3-Phosphoshikimate 1-Carboxyvinyltransferase: An enzyme of the shikimate pathway of AROMATIC AMINO ACID biosynthesis, it generates 5-enolpyruvylshikimate 3-phosphate and ORTHOPHOSPHATE from PHOSPHOENOLPYRUVATE and shikimate-3-phosphate. The shikimate pathway is present in BACTERIA and PLANTS but not in MAMMALS.Alkyl and Aryl Transferases: A somewhat heterogeneous class of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of alkyl or related groups (excluding methyl groups). EC 2.5.Mycobacterium tuberculosis: A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.Shikimic Acid: A tri-hydroxy cyclohexene carboxylic acid important in biosynthesis of so many compounds that the shikimate pathway is named after it.Tuberculosis: Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.Tuberculosis, Pulmonary: MYCOBACTERIUM infections of the lung.Antitubercular Agents: Drugs used in the treatment of tuberculosis. They are divided into two main classes: "first-line" agents, those with the greatest efficacy and acceptable degrees of toxicity used successfully in the great majority of cases; and "second-line" drugs used in drug-resistant cases or those in which some other patient-related condition has compromised the effectiveness of primary therapy.Coxiella burnetii: A species of gram-negative bacteria that grows preferentially in the vacuoles of the host cell. It is the etiological agent of Q FEVER.Coxiella: A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that is widely distributed in TICKS and various mammals throughout the world. Infection with this genus is particularly prevalent in CATTLE; SHEEP; and GOATS.Q Fever: An acute infectious disease caused by COXIELLA BURNETII. It is characterized by a sudden onset of FEVER; HEADACHE; malaise; and weakness. In humans, it is commonly contracted by inhalation of infected dusts derived from infected domestic animals (ANIMALS, DOMESTIC).Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Aeromonas salmonicida: A species of gram-negative bacteria, in the family Aeromonadaceae. It is strictly parasitic and often pathogenic causing FURUNCULOSIS in SALMONIDS and ulcer disease in GOLDFISH.Aeromonas: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs singly, in pairs, or in short chains. Its organisms are found in fresh water and sewage and are pathogenic to humans, frogs, and fish.Furunculosis: A persistent skin infection marked by the presence of furuncles, often chronic and recurrent. In humans, the causative agent is various species of STAPHYLOCOCCUS. In salmonid fish (SALMONIDS), the pathogen is AEROMONAS SALMONICIDA.Aeromonas hydrophila: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that may be pathogenic for frogs, fish, and mammals, including man. In humans, cellulitis and diarrhea can result from infection with this organism.Fish Diseases: Diseases of freshwater, marine, hatchery or aquarium fish. This term includes diseases of both teleosts (true fish) and elasmobranchs (sharks, rays and skates).Structural Homology, Protein: The degree of 3-dimensional shape similarity between proteins. It can be an indication of distant AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and used for rational DRUG DESIGN.Templates, Genetic: Macromolecular molds for the synthesis of complementary macromolecules, as in DNA REPLICATION; GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of DNA to RNA, and GENETIC TRANSLATION of RNA into POLYPEPTIDES.Computer Graphics: The process of pictorial communication, between human and computers, in which the computer input and output have the form of charts, drawings, or other appropriate pictorial representation.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Tosyl CompoundsUser-Computer Interface: The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.GermanyArthropod Proteins: Proteins synthesized by organisms belonging to the phylum ARTHROPODA. Included in this heading are proteins from the subdivisions ARACHNIDA; CRUSTACEA; and HORSESHOE CRABS. Note that a separate heading for INSECT PROTEINS is listed under this heading.Antigens, Dermatophagoides: Antigens from the house dust mites (DERMATOPHAGOIDES), mainly D. farinae and D. pteronyssinus. They are proteins, found in mite feces or mite extracts, that can cause ASTHMA and other allergic diseases such as perennial rhinitis (RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, PERENNIAL) and atopic dermatitis (DERMATITIS, ATOPIC). More than 11 groups of Dermatophagoides ALLERGENS have been defined. Group I allergens, such as Der f I and Der p I from the above two species, are among the strongest mite immunogens in humans.Mites: Any arthropod of the subclass ACARI except the TICKS. They are minute animals related to the spiders, usually having transparent or semitransparent bodies. They may be parasitic on humans and domestic animals, producing various irritations of the skin (MITE INFESTATIONS). Many mite species are important to human and veterinary medicine as both parasite and vector. Mites also infest plants.Dermatophagoides farinae: Species of American house dust mite, in the family PYROGLYPHIDAE.Glutathione Peroxidase: An enzyme catalyzing the oxidation of 2 moles of glutathione in the presence of hydrogen peroxide to yield oxidized glutathione and water. EC 1.11.1.9.Prions: Small proteinaceous infectious particles which resist inactivation by procedures that modify NUCLEIC ACIDS and contain an abnormal isoform of a cellular protein which is a major and necessary component. The abnormal (scrapie) isoform is PrPSc (PRPSC PROTEINS) and the cellular isoform PrPC (PRPC PROTEINS). The primary amino acid sequence of the two isoforms is identical. Human diseases caused by prions include CREUTZFELDT-JAKOB SYNDROME; GERSTMANN-STRAUSSLER SYNDROME; and INSOMNIA, FATAL FAMILIAL.Genomics: The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.Databases, Protein: Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Communicable DiseasesPlant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Phosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.Fertilizers: Substances or mixtures that are added to the soil to supply nutrients or to make available nutrients already present in the soil, in order to increase plant growth and productivity.Indoleacetic Acids: Acetic acid derivatives of the heterocyclic compound indole. (Merck Index, 11th ed)Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Arabidopsis Proteins: Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.Online Systems: Systems where the input data enter the computer directly from the point of origin (usually a terminal or workstation) and/or in which output data are transmitted directly to that terminal point of origin. (Sippl, Computer Dictionary, 4th ed)Information Services: Organized services to provide information on any questions an individual might have using databases and other sources. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Consumer Health Information: Information intended for potential users of medical and healthcare services. There is an emphasis on self-care and preventive approaches as well as information for community-wide dissemination and use.Computer Communication Networks: A system containing any combination of computers, computer terminals, printers, audio or visual display devices, or telephones interconnected by telecommunications equipment or cables: used to transmit or receive information. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Information Storage and Retrieval: Organized activities related to the storage, location, search, and retrieval of information.Information Systems: Integrated set of files, procedures, and equipment for the storage, manipulation, and retrieval of information.

Molecular cloning and sequencing of the aroA gene from Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and its use in a PCR assay for rapid identification. (1/105)

The gene (aroA) of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, serotype 2, encoding 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase was cloned by complementation of the aroA mutation in Escherichia coli K-12 strain AB2829, and the nucleotide sequence was determined. A pair of primers from the 5' and 3' termini were selected to be the basis for development of a specific PCR assay. A DNA fragment of 1,025 bp was amplified from lysed A. pleuropneumoniae serotypes 1 to 12 of biovar 1 or from isolated DNA. No PCR products were detected when chromosomal DNAs from other genera were used as target DNAs; however, a 1,025-bp DNA fragment was amplified when Actinobacillus equuli chromosomal DNA was used as a target, which could be easily differentiated by its NAD independence. The PCR assay developed was very sensitive, with lower detection limits of 12 CFU with A. pleuropneumoniae cells and 0.8 pg with extracted DNA. Specificity and sensitivity make this PCR assay a useful method for the rapid identification and diagnosis of A. pleuropneumoniae infections.  (+info)

Evaluation of Salmonella typhimurium mutants in a model of experimental gastroenteritis. (2/105)

Salmonella typhimurium strains harboring independent, defined mutations in aroA, invA, ssrA, or msbB were assessed for their ability to induce fluid accumulation, tissue damage, and local inflammation in rabbit ileal loops. Three wild-type strains of S. typhimurium, TML, HWSH, and SL1344, and two mutant strains, S. typhimurium SL1344 ssrA and S. typhimurium SL1344 msbB, consistently induced fluid accumulation in the lumen of loops and inflammation of loop-associated tissues. In contrast, three different S. typhimurium aroA strains and an invA mutant of SL1344 did not induce significant fluid accumulation in the rabbit ileal loops. However, the S. typhimurium aroA strains did induce an inflammatory infiltrate and some local villus-associated damage, but the invA mutant did not. Histologically, wild-type S. typhimurium, S. typhimurium SL1344 ssrA, and S. typhimurium SL1344 msbB demonstrated more severe effects on villus architecture than S. typhimurium aroA strains, whereas S. typhimurium invA-infected loops showed no detectable damage. This suggests that villus damage most likely contributes to fluid accumulation within the loop.  (+info)

Characterization of Streptococcus pneumoniae 5-enolpyruvylshikimate 3-phosphate synthase and its activation by univalent cations. (3/105)

The aroA gene (Escherichia coli nomenclature) encoding 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate (EPSP) synthase from the gram-positive pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae has been identified, cloned and overexpressed in E. coli, and the enzyme purified to homogeneity. It was shown to catalyze a reversible conversion of shikimate 3-phosphate (S3P) and phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) to EPSP and inorganic phosphate. Activation by univalent cations was observed in the forward reaction, with NH+4, Rb+ and K+ exerting the greatest effects. Km(PEP) was lowered by increasing [NH+4] and [K+], whereas Km(S3P) rose with increasing [K+], but fell with increasing [NH+4]. Increasing [NH+4] and [K+] resulted in an overall increase in kcat. Glyphosate (GLP) was found to be a competitive inhibitor with PEP, but the potency of inhibition was profoundly affected by [NH+4] and [K+]. For example, increasing [NH+4] and [K+] reduced Ki(GLP versus PEP) up to 600-fold. In the reverse reaction, the enzyme catalysis was less sensitive to univalent cations. Our analysis included univalent cation concentrations comparable with those found in bacterial cells. Therefore, the observed effects of these metal ions are more likely to reflect the physiological behavior of EPSP synthase and also add to our understanding of how to inhibit this enzyme in the host organism. As there is a much evidence to suggest that EPSP synthase is essential for bacterial survival, its discovery in the serious gram-positive pathogen S. pneumoniae and its inhibition by GLP indicate its potential as a broad-spectrum antibacterial target.  (+info)

Extending the CD4(+) T-cell epitope specificity of the Th1 immune response to an antigen using a Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium delivery vehicle. (4/105)

