Salts and esters of hydroxybutyric acid.
BUTYRIC ACID substituted in the beta or 3 position. It is one of the ketone bodies produced in the liver.
Polymers of organic acids and alcohols, with ester linkages--usually polyethylene terephthalate; can be cured into hard plastic, films or tapes, or fibers which can be woven into fabrics, meshes or velours.
The sodium salt of 4-hydroxybutyric acid. It is used for both induction and maintenance of ANESTHESIA.
Enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of carboxylic acid esters with the formation of an alcohol and a carboxylic acid anion.
A large group of aerobic bacteria which show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method. This is because the cell walls of gram-negative bacteria are low in peptidoglycan and thus have low affinity for violet stain and high affinity for the pink dye safranine.
One of the FURANS with a carbonyl thereby forming a cyclic lactone. It is an endogenous compound made from gamma-aminobutyrate and is the precursor of gamma-hydroxybutyrate. It is also used as a pharmacological agent and solvent.
An enzyme that plays a role in the GLUTAMATE and butanoate metabolism pathways by catalyzing the oxidation of succinate semialdehyde to SUCCINATE using NAD+ as a coenzyme. Deficiency of this enzyme, causes 4-hydroxybutyricaciduria, a rare inborn error in the metabolism of the neurotransmitter 4-aminobutyric acid (GABA).
Salts and derivatives of acetoacetic acid.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
The dynamic collection of metabolites which represent a cell's or organism's net metabolic response to current conditions.
A life-threatening complication of diabetes mellitus, primarily of TYPE 1 DIABETES MELLITUS with severe INSULIN deficiency and extreme HYPERGLYCEMIA. It is characterized by KETOSIS; DEHYDRATION; and depressed consciousness leading to COMA.
The metabolic substances ACETONE; 3-HYDROXYBUTYRIC ACID; and acetoacetic acid (ACETOACETATES). They are produced in the liver and kidney during FATTY ACIDS oxidation and used as a source of energy by the heart, muscle and brain.
Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.
The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.
The science or study of speech sounds and their production, transmission, and reception, and their analysis, classification, and transcription. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
A verbal or nonverbal means of communicating ideas or feelings.

Effects of fatty acids and ketone bodies on basal insulin secretion in type 2 diabetes. (1/526)

The objective of this study was to assess the role of free fatty acids (FFAs) as insulin secretagogues in patients with type 2 diabetes. To this end, basal insulin secretion rates (ISR) in response to acute increases in plasma FFAs were evaluated in patients with type 2 diabetes and in age- and weight-matched nondiabetic control subjects during 1) intravenous infusion of lipid plus heparin (L/H), which stimulated intravascular lipolysis, and 2) the FFA rebound, which followed lowering of plasma FFAs with nicotinic acid (NA) and was a consequence of increased lipolysis from the subject's own adipose tissue. At comparable euglycemia, diabetic patients had similar ISR but higher plasma beta-hydroxybutyrate (beta-OHB) levels during L/H infusion and higher plasma FFA and beta-OHB levels during the FFA rebound than nondiabetic control subjects. Correlating ISR with plasma FFA plus beta-OHB levels showed that in response to the same changes in FFA plus beta-OHB levels, diabetic patients secreted approximately 30% less insulin than nondiabetic control subjects. In addition, twice as much insulin was secreted during L/H infusion as during the FFA rebound in response to the same FFA/beta-OHB stimulation by both diabetic patients and control subjects. Glycerol, which was present in the infused lipid (272 mmol/l) did not affect ISR. We concluded that 1) assessment of FFA effects on ISR requires consideration of effects on ISR by ketone bodies; 2) ISR responses to FFA/beta-OHB were defective in patients with type 2 diabetes (partial beta-cell lipid blindness), but this defect was compensated by elevated plasma levels of FFAs and ketone bodies; and 3) approximately two times more insulin was released per unit change in plasma FFA plus beta-OHB during L/H infusion than during the FFA rebound after NA. The reason for this remains to be explored.  (+info)

Within- and between-subject variation in commonly measured anthropometric and biochemical variables. (2/526)

BACKGROUND: The biological variation of some commonly assessed metabolic variables in healthy subjects has not been studied extensively. The aim of the study was to assess, in 12 healthy subjects (6 male and 6 female; mean (SD) age; 22.7 (1.5) years) following an overnight fast, the day-to-day variation of body fat (impedance method), triglycerides, nonesterified fatty acid (NEFAs), glycerol, 3-hydroxybutyrate (3-OHB), lactate, glucose, insulin (RIA), C-peptide, and glucagon on 12 consecutive days. METHODS: Between- and within-subject coefficients of variation (CVG and CVW) were estimated using a random effects analysis of variance, and assay variation was subtracted to give the coefficient of within-subject biological variation (CVI). Individuality indices were calculated as CVW/CVG. RESULTS: The overall means, CVI, and individuality indices were as follows: for body fat, 24.2%, 10%, and 0.3; for triglycerides, 0.61 mmol/L, 21%, and 1.1; for NEFAs, 376 micromol/L, 45%, and 1.4; for glycerol, 48 micromol/L, 36%, and 0.8; for 3-OHB, 43 micromol/L, 61%, and 1.5; for lactate, 0.88 mmol/L, 31%, and 1.1; for glucose, 4.9 mmol/L, 4.8%, and 0.7; for insulin, 52 pmol/L, 26%, and 1.0; for C-peptide, 0.39 nmol/L, 24%, and 0.9; and for glucagon, 53 ng/L, 19%, and 0.8. CONCLUSIONS: The data presented here are necessary for the evaluation of several important metabolic variables in individual and group studies. The biological variation of some metabolites makes it difficult to characterize the status of healthy subjects with a single measurement.  (+info)

Production of poly(3-hydroxybutyric acid-co-4-hydroxybutyric acid) and poly(4-hydroxybutyric acid) without subsequent degradation by Hydrogenophaga pseudoflava. (3/526)

