Manufactured Materials: Substances and materials manufactured for use in various technologies and industries and for domestic use.3-O-Methylglucose: A non-metabolizable glucose analogue that is not phosphorylated by hexokinase. 3-O-Methylglucose is used as a marker to assess glucose transport by evaluating its uptake within various cells and organ systems. (J Neurochem 1993;60(4):1498-504)MethylglucosidesFacility Regulation and Control: Formal voluntary or governmental procedures and standards required of hospitals and health or other facilities to improve operating efficiency, and for the protection of the consumer.United States Food and Drug Administration: An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.Cosmetics: Substances intended to be applied to the human body for cleansing, beautifying, promoting attractiveness, or altering the appearance without affecting the body's structure or functions. Included in this definition are skin creams, lotions, perfumes, lipsticks, fingernail polishes, eye and facial makeup preparations, permanent waves, hair colors, toothpastes, and deodorants, as well as any material intended for use as a component of a cosmetic product. (U.S. Food & Drug Administration Center for Food Safety & Applied Nutrition Office of Cosmetics Fact Sheet (web page) Feb 1995)MethylglycosidesInvestigational New Drug Application: An application that must be submitted to a regulatory agency (the FDA in the United States) before a drug can be studied in humans. This application includes results of previous experiments; how, where, and by whom the new studies will be conducted; the chemical structure of the compound; how it is thought to work in the body; any toxic effects found in animal studies; and how the compound is manufactured. (From the "New Medicines in Development" Series produced by the Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Association and published irregularly.)Drug Industry: That segment of commercial enterprise devoted to the design, development, and manufacture of chemical products for use in the diagnosis and treatment of disease, disability, or other dysfunction, or to improve function.Quality Control: A system for verifying and maintaining a desired level of quality in a product or process by careful planning, use of proper equipment, continued inspection, and corrective action as required. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Hexokinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and a D-hexose to ADP and a D-hexose 6-phosphate. D-Glucose, D-mannose, D-fructose, sorbitol, and D-glucosamine can act as acceptors; ITP and dATP can act as donors. The liver isoenzyme has sometimes been called glucokinase. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2-Deoxy-D-arabino-hexose. An antimetabolite of glucose with antiviral activity.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.PhlorhizinMonosaccharide Transport Proteins: A large group of membrane transport proteins that shuttle MONOSACCHARIDES across CELL MEMBRANES.HexosesStreptozocin: An antibiotic that is produced by Stretomyces achromogenes. It is used as an antineoplastic agent and to induce diabetes in experimental animals.Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental: Diabetes mellitus induced experimentally by administration of various diabetogenic agents or by PANCREATECTOMY.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Hemoglobin A, Glycosylated: Minor hemoglobin components of human erythrocytes designated A1a, A1b, and A1c. Hemoglobin A1c is most important since its sugar moiety is glucose covalently bound to the terminal amino acid of the beta chain. Since normal glycohemoglobin concentrations exclude marked blood glucose fluctuations over the preceding three to four weeks, the concentration of glycosylated hemoglobin A is a more reliable index of the blood sugar average over a long period of time.Deodorants: Agents that remove, correct, repress, or mask undesirable ODORS. In personal hygiene, deodorants often contain astringent preparations that reduce SWEATING, referred to as ANTIPERSPIRANTS. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)CarbanilidesSkin Cream: A water-soluble medicinal preparation applied to the skin.Ice Cream: A frozen dairy food made from cream or butterfat, milk, sugar, and flavorings. Frozen custard and French-type ice creams also contain eggs.Ointments: Semisolid preparations used topically for protective emollient effects or as a vehicle for local administration of medications. Ointment bases are various mixtures of fats, waxes, animal and plant oils and solid and liquid hydrocarbons.Foot: The distal extremity of the leg in vertebrates, consisting of the tarsus (ANKLE); METATARSUS; phalanges; and the soft tissues surrounding these bones.ParisZygomatic Fractures: Fractures of the zygoma.Milk, HumanSkin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Magnesium: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.Fatigue: The state of weariness following a period of exertion, mental or physical, characterized by a decreased capacity for work and reduced efficiency to respond to stimuli.Ascorbic Acid: A six carbon compound related to glucose. It is found naturally in citrus fruits and many vegetables. Ascorbic acid is an essential nutrient in human diets, and necessary to maintain connective tissue and bone. Its biologically active form, vitamin C, functions as a reducing agent and coenzyme in several metabolic pathways. Vitamin C is considered an antioxidant.Milk Proteins: The major protein constituents of milk are CASEINS and whey proteins such as LACTALBUMIN and LACTOGLOBULINS. IMMUNOGLOBULINS occur in high concentrations in COLOSTRUM and in relatively lower concentrations in milk. (Singleton and Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed, p554)Vitamin A: Retinol and derivatives of retinol that play an essential role in metabolic functioning of the retina, the growth of and differentiation of epithelial tissue, the growth of bone, reproduction, and the immune response. Dietary vitamin A is derived from a variety of CAROTENOIDS found in plants. It is enriched in the liver, egg yolks, and the fat component of dairy products.Skin Aging: The process of aging due to changes in the structure and elasticity of the skin over time. It may be a part of physiological aging or it may be due to the effects of ultraviolet radiation, usually through exposure to sunlight.Sunlight: Irradiation directly from the sun.Sunscreening Agents: Chemical or physical agents that protect the skin from sunburn and erythema by absorbing or blocking ultraviolet radiation.Tropical Climate: A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Solar System: The group of celestial bodies, including the EARTH, orbiting around and gravitationally bound by the sun. It includes eight planets, one minor planet, and 34 natural satellites, more than 1,000 observed comets, and thousands of lesser bodies known as MINOR PLANETS (asteroids) and METEOROIDS. (From Academic American Encyclopedia, 1983)Flight, Animal: The use of wings or wing-like appendages to remain aloft and move through the air.Tropical Medicine: The branch of medicine concerned with diseases, mainly of parasitic origin, common in tropical and subtropical regions.Protective Clothing: Clothing designed to protect the individual against possible exposure to known hazards.Receptors, CCR5: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL3; CHEMOKINE CCL4; and CHEMOKINE CCL5. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; MAST CELLS; and NK CELLS. The CCR5 receptor is used by the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS to infect cells.Viral Tropism: The specificity of a virus for infecting a particular type of cell or tissue.Sun Protection Factor: A measure of relative protection provided by SUNSCREENING AGENTS against burns due to ultraviolet (UV) radiation from a light source.Melanoma: A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols: The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.Disease-Free Survival: Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf: A raf kinase subclass found at high levels in neuronal tissue. The B-raf Kinases are MAP kinase kinase kinases that have specificity for MAP KINASE KINASE 1 and MAP KINASE KINASE 2.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Immunotherapy: Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.
(1/363) Mannose inhibits Arabidopsis germination via a hexokinase-mediated step.

