (stRNAs), let-7 and lin-4, from C. elegans, are the first 2 miRNAs discovered, and are from a class of miRNAs involved in developmental timing.
Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
A family of RNA-binding proteins that are homologues of ELAV protein, Drosophila. They were initially identified in humans as the targets of autoantibodies in patients with PARANEOPLASTIC ENCEPHALOMYELITIS. They are thought to regulate GENE EXPRESSION at the post-transcriptional level.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Post-transcriptional biological modification of messenger, transfer, or ribosomal RNAs or their precursors. It includes cleavage, methylation, thiolation, isopentenylation, pseudouridine formation, conformational changes, and association with ribosomal protein.
The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.
Sequences within RNA that regulate the processing, stability (RNA STABILITY) or translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of RNA.
A group of adenine ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each adenine ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.
Nucleic acid sequences involved in regulating the expression of genes.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A heterogeneous-nuclear ribonucleoprotein that has specificity for AU-rich elements found in the 3'-region of mRNA and may play a role in RNA stability. Several isoforms of hnRNP D protein have been found to occur due to alternative mRNA splicing (RNA SPLICING).
Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.
A codon that directs initiation of protein translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) by stimulating the binding of initiator tRNA (RNA, TRANSFER, MET). In prokaryotes, the codons AUG or GUG can act as initiators while in eukaryotes, AUG is the only initiator codon.
The addition of a tail of polyadenylic acid (POLY A) to the 3' end of mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). Polyadenylation involves recognizing the processing site signal, (AAUAAA), and cleaving of the mRNA to create a 3' OH terminal end to which poly A polymerase (POLYNUCLEOTIDE ADENYLYLTRANSFERASE) adds 60-200 adenylate residues. The 3' end processing of some messenger RNAs, such as histone mRNA, is carried out by a different process that does not include the addition of poly A as described here.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
A multiribosomal structure representing a linear array of RIBOSOMES held together by messenger RNA; (RNA, MESSENGER); They represent the active complexes in cellular protein synthesis and are able to incorporate amino acids into polypeptides both in vivo and in vitro. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
A process whereby multiple RNA transcripts are generated from a single gene. Alternative splicing involves the splicing together of other possible sets of EXONS during the processing of some, but not all, transcripts of the gene. Thus a particular exon may be connected to any one of several alternative exons to form a mature RNA. The alternative forms of mature MESSENGER RNA produce PROTEIN ISOFORMS in which one part of the isoforms is common while the other parts are different.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Nucleic acid structures found on the 5' end of eukaryotic cellular and viral messenger RNA and some heterogeneous nuclear RNAs. These structures, which are positively charged, protect the above specified RNAs at their termini against attack by phosphatases and other nucleases and promote mRNA function at the level of initiation of translation. Analogs of the RNA caps (RNA CAP ANALOGS), which lack the positive charge, inhibit the initiation of protein synthesis.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Multicomponent ribonucleoprotein structures found in the CYTOPLASM of all cells, and in MITOCHONDRIA, and PLASTIDS. They function in PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS via GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Enzymes that oxidize certain LUMINESCENT AGENTS to emit light (PHYSICAL LUMINESCENCE). The luciferases from different organisms have evolved differently so have different structures and substrates.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A ZINC FINGER MOTIF containing transcription factor that was originally identified as one of the IMMEDIATE-EARLY PROTEINS. It shuttles between the CYTOPLASM and the CELL NUCLEUS and is involved in destabilization of mRNAs for TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR-ALPHA.
Complexes of RNA-binding proteins with ribonucleic acids (RNA).
The ultimate exclusion of nonsense sequences or intervening sequences (introns) before the final RNA transcript is sent to the cytoplasm.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.
RNA which does not code for protein but has some enzymatic, structural or regulatory function. Although ribosomal RNA (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) and transfer RNA (RNA, TRANSFER) are also untranslated RNAs they are not included in this scope.
Neuromuscular disorder characterized by PROGRESSIVE MUSCULAR ATROPHY; MYOTONIA, and various multisystem atrophies. Mild INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY may also occur. Abnormal TRINUCLEOTIDE REPEAT EXPANSION in the 3' UNTRANSLATED REGIONS of DMPK PROTEIN gene is associated with Myotonic Dystrophy 1. DNA REPEAT EXPANSION of zinc finger protein-9 gene intron is associated with Myotonic Dystrophy 2.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
RNA sequences composed of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES and URACIL NUCLEOTIDES, that are located in the 3'UNTRANSLATED REGIONS of MESSENGER RNA molecules that are rapidly degraded. They are also known as AREs.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal (CODON, TERMINATOR). Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER) complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons (CODONS, NONSENSE).
The process of moving specific RNA molecules from one cellular compartment or region to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A family of ribonucleoproteins that were originally found as proteins bound to nascent RNA transcripts in the form of ribonucleoprotein particles. Although considered ribonucleoproteins they are primarily classified by their protein component. They are involved in a variety of processes such as packaging of RNA and RNA TRANSPORT within the nucleus. A subset of heterogeneous-nuclear ribonucleoproteins are involved in additional functions such as nucleocytoplasmic transport (ACTIVE TRANSPORT, CELL NUCLEUS) of RNA and mRNA stability in the CYTOPLASM.
A process of GENETIC TRANSLATION whereby the formation of a peptide chain is started. It includes assembly of the RIBOSOME components, the MESSENGER RNA coding for the polypeptide to be made, INITIATOR TRNA, and PEPTIDE INITIATION FACTORS; and placement of the first amino acid in the peptide chain. The details and components of this process are unique for prokaryotic protein biosynthesis and eukaryotic protein biosynthesis.
A family of small RNA viruses comprising some important pathogens of humans and animals. Transmission usually occurs mechanically. There are nine genera: APHTHOVIRUS; CARDIOVIRUS; ENTEROVIRUS; ERBOVIRUS; HEPATOVIRUS; KOBUVIRUS; PARECHOVIRUS; RHINOVIRUS; and TESCHOVIRUS.
A superfamily of proteins containing the globin fold which is composed of 6-8 alpha helices arranged in a characterstic HEME enclosing structure.
A family of RNA plant viruses infecting dicotyledons. Transmission is mainly by mechanical inoculation and through propagative plant material. All species elicit formation of multivesicular inclusion bodies. There are at least eight genera: Aureusvirus, Avenavirus, CARMOVIRUS, Dianthovirus, Machlomovirus, Necrovirus, Panicovirus, and TOMBUSVIRUS.
A species of CORONAVIRUS infecting neonatal calves, presenting as acute diarrhea, and frequently leading to death.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.
Proteins that regulate cellular and organismal iron homeostasis. They play an important biological role by maintaining iron levels that are adequate for metabolic need, but below the toxicity threshold.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
An enzyme that catalyzes the acetylation of chloramphenicol to yield chloramphenicol 3-acetate. Since chloramphenicol 3-acetate does not bind to bacterial ribosomes and is not an inhibitor of peptidyltransferase, the enzyme is responsible for the naturally occurring chloramphenicol resistance in bacteria. The enzyme, for which variants are known, is found in both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. EC 2.3.1.28.
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE causing parenterally-transmitted HEPATITIS C which is associated with transfusions and drug abuse. Hepatitis C virus is the type species.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.
The first nucleotide of a transcribed DNA sequence where RNA polymerase (DNA-DIRECTED RNA POLYMERASE) begins synthesizing the RNA transcript.
A RNA-binding protein that binds to polypyriminidine rich regions in the INTRONS of messenger RNAs. Polypyrimidine tract-binding protein may be involved in regulating the ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of mRNAs since its presence on an intronic RNA region that is upstream of an EXON inhibits the splicing of the exon into the final mRNA product.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, sequencing, and information analysis of an RNA SEQUENCE.
A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.
The type species of the genus ALFAMOVIRUS that is non-persistently transmitted by aphids.
A genus in the family TOMBUSVIRIDAE mostly found in temperate regions. Some species infecting legumes (FABACEAE) are reported from tropical areas. Most viruses are soil-borne, but some are transmitted by the fungus Olpidium radicale and others by beetles. Carnation mottle virus is the type species.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
RNA, usually prepared by transcription from cloned DNA, which complements a specific mRNA or DNA and is generally used for studies of virus genes, distribution of specific RNA in tissues and cells, integration of viral DNA into genomes, transcription, etc. Whereas DNA PROBES are preferred for use at a more macroscopic level for detection of the presence of DNA/RNA from specific species or subspecies, RNA probes are preferred for genetic studies. Conventional labels for the RNA probe include radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. RNA probes may be further divided by category into plus-sense RNA probes, minus-sense RNA probes, and antisense RNA probes.
Any codon that signals the termination of genetic translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC). PEPTIDE TERMINATION FACTORS bind to the stop codon and trigger the hydrolysis of the aminoacyl bond connecting the completed polypeptide to the tRNA. Terminator codons do not specify amino acids.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
A genus of plant viruses that infects both monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants. Its organisms are persistently transmitted by aphids, and weeds may provide reservoirs of infection.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE containing several subgroups and many species. Most are arboviruses transmitted by mosquitoes or ticks. The type species is YELLOW FEVER VIRUS.
Ribonucleic acid in plants having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
The different gene transcripts generated from a single gene by RNA EDITING or ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of RNA PRECURSORS.
An increased number of contiguous trinucleotide repeats in the DNA sequence from one generation to the next. The presence of these regions is associated with diseases such as FRAGILE X SYNDROME and MYOTONIC DYSTROPHY. Some CHROMOSOME FRAGILE SITES are composed of sequences where trinucleotide repeat expansion occurs.
Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.
Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.
Synthetic or natural oligonucleotides used in hybridization studies in order to identify and study specific nucleic acid fragments, e.g., DNA segments near or within a specific gene locus or gene. The probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin.
Copies of nucleic acid sequence that are arranged in opposing orientation. They may lie adjacent to each other (tandem) or be separated by some sequence that is not part of the repeat (hyphenated). They may be true palindromic repeats, i.e. read the same backwards as forward, or complementary which reads as the base complement in the opposite orientation. Complementary inverted repeats have the potential to form hairpin loop or stem-loop structures which results in cruciform structures (such as CRUCIFORM DNA) when the complementary inverted repeats occur in double stranded regions.
Elements that are transcribed into RNA, reverse-transcribed into DNA and then inserted into a new site in the genome. Long terminal repeats (LTRs) similar to those from retroviruses are contained in retrotransposons and retrovirus-like elements. Retroposons, such as LONG INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS and SHORT INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS do not contain LTRs.
A multifunctional iron-sulfur protein that is both an iron regulatory protein and cytoplasmic form of aconitate hydratase. It binds to iron regulatory elements found on mRNAs involved in iron metabolism and regulates their translation. Its RNA binding ability and its aconitate hydrolase activity are dependent upon availability of IRON.
Ribonucleic acid in protozoa having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
Pairing of purine and pyrimidine bases by HYDROGEN BONDING in double-stranded DNA or RNA.
Proteins that bind to the 3' polyadenylated region of MRNA. When complexed with RNA the proteins serve an array of functions such as stabilizing the 3' end of RNA, promoting poly(A) synthesis and stimulating mRNA translation.
Selenoproteins are proteins that specifically incorporate SELENOCYSTEINE into their amino acid chain. Most selenoproteins are enzymes with the selenocysteine residues being responsible for their catalytic functions.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Ribonucleic acid in helminths having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
RNA molecules which hybridize to complementary sequences in either RNA or DNA altering the function of the latter. Endogenous antisense RNAs function as regulators of gene expression by a variety of mechanisms. Synthetic antisense RNAs are used to effect the functioning of specific genes for investigative or therapeutic purposes.
A theoretical representative nucleotide or amino acid sequence in which each nucleotide or amino acid is the one which occurs most frequently at that site in the different sequences which occur in nature. The phrase also refers to an actual sequence which approximates the theoretical consensus. A known CONSERVED SEQUENCE set is represented by a consensus sequence. Commonly observed supersecondary protein structures (AMINO ACID MOTIFS) are often formed by conserved sequences.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.
A species of ENTEROVIRUS infecting humans and containing 36 serotypes. It is comprised of all the echoviruses and a few coxsackieviruses, including all of those previously named coxsackievirus B.
Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Plants or plant parts which are harmful to man or other animals.
Ribonucleic acid in fungi having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
A species of GREEN ALGAE. Delicate, hairlike appendages arise from the flagellar surface in these organisms.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
A naturally occurring amino acid in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms. It is found in tRNAs and in the catalytic site of some enzymes. The genes for glutathione peroxidase and formate dehydrogenase contain the TGA codon, which codes for this amino acid.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
An enlarged underground root or stem of some plants. It is usually rich in carbohydrates. Some, such as POTATOES, are important human FOOD. They may reproduce vegetatively from buds.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.
A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.
A large family of RNA helicases that share a common protein motif with the single letter amino acid sequence D-E-A-D (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp). In addition to RNA helicase activity, members of the DEAD-box family participate in other aspects of RNA metabolism and regulation of RNA function.
A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.
Genes that are introduced into an organism using GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Microsatellite repeats consisting of three nucleotides dispersed in the euchromatic arms of chromosomes.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
A genus of plant viruses in the family FLEXIVIRIDAE, that cause mosaic and ringspot symptoms. Transmission occurs mechanically. Potato virus X is the type species.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.
Sequences found near the 3' end of MESSENGER RNA that direct the cleavage and addition of multiple ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES to the 3' end of mRNA.
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
Any DNA sequence capable of independent replication or a molecule that possesses a REPLICATION ORIGIN and which is therefore potentially capable of being replicated in a suitable cell. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The process of germ cell development in the female from the primordial germ cells through OOGONIA to the mature haploid ova (OVUM).
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Small, linear single-stranded RNA molecules functionally acting as molecular parasites of certain RNA plant viruses. Satellite RNAs exhibit four characteristic traits: (1) they require helper viruses to replicate; (2) they are unnecessary for the replication of helper viruses; (3) they are encapsidated in the coat protein of the helper virus; (4) they have no extensive sequence homology to the helper virus. Thus they differ from SATELLITE VIRUSES which encode their own coat protein, and from the genomic RNA; (=RNA, VIRAL); of satellite viruses. (From Maramorosch, Viroids and Satellites, 1991, p143)
A family of double-stranded RNA-binding proteins that are related to NFATC TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS. In addition to binding to RNA, nuclear factor 90 proteins form heterodimeric complexes that regulate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and may play a role in T-CELL activation.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of RNA. It includes EC 3.1.26.-, EC 3.1.27.-, EC 3.1.30.-, and EC 3.1.31.-.