A Hydrogenophaga pseudoflava strain was able to synthesize poly(3-hydroxybutyric acid-co-4-hydroxybutyric acid) [P(3HB-co-4HB)] having a high level of 4-hydroxybutyric acid monomer unit (4HB) from gamma-butyrolactone. In a two-step process in which the first step involved production of cells containing a minimum amount of poly(3-hydroxybutyric acid) [P(3HB)] and the second step involved polyester accumulation from the lactone, approximately 5 to 10 mol% of the 3-hydroxybutyric acid (3HB) derived from the first-step culture was unavoidably reincorporated into the polymer in the second cultivation step. Reincorporation of the 3HB units produced from degradation of the first-step residual P(3HB) was confirmed by high-resolution 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. In order to synthesize 3HB-free poly(4-hydroxybutyric acid) [P(4HB)] homopolymer, a three-stage cultivation technique was developed by adding a nitrogen addition step, which completely removed the residual P(3HB). The resulting polymer was free of 3HB. However, when the strain was grown on gamma-butyrolactone as the sole carbon source in a synthesis medium, a copolyester of P(3HB-co-4HB) containing 45 mol% 3HB was produced. One-step cultivation on gamma-butyrolactone required a rather long induction time (3 to 4 days). On the basis of the results of an enzymatic study performed with crude extracts, we suggest that the inability of cells to produce 3HB in the multistep culture was due to a low level of 4-hydroxybutyric acid (4HBA) dehydrogenase activity, which resulted in a low level of acetyl coenzyme A. Thus, 3HB formation from gamma-butyrolactone is driven by a high level of 4HBA dehydrogenase activity induced by long exposure to gamma-butyrolactone, as is the case for a one-step culture. In addition, intracellular degradation kinetics studies showed that P(3HB) in cells was completely degraded within 30 h of cultivation after being transferred to a carbon-free mineral medium containing additional ammonium sulfate, while P(3HB-co-4HB) containing 5 mol% 3HB and 95 mol% 4HB was totally inert in interactions with the intracellular depolymerases. Intracellular inertness could be a useful factor for efficient synthesis of the P(4HB) homopolymer and of 4HB-rich P(3HB-co-4HB) by the strain used in this study.  (+info)

Requirement for the heart-type fatty acid binding protein in cardiac fatty acid utilization. (4/526)

Nonenzymatic cytosolic fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs) are abundantly expressed in many animal tissues with high rates of fatty acid metabolism. No physiological role has been demonstrated for any FABP, although these proteins have been implicated in transport of free long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs) and protection against LCFA toxicity. We report here that mice lacking heart-type FABP (H-FABP) exhibit a severe defect of peripheral (nonhepatic, non-fat) LCFA utilization. In these mice, the heart is unable to efficiently take up plasma LCFAs, which are normally its main fuel, and switches to glucose usage. Altered plasma levels of LCFAs, glucose, lactate and beta-hydroxybutyrate are consistent with depressed peripheral LCFA utilization, intensified carbohydrate usage, and increased hepatic LCFA oxidation; these changes are most pronounced under conditions favoring LCFA oxidation. H-FABP deficiency is only incompletely compensated, however, causing acute exercise intolerance and, at old age, a localized cardiac hypertrophy. These data establish a requirement for H-FABP in cardiac intracellular lipid transport and fuel selection and a major role in metabolic homeostasis. This new animal model should be particularly useful for investigating the significance of peripheral LCFA utilization for heart function, insulin sensitivity, and blood pressure.  (+info)

Relations between plasma acetate, 3-hydroxybutyrate, FFA, glucose levels and energy nutrition in lactating dairy cows. (5/526)

To clarify the implication of an energy nutrition on a metabolic alteration with advancing lactation, total 270 blood samples were taken from 16 lactating dairy cows. Amounts of dietary allowance and the refusals were measured daily, and the energy (TDN) intakes and a satisfaction (energy balance) of each cow were estimated. Plasma acetate, 3-hydroxybutyrate (3-HB), free fatty acid (FFA) and glucose levels were estimated. The data were divided into 3 groups depending on the days in milk; early (up to 70 days postpartum), mid (71 to 140 days), and late (after 141 days) lactation. There were many cases of higher FFA level in early lactation, especially with declining acetate and glucose levels. There were proportional elevations of 3-HB in connection with FFA levels in many samples of early lactation, though the 3-HB increased independently of FFA levels in the most cases of the mid and late lactations. Plasma 3-HB levels increased in many cases of decreased glucose level, especially in the early lactation. Plasma acetate level correlated positively with 3-HB level, but not correlated with glucose level. Higher FFA level and elevation of FFA/3-HB ratio were observed in the conditions of negative energy balance. This implies the metabolic importance of FFA in a ketogenesis of the early lactation.  (+info)

Effect of hyperketonemia on plasma lipid peroxidation levels in diabetic patients. (6/526)

OBJECTIVE: This study was undertaken to examine the effect of ketosis on plasma lipid peroxidation levels in diabetic patients. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Plasma levels of lipid peroxidation products (malondialdehyde) and ketone bodies (acetoacetate and beta-hydroxybutyrate) were determined in diabetic patients (n = 70) and age-matched normal volunteers (n = 25). Diabetic patients with total ketone body levels > 1.0 mmol/l were considered hyperketonemic, and those with levels < or = 1.0 mmol/l were considered normoketonemic. RESULTS: After normalization versus total lipids, levels of lipid peroxidation were significantly higher in the plasma of hyperketonemic diabetic patients (P < 0.05), but not in normoketonemic diabetic patients, compared with age-matched normal volunteers. In addition, low ketonemia was associated with lower lipid peroxidation levels when lipid peroxidation and ketonemia were determined in the same patient (n = 7) at two different clinic visits. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated an association between hyperketonemia and increased lipid peroxidation levels in diabetic patients, which suggests that ketosis is a risk factor in the elevated lipid peroxidation levels associated with diabetes. Further investigation is needed to determine whether antioxidant supplementation can be particularly beneficial in reducing lipid peroxidation and complications in type 1 diabetic patients who frequently encounter ketosis.  (+info)