Low concentrations of the glucose (Glc) analog mannose (Man) inhibit germination of Arabidopsis seeds. Man is phosphorylated by hexokinase (HXK), but the absence of germination was not due to ATP or phosphate depletion. The addition of metabolizable sugars reversed the Man-mediated inhibition of germination. Carbohydrate-mediated regulation of gene expression involving a HXK-mediated pathway is known to be activated by Glc, Man, and other monosaccharides. Therefore, we investigated whether Man blocks germination through this system. By testing other Glc analogs, we found that 2-deoxyglucose, which, like Man, is phosphorylated by HXK, also blocked germination; no inhibition was observed with 6-deoxyglucose or 3-O-methylglucose, which are not substrates for HXK. Since these latter two sugars are taken up at a rate similar to that of Man, uptake is unlikely to be involved in the inhibition of germination. Furthermore, we show that mannoheptulose, a specific HXK inhibitor, restores germination of seeds grown in the presence of Man. We conclude that HXK is involved in the Man-mediated repression of germination of Arabidopsis seeds, possibly via energy depletion.  (+info)

(2/363) Acute increase, stimulated by prostaglandin E2, in glucose absorption via the sodium dependent glucose transporter-1 in rat intestine.

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Acute stimulation by cAMP of the sodium dependent glucose cotransporter SGLT1 has previously been shown. As prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) increases intracellular cAMP concentrations via its receptor subtypes EP2R and EP4R, it was investigated whether PGE2 could enhance intestinal glucose absorption. METHODS: The action of PGE2 on carbohydrate absorption in the ex situ perfused rat small intestine and on 3-O-[14C]methylglucose uptake in isolated villus tip enterocytes was determined. Expression of mRNA for the PGE2 receptor subtypes 1-4 was assayed in enterocytes by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). RESULTS: In the perfused small intestine, PGE2 acutely increased absorption of glucose and galactose, but not fructose (which is not a substrate for SGLT1); in isolated enterocytes it stimulated 3-O-[14C]methylglucose uptake. The 3-O-[14C]methylglucose uptake could be inhibited by the cAMP antagonist RpcAMPS and the specific inhibitor of SGLT1, phlorizin. High levels of EP2R mRNA and EP4R mRNA were detected in villus tip enterocytes. CONCLUSION: PGE2 acutely increased glucose and galactose absorption by the small intestine via the SGLT1, with cAMP serving as the second messenger. PGE2 acted directly on the enterocytes, as the stimulation was still observed in isolated enterocytes and RT-PCR detected mRNA for the cAMP-increasing PGE2 receptors EP2R and EP4R.  (+info)

(3/363) Muscle fiber type-specific defects in insulin signal transduction to glucose transport in diabetic GK rats.