A form of GENE LIBRARY containing the complete DNA sequences present in the genome of a given organism. It contrasts with a cDNA library which contains only sequences utilized in protein coding (lacking introns).
A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)
The degree of similarity between sequences. Studies of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and NUCLEIC ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY provide useful information about the genetic relatedness of genes, gene products, and species.
Family of retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (myc) originally isolated from an avian myelocytomatosis virus. The proto-oncogene myc (c-myc) codes for a nuclear protein which is involved in nucleic acid metabolism and in mediating the cellular response to growth factors. Truncation of the first exon, which appears to regulate c-myc expression, is crucial for tumorigenicity. The human c-myc gene is located at 8q24 on the long arm of chromosome 8.
Immature ERYTHROCYTES. In humans, these are ERYTHROID CELLS that have just undergone extrusion of their CELL NUCLEUS. They still contain some organelles that gradually decrease in number as the cells mature. RIBOSOMES are last to disappear. Certain staining techniques cause components of the ribosomes to precipitate into characteristic "reticulum" (not the same as the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM), hence the name reticulocytes.
A plant genus of the family MALVACEAE. Members contain CITRIC ACID; MALATES; ANTHOCYANINS; FLAVONOIDS; GLYCOSIDES; DIETARY FIBER; and LIGNANS. Hibiscus sabdariffa is common constituent of HERBAL TEAS. Hibiscus cannabinus is a source of hemp fiber for TEXTILES.
Factors that are involved in directing the cleavage and POLYADENYLATION of the of MESSENGER RNA near the site of the RNA 3' POLYADENYLATION SIGNALS.
The protoplasm and plasma membrane of plant, fungal, bacterial or archaeon cells without the CELL WALL.
Enzymes that catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of single-stranded regions of DNA or RNA molecules while leaving the double-stranded regions intact. They are particularly useful in the laboratory for producing "blunt-ended" DNA molecules from DNA with single-stranded ends and for sensitive GENETIC TECHNIQUES such as NUCLEASE PROTECTION ASSAYS that involve the detection of single-stranded DNA and RNA.
Nucleotide sequences located at the ends of EXONS and recognized in pre-messenger RNA by SPLICEOSOMES. They are joined during the RNA SPLICING reaction, forming the junctions between exons.
A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.
A plant genus of the family ZINGIBERACEAE, order Zingiberales, subclass Zingiberidae. Elettaria cardamomum (L.) Maton is the source of Cardamom used in SPICES.
A species of the genus FLAVIVIRUS which causes an acute febrile and sometimes hemorrhagic disease in man. Dengue is mosquito-borne and four serotypes are known.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
The proportion of one particular in the total of all ALLELES for one genetic locus in a breeding POPULATION.
A cell line generated from human embryonic kidney cells that were transformed with human adenovirus type 5.
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
The small subunit of the 80s ribosome of eukaryotes. It is composed of the 18S RIBOSOMAL RNA and 32 different RIBOSOMAL PROTEINS.
PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.
Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.
A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.
A genus of the family PICORNAVIRIDAE whose members preferentially inhabit the intestinal tract of a variety of hosts. The genus contains many species. Newly described members of human enteroviruses are assigned continuous numbers with the species designated "human enterovirus".
A RNA-binding protein that is found predominately in the CYTOPLASM. It helps regulate GENETIC TRANSLATION in NEURONS and is absent or under-expressed in FRAGILE X SYNDROME.
A group of simple proteins that yield basic amino acids on hydrolysis and that occur combined with nucleic acid in the sperm of fish. Protamines contain very few kinds of amino acids. Protamine sulfate combines with heparin to form a stable inactive complex; it is used to neutralize the anticoagulant action of heparin in the treatment of heparin overdose. (From Merck Index, 11th ed; Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p692)
5' untranslated region 252 bp long. 3' untranslated region 1,129 bp long. 10 splice isoforms that encode good proteins, ... In this same region of the promoter, there is also a TATA-binding factor sequence, which helps in the positioning of RNA ... The protein is highly conserved in the DUF776 region amongst vertebrates, and also at the C-terminus in eukaryotes. Using tools ... 30 (2): 171-3. doi:10.1136/jmg.30.2.171. PMC 1016280. PMID 8445626. Clerk A, Kemp TJ, Zoumpoulidou G, Sugden PH (April 2007). " ...
... untranslated region is ~100 nucleotides in length. Viral replication is cytoplasmic. Entry into the host cell is achieved by ... The genome is linear, 5.9-7 kilobases in length with a capped 5' end and a polyadenylated 3' end. The genome encodes 5 proteins ... The TGB 2 (molecular weight 11 kDa) and TGB 3 (molecular weight 10 kDa) proteins associate with the endoplasmic reticulum. The ... 2 and 3 - and the coat protein. The RNA is translated giving rise to the viral RNA polymerase. This in turn produces a negative ...
... untranslated region. The longer transcript is present at higher levels in proliferating tissues and cells, suggesting that this ... untranslated region may function as a trans-acting regulatory RNA. Prohibitins may have multiple functions including: ... untranslated region of prohibitin and cellular immortalization". Experimental Cell Research. 224 (1): 128-35. doi:10.1006/excr. ... Wang S, Nath N, Fusaro G, Chellappan S (Nov 1999). "Rb and prohibitin target distinct regions of E2F1 for repression and ...
... are untranslated regions in the genome of viruses in the genus Flavivirus. The Flavivirus positive-oriented, ... Untranslated Regions of the Flaviviral Genome". Viruses. 9 (6): 137. doi:10.3390/v9060137. ISSN 1999-4915. PMC 5490814. PMID ... After recruitment of NS5, the two loop regions of S3 (TL) and SSD (SSL) are considered to interact with NS5 to promote ... The capsid-coding hairpin region (cHP) actually lies in the ORF of the viral genome and is followed by the 5'CS (conserved ...
... untranslated region). TMEM247 codes only for one variant. The promoter region of TMEM247 has a huge variety of predicted ... The three regions of the protein that remain are predicted to be outside of the membrane it resides in on the N- and C-terminus ... Anchor base positions are based on distance from the start of the gene's promoter region, which itself is 1302 base pairs long ... TMEM247 has a promoter region that also contains a significant number of predicted development-related binding sites, such as ...
... untranslated region (3'UTR) of the pseudogene PTENP1 in a DICER-dependent manner. A new mechanism has recently been shown in ... untranslated region (3'UTR) induces organ adhesion by regulating miR-199a* functions". PLOS ONE. 4 (2): e4527. doi:10.1371/ ... untranslated region modulates endogenous microRNA functions". PLOS ONE. 5 (10): e13599. Bibcode:2010PLoSO...513599L. doi: ... untranslated region regulates endogenous microRNA functions in tumorigenesis and angiogenesis". Nucleic Acids Research. 39 (8 ...
... untranslated region". Nucleic Acids Research. 20 (23): 6413. doi:10.1093/nar/20.23.6413. PMC 334538. PMID 1475204. Shirakawa H ... "High-mobility group protein 2 may be involved in the locus control region regulation of the beta-globin gene cluster". ... 517 (1-3): 167-71. doi:10.1016/S0014-5793(02)02614-5. PMID 12062430. S2CID 84792445. Fan Z, Beresford PJ, Zhang D, Xu Z, Novina ... 215 (3): 325-334. doi:10.1083/jcb.201608026. PMC 5100296. PMID 27799366. Loss of HMGB2 (High-mobility group protein box 2) ...
Untranslated regions (UTR) contain hairpin loops. The 3' UTR comprises 123 nucleotides and the 5' UTR comprises 18 nucleotides ... Also, a N-terminal acetylation site is present at amino acid 3. A Signal cleavage site is present between amino acids 11 and 12 ... Secondary structure of c9orf135 5' UTR loop structure of c9orf135 of mRNA 3' UTR loop structure of c9orf135 mRNA It is likely ...
... untranslated region. This is a region on the 3' terminus of RNA that will not be translated to protein but includes many ... When located in the exon or the untranslated region, the silencer will mainly be classical or position-dependent. However, ... This abnormal repression occurs when the RE1/NRSE region within the BDNF promoter region is activated by the binding of REST/ ... untranslated region of the ANP gene and acts as a mediator for its appropriate expression. The protein encoded by the ANP gene ...
... untranslated region". Virus Research. Special Issue: Functions of the ends of positive strand RNA virus genomes. 206: 53-61. ... untranslated regions (UTRs). The 5'UTRs are 95-101 nucleotides long in Dengue virus. There are two conserved structural ... Clyde K, Harris E (2006). "RNA Secondary Structure in the Coding Region of Dengue Virus Type 2 Directs Translation Start Codon ... Brinton MA, Dispoto JH (1988). "Sequence and secondary structure analysis of the 5'-terminal region of flavivirus genome RNA". ...
... untranslated regions (UTRs) of the mRNAs of some cytokines and promotes their degradation. For example, TTP is a component of a ... untranslated region of cyclooxygenase-2 mRNA. A polyadenylation variant in a cancer cell line lacks the binding site". J. Biol ... ZFP36 has been shown to interact with 14-3-3 protein family members, such as YWHAH, and with NUP214, a member of the nuclear ... 91 (3): 217-22. doi:10.1007/BF00218259. PMID 8478004. S2CID 35926610. Lai WS, Carballo E, Thorn JM, et al. (2000). " ...
... untranslated region in Salmonella enterica hilD mRNA". Nucleic Acids Research. 42 (9): 5894-5906. doi:10.1093/nar/gku222. PMC ... The 3′ UTR of mRNA hilD, a master regulator of Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI-1), is a prokaryotic example of ... López-Garrido J, Puerta-Fernández E, Casadesús J (May 2014). "A eukaryotic-like 3′ ...
... untranslated region of vimentin mRNA". Nucleic Acids Research. 25 (16): 3362-70. doi:10.1093/nar/25.16.3362. PMC 146884. PMID ... High levels of DNA methylation in the promoter region have also been associated with markedly decreased survival in hormone ... 262 (3): 1320-5. PMID 3027087. Brown MJ, Hallam JA, Liu Y, Yamada KM, Shaw S (July 2001). "Cutting edge: integration of human T ... Vimentin has been shown to interact with: DSP MEN1 MYST2 PKN1 PRKCI PLEC SPTAN1 UPP1 YWHAZ The 3' UTR of Vimentin mRNA has been ...
... untranslated regions". Mol Cell Biol. 3 (10): 1738-45. doi:10.1128/mcb.3.10.1738. PMC 370035. PMID 6646120. "Entrez Gene: ... Reductive methylation studies of the Lys 394 region". Biophys. J. 64 (3): 792-802. Bibcode:1993BpJ....64..792S. doi:10.1016/ ... 22 (3): 698-707. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.22-03-00698.2002. PMC 6758498. PMID 11826099. Saugstad JA, Yang S, Pohl J, et al. (2002 ... doi:10.1016/S0006-291X(02)00269-3. PMID 12054644. Cowan NJ, Dobner PR, Fuchs EV, Cleveland DW (Jan 1984). "Expression of human ...
Untranslated Region to the germ line cells. Translation can be inhibited by cis regulatory elements in the transcript's 5' and ... untranslated regions of mRNAs in human diseases". Biology of the Cell. 101 (5): 251-62. doi:10.1042/BC20080104. PMID 19275763. ... After the duplication event, the N-terminal region acquired Zn-knuckle domains which are now conserved in invertebrates. ... and arginine methylation in a conserved region of mice, Xenopus and Drosophila Vasa genes. One of main function of Vasa protein ...
... untranslated regions (UTR) are complementary and highly conserved. The S segment encodes two proteins: the nucleoprotein (N) ... despite the fact that the viruses were collected from temporally distinct regions spanning a 10 to 26 year period. This level ... 9 (3): 295-9. doi:10.1089/vbz.2008.0128. PMID 19534626. Hubálek, Z.; Rudolf, I.; Bakonyi, T.; Kazdová, K.; Halouzka, J.; ... The incubation period of the virus lasts about 3 to 7 days. TAHV disease can progress to involve the central nervous system, ...
... untranslated region (3'UTR). The microtubule cytoskeleton also plays a role in localizing bicoid. The posterior group genes ... BMP-4 mainly acts in trunk and tail region of the embryo while a different set of signals work in the head region. Xwnt-8 is ... The gap genes are directly influenced by the maternal genes and are expressed in local and overlapping regions along the ... Hans Spemann named this region the organizer and the induction of the dorsal axis the primary induction. The organizer is ...
Untranslated Regions". Molecular and Cellular Biology. 3 (10): 1738-1739, 1742. doi:10.1128/mcb.3.10.1738. PMC 370035. PMID ... untranslated regions". Molecular and Cellular Biology. 3 (10): 1738-45. doi:10.1128/mcb.3.10.1738. PMC 370035. PMID 6646120. ... 3 (7): 130061. doi:10.1098/rsob.130061. PMC 3728923. PMID 23864552. Poirier, K.; Keays, D. A.; Francis, F.; Saillour, Y.; Bahi ... 363 (Pt 3): 599-608. doi:10.1042/0264-6021:3630599. PMC 1222513. PMID 11964161. Overview of all the structural information ...
... untranslated regions". Mol. Cell. Biol. 3 (10): 1738-45. doi:10.1128/mcb.3.10.1738. PMC 370035. PMID 6646120. KATNB1 human gene ... 127 (3): 635-48. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.09.026. PMID 17081983. S2CID 7827573. Toyo-Oka K, Sasaki S, Yano Y, et al. (2006). " ... 75 (3): 419-29. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(93)90377-3. PMID 8221885. S2CID 10264319. Cowan NJ, Dobner PR, Fuchs EV, Cleveland DW ( ... 109 (3): 561-7. PMID 8907702. McNally FJ, Vale RD (1993). "Identification of katanin, an ATPase that severs and disassembles ...
... untranslated region of Xenopus Vg1 mRNA". Nucleic Acids Res. 36 (17): 5530-5539. doi:10.1093/nar/gkn530. ISSN 0305-1048. PMC ... This ribozyme was identified from in vitro studies that showed that the Vg1 mRNA was cleaved within the 3′ UTR in the absence ... Studying the Vg1 mRNA 3′UTR a manganese-dependent ribozyme was predicted to exist. This ribozyme was shown to be located ... It was identified in the 3′ UTR of Xenopus Vg1 mRNA transcripts and mouse beta-actin mRNA. ...
