A non-metabolizable glucose analogue that is not phosphorylated by hexokinase. 3-O-Methylglucose is used as a marker to assess glucose transport by evaluating its uptake within various cells and organ systems. (J Neurochem 1993;60(4):1498-504)
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
A verocytotoxin-producing serogroup belonging to the O subfamily of Escherichia coli which has been shown to cause severe food-borne disease. A strain from this serogroup, serotype H7, which produces SHIGA TOXINS, has been linked to human disease outbreaks resulting from contamination of foods by E. coli O157 from bovine origin.
An enzyme that transfers methyl groups from O(6)-methylguanine, and other methylated moieties of DNA, to a cysteine residue in itself, thus repairing alkylated DNA in a single-step reaction. EC 2.1.1.63.
Substances and materials manufactured for use in various technologies and industries and for domestic use.
Formal voluntary or governmental procedures and standards required of hospitals and health or other facilities to improve operating efficiency, and for the protection of the consumer.
An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.
Substances intended to be applied to the human body for cleansing, beautifying, promoting attractiveness, or altering the appearance without affecting the body's structure or functions. Included in this definition are skin creams, lotions, perfumes, lipsticks, fingernail polishes, eye and facial makeup preparations, permanent waves, hair colors, toothpastes, and deodorants, as well as any material intended for use as a component of a cosmetic product. (U.S. Food & Drug Administration Center for Food Safety & Applied Nutrition Office of Cosmetics Fact Sheet (web page) Feb 1995)
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and a D-hexose to ADP and a D-hexose 6-phosphate. D-Glucose, D-mannose, D-fructose, sorbitol, and D-glucosamine can act as acceptors; ITP and dATP can act as donors. The liver isoenzyme has sometimes been called glucokinase. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.1.1.
2-Deoxy-D-arabino-hexose. An antimetabolite of glucose with antiviral activity.
Chemical or physical agents that protect the skin from sunburn and erythema by absorbing or blocking ultraviolet radiation.
An injury to the skin causing erythema, tenderness, and sometimes blistering and resulting from excessive exposure to the sun. The reaction is produced by the ultraviolet radiation in sunlight.
A measure of relative protection provided by SUNSCREENING AGENTS against burns due to ultraviolet (UV) radiation from a light source.
Irradiation directly from the sun.
Clothing designed to protect the individual against possible exposure to known hazards.
A compound used as a topical insect repellent that may cause irritation to eyes and mucous membranes, but not to the skin.
A family of softbacked TICKS, in the subclass ACARI. Genera include ARGAS and ORNITHODOROS among others.
Oleagenous substances used topically to soothe, soften or protect skin or mucous membranes. They are used also as vehicles for other dermatologic agents.
Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.
The transmission and reproduction of transient images of fixed or moving objects. An electronic system of transmitting such images together with sound over a wire or through space by apparatus that converts light and sound into electrical waves and reconverts them into visible light rays and audible sound. (From Webster, 3rd ed)
A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.
Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.
The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.
A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.
An antibiotic that is produced by Stretomyces achromogenes. It is used as an antineoplastic agent and to induce diabetes in experimental animals.
Diabetes mellitus induced experimentally by administration of various diabetogenic agents or by PANCREATECTOMY.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
Broad spectrum antifungal agent used for long periods at high doses, especially in immunosuppressed patients.
Hair grooming, cleansing and modifying products meant for topical application to hair, usually human. They include sprays, bleaches, dyes, conditioners, rinses, shampoos, nutrient lotions, etc.
A chronic inflammatory disease of the skin with unknown etiology. It is characterized by moderate ERYTHEMA, dry, moist, or greasy (SEBACEOUS GLAND) scaling and yellow crusted patches on various areas, especially the scalp, that exfoliate as dandruff. Seborrheic dermatitis is common in children and adolescents with HIV INFECTIONS.
Parasitic attack or subsistence on the skin by members of the order Phthiraptera, especially on humans by Pediculus humanus of the family Pediculidae. The hair of the head, eyelashes, and pubis is a frequent site of infestation. (From Dorland, 28th ed; Stedman, 26th ed)
Lice of the genus Pediculus, family Pediculidae. Pediculus humanus corporus is the human body louse and Pediculus humanus capitis is the human head louse.
A physiologically inactive constituent of Cannabis sativa L.
Greatly exaggerated width of the mouth, resulting from failure of union of the maxillary and mandibular processes, with extension of the oral orifice toward the ear. The defect may be unilateral or bilateral. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Days commemorating events. Holidays also include vacation periods.
The collective name for islands of the Pacific Ocean east of the Philippines, including the Mariana, PALAU, Caroline, Marshall, and Kiribati Islands. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p761 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p350)
A deficiency of blood coagulation factor IX inherited as an X-linked disorder. (Also known as Christmas Disease, after the first patient studied in detail, not the holy day.) Historical and clinical features resemble those in classic hemophilia (HEMOPHILIA A), but patients present with fewer symptoms. Severity of bleeding is usually similar in members of a single family. Many patients are asymptomatic until the hemostatic system is stressed by surgery or trauma. Treatment is similar to that for hemophilia A. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1008)
Bleeding from the blood vessels of the mouth, which may occur as a result of injuries to the mouth, accidents in oral surgery, or diseases of the gums.
Inflammation of part or all of the uvea, the middle (vascular) tunic of the eye, and commonly involving the other tunics (sclera and cornea, and the retina). (Dorland, 27th ed)

Mannose inhibits Arabidopsis germination via a hexokinase-mediated step. (1/363)

Low concentrations of the glucose (Glc) analog mannose (Man) inhibit germination of Arabidopsis seeds. Man is phosphorylated by hexokinase (HXK), but the absence of germination was not due to ATP or phosphate depletion. The addition of metabolizable sugars reversed the Man-mediated inhibition of germination. Carbohydrate-mediated regulation of gene expression involving a HXK-mediated pathway is known to be activated by Glc, Man, and other monosaccharides. Therefore, we investigated whether Man blocks germination through this system. By testing other Glc analogs, we found that 2-deoxyglucose, which, like Man, is phosphorylated by HXK, also blocked germination; no inhibition was observed with 6-deoxyglucose or 3-O-methylglucose, which are not substrates for HXK. Since these latter two sugars are taken up at a rate similar to that of Man, uptake is unlikely to be involved in the inhibition of germination. Furthermore, we show that mannoheptulose, a specific HXK inhibitor, restores germination of seeds grown in the presence of Man. We conclude that HXK is involved in the Man-mediated repression of germination of Arabidopsis seeds, possibly via energy depletion.  (+info)

Acute increase, stimulated by prostaglandin E2, in glucose absorption via the sodium dependent glucose transporter-1 in rat intestine. (2/363)

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Acute stimulation by cAMP of the sodium dependent glucose cotransporter SGLT1 has previously been shown. As prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) increases intracellular cAMP concentrations via its receptor subtypes EP2R and EP4R, it was investigated whether PGE2 could enhance intestinal glucose absorption. METHODS: The action of PGE2 on carbohydrate absorption in the ex situ perfused rat small intestine and on 3-O-[14C]methylglucose uptake in isolated villus tip enterocytes was determined. Expression of mRNA for the PGE2 receptor subtypes 1-4 was assayed in enterocytes by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). RESULTS: In the perfused small intestine, PGE2 acutely increased absorption of glucose and galactose, but not fructose (which is not a substrate for SGLT1); in isolated enterocytes it stimulated 3-O-[14C]methylglucose uptake. The 3-O-[14C]methylglucose uptake could be inhibited by the cAMP antagonist RpcAMPS and the specific inhibitor of SGLT1, phlorizin. High levels of EP2R mRNA and EP4R mRNA were detected in villus tip enterocytes. CONCLUSION: PGE2 acutely increased glucose and galactose absorption by the small intestine via the SGLT1, with cAMP serving as the second messenger. PGE2 acted directly on the enterocytes, as the stimulation was still observed in isolated enterocytes and RT-PCR detected mRNA for the cAMP-increasing PGE2 receptors EP2R and EP4R.  (+info)

Muscle fiber type-specific defects in insulin signal transduction to glucose transport in diabetic GK rats. (3/363)