The metabolic effects of estriol in female rat liver. (7/526)

The effects of estriol on oxygen uptake, glucose release, lactate and pyruvate production, beta-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate production in perfused rat liver as well as, carbon uptake in rat liver and intracellular calcium in isolated Kupffer cells were investigated. Basal oxygen consumption of perfused liver increased significantly in estriol or ethanol-treated rats. But these increased effects were blocked by gadolinium chloride pretreatment. In a metabolic study, pretreatment with estriol resulted in a decrease in glucose production and in glycolysis while an increase in ketogenesis. A more oxidized redox state of the mitochondria was indicated by increased ratios of perfusate [lactate]/[pyruvate] and decreased ratios of perfusate [beta-hydroxybutyrate]/[acetoacetate]. Carbon uptake of Kupffer-cell increased significantly in estriol-treated rats. But these increased uptake were not shown in rats pre-treated by gadolinium chloride blocking phagocytosis. In isolated Kupffer cells from estriol-treated rats, intracellular calcium was more significantly increased after addition of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) than in controls. These findings suggest that the metabolic effects of estriol (two mg per 100 mg body wt) can be summarized to be highly toxic in rat liver, and these findings suggest that oral administration of estrogens may induce hepatic dysfunctions and play a role in the development of liver disease.  (+info)

Hormonal and metabolic responses to maintained hyperglycemia during prolonged exercise. (8/526)

We studied the effects of maintained hyperglycemia (12 mmol/l) on endurance exercise to determine the hormonal and metabolic responses, the maximal rate of glucose infusion (i.e., utilization), and the effects on muscle glycogen stores. Eight men undertook two trials during which they exercised on a cycle ergometer at an intensity of approximately 70% peak O(2) uptake for 120 min. In the first trial (trial A), subjects had their blood glucose concentration clamped at 12 mmol/l 30 min before exercise and throughout exercise. The same rate and volume of infusion of saline as had occurred for trial A were used in a placebo trial (trial B). Maintained hyperglycemia resulted in significantly lowered plasma concentrations of nonesterified fatty acid, glycerol, 3-hydroxybutyrate, epinephrine, norepinephrine, and growth hormone (P < 0.001) during exercise, whereas concentrations of plasma insulin were significantly elevated (P < 0.001). Calculations of the rates of total carbohydrate oxidation showed that trial A resulted in significantly higher values when compared with trial B (P < 0.01) and that the maximal rates of glucose infusion varied between 1.33 and 2.78 g/min at 100-120 min. Muscle glycogen concentrations were significantly depleted (P < 0.01) after both trials (trial A, 170.3 micromol/g dry wt decrease; trial B, 206 micromol/g dry wt decrease), although this apparent difference may be accounted for by storage of 22.6 g glucose during the 30-min prime infusion. The results from this study confirm that maintained hyperglycemia attenuates the hormonal response and promotes carbohydrate oxidation and utilization and that muscle glycogen may not be spared.  (+info)

