Hydroxybutyrates: Salts and esters of hydroxybutyric acid.3-Hydroxybutyric Acid: BUTYRIC ACID substituted in the beta or 3 position. It is one of the ketone bodies produced in the liver.Polyesters: Polymers of organic acids and alcohols, with ester linkages--usually polyethylene terephthalate; can be cured into hard plastic, films or tapes, or fibers which can be woven into fabrics, meshes or velours.Succinate-Semialdehyde Dehydrogenase (NADP+)Sodium Oxybate: The sodium salt of 4-hydroxybutyric acid. It is used for both induction and maintenance of ANESTHESIA.Carboxylic Ester Hydrolases: Enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of carboxylic acid esters with the formation of an alcohol and a carboxylic acid anion.Gram-Negative Aerobic Bacteria: A large group of aerobic bacteria which show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method. This is because the cell walls of gram-negative bacteria are low in peptidoglycan and thus have low affinity for violet stain and high affinity for the pink dye safranine.4-Butyrolactone: One of the FURANS with a carbonyl thereby forming a cyclic lactone. It is an endogenous compound made from gamma-aminobutyrate and is the precursor of gamma-hydroxybutyrate. It is also used as a pharmacological agent and solvent.Hydroxybutyrate DehydrogenaseSuccinate-Semialdehyde Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that plays a role in the GLUTAMATE and butanoate metabolism pathways by catalyzing the oxidation of succinate semialdehyde to SUCCINATE using NAD+ as a coenzyme. Deficiency of this enzyme, causes 4-hydroxybutyricaciduria, a rare inborn error in the metabolism of the neurotransmitter 4-aminobutyric acid (GABA).Acetoacetates: Salts and derivatives of acetoacetic acid.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Metabolome: The dynamic collection of metabolites which represent a cell's or organism's net metabolic response to current conditions.Diabetic Ketoacidosis: A life-threatening complication of diabetes mellitus, primarily of TYPE 1 DIABETES MELLITUS with severe INSULIN deficiency and extreme HYPERGLYCEMIA. It is characterized by KETOSIS; DEHYDRATION; and depressed consciousness leading to COMA.Ketone Bodies: The metabolic substances ACETONE; 3-HYDROXYBUTYRIC ACID; and acetoacetic acid (ACETOACETATES). They are produced in the liver and kidney during FATTY ACIDS oxidation and used as a source of energy by the heart, muscle and brain.Dictionaries, MedicalDictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.Dictionaries, ChemicalTerminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.Phonetics: The science or study of speech sounds and their production, transmission, and reception, and their analysis, classification, and transcription. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)DictionaryLanguage: A verbal or nonverbal means of communicating ideas or feelings.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Myocytes, Cardiac: Striated muscle cells found in the heart. They are derived from cardiac myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, CARDIAC).Heart Ventricles: The lower right and left chambers of the heart. The right ventricle pumps venous BLOOD into the LUNGS and the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood into the systemic arterial circulation.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Myocardial Contraction: Contractile activity of the MYOCARDIUM.Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Ionic Liquids: Salts that melt below 100 C. Their low VOLATILIZATION can be an advantage over volatile organic solvents.Chemical EngineeringButylene Glycols: 4-carbon straight chain aliphatic hydrocarbons substituted with two hydroxyl groups. The hydroxyl groups cannot be on the same carbon atom.Imidazoles: Compounds containing 1,3-diazole, a five membered aromatic ring containing two nitrogen atoms separated by one of the carbons. Chemically reduced ones include IMIDAZOLINES and IMIDAZOLIDINES. Distinguish from 1,2-diazole (PYRAZOLES).Cellobiose: A disaccharide consisting of two glucose units in beta (1-4) glycosidic linkage. Obtained from the partial hydrolysis of cellulose.Borates: Inorganic or organic salts and esters of boric acid.FuraldehydeFat Emulsions, Intravenous: Emulsions of fats or lipids used primarily in parenteral feeding.Parenteral Nutrition: The administering of nutrients for assimilation and utilization by a patient who cannot maintain adequate nutrition by enteral feeding alone. Nutrients are administered by a route other than the alimentary canal (e.g., intravenously, subcutaneously).Emulsions: Colloids formed by the combination of two immiscible liquids such as oil and water. Lipid-in-water emulsions are usually liquid, like milk or lotion. Water-in-lipid emulsions tend to be creams. The formation of emulsions may be aided by amphiphatic molecules that surround one component of the system to form MICELLES.Heterocyclic Compounds, 1-Ring: A class of organic compounds containing a ring structure made up of more than one kind of atom, usually carbon plus another atom. The ring structure can be aromatic or nonaromatic.Parenteral Nutrition, Total: The delivery of nutrients for assimilation and utilization by a patient whose sole source of nutrients is via solutions administered intravenously, subcutaneously, or by some other non-alimentary route. The basic components of TPN solutions are protein hydrolysates or free amino acid mixtures, monosaccharides, and electrolytes. Components are selected for their ability to reverse catabolism, promote anabolism, and build structural proteins.Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Composite Resins: Synthetic resins, containing an inert filler, that are widely used in dentistry.Curing Lights, Dental: Light sources used to activate polymerization of light-cured DENTAL CEMENTS and DENTAL RESINS. Degree of cure and bond strength depends on exposure time, wavelength, and intensity of the curing light.Lighting: The illumination of an environment and the arrangement of lights to achieve an effect or optimal visibility. Its application is in domestic or in public settings and in medical and non-medical environments.Color: The visually perceived property of objects created by absorption or reflection of specific wavelengths of light.Materials Testing: The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.Arsenite Transporting ATPases: Efflux pumps that use the energy of ATP hydrolysis to pump arsenite across a membrane. They are primarily found in prokaryotic organisms, where they play a role in protection against excess intracellular levels of arsenite ions.Chorda Tympani Nerve: A branch of the facial (7th cranial) nerve which passes through the middle ear and continues through the petrotympanic fissure. The chorda tympani nerve carries taste sensation from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue and conveys parasympathetic efferents to the salivary glands.Receptors, Autocrine Motility Factor: Cell surface receptors for AUTOCRINE MOTILITY FACTOR, which is the secreted form of GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATE ISOMERASE. The receptor has an unusual composition in that it shares some structural similarities with G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS and functions as an ubiquitin protein ligase when internalized.Taste Buds: Small sensory organs which contain gustatory receptor cells, basal cells, and supporting cells. Taste buds in humans are found in the epithelia of the tongue, palate, and pharynx. They are innervated by the CHORDA TYMPANI NERVE (a branch of the facial nerve) and the GLOSSOPHARYNGEAL NERVE.Dysgerminoma: A malignant ovarian neoplasm, thought to be derived from primordial germ cells of the sexually undifferentiated embryonic gonad. It is the counterpart of the classical seminoma of the testis, to which it is both grossly and histologically identical. Dysgerminomas comprise 16% of all germ cell tumors but are rare before the age of 10, although nearly 50% occur before the age of 20. They are generally considered of low-grade malignancy but may spread if the tumor extends through its capsule and involves lymph nodes or blood vessels. (Dorland, 27th ed; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1646)Sterols: Steroids with a hydroxyl group at C-3 and most of the skeleton of cholestane. Additional carbon atoms may be present in the side chain. (IUPAC Steroid Nomenclature, 1987)Peritoneal Lavage: Washing out of the peritoneal cavity. The procedure is a diagnostic as well as a therapeutic technique following abdominal trauma or inflammation.

Effects of fatty acids and ketone bodies on basal insulin secretion in type 2 diabetes. (1/526)

The objective of this study was to assess the role of free fatty acids (FFAs) as insulin secretagogues in patients with type 2 diabetes. To this end, basal insulin secretion rates (ISR) in response to acute increases in plasma FFAs were evaluated in patients with type 2 diabetes and in age- and weight-matched nondiabetic control subjects during 1) intravenous infusion of lipid plus heparin (L/H), which stimulated intravascular lipolysis, and 2) the FFA rebound, which followed lowering of plasma FFAs with nicotinic acid (NA) and was a consequence of increased lipolysis from the subject's own adipose tissue. At comparable euglycemia, diabetic patients had similar ISR but higher plasma beta-hydroxybutyrate (beta-OHB) levels during L/H infusion and higher plasma FFA and beta-OHB levels during the FFA rebound than nondiabetic control subjects. Correlating ISR with plasma FFA plus beta-OHB levels showed that in response to the same changes in FFA plus beta-OHB levels, diabetic patients secreted approximately 30% less insulin than nondiabetic control subjects. In addition, twice as much insulin was secreted during L/H infusion as during the FFA rebound in response to the same FFA/beta-OHB stimulation by both diabetic patients and control subjects. Glycerol, which was present in the infused lipid (272 mmol/l) did not affect ISR. We concluded that 1) assessment of FFA effects on ISR requires consideration of effects on ISR by ketone bodies; 2) ISR responses to FFA/beta-OHB were defective in patients with type 2 diabetes (partial beta-cell lipid blindness), but this defect was compensated by elevated plasma levels of FFAs and ketone bodies; and 3) approximately two times more insulin was released per unit change in plasma FFA plus beta-OHB during L/H infusion than during the FFA rebound after NA. The reason for this remains to be explored.  (+info)

Within- and between-subject variation in commonly measured anthropometric and biochemical variables. (2/526)