To determine whether defects in the insulin signal transduction pathway to glucose transport occur in a muscle fiber type-specific manner, post-receptor insulin-signaling events were assessed in oxidative (soleus) and glycolytic (extensor digitorum longus [EDL]) skeletal muscle from Wistar or diabetic GK rats. In soleus muscle from GK rats, maximal insulin-stimulated (120 nmol/l) glucose transport was significantly decreased, compared with that of Wistar rats. In EDL muscle from GK rats, maximal insulin-stimulated glucose transport was normal, while the submaximal response was reduced compared with that of Wistar rats. We next treated diabetic GK rats with phlorizin for 4 weeks to determine whether restoration of glycemia would lead to improved insulin signal transduction. Phlorizin treatment of GK rats resulted in full restoration of insulin-stimulated glucose transport in soleus and EDL muscle. In soleus muscle from GK rats, submaximal and maximal insulin-stimulated insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1 tyrosine phosphorylation and IRS-1-associated phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase activity were markedly reduced, compared with that of Wistar rats, but only submaximal insulin-stimulated PI 3-kinase was restored after phlorizin treatment. In EDL muscle, insulin-stimulated IRS-1 tyrosine phosphorylation and IRS-1-associated PI-3 kinase were not altered between GK and Wistar rats. Maximal insulin-stimulated Akt (protein kinase B) kinase activity is decreased in soleus muscle from GK rats and restored upon normalization of glycemia (Krook et al., Diabetes 46:2100-2114, 1997). Here, we show that in EDL muscle from GK rats, maximal insulin-stimulated Akt kinase activity is also impaired and restored to Wistar rat levels after phlorizin treatment. In conclusion, functional defects in IRS-1 and PI 3-kinase in skeletal muscle from diabetic GK rats are fiber-type-specific, with alterations observed in oxidative, but not glycolytic, muscle. Furthermore, regardless of muscle fiber type, downstream steps to PI 3-kinase (i.e., Akt and glucose transport) are sensitive to changes in the level of glycemia.  (+info)

(4/363) An inhibitor of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase prevents insulin-stimulated glucose transport but not glucose transporter translocation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and L6 myotubes.

The precise mechanisms underlying insulin-stimulated glucose transport still require investigation. Here we assessed the effect of SB203580, an inhibitor of the p38 MAP kinase family, on insulin-stimulated glucose transport in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and L6 myotubes. We found that SB203580, but not its inactive analogue (SB202474), prevented insulin-stimulated glucose transport in both cell types with an IC50 similar to that for inhibition of p38 MAP kinase (0.6 microM). Basal glucose uptake was not affected. Moreover, SB203580 added only during the transport assay did not inhibit basal or insulin-stimulated transport. SB203580 did not inhibit insulin-stimulated translocation of the glucose transporters GLUT1 or GLUT4 in 3T3-L1 adipocytes as assessed by immunoblotting of subcellular fractions or by immunofluorescence of membrane lawns. L6 muscle cells expressing GLUT4 tagged on an extracellular domain with a Myc epitope (GLUT4myc) were used to assess the functional insertion of GLUT4 into the plasma membrane. SB203580 did not affect the insulin-induced gain in GLUT4myc exposure at the cell surface but largely reduced the stimulation of glucose uptake. SB203580 had no effect on insulin-dependent insulin receptor substrate-1 phosphorylation, association of the p85 subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase with insulin receptor substrate-1, nor on phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, Akt1, Akt2, or Akt3 activities in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In conclusion, in the presence of SB203580, insulin caused normal translocation and cell surface membrane insertion of glucose transporters without stimulating glucose transport. We propose that insulin stimulates two independent signals contributing to stimulation of glucose transport: phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase leads to glucose transporter translocation and a pathway involving p38 MAP kinase leads to activation of the recruited glucose transporter at the membrane.  (+info)

(5/363) TGF-beta 1 stimulates glucose uptake by enhancing GLUT1 expression in mesangial cells.