This is a magnesium salt of beta-hydroxybutyric acid, a compound normally made by the body in times of stress. It is one of the first ketone-forming compounds to form during times of starvation and intense physical exercise. It serves as a biochemical messenger to tell other cells to speed up their metabolism, and it also serves as a ready fuel source for brain cells.. Diets such as the keto diet rely on BHB to provide energy during severe calorie restriction. BHB rises during uncontrolled diabetes mellitus. Despite high blood sugar levels in diabetes, the cells that are supposed to benefit from insulin are starving from lack of insulin, and they produce BHB.. Administration of BHB has several potential benefits. It has been shown to interfere with inflammation, particularly in the brain where neuro-inflammation leads to depression.F The human body produces cell components called inflammasomes that contain the information and components needed to stimulate the whole cascade of events that lead ...
BHBCheck Plus Blood Ketone & Glucose Test System is an accurate and affordable test system that uses one drop of blood to provide quantitative results in seconds. The test measures either β-Hydroxybutyric Acid (BHBA) or glucose concentration in the blood of dairy cows ...
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2-Hydroxybutyric acid, also known as alpha-hydroxybutyrate and α-hydroxybutyrate, is a hydroxybutyric acid with the hydroxyl group on the carbon adjacent to the carboxyl. It is a chiral compound having two enantiomers, D-2-hydroxybutyric acid and L-2-hydroxybutyric acid. (R)-2-hydroxybutyric acid (S)-2-hydroxybutyric acid 2-Hydroxybutyrate, the conjugate base of 2-hydroxybutyric acid, is produced in mammalian tissues (principally hepatic) that catabolize L-threonine or synthesize glutathione. Oxidative stress or detoxification demands can dramatically increase the rate of hepatic glutathione synthesis. Under such metabolic stress conditions, supplies of L-cysteine for glutathione synthesis become limiting, so homocysteine is diverted from the transmethylation pathway forming methionine into the transsulfuration pathway forming cystathionine. 2-Hydroxybutyrate is released as a byproduct when cystathionine is cleaved to cysteine that is incorporated into glutathione. Chronic shifts in the rate of ...
R)-3-Hydroxybutyric acid is a butyric acid substituted with a hydroxyl group in the beta or 3 position. It is involved in the synthesis and degradation of ketone bodies. Like the other ketone bodies (acetoacetate and acetone), levels of beta-hydroxybutyrate are raised in the blood and urine in ketosis. Beta-hydroxybutyrate is a typical partial-degradation product of branched-chain amino acids (primarily valine) released from muscle for hepatic and renal gluconeogenesis This acid is metabolized by 3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (catalyzes the oxidation of D-3-hydroxybutyrate to form acetoacetate, using NAD+ as an electron acceptor). The enzyme functions in nervous tissues and muscles, enabling the use of circulating hydroxybutyrate as a fuel. In the liver mitochondrial matrix, the enzyme can also catalyze the reverse reaction, a step in ketogenesis. 3-Hydroxybutyric acid is a chiral compound having two enantiomers, D-3-hydroxybutyric acid and L-3-hydroxybutyric acid. In humans, ...
3-Hydroxybutyric acid (or beta-hydroxybutyrate) is a ketone body. Like the other ketone bodies (acetoacetate and acetone), levels of 3-hydroxybutyrate in blood and urine are raised in ketosis. In humans, 3-hydroxybutyrate is synthesized in the liver from acetyl-CoA, and can be used as an energy source by the brain when blood glucose is low. Blood levels of 3-Hydroxybutyric acid levels may be monitored in diabetic patients to look for diabetic ketoacidosis. Persistent mild hyperketonemia is a common finding in newborns. Ketone bodies serve as an indispensable source of energy for extrahepatic tissues, especially the brain and lung of developing mammals. Another important function of ketone bodies is to provide acetoacetyl-CoA and acetyl-CoA for synthesis of cholesterol, fatty acids, and complex lipids. During the early postnatal period, acetoacetate (AcAc) and beta-hydroxybutyrate are preferred over glucose as substrates for synthesis of phospholipids and sphingolipids in accord with requirements ...
Effects of beta-hydroxybutyrate on cognition in memory-impaired adults. - Glucose is the brains principal energy substrate. In Alzheimers disease (AD), there appears to be a pathological decrease in the brains ability to use glucose. Neurobiological evidence suggests that ketone bodies are an effective alternative energy substrate for the brain. Elevation of plasma ketone body levels through an oral dose of medium chain triglycerides (MCTs) may improve cognitive functioning in older adults with memory disorders. On separate days, 20 subjects with AD or mild cognitive impairment consumed a drink containing emulsified MCTs or placebo. Significant increases in levels of the ketone body beta-hydroxybutyrate (beta-OHB) were observed 90 min after treatment (P=0.007) when cognitive tests were administered. beta-OHB elevations were moderated by apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype (P=0.036). For 4+ subjects, beta-OHB levels continued to rise between the 90 and 120 min blood draws in the treatment ...
Blood ketone tests are the ideal method for diabetics to check ketone levels because they measure the levels of beta-hydroxybutyric acid, the primary acidosis involved in ketoacidosis. Some elite record-holding athletes swear by the keto diet and lactic it with free stellar performances. And dont know about your acidosis weight, activity, etc. We explain this connection and how to manage and carb your why is a weight loss. J Lactic State Med Assoc. It mostly occurs in people with type 1 diabetes whose bodies free not produce any insulin. In Sweden diet low carbohydrate high fat LCHF diet diet introduced in by a Swedish general practitioner and interest was carb when the creator started a blog, which criticized and traditional dietary advice acivosis patients with diabetes [ 8 ].. However, on the follow up it is normally compensated and than it frew expel. It occurs when your body builds up more lactic acid tests had normalized and thyroid. Ketosis may cause bad breath. His BMI was Jennifer72 ...
are elevated enough. The only time that your protein stores are gonna start to get utilized in terms of muscle mass is again, if you have too much protein coming in or not enough fat coming in to ever create the ketones bodies that we need. But now theres a whole different side of the equation when it comes down to what allows us to preserve our muscle and that is just the fact that beta-hydroxybutyric inandofitself. The main ketone body, I know its a big mouthful to say beta-hydroxybutyric is the main ketone that is created from fats. That gives us all the energy in ketosis. It is very powerful at preserving muscle. In fact, there is ...
γ-Hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), a drug of abuse, exhibits saturable renal clearance and capacity-limited metabolism. The objectives of this study were to construct a mechanistic toxicokinetic (TK) model describing saturable renal reabsorption and capacity-limited metabolism of GHB and to predict the effects of inhibition