BACKGROUND: The biological variation of some commonly assessed metabolic variables in healthy subjects has not been studied extensively. The aim of the study was to assess, in 12 healthy subjects (6 male and 6 female; mean (SD) age; 22.7 (1.5) years) following an overnight fast, the day-to-day variation of body fat (impedance method), triglycerides, nonesterified fatty acid (NEFAs), glycerol, 3-hydroxybutyrate (3-OHB), lactate, glucose, insulin (RIA), C-peptide, and glucagon on 12 consecutive days. METHODS: Between- and within-subject coefficients of variation (CVG and CVW) were estimated using a random effects analysis of variance, and assay variation was subtracted to give the coefficient of within-subject biological variation (CVI). Individuality indices were calculated as CVW/CVG. RESULTS: The overall means, CVI, and individuality indices were as follows: for body fat, 24.2%, 10%, and 0.3; for triglycerides, 0.61 mmol/L, 21%, and 1.1; for NEFAs, 376 micromol/L, 45%, and 1.4; for glycerol, 48 micromol/L, 36%, and 0.8; for 3-OHB, 43 micromol/L, 61%, and 1.5; for lactate, 0.88 mmol/L, 31%, and 1.1; for glucose, 4.9 mmol/L, 4.8%, and 0.7; for insulin, 52 pmol/L, 26%, and 1.0; for C-peptide, 0.39 nmol/L, 24%, and 0.9; and for glucagon, 53 ng/L, 19%, and 0.8. CONCLUSIONS: The data presented here are necessary for the evaluation of several important metabolic variables in individual and group studies. The biological variation of some metabolites makes it difficult to characterize the status of healthy subjects with a single measurement.  (+info)

Production of poly(3-hydroxybutyric acid-co-4-hydroxybutyric acid) and poly(4-hydroxybutyric acid) without subsequent degradation by Hydrogenophaga pseudoflava. (3/526)

A Hydrogenophaga pseudoflava strain was able to synthesize poly(3-hydroxybutyric acid-co-4-hydroxybutyric acid) [P(3HB-co-4HB)] having a high level of 4-hydroxybutyric acid monomer unit (4HB) from gamma-butyrolactone. In a two-step process in which the first step involved production of cells containing a minimum amount of poly(3-hydroxybutyric acid) [P(3HB)] and the second step involved polyester accumulation from the lactone, approximately 5 to 10 mol% of the 3-hydroxybutyric acid (3HB) derived from the first-step culture was unavoidably reincorporated into the polymer in the second cultivation step. Reincorporation of the 3HB units produced from degradation of the first-step residual P(3HB) was confirmed by high-resolution 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. In order to synthesize 3HB-free poly(4-hydroxybutyric acid) [P(4HB)] homopolymer, a three-stage cultivation technique was developed by adding a nitrogen addition step, which completely removed the residual P(3HB). The resulting polymer was free of 3HB. However, when the strain was grown on gamma-butyrolactone as the sole carbon source in a synthesis medium, a copolyester of P(3HB-co-4HB) containing 45 mol% 3HB was produced. One-step cultivation on gamma-butyrolactone required a rather long induction time (3 to 4 days). On the basis of the results of an enzymatic study performed with crude extracts, we suggest that the inability of cells to produce 3HB in the multistep culture was due to a low level of 4-hydroxybutyric acid (4HBA) dehydrogenase activity, which resulted in a low level of acetyl coenzyme A. Thus, 3HB formation from gamma-butyrolactone is driven by a high level of 4HBA dehydrogenase activity induced by long exposure to gamma-butyrolactone, as is the case for a one-step culture. In addition, intracellular degradation kinetics studies showed that P(3HB) in cells was completely degraded within 30 h of cultivation after being transferred to a carbon-free mineral medium containing additional ammonium sulfate, while P(3HB-co-4HB) containing 5 mol% 3HB and 95 mol% 4HB was totally inert in interactions with the intracellular depolymerases. Intracellular inertness could be a useful factor for efficient synthesis of the P(4HB) homopolymer and of 4HB-rich P(3HB-co-4HB) by the strain used in this study.  (+info)

Requirement for the heart-type fatty acid binding protein in cardiac fatty acid utilization. (4/526)

Nonenzymatic cytosolic fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs) are abundantly expressed in many animal tissues with high rates of fatty acid metabolism. No physiological role has been demonstrated for any FABP, although these proteins have been implicated in transport of free long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs) and protection against LCFA toxicity. We report here that mice lacking heart-type FABP (H-FABP) exhibit a severe defect of peripheral (nonhepatic, non-fat) LCFA utilization. In these mice, the heart is unable to efficiently take up plasma LCFAs, which are normally its main fuel, and switches to glucose usage. Altered plasma levels of LCFAs, glucose, lactate and beta-hydroxybutyrate are consistent with depressed peripheral LCFA utilization, intensified carbohydrate usage, and increased hepatic LCFA oxidation; these changes are most pronounced under conditions favoring LCFA oxidation. H-FABP deficiency is only incompletely compensated, however, causing acute exercise intolerance and, at old age, a localized cardiac hypertrophy. These data establish a requirement for H-FABP in cardiac intracellular lipid transport and fuel selection and a major role in metabolic homeostasis. This new animal model should be particularly useful for investigating the significance of peripheral LCFA utilization for heart function, insulin sensitivity, and blood pressure.  (+info)

Relations between plasma acetate, 3-hydroxybutyrate, FFA, glucose levels and energy nutrition in lactating dairy cows. (5/526)

To clarify the implication of an energy nutrition on a metabolic alteration with advancing lactation, total 270 blood samples were taken from 16 lactating dairy cows. Amounts of dietary allowance and the refusals were measured daily, and the energy (TDN) intakes and a satisfaction (energy balance) of each cow were estimated. Plasma acetate, 3-hydroxybutyrate (3-HB), free fatty acid (FFA) and glucose levels were estimated. The data were divided into 3 groups depending on the days in milk; early (up to 70 days postpartum), mid (71 to 140 days), and late (after 141 days) lactation. There were many cases of higher FFA level in early lactation, especially with declining acetate and glucose levels. There were proportional elevations of 3-HB in connection with FFA levels in many samples of early lactation, though the 3-HB increased independently of FFA levels in the most cases of the mid and late lactations. Plasma 3-HB levels increased in many cases of decreased glucose level, especially in the early lactation. Plasma acetate level correlated positively with 3-HB level, but not correlated with glucose level. Higher FFA level and elevation of FFA/3-HB ratio were observed in the conditions of negative energy balance. This implies the metabolic importance of FFA in a ketogenesis of the early lactation.  (+info)

Effect of hyperketonemia on plasma lipid peroxidation levels in diabetic patients. (6/526)

OBJECTIVE: This study was undertaken to examine the effect of ketosis on plasma lipid peroxidation levels in diabetic patients. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Plasma levels of lipid peroxidation products (malondialdehyde) and ketone bodies (acetoacetate and beta-hydroxybutyrate) were determined in diabetic patients (n = 70) and age-matched normal volunteers (n = 25). Diabetic patients with total ketone body levels > 1.0 mmol/l were considered hyperketonemic, and those with levels < or = 1.0 mmol/l were considered normoketonemic. RESULTS: After normalization versus total lipids, levels of lipid peroxidation were significantly higher in the plasma of hyperketonemic diabetic patients (P < 0.05), but not in normoketonemic diabetic patients, compared with age-matched normal volunteers. In addition, low ketonemia was associated with lower lipid peroxidation levels when lipid peroxidation and ketonemia were determined in the same patient (n = 7) at two different clinic visits. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated an association between hyperketonemia and increased lipid peroxidation levels in diabetic patients, which suggests that ketosis is a risk factor in the elevated lipid peroxidation levels associated with diabetes. Further investigation is needed to determine whether antioxidant supplementation can be particularly beneficial in reducing lipid peroxidation and complications in type 1 diabetic patients who frequently encounter ketosis.  (+info)

The metabolic effects of estriol in female rat liver. (7/526)

The effects of estriol on oxygen uptake, glucose release, lactate and pyruvate production, beta-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate production in perfused rat liver as well as, carbon uptake in rat liver and intracellular calcium in isolated Kupffer cells were investigated. Basal oxygen consumption of perfused liver increased significantly in estriol or ethanol-treated rats. But these increased effects were blocked by gadolinium chloride pretreatment. In a metabolic study, pretreatment with estriol resulted in a decrease in glucose production and in glycolysis while an increase in ketogenesis. A more oxidized redox state of the mitochondria was indicated by increased ratios of perfusate [lactate]/[pyruvate] and decreased ratios of perfusate [beta-hydroxybutyrate]/[acetoacetate]. Carbon uptake of Kupffer-cell increased significantly in estriol-treated rats. But these increased uptake were not shown in rats pre-treated by gadolinium chloride blocking phagocytosis. In isolated Kupffer cells from estriol-treated rats, intracellular calcium was more significantly increased after addition of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) than in controls. These findings suggest that the metabolic effects of estriol (two mg per 100 mg body wt) can be summarized to be highly toxic in rat liver, and these findings suggest that oral administration of estrogens may induce hepatic dysfunctions and play a role in the development of liver disease.  (+info)

Hormonal and metabolic responses to maintained hyperglycemia during prolonged exercise. (8/526)

We studied the effects of maintained hyperglycemia (12 mmol/l) on endurance exercise to determine the hormonal and metabolic responses, the maximal rate of glucose infusion (i.e., utilization), and the effects on muscle glycogen stores. Eight men undertook two trials during which they exercised on a cycle ergometer at an intensity of approximately 70% peak O(2) uptake for 120 min. In the first trial (trial A), subjects had their blood glucose concentration clamped at 12 mmol/l 30 min before exercise and throughout exercise. The same rate and volume of infusion of saline as had occurred for trial A were used in a placebo trial (trial B). Maintained hyperglycemia resulted in significantly lowered plasma concentrations of nonesterified fatty acid, glycerol, 3-hydroxybutyrate, epinephrine, norepinephrine, and growth hormone (P < 0.001) during exercise, whereas concentrations of plasma insulin were significantly elevated (P < 0.001). Calculations of the rates of total carbohydrate oxidation showed that trial A resulted in significantly higher values when compared with trial B (P < 0.01) and that the maximal rates of glucose infusion varied between 1.33 and 2.78 g/min at 100-120 min. Muscle glycogen concentrations were significantly depleted (P < 0.01) after both trials (trial A, 170.3 micromol/g dry wt decrease; trial B, 206 micromol/g dry wt decrease), although this apparent difference may be accounted for by storage of 22.6 g glucose during the 30-min prime infusion. The results from this study confirm that maintained hyperglycemia attenuates the hormonal response and promotes carbohydrate oxidation and utilization and that muscle glycogen may not be spared.  (+info)