... untranslated region". Biochemistry. Biokhimiia. 71 (12): 1377-84. doi:10.1134/s0006297906120145. PMID 17223792. Nyikó T, ... Those downstream from this region are unable to do so. Thus, nonsense codons lie more than 50-54 nucleotides upstream from the ... Ribosomes translating the mRNA eventually translate into the 3'poly-A tail region of transcripts and stalls. As a result, it ... adenylation or cryptic polyadenylation signals within the coding region of a gene. This lack of a stop codon results a ...
... untranslated region (3'UTR), has been shown to interact with one copy of R2 protein during TPRT. This fragment has been shown ... The 5′ R2 protein binding site occurs in a region that spans part of the 5' UTR and the start of the R2 ORF. This region also ... untranslated regions of diverse R2 RNAs". RNA. 10 (6): 978-987. doi:10.1261/rna.5216204. PMC 1370589. PMID 15146081. Eickbush, ... regions of R2 retrotransposon RNAs reveal a novel conserved pseudoknot and regions that evolve under different constraints. J ...
There are untranslated regions at the 5' and 3' ends of the genome. These vary with the 5' end being between 72 and 730 and the ... 3' end 121 to 442 nucleotides in length. The function of the two smaller open reading frames is not known but they appear to be ...
The 5' untranslated region of MIF4GD mRNA transcripts is relatively short, at a length of around 137 nucleotides, and is ... untranslated region is longer, at a length of approximately 510 nucleotides. The 3' UTR is also predicted to form stem-loops, ... The promoter region of MIF4GD is approximately 1137 nucleotide base pairs long, and is predicted to interact with various ... 28 (3): 1182-1194. doi:10.1128/mcb.01500-07. ISSN 0270-7306. PMC 2223387. PMID 18025107. Neusiedler, Julia; Mocquet, Vincent; ...
The region between the second homeodomain and TAD is predicted to be disordered. DUX4 transcripts can be spliced to produce ... This gene is located within a D4Z4 macrosatellite repeat array in the subtelomeric region of chromosome 4q35. The D4Z4 repeat ... Exons 2 and 3 encode for the three prime untranslated region (3′-UTR). In certain haplotypes, exon 3 contains a polyadenylation ... Only one copy of exon 3 is present, telomeric to the D4Z4 repeat array. The open reading frame (ORF) is entirely contained ...
... untranslated region. Mutations which change amino acid residues 12, 13 or 61 activate the potential of N-ras to transform ... 48 (4): 950-3. PMID 3276402. Hirai H, Kobayashi Y, Mano H, et al. (1987). "A point mutation at codon 13 of the N-ras oncogene ... 5 (3): 582-5. doi:10.1128/mcb.5.3.582. PMC 366752. PMID 3887133. Brown R, Marshall CJ, Pennie SG, Hall A (1984). "Mechanism of ... 70 (3-4): 183-5. doi:10.1159/000134028. PMID 7789166. Kodaki T, Woscholski R, Hallberg B, et al. (1995). "The activation of ...
... untranslated region". Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 396 (2): 435-9. doi:10.1016/j.bbrc.2010.04.112. PMID 20417621. Jian, P.; Li, ... "MicroRNA-1285 inhibits the expression of p53 by directly targeting its 3' ...
... untranslated regions or within introns. Trans-regulatory elements control the transcription of a distant gene. Promoters ... The DNA material in chromosomes is composed of "coding" and "non-coding" regions. The coding regions are known as genes and ... of conserved DNA represented in non-coding regions. Linkage mapping often identifies chromosomal regions associated with a ... Non-protein coding regions . . . are not related directly to making proteins, [and] have been referred to as "junk" DNA.' The ...
... untranslated region. It is a deletion/insertion polymorphism (DIP). The 9-repeat and the 10-repeat are the most common alleles ... 2007). "Dopamine transporter 3'-UTR VNTR genotype and ADHD: a pharmaco-behavioural genetic study with methylphenidate". ... It is polymorphism as a 40 base pairs VNTR in the 3' ...
... untranslated region regulates endogenous microRNA functions in tumorigenesis and angiogenesis". Nucleic Acids Research. 39 (8 ... 17 (3): 227-38. doi:10.1177/1933719109351935. PMID 19923380. S2CID 25487188. Lee KH, Chen YL, Yeh SD, Hsiao M, Lin JT, Goan YG ... Jeyapalan Z, Deng Z, Shatseva T, Fang L, He C, Yang BB (April 2011). "Expression of CD44 3'- ...
... such as untranslated regions, regulatory elements, non-protein-coding genes, and chromosomal structural elements) under ... 维基媒体基金会是按美国国內稅收法501(c)(
There is an un-translated region (UTR) at both ends of the picornavirus genome. The 5' UTR is usually longer, being around 500- ... On the other hand, RNA synthesis is hypothesized to occur in this region.3' end NCR of poliovirus is not necessary for negative ... Step 3: 3Dpol is recruited to and retained in this complex by a physical interaction between the back of the thumb subdomain of ... Also, the 3' end elements of viral RNA are significant and efficient for RNA replication of picornaviruses. The 3' end of ...
... untranslated region and bind to the TATA box to activate the transcription of oxidative stress related genes. ... The Pribnow box has a 6 bp region centered around the -10 position and an 8-12 bp sequence around the -35 region that are both ... One study found less than 30% of 1031 potential promoter regions contain a putative TATA box motif in humans.[9] In Drosophila, ... In bacteria, promoter regions may contain a Pribnow box, which serves an analogous purpose to the eukaryotic TATA box. ...
... untranslated region of renin mRNA, thereby regulating renin protein expression.[15] References[edit]. *^ a b c GRCh38: Ensembl ... untranslated region of human renin mRNA and differentially modulate renin expression". J. Biol. Chem. 278 (45): 44894-903. doi: ... untranslated region of human renin mRNA and differentially modulate renin expression". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 278 ... 3 (2): 121-6. doi:10.1002/ajh.2830030202. PMID 272120.. *^ Spiekerkoetter, U; Sun, B; Khuchua, Z; Bennett, MJ; Strauss, AW ( ...
Martiniuk F, Mehler M, Tzall S, Meredith G, Hirschhorn R (March 1990). "Sequence of the cDNA and 5'-flanking region for human ... acid alpha-glucosidase, detection of an intron in the 5' untranslated leader sequence, definition of 18-bp polymorphisms, and ... 6 (3): 371-80. doi:10.1089/aid.1990.6.371. PMID 2187500.. *. Martiniuk F, Bodkin M, Tzall S, Hirschhorn R (September 1990). " ... 43 (3): 75-87. doi:10.7883/yoken1952.43.75. PMID 2283726.. *. Leonard CK, Spellman MW, Riddle L, Harris RJ, Thomas JN, Gregory ...
perinuclear region of cytoplasm. • mitochondrion. • nuclear speck. • cytoplasmic vesicle. • extracellular region. • ... each leading to different transcripts containing one of 8 untranslated 5' exons (I to VIII) spliced to the 3' encoding exon. ... 1 (3): 191-98. doi:10.1038/35044558. PMID 11257907. S2CID 9750498.. *^ a b Zhong L, Yan CH, Lu CQ, Xu J, Huang H, Shen XM ( ... 3: 1. doi:10.3389/neuro.02.001.2010. PMC 2821174. PMID 20162032.. *^ Dincheva I, Lynch NB, Lee FS (October 2016). "The Role of ...
L region is an untranslated leader region that gives the signal for packaging of the genome RNA. The 3' end includes 3 regions ... The 5' end includes four regions, which are R, U5, PBS, and L. The R region is a short repeated sequence at each end of the ... The RNA genome also has terminal noncoding regions, which are important in replication, and internal regions that encode virion ... 8 (1-3): d117-34. doi:10.2741/957. PMID 12456349.. *^ Jolly C (March 2011). "Cell-to-cell transmission of retroviruses: Innate ...
Mignone, Flavio; Gissi, Carmela; Liuni, Sabino; Pesole, Graziano (2002-02-28). "Untranslated regions of mRNAs". Genome Biology ... ISBN 978-0-8153-3218-3. *↑ ೩.೦ ೩.೧ Gericke, Niklas Markus; Hagberg, Mariana (5 December 2006). "Definition of historical models ... SciTable (Nature Publishing Group) 3 (10): 5. *↑ Patterson, C (November 1988). "Homology in classical and molecular biology.". ... Mario R. Capecchi's Nobel Prize". International Journal of Biological Sciences 3 (7): 417-419. doi:10.7150/ijbs.3.417. PMC ...
If an article consists of 10 words (4 in English, untranslated, and 4 which don't seem to make sense) Vicipaedia can afford to ... a formally defined region) and Africa orientalis 'eastern Africa' (some vague area, perhaps accompanied by hand-waving). But I ... or regions). For example, Poetae Confoederationis (poets of the Canadian confederacy) is 811.409971 = 8 Literature / 81 ... In English inorganic [1] and in French inorganique[2] is used (with an in privativum), while in German[2] and Dutch[2][3] ...
... untranslated regions of viral mRNA. Some viruses (e.g. tobacco mosaic virus (TMV)) have RNA sequences that contain a "leaky" ... 3% require a reverse transcriptase enzyme to convert between RNA and DNA. 17% of plant viruses are ssDNA and very few are dsDNA ... 130 (3): 413-426. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2007.07.039. PMC 2703654 . PMID 17693253. Virus Structure Gray, Stewart M.; Banerjee, ... For instance Brome mosaic virus has a genome split between 3 viral particles, and all 3 particles with the different RNAs are ...
Byun CJ, Seo J, Jo SA, Park YJ, Klug M, Rehli M, Park MH, Jo I (January 2012). "DNA methylation of the 5'-untranslated region ... SMN1 is located in a telomeric region of human chromosome 5 and also contains SMN2 in a centromeric region. SMN1 and SMN2 are ... A gene called c9orf72 was found to have a hexanucleotide repeat in the non-coding region of the gene in association with ALS ... Methylation of intragenic regions is associated with increased transcription. The group of enzymes responsible for addition of ...
UTR = untranslated region. The main function of RNA is to carry information of amino acid sequence from the genes to where ... A fully processed mRNA includes a 5' cap, 5' UTR, coding region, 3' UTR, and poly(A) tail. ...
And up there in the higher regions of comparison, smiling vanity plays its false game and deceives the happy ones so that they ... H. Martensen By Hans Peter Kofoed-Hansen (1813-1893) that was published in 1856[171] (untranslated) and Martensen mentioned him ... there come to be more and more in each generation who slavishly work a whole lifetime far down in the low underground regions ... 3-6 *^ Either/Or Vol I Preface Swenson, pp. 7-8, also see Concluding Unscientific Postscript, Hong trans., 1992, p. 555ff for a ...
perinuclear region of cytoplasm. • mitochondrion. • nuclear speck. • cytoplasmic vesicle. • extracellular region. • ... each leading to different transcripts containing one of 8 untranslated 5' exons (I to VIII) spliced to the 3' encoding exon. ... 1 (3): 191-98. doi:10.1038/35044558. PMID 11257907.. *^ a b Zhong L, Yan CH, Lu CQ, Xu J, Huang H, Shen XM (September 2009). " ... 22 (3): 123-31. doi:10.1080/08977190410001723308. PMC 2504526. PMID 15518235.. *^ a b Jones KR, Reichardt LF (October 1990). " ...
... untranslated region. Additional splice variants have been described but sequences for the complete transcripts have not been ... Alternative splicing or deletion caused by a translocation event in this paternally-expressed region is responsible for Prader- ... Färber C, Dittrich B, Buiting K, Horsthemke B (1999). "The chromosome 15 imprinting centre (IC) region has undergone multiple ... an expressed gene in the Prader-Willi syndrome critical region". Nat. Genet. 2 (4): 265-9. doi:10.1038/ng1292-265. PMID 1303277 ...
... west of Elephantine in the region of Aswan; the pink vein is typical of granodiorite from this region.[5] ... and it aroused widespread public interest with its potential to decipher this previously untranslated hieroglyphic script. ... 3-6 *^ E. Agazzi; M. Pauri (2013). The Reality of the Unobservable: Observability, Unobservability and Their Impact on the ... Le Décret de Memphis (182 a.C.): édition commentée des stèles Caire RT 2/3/25/7 et JE 44901 (CENiM 12). Montpellier: Université ...
... and small amounts of the flanking untranslated regions and introns are analyzed. Therefore, although these tests are highly ... that represent unique regions of the genome. This method is particularly sensitive for detection of genomic gains or losses ... 3: 129-152. doi:10.1146/annurev.genom.3.022502.103200. PMID 12142358.. *^ Lohmueller KE, Pearce CL, Pike M, Lander ES, ... Pollack, Andrew (3 March 2015). "A Powerful New Way to Edit DNA". New York Times. Retrieved 20 March 2015.. ...
Bamford RN, DeFilippis AP, Azimi N, Kurys G, Waldmann TA (May 1998). "The 5' untranslated region, signal peptide, and the ... IL-15 is 14-15 kDa glycoprotein encoded by the 34 kb region of chromosome 4q31 in humans, and at the central region of ... Figure 1. IL-15 is 14-15 kDa glycoprotein encoded by the 34 kb region on chromosome 4q31, and by central region of chromosome 8 ... untranslated region (UTR), 486 bp coding sequence and the C-terminus 400 bp 3'-UTR region. The other isoform (IL-15 SSP) has a ...
... termed the five prime untranslated region (5' UTR) and three prime untranslated region (3' UTR), respectively. These regions ... Coding regionsEdit. Main article: Coding region. Coding regions are composed of codons, which are decoded and translated (in ... Untranslated regionsEdit. Main articles: 5' UTR and 3' UTR. Untranslated regions (UTRs) are sections of the mRNA before the ... Some of the elements contained in untranslated regions form a characteristic secondary structure when transcribed into RNA. ...
UTR = untranslated region. The main function of RNA is to carry information of amino acid sequence from the genes to where ... A fully processed mRNA includes a 5' cap, 5' UTR, coding region, 3' UTR, and poly(A) tail. ... 399 (3): 104D. doi:10.1016/S0014-5793(96)01386-5. PMID 8985176.. Explicit use of et al. in: ,author=. (help). ...
Three prime untranslated regions and microRNAsEdit. Main article: Three prime untranslated region ... untranslated region (UTR) regions of mRNAs where they typically bind with imperfect complementarity, thus blocking the access ... Three prime untranslated regions (3'UTRs) of messenger RNAs (mRNAs) often contain regulatory sequences that post- ... Conserved regions of HBV DPC HBV I Recruiting Arrowhead Research NCT01872065 BiotechnologyEdit. RNA interference has been used ...