To determine whether defects in the insulin signal transduction pathway to glucose transport occur in a muscle fiber type-specific manner, post-receptor insulin-signaling events were assessed in oxidative (soleus) and glycolytic (extensor digitorum longus [EDL]) skeletal muscle from Wistar or diabetic GK rats. In soleus muscle from GK rats, maximal insulin-stimulated (120 nmol/l) glucose transport was significantly decreased, compared with that of Wistar rats. In EDL muscle from GK rats, maximal insulin-stimulated glucose transport was normal, while the submaximal response was reduced compared with that of Wistar rats. We next treated diabetic GK rats with phlorizin for 4 weeks to determine whether restoration of glycemia would lead to improved insulin signal transduction. Phlorizin treatment of GK rats resulted in full restoration of insulin-stimulated glucose transport in soleus and EDL muscle. In soleus muscle from GK rats, submaximal and maximal insulin-stimulated insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1 tyrosine phosphorylation and IRS-1-associated phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase activity were markedly reduced, compared with that of Wistar rats, but only submaximal insulin-stimulated PI 3-kinase was restored after phlorizin treatment. In EDL muscle, insulin-stimulated IRS-1 tyrosine phosphorylation and IRS-1-associated PI-3 kinase were not altered between GK and Wistar rats. Maximal insulin-stimulated Akt (protein kinase B) kinase activity is decreased in soleus muscle from GK rats and restored upon normalization of glycemia (Krook et al., Diabetes 46:2100-2114, 1997). Here, we show that in EDL muscle from GK rats, maximal insulin-stimulated Akt kinase activity is also impaired and restored to Wistar rat levels after phlorizin treatment. In conclusion, functional defects in IRS-1 and PI 3-kinase in skeletal muscle from diabetic GK rats are fiber-type-specific, with alterations observed in oxidative, but not glycolytic, muscle. Furthermore, regardless of muscle fiber type, downstream steps to PI 3-kinase (i.e., Akt and glucose transport) are sensitive to changes in the level of glycemia.  (+info)

An inhibitor of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase prevents insulin-stimulated glucose transport but not glucose transporter translocation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and L6 myotubes. (4/363)

The precise mechanisms underlying insulin-stimulated glucose transport still require investigation. Here we assessed the effect of SB203580, an inhibitor of the p38 MAP kinase family, on insulin-stimulated glucose transport in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and L6 myotubes. We found that SB203580, but not its inactive analogue (SB202474), prevented insulin-stimulated glucose transport in both cell types with an IC50 similar to that for inhibition of p38 MAP kinase (0.6 microM). Basal glucose uptake was not affected. Moreover, SB203580 added only during the transport assay did not inhibit basal or insulin-stimulated transport. SB203580 did not inhibit insulin-stimulated translocation of the glucose transporters GLUT1 or GLUT4 in 3T3-L1 adipocytes as assessed by immunoblotting of subcellular fractions or by immunofluorescence of membrane lawns. L6 muscle cells expressing GLUT4 tagged on an extracellular domain with a Myc epitope (GLUT4myc) were used to assess the functional insertion of GLUT4 into the plasma membrane. SB203580 did not affect the insulin-induced gain in GLUT4myc exposure at the cell surface but largely reduced the stimulation of glucose uptake. SB203580 had no effect on insulin-dependent insulin receptor substrate-1 phosphorylation, association of the p85 subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase with insulin receptor substrate-1, nor on phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, Akt1, Akt2, or Akt3 activities in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In conclusion, in the presence of SB203580, insulin caused normal translocation and cell surface membrane insertion of glucose transporters without stimulating glucose transport. We propose that insulin stimulates two independent signals contributing to stimulation of glucose transport: phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase leads to glucose transporter translocation and a pathway involving p38 MAP kinase leads to activation of the recruited glucose transporter at the membrane.  (+info)

TGF-beta 1 stimulates glucose uptake by enhancing GLUT1 expression in mesangial cells. (5/363)

BACKGROUND: An increase in the expression of transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta 1) has been proposed to play an important role in the excessive production of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins seen in diabetes. Because the linkage between glucose metabolism and ECM protein production was found in mesangial cells overexpressed with the brain-type glucose transporter (GLUT1), we hypothesized that TGF-beta 1 could affect glucose metabolism. METHODS: To prove this hypothesis, we examined the effect of TGF-beta 1 on glucose uptake, the first step of glucose metabolism, in mesangial cells. 2-Deoxy-D-glucose (2DOG) uptake and the expression of GLUT1 were measured in mesangial cells exposed to various concentrations of TGF-beta 1. The kinetic constants were determined using 2DOG and 3-O-methyl-D-glucose (3OMG). The effect of anti-TGF-beta neutralizing antibody on 2DOG uptake and GLUT1 mRNA was also examined in mesangial cells cultured under high-glucose (22.2 mM) conditions for 72 hours. RESULTS: TGF-beta 1 stimulated 2DOG uptake in mesangial cells by approximately 2.5-fold in a dose- (1.25 ng/ml maximum) and time-dependent manner, with a peak stimulation at nine hours. The increase in 2DOG uptake by TGF-beta 1 was completely abolished by the addition of 1 microgram/ml cycloheximide, and kinetic analysis of 2DOG or 3OMG uptake revealed an increase in Vmax by TGF-beta 1. Furthermore, TGF-beta 1 enhanced the expression of GLUT1 mRNA from one hour, followed by an enhancement of the expression of GLUT1 protein at nine hours. Finally, 2DOG uptake was significantly enhanced in cells cultured under high-glucose (22.2 mM) conditions as compared with that in cells under normal glucose (5.6 mM) conditions, and this increase in 2DOG uptake in cells under high-glucose conditions was inhibited by the addition of anti-TGF-beta neutralizing antibody. CONCLUSIONS: TGF-beta 1 stimulates glucose uptake by enhancing the expression of GLUT1 in mesangial cells, which leads to the acceleration of intracellular metabolic abnormalities in diabetes.  (+info)

Characterization of cyclosporin A transport in cultured rabbit corneal epithelial cells: P-glycoprotein transport activity and binding to cyclophilin. (6/363)

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to characterize cyclosporin A (CsA) uptake and transport in cultured rabbit corneal epithelial cells (RCECs). METHODS: CsA uptake was evaluated by measuring time-dependent 3H-CsA accumulation in confluent RCECs. Bidirectional 3H-CsA fluxes were measured across the RCEC layers grown on Transwell-COL culture plate inserts. The anti-P-gp monoclonal antibody C219 was used in western blot analysis to probe for the presence of P-gp in these cells. RESULTS: The accumulation of 3H-CsA was time and temperature dependent. Steady state was reached by 60 minutes. The initial uptake was saturable and was suppressed as a function of increases in preloading with unlabeled CsA. This uptake process was enhanced by metabolic inhibition with either 3-O-methylglucose, MG, or 10 mM NaN3 and 3-O-MG. The largest increase was obtained with 10 mM NaN3 in combination with 3-O-MG. In their presence, uptake increased by 40%. A multidrug-resistance (MDR)-reversing agent (i.e., 500 microM verapamil, 100 microM vincristine, 100 microM progesterone, 100 microM testosterone, 500 microM quinidine, or 100 microM chlorpromazine) significantly increased 3H-CsA accumulation. The largest increase was obtained with 500 microM quinidine (i.e., 36%). Conversely, verapamil and vincristine produced the largest inhibition of 3H-CsA efflux (i.e., 19% and 28%, respectively). However, in the presence of 10 microM unlabeled CsA, 3H-CsA efflux increased. 3H-CsA flux across RCEC layers showed marked directional asymmetry. The stromal (S) to tear (T) side transcellular 3H-CsA permeability coefficient (Ptrans) was approximately seven times higher than that in the T-to-S direction. The S-to-T Ptrans was reduced by an MDR-reversing agent by up to 40%. Western blot analysis of lysates revealed a 170-kDa membrane protein band. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that in RCEC the tear-side-facing membrane has a P-gp-mediated drug efflux pump. In addition, there is suggestive evidence for the presence of the cytosolic protein, cyclophilin. The presence of P-gp in these cells could help protect them from being damaged by the uptake of toxic substances.  (+info)

In vitro analysis of the glucose-transport system in GLUT4-null skeletal muscle. (7/363)