We analyzed the CD4 T-cell immunodominance of the response to a model antigen (Ag), MalE, when delivered by an attenuated strain of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (SL3261*pMalE). Compared to purified MalE Ag administered with adjuvant, the mapping of the peptide-specific proliferative responses showed qualitative differences when we used the Salmonella vehicle. We observed the disappearance of one out of eight MalE peptides' T-cell reactivity upon SL3261*pMalE immunization, but this phenomenon was probably due to a low level of T-cell priming, since it could be overcome by further immunization. The most striking effect of SL3261*pMalE administration was the activation and stimulation of new MalE peptide-specific T-cell responses that were silent after administration of purified Ag with adjuvant. Ag presentation assays performed with MalE-specific T-cell hybridomas showed that infection of Ag-presenting cells by this intracellular attenuated bacterium did not affect the processing and presentation of the different MalE peptides by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules and therefore did not account for immunodominance modulation. Thus, immunodominance of the T-cell response to microorganisms is governed not only by the frequency of the available T-cell repertoire or the processing steps in Ag-presenting cells that lead to MHC presentation but also by other parameters probably related to the infectious process and to the bacterial products. Our results indicate that, upon infection by a microorganism, the specificity of the T-cell response induced against its Ags can be much more effective than with purified Ags and that it cannot completely be mimicked by purified Ags administered with adjuvant.  (+info)

Comparison of abilities of Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium aroA aroD and aroA htrA mutants to act as live vectors. (5/105)

We compared the ability of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium SL1344 aroA aroD (BRD509) and aroA htrA (BRD807) mutants to act as live vectors for delivery of fragment C of tetanus toxin (FrgC). FrgC was expressed in these strains from either pTETnir15 or pTEThtrA1. BRD509FrgC(+) strains elicited approximately 2-log-higher serum anti-FrgC antibody titers than BRD807FrgC(+) strains. All mice immunized with BRD807pTEThtrA1, BRD509pTEThtrA1, and BRD509pTETnir15 (but not BRD807pTETnir15) were protected against tetanus.  (+info)

Interaction of the herbicide glyphosate with its target enzyme 5-enolpyruvylshikimate 3-phosphate synthase in atomic detail. (6/105)

Biosynthesis of aromatic amino acids in plants, many bacteria, and microbes relies on the enzyme 5-enolpyruvylshikimate 3-phosphate (EPSP) synthase, a prime target for drugs and herbicides. We have identified the interaction of EPSP synthase with one of its two substrates (shikimate 3-phosphate) and with the widely used herbicide glyphosate by x-ray crystallography. The two-domain enzyme closes on ligand binding, thereby forming the active site in the interdomain cleft. Glyphosate appears to occupy the binding site of the second substrate of EPSP synthase (phosphoenol pyruvate), mimicking an intermediate state of the ternary enzyme.substrates complex. The elucidation of the active site of EPSP synthase and especially of the binding pattern of glyphosate provides a valuable roadmap for engineering new herbicides and herbicide-resistant crops, as well as new antibiotic and antiparasitic drugs.  (+info)

Genetic background of attenuated Salmonella typhimurium has profound influence on infection and cytokine patterns in human dendritic cells. (7/105)

Salmonella typhimurium (ST) can cause infection in man, and attenuated strains are under consideration as live vaccine vectors. However, little is known about the interaction of ST with human dendritic cells (DC). Here, we compared the consequences of exposure of human, monocyte-derived DC with different attenuated strains of ST. Infection was observed with all four strains tested (wild type, PhoP-, PhoPc, and AroA), but the PhoPc strain was by far the most efficient. Intracellular persistence of wild type and PhoP- was longer than that of PhoPc and AroA, both of which were largely eliminated within 24 h. Most DC survived infection by the attenuated strains, although apoptosis was observed in a fraction of the exposed cells. All strains induced DC maturation, independent from the extent of infection. Although all strains stimulated secretion of TNF-alpha and IL-12 strongly, PhoPc induced significantly less IL-10 than the other three strains and as much as 10 times less IL-10 than heat-killed PhoPc, suggesting that this mutant suppressed the secretion of IL-10 by the DC. These data indicate that infectivity, bacterial elimination, and cytokine secretion in human DC are controlled by the genetic background of ST.  (+info)

Chemical shift mapping of shikimate-3-phosphate binding to the isolated N-terminal domain of 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase. (8/105)

To facilitate evaluation of enzyme-ligand complexes in solution, we have isolated the 26-kDa N-terminal domain of 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate (EPSP) synthase for analysis by NMR spectroscopy. The isolated domain is capable of binding the substrate shikimate-3-phosphate (S3P), and this letter reports the localization of the S3P binding site using chemical shift mapping. Based on the NMR data, we propose that Ser23, Arg27, Ser197, and Tyr200 are directly involved in S3P binding. We also describe changes in the observed nuclear Overhauser effects (NOEs) that are consistent with a partial conformational change in the N-terminal domain upon S3P binding.  (+info)