... untranslated region.". Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. 8 (3): 240-4. PMID 8383507.. ... 1999). „Characterization of single-nucleotide polymorphisms in coding regions of human genes.". Nat. Genet. 22 (3): 231-8. PMID ... CysLT (1, 2) • LTB4 (1, 2) • FPRL1 • OXE • Prostaglandin (DP (1, 2), EP (1, 2, 3, 4), FP) • Prostaciklin • Tromboksan ... Adrenomedulin • Mirisni • Opsin (3, 4, 5, 1LW, 1MW, 1SW, RGR, RRH) • Proteazom-aktivirani (1, 2, 3, 4) • SREB (1, 2, 3) ...
... untranslated region of mRNA molecules specifying inflammatory mediators, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 83:1670-1674 Biochemistry, ... Peitsch MC, Jongeneel CV (February 1993). "A 3-D model for the CD40 ligand predicts that it is a compact trimer similar to the ... D. CAPUT, et al., Identification of a common nucleotide sequence in the 3'- ... 3] A proteína sintetízase como unha prohormona cunha secuencia sinal atípica e inusualmente longa, que está ausente na citocina ...
... untranslated regions (UTR). Often the first exon includes both the 5′-UTR and the first part of the coding sequence, but exons ... ends of the mRNA are marked to differentiate the two untranslated regions (grey). ... for intragenic regions) - alternating with regions which will be expressed - exons."[1] ... The term exon derives from the expressed region and was coined by American biochemist Walter Gilbert in 1978: "The notion of ...
The reviewer prefers the terminology used by Tenny L. Davis, i.e. Tao left untranslated and "immortal" for hsien. (1967:145) ... the region south of the lower Yangzi River), emphasizing the superiority of certain traditions over others, and enhancing their ... 3:13-15 and Mark 12:26-27, to mention only two very clear statements. It will be recalled that in the first God says, "My name ... 3, tr. Ware 1966:61-62) Needham (1954:439) evaluated this passage, "Admittedly there is much in the Pao Phu Tzu which is wild, ...
... untranslated regions of the rat N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 2A gene , revista = Gene , volume = 295 , número = 1 , páxinas = ... Association between the G1001C polymorphism in the GRIN1 gene promoter region and schizophrenia , revista = Biol. Psychiatry , ... Revisión como estaba o 3 de xuño de 2017 ás 10:33 9 bytes engadidos , hai 3 anos ... Revisión como estaba o 3 de xuño de 2017 ás 10:33 (editar) (desfacer) ...
In the mornings, sharp pains occur in the abdominal region. If the patient survives more than two weeks, they have a chance of ... Other works of the corpus remained untranslated into English until the resumed publication of the Loeb Classical Library ... The whole corpus is written in Ionic Greek, though the island of Cos was in a region that spoke Doric Greek. ... According to the Hippocratic text, the consumption of wine significantly affects two regions of the body: the head and the ...
This gene contains no introns in either its coding or untranslated sequences. A deletion variant of the α2B adrenergic receptor ... characterisation and identification of several polymorphisms in the promoter region of the human alpha2B-adrenergic receptor ... 13 (3): 203-7. doi:10.1007/s10286-003-0087-5. PMID 12822042. Chotani MA, Mitra S, Su BY, Flavahan S, Eid AH, Clark KR, Montague ... 43 (3): 592-7. doi:10.1161/01.HYP.0000116224.51189.80. PMID 14744925. Cayla C, Heinonen P, Viikari L, Schaak S, Snapir A, ...
... ends of the RNA are the untranslated regions (UTR), that are not translated into proteins but are important to translation and ... A hypervariable region, the hypervariable region 1 (HVR1) can be found on the E2 glycoprotein.[9] HVR1 is flexible and quite ... Alternatively, a frameshift may occur in the Core region to produce an alternate reading frame protein (ARFP).[32] HCV encodes ... "An updated analysis of hepatitis C virus genotypes and subtypes based on the complete coding region". Liver International. 32 ( ...
The cytosolic GS gene translation is regulated by its 5' untranslated region (UTR), while its 3' UTR plays role in transcript ... untranslated region of the soybean cytosolic glutamine synthetase β(1) gene contains prokaryotic translation initiation signals ... 33 (3): 675-81. doi:10.1021/bi00169a007. PMID 7904828.. *^ a b c d Stryer L, Berg JM, Tymoczko JL (2007). Biochemistry (6th ed ... The C-terminus (helical thong) stabilizes the GS structure by inserting into the hydrophobic region of the subunit across in ...
... untranslated region (3UTR) is emerging as critically important in regulating gene expression at posttranscriptional levels. ... untranslated region in human cancer Cell Oncol. 2007;29(1):1-17. doi: 10.1155/2007/586139. ... untranslated region (3UTR) is emerging as critically important in regulating gene expression at posttranscriptional levels. ...
Untranslated Regions and Fewer MicroRNA Target Sites. By Rickard Sandberg, Joel R. Neilson, Arup Sarma, Phillip A. Sharp, ... Untranslated Regions and Fewer MicroRNA Target Sites. By Rickard Sandberg, Joel R. Neilson, Arup Sarma, Phillip A. Sharp, ... Untranslated Regions and Fewer MicroRNA Target Sites ... Untranslated Regions and Fewer MicroRNA Target Sites. *Rickard ... regulatory regions, possibly because less control is required over RNA functions. ...
... untranslated regions (3 UTRs) and particularly long 3 UTRs have been shown to act as a new class of post-transcriptional ... untranslated regions (3 UTRs) and particularly long 3 UTRs have been shown to act as a new class of post-transcriptional ... Deletion of AU-rich 3 UTRs increased mRNA levels, whereas deletion of 3 UTRs with normal AU content resulted in slight or no ... Deletion of AU-rich 3 UTRs increased mRNA levels, whereas deletion of 3 UTRs with normal AU content resulted in slight or no ...
... untranslated region of mRNA molecules specifying inflammatory mediators. D Caput, B Beutler, K Hartog, R Thayer, S Brown-Shimer ... untranslated region of mRNA molecules specifying inflammatory mediators. D Caput, B Beutler, K Hartog, R Thayer, S Brown-Shimer ... untranslated region of mRNA molecules specifying inflammatory mediators. D Caput, B Beutler, K Hartog, R Thayer, S Brown-Shimer ... untranslated region of mRNA molecules specifying inflammatory mediators Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from ...
... untranslated region. We introduced a 51 nucleotide AT sequence from a human lymphokine gene, GM-CSF, into the 3 untranslated ... untranslated region of GM-CSF mRNA mediates selective mRNA degradation.. Shaw G, Kamen R. ... region of the rabbit beta-globin gene. Our experiments demonstrate that this caused the otherwise stable beta-globin mRNA to ... The mRNAs of transiently expressed genes frequently contain an AU-rich sequence in the 3 ...
... untranslated region of hepatitis C virus RNA genome.. Luo G1.. Author information. 1. Department of Virology, Bristol-Myers ... untranslated region (3 UTR) of the hepatitis C virus RNA genome. Two cellular proteins, with estimated molecular masses of 58 ... an RNA containing the variable region of the 3 UTR with a deletion of both poly(U) tract and 98 nt failed to compete for ... In addition to binding to the conserved 98 nucleotides (nt) of the 3 UTR, p58 also binds to the poly(U) tract of the 3 UTR. ...
... regions which are composed of two regions, one region from an 3untranslated region of a stable eukaryotic mRNA, and an ... The present invention describes the use of hybrid short 3untranslated (3′UTR) ... Eukaryotic messenger RNA (mRNA) contains three regions, 5′ untranslated region (5′UTR), protein coding region, and 3′ ... untranslated region of a stable eukaryotic mRNA.. In a preferred embodiment, the first region or the two regions comprise the 3 ...
The boxed regions are shown at higher magnification below, and arrowsshow colocalized granules. A region of dendrite 3 μm long ... untranslated region of CaMKIIα is a cis-acting signal for the localization and translation of mRNA in dendrites. Proc Natl Acad ... Untranslated Region-Directed mRNA Translocation in Living Neurons: Visualization by GFP Linkage. Martha S. Rook, Mei Lu and ... untranslated region (3′UTR) is sufficient to mediate this localization. We labeled the 3′UTR of the CaMKIIα mRNA in hippocampal ...
Untranslated Region-Directed mRNA Translocation in Living Neurons: Visualization by GFP Linkage. Martha S. Rook, Mei Lu and ... Untranslated Region-Directed mRNA Translocation in Living Neurons: Visualization by GFP Linkage ... Untranslated Region-Directed mRNA Translocation in Living Neurons: Visualization by GFP Linkage ... Untranslated Region-Directed mRNA Translocation in Living Neurons: Visualization by GFP Linkage ...
... untranslated region (3-UTR) of KRAS and let-7g, and its association with development of lung cancer in the patients with COPD. ... untranslated region of KRAS compromises its interaction with hsa-let-7g and contributes to the development of lung cancer in ... and that introduction of rs712 minor allele into 3-UTR significantly compromised the miRNA/mRNA interaction by using a ... Our study demonstrated that KRAS 3-UTR rs712 polymorphism interfered with miRNA/mRNA interaction, and showed that the minor ...
... untranslated region: strain-specific polymorphisms and motifs regulating IGF-I in osteoblasts.. [Spenser S Smith, Catherine B ... untranslated region (UTR) is polymorphic between C3H and B6. Luciferase-Igf1 3 UTR reporter constructs showed that these ... The Igf1 coding region is nonpolymorphic, but its 3 ... polymorphic regions did not affect UTR function. IGF-I splice ... The Igf1 3 UTR encoded by exon 6 contains alternative polyadenylation sites. Proximal site use produces a short 3 UTR of ...
... untranslated region (3′-UTR) contains two exclusively linked, polymorphic sites at positions 811 (C/T) and 1125 (G/A), which ... untranslated region of the human Sep15 gene. Cancer Res. 2001;61:2307-10.Google Scholar ... untranslated region of the selenoprotein 15-kDa (Sep15) gene and breast cancer in Caucasian women. ... 3.Department of Blood Group Serology and Transfusion MedicineMedical University of ViennaViennaAustria ...
... untranslated region (UTR) of IL-10 mRNA distributed through three potential regulatory regions. Evidence of RNA-destabilizing ... Untranslated Region. Mark J. Powell, Sara A. J. Thompson, Yukiko Tone, Herman Waldmann and Masahide Tone ... untranslated region (UTR) of mouse IL-10 mRNA (12).. Our own observations on posttranscriptional control of this gene began ... untranslated region of tumor necrosis factor-α messenger RNA. FEBS Lett. 5: 157. ...
... untranslated region (3UTR). We investigated this targeting mechanism by identifying two cis-acting elements in the 3UTR. One ... untranslated region of alpha-CaMKII regulate its dendritic targeting Nat Neurosci. 2000 Nov;3(11):1079-84. doi: 10.1038/80591. ... untranslated region (3UTR). We investigated this targeting mechanism by identifying two cis-acting elements in the 3UTR. One ...
... untranslated region of GM-CSF mRNA mediates selective mRNA degradation. 1986, Pubmed St Johnston, Staufen, a gene required to ... untranslated regions of four sequenced messages of this class: Drosophila bicoid and nanos mRNAs and Xenopus An2 and Vg1 mRNAs ... untranslated region of localized maternal messages contains a conserved motif involved in mRNA localization. Gottlieb E . ... non-coding region sequences in eukaryotic messenger RNA. 1976, Pubmed Sanger, DNA sequencing with chain-terminating inhibitors. ...
Untranslated Region Sequencing Resolves Expression of Gene Families Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from ... Untranslated Region Sequencing Resolves Expression of Gene Families. Andrea L. Eveland, Donald R. McCarty, Karen E. Koch ... untranslated region (UTR) of messenger RNAs (mRNAs). Resulting sequences resolve gene-specific transcripts independent of a ... untranslated region (UTR) is rich in single-feature polymorphisms that distinguish closely related transcripts (Bhattramakki et ...
Untranslated Region. Ruan T. Ramjit, Jessica Ingersoll, Deborah Abdul-Ali, Mona Frempong, Angela M. Caliendo ... Performance Characteristics of the MultiCode-RTx Hepatitis C Virus Load Test Targeting the 3Untranslated Region ... Performance Characteristics of the MultiCode-RTx Hepatitis C Virus Load Test Targeting the 3Untranslated Region ... Performance Characteristics of the MultiCode-RTx Hepatitis C Virus Load Test Targeting the 3Untranslated Region ...
... untranslated region functions as a cis-acting translational repressor.. B L Black, J Lu, E N Olson ... untranslated region functions as a cis-acting translational repressor. Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you ... untranslated region (UTR) and fused it to the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) reporter gene. Here, we show by CAT assay ... untranslated region functions as a cis-acting translational repressor. ...
... untranslated region of picornavirus RNA: features required for efficient genome replication.. J B Rohll, D H Moon, D J Evans, J ... untranslated region of picornavirus RNA: features required for efficient genome replication.. J B Rohll, D H Moon, D J Evans, J ... untranslated region of picornavirus RNA: features required for efficient genome replication.. J B Rohll, D H Moon, D J Evans, J ... untranslated region of picornavirus RNA: features required for efficient genome replication. Message Subject (Your Name) has ...
Untranslated Region (3′UTR) Induces Organ Adhesion by Regulating miR-199a* Functions. Daniel Y. Lee,1,2 Tatiana Shatseva,1,2 ... untranslated region (3′UTR) of the target mRNAs, leading to translational repression [7]-[9]. By silencing various target mRNAs ... It is expected that there is no endogenous miRNA bind to this fragment as it is in the coding region. The PCR product was then ... 2008;3:e1719. [PMC free article] [PubMed]. 9. Hua Z, Lv Q, Ye W, Wong CK, Cai G, et al. MiRNA-directed regulation of VEGF and ...
... untranslated region in mammalian mRNAs. Shuo Gu,1 Lan Jin,1 Feijie Zhang,1 Peter Sarnow,2 and Mark A. Kay1 ... untranslated regions (3UTR) of mRNAs to down-regulate their expression when the appropriate miRNA is bound to target mRNA. To ... These results show that while miRNA-mediated translational inhibition was limited to targets in the untranslated region, RNAi- ... Duursma AM, Kedde M, Schrier M, le Sage C, Agami R. miR-148 targets human DNMT3b protein coding region. Rna. 2008;14:872-7. [ ...
The Protein Zfand5 Binds and Stabilizes mRNAs with AU-rich Elements in Their 3 prime Untranslated Regions ...