We have characterized the glucose-transport system in soleus muscle from female GLUT4-null mice to determine whether GLUT1, 3 or 5 account for insulin-stimulated glucose-transport activity. Insulin increased 2-deoxyglucose uptake 2.8- and 2.1-fold in soleus muscle from wild-type and GLUT4-null mice, respectively. Cytochalasin B, an inhibitor of GLUT1- and GLUT4-mediated glucose transport, inhibited insulin-stimulated 2-deoxyglucose uptake by >95% in wild-type and GLUT4-null soleus muscle. Addition of 35 mM fructose to the incubation media was without effect on insulin-stimulated 3-O-methylglucose transport activity in soleus muscle from either genotype, whereas 35 mM glucose inhibited insulin-stimulated (20 nM) 3-O-methylglucose transport by 65% in wild-type and 99% in GLUT4-null mice. We utilized the 2-N-4-1-(1-azi-2,2,2-triflu oroethyl)benzoyl-1, 3-bis(D-mannose-4-yloxy)-2-propylamine (ATB-BMPA) exofacial photolabel to determine if increased cell-surface GLUT1 or GLUT4 content accounted for insulin-stimulated glucose transport in GLUT4-null muscle. In wild-type soleus muscle, cell-surface GLUT4 content was increased by 2.8-fold under insulin-stimulated conditions and this increase corresponded to the increase in 2-deoxyglucose uptake. No detectable cell-surface GLUT4 was observed in soleus muscle from female GLUT4-null mice under either basal or insulin-stimulated conditions. Basal cell-surface GLUT1 content was similar between wild-type and GLUT4-null mice, with no further increase noted in either genotype with insulin exposure. Neither GLUT3 nor GLUT5 appeared to account for insulin-stimulated glucose-transport activity in wild-type or GLUT4-null muscle. In conclusion, insulin-stimulated glucose-transport activity in female GLUT4-null soleus muscle is mediated by a facilitative transport process that is glucose- and cytochalasin B-inhibitable, but which is not labelled strongly by ATB-BMPA.  (+info)

Adipocyte insulin action following ovulation in polycystic ovarian syndrome. (8/363)

The role of anovulation and insulin resistance in the pathogenesis of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) remains to be determined. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the metabolic abnormality of insulin resistance in PCOS reflects, rather than causes, the ovarian dysfunction. Eight subjects with classical PCOS were studied on two occasions. Adipocyte insulin sensitivity together with hormonal and metabolic changes were investigated in patients with PCOS following prolonged amenorrhoea and then again in the early follicular phase after ovulation. Insulin receptor binding in amenorrhoeic subjects with PCOS was low at 0.78 +/- 0.08% and this increased to 1.18 +/- 0.19% after an ovulatory cycle (P < 0.05). Maximal insulin stimulated 3-O-methylglucose uptake was 0.70 +/- 0. 14 during amenorrhoea and increased to 1.08 +/- 0.25 pmol/10 cm(2) cell membrane (P < 0.05). Plasma testosterone fell (4.0 +/- 0.4 to 2. 3 +/- 0.2 nmol/l; P < 0.001), luteinizing hormone fell (17.6 +/- 2.3 to 6.7 +/- 0.8 IU/l; P < 0.001) but plasma insulin concentrations remained unchanged following ovulation (14.6 +/- 1.9 and 15.7 +/- 3. 8 pmol/l during amenorrhoea and after ovulation respectively). The results of this study suggest that chronic anovulation per se appears to modify the factors contributing to cellular insulin resistance seen in PCOS.  (+info)