This is a magnesium salt of beta-hydroxybutyric acid, a compound normally made by the body in times of stress. It is one of the first ketone-forming compounds to form during times of starvation and intense physical exercise. It serves as a biochemical messenger to tell other cells to speed up their metabolism, and it also serves as a ready fuel source for brain cells.. Diets such as the keto diet rely on BHB to provide energy during severe calorie restriction. BHB rises during uncontrolled diabetes mellitus. Despite high blood sugar levels in diabetes, the cells that are supposed to benefit from insulin are starving from lack of insulin, and they produce BHB.. Administration of BHB has several potential benefits. It has been shown to interfere with inflammation, particularly in the brain where neuro-inflammation leads to depression.F The human body produces cell components called "inflammasomes" that contain the information and components needed to stimulate the whole cascade of events that lead ...
2-Hydroxybutyric acid, also known as alpha-hydroxybutyrate and α-hydroxybutyrate, is a hydroxybutyric acid with the hydroxyl group on the carbon adjacent to the carboxyl. It is a chiral compound having two enantiomers, D-2-hydroxybutyric acid and L-2-hydroxybutyric acid. (R)-2-hydroxybutyric acid (S)-2-hydroxybutyric acid 2-Hydroxybutyrate, the conjugate base of 2-hydroxybutyric acid, is produced in mammalian tissues (principally hepatic) that catabolize L-threonine or synthesize glutathione. Oxidative stress or detoxification demands can dramatically increase the rate of hepatic glutathione synthesis. Under such metabolic stress conditions, supplies of L-cysteine for glutathione synthesis become limiting, so homocysteine is diverted from the transmethylation pathway forming methionine into the transsulfuration pathway forming cystathionine. 2-Hydroxybutyrate is released as a byproduct when cystathionine is cleaved to cysteine that is incorporated into glutathione. Chronic shifts in the rate of ...
3-Hydroxybutyric acid (or beta-hydroxybutyrate) is a ketone body. Like the other ketone bodies (acetoacetate and acetone), levels of 3-hydroxybutyrate in blood and urine are raised in ketosis. In humans, 3-hydroxybutyrate is synthesized in the liver from acetyl-CoA, and can be used as an energy source by the brain when blood glucose is low. Blood levels of 3-Hydroxybutyric acid levels may be monitored in diabetic patients to look for diabetic ketoacidosis. Persistent mild hyperketonemia is a common finding in newborns. Ketone bodies serve as an indispensable source of energy for extrahepatic tissues, especially the brain and lung of developing mammals. Another important function of ketone bodies is to provide acetoacetyl-CoA and acetyl-CoA for synthesis of cholesterol, fatty acids, and complex lipids. During the early postnatal period, acetoacetate (AcAc) and beta-hydroxybutyrate are preferred over glucose as substrates for synthesis of phospholipids and sphingolipids in accord with requirements ...
Effects of beta-hydroxybutyrate on cognition in memory-impaired adults. - Glucose is the brains principal energy substrate. In Alzheimers disease (AD), there appears to be a pathological decrease in the brains ability to use glucose. Neurobiological evidence suggests that ketone bodies are an effective alternative energy substrate for the brain. Elevation of plasma ketone body levels through an oral dose of medium chain triglycerides (MCTs) may improve cognitive functioning in older adults with memory disorders. On separate days, 20 subjects with AD or mild cognitive impairment consumed a drink containing emulsified MCTs or placebo. Significant increases in levels of the ketone body beta-hydroxybutyrate (beta-OHB) were observed 90 min after treatment (P=0.007) when cognitive tests were administered. beta-OHB elevations were moderated by apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype (P=0.036). For 4+ subjects, beta-OHB levels continued to rise between the 90 and 120 min blood draws in the treatment ...
are elevated enough. The only time that your protein stores are gonna start to get utilized in terms of muscle mass is again, if you have too much protein coming in or not enough fat coming in to ever create the ketones bodies that we need. But now theres a whole different side of the equation when it comes down to what allows us to preserve our muscle and that is just the fact that beta-hydroxybutyric inandofitself. The main ketone body, I know its a big mouthful to say beta-hydroxybutyric is the main ketone that is created from fats. That gives us all the energy in ketosis. It is very powerful at preserving muscle. In fact, there is ...
γ-Hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), a drug of abuse, exhibits saturable renal clearance and capacity-limited metabolism. The objectives of this study were to construct a mechanistic toxicokinetic (TK) model describing saturable renal reabsorption and capacity-limited metabolism of GHB and to predict the effects of inhibition
Discover exactly what 4 Amino 3 Hydroxybutyric Acid does for your skin. Heres everything you need to know about this skincare ingredient.
Female Gpat1−/− mice have reduced body weight, gonadal fat pad mass, hepatic TAG content, plasma TAG, and secretion of VLDL-TAG (46). GPAT1 deficiency also protects mice against diet-induced hyperlipidemia and hepatic steatosis (87). After high-fat diet feeding for 3 wk, Gpat1−/− mice exhibit 30% lower plasma TAG levels than wild-type mice, and liver TAG and DAG are reduced, with a reciprocal increase in hepatic acyl-CoA content and plasma β-hydroxybutyrate concentration, which is consistent with the role of GPAT1 in hepatic glycerolipid synthesis. Feeding Gpat1−/− mice a high-fat/high-sucrose diet produces similar results, except for the failure to cause reduced plasma TAG levels (47). TAG and acyl-CoA content in skeletal muscle is not altered in Gpat1−/− mice. Hepatic shRNA adenovirus-mediated knockdown of GPAT1 in ob/ob mice also results in reduced hepatic TAG and DAG content (123).. The effect of GPAT1 deficiency in insulin resistance has been studied in two diet-induced ...
AS09 562, 3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase antibody, (EC=1.1.1.30), 3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase antibody, (EC=1.1.1.30)NAD+-beta-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase, hydroxybutyrate oxidoreductase, beta-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase, D-beta-hydroxybutyrate d
Perfect Keto Exogenous Ketones: Base BHB Salts Supplement. Ketones for Ketogenic Diet Best to Support Weight Management & Energy, Focus and Ketosis Beta-Hydroxybutyrate BHB Salt About the product Beta-hydroxybutyrate salts (BHB): Nutrition strategies that rely on carbohydrates always leave us needing more food. On
Beta-Hydroxybutyrate reagent is used to detect ketones to identify patients suffering from diabetic ketoacidosis, amongst many other clinical applications.
The Global ""Medium-chain Triglycerides (MCT) market 2019 "" report is a meticulous study of the global Medium-chain Triglycerides (MCT) market portraying the state-of-the-art details in the market. It also predicts its growth in the next few years. The Medium-chain Triglycerides (MCT) report evaluates various aspects that determine the growth as well as the volume of the global Medium-chain Triglycerides (MCT) market. Additionally, it presents a determined business outlook of the market along with the summary of some of the leading market players. In this report, the global Medium-chain Triglycerides (MCT) is valued at USD XX million in 2017 and is expected to reach USD XX million by the end of 2025, growing at a CAGR of XX% between 2019 and 2025.. The prominent players in the global Medium-chain Triglycerides (MCT) market are IOI Oleo, Oleon, Stepan , BASF, KLK OLEO, Croda, Musim Mas , Sternchemie, BRITZ, Dr.straetmans, Acme-Hardesty, Lonza, Kao Group, ABITEC Corporation, A&A Fratelli Parodi, ...
Add 3 jars to cart and use discount code 3BHB at checkout for 10% off Add 6 jars to cart and use discount code 6BHB at checkout for 15% off GREAT TASTING KETO POWDER PRODUCT - Custom premium formulation with only natural flavor and unlike other brands we use zero artificial dyes WORKS WELL TO GET AND STAY IN KETOSIS QU
What is ketosis? Ketosis happens when your body burns fat instead of carbs. Learn all about ketones and ketosis and how to jumpstart ketosis today.
Sheer Strength Labs Exogenous Ketones BHB Salts is a dietary supplement that can help you boost metabolism, lose weight, and even increase cravings.
Ketosis: Ketosis,, metabolic disorder marked by high levels of ketones in the tissues and body fluids, including blood and urine. With starvation or fasting, there is less sugar than normal in the blood and less glycogen (the storage form of sugar) in the cells of the body, especially the liver cells; fat
Ketosis is a word that gets tossed around a lot within the Paleo community - to some, its a magical weight-loss formula, to others, its a way of life, and to others its just asking for adrenal fatigue. But understanding what ketosis really is (not just what it does), and the physical causes and consequences of a fat
Learn more about Medium-Chain Triglycerides at Sky Ridge Medical Center Supplement Forms/Alternate Names: MCTs Uses Principal Proposed Uses ...
In this post I will go through the hardware and software of the instrument I have made. If you are curious to why I have made it, I would recommend that you start reading the other posts I have done about this project and work your way forward. Just click on Ketosis detector under categories.IntroductionThe…
In this post I will go through the hardware and software of the instrument I have made. If you are curious to why I have made it, I would recommend that you start reading the other posts I have done about this project and work your way forward. Just click on Ketosis detector under categories.IntroductionThe…
A keto diet can help you lose weight very fast. It induces your body into a state of ketosis. During ketosis, your body burns fat instead of carbohydrates to pr
Hi everyone! I have eaten food I shouldnt a few times in the last 4 weeks. Every time I do I dont loose or put on weight by the next day, normal I...