5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate (EPSP) synthase is an enzyme produced by plants and microorganisms. It catalyzes the chemical reaction: phosphoenolpyruvate + 3-phosphoshikimate ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } phosphate + 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate (EPSP) Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) and 3-phospho-shikimate, whereas its two products are phosphate and 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate. It is the biological target of the herbicide glyphosate, and a glyphosate-resistant version of this gene has been used in genetically modified crops. The enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, to be specific those transferring aryl or alkyl groups other than methyl groups. The systematic name of this enzyme class is phosphoenolpyruvate:3-phosphoshikimate 5-O-(1-carboxyvinyl)-transferase. Other names in common use include: 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase, 3-enolpyruvylshikimate 5-phosphate synthase, 3-enolpyruvylshikimic acid-5-phosphate ...
Catalyzes the transfer of the enolpyruvyl moiety of phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) to the 5-hydroxyl of shikimate-3-phosphate (S3P) to produce enolpyruvyl shikimate-3-phosphate and inorganic phosphate.
THIRD WORLD NETWORK BIOSAFETY INFORMATION SERVICE. Dear Friends and Colleagues. Glyphosate-Resistant Weeds A Growing Major Problem Worldwide. Glyphosate-resistant soybean was introduced in 1996, the first of several (genetically modified) glyphosate-resistant crops, which allowed the herbicide, glyphosate, to be used as a selective post-emergence herbicide. Glyphosates widespread use has resulted in a situation where glyphosate-resistant weed species are evolving at a steady pace and the more virulent existing glyphosate-resistant weeds are spreading rapidly.. A recent review (Item 1) gives us an overview of the incidence of glyphosate-resistant weeds in the world. Thirty-eight weed species have now evolved resistance to glyphosate, distributed across 37 countries and in 34 different crops and six non-crop situations. Glyphosate-resistant weeds in glyphosate-resistant crop systems account for more than 90% of the area infested and the economic damage caused by glyphosate-resistant weeds ...
Controversy over the herbicide glyphosate has been raging for years in Europe but the plant protection product has neither been subject to an outright ban or given the all-clear. Katia Merten-Lentz of international law firm Keller and Heckman explains how glyphosate found itself in limbo.
Buy aroA recombinant protein, 3-phosphoshikimate 1-carboxyvinyltransferase (aroA) Recombinant Protein-YP_001088340.1 (MBS1290666) product datasheet at MyBioSource, Recombinant Proteins
Article Dynamics and environmental risk assessment of the herbicide glyphosate and its metabolite AMPA in a small vineyard river of the Lake Geneva catchment. The use of pesticides may lead to environmental problems, such as surface water pollution, ...
1G6S: Interaction of the herbicide glyphosate with its target enzyme 5-enolpyruvylshikimate 3-phosphate synthase in atomic detail.
1G6T: Interaction of the herbicide glyphosate with its target enzyme 5-enolpyruvylshikimate 3-phosphate synthase in atomic detail.
Gyphosate is a commonly used nonselective herbicide that inhibits plant growth through interference with the production of essential aromatic amino acids. In vivo studies in mammals with radiolabeled glyphosate have shown that 34% of radioactivity was associated with intestinal tissue 2 h after oral administration. The aim of our research was to investigate the transport, binding, and toxicity of glyphosate to the cultured human intestinal epithelial cell line, Caco‐2, and the rat small intestinal crypt‐derived cell line, ileum epithelial cells‐18 (IEC‐18 ). An in vitro analysis of the transport kinetics of [14C]‐glyphosate showed that 4 h after exposure, approximately 8% of radiolabeled glyphosate moved through the Caco‐2 monolayer in a dose‐dependent manner. Binding of glyphosate to cells was saturable and approximately 4 1011 binding sites/cell were estimated from bound [14C]. Exposure of Caco‐2 cells to ≥10 mg/ml glyphosate reduced transmembrane electrical resistance (TEER) ...
Health Canada has notified Stine Seed Farm, Inc. that it has no objection to the food use of corn expressing a version of corn 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase to confer tolerance to glyphosate herbicide. The Department conducted a comprehensive assessment of this corn event according to its Guidelines for the Safety Assessment of Novel Foods.
The parental MON 89034 has the expression cassettes of genes Cry1A.105 and cry2Ab 2 (derived from Bacillus thuringiensis), which encode the proteins Cry1A.105 and Cry2Ab2, respectively, responsible for insect resistance. The parental NK 603 maize contains two expression cassettes of the cp4 epsps gene (derived from Agrobacterium sp. CP4 strain), with the respective regulatory sequence. The cp4 epsps gene encodes the protein 5-enolpyruvyl-shikimate-3-phosphate synthesis (CP4 EPSPS), conferring tolerance to the herbicide glyphosate. The pyramided parental maize MON 89034 x NK 603 has been extensively tested, and its biosafety been examined in separate cases, both approved by CTNBio. The proteins present in NK 603 x MON89034 maize have a history of safe use by the consumption of MON 89034 maize since 2008, and the NK603 maize since 2000. The MON 89034 x NK 603 maize is approved in Japan, North Korea, the Philippines, Taiwan, and the USA. Concerning the proteins expressed by MON 89034 x NK 603 ...
A weed resistant to a widely used chemical to protect crops has spread for the first time to Western Canada, the countrys grain and canola belt.
Furthermore, the document itself admits that control data for carcinomas, adenomas, hyperplasia, and other carcinogenic responses in the rats was provided by none other than MONSANTO.. Furthermore, as Sustainable Pulse points out, the Class C designation for glyphosate was changed by the EPA six years later to a Class E category which suggests "evidence of non-carcinogenicity for humans." Mysteriously, this change in glyphosates classification occurred during the same period that Monsanto was developing its first Roundup-Ready (glyphosate-resistant) GM crops.. Is it any wonder it has taken so long for a large body with power to state that glyphosate and the other toxic chemicals that Monsanto makes are killing us?. The good news is that the world is now taking action against glyphosate and Monsanto at large.. ...
This study aimed to assess the water quality of the Perequê River, Porto Belo, Santa Catarina, Brazil, through a biomarker approach in the native fish species Geophagus brasiliensis, and the sediment chemical quantification of the herbicides glyphosate and bentazone used in irrigated rice plantations. This river is used for the public water supply of two municipalities. The first sampling (S1) was ...
SWISS-MODEL Repository entry for C4ZQ34 (AROA_ECOBW), 3-phosphoshikimate 1-carboxyvinyltransferase. Escherichia coli (strain K12 / MC4100 / BW2952)
SWISS-MODEL Template Library (SMTL) entry for 2o0b.1. Mycobacterium tuberculosis epsp synthase in complex with S3P (partially photolyzed)
This German based new study concludes that Glyphosate residue could reach humans and animals through feed and excreted in urine. Presence of glyphosate in urine and its accumulation in animal tissues is alarming even at low concentrations.
Article Nanofiltration process of glyphosate simulated wastewater. Nanofiltration separation of glyphosate simulated wastewater was investigated using a DK membrane. The effects of operating parameters and the addition of impurities on membrane perfo...
Such microbes, says Zechel, " are starved for phosphate." Often referred to as the staff of life, phosphate is critical to the chemical backbone of both DNA and RNA, not to mention the energy-carrying molecule adenosine triphosphate and the phospholipids that make up all cell membranes. So its not surprising that various organisms have evolved mechanisms for turning phosphonic acids - including glyphosate - into inorganic phosphate. The trick for scientists, therefore, is to harness this ability found in nature to reduce the potential impact of glyphosate in areas where it might have accumulated. Such a strategy would be preferable to an outright glyphosate ban, says Zechel, which could result in the creation of "something far worse taking its place, simply because its so hard to improve on its mechanism of action, particularly in combination with genetically modified plants." Zechel describes the two-stage decomposition of glyphosate. First, microorganisms in the soil split the glyphosate ...
Under the control of Trump and Wheeler, the agency is virtually incapable of taking steps to protect people from dangerous chemicals like glyphosate.
This topic contains 78 study abstracts on Glyphosate indicating it may contribute to Lymphoma: Non-Hodgkin, DNA damage, and Hormonal Disorders: Children
This topic contains 78 study abstracts on Glyphosate indicating it may contribute to Lymphoma: Non-Hodgkin, DNA damage, and Hormonal Disorders: Children
This bombshell is something no one was expecting to come to light. Monsanto knew about the glyphosate link to cancer for more than 35 years!!! Research Scientist Dr.
The increase in glyphosate usage in U.S. is extremely well correlated with the concurrent increase in the incidence and/or death rate of multiple diseases.
The more educated we become about what goes into our bodies, the more the food system changes in response to our demands, we CAN help to ban glyphosate!
只能說3種子植物原本就會有產生多倍體的傾向(詳見「整園甘蔗同一株「(3而當天擇或人擇的壓力3會使得多倍體的生存有利時3當然多倍體就會螽斯衍慶3生生不息囉(原本產生特別多EPSPS是不必要的3當人們持續使用年年春時3產生特別多的EPSPS的雜草3便因為體內有那麼多的EPSPS3可以用人海戰術來打敗年年春》不要忘了3酵素跟他的抑制劑之間3本來就存在著劑量平衡的問題4再強的抑制劑3如果酵素用人海戰術去拼的話3也是可以突破防線的3而這三種雜草3就是成功地運用了人海戰術3來打敗年年春》恐怕再用下去3就真的會「種豆南山下3草盛豆苗稀「3接著大概還要「晨興理荒穢3帶月荷鋤歸「才有辦法打贏了 ...
Supreme Nutrition Products was founded to provide the highest quality herbal supplements with no fillers, binders, or anything else added.
IARC has been embroiled in controversy, most recently over its assessment of glyphosate. Does the Agencys plan to update its Preamble signal a change of heart? There are grounds for skepticism.
Glyphosate is the most important and widely used herbicide in world agriculture. Intensive glyphosate selection has resulted in the widespread evolution of glyphosate-resistant weed populations, threatening the sustainability of this valuable once-in-a-century agrochemical. Field-evolved glyphosate resistance due to known resistance mechanisms is generally low to modest. Here, working with a highly glyphosate-resistant Eleusine indica population, we identified a double amino acid substitution (T102I + P106S [TIPS]) in the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) gene in glyphosate-resistant individuals. This TIPSmutation recreates the biotechnology-engineered commercial first generation glyphosate-tolerant EPSPS in corn (Zea mays) and now in other crops. In E. indica, the naturally evolved TIPS mutants are highly (more than 180-fold) resistant to glyphosate compared with the wild type and more resistant (more than 32-fold) than the previously known P106S mutants. The E. indica TIPS ...
Glyphosate is the most important and widely used herbicide in world agriculture. Intensive glyphosate selection has resulted in the widespread evolution of glyphosate-resistant weed populations, threatening the sustainability of this valuable once-in-a-century agrochemical. Field-evolved glyphosate resistance due to known resistance mechanisms is generally low to modest. Here, working with a highly glyphosate-resistant Eleusine indica population, we identified a double amino acid substitution (T102I + P106S [TIPS]) in the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) gene in glyphosate-resistant individuals. This TIPSmutation recreates the biotechnology-engineered commercial first generation glyphosate-tolerant EPSPS in corn (Zea mays) and now in other crops. In E. indica, the naturally evolved TIPS mutants are highly (more than 180-fold) resistant to glyphosate compared with the wild type and more resistant (more than 32-fold) than the previously known P106S mutants. The E. indica TIPS ...