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Female Gpat1−/− mice have reduced body weight, gonadal fat pad mass, hepatic TAG content, plasma TAG, and secretion of VLDL-TAG (46). GPAT1 deficiency also protects mice against diet-induced hyperlipidemia and hepatic steatosis (87). After high-fat diet feeding for 3 wk, Gpat1−/− mice exhibit 30% lower plasma TAG levels than wild-type mice, and liver TAG and DAG are reduced, with a reciprocal increase in hepatic acyl-CoA content and plasma β-hydroxybutyrate concentration, which is consistent with the role of GPAT1 in hepatic glycerolipid synthesis. Feeding Gpat1−/− mice a high-fat/high-sucrose diet produces similar results, except for the failure to cause reduced plasma TAG levels (47). TAG and acyl-CoA content in skeletal muscle is not altered in Gpat1−/− mice. Hepatic shRNA adenovirus-mediated knockdown of GPAT1 in ob/ob mice also results in reduced hepatic TAG and DAG content (123).. The effect of GPAT1 deficiency in insulin resistance has been studied in two diet-induced ...
AS09 562, 3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase antibody, (EC=1.1.1.30), 3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase antibody, (EC=1.1.1.30)NAD+-beta-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase, hydroxybutyrate oxidoreductase, beta-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase, D-beta-hydroxybutyrate d
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Beta-Hydroxybutyrate reagent is used to detect ketones to identify patients suffering from diabetic ketoacidosis, amongst many other clinical applications.
The Global Medium-chain Triglycerides (MCT) market 2019 report is a meticulous study of the global Medium-chain Triglycerides (MCT) market portraying the state-of-the-art details in the market. It also predicts its growth in the next few years. The Medium-chain Triglycerides (MCT) report evaluates various aspects that determine the growth as well as the volume of the global Medium-chain Triglycerides (MCT) market. Additionally, it presents a determined business outlook of the market along with the summary of some of the leading market players. In this report, the global Medium-chain Triglycerides (MCT) is valued at USD XX million in 2017 and is expected to reach USD XX million by the end of 2025, growing at a CAGR of XX% between 2019 and 2025.. The prominent players in the global Medium-chain Triglycerides (MCT) market are IOI Oleo, Oleon, Stepan , BASF, KLK OLEO, Croda, Musim Mas , Sternchemie, BRITZ, Dr.straetmans, Acme-Hardesty, Lonza, Kao Group, ABITEC Corporation, A&A Fratelli Parodi, ...
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The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) uses its best efforts to deliver a high quality copy of the Database and to verify that the data contained therein have been selected on the basis of sound scientific judgment. However, NIST makes no warranties to that effect, and NIST shall not be liable for any damage that may result from errors or omissions in the Database ...
Despite the fact that it has a strange-sounding name, BHB is a naturally occurring molecule produced by your body during ketosis.. You might hear BHB described as exogenous ketones. These are BHB salts. BHB salts are additional ketone bodies that you can require to reach a state of ketosis quicker.. Since it spends some time for your body to adapt to using fat for fuel instead of glucose (carbs), you might feel some adjustment discomforts, like fatigue, appetite (yearnings for sugar, a quicker energy source), and psychological cloudiness. These are the signs that specify what keto fans call the keto influenza.. Supplementing BHB on a keto diet can have an extensive favorable effect to brand-new keto dieters adhering to the diet plan. Keto Supplement Recommendations. When youre trying to find your BHB supplement, be sure to choose one with appropriate levels of salt, potassium, calcium, and magnesium, like Keto BHB.. Be aware though that because of the levels of these minerals, lots of BHB ...
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What is ketosis? Ketosis happens when your body burns fat instead of carbs. Learn all about ketones and ketosis and how to jumpstart ketosis today.
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Ketosis: Ketosis,, metabolic disorder marked by high levels of ketones in the tissues and body fluids, including blood and urine. With starvation or fasting, there is less sugar than normal in the blood and less glycogen (the storage form of sugar) in the cells of the body, especially the liver cells; fat
You dont automatically lose weight by being in ketosis all the time. You still need to be in a calorie deficit so your metabolism runs out of dietary fat and starts running on your stored body fat. The good news: ketosis may not make you burn body fat all the time, but it does ramp up your metabolism significantly. ...
Ketosis is a word that gets tossed around a lot within the Paleo community - to some, its a magical weight-loss formula, to others, its a way of life, and to others its just asking for adrenal fatigue. But understanding what ketosis really is (not just what it does), and the physical causes and consequences of a fat
Ketosis is a natural metabolic state on a very low carb diet and during starvation. This article explains what ketosis is and how it affects health.
Ketosis is a word that gets tossed around a lot within the Paleo community - to some, its a magical weight-loss formula, to others, its a way of life, and to others its just asking for adrenal fatigue. But understanding what ketosis really is (not just what it does), and the physical causes and consequences of a fat
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In this post I will go through the hardware and software of the instrument I have made. If you are curious to why I have made it, I would recommend that you start reading the other posts I have done about this project and work your way forward. Just click on Ketosis detector under categories.IntroductionThe…
In this post I will go through the hardware and software of the instrument I have made. If you are curious to why I have made it, I would recommend that you start reading the other posts I have done about this project and work your way forward. Just click on Ketosis detector under categories.IntroductionThe…
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Virta uses food as medicine. Well help you adapt your body to burn fat for energy, instead of sugar. This is called ketosis. Ketosis naturally lowers weight, blood sugar, and the need for diabetes medication. To get into ketosis, youll adjust your diet to eat more fat, eat less carbs, and get the right amount of protein for your body ...
A keto diet can help you lose weight very fast. It induces your body into a state of ketosis. During ketosis, your body burns fat instead of carbohydrates to pr
Hi everyone! I have eaten food I shouldnt a few times in the last 4 weeks. Every time I do I dont loose or put on weight by the next day, normal I...
at the risk of starting something.. can I have the offending oxo cube! I havent had it yet as I was unsure about it knocking me out of ketosis! Thanks in...
We describe the rapid and sensitive detection of 4-hydroxybutyric acid, which is a marker compound for succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH) deficiency. Urinary 4-hydroxybutyric acid and 3,4-dihydroxybutyric acid were targeted, quantified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after simplifie …