3-O-Methylglucose: A non-metabolizable glucose analogue that is not phosphorylated by hexokinase. 3-O-Methylglucose is used as a marker to assess glucose transport by evaluating its uptake within various cells and organ systems. (J Neurochem 1993;60(4):1498-504)
Insulin stimulates glucose transport in isolated fat cells by activation of glucose transporters in the plasma membranes and through translocation of the glucose transporter sub-types GLUT4 (insulin-regulatable) and GLUT1 (HepG2 transporter). The protein kinase C-stimulating phorbol ester phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) is able to mimic partially the effect of insulin on glucose transport, apparently through stimulation of carrier translocation. In order to ascertain whether protein kinase C is involved in the translocation signal to both carrier sub-types, we determined the effect of PMA on the subcellular distribution of GLUT1 and GLUT4 by immunoblotting with specific antibodies directed against these transporters. Isolated rat fat cells (4 x 10(6) cells/ml) were stimulated for 20 min with insulin (6 nM) or PMA (1 nM). 3-O-Methylglucose transport was determined and plasma membranes and low-density microsomes were prepared for Western blotting. 3-O-Methylglucose transport was stimulated ...
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The transport properties for phenylalanine and glucose in luminal-membrane vesicles from outer cortex (pars convoluta) and outer medulla (pars recta) of rabbit kidney were studied by a spectrophotometric method. Uptake of phenylalanine as well as of glucose by the two types of membrane vesicles was found to be Na+-dependent, electrogenic and stereospecific. Na+-dependent transport of L-phenylalanine by outer-cortical membrane vesicles could be accounted for by one transport system (KA congruent to 1.5 mM). By contrast, in the outer-medullary preparation, L-phenylalanine transport occurred via two transport systems, namely a high-affinity system with K1A congruent to 0.33 mM and a low-affinity system with K2A congruent to 7 mM respectively. Na+-dependent uptake of D-glucose by pars convoluta and pars recta membrane vesicles could be described by single, but different, transport systems, namely a low-affinity system with KA congruent to 3.5 mM and a high-affinity system with KA congruent to 0.30 ...
Glucose toxicity is a well-established entity that has been shown in animal models of diabetes to contribute to development of insulin resistance and impaired insulin secretion. In type II (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes in humans, a considerable body of evidence has accumulated indicating that a chronic physiological increment in the plasma glucose concentration leads to progressive impairment in insulin secretion and may contribute to insulin resistance as well. The precise biochemical mechanism(s) responsible for the hyperglycemia-induced defect in insulin secretion remains to be defined but may be related to a defect in phosphoinositide metabolism. In animal models of diabetes, development of insulin resistance is related to downregulation of the glucose-transport system, and a similar phenomenon is also likely to occur in humans. In addition, hyperglycemia in humans may lead to a defect in glycogen synthesis. In this respect, humans may be different from rats. In type I (insulin-dependent) ...
Downloadable! This paper uses Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) and Uncovered Interest Rate Parity (UIP) to estimate a time-varying equilibrium for the $NZ/$US nominal exchange rate over the period 1992 to 2003. While PPP is supported, the data does not support the strictest form of UIP. The estimated equilibrium can be considered a Behavioural Equilibrium Exchange Rate (BEER) that is conditional on interest rates and price levels. The large swings in New Zealands exchange rate during the 1990s were broadly consistent with the estimated conditional equilibrium, while the equally large swings in the exchange rate since 2000 were moves away from the conditional equilibrium. This may be because some factor other than interest rates or price levels has driven the exchange rate away from the conditional equilibrium since 2000. Alternatively, the long-run relationship between interest rates and the exchange rate may have changed since the 1990s.
Mediates an active uptake of hexoses, probably by sugar/hydrogen symport. Can transport glucose, 3-O-methylglucose, mannose, fructose and galactose, and, to a lower extent, xylose and ribulose.
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Erythrocyte 3-O-methyl-D-glucose uptake assay for diagnosis of glucose- transporter-protein syndrome. AU - Klepper, Jörg. AU - Garcia-Alvarez, Marcela. AU - ODriscoll, Kevin R.. AU - Parides, Michael K.. AU - Wang, Dong. AU - Ho, Yuan Yuan. AU - De Vivo, Darryl C.. PY - 1999/5/12. Y1 - 1999/5/12. N2 - Glucose transport into the brain is mediated by a facilitative glucose- transporter protein, GLUT-1.A GLUT-1 defect results in the Glucose- Transporter-Protein Syndrome (GTPS), characterized by infantile epilepsy, developmental delay, and acquired microcephaly. The diagnosis is currently based on clinical features, low to normal lactate levels and low glucose levels (hypoglycorrhachia) in the cerebrospinal fluid, and the demonstration of impaired GLUT-1 function in erythrocytes as described here. Blood samples were collected in sodium-heparin or citrate-phosphate-dextrose solution and uptake of 14C-labeled 3-O-Methyl-D-glucose (3OMG) into erythrocytes (0.5 mmol/L 3OMG; 1μCi/mL) ...
It has been hypothesized on the basis of studies on BC3H-1 myocytes that diacylglycerol generation with activation of protein kinase C (PKC) is involved in the stimulation of glucose transport in muscle by insulin. In the present study, we used the rat epitrochlearis muscle to evaluate the possibility that PKC activity mediates the stimulation of glucose transport by insulin in mammalian skeletal muscle. Phospholipase C from Clostridium perfringens (PLC-Cp), which generates diacylglycerol from membrane phospholipids, and 4 beta-phorbol 12 beta-myristate 13 alpha-acetate (PMA) induced increases in glucose transport activity (assessed using 3-O-methylglucose transport) that were approximately 80 and approximately 20% as great, respectively, as that induced by a maximal insulin stimulus. PLC-Cp and PMA both caused a approximately 2-fold increase in membrane-associated PKC activity. In contrast, insulin did not affect PKC activity. These findings argue against a role of diacylglycerol-mediated PKC ...
To determine the role of insulin in reversing the insulin resistance associated with depletion of the intracellular pool of glucose transporters, streptozocin-induced diabetic rats were treated with 5 U/day s.c. of insulin for 0, 8, or 14 days. At each time point, adipose cells were isolated, and 3-O-methylglucose transport was measured in the absence and presence of 1000 μU/ml insulin. With the cytochalasin B-binding assay, concentrations of glucose transporters in the plasma and the low-density microsomal membrane fractions were determined. Eight-day insulin therapy enhanced glucose transport rate (mean ± SE) from 0.2 ± 0.0 to 1.1 ± 0.1 fmol · cell−1 · min−1 in the basal state and from 0.8 ± 0.1 to 5.5 ± 0.4 fmol · cell−1 · min−1 in the insulin-stimulated state in untreated and treated diabetic rats, respectively; this is a 3-fold increment of glucose transport rate in both states compared with control rats. After 14-day insulin therapy, glucose-transport activity declined ...
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PURPOSE: To evaluate the ability of spin-lock imaging to detect the uptake of 3-o-methyl-D-glucose (3oMG) in normal brain and brain tumors in animals. METHODS: Measurements of the longitudinal relaxation rate in the rotating frame (R 1ρ ) were made over a range of spin-lock powers in rat brains bearing 9L tumors. The dispersion of R 1ρ values was quantified by ΔR 1ρ , the difference of R 1ρ values acquired with low and high locking powers. The glucose analogue 3oMG was administered intravenously and the differences of ΔR 1ρ values ( ΔR1ρdiff) before and as a function of time after administration were calculated to isolate the contribution of 3oMG to the dispersions, which at high fields primarily reflects chemical exchange effects ...
Suuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuucks! Edit: I had a nice little write up about how it has a old school feel and is better suited for women, then I went to grantica to grab a photo and saw it is old and marketed to women. Still sucks nonetheless and Im done with this house. The House of Banned:
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Are we dating? OMG? I have a friends with benefits with this girl Cassie she 19 Im 20. We been friends with benefits for about 2 years now. But my friend Ben told me shes...... asked under Dating
when im happy i losten to it its great x I know, right? I actually prefer The Grand Finale; its just a longer version and has more heart put into it, in my opinion. I love this soundtrack. ...
:sleeping:OMFG!!!!!!! :freakingout: My daughter just turned four last week and she is still not sleeping all night!!!. 4 years of broken sleep!!! She went for 10 weeks at about 3.5 years and that was it. I have tried EVERYTHING!! And the
OMG Music Plus (also known as OMG Music Toolbar) is a very questionable plug-in, which may be related to Search.conduit.com. This extension may affect all