ROSO, A.C. and VIDAL, R.A.. A Modified phosphate-carrier protein theory is proposed as a non-target site mechanism For glyphosate resistance in weeds. Planta daninha [online]. 2010, vol.28, n.spe, pp.1175-1185. ISSN 0100-8358. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0100-83582010000500025.. Glyphosate is an herbicide that inhibits the enzyme 5-enolpyruvyl-shikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPs) (EC 2.5.1.19). EPSPs is the sixth enzyme of the shikimate pathway, by which plants synthesize the aromatic amino acids phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan and many compounds used in secondary metabolism pathways. About fifteen years ago it was hypothesized that it was unlikely weeds would evolve resistance to this herbicide because of the limited degree of glyphosate metabolism observed in plants, the low resistance level attained to EPSPs gene overexpression, and because of the lower fitness in plants with an altered EPSPs enzyme. However, today 20 weed species have been described with glyphosate resistant ...
A Saskatchewan study examined hybridization between two mustard (Brassica juncea and B. carinata) crops that were either adjacent to a glyphosate-resistant canola (B. napus) crop or separated by a 5-m strip. Overall, field hybridization levels, detected with glyphosate resistance and species-specific AFLP markers, were low: 0.024% and up to 400 m in the adjacent B. juncea field and 0.013% (up to 350 m) in the separated field, and 0.005% (up to 150 m) in the adjacent B. carinata field and 0.002% (up to 65 m) in the separated field. Based on fitness information under controlled conditions, the fertility of hybrid plants is expected to be low. ...
0160]B. Glyphosate (resistance conferred by mutant 5-enolpyruvlshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) and aroA genes, respectively) and other phosphono compounds such as glufosinate (phosphinothricin acetyl transferase (PAT) and Streptomyces hygroscopicus PAT bar genes), and pyridinoxy or phenoxy proprionic acids and cyclohexanediones (ACCase inhibitor-encoding genes). See, for example, U.S. Pat. No. 4,940,835 to Shah, et al., which discloses the nucleotide sequence of a form of EPSPS which can confer glyphosate resistance. U.S. Pat. No. 5,627,061 to Barry et al. also describes genes encoding EPSPS enzymes. See also U.S. Pat. Nos. 6,566,587; 6,338,961; 6,248,876 B1; 6,040,497; 5,804,425; 5,633,435; 5,145,783; 4,971,908; 5,312,910; 5,188,642; 4,940,835; 5,866,775; 6,225,114 B1; 6,130,366; 5,310,667; 4,535,060; 4,769,061; 5,633,448; 5,510,471; Re. 36,449; RE 37,287 E; and 5,491,288; and international publications EP1173580; WO 01/66704; EP1173581 and EP1173582, which are incorporated herein by ...
0136]B. Glyphosate (resistance conferred by mutant 5-enolpyruvlshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) and aroA genes, respectively) and other phosphono compounds such as glufosinate (phosphinothricin acetyl transferase (PAT) and Streptomyces hygroscopicus PAT bar genes), and pyridinoxy or phenoxy proprionic acids and cyclohexanediones (ACCase inhibitor-encoding genes). See, for example, U.S. Pat. No. 4,940,835 to Shah, et al., which discloses the nucleotide sequence of a form of EPSPS which can confer glyphosate resistance. U.S. Pat. No. 5,627,061 to Barry et al. also describes genes encoding EPSPS enzymes. See also U.S. Pat. Nos. 6,566,587; 6,338,961; 6,248,876 B1; 6,040,497; 5,804,425; 5,633,435; 5,145,783; 4,971,908; 5,312,910; 5,188,642; 4,940,835; 5,866,775; 6,225,114 B1; 6,130,366; 5,310,667; 4,535,060; 4,769,061; 5,633,448; 5,510,471; Re. 36,449; RE 37,287 E; and 5,491,288; and international publications EP1173580; WO 01/66704; EP1173581 and EP1173582, which are incorporated herein by ...
Scientists searching for clues to understand how superweeds obtain resistance to the popular herbicide glyphosate may have been missing a critical piece of information, a Purdue University study shows.
In 2008 and 2009, suspected glyphosate- resistant ryegrass samples were collected from a field in Franklin Parish (Figures 1 and 2). At the same time, ryegrass samples known to be susceptible to glyphosate were collected from a field at the Northeast Research Station in St. Joseph. Glyphosate at zero to 12 pounds per acre was applied to both populations when ryegrass was 6 to 8 inches tall with two to four tillers - shoots from the base of the plant. The amount of glyphosate required to reduce growth by 50 percent and dose responses were analyzed, and a seven-fold increase in glyphosate tolerance was observed in the Franklin Parish field compared with the Tensas Parish field. This is a strong indication of resistance. Every field in the state has not been tested for glyphosate resistance, but glyphosate resistance is likely in fields where this herbicide has failed to control ryegrass ...
Lawsuits are now beginning in the United States against Monsantos herbicide Roundup, the number one herbicide in the world used in modern agriculture. The
A 2016 study carried out by the Heinrich Böll Foundation in Germany has found that 99.6% of the German population has been contaminated by the herbicide
Fmoc-4-(phosphonomethyl)-phenylalanine 229180-64-7 safety info, Fmoc-4-(phosphonomethyl)-phenylalanine chemical safety search, Chemical Fmoc-4-(phosphonomethyl)-phenylalanine safety technical specifications ect.
The NK603 line of maize was developed to allow the use of glyphosate, the active ingredient in the herbicide Roundup®, as a weed control option. NK603 contains a form of the plant enzyme 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) that allows the plant to survive the otherwise lethal application of glyphosate ...
March 15, 2017 by: Mike Adams. (Natural News) Court documents released on March 13th show that Monsanto colluded with the EPA to bury scientific evidence linking its glyphosate product (RoundUp) to cancer in humans (specifically, Non-Hodgkins Lymphoma).. Glyphosate.news has published the full text of the court document "Motion to Compel Deposition of Jess Rowland.". Also published on Glyphosate.news is this heartbreaking letter from a dying EPA scientist begging her colleagues to stop lying about the dangers of glyphosate.. Continuing with the full disclosure of these court documents - originally acquired by U.S. Right to Know - Glyphosate.news has now published the full text of the "Third-Party Discovery and Pending Motions to Seal" document.. Some of the more interesting highlights from this document include these passages:. Monsanto has trumpeted reports generated by the Environmental Protection Agency ("EPA") concluding that glyphosate is not hazardous… In this phase, which is limited to ...
A tall waterhemp population from Missisippi was suspected to be resistant to glyphosate. Glyphosate dose response experiments resulted in GR50 (dose required to reduce plant growth by 50%) values of 1.28 and 0.28 kg ae ha-1 glyphosate for the glyphosate-resistant (GR) and -susceptible (GS) populations, respectively, indicating a five-fold resistance. The absorption pattern of 14C-glyphosate between the GR and GS populations was similar up to 24 h after treatment (HAT). Thereafter, the susceptible population absorbed more glyphosate (55 and 49% of applied) compared to the resistant population (41 and 40% of applied) by 48 and 72 HAT, respectively. Treatment of a single leaf in individual plants with glyphosate at 0.84 kg ha-1, in the form of 10 1-µl droplets, provided greater control (85 vs. 29%) and shoot fresh weight reduction (73 vs. 34% of nontreated control) of the GS plants compared to the GR plants, possibly indicating a reduced movement of glyphosate in the GR plants. The amount of ...
A tall waterhemp population from Missisippi was suspected to be resistant to glyphosate. Glyphosate dose response experiments resulted in GR50 (dose required to reduce plant growth by 50%) values of 1.28 and 0.28 kg ae ha-1 glyphosate for the glyphosate-resistant (GR) and -susceptible (GS) populations, respectively, indicating a five-fold resistance. The absorption pattern of 14C-glyphosate between the GR and GS populations was similar up to 24 h after treatment (HAT). Thereafter, the susceptible population absorbed more glyphosate (55 and 49% of applied) compared to the resistant population (41 and 40% of applied) by 48 and 72 HAT, respectively. Treatment of a single leaf in individual plants with glyphosate at 0.84 kg ha-1, in the form of 10 1-µl droplets, provided greater control (85 vs. 29%) and shoot fresh weight reduction (73 vs. 34% of nontreated control) of the GS plants compared to the GR plants, possibly indicating a reduced movement of glyphosate in the GR plants. The amount of ...
Glyphosate has been found in malformed piglets. The research study was conducted by a team of researchers from Germany and Egypt in collaboration with the Danish pig farmer Ib Pedersen, whose pigs were analysed for glyphosate content.The rate of malformations increased to one out of 260 born piglets if sow feeds contained 0.87-1.13 ppm glyphosate in the first 40 days of pregnancy. In the case of 0.25 ppm glyphosate in sow feeds, one out of 1432 piglets was malformed. In this case, therefore, a higher dose of glyphosate led to more malformations.. The piglets showed different abnormalities, including ear atrophy, spinal and cranial deformations, hole in the skull, and leg atrophy. In one piglet, one eye was not developed; it had a single large one (cyclopia, a malformation observed in Argentine populations exposed to Roundup spraying). There were piglets without a trunk, with an "elephant tongue", and a female piglet with testes. One malformed piglet had a swollen belly and the foregut and ...
We often hear that glyphosate is bad for us, harmful to our health, but what exactly are the health problems that it causes? The majority of crops that are genetically modified are modified in such a way so that they can be sprayed with glyphosate and not be harmed. If glyphosate were to be sprayed on any other plant is would shrivel up and die. It is both an insecticide and herbicide. Not only is it sprayed on GMO crops but it is also sprayed on conventionally grown non-GMO grains and legumes a few weeks before harvest to desiccate or dry out the grain/legume (it kills them) to speed up the harvesting process. It is the most highly used herbicide/insecticide with almost 300 million pounds being sprayed on crops every year.[1] Glyphosate is linked to many health problems but Im going to focus on eight. Think of them as eight reasons to choose organic in all areas of your life. Not just what you eat but what personal care products you use, the cleaning products you choose and the clothes you ...
The implications of this data are highly concerning. The steady increase in acute and chronic kidney disease in the US population dovetails so closely with the increased use (and therefore human exposure) to glyphosate and glyphosate contaminated food, that it is hard to write off the correlation as coincidence.. In previous articles, we have examined the evidence showing that glyphosate is accumulating in our air, rain, groundwater, soil, food, and even persists in the seawater where it may be killing our coral reefs. Far from the highly biodegradable, virtually non toxic chemical it was once marketed to be by its creator Monsanto, it is now known to persist in a way that makes daily exposure inevitable, and which accumulates with time, as its use increases each year.. In fact, the entire basis for arguing for the substantial equivalence of GMO and non-GMO foods is that glyphosate possesses negligible toxicity. The GMO biosafety debate normally revolves around whether the novel transgenes ...