FARIA, Mário Henrique Girão; MUNIZ, Luis Roberto Franklin and VASCONCELOS, Paulo Roberto Leitão de. Ketone bodies metabolism during ischemic and reperfusion brain injuries following bilateral occlusion of common carotid arteries in rats. Acta Cir. Bras. [online]. 2007, vol.22, n.2, pp.125-129. ISSN 0102-8650. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0102-86502007000200009.. PURPOSE: To evaluate the in vivo alterations on ketone bodies metabolism after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion through an experimental model of brain ischemia induced by simple occlusion of common carotid arteries (CCAs) in Wistar rats. METHODS: Forty-eight male Wistar rats were randomly distributed on two groups (S - Sham; T - Test) and further redistributed into four times sets of study. After bilateral occlusion of CCAs for 30min, the animals of group T were allowed reperfusion for 0, 5, 10 and 15min. Samples of cerebral tissue and systemic arterial blood were collected and the metabolites acetoacetate (ACT) and beta-hydroxybutyrate ...
Ketosis is a common metabolic disease in dairy cows. Diagnostic markers for ketosis such as acetone and beta-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA) are known, but disease prediction remains an unsolved challenge. Milk is a steadily available biofluid and routinely collected on a daily basis. This high availability makes milk superior to blood or urine samples for diagnostic purposes. In this contribution, we show that high milk glycerophosphocholine (GPC) levels and high ratios of GPC to phosphocholine (PC) allow for the reliable selection of healthy and metabolically stable cows for breeding purposes. Throughout lactation, high GPC values are connected with a low ketosis incidence. During the first month of lactation, molar GPC/PC ratios equal or greater than 2.5 indicate a very low risk for developing ketosis. This threshold was validated for different breeds (Holstein-Friesian, Brown Swiss, and Simmental Fleckvieh) and for animals in different lactations, with observed odds ratios between 1.5 and 2.38. ...
Ketone body metabolism Videos, Flashcards, High Yield Notes, & Practice Questions. Learn and reinforce your understanding of Ketone body metabolism.
Definition of ß-hydroxybutyric acid. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical terms and definitions.
BHB & MCT FOR PERFECT PERFORMANCE - Zenwise Health Keto-Peak is a daily ketogenic dietary supplement that features goBHB+MCTTM, a patented beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) and coconut derived medium chain triglyceride (MCT) blend. Whether its for beginners or advanced keto dieters, this premium ketone formula helps men and women reach a state of nutritional ketosis to promote high-performance for the body and mind. INSTANT SUSTAINED ENERGY & FOCUS - The powdered Caprylic (C8) and Capric (C10) Fatty Acid from the MCT Oil in this product helps the production of ketones in the brain, which supplements the mind and body with a quick boost of clean and natural energy to support mental clarity and alertness with no jitters, headaches or sugar crashes. Meanwhile, BHB increases ketone levels to maintain a high burst of energy to keep you powered up. FAT BURNING FUEL - When combined with proper exercise habits, this Keto-Peak BHB Salt and MCT powder formula can promote weight loss by helping the body burn fat. When
Study on the effects of ketone bodies opens up new area of inquiry in aging research September 5, 2017/Novato, CA A ketogenic diet significantly improved memory in aging mice and increased the animals chances of surviving to old age. Results of the study from Eric Verdins lab at the Buck Institute for Research on Aging in Novato, CA are published in the September 5th issue of Cell Metabolism.. Eating a ketogenic diet - which is high fat, low protein, and low carbohydrates - ramps up the production of the ketone body beta-hydroxybutyrate acid (BHB). While small studies in humans with cognitive impairment have suggested that BHB could improve memory, senior scientist and Buck President and CEO, Eric Verdin MD, says this is the first study in aging mammals which details the positive effects of BHB on memory and lifespan. This opens up a new field in aging research, said Verdin. We think the health benefits of BHB may go beyond memory and could affect tissues and organ systems. Verdin added ...
BHYD : Beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) is 1 of 3 sources of ketone bodies. Its relative proportion in the blood (78%) is greater than the other 2 ketone bodies, acetoacetate (20%) and acetone (2%). During carbohydrate deprivation (starvation, digestive disturbances, frequent vomiting), decreased carbohydrate utilization (diabetes mellitus), glycogen storage diseases, and alkalosis, acetoacetate production increases. The increase may exceed the metabolic capacity of the peripheral tissues. As acetoacetate accumulates in the blood, a small amount is converted to acetone by spontaneous decarboxylation. The remaining and greater portion of acetoacetate is converted to BHB.
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The KetoTrak Blood Ketone Monitoring System is designed for accurate, easy and fast testing of β-ketone concentration from fresh whole blood sample in 3 easy steps in 10 seconds. Accurate Daily Tracking: track Blood Ketone levels while on Keto Diet, more accurate than urine strips. Ease of Use: simple 2 button interface, small 1.2 µL blood sample, results in 10 seconds. Before & After Meal Markers: track pre and post meal results and measure the effect of different foods on blood ketone levels.. ...
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The study involved 20 subjects with Alzheimers disease or mild cognitive impairment who, on separate days, were given either emulsified MCTs or a placebo. The researchers observed a significant increase in blood plasma levels of the ketone body beta-hydroxylutyrate (beta-OHB) after only 90 minutes of treatment, and depending on the apolipoprotein E genotype of the subject tested, beta-OHB levels either continued to rise or held constant between the 90 and 120 minute blood draws in the treatment condition. Remarkably, cognitive testing revealed that this brief MCT treatment facilitated improved performance on the Alzheimers Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive Subscale (ADAS-cog) in 4 subjects within the study group. Moreover, higher ketone values were associated with greater improvement in paragraph recall with MCT treatment relative to placebo across all subjects (P=0.02).[i ...
HBD has been used as a substitute for LDH-1 (heart) isoenzyme measurement. Actually, HBD is total LDH that is forced to act on a a-ketobutyric acid substrate instead of pyruvic or lactic acid. Under these conditions, LDH-1 and LDH-2 show relatively greater activity than LDH-5, so that HBD therefore indirectly measures LDH-1 (heart) activity. However, if the LDH-5 (liver) value is elevated sufficiently, it will also produce measurable HBD effect. Therefore, HBD is not as specific as electrophoresis or heat fractionation in separating heart from liver isoenzymes. Nevertheless, since HBD assay is easier to perform (and therefore cheaper) than LDH isoenzyme assay, some follow the practice of using a more specific isoenzyme method if in doubt about LDH heart versus liver contribution. Once there is proof that the heart fraction is elevated, they follow subsequent activity levels with HBD.. Causes of lactic dehydrogenase fraction 1 elevation ...