Oy. Im a former public defender, so dont watch any legal shows (NEVER any of those CSI shows, but I do love it when the forensic chemists grab their badges & guns to go have shoot outs with suspects. HA HA HA!), because it makes my head hurt when people try to act smart by talking legal. Dr. Lenny (did I hear right? He is a dentist?) issues a public INDICTMENT…What is that? Just accusing Duesberg of inventing AIDS? But then Lenny goes on to call on all the courts of heaven and earth to act on this indictment, and punish Dr. Duesberg for all of eternity. Well, okay I guess. But I have a few questions about which courts have jurisdiction, and adequacy of service…. The moderator should just change his name, move to a new state, and start his life over. Ive heard bad moderators in action, but he was the worst. He didnt even know how to control the flow of the show. When Lenny jumped in and attacked Dr. Duesberg for mischaracterizing Dr. Graves sheep story, I thought Lenny was right. ...
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This is a bottle of Newly High Quality 100pcs PH + Glucose + Protein Urine Testing Strips, allow you to test your Urine PH + Protein + Glucose Content within 30 seconds! --| One Strip for 3 test - PH,...
The description lists several options how to use the vitablets. One is to put it into water and cleanse the face with the water, another way is to drop one vitablet in a spray bottle and use it as a face mist. They also mention that you can use it to take a bath. I had seen this product on the Memebox website before and hoped I would get it in one of the boxes. Naturally I am happy to get it. I think I will try it as facial mist and as a cleanser and see what I like better ...
There is this one single real life friend of mine whom Ive told about fandom and shown one of my stories to (unless you count the sister, whom I sometimes forget is in fact a being separate from my own). The girl is everything I am not, with the shining exception of a few moments. She was in an up moment and I was in a down one, and it was the perfect time for us to meet because shes uplifting and I needed that. She bragged a new sexual experiment; she says I have that effect on her, to make her talk of sex (a statement I wont comment on, despite being terribly tempted :g:), which in all accuracy is not by any means on purpose. I did something new and different that I had been meaning to do for a while, she said in those exact words, and by telepathy and a healthy weekly dose of slash porn I knew before the sentence was over what she had done. its actually very, very good, and not what a girl generally expects of it she continued, after some time of omg-how-did-you-know and ...
PLEASE READ THIS AND HELP ME i am a young teen and i have lumps all in the INSIDE of my vagina.they are not small but not huge either ..i dont know if thats normal or not..the lumps are never itchy or ...
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Im so excited and nervous and having a hard time not shouting my happy news to the world. I still cant believe it. Yay!!!
I hope you guys in America reelect Obama.Some of you may not cmtlpeoly understand his healthcare plan.Some may think it just cant work. But is does.I live in Belgium, and our healthcare is one of the best in the world.We all have to pay (yes, even if you never get sick) but we all can pay the hospital costs when we get seriously sick.If we break a leg, we dont think: omg, i cant pay this. We think, omg does it hurt a lot?. Reply to Iheb ...
Emerson Spartz is the founder and CEO of Chicago-based Spartz Media, the company behind Gives Me Hope and OMG Facts. If you havent heard of Spartz: he started
Have You Become Extra Sensitive With Crohns? OMG. I feel the same way. I watch t.v and i see someone crying and i start to cry. Im on entocort and i honestly think it has alot to do with it. I dont think its age. I also am more aware of my.... ...
I just got home from taking my NCLEX- omg..I know I failed. It was so bad. I actually only got 76 questions, but it was still the worst test I have EVER taken......:sniff:
In case no one has noticed yet, there are bubble gum flavored peeps this year!!!! OMG, they are so good too. I could eat them by the ton.
This study was designed to examine the effects of a high-fat refined-sugar (HFS) or a low-fat complex-carbohydrate (LFCC) diet on insulin-stimulated skeletal muscle glucose transport, plasma insulin, blood pressure, plasma triglycerides, plasma glycerol, body weight, and body fat in female Fischer rats. Insulin-stimulated glucose transport was significantly reduced in the HFS group at 2 wk, 2 mo, and 2 yr, whereas serum insulin was significantly elevated at all time points. Blood pressure was not significantly elevated in the HFS group until 12 mo, and all HFS animals were hypertensive by 18 mo. Glycerol, triglycerides, and abdominal fat cell size were not significantly different at 2 wk but were significantly elevated in the HFS rats at 2 and 6 mo. Body weight was similar in both groups until 20 wk on the diet, when the HFS rats started to gain more weight. These results demonstrate that insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia occur before the other manifestations of the metabolic syndrome and ...
A protein of ~ 70-kDa was identified as a candidate Na +/Mg 2+ exchanger in rumen epithelial cells (REC). Melastatin-related Transient Receptor Potential 7 (TRPM7) and Magnesium Transporter 1 (MagT1) transcripts and, from them, encoded proteins were also detected. The regulation of these Mg transport pathways by extracellular [Mg] changes was the main focus of this study. Therefore, a 24-h pre-incubation of ovine REC in control (1.2 mM), low (0.12 mM)-Mg, and high (5 mM)-Mg medium was performed. Na +/Mg 2+ exchangers, TRPM7 and MagT1 abundance and activity were investigated by Western blot analysis, flow cytometry, immunocytochemistry and fluorescence spectroscopic measurements of [Mg 2+] i changes. Inhibitors were employed to differentiate Na +/Mg 2+ exchanger-mediated (imipramine) and channel-mediated (cobalt(III)hexaammine, nitrendipine) Mg transport. Basal [Mg 2+] i (0.40 ± 0.02 mM) was not influenced by pre-incubation in low- or high-Mg medium. However, compared with control REC (4.1 ± ...
Dehydroascorbate (DHA) competitively inhibits the uptake of 2-deoxy-D-glucose and of3-O-methyl-D-glucose by human blood neutrophils; 2-deoxyglucose and 3-0-methylglucose competitively inhibit dehydroascorbate uptake Ratios of Km to KI are near unity for each of these I gands. Exposure of cultured human fibroblasts to insulin enhances cytochalasin B-inhibitable uptake of DHA and of 2-deoxyglucose, both to the same degree. These observations suggest that DHA transport is mediated by glucose transport systems in human neutrophils and fibroblasts.. ...
OMG OMG OMG OMG OMG OMG!!!!!!!!!!!! I LOVE IT I LOVE IT I LOVE IT I LOVE IT! S is going to die of joy! The stinkers at USPS said they were delivering it yesterday and we paced the door ALL DAY and of course they were a no-show. I did not think it would be possible to be more excited, but OMG I AM! I promise not to show S the photos to keep the secret. IT IS BEYOND PERFECT!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!. ReplyDelete ...
Im a straight woman; my husband and I have been married for 29 years. Same-sex marriage has ABSOLUTELY affected our marriage!! In the past few years here in CT, three, THREE!!! gay couples that we know have gotten married. David and Tom. Steve and Paul. Barbara and Pat. OMG they are so GAY! We were invited to the weddings. Guess what happened to us! Oh noes!!! OMG it was SO SO UNBELIEVABLY GAY! When these couples said their vows to each other, my husband and I HELD HANDS and remembered OUR OWN VOWS and GUESS WHAT!!!!! Our marriage felt renewed and refreshed THE SAME AS IT DOES WHEN WE ATTEND WEDDINGS OF OUR HETERO FRIENDS!! OMG! I even cried a little. OMG! Who would have thought that gay wedding ceremonies could have the same effect on me as straight ceremonies???! OMG do you think gay people are just the same as everyone else??? OMG is it possible ...
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Been a little MIA the few days. Apologies, one thing you about RL that doesnt happen in SL being sick. Ive had the worst head cold the last few days and RL has been a bit busy for me as well, but Im back, let see if I can catch up on some great finds from the Grid. For this first post in August I am going to talk about the Gimmie Gimmie Gacha Event, OMG! Rooms New Round, another cool Gacha Event from the O! Like Blah Blah Blah Village, and the Aloha Fair 2014. Ive got a few nice Freebies as well! Full Post can be found .:HERE:. ...
How I Found It OMG! omg omg *cries*. Dramatic? Yes =D. But this is amazing! Problems with greasy skin and lotsa sebum?! BUY THIS! I was really shocked at the difference, and it lasts! Ive been using it every couple of days, narmally if im gunna put make-up on and its great. Deffinatly a huge change in daily build up, gunna buy again and theres another one from this brand that im going to try aswell ...
and itd be nice to read some of those things we were talking about, i figured id say it here so other people could be helped out too but anyways, about that doctor i was talking about, i talked to him and he seems to know about a lot...he doesnt just have the igenex labs, he has the quest ones and some other one that has tech in the name that i forgot....but i think that quest one is a very good lab? he said he can order any test i wanted, so i think ill get that OAT test and the other test...he had one of those bloodwork sheets, and something on it was yeast antibodies so im sure he knows about those type of things. from what i hear, that OAT test sounds like it says a LOT about the body, huh? seems like in my case, its bound to shed some light, but im wondering about those lyme tests too...i know about igenex, but ive heard a lot about the other two but really dont have a clue...but i figure since hes so open minded and wants to order any test, itd be good to get everything i ...