BACKGROUND: An increase in the expression of transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta 1) has been proposed to play an important role in the excessive production of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins seen in diabetes. Because the linkage between glucose metabolism and ECM protein production was found in mesangial cells overexpressed with the brain-type glucose transporter (GLUT1), we hypothesized that TGF-beta 1 could affect glucose metabolism. METHODS: To prove this hypothesis, we examined the effect of TGF-beta 1 on glucose uptake, the first step of glucose metabolism, in mesangial cells. 2-Deoxy-D-glucose (2DOG) uptake and the expression of GLUT1 were measured in mesangial cells exposed to various concentrations of TGF-beta 1. The kinetic constants were determined using 2DOG and 3-O-methyl-D-glucose (3OMG). The effect of anti-TGF-beta neutralizing antibody on 2DOG uptake and GLUT1 mRNA was also examined in mesangial cells cultured under high-glucose (22.2 mM) conditions for 72 hours. RESULTS: TGF-beta 1 stimulated 2DOG uptake in mesangial cells by approximately 2.5-fold in a dose- (1.25 ng/ml maximum) and time-dependent manner, with a peak stimulation at nine hours. The increase in 2DOG uptake by TGF-beta 1 was completely abolished by the addition of 1 microgram/ml cycloheximide, and kinetic analysis of 2DOG or 3OMG uptake revealed an increase in Vmax by TGF-beta 1. Furthermore, TGF-beta 1 enhanced the expression of GLUT1 mRNA from one hour, followed by an enhancement of the expression of GLUT1 protein at nine hours. Finally, 2DOG uptake was significantly enhanced in cells cultured under high-glucose (22.2 mM) conditions as compared with that in cells under normal glucose (5.6 mM) conditions, and this increase in 2DOG uptake in cells under high-glucose conditions was inhibited by the addition of anti-TGF-beta neutralizing antibody. CONCLUSIONS: TGF-beta 1 stimulates glucose uptake by enhancing the expression of GLUT1 in mesangial cells, which leads to the acceleration of intracellular metabolic abnormalities in diabetes.  (+info)

(6/363) Characterization of cyclosporin A transport in cultured rabbit corneal epithelial cells: P-glycoprotein transport activity and binding to cyclophilin.

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to characterize cyclosporin A (CsA) uptake and transport in cultured rabbit corneal epithelial cells (RCECs). METHODS: CsA uptake was evaluated by measuring time-dependent 3H-CsA accumulation in confluent RCECs. Bidirectional 3H-CsA fluxes were measured across the RCEC layers grown on Transwell-COL culture plate inserts. The anti-P-gp monoclonal antibody C219 was used in western blot analysis to probe for the presence of P-gp in these cells. RESULTS: The accumulation of 3H-CsA was time and temperature dependent. Steady state was reached by 60 minutes. The initial uptake was saturable and was suppressed as a function of increases in preloading with unlabeled CsA. This uptake process was enhanced by metabolic inhibition with either 3-O-methylglucose, MG, or 10 mM NaN3 and 3-O-MG. The largest increase was obtained with 10 mM NaN3 in combination with 3-O-MG. In their presence, uptake increased by 40%. A multidrug-resistance (MDR)-reversing agent (i.e., 500 microM verapamil, 100 microM vincristine, 100 microM progesterone, 100 microM testosterone, 500 microM quinidine, or 100 microM chlorpromazine) significantly increased 3H-CsA accumulation. The largest increase was obtained with 500 microM quinidine (i.e., 36%). Conversely, verapamil and vincristine produced the largest inhibition of 3H-CsA efflux (i.e., 19% and 28%, respectively). However, in the presence of 10 microM unlabeled CsA, 3H-CsA efflux increased. 3H-CsA flux across RCEC layers showed marked directional asymmetry. The stromal (S) to tear (T) side transcellular 3H-CsA permeability coefficient (Ptrans) was approximately seven times higher than that in the T-to-S direction. The S-to-T Ptrans was reduced by an MDR-reversing agent by up to 40%. Western blot analysis of lysates revealed a 170-kDa membrane protein band. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that in RCEC the tear-side-facing membrane has a P-gp-mediated drug efflux pump. In addition, there is suggestive evidence for the presence of the cytosolic protein, cyclophilin. The presence of P-gp in these cells could help protect them from being damaged by the uptake of toxic substances.  (+info)

(7/363) In vitro analysis of the glucose-transport system in GLUT4-null skeletal muscle.