... untranslated region. J Biol Chem 2000; 275, 11750-11757.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Untranslated Region in Cancer Cells. In: Yazici Z., Folco G.C., Drazen J.M., Nigam S., Shimizu T. (eds) Advances in ... This pentamer, frequently located in or near a U rich region, has been associated with the regulation of the stability of a ... 3.Division of Clinical PharmacologyVanderbilt University School of Medicine, The Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer CenterNashvilleUSA ...
Untranslated Region and Mediates Potential 5′-3′-End Cross Talks of Mouse Hepatitis Virus RNA. Peiyong Huang, Michael M. C. Lai ... long untranslated region (3′-UTR) (21). When MHV is passaged at a high multiplicity of infection in cell culture, defective- ... untranslated region of the coronavirus RNA is required for subgenomic mRNA transcription from a defective interfering RNA.J. ... untranslated region (3′-UTR) of mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) RNA regulates the replication of and transcription from the viral ...
We show that many genes have 3UTR regions extending beyond currently known gene regions and provide a method to identify such ... untranslated regions (UTRs) of transcripts are not well characterized for many genes and often extend beyond the annotated ... We verified 8 of the predictions by PCR and found all of the predicted regions to be expressed. The method can be extended to ... These extensions have a similar conservation as known 3UTRs, which is distinctly higher than intergenic regions. ...
... untranslated region. Suzanne MIYAMOTO, John A. CHIORINI, Elena URCELAY, Brian SAFER. Biochemical Journal May 01, 1996, 315 (3) ... These activities might be modulated by sequence elements contained within the untranslated regions of the eIF-2α gene. ... untranslated region (UTR) of eIF-2α, only two of which are normally utilized in human and mouse tissues. A functional role for ... Regulation of gene expression for translation initiation factor eIF-2α: importance of the 3untranslated region ...
... untranslated region, Archives of Virology" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands ... "Molecular characterization of a foot-and-mouth disease virus containing a 57-nucleotide insertion in the 3′ ... Genetic adaptation to untranslated region-mediated enterovirus growth deficits by mutations in the nonstructural proteins 3AB ... A region of the 5′ noncoding region of foot-and-mouth disease virus RNA directs efficient internal initiation of protein ...
Complementary microRNA profiling revealed that shortened 3 UTRs are enriched for target sites of macrophage-expressed miRNAs, ... with systematic shifts towards increased cassette exon inclusion and shortening of Tandem 3 UTRs post-infection. These ... results therefore provide the first genome-wide empirical support for the idea that actively regulated shifts towards shorter 3 ... Untranslated Regions and Increased Exon Inclusion Are Evolutionarily Conserved Features of Innate Immune Responses to Infection ...
... untranslated regions of chloroplast transcripts are important determinants of mRNA accumulation and stability, Plant Molecular ... untranslated regions (3′ UTRs) of plastid mRNAs is an inverted repeat (IR) sequence that can fold into a stem-loop structure. ... untranslated regions (3′ UTRs) of plastid mRNAs is an inverted repeat (IR) sequence that can fold into a stem-loop structure. ... untranslated regions of chloroplast transcripts are important determinants of mRNA accumulation and stability. Rott, Ruth; ...
However, in exon 13, a region with high-level reads followed by a region with low-level reads was found. A sharp decrease of ... untranslated region. bp. base pair(s). DMSO. dimethyl sulfoxide. FPKM. fragments per kilobase of exon per 106 fragments mapped ... Untranslated Region in Hepatocyte Differentiation, Liver Development, and Response to Drug Induction. Dan Li, Roger Gaedigk, ... untranslated regions of mRNAs by alternative polyadenylation during mouse embryonic development. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 106: ...
  • The messenger RNA 3'-untranslated region (3'UTR) is emerging as critically important in regulating gene expression at posttranscriptional levels. (nih.gov)
  • Dendritic localization of the alpha subunit of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (alphaCaMKII) mRNA in CNS neurons requires its 3' untranslated region (3'UTR). (nih.gov)
  • The role of the 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) in the replication of enteroviruses has been studied with a series of mutants derived from either poliovirus type 3 (PV3) or a PV3 replicon containing the reporter gene chloramphenicol acetyltransferase. (asm.org)
  • MicroRNAs (miRNAs) interact with target sites located in 3' untranslated regions (3'UTR) of mRNAs to down-regulate their expression when the appropriate miRNA is bound to target mRNA. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In animals, with few exceptions, most of the known miRNAs form an imperfect duplex/hybrid, with sequences located solely in the 3'UTR region of target mRNA (base-pairing of a minimum 7 nucleotide seed sequence is required) 10 - 12 . (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • We show that many genes have 3'UTR regions extending beyond currently known gene regions and provide a method to identify such regions based on microarray expression data. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) of a gene does not belong to the protein coding sequence, however it plays an important role in posttranscriptional regulation [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • abstract = "We evaluated the association between germline genetic variants located within the 3'-untranlsated region (polymorphic 3'UTR, ie, p3UTR) of candidate genes involved in multiple myeloma (MM). We performed a case-control study within the International Multiple Myeloma rESEarch (IMMEnSE) consortium, consisting of 3056 MM patients and 1960 controls recruited from eight countries. (regionh.dk)
  • The 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) of mRNA is the binding target of microRNA and RNA binding proteins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The objective of the present study was to explore the molecular mechanism by which a single nucleotide polymorphism (rs712) interferes with interaction between 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) of KRAS and let-7g, and its association with development of lung cancer in the patients with COPD. (dovepress.com)
  • Our study demonstrated that KRAS 3'-UTR rs712 polymorphism interfered with miRNA/mRNA interaction, and showed that the minor allele was associated with an elevated risk for development of lung cancer in COPD. (dovepress.com)
  • The rs5275 polymorphism in the 3' untranslated region of the PTGS2 gene was associated with a decrease in breast cancer risk. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We have identified a single nucleotide polymorphism within the miR‐502 seed binding region in the 3′‐UTR of the SET8 gene. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These data suggest that the miR‐502 binding site single nucleotide polymorphism in the 3′‐UTR of SET8 modulates SET8 expression and contributes to the early development of breast cancer, either independently or together with the TP53 codon 72 single nucleotide polymorphism. (aacrjournals.org)
  • 2014). 'Association of a miR-502-Binding Site Single Nucleotide Polymorphism in the 3'-Untranslated Region of SET8 and the TP53 Codon 72 Polymorphism with Cervical Cancer in the Chinese Population', Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , 15(16), pp. 6505-6510. (waocp.org)
  • Effects of leptin receptor gene 3'-untranslated region polymorphism on metabolic profiles in young Japanese men. (elsevier.com)
  • We investigated the effects of leptin receptor gene 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) polymorphism on clinical and metabolic parameters in 221 young Japanese men aged 21 to 28 years. (elsevier.com)
  • The polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method was used to identify a pentanucleotide (CTTTA) insertion in 3'-UTR of the leptin receptor gene. (elsevier.com)
  • These findings suggest that serum HDL-cholesterol and apoA-I levels are influenced by the leptin receptor gene 3'-UTR polymorphism in young Japanese men. (elsevier.com)
  • Identification of association between rs1057317 polymorphism in TLR4 3'-untranslated region and the susceptibility to osteoporosis. (cdc.gov)
  • It has been proved that the expression of TLR4 is associated with a reduced risk of osteoporosis (OP). One single-nucleotide polymorphism located within the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) of TLR4 may "generate" binding site of miR-34a and thereby associated with risk of OP. Bioinformatics analysis and luciferase reporter assay were used to specify the effect of polymorphisms on the interaction between miR-34a and TLR4 gene. (cdc.gov)
  • The regulatory association between rs1057317 polymorphism in TLR4 3'-UTR led to an inhibitory effect on the expression of TLR4 by miR-34a, which may explain the observed association between the polymorphism and the susceptibility to OP. (cdc.gov)
  • C 3′-UTR polymorphisms were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis or by TaqMan allelic discrimination assays. (ecerm.org)
  • Objective To investigate the association between single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of interleukin-12 ( IL-12 ) p40 3' untranslated region rs3212227 site and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection . (bvsalud.org)
  • The G2964A 3'-untranslated region polymorphism of the signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 gene is associated with endometriosis in South Indian women. (ox.ac.uk)
  • METHODS: The single-nucleotide polymorphism, G2964A, in the 3'-untranslated region (UTR) of the STAT6 gene was tested for association in a case-control study of 232 affected women and 210 women with no evidence of disease. (ox.ac.uk)
  • CONCLUSIONS: We report for the first time an association between the STAT6 G2964A 3'-UTR polymorphism and endometriosis in South Indian women. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Genome-wide association studies on systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in Chinese populations identified the association of ETS1 polymorphism in 3' untranslated region, rs1128334 A allele, which was associated with lower ETS1 expression. (acrabstracts.org)
  • Experiments performed with the HLA-G positive cell lines JEG-3 (choricarcinoma) and FON (melanoma), and with the HLA-G negative cell lines M8 (melanoma) and U251MG (glioblastoma) showed that the HLA-G 3′UTR polymorphism influences the response to endogenous cellular factors and may vary according to the cell type. (unesp.br)
  • We now observe that a 33-nucleotide sequence, comprised entirely of A and T residues and located in the 3'-untranslated region, is conserved in toto in the murine and human TNF mRNAs. (pnas.org)
  • We identified a consensus sequence (TTATTTAT) present in the 3'-untranslated region of both human and mouse TNF mRNAs, as well as the mRNAs encoding human lymphotoxin, human colony stimulating factor, human and mouse interleukin 1, human and rat fibronectin, and most of the sequenced human and mouse interferons. (pnas.org)
  • All of these mRNAs, except the lymphotoxin mRNA, lack homology to the TNF mRNAs in the coding region. (pnas.org)
  • The mRNAs of transiently expressed genes frequently contain an AU-rich sequence in the 3' untranslated region. (nih.gov)
  • Here I report the identification of a nine-nucleotide motif, YUGUUYCUG, common to the 3'' untranslated regions of four sequenced messages of this class: Drosophila bicoid and nanos mRNAs and Xenopus An2 and Vg1 mRNAs. (xenbase.org)
  • We present a new expression-profiling strategy that utilizes long-read, high-throughput sequencing to capture the information-rich 3′-untranslated region (UTR) of messenger RNAs (mRNAs). (plantphysiol.org)
  • miRNA functions as a guide molecule in post-transcriptional gene silencing by partially complementing with the 3′-untranslated region (3′UTR) of the target mRNAs, leading to translational repression [7] - [9] . (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Taken together, these results suggest that active translation impedes miRNA-programmed RISC association with target mRNAs, and support a mechanistic explanation for the localization of most miRNA target sites in noncoding regions of mRNAs in mammals. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • This pentamer, frequently located in or near a U rich region, has been associated with the regulation of the stability of a number of mRNAs, including those of proto-oncogenes and cytokines. (springer.com)
  • In MHV-infected cells, six or seven subgenomic mRNAs are transcribed, all of which contain a common leader sequence derived from the 5′ end of the genome, as well as a common 3′ end including a 302- to 305-nucleotide (nt)-long untranslated region (3′-UTR) ( 21 ). (asm.org)
  • A functional role for the extended 3´ UTR was assessed by comparing the translatability and stability of the 1.6 and 4.2 kb mRNAs. (biochemj.org)
  • Schuster, Gadi 2004-10-06 00:00:00 A general characteristic of the 3′-untranslated regions (3′ UTRs) of plastid mRNAs is an inverted repeat (IR) sequence that can fold into a stem-loop structure. (deepdyve.com)
  • These results imply that both the nucleotide sequences and the stem-loop structures of the 3′ UTRs are important for transcript 3′-end processing, and for accumulation of the mature mRNAs. (deepdyve.com)
  • MicroRNAs (miRNA) are a class of small, noncoding RNA that regulate gene expression by binding the 3'-untranslated region (3′-UTR) of mRNAs of their target genes, resulting in mRNA cleavage or translation repression [ 9 , 10 ]. (jcancer.org)
  • Often, cis elements in the 3′ untranslated regions (UTRs) of mRNAs encode proteins with roles in the fates of the mRNAs, including stability, translatability, and localization. (asm.org)
  • Recent discoveries showed that many of these mRNAs contain more than one polyadenylation sites in their 3' untranslated regions (UTR) and that alternative polyadenylation (APA) is prevalent among these genes. (umn.edu)
  • Many biological processes such as differentiation, proliferation, and tumorigenesis have been correlated to global APA events in the 3' UTR of mRNAs, suggesting that these APA events are tightly regulated and may play important physiological roles. (umn.edu)
  • Yeh, HS & Yong, J 2016, ' Alternative polyadenylation of mRNAs: 3'-untranslated region matters in gene expression ', Molecules and cells , vol. 39, no. 4, pp. 281-285. (umn.edu)
  • The stability of mRNAs may be controlled by the 5' UTR and/or 3' UTR due to varying affinity for RNA degrading enzymes called ribonucleases and for ancillary proteins that can promote or inhibit RNA degradation. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • In addition, the PIWI-piRNA complexes are associated with P-body components and piRNAs are mapped to the 3′UTR of mRNAs. (eurekalert.org)
  • Since the 3′-ends of transcripts contain elements conferring subcellular localization of mRNA and are rich in miRNA-binding sites, exosomal RNA may act as competing RNA to regulate stability, localization and translation activity of mRNAs in recipient cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We are also pursuing novel genomics approaches, including development of a system for high-throughput analysis of the function of sequences from 3' untranslated regions of mRNAs. (ucsf.edu)
  • 3′ untranslated regions (3′ UTRs) and particularly long 3′ UTRs have been shown to act as a new class of post-transcriptional regulatory element. (frontiersin.org)
  • To investigate more general effects of 3′ UTRs in Y. pestis , we selected 15 genes potentially possessing long 3′ UTRs with different AU content and constructed their 3′ UTR deletion mutants. (frontiersin.org)
  • Deletion of AU-rich 3′ UTRs increased mRNA levels, whereas deletion of 3′ UTRs with normal AU content resulted in slight or no changes in the mRNA level. (frontiersin.org)
  • Our findings suggest that functional 3′ UTRs might be broadly distributed in bacteria and their novel regulatory mechanisms require further investigation. (frontiersin.org)
  • Traditionally, bacterial 3′ UTRs were thought to comprise mainly transcriptional terminators. (frontiersin.org)
  • Several 3′ UTRs are reportedly attacked by ribonucleases to initiate mRNA degradation. (frontiersin.org)