Date: Wed, 24 Sep 2003 10:47:35 -0500 , From: jhughey ,email @ redacted, , Subject: [IP] Re: Ketosis vs. Ketoacidosis , ,,,, Anyway, if I were to get ketones because I am eating fewer carbs, yet my , blood sugar is in the normal range, , is this cause for alarm? If I remember right, it is only the ketones with , the high blood sugar (and dehydration) that makes it ketoacidosis, which is , what I should be concerned about. Has anyone been on a low-carb diet and , have any suggestions/advice about this?,,, , , Here is a repeat of the explanation of Ketosis & KetoAcidosis: , , Many people do not know the distinction between ketosis and , ketoacidosis. You CAN be in ketosis for 2 months, but not in , ketoacidosis. Ketosis means that your body is burning fat for energy , because its not getting enough glucose into the cells, whether from , lack of insulin or lack of food. At that level, the blood chemistry is , still relatively normal and the chief symptom is losing weight, with , excessive thirst ...
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Overall, they concluded that the decrease in acylcarnitines suggests that there is a reduced utilization of fatty acids for beta-oxidation, though the ketone body 3-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) was significantly increased (3.02 fold, data not shown) pointing again on increased glucose metabolism that can produce BHBA. Taken together, these data are again indicative that fatty acid beta-oxidation is altered prior to the development of PH and, in conjunction with increased glycolytic products, are consistent with a Warburg-like metabolic shift. I dont quite understand the BHBA glucose link. I didnt think glucose metabolism produced BHBA… Ketone bodies are produced from Acetyl-CoA. Acetyl-CoA can come from beta-oxidation of fatty acids or from pyruvate entry into the TCA cycle (pyruvate is converted into Acetyl-CoA via PDH enzyme in the mitochondria). However, in PH, both beta-oxidation and glucose oxidation (TCA cycle), are disrupted, and glycolysis is favored. Thus where is the elevated BHBA ...
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00:25 A ketone body is fat repackaged by your liver for energy. The two main metabolites created are beta hydroxybutyrate (BHB) and acetoacetate. When you are eating low carb, insulin levels are low. Your brain and muscle need fuel. When there is no sugar, messages are sent to the liver to make ketone metabolites.. 01:47 When you are exercising or fasting, your adipose tissue releases triglycerides and free fatty acids to be repackaged as ketones. Muscle tissue likes to use acetoacetate. BHB fuels muscle contraction. Your brain requires BHB when blood sugar is low.. 02:30 BHB has secondary signaling properties. BHB downregulates the NLRP3 inflammasone network, which turns on a number of pro-inflammatory pathways. BHB upregulates Nrf2 (nuclear regulator factor 2), a huge anti-inflammatory phase 2 detox and anti-oxidant signaling hub. Nrf2 turns down NFkB. Glucose does not have secondary beneficial properties.. 04:25 Ketones affect histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACs). Our DNA is sensitive and ...
EFFORTLESS KETOSIS - Perfect Keto exogenous ketones get you in ketosis. Our beta-hydroxybutyrates (BHB) formula was designed for those on a ketogenic diet, or o
Ketone bodies serve as alternative energy substrates for the brain in cases of low glucose availability such as during starvation or in patients treated with a ketogenic diet. The ketone bodies are metabolized via a distinct pathway confined to the mitochondria. We have compared metabolism of [2,4-( …
BHB refers to Beta-hydroxybutyrate, a molecule that is considered a ketone body. It is one of the main molecules that helps your body produce energy in the absence of glucose.
Slimilinic is a weight loss formula. It is marketed by the manufacturer to help you lose your extra body weight and you need not be watchful of what you are you eating.. The manufacturer claims that this weight loss formulation product provides all the benefits of a ketogenic diet. The user needs not follow any special diet plan to lose body weight, with this product.. Did Oprah Use Keto BHB is supposed to set your body metabolism on ketosis. It leads to oxidation of excess fat in your body. It does not interfere with your carbohydrate metabolism. This results in unmatched loss in excess body weight.. ...
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The worldwide Medium-chain Triglycerides (MCT) Market statistical surveying report is an inescapable research report that contacts the most imperative parts of the Medium-chain Triglycerides (MCT) platform that is important to be gotten a handle on by an expert or even a layman. The statistical surveying report illuminates one with respect to few of the imperative perspectives, for example, an outline of the Medium-chain Triglycerides (MCT) item, the development factors improving or hampering its advancement, application in the different fields, major ruling organizations, veritable certainties, monetary circumstance, and topographical examination.. Apply here for the free sample copy of the report @: https://www.promarketresearch.com/request-for-sample.html?repid=29691. The exploration report enriches the information concerning the elements that impel the development and additionally the free market activity chain of the item on a worldwide premise. The information with respect to a portion ...
75 vegan caps. Keto 600 is our #1 Ketogenic Weight Loss formula that combines key BHB salts to help you boost mental focus, and promote endurance. Keto 600 is a researched formula that achieves needed support for weight loss efforts. BHB Salts (Beta-Hydroxybutyrate), are able to help fuel your brain during low-carb dieting and support electrolytes, which may be depleted during a ketogenic diet. Being in ketosis may boost performance and allow fat to be used for fuel much easier. ...
Here is some information about ketones, ketosis, and ketogenic diets. The focus is on treating Alzheimers, although the topic applies to many other conditions as well. Let me begin by explaining the basics. Ketosis is the primary burning of fat, dietary fat or body fat, to produce ketones that the body uses. A ketogenic diet…
This ketone ester is a synthetic prodrug which, after ingestion, your body naturally breaks down into the ketone bodies beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) and acetoacetate (AcAc).
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We describe the morphology and behavior of a hitherto unknown bacterial species that forms conspicuous veils (typical dimensions, 30 by 30 mm) on sulfidic marine sediment. The new bacteria were enriched on complex sulfidic medium within a benthic gradient chamber in oxygen-sulfide countergradients, but the bacteria have so far not been isolated in pure culture, and a detailed characterization of their metabolism is still lacking. The bacteria are colorless, gram-negative, and vibrioid-shaped (1.3- to 2.5- by 4- to 10- m) cells that multiply by binary division and contain several spherical inclusions of poly- -hydroxybutyric acid. The cells have bipolar polytrichous flagella and exhibit a unique swimming pattern, rotating and translating along their short axis. Free-swimming cells showed aerotaxis and aggregated at ca. 2 M oxygen within opposing oxygen-sulfide gradients, where they were able to attach via a mucous stalk, forming a cohesive whitish veil at the oxic-anoxic interface. Bacteria ...