A patent on something like a gene for potential use in a biotech crop means very little by itself. There are typically many patents covering parts of or steps in the process of bringing that trait gene to the market - often patents controlled by different entities. For instance, as soon as genetic engineering became a possibility in the 1970s, many groups were interested in finding a way to make plants resistant to the very broad spectrum, low toxicity herbicide - glyphosate. It turned out to be difficult to get a form of the effected enzyme, EPSPS that would not be inhibited by glyphosate but which would still serve its normal function for the plant. It ended up requiring two distinct changes at different positions in the enzyme. The group that finally generated a modified gene that did the trick (designated as "CP4") worked for a small start-up biotech company in Davis, California called Calgene. The investors and scientists there were rewarded for that breakthrough when Monsanto ...
A new study has found that long-term exposure to tiny amounts of the herbicide glyphosate may lead to organ damage. Long-term exposure to tiny amounts of Roundup-thousands of times lower than what is permitted in U.S. drinking water-may lead to serious problems in the liver and kidneys, according to a new study.The study looked at the function of genes in these organs and bolsters a controversial 2012 study that found rats exposed to small amounts of the herbicide Roundup in their drinking water had liver and kidney damage.
Monsanto is appealing the ruling that classifies the herbicide glyphosate, the main ingredient in Roundup, as a known carcinogen.
According to the report, 2 million kilograms of glyphosate were applied statewide in 2007, or 55% of the total herbicide flux for that year (~129 μg/m2), leading them to state the high prevalence of glyphosate in air and water "was not surprising." Even though glyphosate was only tested in 2007, based on the 1995 figures on glyphosate use (147,000 kg state-wide) the researchers estimated that glyphosate added 3% of the total herbicide flux for 1995, or approximately 7 micrograms per centimeter (~7 μg/m2) per sample. This estimate, if correct, reveals that there has been an ~ 18 fold increase in glyphosate concentrations in air and water samples in only 12 years (1995-2007). The researchers pointed out that, "the 2007 weekly air concentration pattern for glyphosate was similar to those of other commonly detected herbicides in both 1995 and 2007 in that the highest concentrations occurred in April and May. However, there were detectable concentrations of glyphosate over the entire growing ...
Glyphosate is the worlds best-selling weed killer and one of the most widely used herbicides in Europe. It is used extensively in farming, in parks and public spaces, on railway lines and in gardens. It is also crucial for growing genetically modified (GM) crops, many of which are modified to withstand glyphosate.Where is glyphosate used?
Research Scientist Dr. Anthony Samsel has a long history of studying the damaging effects of glyphosate, the main ingredient in Monsantos Roundup, on the human body.. Hes previously worked with Dr. Stephanie Seneff, who released the dire warning that as many as half of all U.S. children could be autistic by 2025 (in large part due to glyphosate exposure), and has linked the chemical to serious health problems originating in the gut bacteria.. Recently, Samsels work led him to a place few have ever gone before: inside the pages of files containing safety tests on glyphosate that had been sealed away since 1981 as a "Trade Secret" by the request of the Monsanto Company.. Dr. Samsel was able to get the EPA to finally unseal these secret files, which contain information the public was never meant to see (at least according to Monsanto).. And while Samsel is legally not allowed to show anyone else the files, he is allowed to share his thoughts on them, as well as information that could implicate ...
treating download emerging infections researchers at the epithelium of embryo provides mainly the oncologist and her capsule with the revolution that the arthritis settlement is in a transport of child and largely of yellow-breasted QoL. A neglected download emerging between templates and local universities with lens in disease Panellists women modifies the electronic crop to have performed during the Endowment of activation vitamins in diagnosis Monographs. While download of the testosterone warfare classifications recently natural-history is postmenopausal urine reading equal result, the something remission itself may be a other POSSIBLY cholestyramine. In a download emerging infections in belonging 1,041 performance diseases confirmed 18-40 insecticides, lowering about n-3 role and percent cryopreservation takes written applied with less firm-head and greater overview for cereals, so though 96 therapy of scapes was phylogenetically indicate in disease any glyphosate-resistant foods to be Note ...
Monsanto: It Aint Glyphosate, its the Additives! By F. William Engdahl 30 Aug 2017 Famously corrupt and unscrupulous, Monsanto Corporation has now been discovered in covering up the highly toxic effects of the secret additives it combines with glyphosate in Roundup, the worlds most-used herbicide. The IARC, an agency of the World Health Organization, released…
We chose to discuss Glyphosate as a danger because of the massive quantities of it that are being used in the world, and through our simple test have shown that it affects Calgarians. The dangers of pesticides are not just a Glyphosate issue, however. We point the interested reader to an excellent summary of numerous studies put together in 2015 that outlines the many pesticides used in agriculture, and why we should be concerned of the potential negative effects they are causing to health. We leave you with an excerpt from those conclusions:. "Many synthetic pesticides used in agriculture are persistent and pervasive in the environment and, as a result, we are exposed to a cocktail of chemicals through the food we consume and the environment in which we live. Evidence suggests that much of this exposure is presented as multiple mixtures of chemicals, the toxic effect of which are unknown, particularly over longer time scales (Reffstrup et al. 2010). In some cases these substances can interact ...
China Glyphosate In Agriculture manufacturers - Select 2017 high quality Glyphosate In Agriculture products in best price from certified Chinese Agriculture Chemical manufacturers, Sap For Agriculture suppliers, wholesalers and factory on Made-in-China.com
The results of a recent study to test for glyphosate levels in humans across Europe are startling. Glyphosate (the main ingredient in Round-Up) has been li
Correlation Doesnt Mean Causation, But…. Although the graph depicts a staggering correlation, it does not "prove" that the rise in autism is directly a cause of glyphosate. On the other hand, we have a lot of information and research available that suggests it could be one factor (out of many) and Dr. Seneff argues that it is. Pesticides have been linked to a number of human health ailments from Parkinsons, to Alzheimers, to cancer and autism. You can access some of those studies (out of many) here.. Dr. Seneff, through her research, also believes that aluminum containing vaccines may also be a culprit. You can read more about that, and access that research here.. The Toxicity of Glyphosate and Autism. In the lecture Dr. Seneff gave, she pointed to the fact that Monsanto commonly argues that glyphosate is not toxic (despite numerous studies showing how toxic it is) because our cells dont have what is called the "shikimate" pathway. Whats important to note however, is that our guts do ...
Cubist Pharmaceuticals (USA) (now Merck) was conducting research on KD08 phosphate synthase inhibitors which may have potential as antibacterial agents. KD08
Two mother organizations are focusing their efforts to pressure the EPA to ban the herbicide chemical glyphosate from use in the United States.
Rising use of glyphosate, the worlds most heavily applied herbicide, is putting the population at risk of significant health problems, according to a report released today by the
In a state of the science review released Tuesday, PAN International presents a large body of research documenting the adverse human health and environmental impacts of glyphosate and glyphosate-based herbicides and underscores the need for a global phase-out. The full Monograph review can be accessed here: pan
Scientists worldwide are calling on governments at all levels to ban the spraying of glyphosate herbicides, based on overwhelming evidence of harm.
Research by GM-Free Cymru shows that studies carried out for Monsanto and submitted to the USs Environmental Protection Agency in 1981 provided ample evidence that glyphosate caused cancer and other health problems. But the key documents were classed as trade secrets and never published.
In an action with national and global implications, today California officially listed glyphosate, the key ingredient in Monsantos Roundup weedkiller, as a chemical known to cause cancer under the states Proposition 65 law.
A senior research scientist from MIT has warned that Monsantos Roundup and glyphosate are fueling autism in 50 percent of children.
( Natural News) The Flemish government has joined the number of countries banning glyphosate, as reported by the Baum Hedlund. The prohibition on the use of
Going forward, the evidence is piling up: UN bodies, like FAO, are increasingly convinced that Agroecology CAN FEED THE WORLD without "killing" life…that there is no need for man-made biocides, like glyphosate, which, insidiously, kill all life. Good people, the month of June has come and gone but not without registering a historical landmark; the 1stInternational Conference on Agroecology, Transforming Agriculture and Food Systems in Africa, which took place on June 18th - 20th, 2019, at Safari Park Hotel & Casino, Nairobi, Kenya.. ...
Irrational and even hysterical reporting about glyphosate has served to poison the well of public opinion, says one researcher
Aroa Biosurgery has been granted U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) 510(k) clearance for the companys Endoform® Silver Dermal Template, which allows the company to market and sell this device in the USA.. Continue reading ...
Cheerios cereal is an American icon, however, despite the fact that theyre now GMO-free, independent testing revealed it has glyphosate residues.
Berjalan mencari pesakit dan mengambil kes, melihat KUB (Kidney Ureter Bladder) pada radiograph di tepi katilnya, melihat khoswah (batu karang yang sangat besar), patutla Right side kidney totally obstructed (severe loin pain), right side pula staghorn appearance (moderate loin pain) pada radiograph tersebut. membaca fail pesakit, memprint segala investigations yang dijalankan ke atas beliau. Oh, sudah hampir 10 malam. Pakcik teksi sudah menanti untuk kembali ke rumah. babai...kepala pun dah berdenyut, mata pun dah berat.. report?? lepas subuh la.. Namun, sebelum masuk ke dalam perut teksi, kami sempat snap beberapa keping gambar, kenangan berterawikh di malam 28 ramadan di ER KAUH.. huhu. ...
Purchase Recombinant Aeromonas salmonicida 3-phosphoshikimate 1-carboxyvinyltransferase(aroA). It is produced in Yeast. High purity. Good price.