  • Although the aceA 3′ UTR is only 63 nt in length, other 3′ UTRs involved in mRNA decay are much longer. (frontiersin.org)
  • The sequences of the UTRs are very similar to those of SAV1 and SAV2, but single nucleotide polymorphisms are present, also in the 3' - conserved sequence element (3'-CSE). (uib.no)
  • The 3' untranslated regions (UTRs) of transcripts are not well characterized for many genes and often extend beyond the annotated regions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • regions (UTRs). (deepdyve.com)
  • Incubation of synthetic RNAs corresponding to the 3′ UTRs of Chlamydomonas chloroplast genes atpB and petD with a chloroplast protein extract resulted in the accumulation of stable processing products. (deepdyve.com)
  • However, the level of discrete atpB transcripts in transformants containing the antisense 3′ UTR sequences was reduced to approximately one-half that of transformants containing the 3′ UTRs in the sense orientation. (deepdyve.com)
  • In this study, partial regions of HSP70.1 (3' and 5' untranslated regions (UTRs)) were sequenced in six cattle breeds. (scielo.org.za)
  • This study is the first to investigate the 3' and 5' UTRs of the HSP70.1 gene in Turkish native breeds. (scielo.org.za)
  • A motif-finding approach was applied to the 3′ untranslated regions (UTRs) of RP transcripts regulated by mRNA decay, and a single, significant motif, GGAUG, was identified. (asm.org)
  • Despite the significance of the 3′ UTR, there is no popular method for annotating 3′ UTRs and for profiling their isoforms. (rna-seqblog.com)
  • Now, researchers from Hanyang University , Korea have developed heuristic and regression methods to estimate and quantify the usage of 3′ UTRs with widely profiled RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) data. (rna-seqblog.com)
  • With this approach, the 3′ UTR usage estimated from RNA-seq was found to be highly correlated to that of 3P-seq, and poly(A) cleavage signals of 3′ UTRs were detected upstream of the predicted poly(A) cleavage sites. (rna-seqblog.com)
  • These methods predicted greater number of 3′ UTRs than 3P-seq, which allows the profiling of the 3′ UTRs of most expressed genes in diverse cell-types, stages, and species. (rna-seqblog.com)
  • Untranslated regions (UTRs) are sections of the mRNA before the start codon and after the stop codon that are not translated, termed the five prime untranslated region (5' UTR) and three prime untranslated region (3' UTR), respectively. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Evaluation of human-derived 5′ untranslated regions (UTRs) indicated that many provided high levels of protein production, supporting their cross-kingdom function. (elsevier.com)
  • An analysis of the 5′ UTRs from the Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotinana benthamiana photosystem I K genes found that they were highly active when truncated to include only the near upstream region, providing a dramatic enhancement of transgene production that exceeded that of the tobacco mosaic virus omega leader. (elsevier.com)
  • Complete sequence of two tick-borne flaviviruses isolated from Siberia and the UK: analysis and significance of the 5′ and 3′-UTRs. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Disease-causing mutations in the untranslated regions (UTRs) of the SLC29A3 gene have not been previously described in the literature. (istanbul.edu.tr)
  • Up to 4% of the human genome is predicted to code for over 400 miRNAs, which are estimated to regulate at least 30% of all human genes 3 - 5 . (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Since Affymetrix 3' expression arrays were designed based on expressed sequence tags, many probesets map to intergenic regions downstream of genes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To examine 3′ UTR function in vivo, the atpB 3′ UTR was replaced with the 3′ UTR sequences of the Chlamydomonas chloroplast genes petD, petD plus trnR, rbcL, petA and E. coli thrA by biolistic transformation of Chlamydomonas chloroplasts. (deepdyve.com)
  • Germline variants in the 3′-UTR of miRNA target genes might alter miRNA binding and thus associated with risk of cancer by affecting gene expression [ 11 ]. (jcancer.org)
  • A second, homologous protein, Gis2, was identified in the genome of C. neoformans and also bound the 3′-UTR probe, and deletion of both genes resulted in loss of binding in cell extracts. (asm.org)
  • MicroRNAs regulate gene expression by binding to the 3′‐untranslated region (UTR) of target genes. (aacrjournals.org)
  • 5) The PIWI-piRNA complexes can enter the nucleus and regulate gene transcription through epigenetic mechanisms including heterochromatin formation and DNA methylation in the promoter region of target genes. (eurekalert.org)
  • Sequence instability at oligo-A regions occurs in colorectal cancer, and it has been suggested that these mutations may alter expression of genes involved in the development of colonic tumors. (elsevier.com)
  • Epidemiological studies show an important genetic background in RA, with the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region showing the strongest association with disease predisposition, although the contribution of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes has been estimated to be no more than 30 to 50% to the total genetic background [ 8 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This 124-nucleotide sequence is within the 163-nucleotide common insertion region of the AAV2 genome -- which has been implicated in dysregulation of known HCC driver genes and thus offers added insight into the possible association between AAV integration events and the multifactorial pathogenesis of HCC. (genewhisperer.com)
  • We introduced a 51 nucleotide AT sequence from a human lymphokine gene, GM-CSF, into the 3' untranslated region of the rabbit beta-globin gene. (nih.gov)
  • Rodriguez, L. 2009-04-01 00:00:00 A foot-and-mouth disease virus containing a 57-nucleotide (nt) insertion in the 3′untranslated region (3′UTR) was generated by transposon (tn)-mediated mutagenesis. (deepdyve.com)
  • In the 3' UTR region, 13 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and one indel were found, whereas this region was found to be monomorphic among animals of the Holstein Friesian breed. (scielo.org.za)
  • On the other hand, a new C983T nucleotide substitution was identified in this region, and is thought to disrupt the Sp1 -hsp70 promoter binding site. (scielo.org.za)
  • To compare single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the 3′-untranslated region (3′UTR) of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-G in placentas between spontaneous preterm birth and preeclampsia pregnancies. (biomedcentral.com)
  • One of the cis-acting elements is the 3' terminal 42 nucleotide host protein binding element. (tamu.edu)
  • Previous work has demonstrated that mitochondrial aconitase, mitochondrial heat shock protein 70, heat shock protein 60 and heat shock protein 40 bind to the 3' terminal 42 nucleotide host protein binding element. (tamu.edu)
  • We demonstrated that RNA secondary structure of the 3' terminal 42 nucleotide host protein binding element is necessary for host protein binding in vitro. (tamu.edu)
  • We also demonstrate that primary structure of the 3' terminal 42 nucleotide host protein binding element is necessary for viral replication by targeted recombination. (tamu.edu)
  • DI replication assays infer that the 3' terminal 42 nucleotide host protein binding element plays a role in positive strand synthesis from the negative strand template. (tamu.edu)
  • Current studies involve the infectious cDNA clone, which will provide definitive answers on the role of the 3' terminal 42 nucleotide host protein binding element in MHV replication. (tamu.edu)
  • While GC-rich trinucleotide expansions predominate in exonic regions, intronic repeats are composed of 3-6 nucleotide tandems and vary considerably in GC content. (mdpi.com)
  • However, the construction of a robust comparative nucleotide alignment has now revealed that the double-length 3′UTR and the direct repeats resulted from the virtually complete duplication of a primordial KRV 3′UTR. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Inhibition is sequence-specific in that the nucleotide sequences of the duplex region of the RNA and of a portion of the target gene are identical. (google.com)
  • Supplementary MaterialsTable S1: The human 3 untranslated region (3UTR) sequence of Runx2 (Accession number "type":"entrez-nucleotide","attrs":"text":"NM_001024630″,"term_id":"226442782″,"term_text":"NM_001024630″NM_001024630). (informationalwebs.com)
  • Using the nucleotide database and keywords including homo sapiens, gene is located downstream from the coding sequence region and is composed of 3,777 nucleotide bases (Table S1). (informationalwebs.com)
  • We conclude that the oligo- A-containing region of the 3' UTR of CEA (204 bp beginning at nucleotide 24229) does not play a substantial role in the regulation of CEA expression. (elsevier.com)
  • Variants in the gene 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) may associate with gene expression by altering miRNAs binding. (jcancer.org)
  • We systematically searched for variants in the 3'-UTR of CUL3 using the Ensembl database. (jcancer.org)
  • In the present study, we searched for variants in the 3'-UTR of CUL3 and performed a case-control study to test whether these variants are associated with ESCC susceptibility. (jcancer.org)
  • Novel missense and 3'-UTR splice site variants in LHFPL5 cause autosomal recessive nonsyndromic hearing impairment. (ucdenver.edu)
  • Different PR (rs689465, rs689466, rs20417) and 3′-UTR (rs5275) variants were generated by site-directed mutagenesis, and combined in haplotypes to access expression levels using a reporter system (luciferase) in human cells (MCF-7 and HEK293FT). (figshare.com)
  • Variants in the 3′-UTR of MTHFR are potential biomarkers for RPL. (ecerm.org)
  • In the present work we investigated whether specific allele variants of the microsatellite in the 3' UTR of the CD154 gene might modulate the risk of RA. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Translational efficiency is regulated by the length of the 3′ untranslated region," Molecular and Cellular Biology, 1996, vol. 16, No. 1, pp. 146-156. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Multiple copies of potential mRNA destabilizing motifs AUUUA and related sequences can be found to the 3′-untranslated region (UTR) of IL-10 mRNA distributed through three potential regulatory regions. (jimmunol.org)
  • Four fragments, AU1 (+727 to +818), AU2 (+807 to +936), AU3 (+1157 to +1239), and AU4 (+727 to +1239), containing the 3′-UTR sequences of IL-10 cDNA were amplified by PCR and cloned into an Xba I site (+1934) located between the luciferase gene and the poly(A) signal in the pGL3-Control Vector. (jimmunol.org)
  • 3' non-coding region sequences in eukaryotic messenger RNA. (xenbase.org)
  • Analysis of approximately 229,000 3′-anchored sequences from maize ( Zea mays ) ovaries identified 14,822 unique transcripts represented by at least two sequence reads. (plantphysiol.org)
  • In an effort to identify sequences within the MEF2A message which control translation, we isolated the mouse MEF2A 3' untranslated region (UTR) and fused it to the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) reporter gene. (asm.org)
  • These results revealed that the 3′UTR can tolerate foreign sequences that do not disrupt essential signals required for virus replication. (deepdyve.com)
  • Since there are no recognized alignment programs that can adequately accommodate very divergent sequences, a method has been devised to construct and analyse a substantially improved 3′UTR alignment between these highly divergent viruses, based on the concept that deletions and/or insertions, in addition to substitutions, are important drivers of 3′UTR evolution. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Here, we review the mutations in 3′UTR regulatory sequences as well as the aberrant levels, subcellular localization, and posttranslational modifications of trans-acting factors that can promote or enhance the malignant phenotype of cancer cells. (iospress.com)
  • The DNA sequences including the 3′UTR region of HLA-G were amplified via PCR in a final reaction volume of 50 μl, using the Multiplex PCR Master Mix (Qiagen, Valencia, CA, USA) and 10 pmol of each primeralong with 100 ng of genomic DNA using SimpliAmp™ Thermal Cycler(Life Technologies, Carlsbad, CA, USA). (biomedcentral.com)
  • This region contains transcription and translation regulating sequences. (ucdenver.edu)
  • In addition to being protein-coding, portions of coding regions may serve as regulatory sequences in the pre-mRNA as exonic splicing enhancers or exonic splicing silencers. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • in such a case, the 3' UTR may contain sequences that allow the transcript to be localized to this region for translation. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • We also propose that the CFAV 3′UTR was derived from a KRV-like precursor sequence with a large deletion that nevertheless preserved the two direct repeat sequences. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Probe labeled with Yakima Yellow reporter at the 5′ end, a ZEN quencher between nt 9 and 10, and an Iowa Black FQ quencher at the 3′ end (Integrated DNA Technologies, Inc.). Probe and primer sequences identical to InfB sequences used by the CDC Human Influenza Virus Real-Time RT-PCR Detection and Characterization Panel [510(k) no. (cdc.gov)
  • The variant sequences in 3' UTR alter the binding feature of miRNA, and influence gene repression process. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, there is no marked over- or underexpression of mutated 3' UTR CEA sequences in this cell line. (elsevier.com)
  • Dividing immune cells tend to synthesize messenger RNAs with shorter 3' regulatory regions, possibly because less control is required over RNA functions. (sciencemag.org)
  • Comparison of various MHV DI RNAs showed that all retain various lengths of both the 5′ and 3′ ends of the viral genome ( 34 , 35 , 37 , 43 ). (asm.org)
  • Mapping studies of MHV DI RNAs have further revealed that 400 to 859 nt from the 5′ end and 436 nt from the 3′ end of the genome are required for DI RNA replication ( 17 , 29 ). (asm.org)
  • Synthetic RNAs of the petA 3′ UTR and the antisense strand of atpB 3′ UTR were degraded in the extract. (deepdyve.com)
  • The 3′UTR governs gene expression via orchestrated interactions between mRNA structural components (cis-elements) and specific trans-acting factors (RNA- binding proteins and non-coding RNAs). (iospress.com)
  • Here, transfer RNAs (tRNAs) bind on one end to specific codons (three-base region) in the mRNA and bind on the other end to the amino acids specified by that codon, and thus place the amino acids in the correct sequence in the growing polypeptide according to the template (sequence of nucleotides) provided by the mRNA (Alberts et al. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The closer to the 3′-end of the transcript the fragments are localized, the larger fraction among the secreted RNAs they constitute. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Diamos, AG, Rosenthal, SH & Mason, H 2016, ' 5′ and 3′ untranslated regions strongly enhance performance of Geminiviral replicons in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves ', Frontiers in Plant Science , vol. 7, no. (elsevier.com)
  • UV cross-linking analyses were performed in an attempt to determine cellular protein-viral RNA interactions with the 3' untranslated region (3' UTR) of the hepatitis C virus RNA genome. (nih.gov)
  • The p35 protein was found to interact only with the poly(U) tract of the 3' UTR. (nih.gov)
  • The use of such hybrid regions allows for an efficient protein expression when used in conjunction with circular or linear expression DNA molecules. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The present invention provides a recombinant DNA that is composed of a promoter, a protein coding region, and the hybrid 3′UTR in a continuous and directional orientation. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • We labeled the 3′UTR of the CaMKIIα mRNA in hippocampal cultures by using a green fluorescent protein (GFP)/MS2 bacteriophage tagging system. (jneurosci.org)
  • The accumulation of both total atpB mRNA and ATPase β-subunit protein in all transformants was increased compared to a strain in which the atpB 3′ UTR had been deleted. (deepdyve.com)