We have characterized the glucose-transport system in soleus muscle from female GLUT4-null mice to determine whether GLUT1, 3 or 5 account for insulin-stimulated glucose-transport activity. Insulin increased 2-deoxyglucose uptake 2.8- and 2.1-fold in soleus muscle from wild-type and GLUT4-null mice, respectively. Cytochalasin B, an inhibitor of GLUT1- and GLUT4-mediated glucose transport, inhibited insulin-stimulated 2-deoxyglucose uptake by >95% in wild-type and GLUT4-null soleus muscle. Addition of 35 mM fructose to the incubation media was without effect on insulin-stimulated 3-O-methylglucose transport activity in soleus muscle from either genotype, whereas 35 mM glucose inhibited insulin-stimulated (20 nM) 3-O-methylglucose transport by 65% in wild-type and 99% in GLUT4-null mice. We utilized the 2-N-4-1-(1-azi-2,2,2-triflu oroethyl)benzoyl-1, 3-bis(D-mannose-4-yloxy)-2-propylamine (ATB-BMPA) exofacial photolabel to determine if increased cell-surface GLUT1 or GLUT4 content accounted for insulin-stimulated glucose transport in GLUT4-null muscle. In wild-type soleus muscle, cell-surface GLUT4 content was increased by 2.8-fold under insulin-stimulated conditions and this increase corresponded to the increase in 2-deoxyglucose uptake. No detectable cell-surface GLUT4 was observed in soleus muscle from female GLUT4-null mice under either basal or insulin-stimulated conditions. Basal cell-surface GLUT1 content was similar between wild-type and GLUT4-null mice, with no further increase noted in either genotype with insulin exposure. Neither GLUT3 nor GLUT5 appeared to account for insulin-stimulated glucose-transport activity in wild-type or GLUT4-null muscle. In conclusion, insulin-stimulated glucose-transport activity in female GLUT4-null soleus muscle is mediated by a facilitative transport process that is glucose- and cytochalasin B-inhibitable, but which is not labelled strongly by ATB-BMPA.  (+info)

(8/363) Adipocyte insulin action following ovulation in polycystic ovarian syndrome.

The role of anovulation and insulin resistance in the pathogenesis of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) remains to be determined. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the metabolic abnormality of insulin resistance in PCOS reflects, rather than causes, the ovarian dysfunction. Eight subjects with classical PCOS were studied on two occasions. Adipocyte insulin sensitivity together with hormonal and metabolic changes were investigated in patients with PCOS following prolonged amenorrhoea and then again in the early follicular phase after ovulation. Insulin receptor binding in amenorrhoeic subjects with PCOS was low at 0.78 +/- 0.08% and this increased to 1.18 +/- 0.19% after an ovulatory cycle (P < 0.05). Maximal insulin stimulated 3-O-methylglucose uptake was 0.70 +/- 0. 14 during amenorrhoea and increased to 1.08 +/- 0.25 pmol/10 cm(2) cell membrane (P < 0.05). Plasma testosterone fell (4.0 +/- 0.4 to 2. 3 +/- 0.2 nmol/l; P < 0.001), luteinizing hormone fell (17.6 +/- 2.3 to 6.7 +/- 0.8 IU/l; P < 0.001) but plasma insulin concentrations remained unchanged following ovulation (14.6 +/- 1.9 and 15.7 +/- 3. 8 pmol/l during amenorrhoea and after ovulation respectively). The results of this study suggest that chronic anovulation per se appears to modify the factors contributing to cellular insulin resistance seen in PCOS.  (+info)