Just got my packs from the cdc and am raring to go. I know its going to be really hard to get into ketosis but I WILL do this. I am not weighing myself...
We describe the rapid and sensitive detection of 4-hydroxybutyric acid, which is a marker compound for succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH) deficiency. Urinary 4-hydroxybutyric acid and 3,4-dihydroxybutyric acid were targeted, quantified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after simplifie …
FARIA, Mário Henrique Girão; MUNIZ, Luis Roberto Franklin and VASCONCELOS, Paulo Roberto Leitão de. Ketone bodies metabolism during ischemic and reperfusion brain injuries following bilateral occlusion of common carotid arteries in rats. Acta Cir. Bras. [online]. 2007, vol.22, n.2, pp.125-129. ISSN 0102-8650. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0102-86502007000200009.. PURPOSE: To evaluate the in vivo alterations on ketone bodies metabolism after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion through an experimental model of brain ischemia induced by simple occlusion of common carotid arteries (CCAs) in Wistar rats. METHODS: Forty-eight male Wistar rats were randomly distributed on two groups (S - Sham; T - Test) and further redistributed into four times sets of study. After bilateral occlusion of CCAs for 30min, the animals of group T were allowed reperfusion for 0, 5, 10 and 15min. Samples of cerebral tissue and systemic arterial blood were collected and the metabolites acetoacetate (ACT) and beta-hydroxybutyrate ...
Ketosis is a common metabolic disease in dairy cows. Diagnostic markers for ketosis such as acetone and beta-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA) are known, but disease prediction remains an unsolved challenge. Milk is a steadily available biofluid and routinely collected on a daily basis. This high availability makes milk superior to blood or urine samples for diagnostic purposes. In this contribution, we show that high milk glycerophosphocholine (GPC) levels and high ratios of GPC to phosphocholine (PC) allow for the reliable selection of healthy and metabolically stable cows for breeding purposes. Throughout lactation, high GPC values are connected with a low ketosis incidence. During the first month of lactation, molar GPC/PC ratios equal or greater than 2.5 indicate a very low risk for developing ketosis. This threshold was validated for different breeds (Holstein-Friesian, Brown Swiss, and Simmental Fleckvieh) and for animals in different lactations, with observed odds ratios between 1.5 and 2.38. ...
Definition of ß-hydroxybutyric acid. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical terms and definitions.
BHB & MCT FOR PERFECT PERFORMANCE - Zenwise Health Keto-Peak is a daily ketogenic dietary supplement that features goBHB+MCTTM, a patented beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) and coconut derived medium chain triglyceride (MCT) blend. Whether its for beginners or advanced keto dieters, this premium ketone formula helps men and women reach a state of nutritional ketosis to promote high-performance for the body and mind. INSTANT SUSTAINED ENERGY & FOCUS - The powdered Caprylic (C8) and Capric (C10) Fatty Acid from the MCT Oil in this product helps the production of ketones in the brain, which supplements the mind and body with a quick boost of clean and natural energy to support mental clarity and alertness with no jitters, headaches or sugar crashes. Meanwhile, BHB increases ketone levels to maintain a high burst of energy to keep you powered up. FAT BURNING FUEL - When combined with proper exercise habits, this Keto-Peak BHB Salt and MCT powder formula can promote weight loss by helping the body burn fat. When
Study on the effects of ketone bodies opens up new area of inquiry in aging research September 5, 2017/Novato, CA A ketogenic diet significantly improved memory in aging mice and increased the animals chances of surviving to old age. Results of the study from Eric Verdins lab at the Buck Institute for Research on Aging in Novato, CA are published in the September 5th issue of Cell Metabolism.. Eating a ketogenic diet - which is high fat, low protein, and low carbohydrates - ramps up the production of the ketone body beta-hydroxybutyrate acid (BHB). While small studies in humans with cognitive impairment have suggested that BHB could improve memory, senior scientist and Buck President and CEO, Eric Verdin MD, says this is the first study in aging mammals which details the positive effects of BHB on memory and lifespan. "This opens up a new field in aging research," said Verdin. "We think the health benefits of BHB may go beyond memory and could affect tissues and organ systems." Verdin added ...
The KetoTrak Blood Ketone Monitoring System is designed for accurate, easy and fast testing of β-ketone concentration from fresh whole blood sample in 3 easy steps in 10 seconds. Accurate Daily Tracking: track Blood Ketone levels while on Keto Diet, more accurate than urine strips. Ease of Use: simple 2 button interface, small 1.2 µL blood sample, results in 10 seconds. Before & After Meal Markers: track pre and post meal results and measure the effect of different foods on blood ketone levels.. ...
The study involved 20 subjects with Alzheimers disease or mild cognitive impairment who, on separate days, were given either emulsified MCTs or a placebo. The researchers observed a significant increase in blood plasma levels of the ketone body beta-hydroxylutyrate (beta-OHB) after only 90 minutes of treatment, and depending on the apolipoprotein E genotype of the subject tested, beta-OHB levels either continued to rise or held constant between the 90 and 120 minute blood draws in the treatment condition. Remarkably, cognitive testing revealed that this brief MCT treatment facilitated improved performance on the Alzheimers Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive Subscale (ADAS-cog) in 4 subjects within the study group. Moreover, "higher ketone values were associated with greater improvement in paragraph recall with MCT treatment relative to placebo across all subjects (P=0.02)."[i ...
HBD has been used as a substitute for LDH-1 (heart) isoenzyme measurement. Actually, HBD is total LDH that is forced to act on a a-ketobutyric acid substrate instead of pyruvic or lactic acid. Under these conditions, LDH-1 and LDH-2 show relatively greater activity than LDH-5, so that HBD therefore indirectly measures LDH-1 (heart) activity. However, if the LDH-5 (liver) value is elevated sufficiently, it will also produce measurable HBD effect. Therefore, HBD is not as specific as electrophoresis or heat fractionation in separating heart from liver isoenzymes. Nevertheless, since HBD assay is easier to perform (and therefore cheaper) than LDH isoenzyme assay, some follow the practice of using a more specific isoenzyme method if in doubt about LDH heart versus liver contribution. Once there is proof that the heart fraction is elevated, they follow subsequent activity levels with HBD.. Causes of lactic dehydrogenase fraction 1 elevation ...
Date: Wed, 24 Sep 2003 10:47:35 -0500 , From: "jhughey" ,email @ redacted, , Subject: [IP] Re: Ketosis vs. Ketoacidosis , ,,,, Anyway, if I were to get ketones because I am eating fewer carbs, yet my , blood sugar is in the normal range, , is this cause for alarm? If I remember right, it is only the ketones with , the high blood sugar (and dehydration) that makes it ketoacidosis, which is , what I should be concerned about. Has anyone been on a low-carb diet and , have any suggestions/advice about this?,,, , , Here is a repeat of the explanation of Ketosis & KetoAcidosis: , , Many people do not know the distinction between ketosis and , ketoacidosis. You CAN be in ketosis for 2 months, but not in , ketoacidosis. Ketosis means that your body is burning fat for energy , because its not getting enough glucose into the cells, whether from , lack of insulin or lack of food. At that level, the blood chemistry is , still relatively normal and the chief symptom is losing weight, with , excessive thirst ...
Real Ketones BHB Peach Caffeinated delivers exogenous ketones made from the highest-quality beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB). With our great tasting peach formula, plus a caffeine kick, its easy for you to get into ketosis and power through your day.
Overall, they concluded that the decrease in acylcarnitines "suggests that there is a reduced utilization of fatty acids for beta-oxidation, though the ketone body 3-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) was significantly increased (3.02 fold, data not shown) pointing again on increased glucose metabolism that can produce BHBA. Taken together, these data are again indicative that fatty acid beta-oxidation is altered prior to the development of PH and, in conjunction with increased glycolytic products, are consistent with a Warburg-like metabolic shift." I dont quite understand the BHBA glucose link. I didnt think glucose metabolism produced BHBA… Ketone bodies are produced from Acetyl-CoA. Acetyl-CoA can come from beta-oxidation of fatty acids or from pyruvate entry into the TCA cycle (pyruvate is converted into Acetyl-CoA via PDH enzyme in the mitochondria). However, in PH, both beta-oxidation and glucose oxidation (TCA cycle), are disrupted, and glycolysis is favored. Thus where is the elevated BHBA ...
EFFORTLESS KETOSIS - Perfect Keto exogenous ketones get you in ketosis. Our beta-hydroxybutyrates (BHB) formula was designed for those on a ketogenic diet, or o
BHB refers to Beta-hydroxybutyrate, a molecule that is considered a ketone body. It is one of the main molecules that helps your body produce energy in the absence of glucose.
The worldwide "Medium-chain Triglycerides (MCT) Market" statistical surveying report is an inescapable research report that contacts the most imperative parts of the Medium-chain Triglycerides (MCT) platform that is important to be gotten a handle on by an expert or even a layman. The statistical surveying report illuminates one with respect to few of the imperative perspectives, for example, an outline of the Medium-chain Triglycerides (MCT) item, the development factors improving or hampering its advancement, application in the different fields, major ruling organizations, veritable certainties, monetary circumstance, and topographical examination.. Apply here for the free sample copy of the report @: https://www.promarketresearch.com/request-for-sample.html?repid=29691. The exploration report enriches the information concerning the elements that impel the development and additionally the free market activity chain of the item on a worldwide premise. The information with respect to a portion ...