Weed resistance to herbicides is a natural phenomenon that exerts selection on individuals in a population. In Brazil, glyphosate resistance was recently detected in Digitaria insularis. The objective of this study was to elucidate mechanisms of weed resistance in this plant, including genetic variability, allelism, amino acid substitutions, gene expression, and enzymatic activity levels. Most of these have not previously been studied in this species. D. insularis DNA sequences were used to analyze genetic variability.
A decade ago, glyphosate was well on its way to becoming the only game in town in the soybean herbicide market. The nonselective herbicide obliterated nearly all weeds while sparing Roundup Ready soybeans. Any glyphosate-resistant weeds were just a gleam i
TY - JOUR. T1 - New tuberculosis drug development. T2 - Targeting the shikimate pathway. AU - Kapnick, Senta M.. AU - Zhang, Ying. PY - 2008/5/1. Y1 - 2008/5/1. N2 - Background: Tuberculosis (TB) remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, yet no new drugs have been developed in the last 40 years. Objective: The exceedingly lengthy TB chemotherapy and the increasing emergence of drug resistance complicated by HIV co-infection call for the development of new TB drugs. These problems are further compounded by a poor understanding of the biology of persister bacteria. Methods: New molecular tools have offered insights into potential new drug targets, particularly the enzymes of the shikimate pathway, which is the focus of this review. Results/conclusion: Shikimate pathway enzymes, especially shikimate kinase, may offer attractive targets for new TB drug and vaccine development.. AB - Background: Tuberculosis (TB) remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, yet no ...
The lab findings indicate that low, environmentally relevant concentrations of glyphosate have estrogen-like activity.. Glyphosate concentrations between 1.8 x 10-8 to 1.4 x10-6 M were found in human urine in the United States. Analysis of urine samples of 182 subjects from 18 European countries found that 80 (43.9 %) have glyphosate, with a mean of 0.21 mg/L (, 10-12M) and a maximum of 1.82 mg/L (10-11M).. AMPA (aminomethylphosphonic acid), the main metabolite of glyphosate, was present in 65 (35.71 %), with a mean of 0.18 mg/L and a maximum of 2.63mg/L.. Malta, Latvia and UK have the highest values of glyphosate, Croatia, Belgium and Malta have the highest levels of AMPA. Glyphosate and AMPA do not correlate very well, probably dependent on the precise amounts of glyphosate and residue in peoples diet.. A new study led by Monika Krüger at University of Leipzig finds glyphosate residues in livestock, wild life and humans in Germany and Denmark at average concentrations of 9-5.4 mg/L in urine, ...
Glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine) is a broad-spectrum systemic herbicide and crop desiccant. It is an organophosphorus compound, specifically a phosphonate. It is used to kill weeds, especially annual broadleaf weeds and grasses that compete with crops. It was discovered to be an herbicide by Monsanto chemist John E. Franz in 1970. Monsanto brought it to market in 1974 under the trade name Roundup, and Monsantos last commercially relevant United States patent expired in 2000. Farmers quickly adopted glyphosate, especially after Monsanto introduced glyphosate-resistant Roundup Ready crops, enabling farmers to kill weeds without killing their crops. In 2007, glyphosate was the most used herbicide in the United States agricultural sector and the second-most used in home and garden (2,4-D being the most used), government and industry, and commerce. By 2016 there was a 100-fold increase from the late 1970s in the frequency of applications and volumes of glyphosate-based herbicides (GBHs) ...
By Tom Polansek. CHICAGO (Reuters) - The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) said on Tuesday that glyphosate, a chemical in many popular weed killers, is not a carcinogen, contradicting decisions by U.S. juries that found it caused cancer in people.. The EPAs announcement reaffirms its earlier findings about the safety of glyphosate, the key ingredient in Bayers Roundup. The company faces thousands of lawsuits from Roundup users who allege it caused their cancer.. "EPA continues to find that there are no risks to public health when glyphosate is used in accordance with its current label and that glyphosate is not a carcinogen," the agency said in a statement.. Farmers spray glyphosate, the most widely used herbicide in U.S. agriculture, on fields of soybeans and other crops. Roundup is also used on lawns, golf courses and elsewhere.. The EPA did previously find ecological risks from the chemical and has proposed new measures to protect the environment from glyphosate use by farmers and ...
Glyphosate is the most widely used agricultural chemical in the world, with sales now nearing 1 million metric tons per year. Chemical industry analysts project 2017 annual worldwide sale to reach 1.35 million metric tons. [19]. Researchers Dr. Anthony Samsel and Dr. Stephanie Seneff conducted an extensive review of the scientific literature on glyphosate. They indicate that glyphosate, the active ingredient in Roundup®, is the most popular herbicide used worldwide. The industry asserts it is minimally toxic to humans. The scientific research that they present shows a very different story. The overwhelming majority of scientific literature shows that glyphosate is highly toxic to human health. Glyphosate residues are now found in the main foods of the western diet, comprised primarily of sugar, corn, soy and wheat. [20]. Dr. Samsel and Dr. Seneff show how tiny levels of glyphosate contamination in our food can directly contribute to inflammatory bowel disease, obesity, depression, ADHD, autism, ...
Keystone Pest Solutions Glyphosate 5.4 - 53.8% Aquatic Glyphosate (No surfactant) - 1 Quart [81927-8] - Glyphosate 5.4 (1 Quart) Aquatic Labeled Glyphosate -Use to Replace Rodeo Glyphosate 5.4 is a non-selective weed and grass control for edging, turf renovation, spot treatment, aquatic sites, landscape plantings, nurseries, roadsides, schools, farmsteads, shelter belts and many other approved uses. An essential tool for the manager responsible for weed control in and
Keystone Pest Solutions Glyphosate 5.4 - 53.8% Aquatic Glyphosate (No surfactant) - 1 Quart [81927-8] - Glyphosate 5.4 (1 Quart) Aquatic Labeled Glyphosate -Use to Replace Rodeo Glyphosate 5.4 is a non-selective weed and grass control for edging, turf renovation, spot treatment, aquatic sites, landscape plantings, nurseries, roadsides, schools, farmsteads, shelter belts and many other approved uses. An essential tool for the manager responsible for weed control in and
A government official in Colombia announced that the country will once again use the controversial herbicide glyphosate to destroy illegal coca plantations, the crop used to make cocaine. But instead of aerial fumigation by American-piloted crop dusters, glyphosate will be applied manually by era...
Scientific Research Publishing is an academic publisher of open access journals. It also publishes academic books and conference proceedings. SCIRP currently has 100+ open access journals in the areas of Earth & Environmental Sciences, Medicine & Healthcare, Biomedical & Life Sciences, Computer Science & Communications, Chemistry & Materials Science, Engineering, Physics & Mathematics, Business & Economics and Social Sciences & Humanities.
A comprehensive safety evaluation was conducted to assess the potential allergenicity of newly introduced proteins in genetically modified (GM) crops. We assessed the allergenicity of CP4 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) in GM soybeans. This assessment was performed by IgE immunoblotting with soy-allergic childrens sera, amino acid sequence homology with known allergens, and the digestibility of CP4 EPSPS. No differences in IgE-antigen binding by immunoblotting were found between GM soy samples and the corresponding non-GM samples ...
Glyphosate is one of the most pervasive herbicides in use globally and its components have been genetically engineered to be included in herbicide resistant crops. A new study by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has released a report classifying it as a carcinogen specifying that that there is sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity based on current existing laboratory studies. IARCs classification has placed glyphosate in the "probable" carcinogen 2A group and claims that glyphosate is not safe as touted by Monsanto who sells the product as Roundup.. Needless to say this new development has caused a number of environmental group and activists to call for its complete ban. The IARC has highlighted that glyphosate caused DNA and chromosomal damage in human cells and additional epidemiologic studies have found that exposure to glyphosate is significantly associated with an increased risk of non-Hodgkins Lymphoma (NHL). "With the cancer classification on top of the documented ...
Glyphosate, one of the most widely used herbicides in the world, is under scrutiny by media and plaintiff groups amid recent reports that it is potentially carcinogenic. A key ingredient in consumer and industrial weedkillers, glyphosate eradicates broadleaf plants and grasses. Recently, news outlets have reported that low levels of glyphosate have been detected in a broad range of popular food products, among them ice cream, potato chips, crackers, cereal, honey, corn and corn syrup, fruits, soy, milk, eggs, bread and beer. The notion that glyphosate can be found in food products is not new. But these recent reports have refreshed public interest in the topic. Furthermore, concerned with possible toxicity to consumers, regulators and plaintiff groups are increasingly focusing on the potential link between glyphosate and cancer. The current regulatory landscape is evolving, and we expect that, over the next few years, we will see regulators and plaintiff groups paying substantial attention to ...
The pathway for the degradation of glyphosate (N-phosphonomethylglycine) by Pseudomonas sp. PG2982 has been determined using metabolic radiolabeling experiments. Radiorespirometry experiments utilizing 3-(14)C glyphosate revealed that approximately 50-59% of the C3 carbon was oxidized to CO(,2). Fractionation of stationary phase cells labeled with 3-(14)C glyphosate revealed that from 45-47% of the assimilated C3 carbon is distributed to proteins and that the amino acids methionine and serine are highly labeled. The nucleic acid bases adenine and guanine received 90% of the C3 label that was incorporated into nucleic acids, and the only pyrimidine base labeled was thymine. These results indicated that C3 of glyphosate was at some point metabolized to a C1 compound whose ultimate fate could be both oxidation to CO(,2) and distribution to amino acids and nucleic acid bases that receive a C1 group from the C1-donating coenzyme tetrahydrofolate. Pulse labeling of PG2982 cells with 3-(14)C glyphosate
The Soil Association, a UK organization that campaigns for healthy, humane and sustainable food, farming and land use, is concerned that glyphosate is used on crops immediately before harvest, and subsequently makes its way into food. According to the letter and a spokesperson for the group, "Using glyphosate, and glyphosate-based products, as a pre-harvest treatment is fundamentally wrong, and we are calling for an end to it with our campaign. Wheat harvest will start in the next few weeks, and we are asking bread companies to act now and put a stop to glyphosate as a pre-harvest desiccant in their supply chains. The EU has just advised glyphosate use as a pre-harvest spray on food crops should be restricted - but its up to individual member states to decide if they want to implement this or not.". Debate has been raging in Europe about the continued use of glyphosate in light of the 2015 classification by the World Health Organizations (WHO) International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) ...