*  List of MeSH codes (D09)
... glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate MeSH D09.698.211.500 --- chitosan MeSH D09.698.350.500 --- inulin MeSH D09.698.360.041 --- agar MeSH ... 3-o-methylglucose MeSH D09.408.514.700 --- methylmannosides MeSH D09.408.620.569 --- nucleoside diphosphate sugars MeSH D09.408 ... 3-o-methylglucose MeSH D09.408.348.700 --- picrotoxin MeSH D09.408.348.800 --- teniposide MeSH D09.408.348.820 --- ... 3-diphosphoglycerate MeSH D09.811.522.050 --- acetylmuramyl-alanyl-isoglutamine MeSH D09.811.589.668 --- sialic acids MeSH ...
*  Glucosyl-3-phosphoglycerate synthase
"Initiation of methylglucose lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis in mycobacteria". PLoS ONE. 4 (5): #e544-e5447. Bibcode:2009PLoSO ... structure of a key enzyme in methylglucose lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis". PLoS ONE. 3 (11): #e3748-e3748. Bibcode:2008PLoSO ... a key glucosyltransferase involved in methylglucose lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis in Mycobacterium tuberculosis". Acta ... Glucosyl-3-phosphoglycerate synthase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Molecular and ...
3-O-Methylglucose - Semantic Scholar  3-O-Methylglucose - Semantic Scholar
3-O-Methylglucose is used as a marker to assess glucose transport by evaluating its uptake within various cells and organ ... 3-O-Methylglucose. Known as: 3 O Methylglucose, 3-O-Methyl-D-Glucose, D-glucose, 3-O-methyl- (More). ... 3-O-Methylglucose is used as a marker to assess glucose transport by… (More) ... Insulin receptor substrate-1 phosphorylation and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity in skeletal muscle from NIDDM subjects ...
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      - 3 O Methylglucose
     Summary Report | CureHunter  3-O-Methylglucose - 3 O Methylglucose Summary Report | CureHunter
3-O-Methylglucose is used as a marker to assess glucose transport by evaluating its uptake within various cells and organ ... 3-O-Methylglucose: A non-metabolizable glucose analogue that is not phosphorylated by hexokinase. ... 3. Neuroblastoma 06/15/2004 - "In the present study, 3-O-methyl-D-glucose (3-OMG) uptake and its modulation by selected ... 3-O-Methylglucose is used as a marker to assess glucose transport by evaluating its uptake within various cells and organ ...
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Reduction of streptozotocin (sz) toxicity by 3-0- -methylglucose (3-om by M Wick, A Rossini et al.  "Reduction of streptozotocin (sz) toxicity by 3-0- -methylglucose (3-om" by M Wick, A Rossini et al.
... methylglucose (3-omg) with enhancement of antitumor activity in l1210 leukemia. Abstr." (1976). Subject Strain Bibliography ... methylglucose (3-omg) with enhancement of antitumor activity in l1210 leukemia. Abstr. ... Wick, M; Rossini, A; and Glynn, D, "Reduction of streptozotocin (sz) toxicity by 3-0- - ...
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Texture Enhancer | Cosmetic Ingredient Dictionary | Paulas Choice  Texture Enhancer | Cosmetic Ingredient Dictionary | Paula's Choice
di-PPG-3 myristyl ether adipate Derivative of myristyl alcohol (a fatty alcohol) and adipic acid (a buffering and neutralizing ... polyglyceryl-3 beeswax The ester of fatty acids from beeswax and polyglycerin-3 that functions as a surfactant and... ...
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Prevention of streptozotocin-induced alterations in the rat heart by 3-O-methyl glucose and insulin treatments. - Semantic...  Prevention of streptozotocin-induced alterations in the rat heart by 3-O-methyl glucose and insulin treatments. - Semantic...
Pretreatment with the nonmetabolizable glucose analog 3-O-methyl glucose prevented these alterations. Chronic insulin ... The Effect of Diabetes on Expression of 1 - , 2 - , and 3 - Adrenoreceptors in Rat Hearts. *Deniz Dinçer. , Keshore R. Bidasee ... Prevention of streptozotocin-induced alterations in the rat heart by 3-O-methyl glucose and insulin treatments.. *. S ... article{Ramanadham1987PreventionOS, title={Prevention of streptozotocin-induced alterations in the rat heart by 3-O-methyl ...
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Ocean Potion Suncare Sunscreen Lotion, SPF 30 (2018 Formulation) || Skin Deep® Cosmetics Database | EWG  Ocean Potion Suncare Sunscreen Lotion, SPF 30 (2018 Formulation) || Skin Deep® Cosmetics Database | EWG
Environmental Working Group is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit corporation, EIN 52-2148600. Copyright © 2007-2019, EWG. All Rights ... POLYGLYCERYL-3 METHYLGLUCOSE DISTEARATE, POTASSIUM CETYL PHOSPHATE, PYRIDOXINE HCI (VITAMIN B6), SODIUM HYDROXIDE, TAPIOCA ...
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Men Expert Hydra Energetic After Shave Balm - LOréal Paris  Men Expert Hydra Energetic After Shave Balm - L'Oréal Paris
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PEG-8 pharmaceutical drugs and health products  PEG-8 pharmaceutical drugs and health products