The worldwide "Medium-chain Triglycerides (MCT) Market" statistical surveying report is an inescapable research report that contacts the most imperative parts of the Medium-chain Triglycerides (MCT) platform that is important to be gotten a handle on by an expert or even a layman. The statistical surveying report illuminates one with respect to few of the imperative perspectives, for example, an outline of the Medium-chain Triglycerides (MCT) item, the development factors improving or hampering its advancement, application in the different fields, major ruling organizations, veritable certainties, monetary circumstance, and topographical examination.. Apply here for the free sample copy of the report @: https://www.promarketresearch.com/request-for-sample.html?repid=29691. The exploration report enriches the information concerning the elements that impel the development and additionally the free market activity chain of the item on a worldwide premise. The information with respect to a portion ...
75 vegan caps. Keto 600 is our #1 Ketogenic Weight Loss formula that combines key BHB salts to help you boost mental focus, and promote endurance. Keto 600 is a researched formula that achieves needed support for weight loss efforts. BHB Salts (Beta-Hydroxybutyrate), are able to help fuel your brain during low-carb dieting and support electrolytes, which may be depleted during a ketogenic diet. Being in ketosis may boost performance and allow fat to be used for fuel much easier. ...
This ketone ester is a synthetic prodrug which, after ingestion, your body naturally breaks down into the ketone bodies beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) and acetoacetate (AcAc).
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We describe the morphology and behavior of a hitherto unknown bacterial species that forms conspicuous veils (typical dimensions, 30 by 30 mm) on sulfidic marine sediment. The new bacteria were enriched on complex sulfidic medium within a benthic gradient chamber in oxygen-sulfide countergradients, but the bacteria have so far not been isolated in pure culture, and a detailed characterization of their metabolism is still lacking. The bacteria are colorless, gram-negative, and vibrioid-shaped (1.3- to 2.5- by 4- to 10- m) cells that multiply by binary division and contain several spherical inclusions of poly- -hydroxybutyric acid. The cells have bipolar polytrichous flagella and exhibit a unique swimming pattern, rotating and translating along their short axis. Free-swimming cells showed aerotaxis and aggregated at ca. 2 M oxygen within opposing oxygen-sulfide gradients, where they were able to attach via a mucous stalk, forming a cohesive whitish veil at the oxic-anoxic interface. Bacteria ...
We describe the morphology and behavior of a hitherto unknown bacterial species that forms conspicuous veils (typical dimensions, 30 by 30 mm) on sulfidic marine sediment. The new bacteria were enriched on complex sulfidic medium within a benthic gradient chamber in oxygen-sulfide countergradients, but the bacteria have so far not been isolated in pure culture, and a detailed characterization of their metabolism is still lacking. The bacteria are colorless, gram-negative, and vibrioid-shaped (1.3- to 2.5- by 4- to 10- m) cells that multiply by binary division and contain several spherical inclusions of poly- -hydroxybutyric acid. The cells have bipolar polytrichous flagella and exhibit a unique swimming pattern, rotating and translating along their short axis. Free-swimming cells showed aerotaxis and aggregated at ca. 2 M oxygen within opposing oxygen-sulfide gradients, where they were able to attach via a mucous stalk, forming a cohesive whitish veil at the oxic-anoxic interface. Bacteria ...
With regard to Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid (2010), Tetrahydrocannabinols (7370), and Methamphetamine (1105) only, the company manufactures these controlled substances in bulk solely for distribution within the United States to customers engaged in dosage- form manufacturing.. With regard to Nabilone (7379), the company presently manufactures a small amount of this controlled substance in bulk solely to conduct manufacturing internal process development. It is the companys intention that, when the manufacturing process is refined to the point that its Nabilone bulk product is available for commercial use, the company will export the controlled substance in bulk solely to customers engaged in dosage-form manufacturing outside the United States. The company is aware of the requirement to obtain a DEA registration as an exporter to conduct this activity.. Any other such applicant, and any person who is presently registered with DEA to manufacture such substances, may file comments or objections to ...
Ketogenic diets have many powerful health benefits, but some people have trouble getting into ketosis. Here are 7 effective tips to get into ketosis.
BHB is found in nature in many foods including eggs and milk. Salts are acids and bases bound by ionic bonds. Salt is a chemistry term used to describe a specific type of chemical compound. Technically, they are defined as ionic compounds formed by the neutralization of an acid and a base. They consist of positively charged and negatively charged components, which typically dissociate in water or water-based solutions (such as blood). In lay terminology, we call table salt, which is actually sodium chloride (NaCl) "salt," but it is just one of many chemical compounds which are defined as salts. The "BHB salt" is simply a compound that consists of sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), and the ketone body β-hydroxybutyrate. In the Keto OS product package, these individual components are being held together by ionic bonds; however, when you eat the product, it is absorbed into the blood where it dissociates into free Na+, K+, and BHB since it is a water-based solution. Thus, consuming the product directly ...
BHB is found in nature in many foods including eggs and milk. Salts are acids and bases bound by ionic bonds. Salt is a chemistry term used to describe a specific type of chemical compound. Technically, they are defined as ionic compounds formed by the neutralization of an acid and a base. They consist of positively charged and negatively charged components, which typically dissociate in water or water-based solutions (such as blood). In lay terminology, we call table salt, which is actually sodium chloride (NaCl) "salt," but it is just one of many chemical compounds which are defined as salts. The "BHB salt" is simply a compound that consists of sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), and the ketone body β-hydroxybutyrate. In the Keto OS product package, these individual components are being held together by ionic bonds; however, when you eat the product, it is absorbed into the blood where it dissociates into free Na+, K+, and BHB since it is a water-based solution. Thus, consuming the product directly ...
Pure Keto Performance is a perfect blend of Exogenous Ketones, BHB Salts, Branch Chain Amino Acids and Taurine. £25.99 - £31.99 90/120/150 capsules.
... ? What is ketosis? Learn about the many benefits of a keto lifestyle, and how exogenous ketones can unlock you human potential. Burn fat for fuel.
ISBN 0-387-68233-3. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) List of Streptomyces species LPSN bacterio.net Straininfo of ... Q. Ashton, Acton (2013). Advances in 3-Hydroxybutyric Acid Research and Application: 2013 Edition: ScholarlyBrief. ...
2009). "Docosahexaenoic acid is a substrate for ACAT1 and inhibits cholesteryl ester formation from oleic acid in MCF-10A cells ... in which the dysfunction of a specific step of amino acid catabolism results in the excretion of non-amino acids in the urine. ... Fatty Acids. 80 (2-3): 165-71. doi:10.1016/j.plefa.2009.01.001. PMID 19217763. Bzoma B; Debska-Slizieñ A; Dudziak M; et al. ( ... The resulting transcript encodes ACAT1, which is a 45.1 kDa protein composed of 427 amino acids. It is also a homotetrameric ...
A ligand for the gamma-hydroxybutyric acid receptor lacking a 4-hydroxyl group". Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry. 12 (7): 1643 ... 3-Chloropropanoic acid (also 3-chloropropionic acid) or UMB66 is a drug used in scientific research. It is structurally related ... Macias, A. T.; Hernandez, R. J.; Mehta, A. K.; MacKerell, A. D. Jr; Ticku, M. K.; Coop, A. (2004). "3-Chloropropanoic acid ( ... Wahab, R.; Cooper, R. A.; Huyop, F. (2005). "Degradation Of Herbicide (3-Chloropropionic Acid) By Bacterial Dehalogenases" (pdf ...
... γ-hydroxybutyric acid, and ketamine fall under the umbrella of the term "party drugs," each with differing neuropharmacological ... γ-hydroxybutyric acid, and ketamine. Some barbiturates and benzodiazepines may cause euphoria. Euphoriant effects are ... As phenylacetic acid reflects phenylethylamine levels3, and the latter has antidepressant effects, the antidepressant effects ... These results show substantial increases in urinary phenylacetic acid levels 24 hours after moderate to high intensity aerobic ...
... the sodium salt of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid. In acidic water, a mixture of the lactone and acid forms coexist in an ... In humans it acts as a prodrug for γ-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), and it is used as a recreational intoxicant with effects ... Elliott, S.; Burgess, V. (2005). "The presence of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) and gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) in alcoholic ... "Abuse and therapeutic potential of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid". Alcohol. 20 (3): 263-269. doi:10.1016/S0741-8329(99)00090-7. ...