Hey, yall! Hubby and I brought the flu bug back from Texas so its been a very long week here at Hansen House. But I missed you guys too much to stay away any longer. Plus, its Monday, and its just a rule that we start our week off with a laugh here at More…
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What you read here may or may not be true. We do not claim credit for any images, except where noted. Please let us know if we use your image and you would like it removed ...
minggu ke 2 ujian, didera sariawan berat (seminggu gag ilang2... wew) dan ternyata saya kedatangan tamu: SAKIT GIGI... huhuhu :( awalnya gigi geraham bawah, sebelah kiri, no 2 dari depan, tanggal... WEks!! ya patah, dulu pas awal smp ditambal, trus sma cuil, dan sekarang pas kuliah lepas.. wadoww!! selasa siang,, awalnya gag sakit, bahkan saya gag…
Whilst watching OrganisedJens latest youtube this morning about her two planners i was sitting looking at my EC (Erin Condren), and it hit me that i should uncoil it and stick it into my gold Kikki K... There is no uncoiling video or photos as it really was a spur of the moment thing. I…
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This isnt the only thread about this, it just happened to be the first one I came across. I dont think its disrespectful at all towards Freemasonry...since there is nothing masonic about it. I am just commenting on the general disconnect with reality that conspiracy theorists have with finding hidden symbols in EVERY single half time show or other major media event. Nothing is really there, people just feel like they are somehow more enlightened if they join in on the omg teh hidden symbols! dog pile (that doesnt mean YOU are doing it, but there are a lot of threads on this and many people are). They all ignore the perfectly rational reasons for why these shows are they way they are. They may be tasteless, but thats about it ...
Omg this is shocking if we cant trust the people that are placed to serve us what the hell do we do 24 officers in 2015/16 thats disgraceful lets ho... ...
Här kommer en sammanställning av de senaste årens elfiskeresultat. Y axeln visar tätheter öring/m² i alla åldrar. Elfiskena bedrivs som en omgång på 20m, och tätheterna räknas ut efter vattenbredd vid elfisketillfället. Kul att se att den negativa trenden verkar bruten, och vi nådde all time high resultat för Svalevadsbäckens sträcka. 4 öringar/m² är världsklass, men vi får inte glömma att de platser vi elfiskar på varierar från riktigt goda förutsättningar för öring till i alla fall godkända. Sen återstår 90% av vattendragets längd med alla biflöden, som är direkt usla. /Fred. ...
OMG, I have tried everything on the market for my hair. I must say this product has been the best one, left my hair looking shiny and sleek. Feeling very soft and healthy. Im so glad I bought the set of 5 because if one looks like this I can only imagine doing 5 treatments. Loveeee it ...
OMG!! I was just in the shower massaging my boobie cause it was painful and felt like a clogged duct was happening. When i looked down my fingers were covered in what i can only describe as snot!!! It
///THE TRUE MEANING OF THE INTERNET FACES/// |.|... ok nothing over here... ///| OMG did he really just say that?!? B )) Yea look at these cheesy...
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Seponering bør overvejes ved leverinsufficiens uden anden kendt årsag. ** Ses oftest i forbindelse med behandlingsstart eller dosisøgning. *** I meget sjældne tilfælde - specielt ved kombination med antipsykotika - er der set såkaldt malignt neuroleptikasyndrom, bestående af varierende kombinationer af parkinsonisme, dystone træk, forhøjet temperatur og puls, labilt blodtryk, sved, bevidsthedsændringer samt leukocytose og forhøjet kreatininfosfokinase. Der kræves omgående seponering og ofte indlæggelse på specialafdeling. Se endvidere Antipsykotika - bivirkninger. ...
omg i love justin bieber i know every thing about him lol i hope to meet you some day justin (call me please my # 402-217-1776) you are…. ...
Seponering bør overvejes ved leverinsufficiens uden anden kendt årsag. ** Ses oftest i forbindelse med behandlingsstart eller dosisøgning. *** I meget sjældne tilfælde - specielt ved kombination med antipsykotika - er der set såkaldt malignt neuroleptikasyndrom, bestående af varierende kombinationer af parkinsonisme, dystone træk, forhøjet temperatur og puls, labilt blodtryk, sved, bevidsthedsændringer samt leukocytose og forhøjet kreatininfosfokinase. Der kræves omgående seponering og ofte indlæggelse på specialafdeling. Se endvidere Antipsykotika - bivirkninger. ...
OMG (to coin a popular acronym), theres only a few days to go before the end of the Ludum Dare October Challenge! And as per usual I got insanely distracted by new things to add to Spacemines, one of which was Robot workers and the impeding Robot rebellion that would ensue should you have too…
... glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate MeSH D09.698.211.500 - chitosan MeSH D09.698.350.500 - inulin MeSH D09.698.360.041 - agar MeSH ... 3-o-methylglucose MeSH D09.408.348.700 - picrotoxin MeSH D09.408.348.800 - teniposide MeSH D09.408.348.820 - thioglucosides ... 3-o-methylglucose MeSH D09.408.514.700 - methylmannosides MeSH D09.408.620.569 - nucleoside diphosphate sugars MeSH D09.408. ... 3-diphosphoglycerate MeSH D09.811.522.050 - acetylmuramyl-alanyl-isoglutamine MeSH D09.811.589.668 - sialic acids MeSH D09.811. ...
In some viruses (specifically, bacteriophage), cytosine may be replaced by hydroxy methyl or hydroxy methyl glucose cytosine.[5 ... 3 (7): 545-50. doi:10.1038/nmeth896. PMID 16791213.. *^ a b Margulies M, Egholm M, et al. (September 2005). "Genome Sequencing ... 3 (3): 35-42. doi:10.1162/152651603322874762. PMID 14735880.. *^ a b Henderson, Mark. "Human genome sequencing: the real ... 91 (3): 232-42. doi:10.1016/j.ygeno.2007.11.004.. *^ Alberti A, Belser C, Engelen S, Bertrand L, Orvain C, Brinas L, Cruaud C, ...
3.. OLD PRODUCT: LOreal Double Extend Eye Illuminator Eye Liner, Black Quartz (Brown Eyes) (old formulation). Eye Liner. ...
3-O-Methylglucose is used as a marker to assess glucose transport by evaluating its uptake within various cells and organ ... 3-O-Methylglucose. Known as: 3 O Methylglucose, 3-O-Methyl-D-Glucose, D-glucose, 3-O-methyl- (More). ... 3-O-Methylglucose is used as a marker to assess glucose transport by… (More) ... Insulin receptor substrate-1 phosphorylation and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity in skeletal muscle from NIDDM subjects ...
3-O-Methylglucose is used as a marker to assess glucose transport by evaluating its uptake within various cells and organ ... 3-O-Methylglucose: A non-metabolizable glucose analogue that is not phosphorylated by hexokinase. ... 3. Neuroblastoma 06/15/2004 - "In the present study, 3-O-methyl-D-glucose (3-OMG) uptake and its modulation by selected ... 3-O-Methylglucose is used as a marker to assess glucose transport by evaluating its uptake within various cells and organ ...
AVOBENZONE active ingredient 3% Concerns: Cancer, Allergies/immunotoxicity, Contamination concerns (BENZOIC ACID, 4-T- ... Environmental Working Group is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit corporation, EIN 52-2148600.. Copyright © 2020. Environmental Working ... Ingredients from label Active Ingredients: Avobenzone 3%, Homosalate 10%, Octisalate 5%, Octocrylene 10%, Inactive Ingredients ... Polyglyceryl-3 Methylglucose Distearate, Tapioca Starch, Glyceryl Stearate, PEG-100 Stearate, Microcrystalline Cellulose, ...
PEG-20 methyl glucose sesquistearate A mix of polyethylene glycol, methyl glucose, and stearic acid that serves as an emollient ... methyl glucose sesquistearate A mixure of the diesters of methyl glucoside and stearic acid. Functions as a skin-conditioning ... polyglyceryl-3 stearate Polyglyceryl-3 stearate is the ester of the fatty acid stearic acid and polyglycerin-3, which is a ... PPG-3 benzyl ether myristate An emollient that has a silicone-like feel and multiple functions in cosmetic products... ...
di-PPG-3 myristyl ether adipate Derivative of myristyl alcohol (a fatty alcohol) and adipic acid (a buffering and neutralizing ... polyglyceryl-3 beeswax The ester of fatty acids from beeswax and polyglycerin-3 that functions as a surfactant and... ...
A, treatment with 3 μmol/L vemurafenib (Vem) causes a decrease in glucose uptake as assessed by flow cytometry using the ... C, incubation of 3 μmol/L vemurafenib-treated cells in hypoosmotic 2-NBDG solution restored glucose uptake to the same level as ... A, 3 μmol/L vemurafenib induces a decrease in overall hexokinase activity per cell after 72 hours in sensitive cell lines. ... Figure 3. Vemurafenib (VEM) induces a decrease in transmembrane glucose uptake per cell. 3 μmol/L vemurafenib (+) incubation ...
... methylglucose (3-omg) with enhancement of antitumor activity in l1210 leukemia. Abstr." (1976). Subject Strain Bibliography ... methylglucose (3-omg) with enhancement of antitumor activity in l1210 leukemia. Abstr. ... Wick, M; Rossini, A; and Glynn, D, "Reduction of streptozotocin (sz) toxicity by 3-0- - ...
Pretreatment with the nonmetabolizable glucose analog 3-O-methyl glucose prevented these alterations. Chronic insulin ... The Effect of Diabetes on Expression of 1 - , 2 - , and 3 - Adrenoreceptors in Rat Hearts. *Deniz Dinçer. , Keshore R. Bidasee ... Prevention of streptozotocin-induced alterations in the rat heart by 3-O-methyl glucose and insulin treatments.. *. S ... article{Ramanadham1987PreventionOS, title={Prevention of streptozotocin-induced alterations in the rat heart by 3-O-methyl ...