Ceramide 3. Cetyl Alcohol. Cholesterol. Glycerol. Glyceryl Stearate. Green Tea Extract. Hyaluronate Sodium. Jojoba Oil. ... Ceramide 3. Cetearyl Ethylhexanoate. Cetyl Alcohol. Dimethicone. Edetate Disodium. Glycerol. Glyceryl Stearate. Grape Seed Oil ... Ceramide 3. Cetyl Alcohol. Cholesterol. Copper Sulfate. Dehydroacetic Acid. Disodium Edetate. Fragrance. Glycerol. Glyceryl ... Ceramide 3. Cetyl Alcohol. Cholesterol. Copper Sulfate. Dehydroacetic Acid. Disodium Edetate. Fragrance. Glyceryl ...
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Sodium Phosphate Dibasic pharmaceutical drugs and health products  Sodium Phosphate Dibasic pharmaceutical drugs and health products
Salzmann Product A-3 Alchema - Biocentre Sodium Phosphate Dibasic. Calcium (Calcium Phosphate Tribasic). Magnesium Phosphate ... S-3 Sanalesca - Biocentre Sodium Phosphate Dibasic. Avena. Eschscholtzia Californica. Lupulus. Magnesium Phosphate Dibasic. ... Polyglyceryl-3 Methylglucose Distearate. Potassium Phosphate. Propylparaben. Serine. Sodium Lactate. Sorbitan Stearate. ...
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Jurlique Nutri-Define Superior Retexturising Facial Serum 30ml  | Pharmaca  Jurlique Nutri-Define Superior Retexturising Facial Serum 30ml | Pharmaca
Polyglyceryl-3 Methylglucose Distearate; Butyrospermum parkii (Shea) Butter; Stearic Acid; Cochlearia armoracia (Horseradish) ...
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Gehwol Deoderant Cream, 75ml  Gehwol Deoderant Cream, 75ml
Standard delivery (Orders under £20): £3 · Delivery time: 2-4 working days. FREE delivery (Orders over £20): FREE · 2-4 working ...
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Purely White Skin Eye Correcting Cream | Jurlique  Purely White Skin Eye Correcting Cream | Jurlique
Polyglyceryl-3 Methylglucose Distearate; Behenyl Alcohol; Ascorbyl Glucoside; Silica; Stearic Acid; Hydrogenated Rapeseed Oil; ...
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Effect of Exercise on Fuel Utilization and Insulin Requirements | SpringerLink  Effect of Exercise on Fuel Utilization and Insulin Requirements | SpringerLink
3.. Galbo H, Holst JJ, Christensen NJ: Glucagon and plasma catecholamine responses to graded and prolonged exercise in man. J ... Lorenzi M, Karam JH, Tsalikian E, et al: Dopamine during a-or 3-adrenergic blockade in man. J Clin Invest 63: 310-317, 1979. ... X. Changes in permeability to 3-methylglucose associated with contraction of isolated frog muscle. J Biol Chem 240: 3493-3500, ... Burns TW, Langley PE: Lipolysis by human adipose tissue: the role of cyclic 3',5'-adenosine mono-phosphate and adrenergic ...
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LOreal Paris Age Perfect Cleansing Milk 200ml - ePharmacy  L'Oreal Paris Age Perfect Cleansing Milk 200ml - ePharmacy
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Our Ingredients  Our Ingredients
Polyglyceryl-3 Methylglucose Distearate. Polyglyceryl-3 Methylglucose Distearate is a plant-based emollient with conditioning ...
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Emollients | Cosmetic Ingredient Dictionary | Paulas Choice  Emollients | Cosmetic Ingredient Dictionary | Paula's Choice
PEG-20 methyl glucose sesquistearate A complex mixture of a glycol with a fatty acid and glucose that funtions multiple ways: ... methyl glucose sesquistearate A mixure of the diesters of methyl glucoside and stearic acid. Functions as a skin-conditioning ... PPG-3 benzyl ether myristate An emollient that has a silicone-like feel and multiple functions in cosmetic products... ... Diisostearyl polyglyceryl-3 dimer dilinoleate is an emollient blend of fatty acids often used in cosmetics to enhance coverage ...
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US20080305056A1 - Stable, low viscosity cosmetic compositions 
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... by weight of a polyethylene glycol derivative or polypropylene glycol derivative and/or 0.05 to 3% by weight of a polymeric ... R5′ and R6′ may, for example, be C1-3-alkyl groups, while R7′ and R8′ may, for example, be C8-18-alkyl groups. X is an anion ... Preferably, in the formulae (I) to (III), the radical R1 is a methyl radical, and the radicals R2 and R3 are identical or ... In the formulae (I) to (III), the radicals R1 to R3 are hydrogen or alkyl groups or esters of alkylene groups and acyl radicals ...
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Hawaiian Tropic Sun Care Deals  Hawaiian Tropic Sun Care Deals
Hawaiian Tropic Hawaiian Tropic Sheer Touch, Lotion Sunscreen Ultra Radiance SPF 30, 8 oz (Pack of 3) Walmart $29.12 ... Hawaiian Tropic Hawaiian Tropic Sheer Touch, Lotion Sunscreen Ultra Radiance SPF 30, 8 oz (Pack of 3) Walmart $29.12 ... Hawaiian Tropic Hawaiian Tropic Royal Tanning Sun Care Spray Oil - 6 Ounce (Pack of 3) Amazon $32.97 ... Pack of 3 for the UPC: 075486087470Paradise in a bottle.SunscreenEnergizer PcActive Ingredients:Avobenzone 2%; Octocrylene 5%; ...