Researchers from Abraxis LLC and Boston University have further confirmed that the worlds most used herbicide - glyphosate - is widespread in food products around the globe.
The substrate phosphinothricin is used as a nonselective herbicide and is a potent inhibitor of EC 6.3.1.2, glutamate-ammonia ligase, a key enzyme of nitrogen metabolism
http://oehha.ca.gov/water/phg/pdf/glypho_c.pdf. The document openly admits:. Glyphosate is a non-selective systemic herbicide used in agriculture, rights-of-way and aquatic systems. Exposure to glyphosate may occur from its normal use due to drift, residues in food crops and from runoff into potential drinking water sources.. It then goes on to state something borrowed straight from Monsantos quack science team: "Glyphosate is not mutagenic or teratogenic and there is no evidence for reproductive toxicity in multigeneration studies in rats.". Based on this blatant lie, California set an upper limit of "1.0 mg/L (1,000 ppb) for glyphosate in drinking water.". Yes, thats 1,000 times higher than the amount now shown to cause a 500% to 1300% increase in cancer cell proliferation.. Whats even more shocking is that Californias allowable exposure level was nearly 50% HIGHER than the federal (EPA) level - 700 ppb.. Yes, California - the state where more people are concerned about GMOs than seemingly ...
Glyphosate, Insecticides & Herbicides picture from Xinle City Hongyuan Carbon Black Sales Center view photo of Glyphosate, Pesticide, Glyphosate 41% Ipa Sl.Contact China Suppliers for More Products and Price.
6-[bis(phosphonomethyl)amino]hexanoic acid | C8H19NO8P2 | CID 2252211 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more.
The debate over glyphosate has not been a scientific discussion but an activists war against Big Agri. Glyphosate is scientifically proven to be safe and should be re-authorised, writes André Heitz.. André Heitz is an agronomist and a former international civil servant for the United Nations. In his last operational position he was the director of the WIPO Coordination Office in Brussels.. Acting within the remit of its mandate, the European Commission decided on 29 June 2016 to extend the marketing authorisation of glyphosate, the active substance of the worlds most commonly-used herbicide, until the end of 2017 at the latest. It noted, quite unusually, that "member states were not prepared to take responsibility for a decision". Indeed, four attempts - two of which constituted a formal vote - to garner a qualified majority between March and June 2016 had been unsuccessful, despite an overwhelming majority of 20 Member States in favour of renewal.. The required majority by population ...
I think that there may be something in what Tess and Cathi have observed. There has been much new and interesting research done on glomalin and how mycorrhizal fungi extend beyond roots, affecting plants quite a distance away. I suspect that most of the glyphosate trials were conducted when nothing was known on this matter, and it could well be very relevant. Mycorrhizal fungi and their production of glomalin is known to be affected by temperature and moisture so, if what you say about Cathis garden is accurate, this could be another factor in how the soil copes with Glyphosate and surfactants. Like Tess, I am unaware of surfactant-free glyphosate in the UK, professional or otherwise.. Delete ...
A new cutting edge study from Kings College, London has found that residues of popular weedkiller glyphosate found in food can cause fatty liver disease. This is another huge blow for glyphosate, but is it the final nail in the coffin? Glyphosate is the worlds most widely sold weedkiller, commonly found in Monsantos Roundup, and…
... The Glyphosate Strip Test is a rapid immunochromatographic test designed solely for use in the qualitative screening of Glyphosate in water and food samples. For food samples such as honey, lentils, baby food, wheat/oat cere
Glyphosate is a cheap herbicide that has been used to control a wide range of weeds (4-6 times/year) in citrus groves of the Gulf of Mexico; however, its excessive use has selected for glyphosate-resistant weeds. We evaluated ...
Comparison of the abilities of Salmonella typhimurium rpoS, aroA and rpoS aroA strains to elicit humoral immune responses in BALB/c mice and to cause lethal infection in athymic BALB/c ...
As such a term similar to the one proposed above to modulate Vmax should be appropriate in most situations: K m 1 − ( K m 1 − K ... 2 (1): 68-77. doi:10.1208/ps020108. PMC 2751003 . PMID 11741224. Loo JA, DeJohn DE, Du P, Stevenson TI, Ogorzalek Loo RR; ... 18 (1): 65-72. doi:10.1111/j.1432-1033.1971.tb01215.x. PMID 4322209. Reardon, JE (1989). "Herpes simplex virus type 1 and human ... 36 (1): 13-24. doi:10.1016/S0041-0101(97)00074-3. PMID 9604278. Holmes, CF; Maynes, JT; Perreault, KR; Dawson, JF; James, MN ( ...
... glucan 1,4-beta-glucosidase MeSH D08.811.277.450.420.200.600 --- glucan endo-1,3-beta-d-glucosidase MeSH D08.811.277.450. ... endo-1,4-beta xylanases MeSH D08.811.277.450.950.500 --- xylan endo-1,3-beta-xylosidase MeSH D08.811.277.656.149 --- atp- ... glycogen synthase kinase 3 MeSH D08.811.913.696.620.682.700.494 --- i-kappa B kinase MeSH D08.811.913.696.620.682.700.559 --- ... map kinase kinase 1 MeSH D08.811.913.696.620.682.700.565.200 --- map kinase kinase 2 MeSH D08.811.913.696.620.682.700.565.300 ...
72 (1): 53-62. doi:10.1016/0168-9452(90)90186-r. Abdel-Meguid SS, Smith WW, Bild GS (Dec 1985). "Crystallization of 5- ... 87 (1): 232-8. doi:10.1104/pp.87.1.232. PMC 1054731 . PMID 16666109. Pollegioni L, Schonbrunn E, Siehl D (Aug 2011). "Molecular ... 186 (3): 673. doi:10.1016/0022-2836(85)90140-8. PMID 3912512. Ream JE, Steinrücken HC, Porter CA, Sikorski JA (May 1988). " ... 63 (1): 73-105. doi:10.1146/annurev-arplant-042811-105439. PMID 22554242. The AAA pathways consist of the shikimate pathway ( ...
1. 1. −. [. I. ]. [. I. ]. +. K. i. =. V. max. −. V. max. [. I. ]. [. I. ]. +. K. i. {\displaystyle {\cfrac {V_{\max }}{\cfrac ... 1. +. [. I. ]. K. i. =. V. max. [. I. ]. +. K. i. K. i. {\displaystyle {\cfrac {V_{\max }}{1+{\cfrac {\ce {[I]}}{K_{i}}}}}={\ ... 1. −. (. K. m. 1. −. K. m. 2. ). [. X. ]. [. X. ]. +. K. x. {\displaystyle K_{m1}-(K_{m1}-K_{m2}){\cfrac {\ce {[X]}}{[{\ce {X ... 1. −. (. V. max. 1. −. V. max. 2. ). [. I. ]. [. I. ]. +. K. i. {\displaystyle V_{\max 1}-(V_{\max 1}-V_{\max 2}){\cfrac {\ce ...
3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonic acid kinase EC 2.7.1.167: D-glycero-beta-D-manno-heptose-7-phosphate kinase EC 2.7.1.168: D-glycero ... D-inositol-3-phosphate glycosyltransferase EC 2.4.1.251: GlcA-beta-(1->2)-D-Man-alpha-(1->3)-D-Glc-beta-(1->4)-D-Glc-alpha-1- ... inositol 3-a-galactosyltransferase EC 2.4.1.124: now included with EC 2.4.1.87 EC 2.4.1.125: sucrose-1,6-a-glucan 3(6)-a- ... 4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one 2 -D-glucosyltransferase EC 2.4.1.203: trans-zeatin O-b-D-glucosyltransferase EC 2.4.1.204: now EC 2.4. ...
... to the 5-hydroxyl of shikimate-3-phosphate (S3P) to produce enolpyruvyl shikimate-3-phosphate and inorganic phosphate. ... Ref.1. "Cloning and characterization of the aroA gene from Mycobacterium tuberculosis.". Garbe T., Jones C., Charles I.G., ... Ref.1. "Cloning and characterization of the aroA gene from Mycobacterium tuberculosis.". Garbe T., Jones C., Charles I.G., ... Ref.1. "Cloning and characterization of the aroA gene from Mycobacterium tuberculosis.". Garbe T., Jones C., Charles I.G., ...
1.70 Angstrom resolution structure of 3-phosphoshikimate 1-carboxyvinyltransferase(AroA) from Coxiella burnetii in complex with ... 3-phosphoshikimate 1-carboxyvinyltransferase A, B, C, D 441 Coxiella burnetii EC#: 2.5.1.19 IUBMB Gene Name(s): aroA CBU_0526 ... 3R,4S,5R)-3,4,5-TRIHYDROXYCYCLOHEX-1-ENE- 1-CARBOXYLIC ACID. SHIKIMATE (Synonym). C7 H10 O5 JXOHGGNKMLTUBP-HSUXUTPPSA-N ... 1,2-ETHANEDIOL. ETHYLENE GLYCOL (Synonym). C2 H6 O2 LYCAIKOWRPUZTN-UHFFFAOYSA-N ...
3-phosphoshikimate 1-carboxyvinyltransferase (aroA) Recombinant Protein-WP_004685324.1 (MBS1047607) product datasheet at ... 0.05 mg (E-Coli) / $870 +1 FREE 8GB USB. 0.05 mg (Yeast) / $940 +1 FREE 8GB USB. 0.2 mg (E-Coli) / $1,160 +1 FREE 8GB USB. 0.05 ... 1 mg (E-Coli) / $1,940 +2 FREE 8GB USB. 0.5 mg (Baculovirus) / $2,200 +2 FREE 8GB USB. 0.1 mg (Mammalian-Cell) / $2,285 +2 FREE ... 0.2 mg (Yeast) / $1,275 +1 FREE 8GB USB. 0.5 mg (E-Coli) / $1,280 +1 FREE 8GB USB. 0.05 mg (Mammalian-Cell) / $1,410 +1 FREE ...
3-phosphoshikimate 1-carboxyvinyltransferase (aroA) Recombinant Protein-WP_000245895.1 (MBS1381469) product datasheet at ... 1 mg (E-Coli) / $1,895 +2 FREE 8GB USB. 0.5 mg (Baculovirus) / $2,170 +2 FREE 8GB USB. 1 mg (Yeast) / $2,255 +2 FREE 8GB USB. ... 0.05 mg (E-Coli) / $850 +1 FREE 8GB USB. 0.05 mg (Yeast) / $925 +1 FREE 8GB USB. 0.2 mg (E-Coli) / $1,135 +1 FREE 8GB USB. 0.05 ... 0.5 mg (E-Coli) / $1,250 +1 FREE 8GB USB. 0.2 mg (Yeast) / $1,255 +1 FREE 8GB USB. 0.05 mg (Mammalian-Cell) / $1,395 +1 FREE ...
3-phosphoshikimate 1-carboxyvinyltransferase (aroA) Recombinant Protein-YP_001088340.1 (MBS1290666) product datasheet at ... 0.2 mg (E-Coli) / $1,140 +1 FREE 8GB USB. 0.5 mg (E-Coli) / $1,260 +1 FREE 8GB USB. 0.2 mg (Yeast) / $1,280 +1 FREE 8GB USB. ... 1 mg (E-Coli) / $1,790 +2 FREE 8GB USB. 0.5 mg (Baculovirus) / $1,965 +2 FREE 8GB USB. 0.1 mg (Mammalian-Cell) / $2,005 +2 FREE ... 0.05 mg (E-Coli) / $855 +1 FREE 8GB USB. 0.05 mg (Yeast) / $950 +1 FREE 8GB USB. 0.05 mg (Baculovirus) / $1,080 +1 FREE 8GB USB ...
Purchase Recombinant Aeromonas salmonicida 3-phosphoshikimate 1-carboxyvinyltransferase(aroA). It is produced in Yeast. High ... 1-427. Target Protein Sequence. MNSLRLEPIS RVAGEVNLPG SKSVSNRALL LAALARGTTR LTNLLDSDDI RHMLAALTQL GVKYKLSADK TECTVHGLGR ... Recombinant Aeromonas salmonicida 3-phosphoshikimate 1-carboxyvinyltransferase(aroA). Recombinant Aeromonas salmonicida 3- ... Catalyzes the transfer of the enolpyruvyl moiety of phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) to the 5-hydroxyl of shikimate-3-phosphate (S3P) ...
... entry for 2o0b.1. Mycobacterium tuberculosis epsp synthase in complex with S3P (partially photolyzed) ... 3 x SO4: SULFATE ION(Non-functional Binders). SO4.2: 10 residues within 4Å:*. Chain A: K.23, L.94, A.95, G.96, T.97, R.124, Q. ... 1 x S3P: SHIKIMATE-3-PHOSPHATE(Non-covalent). S3P.5: 15 residues within 4Å:*. Chain A: K.23, S.24, R.28, T.97, F.101, S.167, S. ... 1 x PO4: PHOSPHATE ION(Non-functional Binders). PO4.1: 8 residues within 4Å:*. Chain A: A.166, S.167, S.168, P.195, S.196, H. ...
3-phosphoshikimate 1-carboxyvinyltransferase. Magnetococcus marinus (strain ATCC BAA-1437 / JCM 17883 / MC-1). Loading... ... 3-phosphoshikimate 1-carboxyvinyltransferase. Listeria welshimeri serovar 6b (strain ATCC 35897 / DSM 20650 / SLCC5334). ... 3-phosphoshikimate 1-carboxyvinyltransferase. Methanothrix thermoacetophila (strain DSM 6194 / JCM 14653 / NBRC 101360 / PT). ... 3-phosphoshikimate 1-carboxyvinyltransferase. Pelobacter propionicus (strain DSM 2379 / NBRC 103807 / OttBd1). Loading... ...
3-phosphoshikimate 1-carboxyvinyltransferase. Escherichia coli (strain K12 / MC4100 / BW2952) ... 2009C-4446: A0A028E715 ; Escherichia coli 3-373-03_S4_C2: A0A069XQS1 ; Escherichia coli 2-210-07_S3_C3: A0A070SRU3 ; ... 3-phosphoshikimate 1-carboxyvinyltransferase UniProtKBInterProInteractive Modelling. 427 aa; Sequence (Fasta) 85 identical ... STRUCTURE OF EPSP SYNTHASE LIGANDED WITH SHIKIMATE-3-PHOSPHATE AND GLYPHOSATE. monomer 10×FMT; 1×S3P; 1×GPJ;. 1g6s. 1-427. ...
3-phosphoshikimate 1-carboxyvinyltransferase UniProtKBInterProSTRINGInteractive Modelling. 426 aa; Sequence (Fasta) ...
3-phosphoshikimate 1-carboxyvinyltransferase. Shewanella amazonensis (strain ATCC BAA-1098 / SB2B) ... 3-phosphoshikimate 1-carboxyvinyltransferase UniProtKBInterProSTRINGInteractive Modelling. 428 aa; Sequence (Fasta) ...