... beta-hydroxybutyric acid dehydrogenase, 3-D-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase, and beta-hydroxybutyric dehydrogenase. This enzyme ... Lehninger AL, Sudduth HC, Wise JB (1960). "D-beta-Hydroxybutyric dehydrogenase of mitochondria". J. Biol. Chem. 235: 2450-2455 ... Delafield FP, Cooksey KE, Doudoroff M (1965). "beta-Hydroxybutyric dehydrogenase and dimer hydrolase of Pseudomonas lemoignei ... In enzymology, a 3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.30) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction (R)-3- ...
... edetic acid MeSH D02.241.081.038.455 --- egtazic acid MeSH D02.241.081.038.581 --- iodoacetic acid MeSH D02.241.081.038.581.400 ... muramic acids MeSH D02.241.081.844.562 --- neuraminic acids MeSH D02.241.081.844.562.668 --- sialic acids MeSH D02.241.081.844. ... quinic acid MeSH D02.241.511.852 --- shikimic acid MeSH D02.241.511.902 --- sugar acids MeSH D02.241.511.902.107 --- ascorbic ... muramic acids MeSH D02.241.511.902.562 --- neuraminic acids MeSH D02.241.511.902.562.668 --- sialic acids MeSH D02.241.511.902. ...
Hydroxybutyric acids: 2-Hydroxybutyric acid (alpha-hydroxybutyric acid) beta-Hydroxybutyric acid (3-hydroxybutyric acid) gamma- ... Hydroxybutyric acid (4-hydroxybutyric acid, GHB) 3-Hydroxyisobutyric acid Methyl lactate. ...
... γ-hydroxybutyric acid, and ketamine fall under the umbrella of the term "party drugs," each with differing neuropharmacological ... 86 (3): 646-664. May 2015. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2015.02.018. PMC 4425246 . PMID 25950633.. ... 3] [4] Euforia juga merupakan gejala penyakit neurologi atau neuropsychiatrik tertentu, seperti mania. [5] Cinta cinta dan ...
... alpha-Hydroxybutyric acid (2-hydroxybutyric acid) beta-Hydroxybutyric acid (3-hydroxybutyric acid) gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid (4 ... Hydroxybutyric acid is a group of four-carbon organic compounds that have both hydroxyl and carboxylic acid functional groups. ... They can be viewed as derivatives of butyric acid. The carboxylate anion and the esters of hydroxybutyric acids are known as ... hydroxybutyric acid, GHB) beta-Hydroxy beta-methylbutyric acid Sodium oxybate Hydroxybutyrates at the US National Library of ...
A synonym for beta-hydroxy-butyric acid or 3-hydroxybutyric acid) . It is, however, more readily obtained by boiling citra- or ... Isobutyric acid can also be dehydrogenated to methacrylic acid. Methacrylic acid was first obtained in the form of its ethyl ... Methacrylic acid, abbreviated MAA, is an organic compound. This colorless, viscous liquid is a carboxylic acid with an acrid ... When fused with an alkali, it forms propanoic acid. Sodium amalgam reduces it to isobutyric acid. A polymeric form of ...
... gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), and possibly in pain. Recent research suggests that these receptors may play an important ... receptors are involved in behavioral effects of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB)". Eur J Pharmacol. 519 (3): 246-52. doi:10.1016 ... GABAB receptors (GABABR) are metabotropic transmembrane receptors for gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) that are linked via G- ... Dzitoyeva S, Dimitrijevic N, Manev H (2003). "Gamma-aminobutyric acid B receptor 1 mediates behavior-impairing actions of ...
β-Hydroxybutyric acid is a chiral compound having two enantiomers, D-β-hydroxybutyric acid and L-β-hydroxybutyric acid. Its ... β-Hydroxybutyric acid is able to cross the blood-brain-barrier into the central nervous system. Levels of β-hydroxybutyric acid ... β-Hydroxybutyric acid, also known as 3-hydroxybutyric acid, is an organic compound and a beta hydroxy acid with the formula ... Through inhibition of the HDAC class I isoenzymes HDAC2 and HDAC3, β-hydroxybutyric acid has been found to increase brain- ...
... (or 3-hydroxy-2-methylpropanoic acid) is an intermediate in the metabolism of valine.- It is a chiral ... D-3-hydroxybutyric acid and L-3-hydroxybutyric acid. 3-hydroxyisobutyrate dehydrogenase. ...
γ-Amino-β-hydroxybutyric acid (GABOB), also known as β-hydroxy-γ-aminobutyric acid (β-hydroxy-GABA), and sold under the brand ... GABOB, or β-hydroxy-GABA, is a close structural analogue of GABA (see GABA analogue), as well as of γ-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB ... García-Flores E, Farías R (1997). "γ-Amino-β-hydroxybutyric acid as add-on therapy in adult patients with severe focal epilepsy ... Chemello R, Giaretta D, Pellegrini A, Testa G (1980). "[Effect of gamma-amino-beta-hydroxybutyric acid (GABHB) on ...
... accumulates and cannot be oxidized to succinic acid and is therefore reduced to gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) by gamma- ... Gibson, K. M.; Hoffmann, G. F.; Hodson, A. K.; Bottiglieri, T.; Jakobs, C. (1998). "4-Hydroxybutyric acid and the clinical ... Under normal conditions, SSADH works with the enzyme GABA transaminase to convert GABA to succinic acid. Succinic acid can then ... Succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency (SSADHD), also known as 4-hydroxybutyric aciduria or gamma-hydroxybutyric ...
"Drosophila GABAB receptors are involved in behavioral effects of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB)". Eur. J. Pharmacol. 519 (3): ... gamma-Aminobutyric acid, or γ-aminobutyric acid /ˈɡæmə əˈmiːnoʊbjuːˈtɪrɪk ˈæsɪd/, or GABA /ˈɡæbə/, is the chief inhibitory ... Although in chemical terms, GABA is an amino acid (as it has both a primary amine and a carboxylic acid functional group), it ... By convention the term "amino acid", when used without a qualifier, refers specifically to an alpha amino acid. GABA is not an ...
... a putative antagonist of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) receptor" (pdf). CNS Drug Reviews. 10 (3): 243-260. doi:10.1111/j.1527 ... "Blockade of the discriminative stimulus effects of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) by the GHB receptor antagonist NCS-382". ... gamma-hydroxybutyric aciduria)" (pdf). Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. 302 (1): 180-187. doi:10.1124/ ... 58 (3): 587-590. doi:10.1016/0031-9384(95)00086-X. PMID 8587968. Gupta M, Greven R, Jansen EE, Jakobs C, Hogema BM, Froestl W, ...
Nyhan's areas of research span a variety of amino acid metabolism disorders, among them 4-hydroxybutyric aciduria, 3- ... "A familial disorder of uric acid metabolism and central nervous system function". Am. J. Med. 36 (4): 561-70. doi:10.1016/0002- ...
... mice and characterization of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid pharmacology". Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease. 30 (3): 279-94. ... is a rare inborn error in the metabolism of the neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). In response to the defect, ... 4-hydroxybutyric aciduria)". American Journal of Human Genetics. 63 (2): 399-408. doi:10.1086/301964. PMC 1377305 . PMID ... gamma-hydroxybutyric aciduria). Hypotheses evolved from 25 years of patient evaluation, studies in Aldh5a1-/- ...
"Drosophila GABAB receptors are involved in behavioral effects of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB)". Eur. J. Pharmacol. 519 (3): ... By convention the term "amino acid", when used without a qualifier, refers specifically to an alpha amino acid. GABA is not an ... gamma-Aminobutyric acid (γ-Aminobutyric acid) /ˈɡæmə əˈmiːnoʊbjuːˈtɪrɪk ˈæsɪd/ (GABA /ˈɡæbə/) is the chief inhibitory ... GABA is an amino acid (as it has both a primary amine and a carboxylic acid functional group), it is rarely referred to as such ...
... γ-Hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) γ-Hydroxyvaleric acid (GHV; 4-methyl-GHB) γ-Valerolactone (GVL) trans-Hydroxycrotonic acid (T-HCA) ... Crunelli V, Emri Z, Leresche N (February 2006). "Unravelling the brain targets of γ-hydroxybutyric acid". Curr Opin Pharmacol. ... 2008). "Novel High-Affinity and Selective Biaromatic 4-Substituted gamma-Hydroxybutyric Acid (GHB) Analogues as GHB Ligands: ... Castelli MP (November 2008). "Multi-faceted aspects of gamma-hydroxybutyric Acid: a neurotransmitter, therapeutic agent and ...
It is an analogue of γ-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), as well as an active metabolite of GHB. Similarly to GHB, T-HCA has been ... trans-4-Hydroxycrotonic acid (T-HCA), also known as γ-hydroxycrotonic acid (GHC), is an agent used in scientific research to ... "Analogues of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid. Synthesis and binding studies". J. Med. Chem. 31 (5): 893-7. doi:10.1021/jm00400a001. ... "Selective gamma-hydroxybutyric acid receptor ligands increase extracellular glutamate in the hippocampus, but fail to activate ...
... oleic acids MeSH D10.251.355.325.600.525 --- oleic acid MeSH D10.251.355.325.600.780 --- ricinoleic acids MeSH D10.251.355.325. ... fatty acids, omega-6 MeSH D10.251.355.343.249 --- gamma-linolenic acid MeSH D10.251.355.343.500 --- linoleic acids MeSH D10.251 ... gamma-linolenic acid MeSH D10.251.355.840 --- sorbic acid MeSH D10.251.355.920 --- trans fatty acids MeSH D10.251.400.092 --- ... linoleic acid MeSH D10.251.355.310.640 --- linolenic acids MeSH D10.251.355.310.640.400 --- alpha-linolenic acid MeSH D10.251. ...
... γ-hydroxybutyric acid and ethanol: Relationships and interactions", Neuropharmacology, 23: 109-13, doi:10.1016/0028-3908(84) ... 4-butanediol into γ-hydroxybutyric acid in vivo", Eur. J. Pharmacol., 473 (2-3): 149-52, doi:10.1016/S0014-2999(03)01993-9, ... 4-butanediol are mediated by GABAB receptors via its conversion into γ-hydroxybutyric acid", Eur. J. Pharmacol., 441 (3): 157- ... In organic chemistry, 1,4-butanediol is used for the synthesis of γ-butyrolactone (GBL). In the presence of phosphoric acid and ...
Crunelli V, Emri Z, Leresche N (2006). „Unravelling the brain targets of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid". Curr Opin Pharmacol. 6 (1 ... Snead OC (2000). „Evidence for a G protein-coupled gamma-hydroxybutyric acid receptor". J. Neurochem. 75 (5): 1986-96. PMID ... 2003). „Selective gamma-hydroxybutyric acid receptor ligands increase extracellular glutamate in the hippocampus, but fail to ... Castelli MP (2008). „Multi-faceted aspects of gamma-hydroxybutyric Acid: a neurotransmitter, therapeutic agent and drug of ...