  • The CYP3A4 transcript with shorter 3′-UTR was more stable and produced more protein compared with the CYP3A4 transcript with canonical 3′-UTR. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Znf9, a small zinc knuckle RNA binding protein identified by mass spectrometry, was found to interact specifically with the RPL2 3′-UTR probe. (asm.org)
  • Differential 3' Processing of Specific Transcripts Expands Regulatory and Protein Diversity Across Neuronal Cell Types. (ucdenver.edu)
  • Unlike bovine viral diarrhea virus, where SphK1 activity is decreased by the NS3 protein, SphK1 activity was not affected by DENV-2 NS3 but, instead, was reduced by expression of the terminal 396 bases of the 3′ UTR of DENV-2 RNA. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Furthermore, a region containing multiple AUUUA motifs within the ADAMTS1 3'-UTR destabilized transfected Enhanced Green Fluorescence Protein (EGFP) mRNA expression. (okayama-u.ac.jp)
  • 3) The PIWI-antisense piRNA complexes mediate cleavage of sense piRNA precursors and transposon (and protein-coding) transcripts, which silence transposon and gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. (eurekalert.org)
  • High genetic diversity in the coat protein and 3 untranslated regions among geographical isolates of Cardamom mosaic virus from south India. (bvsalud.org)
  • The 3 terminal region consisting of the coat protein (CP) coding sequence and 3 untranslated region (3 UTR) was cloned and sequenced from seven isolates. (bvsalud.org)
  • The TCRζ protein expression level according to Western blot analysis correlated well with that of TCRζ mRNA/w-3′UTR (r = 0.931) and reversibly with TCRζ mRNA/as-3′UTR (r = -0.614), but not with ORF TCRζ mRNA (r = -0.296). (elsevier.com)
  • It can be concluded that the reduced expression of TCRζ mRNA/w-3′UTR and the pre-dominant expression of TCRζ mRNA/as-3′UTR lead to downregulation of the TCRζ protein in SLE T cells. (elsevier.com)
  • Mechanistic/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), an atypical serine/threonine kinase of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase- (PI3K-) related kinase family, elicits a vital role in diverse cellular processes, including cellular growth, proliferation, survival, protein synthesis, autophagy, and metabolism. (hindawi.com)
  • The protein is highly conserved in the DUF776 region amongst vertebrates, and also at the C-terminus in eukaryotes. (wikipedia.org)
  • 30 predicted Serine phosphorylation sites 5 predicted Threonine phosphorylation sites 3 predicted Tyrosine phosphorylation sites PELE (Protein Secondary Structure Prediction) was used to predict the secondary structure of C20orf111. (wikipedia.org)
  • During replication, the 5' UTR interacts with the 3' UTR of the genome to initiate synthesis of new viral replicates and viral protein translation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since 3' UTR contain microRNA binding sites and other stability determining regions, identification of the full length 3' UTR is important to elucidate posttranscriptional regulation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Deletion analysis of the 3′-UTR indicated a distinct functional element in the proximal half, whereas a putative target for microRNA-181s was predicted in silico in the distal half. (elsevier.com)
  • C is the genetic variant associated with epilepsy in males, and the related haplotype "CTTACATGACGA" / "CT C TA" in the region of chr2: 165991297-165989081, which has high site accessibility for microRNA binding, is the genetic protective factor against epilepsy in males. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cellular proteins bind to the poly(U) tract of the 3' untranslated region of hepatitis C virus RNA genome. (nih.gov)
  • Interaction of these cellular proteins with the HCV 3' UTR is probably involved in regulation of translation and/or replication of the HCV RNA genome. (nih.gov)
  • The 3' untranslated region of picornavirus RNA: features required for efficient genome replication. (asm.org)
  • Thus, it stands to reason that the replication signal from the 5′ end and the remaining replication signal (nt 55 to 436) from the 3′ end of the MHV genome are involved in synthesis of the positive-strand RNA. (asm.org)
  • Moreover, since positive-strand RNA synthesis begins from the 5′ end of the genome, and the 3′ end will be the last region of the genome reached by the viral polymerase, the replication signal at the 3′ end likely interacts with signals at the 5′ end to exert its effect on RNA synthesis. (asm.org)
  • Based on this reasoning, the 5′ and 3′ ends of the genome have been proposed to interact during viral RNA replication so that the 3′-end sequence can affect the initiation of RNA synthesis ( 20 ). (asm.org)
  • Prediction of the RNA secondary structure suggested putative stem-loop structures in both the 5'- and 3'-ends, similar to those of alphaviruses from the terrestrial environment, indicating that the general genome replication initiation strategy for alphaviruses is also utilized by SAV. (uib.no)
  • Previous genome-wide association study (GWAS) found several genetic loci that was associated with ESCC susceptibility [ 3 - 5 ]. (jcancer.org)
  • Complete genome sequence of Montana Myotis leukoencephalitis virus, phylogenetic analysis and comparative study of the 3′ untranslated region of flaviviruses with no known vector. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Flavivirus 5' UTR are untranslated regions in the genome of viruses in the genus Flavivirus. (wikipedia.org)
  • It further contains the 5'UAR (upstream AUG region), which is essential for the circularization of the genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • The 5'UAR interacts with the 3'UAR, which is located at the 3' UTR of the genome to form a long-range RNA-RNA interaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • The capsid-coding hairpin region (cHP) actually lies in the ORF of the viral genome and is followed by the 5'CS (conserved sequence), which forms another long-range RNA-RNA interaction with the 3' UTR (3'CS). (wikipedia.org)
  • Since the 3'-untranslated region is normally not conserved, we reasoned that this sequence might play a regulatory role. (pnas.org)
  • A conserved AU sequence from the 3' untranslated region of GM-CSF mRNA mediates selective mRNA degradation. (nih.gov)
  • An episomal expression vector system for monitoring sequence-specific effects on mRNA stability in human cell lines," Plasmid, 1995, vol. 33, No. 3, pp. 198-207. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • To establish the functional importance of target localization in the 3' UTR, we modified the stop codon to extend the coding region of the transgene reporter through the miRNA target sequence. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The 3' UTR of COX-2 mRNA contains 22 copies of a conserved AU-rich sequence element (ARE), the AUUUA pentamer. (springer.com)
  • These activities might be modulated by sequence elements contained within the untranslated regions of the eIF-2α gene. (biochemj.org)
  • The sequence and structure of the 3′-untranslated regions of chloroplast transcripts are. (deepdyve.com)
  • This 'robust alignment' approach demonstrated more extensive homologies in the 3′UTR than had been recognized previously and revealed the presence of similar DRs, either intact or as sequence 'remnants', in all the MBFV subgroups. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • The sequence at the 3' end of messenger RNA that does not code for product. (ucdenver.edu)
  • Although no relationship between EGFR overexpression and the length of a CA dinucleotide repeat in intron 1 was observed, a variant A13/A14 repeat sequence within the 3′-untranslated region (3′-UTR) of the EGFR gene was identified, which was mutated by either mononucleotide or dinucleotide adenosine deletions in 64% of MSI cell lines and 69% of MSI colon tumors. (elsevier.com)
  • Cycloxigenase-2 is encoded by the prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2) gene, which presents sequence variations in the promoter region (PR) and in the 3′-untranslated region (3′-UTR). (figshare.com)
  • We demonstrate that the oligo-A region of the CEA 3' UTR does in fact exhibit sequence instability. (elsevier.com)
  • Although we could demonstrate that activity of the exogenous CEA promoter was markedly elevated in cells induced to differentiate, the data demonstrate no sequence or orientation-specific effect of the 3' UTR of CEA on expression from a CEA promoter. (elsevier.com)
  • Sequence comparisons revealed considerable genetic diversity among the isolates in their CP and 3 UTR, making CdMV one of the highly variable members of Potyviridae. (bvsalud.org)
  • In this same region of the promoter, there is also a TATA-binding factor sequence, which helps in the positioning of RNA polymerase II for transcription. (wikipedia.org)
  • Differential expression of the long Igf1 3' UTR isoform may be a possible mechanism for enhanced IGF-I regulation in B6 vs. C3H mice. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The study was initiated by the hypothesis that the non-coding 3′UTR plays a role in the regulation of miRNA function. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • We conclude that the 3′-end processing of CYP3A4 contributes to the quantitative regulation of CYP3A4 gene expression through alternative polyadenylation, which may serve as a regulatory mechanism explaining changes of CYP3A4 expression and activity during hepatocyte differentiation and liver development and in response to drug induction. (aspetjournals.org)
  • To explore the possible relationship between regulated expression of DAT and ADHD, we focused on 3'-untranslated region (UTR) of DAT mRNA, and investigated the role of 3'-UTR in the regulation of DAT expression and function. (nii.ac.jp)
  • A thorough understanding of these alterations and their impact upon 3′UTR-directed posttranscriptional gene regulation will uncover promising new targets for therapeutic intervention. (iospress.com)
  • The fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans employs posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression as part of the transcriptome reprogramming that accompanies cellular stress ( 1 - 3 ). (asm.org)
  • These results indicate the involvement of multiple regulatory elements in the CCN1 3′-UTR and suggest the complexity of the miRNA action as well as the 3′-UTR-mediated gene regulation. (elsevier.com)
  • Posttranscriptional regulation is important for tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) expression in monocytes and macrophages, and an AU-rich element (ARE) in the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of TNF-alpha mRNA is implicated in control of its translation and mRNA stability. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Hence, the computational RNA-seq method for the estimation of the 3′ UTR landscape would be useful as a tool for studying not only the functional roles of 3′ UTR but also gene regulation by 3′ UTR in a cell type-specific context. (rna-seqblog.com)
  • Bordonaro, M & Augenlicht, L 1997, ' The 3' untranslated region of the carcinoembryonic antigen gene plays a minimal role in the regulation of gene expression ', Cell Growth and Differentiation , vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 353-360. (elsevier.com)
  • To investigate the mechanism of the downregulation of T-cell receptor ζ chain (TCRζ) expression in the peripheral blood T cells (PBTs) of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients, we analyzed the 3′ untranslated region (3′UTR) of TCRζ mRNA, because the 3′UTR in mRNA is responsible for posttranscriptional regulation. (elsevier.com)
  • A QPCR-based reporter system to study post-transcriptional regulation via the 3' untranslated region of mRNA in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (chalmers.se)
  • Post-transcriptional regulation via the 3' untranslated region (3' UTR) of mRNA is an important factor in governing eukaryotic gene expression. (chalmers.se)
  • The RPL2 3′ UTR contains four G-triplets (GGG) that have the potential to form a G-quadruplex, and temperature gradient gel electrophoresis revealed a potassium-dependent structure consistent with a G-quadruplex that was abrogated by mutation of G-triplets. (asm.org)
  • To determine whether this mutation is a driver or a bystander event in MSI colon cancer, we examined the effect of pharmacologic and molecular inhibition of EGFR in EGFR 3′-UTR mutant MSI cell lines. (elsevier.com)
  • Cell lines with an EGFR 3′-UTR mutation and that were wild-type (WT) for downstream signaling mediators in the Ras/BRAF and PIK3CA/PTEN pathways were sensitive to EGFR inhibition, whereas those harboring mutations in these signaling mediators were not. (elsevier.com)
  • Furthermore, in cell lines WT for downstream signaling mediators, those with EGFR 3′-UTR mutations were more sensitive to EGFR inhibition than EGFR 3′-UTR WT cells, suggesting that this mutation provides a growth advantage to this subset of MSI colon tumors. (elsevier.com)
  • A novel 3 ' untranslated region mutation. (istanbul.edu.tr)
  • This study is to elucidate the relationship between a 936C/T mutation at the 3'-untranslated region of the human vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene and diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). (archivesofmedicalscience.com)
  • CEA promoter constructs, containing sense or antisense versions of the normal or mutant CEA 3' UTR region, were transfected into uninduced and induced HT29 cells. (elsevier.com)
  • The role of the mouse tumor necrosis factor (TNF) promoter, 5′ untranslated region (UTR), and 3′ UTR in TNF gene expression has been examined in three nonmacrophage cell lines (HeLa, NIH 3T3, and L-929). (elsevier.com)
  • In addition to binding to the conserved 98 nucleotides (nt) of the 3' UTR, p58 also binds to the poly(U) tract of the 3' UTR. (nih.gov)
  • IGF-I 3' untranslated region: strain-specific polymorphisms and motifs regulating IGF-I in osteoblasts. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Implication of HLA-G 3' untranslated region polymorphisms in human papillomavirus infection. (cdc.gov)
  • To identify the associations between polymorphisms of the 3′-untranslated region (UTR) of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase ( MTHFR ) gene, which codes for an important regulatory enzyme primarily involved in folate metabolism, and idiopathic recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) in Korean women. (ecerm.org)
  • Patients and Methods: The G1612A and C936T polymorphisms in the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) of the VEGF gene were genotyped in 337 cancer-free individuals. (fujita-hu.ac.jp)
  • This finding suggests that STAT6 may contribute to disease susceptibility in endometriosis, which carries an extra interest as the gene lies in a region which has been implicated, albeit weakly, in a previous genomewide scan. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Two cellular proteins, with estimated molecular masses of 58 kDa (p58) and 35 kDa (p35), respectively, were found to specifically bind to the 3' UTR. (nih.gov)
  • Several host cell proteins have previously been shown to interact with this regulatory region. (asm.org)
  • Mutations that affect PTB binding to the negative strand of the 3′-UTR also inhibited hnRNP A1 binding on the positive strand, indicating a possible relationship between these two proteins. (asm.org)
  • This region of the transcript typically contains binding sites for proteins and microRNAs which influence the stability, localization and translation of the messenger RNA [ 2 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Pan, YX , Chen, H & Kilberg, MS 2005, ' Interaction of RNA-binding proteins HuR and AUF1 with the human ATF3 mRNA 3′-untranslated region regulates its amino acid limitation-induced stabilization ', Journal of Biological Chemistry , vol. 280, no. 41, pp. 34609-34616. (illinois.edu)
  • This fraction also contained proteins which formed two distinct ARE-specific complexes with the TNF-alpha mRNA 3' UTR in electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs). (ox.ac.uk)
  • Coding regions are composed of codons, which are decoded and translated into one (mostly eukaryotes) or several (mostly prokaryotes) proteins by the ribosome. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Proteins that bind to either the 3' or 5' UTR may affect translation by influencing the ribosome's ability to bind to the mRNA. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • We have used our reporter system to evaluate the consequences on gene expression from varying the 3' UTR, a problem often encountered during C-terminal tagging of proteins. (chalmers.se)