40, hydrochloric acid, imidurea, laurdimonium hydrolyzed animal collagen, macrogol 120 methyl glucose dioleate, perfume bouquet ... Ketoconazole is cis-1-acetyl-4-[4-[[2-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-2-(1H-imidazol-1-ylmethyl)-1,3-dioxolan-4-yl]methoxy]phenyl] ... none of these events occurred in more than 3% of the patients in any one of the three groups. ... or in 33 patients who shampooed 2-3 times per week for 3-26 months (mean: 16 months). ...
methyl glucose caprate/caprylate/oleate. moisturizer. derived from plant sources. propanediol. solvent. derived from plant ... polyglyceryl-3 laurate. emollient. derived from palm or coconut oil. ...
PEG-120 METHYL GLUCOSE DIOLEATE • ACRYLATES COPOLYMER • SODIUM LAUROYL SARCOSINATE • SODIUM COCOYL ISETHIONATE • SODIUM METHYL ... COCOYL TAURATE • ORCHID EXTRACT • PARFUM (FRAGRANCE) • PHENOXYETHANOL • PEG-3 DISTEARATE • SODIUM CHLORIDE • TROMETHAMINE • 1,2 ...
PEG-120 METHYL GLUCOSE DIOLEATE • PHENOXYETHANOL • SODIUM CHLORIDE • PENTYLENE GLYCOL • LIMONENE • SODIUM CITRATE • TETRASODIUM ... 3 samples offered* to discover Guerlains expertise in skincare, makeup, and fragrance ... EDTA • CITRIC ACID • GLYCERIN • LAURETH-3 • LINALOOL • COUMARIN • CITRAL • BHT • TOCOPHEROL. #12412 INGREDIENTS: ALCOHOL • AQUA ...
3-O-Methylglucose is used as a marker to assess glucose transport by evaluating its uptake within various cells and organ ... 3-o-methylglucose. A non-metabolizable glucose analogue that is not phosphorylated by hexokinase. ... Assessment of exposure to chlorpyrifos based on its urinary metabolite, 3,5,6... ...
Influx of phosphate (Pi) and methylglucose in MG-63 osteoblasts.. Guilland-Cumming D, Bevington A, Russell RG. ... 2012 Mar;27(3):997-1004. doi: 10.1093/ndt/gfr364. Epub 2011 Jul 27. ...
O-methylglucose (3OMG) transport was measured according to the method of Johnson et al. (32). Briefly, isolated islets were ... O-methylglucose; BSA, bovine serum albumin; dNTP, deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates; GK, glucokinase; GLP-1, glucagon-like ... 3B) revealing a statistically significant twofold increase in the levels of both GLUT2 as well as GK mRNA in islets from RIP- ... 3A). Interestingly and in contrast to glucagon, SUR-1, and Kir6.2, mRNA expression of GLUT2 and GK (the two key components in ...
POLYGLYCERYL-3 METHYLGLUCOSE DISTEARATE. ALUMINUM STARCH OCTENYLSUCCINATE. MENTHA PIPERITA (PEPPERMINT) LEAF EXTRACT. PEG-100 ... AVOBENZONE 3%...PURPOSE: SUNSCREEN. HOMOSALATE 5%...SUNSCREEN. OCTISALATE 5%...PURPOSE: SUNSCREEN. OCTOCRYLENE 5%...PURPOSE: ...
Aqua (Water); Glycerin; Propanediol; Biosaccharide Gum-1; Limnanthes alba (Meadowfoam) Seed Oil; Diglycerin; Polyglyceryl-3 ... Methylglucose Distearate; Dipalmitoylhydroxyproline; Ascorbyl Glucoside; Sorbitol; Fagus sylvatica Bud Extract; Avena sativa ( ... Aqua (Water); Glycerin; Propanediol; Biosaccharide Gum-1; Limnanthes alba (Meadowfoam) Seed Oil; Diglycerin; Polyglyceryl-3 ... Methylglucose Distearate; Dipalmitoylhydroxyproline; Ascorbyl Glucoside; Sorbitol; Fagus sylvatica Bud Extract; Avena sativa ( ...
Peg-120 Methyl Glucose Dioleate. Enteromorpha Compressa Extract. Lessonia Nigrescens Extract. Sodium Chloride. Sodium Sulfate. ... Peg-120 Methyl Glucose Dioleate. Enteromorpha Compressa Extract. Lessonia Nigrescens Extract. Sodium Chloride. Sodium Sulfate. ... Fragrance (Parfum). Methoxy Peg/Ppg-7/3 Aminopropyl Dimethicone. Guar Hydroxypropyltrimonium Chloride. Disteareth-75 Ipdi. ... Fragrance (Parfum). Methoxy Peg/Ppg-7/3 Aminopropyl Dimethicone. Guar Hydroxypropyltrimonium Chloride. Disteareth-75 Ipdi. ...
PEG-120 Methyl Glucose Dioleate. PEG-7 Glyceryl Cocoate. Enteromorpha Compressa (Linnaeus) Extract. Lessonia Nigrescens Extract ... Parfum (Fragrance). Methoxy PEG/PPG-7/3 Aminopropyl Dimethicone. Guar Hydroxypropyltrimonium Chloride. Benzyl Salicylate. ...
PEG-2 METHYL GLUCOSE SESQUISTEARATE • ETHYLHEXYL METHOXYCINNAMATE • METHYL GLUCOSE SESQUISTEARATE • CETYL PALMITATE • NYLON-12 ... Print Use it in your daily routine with other Hydra Zen products: Cream Fluid SPF 3, Cream-Gel (oil-free), Cream (Dry Skin), ... CERAMIDE 3 • ROSA GALLICA EXTRACT / ROSA GALLICA FLOWER EXTRACT • LITHIUM MAGNESIUM SODIUM SILICATE • LECITHIN • SODIUM ... CHLORIDE • SODIUM HYALURONATE • CELLULOSE ACETATE BUTYRATE • 2-OLEAMIDO-1,3-OCTADECANEDIOL • POLOXAMER 188 • AMMONIUM ...
Electronic publication date: Day: 20 Month: 3 Year: 2013. Volume: 9 Issue: 1. First Page: 11 Last Page: 11. PubMed Id: 23509907 ... 3Division of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, St. Michaels Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada. ... found that 90 minutes of vigorous exercise increased the interleukin-6 level by only 3-fold when compared to rest. Additionally ... 3]. Clinical presentation can include dermatologic manifestations, such as flushing, urticaria and angioedema, as well as upper ...
Inositol phospho-oligosaccharides from rat fibroblasts and adipocytes stimulate 3-O-methylglucose transport. Biochem J, 295: ...
Methyl Glucose Sesquistearate. Methylparaben. Mineral Oil. PEG-20 Methyl Glucose Sesquistearate. Petrolatum Solid. ... 1,3-Butanediol. Cetearyl Alcohol. Sodium Lauroyl Sarcosinate Episoft - Glenmark Pharmaceuticals Cetostearyl Alcohol. Acrylates ... Myreth-3 Myristate. Petrolatum. Phenoxyethanol. Sodium Carbomer. Sodium Citrate. Sodium PCA. Vitamin E (Tocopherol Acetate). ... Polyglyceryl-3 Methylglucose Distearate. Potassium Phosphate. Propylparaben. Serine. Sodium Lactate. Sodium Phosphate Dibasic. ...
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3.. Galbo H, Holst JJ, Christensen NJ: Glucagon and plasma catecholamine responses to graded and prolonged exercise in man. J ... Lorenzi M, Karam JH, Tsalikian E, et al: Dopamine during a-or 3-adrenergic blockade in man. J Clin Invest 63: 310-317, 1979. ... X. Changes in permeability to 3-methylglucose associated with contraction of isolated frog muscle. J Biol Chem 240: 3493-3500, ... Burns TW, Langley PE: Lipolysis by human adipose tissue: the role of cyclic 3,5-adenosine mono-phosphate and adrenergic ...
Rights & permissionsfor article Inhibition by Bile Salts of the Jejunal Transport of 3-O-Methyl Glucose . Opens in a new window ... Inhibition by Bile Salts of the Jejunal Transport of 3-O-Methyl Glucose *CLAUDE C. ROY ...
Polyglyceryl-3-methylglucose distearate. Tocopheryl acetate. Aloe barbadensis. Cyclopentasiloxane. Glyceryl stearate. Sodium ...
Polyglyceryl-3 Methylglucose Distearate; Butyrospermum parkii (Shea) Butter; Stearic Acid; Cochlearia armoracia (Horseradish) ...
2001) Correlation between local glucose transporter densities and local 3-O-methylglucose transport in rat brain. Neurosci Lett ...
  • 3-O-Methylglucose is used as a marker to assess glucose transport by evaluating its uptake within various cells and organ systems. (curehunter.com)
  • The addition of the glucose transporter inhibitor cytochalasin B caused hypoxic hearts to fail early, and hearts perfused with a glucose analogue, 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG), increased glucose uptake 3-fold under hypoxia. (biologists.org)
  • Under the conditions employed in these experiments, it is clear that (1) activation of glucose transport is required to support hypoxic performance, (2) the rate-limiting step for glucose utilization is glucose transport rather than glucose phosphorylation, (3) 2-DG uptake accurately reflects glucose transport activity and (4) glucose uptake in cod hearts does not involve an Na + -dependent mechanism. (biologists.org)
  • and 3) inhibition of cellular uptake of 3-O-methylglucose. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Uptake of radiolabeled 3-O-methylglucose was reduced by 40 to 50 percent. (cdc.gov)
  • METHODS The action of PGE 2 on carbohydrate absorption in the ex situ perfused rat small intestine and on 3- O -[ 14 C]methylglucose uptake in isolated villus tip enterocytes was determined. (bmj.com)
  • in isolated enterocytes it stimulated 3- O -[ 14 C]methylglucose uptake. (bmj.com)
  • The 3- O -[ 14 C]methylglucose uptake could be inhibited by the cAMP antagonist RpcAMPS and the specific inhibitor of SGLT1, phlorizin. (bmj.com)
  • cAMP enhanced sugar accumulation in chicken epithelial cells 3 and augmented glucose uptake into brush border membrane vesicles prepared from rat enterocytes. (bmj.com)
  • 12 The mRNA expression of G s linked EP2R and EP4R, 10 the observed activation of adenylate cyclase by PGE 2 , 11 and the reported stimulation of 3- O -methylglucose uptake by dbcAMP 4 in enterocytes suggested that PGE 2 should enhance intestinal glucose absorption. (bmj.com)
  • Glutamate caused a twofold to threefold increase in the zero-trans uptake rates of the fluorescent hexoses 2-[ N -(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)amino]-2-deoxyglucose (2-NBDG) and 6-[ N -(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)amino]-6-deoxyglucose (6-NBDG). (jneurosci.org)
  • The first assay measured the uptake of the slowly transported fluorescent hexoses 2-[ N -(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)amino]-2-deoxyglucose (2-NBDG) and 6-[ N -(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)-amino]-6-deoxyglucose (6-NBDG). (jneurosci.org)
  • Glucose uptake into Langendorff hearts of insulin-resistant Zucker was measured with the [ 14 C] 3-O-methylglucose washout method. (thisisms.com)
  • 6. The water-in-oil microemulsion composition of claim 3 wherein the oil phase comprises C 9-45 triglycerides, C 7-55 diesters of propylene glycol, and mixtures thereof. (google.com)
  • Additionally, folP2 overlapped glucosyl-3-phosphoglycerate synthase. (asm.org)