... accumulates and cannot be oxidized to succinic acid and is therefore reduced to gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) by gamma- ... Gibson, K. M.; Hoffmann, G. F.; Hodson, A. K.; Bottiglieri, T.; Jakobs, C. (1998). "4-Hydroxybutyric acid and the clinical ... Under normal conditions, SSADH works with the enzyme GABA transaminase to convert GABA to succinic acid. Succinic acid can then ... Succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency (SSADHD), also known as 4-hydroxybutyric aciduria or gamma-hydroxybutyric ...
Hydroxybutyric acid (2TMS); 3-Trimethylsilyloxybutyric acid, trimethylsilyl ester; 3-Hydroxybutanoic acid, bis-TMS; 3- ... Hydroxybutyric acid, diTMS; Butanoic acid, 3-hydroxy, bis-TMS; Butanoic acid, 3-hydroxy, di-TMS; 3-Hydroxybutyric acid, TMS; ... Other names: Butanoic acid, 3-[(trimethylsilyl)oxy]-, trimethylsilyl ester; «beta»- ... CAS Registry Number: 55133-94-3. *Chemical structure: This structure is also available as a 2d Mol file or as a computed 3d SD ...
Hoffmann GF, Meier-Augenstein W, Stockler S, Surtees R, Rating D, Nyhan WL: Physiology and pathophysiology of organic acids in ... This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as beta hydroxy acids and derivatives. These are compounds ... Tserng KY, Jin SJ, Kerr DS, Hoppel CL: Abnormal urinary excretion of unsaturated dicarboxylic acids in patients with medium- ... Abrahamsson K, Eriksson BO, Holme E, Jodal U, Jonsson A, Lindstedt S: Pivalic acid-induced carnitine deficiency and physical ...
Ethyl (S)-(+)-3-hydroxybutyrate is used for synthesis of optically active products, used as medical and organic intermediates, ... Poly-d-(-)(3-hydroxybutyrate)/poly(ethylene oxide) blends: phase diagram, thermal and crystallization behavior. Polymer. 1988, ... Hydrolytic degradation and protein release studies of thermogelling polyurethane copolymers consisting of poly[(R)-3- ...
Xiao-Hong Chen; Ping Wei; Xiao-Ting Wang; Min-Hua Zong; Wen-Yong Lou. A novel carbonyl reductase with anti-Prelog stereospecificity from Acetobacter sp. CCTCC M209061: purification and characterization. PLoS ONE. 2014, 9, (4), e94543.. Bezhan Chankvetadze; Mayuko Saito; Eiji Yashima and Yoshio Okamoto. Enantioseparation of atropisomeric 1,1?-binaphthyl-2,2?-diyl hydrogen phosphate in capillary electrophoresis by using di- and oligosaccharides as chiral selectors: di- and oligosaccharide chiral selectors in capillary electrophoresis. Chirality. 1998, 10, (1-2), 134-139.. For use in the synthesis of chiral ß-lactams, see: J. Chem. Soc., Chem. Commun., 1376 (1988). Can undergo aldol-type reactions with aldehydes with either syn- or anti-selectivity according to the conditions: Chem. Lett., 1931 (1990). ...
belongs to the class of organic compounds known as hydroxy fatty acids. These are fatty acids in which the chain bears a ... Jakobs C, Sweetman L, Nyhan WL: Hydroxy acid metabolites of branched-chain amino acids in amniotic fluid. Clin Chim Acta. 1984 ... Guneral F, Bachmann C: Age-related reference values for urinary organic acids in a healthy Turkish pediatric population. Clin ... as well as presumably beta-oxidation of fatty acids and ketogenesis, excreted in abnormally high amounts in beta-ketothiolase ...
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H2NCH2CH CH2COOH Crystals that decompose at 218°C; soluble in water; used as an anticonvulsant Explanation of 4-amino-3- ... Looking for 4-amino-3-hydroxybutyric acid? Find out information about 4-amino-3-hydroxybutyric acid. ... 4-amino-3-hydroxybutyric acid. [¦fȯr ə¦me·nō ¦thrē ‚hī¦dräk·sē‚byü¦tir·ik ′as·əd] (pharmacology) H2NCH2CH(OH)CH2COOH Crystals ... encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/4-amino-3-hydroxybutyric+acid,4-amino-3-hydroxybutyric acid,/a,. *Facebook ...
Poly(3-hydroxybutyric acid) P(3HB), as one of these alternatives, have attracted much attention in recent years due to their ... ascorbic acid (117.6 mg/100 g peel) and quinic acid (98.5 mg/100 g peel), but malic acid and citric acid were not detected. ... Law, J.H. and Slepecky, R.A. (1961) Assay of Poly-β-hydroxybutyric Acid. Journal of Bacteriology, 82, 33-36. ... nant organic acids in freshly prepared peel samples were found to be oxalic acid (257.5 mg/100 g peel), ...
... gamma-amino-beta-hydroxybutyric acid,buksamin,GABOB,Gabomade,Gamibetal,DL-Form,DL-4-Amino-3-hydroxybutyric Acid,D(+)-Form,D(+)- ... 4-Amino-3-hydroxybutyric Acid,L(-)-Form,L(-)-4-Amino-3-hydroxybutyric Acid ...
... gamma-hydroxy-beta-aminobutyric acid,GOBAB,Hydrochloride,3-Amino-4-hydroxybutyric Acid Hydrochloride ...
Discover exactly what 4 Amino 3 Hydroxybutyric Acid does for your skin. Heres everything you need to know about this skincare ... 4 Amino 3 Hydroxybutyric Acid. Our database has 0 products that contain 4 Amino 3 Hydroxybutyric Acid. ...
DL-3-Hydroxybutyric Acid Sodium Salt Powder. July 1st, 2015. by Drawk Kwast Leave a Comment ...
Blog on rac 3-Hydroxybutyric Acid-d4 Sodium Salt biochemical product: The rac 3-Hydroxybutyric Acid-d4 Sodium Salt n/a (Catalog ... Glycochenodeoxycholic Acid-d5 3-Sulfate Disodium Salt biochemical blog. • p-Cyanoacetophenone-d4 biochemical blog. • 1,3- ... 2-Nitro-5-thiothiocyanatobenzoic acid biochemical blog. • N-Ethylmethylamine biochemical blog. • Acepromazine, Maleate ... rac 3-Hydroxybutyric Acid-d4 Sodium Salt biochemical. LOG IN MY ACCOUNT CART CONTENTS CHECKOUT ...
What is 3-hydroxybutanoic acid? Meaning of 3-hydroxybutanoic acid medical term. What does 3-hydroxybutanoic acid mean? ... Looking for online definition of 3-hydroxybutanoic acid in the Medical Dictionary? 3-hydroxybutanoic acid explanation free. ... β-hydroxybutyric acid. 3-hydroxybutyric acid, β-hydroxybutyric acid. major ketone body in circulation; hydroxyacid rather than ... The l-isomer is found as a coenzyme A derivative in β oxidation of fatty acids. ...
... ß-hydroxybutyric acid. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical terms and definitions. ... Synonym(s): 3-hydroxybutyric acid. Further information. Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the information ... ß-hydroxybutyric acid. Pronunciation: hi-drokse-byu-tirik asid. ...
5g Alfa Aesar™ 3-Hydroxybutyric acid, tech. Hydroxya to Hydroxyethylphthal -Organics ...
beta-ketobutyric acid synonyms, beta-ketobutyric acid pronunciation, beta-ketobutyric acid translation, English dictionary ... definition of beta-ketobutyric acid. n. 1. The second letter of the Greek alphabet. See Table at alphabet. 2. The second item ... beta-hydroxybutyric acid. *beta-hydroxybutyric acid. *beta-hydroxybutyric acid. *beta-hydroxyethyldimethylamine. *beta- ... Related to beta-ketobutyric acid: 3-hydroxybutyric acid be·ta. (bā′tə, bē′-). n.. 1. The second letter of the Greek alphabet. ...
Hydroxyalkanoic acids fermentation can revolutionize the polyhydroxyalkanoic acids (PHA) production by increasing efficiency ... R)-hydroxyalkanoic acids (R-HAs) are valuable building blocks for the synthesis of fine chemicals and biopolymers because of ... Using Paulownia elongate WEH as a feedstock, the R-3-HB concentration in fermentation broth reached as high as 14.2 g/L after 3 ... Wood extract hydrolysate (WEH) was found to be a suitable substrate for R-3-hydroxybutyric acid (R-3-HB) production by ...
4-Hydroxybutyric acid gamma-lactone; BLO; Butyronitrile,99%; 4,5-Dihydro-2(3H)-furanone; 4-Hydroxybutyric acid lactone; n- ... 3,4,5-tetrahydro-2-furanone; 2(3H)-furanone,dihydro-; 2(3H)-dihydrofuranone; 1-Oxacyclopentan-2-one; γ-Butyrrolactone. ... 3-dihydroxybutanoic acid; GBL; γ-Butyroalctone; Gamma-Butyroalctone; 3-Hydroxybutyric acid lactone; 2-Oxotetrahydrofuran; 2- ...
L-α-amino-β-hydroxybutyric acid NIST Chemistry WebBook L-Threonin ChEBI ... L-threonine (CHEBI:16857) is a L-α-amino acid (CHEBI:15705) L-threonine (CHEBI:16857) is a aspartate family amino acid (CHEBI: ... L-threonine (CHEBI:16857) is a proteinogenic amino acid (CHEBI:83813) L-threonine (CHEBI:16857) is a threonine (CHEBI:26986) L- ... L-threoninium (CHEBI:32822) is conjugate acid of L-threonine (CHEBI:16857). L-threoninate (CHEBI:32820) is conjugate base of L- ...
2019 American Association for the Advancement of Science. All rights reserved. AAAS is a partner of HINARI, AGORA, OARE, CHORUS, CLOCKSS, CrossRef and COUNTER. Science ISSN 1095-9203.. ...
AIBN,tartaric acid,N-Methyl Formamide,mandelic acid,Methyl thioacetate. Total Revenue: US$5 Million - US$10 Million ... Top 3 Markets: South America 30.0% , South Asia 20.0% , Southeast Asia 10.0% ... Top 3 Markets: Southeast Asia 30% , North America 20% , Eastern Europe 15% ... Top 3 Markets: North America 30% , Western Europe 20% , Southeast Asia 10% ...
3-Amino-4-hydroxybutyric acid hydrochloride, (S)- - Similar structures search, synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other ... Substance Name: 3-Amino-4-hydroxybutyric acid hydrochloride, (S)-. RN: 1245645-62-8. UNII: L44PBA0QA3. InChIKey: XHGZYMNGKDOSJB ... 1S/C4H9NO3.ClH/c5-3(2-6)1-4(7)8;/h3,6H,1-2,5H2,(H,7,8);1H/t3-;/m0./s1. Download. ...
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  • 3-Hydroxy-2-methyl-butanoic acid (HMBA) is a normal urinary metabolite involved in the isoleucine catabolism, as well as presumably beta-oxidation of fatty acids and ketogenesis, excreted in abnormally high amounts in beta-ketothiolase deficiency, which is a genetic disorder. (hmdb.ca)
  • Besides biohydrolysis and biooxidation, now a bioisomerization reaction can be employed, converting the common metabolite 3-hydroxybutyric acid to 2-HIBA by a novel cobalamin-dependent CoA-carbonyl mutase. (biomedcentral.com)
  • An involvement of GABAergic systems in the actions of GHB has been suspected for some time because it is structurally similar to, and a metabolite of, GABA ( 3 ). (pnas.org)
  • Hydrolytic degradation and protein release studies of thermogelling polyurethane copolymers consisting of poly[(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate], poly(ethylene glycol), and poly(propylene glycol). (alfa.com)
  • Poly-d-(-)(3-hydroxybutyrate)/poly(ethylene oxide) blends: phase diagram, thermal and crystallization behavior. (alfa.com)
  • Poly(3-hydroxybutyric acid) P(3HB), as one of these alternatives, have attracted much attention in recent years due to their varied mechanical properties, biocompatibility and biodegradability. (scirp.org)