  • We previously reported that hmsT mRNA stability is negatively regulated by the 3′ UTR of hmsT in Yersinia pestis . (frontiersin.org)
  • Finally, we showed that ribosomes promote mRNA stability when bound to a 3′ UTR. (frontiersin.org)
  • Length increase of the human α-globin 3′-untranslated region disrupts stability of the pre-mRNA but not that of the mature mRNA," Journal of Biological Chemistry, 2000, vol. 275, pp. 30248-30255. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • These stem-loops are RNA 3′-end processing signals and determinants of mRNA stability, not transcription terminators. (deepdyve.com)
  • The 3′ untranslated region (3′ UTR) of mRNA contains elements that play regulatory roles in polyadenylation, localization, translation efficiency, and mRNA stability. (rna-seqblog.com)
  • In this study, we investigated whether a 3'-untranslated region (UTR) affects the mRNA stability of this gene. (okayama-u.ac.jp)
  • The 3'-UTR ADAMTS1 mRNA contains multiple adenine and uridine-rich elements, suggesting that the 3'-UTR may regulate gene stability. (okayama-u.ac.jp)
  • Several roles in gene expression have been attributed to the untranslated regions, including mRNA stability, mRNA localization, and translational efficiency. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • MicroRNAs bound to the 3' UTR also may affect translational efficiency or mRNA stability. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The present invention describes the use of hybrid short 3′ untranslated (3′UTR) regions which are composed of two regions, one region from an 3′ untranslated region of a stable eukaryotic mRNA, and another region from the downstream end of an 3′ untranslated region of another eukaryotic mRNA that contains a polyadenylation (polyA) signal. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The tobacco Rb7 matrix attachment region inserted downstream from the gene of interest provided significant enhancement, which was correlated with a reduction in plant cell death. (elsevier.com)
  • The 3′-untranslated region (3′-UTR) of mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) RNA regulates the replication of and transcription from the viral RNA. (asm.org)
  • In addition, expression profiles obtained by custom-designed microarrays on three different developmental systems (myoblast differentiation, male gonadal ridge formation, embryonic stem cell differentiation) showed that uaRNA expression is highly regulated and tissue-specific, and might be either concordant or discordant with respect to the upstream coding region depending on the cell type and on the developmental stage. (unimi.it)
  • The 3′-end of the human β-actin gene enhances activity of the β-actin expression vector system: construction of improved vectors," Journal of Biochemical and Biophysical Methods, 1997, vol. 36, No. 1, pp. 63-72. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Here, we show by CAT assay that the MEF2A 3' UTR dramatically inhibits CAT gene expression in vivo and that this inhibition is due to an internal region within the highly conserved 3' UTR. (asm.org)
  • These results demonstrate that the MEF2A 3' UTR functions as a cis-acting translational repressor both in vitro and in vivo and suggest that this repression may contribute to the tissue-restricted expression and binding activity of MEF2A. (asm.org)
  • Here we report that expression of versican 3′UTR induces organ adhesion in transgenic mice by modulating miR-199a* activities. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Enhanced adhesion by expression of the 3′UTR was confirmed by in vitro assays. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • We anticipate that expression of the 3′UTR may be an approach in the development of gene therapy. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The method can be extended to other 3' expression microarray platforms as we demonstrate with human data. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Deletion of 3'-UTR near stop codon in rat DAT cDNA reduced the [3H]DA uptake activity when expressed transiently in COS-7 cell, as compared to the original 3.4 kb DAT cDNA, which includes 1.5 kb 3'-UTR.Although rat DAT does not have variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) in its 3'-UTR, the results F Uggest the importance of 3'-UTR in DAT functional expression. (nii.ac.jp)
  • These results suggested that 3'-UTR of DAT plays an important role in the functional expression, however, its involvement differs from the case of norepinephrine transporter (NET), in which we have demonstrated that alternative splicing of NET 'at 3'-region produces functionally different isoforms. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The 3′-untranslated region (UTR) is known to be a critical regulator of post-transcriptional events that determine the gene expression at the RNA level. (elsevier.com)
  • Reporter gene analysis revealed that the entire 3′-UTR profoundly repressed gene expression in cis in different types of the cells, to which both the proximal and distal-halves of the 3′-UTR segments contributed almost equally. (elsevier.com)
  • The effect of the 5′-and 3′-untranslated regions (UTR) of human erythropoietin gene (gEpo) on its expression in mammalian cells was investigated. (kribb.re.kr)
  • Cells transfected with the 5′,3′-UTR-deleted gEpo showed the highest expression, 2.6 times that with wild-type gEpo. (kribb.re.kr)
  • Northern blot analysis indicated that the enhanced expression of 5′,3′-UTR-deleted gEpo might be related with the transcription efficiency. (kribb.re.kr)
  • These results demonstrated that the ADAMTS1 3'-UTR may regulate the expression of ADAMTS1 mRNA. (okayama-u.ac.jp)
  • The 3' untranslated region (UTR) of CEA, which has been postulated to play a role in CEA expression, contains an oligo-A region. (elsevier.com)
  • The significance of this instability, and of this region of the CEA 3' UTR in general, to CEA expression was analyzed in the HT29 cell line, colonic tumor cells which overexpress CEA upon induction with sodium butyrate. (elsevier.com)
  • In this research, we evaluated the hypoxia-inducible gene expression system with the erythropoietin (Epo) enhancer and the Epo 3′-untranslated region (UTR). (elsevier.com)
  • The results showed that the Epo enhancer or Epo 3′-UTR increased the target gene expression under hypoxia. (elsevier.com)
  • The VEGF expression plasmid with the Epo enhancer and 3′-UTR was also constructed. (elsevier.com)
  • Rs17111557 located in the 3′ untranslated region of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) putatively affects binding of hsa-miR-548t-5p and hsa-miR-4796-3p, which could regulate PCSK9 expression levels. (nyu.edu)
  • The TNF 3′ UTR effectively cancels reporter gene expression in HeLa cells and in NIH 3T3 cells but fails to block expression in L-929 cells. (elsevier.com)
  • Semiquantitative PCR also revealed the predominant expression of the TCRζ mRNA with alternatively spliced 3′UTR (TCRζ mRNA/as-3′UTR), and a decreased expression of TCRζ mRNA with the wild form 3′UTR (TCRζ mRNA/w-3′UTR) in SLE T cells. (elsevier.com)
  • It was clear that the choice of 3' UTR was a strong determinant of the reporter expression, in a manner dependent on the growth conditions used. (chalmers.se)
  • Mutations affecting either decapping (lsm1Delta) or deadenylation (pop2Delta) were also found to affect reporter gene expression in a highly 3' UTR-dependent manner. (chalmers.se)
  • Our results using this set-up clearly indicate that the common strategy used for C-terminal tagging, with concomitant replacement of the native 3' UTR, will very likely provide incorrect conclusions on gene expression. (chalmers.se)
  • To investigate this issue we aimed to analyze how haplotypes of the 3′ untranslated region (3′UTR) with highest worldwide frequencies, namely UTR-1, UTR-2, UTR-3, UTR-4, UTR-5, UTR-18 and UTR-7, impact the expression of a luciferase reporter gene in vitro. (unesp.br)
  • In this study, we confirmed that KRAS is a target of let-7g in lung cancer cells, and that introduction of rs712 minor allele into 3'-UTR significantly compromised the miRNA/mRNA interaction by using a luciferase reporter system. (dovepress.com)
  • Our results demonstrated that upon arrival in cytoplasm, miRNA activities can be modulated locally by the 3′UTR. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Their function is through specific binding of miRNA and the 3 UTR of the target gene. (informationalwebs.com)
  • Therefore, the aim of this scholarly research can be to use bioinformatics equipment for predicting the miRNAs involved with osteogenesis, which is conducted using the 3 untranslated area (3UTR) of gene and miRNA data source. (informationalwebs.com)
  • The Igf1 coding region is nonpolymorphic, but its 3' untranslated region (UTR) is polymorphic between C3H and B6. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Luciferase-Igf1 3' UTR reporter constructs showed that these polymorphic regions did not affect UTR function. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The 3′-untranslated region (3′-UTR) contains two exclusively linked, polymorphic sites at positions 811 (C/T) and 1125 (G/A), which result in two functional haplotypes: 811C/1125G or 811T/1125A. (springer.com)
  • Microsatellites or short tandem repeats (STRs) composed of 2-10 base pairs (bp), are highly polymorphic in the human population [ 3 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • The 5′ and 3′ regulatory regions of the HLA-G gene are polymorphic and balancing selection probably maintains this variability. (unesp.br)
  • Previously, it was shown that the 3′ untranslated region (3′UTR) of Kamiti River virus (KRV) is nearly twice as long as the 3′UTR of other flaviviruses (1208 nucleotides compared with 730 nucleotides for the longest 3′UTR of any virus in the Tick-borne encephalitis virus species). (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Evidence of RNA-destabilizing activities in all three regions was deduced from luciferase reporter assays. (jimmunol.org)
  • The luciferase plasmids were constructed with the Epo enhancer (pEpo-SV-Luc), the Epo 3′-UTR (pSV-Luc-EpoUTR) or both (pEpo-SV-Luc-EpoUTR). (elsevier.com)
  • UTR-5 and UTR-7 impact the activity of luciferase the most whereas UTR-2, UTR-3, UTR-4, and UTR-18 have intermediate impact, and UTR-1 has the lowest impact. (unesp.br)
  • The 3' untranslated region of tumor necrosis factor alpha mRNA is a target of the mRNA-stabilizing factor HuR. (ox.ac.uk)
  • We also show that the translational repression mediated by the 3' UTR of MEF2A is regulated during muscle cell differentiation. (asm.org)
  • Cell Growth and Differentiation , 8 (3), 353-360. (elsevier.com)
  • Ribosome-induced RNA conformational changes in a viral 3'-UTR sense and regulate translation levels. (ucdenver.edu)
  • Their interactions regulate mRNA level in specific subcellular regions and determine the intensity of gene repression. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A strong hnRNP A1-binding site was located 90 to 170 nucleotides from the 3′ end of MHV RNA, and a weak binding site was mapped at nucleotides 260 to 350 from the 3′ end. (asm.org)
  • Here we report the cloning and characterization of the 5'- and 3'- untranslated regions (UTR) of a SAV3 isolated from Atlantic salmon in Norway. (uib.no)
  • Characterization of the mutant virus (A24-3′UTR8110) revealed no significant differences in virus growth, translation efficiency or virulence in cattle compared to the A24 wild-type virus. (deepdyve.com)
  • These extensions have a similar conservation as known 3'UTRs, which is distinctly higher than intergenic regions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The mutations in the coding region of voltage-gated sodium channel alpha 1 subunit gene, SCN1A , were identified in epileptic patients and confirmed as causative factors of epilepsy. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Mutations in the coding regions of the SLC29A3 gene that encodes for an equilibrative nucleoside transporter (ENT3) have been reported to cause the phenotypic spectrum of the H syndrome. (istanbul.edu.tr)
  • Massively parallel functional annotation of 3' untranslated regions. (ucsf.edu)
  • While these repeat expansion length variations may serve to fine-tune regulatory activities of the STR host gene, more than 50 hereditary neurological, neuromuscular and other diseases are associated with expansions in coding and noncoding regions as well as in promoters ( Figure 1 ). (mdpi.com)
  • Four polyadenylation sites were identified within the 3´ untranslated region (UTR) of eIF-2α, only two of which are normally utilized in human and mouse tissues. (biochemj.org)
  • 3'-RACE in human substantia nigra cDNA library revealed a single amplification identical to the reported human DAT cDNA. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The variant allele was assayed in a vector expressing eGFP chimerized with the IL10 3'-UTR and it was found functionally active following transfection in human myeloma cells. (regionh.dk)
  • The Igf1 3' UTR encoded by exon 6 contains alternative polyadenylation sites. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Translation elongation factor-1 alpha interacts with the 3′ stem-loop region of West Nile virus genomic RNA. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • The second element is termed 5'SLB and contains the translation initiation codon at the top region of the stem loop. (wikipedia.org)
  • These data suggest that there are significant associations between the miR-502-binding site SNP in the 3'-UTR of SET8 and the TP53 codon 72 polymorphismwith cervical cancer in Chinese, and there is a gene-gene interaction. (waocp.org)
  • Coding regions begin with the start codon and end with the a stop codons. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • These results corroborate the previous associations between amounts of plasma sHLA-G levels and 3′UTR haplotypes in healthy individuals and reinforce that 3′UTR typing may be a predictor of the genetic predisposition of an individual to express different levels of HLA-G. (unesp.br)
  • Therefore, probes have been designed to recognize the 3' ends of transcripts, which comprises mostly the 3' untranslated region. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 3' Untranslated Regions" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (ucdenver.edu)
  • Therefore it is important to identify the 3' ends of the transcript. (biomedcentral.com)
  • At equal GC content, the more 3' of a transcript the probe set is designed, the higher the signal will be, since the labeling protocol initiates with an oligo d(T) primer. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Quantification of the transcripts by RNA-Seq and real time quantitative PCR revealed that the CYP3A4 transcript with shorter 3′-UTR was preferentially expressed in developed livers, differentiated hepatocytes, and in rifampicin- and phenobarbital-induced hepatocytes. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Each of these clones contained a 3'-untranslated region (UTR) and coding region identical to that of the seminal vesicle transcript. (elsevier.com)
  • The 3′-UTR profile resolved 12 unique cellulose synthase ( CesA ) transcripts in maize ovaries and identified previously uncharacterized members of a histone H1 gene family. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Our results demonstrate the potential of 3′-UTR profiling for resolving gene- and allele-specific transcripts. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Three transcripts were found in HepaRG cells and liver tissues: one represented a canonical mRNA with full-length 3′-untranslated region (UTR), one had a shorter 3′-UTR, and one contained partial intron-6 retention. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The alternative mRNA transcripts were validated by either rapid amplification of cDNA 3′-end or endpoint polymerase chain reaction (PCR). (aspetjournals.org)
  • Clinical and Experimental Reproductive Medicine 2017;44(3):152-158. (ecerm.org)
  • Consistent with this, we observed multiple copies of potential mRNA-destabilizing motifs AUUUA and AU-rich elements (ARE) 3 ( 11 ) in the 3′-untranslated region (UTR) of mouse IL-10 mRNA ( 12 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Some of the elements contained in untranslated regions form a characteristic secondary structure when transcribed into RNA. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • These studies suggest that hnRNP A1-PTB interactions provide a molecular mechanism for potential 5′-3′ cross talks in MHV RNA, which may be important for RNA replication and transcription. (asm.org)