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Buy LOreal Paris Age Perfect Cleansing Milk 200ml Online at Chemist Warehouse®  Buy L'Oreal Paris Age Perfect Cleansing Milk 200ml Online at Chemist Warehouse®
Alcohol, Polyglyceryl-3 Methylglucose Distearate, Butyrospermum. Parkii Butter / Shea Butter, Carbomer, Sodium Hydroxide, ...
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HYGGEE All In One Cream ingredients | CosDNA  HYGGEE All In One Cream ingredients | CosDNA
Cosmetics product ingredient analysis, simply paste cosmetic full ingredients, and known each ingredient risks(comedogenic, irritation and safety) and benefits.
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Evaluating improvements to exposure estimates from fate and transport models by incorporating environmental sampling effort and...  Evaluating improvements to exposure estimates from fate and transport models by incorporating environmental sampling effort and...
3-O-Methylglucose is used as a marker to assess glucose transport by evaluating its uptake within various cells and organ ... 3-o-methylglucose. A non-metabolizable glucose analogue that is not phosphorylated by hexokinase. ... Assessment of exposure to chlorpyrifos based on its urinary metabolite, 3,5,6... ...
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A, treatment with 3 μmol/L vemurafenib (Vem) causes a decrease in glucose uptake as assessed by flow cytometry using the ... C, incubation of 3 μmol/L vemurafenib-treated cells in hypoosmotic 2-NBDG solution restored glucose uptake to the same level as ... A, 3 μmol/L vemurafenib induces a decrease in overall hexokinase activity per cell after 72 hours in sensitive cell lines. ... Figure 3. Vemurafenib (VEM) induces a decrease in transmembrane glucose uptake per cell. 3 μmol/L vemurafenib (+) incubation ...
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SkinActive Soothing 3-in-1 Face Moisturizer with Rose Water  SkinActive Soothing 3-in-1 Face Moisturizer with Rose Water
... is a 3-in-1 face moisturizer as day, night and mask. This 3-in-1 is ... Garnier SkinActive Soothing 3-in-1 Face Moisturizer with Rose Water is a fast-absorbing, lightweight face moisturizer that ... Garnier SkinActive Soothing 3-in-1 Face Moisturizer with Rose Water is a fast-absorbing, lightweight face moisturizer that ... 3-in-1 Face Moisturizer- Day, Night, Mask*96 percent naturally derived ingredients*Made without mineral oil, parabens, ...
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  • 3-O-Methylglucose is used as a marker to assess glucose transport by evaluating its uptake within various cells and organ systems. (
  • Prevention of streptozotocin-induced alterations in the rat heart by 3-O-methyl glucose and insulin treatments. (
  • Pretreatment with the nonmetabolizable glucose analog 3-O-methyl glucose prevented these alterations. (
  • Cancer cells frequently display high rates of fermentative glycolysis relative to benign cells under normoxic conditions ( 1-3 ), a characteristic often referred to as "aerobic glycolysis" that involves increased consumption of glucose. (
  • Glucosyl-3-phosphoglycerate synthase (EC, GpgS protein, GPG synthase, glucosylphosphoglycerate synthase) is an enzyme with systematic name NDP-glucose:3-phospho-D-glycerate 2-alpha-D-glucosyltransferase. (
  • This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction NDP-glucose + 3-phospho-D-glycerate ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } NDP + 2-O-(alpha-D-glucopyranosyl)-3-phospho-D-glycerate The enzyme is involved in biosynthesis of 2-O-(alpha-D-glucopyranosyl)-D-glycerate. (
  • Insulin receptor substrate-1 phosphorylation and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity in skeletal muscle from NIDDM subjects after in vivo insulin stimulation. (
  • Because early stage decomposition is typically dominated by fungi and the free-radical generating oxidative enzymes phenol oxidase and peroxidase [ 3 , 4 ], we targeted anaerobic tropical forest soils with the idea that they would be dominated by bacterial rather than fungal decomposers. (
  • Colloid-chemical properties, such as interfacial tension, adsorption, the area occupied by a molecule, adhesion and interfacial activity of a new biodegradable Peg-free emulsifier - polyglyceryl-3 methylglucose distearate and nonionic surfactant - ethoxylated izononilfenol at the water / vaseline oil interfaces were investigated. (
  • The phase diagram of Water / Ethoxylated Izononilfenol : Polyglyceryl-3 Methylglucose Distearate / Vaseline Oil was constructed and the fields of various supramolecular structures were characterized. (
  • It is claimed to be similarly effective as ceramide 3 at moisturizing the skin and helping the barrier function. (
  • For the best results, use as a course of treatment for 10 days, then 2-3 times a week to support the effects. (
  • We ship using FedEx Express (2 business days) and FedEx Ground (3-5 business days). (