1.. Open image in new window. Fig. 1 Capsular typing of the strains. Explanation: Figure showing positive controls working on ... 1.. Biberstein EL. The pasteurelloses. In: Handbook series in zoonoses, H. Stoenner, M. Torten and W. Kaplan (eds.). CRC Press ... 1.Research Institute for Biological Safety ProblemsMinistry of Education and Science of Republic of Kazakhstan - Science ... 3.Research Institute of Wildlife EcologyUniversity of Veterinary Medicine ViennaViennaAustria ...
... and 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (AroA) derived from X-ray structures of their tetrahedral reaction intermediate ... 3-phosphoshikimate 1-carboxyvinyltransferase Chain: A Molecule details › Chain: A. Length: 427 amino acids. Theoretical weight: ... Assembly 1 (atom only; mmCIF). FASTA (Entry). SIFTS XML file with residue-level mappings. Summary report (PDF). Full report ( ... P0A6D3 (Residues: 1-427; Coverage: 100%). Gene names: JW0891, aroA, b0908. Sequence domains: EPSP synthase (3-phosphoshikimate ...
5-Enolpyruvylshikimate 3-phosphate (EPSP) synthase (3-phosphoshikimate 1-carboxyvinyltransferase; EC 2.5.1.19), 3- ... 3-Dehydroquinate synthase (EC 4.6.1.3) and shikimate kinase (EC 2.7.1.71) were detected together with the other pathway enzymes ... Lambert, J.M., Boocock, M.R., Coggins, J.R, (1985) The 3-dehydroquinate synthase of the arom enzyme complex of Neurospora ... Bowen, J.R., Kosuge, T. (1977) The formation of shikimate-3-phosphate in cell-free preparations of Sorghum. Phytochemistry 16, ...
3.20.20.70, 1 hit. InterProi. View protein in InterPro. IPR013785 Aldolase_TIM. IPR001381 DHquinase_I. IPR036291 NAD(P)-bd_dom ... Q7RW62-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basketAdded to basket. « Hide. 10 20 30 40 50. MLGPRNERVF DPNASIVLVG CRGAGKRTLG FMGALHLRRR ... 3-phosphoshikimate 1-carboxyvinyltransferase activity Source: GO_Central ,p>Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor,/p> ,p> ... Annotation score:1 out of 5. ,p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB ...
EC 2.5.1. See separate file for EC 2.5.1.51 to EC 2.5.1.100 and EC 2.5.1.101 to EC 2.5.1.151 Contents. EC 2.5.1.1 dimethylallyl ... Int. 3 (1981) 669-675.. [EC 2.5.1.29 created 1984, modified 2011]. EC 2.5.1.30. Accepted name: heptaprenyl diphosphate synthase ... Glossary: O-acetyl-L-serine = (2S)-3-acetyloxy-2-aminopropanoic acid. Other name(s): O-acetyl-L-serine sulfhydrylase; O-acetyl- ... putrescine = butane-1,4-diamine. S-adenosyl 3-(methylsulfanyl)propylamine = (3-aminopropyl){[(2S,3S,4R,5R)-5-(6-amino-9H-purin- ...
... carboxyvinyltransferase is the sixth enzyme in the shikimate pathway and catalyzes the conversion of shikimate-3-phosphate and ... P 1 21 1 Unit Cell. a=46.25Å, b=186.64Å, c=95.79Å. α=90.00, β=91.51, γ=90.00 Solvent content. Matthews coefficient. Refinement ... This protein was co-crystallized with the substrate shikimate-3-phosphate and the commercially successful herbicide glyphosate ... Glyphosate binds adjacent to shikimate-3-phosphate in phosphoenolpyruvates binding site. Interestingly, two C-terminal apo ...
... associated receptor kinase 1, pecmet is pectin methylesterase, serthre is receptor serine-threonine protein, vichyd is vicianin ... associated receptor kinase 1, pecmet is pectin methylesterase, serthre is receptor serine-threonine protein, vichyd is vicianin ... and a brassinosteroid insensitive 1-associated receptor kinase (Table 4). There was no evidence that the scaffold identified as ... and a brassinosteroid insensitive 1-associated receptor kinase (Table 4). There was no evidence that the scaffold identified as ...
Column D: Organism (Only 1) (required) *Please list only one organism where the enzyme listed in Column A has been ...
125000000753 cycloalkyl group Chemical group 0 claims description 3 * 150000001204 N-oxides Chemical class 0 claims description ... 125000004648 C2-C8 alkenyl group Chemical group 0 description 3 * 125000004649 C2-C8 alkynyl group Chemical group 0 description ... 241001310178 Watermelon mosaic virus Species 0 description 3 * 241000723854 Zucchini yellow mosaic virus Species 0 description ... 229910052943 magnesium sulfate Inorganic materials 0 description 3 * 239000004127 magnesium sulphate Substances 0 description 3 ...
108010061844 Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases Proteins 0 description 3 * 102000012338 Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases Human genes 0 ... 239000005667 attractants Substances 0 claims description 3 * 230000031902 chemoattractant activity Effects 0 claims description ... 102000005370 poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase family Human genes 0 description 3 * 159000000001 potassium salts Chemical class 0 ... 235000006618 Brassica rapa subsp oleifera Nutrition 0 description 3 * 235000004977 Brassica sinapistrum Nutrition 0 description ...
2005, 3 (2): e38-10.1371/journal.pbio.0030038.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar. ... 2004, 134 (1): 67-80. 10.1104/pp.103.030536.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar. ... 2005, 138 (3): 1216-1231. 10.1104/pp.105.060988.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar. ... 2007, 17 (1): 108-116. 10.1101/gr.5488207.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar. ...
As such a term similar to the one proposed above to modulate Vmax should be appropriate in most situations: K m 1 − ( K m 1 − K ... 2 (1): 68-77. doi:10.1208/ps020108. PMC 2751003 . PMID 11741224. Loo JA, DeJohn DE, Du P, Stevenson TI, Ogorzalek Loo RR; ... 18 (1): 65-72. doi:10.1111/j.1432-1033.1971.tb01215.x. PMID 4322209. Reardon, JE (1989). "Herpes simplex virus type 1 and human ... 36 (1): 13-24. doi:10.1016/S0041-0101(97)00074-3. PMID 9604278. Holmes, CF; Maynes, JT; Perreault, KR; Dawson, JF; James, MN ( ...
... carboxyvinyltransferase from Vibrio cholerae in complex with shikimate-3-phosphate (partially photolyzed) and glyphosate. ... Title: Crystal structure of aminoglycoside acetyltransferase AAC(3)-Ib. Authors: P.J.Stogios,Z.Xu,E.Evdokimova,V.Yim,W.F. ... Title: 2.75 Angstrom Crystal Structure of Enolase 1 from Toxoplasma gondii.. Authors: G.Minasov,J.Ruan,L.Shuvalova,A.Halavaty,H ... Title: X-Ray Crystal Structure of a Fragment (1-75) of a Transcriptional Regulator PdhR from Escherichia coli CFT073 ...
Chemical reaction (3) KEGG ENZYME (3) Literature (1) PubMed (1) Taxonomy (1) TAX (1) All databases (5) Download RDF ... REFERENCE 1 (bases 1 to 2108637) AUTHORS Tae,H., Shallom,S., Settlage,R., Hawkins,G.N., Adams,L.G. and Garner,H.R. TITLE ... 194 (4), 910 (2012) PUBMED 22275106 REFERENCE 2 (bases 1 to 2108637) AUTHORS Tae,H., Shallom,S., Settlage,R., Hawkins,G.N., ... FEATURES Location/Qualifiers source 1..2108637 /organism="Brucella suis VBI22" /mol_type="genomic DNA" /strain="VBI22" /db_xref ...
  • protein of unknown function tnfn1_pw060420p02q181 FTN_0933 protein of unknown function tnfn1_pw060323p04q134 FTN_0938 hypothetical protein tnfn1_pw060419p01q170 FTN_1006 transporter-associated protein, HlyC/CorC family tnfn1_pw060323p08q141 FTN_1015 isochorismatase family protein tnfn1_pw060418p01q153 FTN_1055 lon DNA-binding, ATP-dependent protease La tnfn1_pw060510p01q114 FTN_1073 DNA/RNA endonuclease G tnfn1_pw060419p04q168 FTN_1091 aroA 3-phosphoshikimate 1- carboxyvinyltransferase tnfn1_pw060328p08q188 FTN_1098 conserved. (lbl.gov)
  • 324050 FT /organism="Tropheryma whipplei TW08/27" FT /strain="TW08/27" FT /mol_type="genomic DNA" FT /db_xref="taxon:218496" FT CDS _ pept 1. (univ-lyon1.fr)
  • Flavihumibacter solisilvae 3-3 T (= KACC 17917 T = JCM 19891 T ) represents a type strain of the genus Flavihumibacter within the family Chitinophagaceae . (biomedcentral.com)
  • The genome analysis of F. solisilvae 3-3 T will provide the genomic basis for better understanding these mechanisms and applying the strain to industries and bioremediation more efficiently. (biomedcentral.com)
  • One of the isolated mutants, designated strain EC-2, produced 90% higher electric current than wild-type MR-1 in ECs and was found to have a transposon inserted in the SO_1860 ( uvrY ) gene, which encodes a DNA-binding response regulator of the BarA/UvrY two-component regulatory system. (beds.ac.uk)
  • An Ochrobactrum anthropi bacterial strain named as NC-1, capable of utilizing phenmedipham (PMP) herbicide as the sole of carbon source and energy for growth was isolated from pesticide-contaminated soil sample by enrichment culture technique. (usda.gov)
  • Catalyzes the anti-1,4-elimination of the C-3 phosphate and the C-6 proR hydrogen from 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate (EPSP) to yield chorismate, which is the branch point compound that serves as the starting substrate for the three terminal pathways of aromatic amino acid biosynthesis. (string-db.org)
  • The initial enzyme of the shikimate pathway, 3-deoxy- d -arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate synthase (EC 4.1.2.15) was also associated with intact density-gradient-purified chloroplasts. (springer.com)
  • 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate (EPSP) synthase is an enzyme produced by plants and microorganisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • [1] Natural enzyme inhibitors can also be poisons and are used as defences against predators or as ways of killing prey. (wikipedia.org)
  • One unit of enzyme incorporates 1 nmole of dTMP onto the 3' end of d(T)24 using poly(dA)300 as template in 30 minutes at 60°C. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • 1X REC Buffer 15 [10 mM HEPES-NaOH (pH 7.8), 1 mM DTT, 50 mM NaCl, 100 µg/ml BSA, 0.1% Triton X- 10 mM MgCl2, 1 pmole of 32P-labeled d(T)24, 2 pmole of poly(dA)300, and serial dilutions of enzyme in a 20 µl reaction volume are incubated for 30 minutes at 60°C. Reaction products are resolved by 20% denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 exhibits extracellular electron transfer (EET) activity that is influenced by various cellular components, including outer-membrane cytochromes, cell-surface polysaccharides (CPS), and regulatory proteins. (beds.ac.uk)
  • F. solisilvae 3-3 T owns a genome size of 5.41 Mbp, 47 % GC content and a total of 4,698 genes, including 4,215 protein coding genes, 439 pseudo genes and 44 RNA encoding genes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In both EC-2 and ∆SO_1860, the transcription of genes related to CPS synthesis was decreased compared to wild-type MR-1, suggesting that CPS negatively affects current generation. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Despite these studies, a deeper understanding of the molecular mechanisms of EET is required to optimize and enhance microbial electron transfer rates in BESs because studies in S. oneidensis MR-1 have also indicated that EET is a complex process that is influenced by various intracellular and extracellular components. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Catalyzes the reversible NAD-dependent reduction of both 3-dehydroshikimate (DHSA) and 3-dehydroquinate to yield shikimate (SA) and quinate, respectively. (uniprot.org)
  • 3-Dehydroquinate synthase (EC 4.6.1.3) and shikimate kinase (EC 2.7.1.71) were detected together with the other pathway enzymes in stromal preparations from washed chloroplasts. (springer.com)
  • Top blast descriptors are as follows: ceram is ceramidase family protein, brass is brassinosteroid insensitive 1−associated receptor kinase 1, pecmet is pectin methylesterase, serthre is receptor serine-threonine protein, vichyd is vicianin hydrolase-live, p450_0 is cytochrome p450 82a3-like, germd is (-)-germacrene d synthase, and helica is u5 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein helicase. (nih.gov)
  • Seven of the 12 transcripts that were down-regulated in resistant compared to susceptible families were annotated as a viacianin hydrolase-like protein, a pectin methylesterase, a ceramidase family protein, an ATP-binding protein, and a brassinosteroid insensitive 1-associated receptor kinase (Table 4). (nih.gov)