  • Known as poly(3-hydroxybutyrate), this polymer is also produced biologically by the bacteria Alcaligenes eutrophus. (wikipedia.org)
  • beta-Hydroxybutyrate can be extracted from poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) by acid hydrolysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Poly(hydroxyalkanoate)s (PHAs), one such eco-friendly polymeric materials, are polyesters synthesized by a variety of bacteria as an intracellular storage material of carbon and energy ( Figure 1 ) [ 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • These mechanical properties of PHA are comparable to PE and polypropylene (PP) of industrial level as well as poly(glycolic acid) which is used for sutures. (mdpi.com)
  • The tools are applied to the production of poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) by using the halophilic bacteria Halomonas sp. (springer.com)
  • Choi J, Lee SY (1997) Process analysis and economic evaluation for poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) production by fermentation. (springer.com)
  • Garcia-Lillo J, Rodriguez-Valera F (1990) Effects of culture conditions on poly(3-hydroxybutyric acid) production by Haloferax mediterranei. (springer.com)
  • Intracellular poly[ d -(−)-3-hydroxybutyrate] (PHB) depolymerases degrade PHB granules to oligomers and monomers of 3-hydroxybutyric acid. (asm.org)
  • The resultant ( R )-3HB-CoA molecules are then polymerized into poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB)] by the function of PHA synthase. (asm.org)
  • Maurice Lemoigne (mid-1920s) was the first person who discovered monopolyester of identified poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) or PHB (Figure 3) . (kenyon.edu)
  • Bacteroids of indeterminate nodules are terminally differentiated and, unlike their non-terminally differentiated counterparts in determinate nodules, do not accumulate large quantities of Poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) during symbiosis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Most of the carbon supplied by the plant is used to fuel nitrogen fixation, however, under certain circumstances, some of the carbon appears to be diverted by the bacteroid into the production of intracellular carbon storage polymers such as poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Another important function of ketone bodies is to provide acetoacetyl-CoA and acetyl-CoA for synthesis of cholesterol, fatty acids, and complex lipids. (hmdb.ca)
  • Ethyl (S)-(+)-3-hydroxybutyrate is used for synthesis of optically active products, used as medical and organic intermediates, an important amino protective agents, pharmaceuticals and synthetic organic makes intermediates, organic synthesis used to introduce t-Boc protect gene. (alfa.com)
  • R)-hydroxyalkanoic acids (R-HAs) are valuable building blocks for the synthesis of fine chemicals and biopolymers because of the chiral center and the two active functional groups. (springeropen.com)
  • We have identified the tertiary carbon atom-containing 2-hydroxyisobutyric acid (2-HIBA) as an interesting building block for polymer synthesis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The absence of both phbA and phB genes of A. eutrophus leads to no synthesis of D(-)-3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA. (kenyon.edu)
  • In A. eutrophus , the synthesis of PHB involves glucose as a carbon source and three enzymes: 3-ketothiolase, acetoacetyl-CoA reductase, and PHA synthase . (kenyon.edu)
  • Vitamin C is necessary for multiple hydroxylation reactions, including hydroxylation of proline and lysine in collagen synthesis, beta-hydroxybutyric acid in carnitine synthesis, and dopamine-beta-hydroxylase in catecholamine synthesis. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • as an acyl derivative it is also an intermediate in fatty acid biosynthesis. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Biosynthesis from gluconate of a random copolyester consisting of 3-hydroxybutyrate and medium-chain-length 3-hydroxyalkanoates by Pseudomonas sp. (nih.gov)
  • On the basis of the fact that this bacterium does not accumulate any PHA from sugars, C 4 and C 6 ( R )-3HA units were proposed to be supplied from the β-oxidation intermediates, similar to the PHA biosynthesis pathway in pseudomonads on alkanoic acids ( 8 ). (asm.org)
  • In this paper, we report direct evidence that ORF3 is essential for PHA biosynthesis from alkanoic acids in A. caviae . (asm.org)
  • Like the other ketone bodies (acetoacetate and acetone), levels of 3-hydroxybutyrate in blood and urine are raised in ketosis. (hmdb.ca)
  • Azobacterium and many recombinant strains through the fermentation of sugars, lipids, alkanes, alkenes and alkanoic acids, in the presence of excess carbon while another essential nutrient, such as nitrogen or phosphorus, is limiting - ( Figure 1 ). (scirp.org)
  • Pseudomonads belonging to rRNA homology group I accumulated PHA consisting of medium-chain-length (C 5 to C 14 ) 3-hydroxyalkanoate (3HA) units from simple carbon sources, such as sugars ( 13 , 15 , 32 ) or n -alkanoic acids, n -alkanols, or n -alkanes ( 4 , 12 , 14 , 16 ). (asm.org)
  • In the production of PHA from alkanoic acids with six to nine carbon atoms by Pseudomonas oleovorans , the major monomer unit in PHA has the same chain length as the alkanoic acids fed as a carbon source, but monomer units with more or fewer carbon atoms than the acid fed are also generally present in the PHA formed. (asm.org)
  • Aeromonas caviae isolated from soil has been reported to produce a random copolyester of 3HB and ( R )-3-hydroxyhexanoate [( R )-3HHx], P(3HB- co -3HHx), from alkanoic acids with even carbon numbers or from plant oils ( 8 , 26 ). (asm.org)
  • 3. The method of claim 1 wherein said composition is an ointment containing said compound dissolved in about 1% to about 30% by volume of a solvent selected from the group consisting of water and ethanol, and admixed with an ointment base selected from the group consisting of petrolatum and hydrophilic ointment. (google.com.au)
  • The dual-layered catabolite repression was identified and successfully removed in the engineered E. coli , and the compound ( R )-3-hydroxybutyric acid was produced from simultaneous assimilation of glucose, xylose and arabinose. (diva-portal.org)
  • For this compound alone, the market exceeds 3 million tons. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Several researchers have investigated the efficient conversion of carbohydrates into high value-added chemicals, such as 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF), levulinic acid (LA), formic acid (FA), acetic acid, furfural, etc. [ 4 , 5 , 6 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • 4,757,128 and 4,997,904 disclose the preparation of polyanhydrides with improved sustained drug release properties from pure, isolated prepolymers of diacids and acetic acid. (google.es)
  • This deficiency belongs to a more general class of disorders known as organic acidemias , in which the dysfunction of a specific step of amino acid catabolism results in the excretion of non-amino acids in the urine. (wikidoc.org)
  • In animals of each sex, most of the administered erythritol was recovered in urine (85-100% in males and 60-85% in females) and small amounts were found in the faeces (4-7% in males and 3-5% in females). (inchem.org)
  • 61-3 isolated from soil was found to produce a polyester consisting of 3-hydroxyalkanoic acids of even carbon numbers C4, C6, C8, C10 and C12 when sodium gluconate was fed as the sole carbon source. (nih.gov)
  • In Alcaligenes eutrophus , two molecules of acetyl coenzymeA (acetyl-CoA) derived from various carbon sources are converted to ( R )-3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA [( R )-(3HB)-CoA] via dimerization catalyzed by β-ketothiolase and subsequent ( R )-specific reduction catalyzed by NADPH-acetoacetyl-CoA reductase. (asm.org)
  • The new pathways provide means for producing 4HB containing PHAs from cheap carbon sources such as sugars and fatty acids, in high yields, which are stable. (patents.com)
  • EXPLANATION Erythritol is a four-carbon sugar alcohol ( meso -1,2,3,4-butanetetrol) which is 60-80% as sweet as sucrose. (inchem.org)
  • It has similar mechanical properties as those of the oil-derived conventional plastics like polypropylene or polyethylene which can be molded, made into films, spun into monofilaments, and used to make heteropolymers with other synthetic polymers and many more applications in agriculture, packaging, and medical field being biodegradable and also immunologically compatible with human tissue [ 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Trimethylsilyl (TMS) derivatives of cyclohexane carboxylate, cyclohex-1-ene carboxylate, benzoate, pimelate, glutarate, 3-hydroxybutyrate, and acetoacetate were detected as intermediates by comparison of retention times and mass spectral profiles to authentic standards. (asm.org)
  • The spontaneous and metal ion catalyzed hydrolyses of salicylic acid O-aryl phosphates (IIIa-d) proceed through cyclic acyl phosphate intermediates after expulsion of phenol. (elsevier.com)
  • In humans, D-3-hydroxybutyrate is synthesized in the liver from acetoacetate, the first ketone produced in the fasting state. (wikipedia.org)
  • With [U- 13 C]crotonate, the m/z -15 ion of TMS-derivatized glutarate, 3-hydroxybutyrate, and acetoacetate each increased by +4 mass units, and the m/z -15 ion of TMS-derivatized pimelate, cyclohex-1-ene carboxylate, benzoate, and cyclohexane carboxylate each increased by +6 mass units. (asm.org)
  • In humans, 3-hydroxybutyrate is synthesized in the liver from acetyl-CoA, and can be used as an energy source by the brain when blood glucose is low. (hmdb.ca)
  • The air/breath/headspace sample is introduced into fast flowing helium carrier gas where the trace gases in the sample react with embedded reagent ions (H 3 O + , NO + or O 2 + ) to produce characteristic product ions that identify the trace gases, and accurate quantification is achieved from knowledge of the kinetics of the ion/trace gas molecule reactions. (keele.ac.uk)