  • 2008). Mycobacterium tuberculosis glucosyl-3-phosphoglycerate synthase: Structure of a key enzyme in methylglucose lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis . (up.pt)
  • Sub-chronic Hepatotoxicity of Anacardium occidentale (Anacardiaceae) Inner Stem Bark Extract in Rats," Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 73(3):353-357, 2010. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Insulin receptor substrate-1 phosphorylation and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity in skeletal muscle from NIDDM subjects after in vivo insulin stimulation. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Furthermore, it has been determined that HGF is able to activate phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase in fetal pancreatic islet cells in vitro ( 24 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Abbreviations: IRS=insulin regulatory subunit, ERK=extracellular regulated kinase, MEK=mitogen activated kinase kinases, PI3K=phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, PD98059=ERK/MEK inhibitor, SB203580=p38 MAPK inhibitor, anisomycin=activator of p38 and jun kinase pathways. (nih.gov)
  • Abbreviations: PMA= phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, PDK-1=protein-dependent kinase-1, PI3K=phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase, PKB=protein kinase B, mTOR=mammalian target of rapamycin, PKCβII=protein kinase C βII. (nih.gov)
  • containing 3 g of 3-O-methylglucose (3-OMG)) that was infused directly into the small intestine. (curehunter.com)
  • Besides gastric emptying, numerous factors may theoretically influence the kinetics of 3-O MG absorption, including mucosal integrity, the number of sodium glucose co-transporters, small intestine peristalsis, blood flow, the volume of distribution of the substance, and alterations in renal clearance [ 4 , 6 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Inositol phospho-oligosaccharides from rat fibroblasts and adipocytes stimulate 3-O-methylglucose transport. (springer.com)
  • Transport of 3-O-methylglucose and 2-deoxyglucose was stimulated approximately twofold by insulin in muscle from normal nonobese subjects and stimulation occurred in the normal physiological range of insulin concentrations. (jci.org)
  • In contrast to insulin stimulation of 3-O-methylglucose and 2-deoxyglucose transport in muscle from normal, nonobese subjects, tissue from morbidly obese subjects, with or without NIDDM, were not responsive to insulin. (jci.org)
  • Maximal 3-O-methylglucose transport was lower in muscle of obese than nonobese subjects. (jci.org)
  • Based on these observations, we conclude that PHA stimulation increases glucose transport partly by inducing the expression of GLUT-1 instead of GLUT-3 and that GLUT-1 expression is induced by signals generated by IL-2 binding to its high affinity receptors. (jimmunol.org)
  • 3-O-Methylglucose transport was determined and plasma membranes and low-density microsomes were prepared for Western blotting. (biochemj.org)
  • Phospholipase C from Clostridium perfringens (PLC-Cp), which generates diacylglycerol from membrane phospholipids, and 4 beta-phorbol 12 beta-myristate 13 alpha-acetate (PMA) induced increases in glucose transport activity (assessed using 3-O-methylglucose transport) that were approximately 80 and approximately 20% as great, respectively, as that induced by a maximal insulin stimulus. (osti.gov)
  • Prevention of streptozotocin-induced alterations in the rat heart by 3-O-methyl glucose and insulin treatments. (semanticscholar.org)
  • in 13 patients with a faeces collector because of loose stools, the caloric value of energy loss was a mean of 301 kcal/day, and 3 patients had a loss of more than 500 kcal/day in the stools [ 7 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • A liquid nutrient (3 kcal/min) was administered intraduodenally for 30 min, followed by a bolus of the glucose analog 3- O -methylglucose (3-OMG). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Biochemical Journal, 473 (3), 335 - 345. (up.pt)
  • Ketoconazole 2% was not detected in plasma in 39 patients who shampooed 4-10 times per week for 6 months, or in 33 patients who shampooed 2-3 times per week for 3-26 months (mean: 16 months). (drugs.com)
  • Plasma 3-OMG concentrations were measured to assess absorption kinetics. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • After PHA stimulation, GLUT-1 expression was induced predominantly in the plasma membrane, whereas GLUT-3 expression was simultaneously down-regulated. (jimmunol.org)
  • We propose to test, in a double blind placebo controlled study, whether coadministration of 1 or 2 grams of quercetin with glucose will reduce plasma glucose concentrations during a 6 hour oral glucose tolerance test with 3 to 6 grams of 3-O-methyl glucose (3OMG) in non-diabetic obese subjects and in obese type 2 diabetic subjects. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • 2016). Ataxin-3 phosphorylation decreases neuronal defects in spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 models . (up.pt)
  • Equilibrium exchange flux of 3-O-methyl glucose (3-O-MG) was stimulated two- and fourfold at 24 and 48 h after PHA stimulation, respectively. (jimmunol.org)
  • Preliminary incubation of fibroblasts with 8-bromo cGMP or phosphodiesterase inhibitors, including 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine, Ro 20-1724, and cilostamide, however, prevented the ANF suppression of cAMP. (jci.org)
  • 3-O-Methyl-D-Glucose is a non-metabolizable glucose analogue that is not phosphorylated by hexokinase. (perkinelmer.com)
  • 2015). Examination of ataxin-3 (atx-3) aggregation by structural mass spectrometry techniques: A rationale for expedited aggregation upon polyglutamine (polyQ) expansion . (up.pt)
  • 2008). Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of mannosyl-3-phosphoglycerate synthase from Rubrobacter xylanophilus . (up.pt)
  • Effects of depolarization by 30 mmol/l K + and increase of the glucose concentration from 0 to 3, 7, and 30 mmol/l on [Ca 2+ ] i of individual mouse α- and β-cells. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Garnier SkinActive Soothing 3-in-1 Face Moisturizer with Rose Water is a fast-absorbing, lightweight face moisturizer that intensely restores skin softness and suppleness. (ulta.com)
  • Nocardia species are Gram-positive, aerobic actinomycetes found ubiquitously in soil and water ( 1 - 3 ). (asm.org)
  • 3. The water-in-oil microemulsion composition of claim 2 wherein said water-in-oil microemUlsion composition contains a low HLB surfactant component that is at least 80 percent by weight of a surfactant selected from the group consisting of C 9 monoglycerides, C 10 monoglycerides, C 11 monoglycerides, C 12 monoglycerides, C 13 monoglycerides, or mixtures thereof. (google.com)
  • 4. The water-in-oil microemulsion composition of claim 3 wherein said low HLB surfactant component is at least 90 percent by weight of said monoglycerides. (google.com)
  • 7. The water-in-oil microemulsion composition of claim 3 wherein said low HLB surfactant component contains at least 80 percent by weight of a C 11 monoglyceride. (google.com)
  • 8. The water-in-oil microemulsion composition of any of the claims 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 or 7 wherein the composition is a solid at about 23 C. (google.com)
  • In 1953, these observations led Kennedy (3) to propose that changes in body adiposity are signaled to the brain, thereby modifying the drive to eat. (springer.com)
  • Hada Labo Gokujyun Ultimate Moisturizing Light Lotion ini diformulasikan khusus untuk kulit berminyak dan mengandung kombinasi 3 tipe Hyaluronic Acid, yaitu Improved Hyaluronic Acid (AcHA), Hyaluronic Acid, dan Nano-Sized Hyaluronic Acid. (rdtarchitects.co.uk)
  • Combines 3 types of Hyaluronic Acid with natural whitening ingredients β-Arbutin and Vitamin C for hydrated, fair and radiant skin. (przyjacieleoblubienca.pl)
  • Laino has selected the best active ingredients to create this 3-in-1 Shower Shampoo for the body, hair and face. (lainocosmetics.com)
  • After thoroughly cleansing skin, apply 3 pumps of product to face and neck. (neora.com)
  • Whether you prefer frizz-free, controlled curls or straight hair, this service will help you style your hair with lasting benefits of up to 3 months. (andrewcollinge.com)
  • First visible results after 3 months: After a minimum of 3 months of use, fine and weakened hair will feel stronger and thicker. (chemistdirect.co.uk)
  • Step 3 seals and protects the hair with a further layer of keratin. (hairfix.co.uk)
  • Step 3 Enrich gives hair a long-lasting, deep protective conditioning shine, adding a silken protective layer that will give you younger-looking, shinier and healthier feeling hair for the week ahead. (hairfix.co.uk)
  • Celimax Noni Cream er en fuktighetskrem som er designet for å reparere hudbarrieren og pleie tørr hud. (skinup.no)
  • Unfortunately it is currently taking a little longer to process and dispatch orders than usual, so please allow 2-3 working days for shipment. (expresschemist.co.uk)
  • Cleanse and condition with Step 2, Reform cleanser, and Step 3, Enrich conditioner for optimum results. (hairfix.co.uk)
  • Clinical test and results carried out by an independent laboratory over 1 month, 3 times per week (only 12 applications) on 23 volunteers with dry skin including sensitive skin. (perrisswisslaboratory.com)
  • Enjoy 30% off when you buy 3 Refillable pouches in the ESPA Essentials collection. (espaskincare.com)
  • I also have a Youtube video reviewing all 3 products! (michxmash.com)
  • 3) When both phases are at 80°C, pour the Phase B into the Phase A a little at a time and mix with an immersion mixer. (itsallinmyhands.com)