We describe the morphology and behavior of a hitherto unknown bacterial species that forms conspicuous veils (typical dimensions, 30 by 30 mm) on sulfidic marine sediment. The new bacteria were enriched on complex sulfidic medium within a benthic gradient chamber in oxygen-sulfide countergradients, but the bacteria have so far not been isolated in pure culture, and a detailed characterization of their metabolism is still lacking. The bacteria are colorless, gram-negative, and vibrioid-shaped (1.3- to 2.5- by 4- to 10- m) cells that multiply by binary division and contain several spherical inclusions of poly- -hydroxybutyric acid. The cells have bipolar polytrichous flagella and exhibit a unique swimming pattern, rotating and translating along their short axis. Free-swimming cells showed aerotaxis and aggregated at ca. 2 M oxygen within opposing oxygen-sulfide gradients, where they were able to attach via a mucous stalk, forming a cohesive whitish veil at the oxic-anoxic interface. Bacteria ...
With regard to Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid (2010), Tetrahydrocannabinols (7370), and Methamphetamine (1105) only, the company manufactures these controlled substances in bulk solely for distribution within the United States to customers engaged in dosage- form manufacturing.. With regard to Nabilone (7379), the company presently manufactures a small amount of this controlled substance in bulk solely to conduct manufacturing internal process development. It is the companys intention that, when the manufacturing process is refined to the point that its Nabilone bulk product is available for commercial use, the company will export the controlled substance in bulk solely to customers engaged in dosage-form manufacturing outside the United States. The company is aware of the requirement to obtain a DEA registration as an exporter to conduct this activity.. Any other such applicant, and any person who is presently registered with DEA to manufacture such substances, may file comments or objections to ...
GHB (gamma hydroxybutyric acid) was developed in the early 1960s as a human anaesthetic but was discontinued due to unwanted side effects. It is a naturally occurring component of human cells. GHB is used most commonly in the form of a chemical salt (Na-GHB or K-GHB), which is taken recreationally as a depressant with effects quite similar to those of alcohol. These salts are
Released research from reputable sources, many of these as the Consumer and NIH comments, indicate that Keto simply by Style ingredients, all pure ketone salts from BHB (Beta-Hydroxybutyrate), work to expand blood ketone standard, reduce appetite and lower blood sugar. Creatine is a great amino acidity... more ...
Ketogenic diets have many powerful health benefits, but some people have trouble getting into ketosis. Here are 7 tips for how to get into ketosis.
Exogenous ketones: what are they? Beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) is a ketone body produced in the liver naturally under conditions when glucose isn
Add New Row Edit ElementClone ElementAdvanced Element OptionsMoveRemove Element -- SPACER -- Edit ElementClone ElementAdvanced Element OptionsMoveRemove Element Edit ElementClone ElementAdvanced Element OptionsMoveRemove Element -- SPACER -- Add Element Add New Row Edit ElementClone ElementAdvanced Element OptionsMoveRemove Element Add Element Edit ElementClone ElementAdvanced Element OptionsMoveRemove Element Edit ElementClone ElementAdvanced Element OptionsMoveRemove Element Max Strength, New and Improved BHB Formula. Get into Ketosis Fast!100% Pure Vegan, Contains all Natural IngredientsMade in FDA Registered FacilityAllgergen and Gluten Free100% Organic and Non GMOTop Seller of 2019Ships Fast, Receive in 2 - 3 Days on Average Edit ElementClone ElementAdvanced Element OptionsMoveRemove Element Add Element Add New Row Edit ElementClone ElementAdvanced Element OptionsMoveRemove Element Click Here for Details and Ordering Edit ElementClone ElementAdvanced Element OptionsMoveRemove Element -- SPACER --
CLINICALLY DOSED BHB We have added the full 11.7G clinical dose of patented GoBHB(R) beta hydroxy-butyrate (BHB) salts to help boost your blood ketone levels.* After lots of R&D weve landed on what we at KEETZ feel is the optimal ratio of each BHB salt to maximize your results. ORGANIC CAFFEINE Long-lasting natura
BHB is found in nature in many foods including eggs and milk. Salts are acids and bases bound by ionic bonds. Salt is a chemistry term used to describe a specific type of chemical compound. Technically, they are defined as ionic compounds formed by the neutralization of an acid and a base. They consist of positively charged and negatively charged components, which typically dissociate in water or water-based solutions (such as blood). In lay terminology, we call table salt, which is actually sodium chloride (NaCl) salt, but it is just one of many chemical compounds which are defined as salts. The BHB salt is simply a compound that consists of sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), and the ketone body β-hydroxybutyrate. In the Keto OS product package, these individual components are being held together by ionic bonds; however, when you eat the product, it is absorbed into the blood where it dissociates into free Na+, K+, and BHB since it is a water-based solution. Thus, consuming the product directly ...
BHB is found in nature in many foods including eggs and milk. Salts are acids and bases bound by ionic bonds. Salt is a chemistry term used to describe a specific type of chemical compound. Technically, they are defined as ionic compounds formed by the neutralization of an acid and a base. They consist of positively charged and negatively charged components, which typically dissociate in water or water-based solutions (such as blood). In lay terminology, we call table salt, which is actually sodium chloride (NaCl) salt, but it is just one of many chemical compounds which are defined as salts. The BHB salt is simply a compound that consists of sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), and the ketone body β-hydroxybutyrate. In the Keto OS product package, these individual components are being held together by ionic bonds; however, when you eat the product, it is absorbed into the blood where it dissociates into free Na+, K+, and BHB since it is a water-based solution. Thus, consuming the product directly ...
BHB is found in nature in many foods including eggs and milk. Salts are acids and bases bound by ionic bonds. Salt is a chemistry term used to describe a specific type of chemical compound. Technically, they are defined as ionic compounds formed by the neutralization of an acid and a base. They consist of positively charged and negatively charged components, which typically dissociate in water or water-based solutions (such as blood). In lay terminology, we call table salt, which is actually sodium chloride (NaCl) salt, but it is just one of many chemical compounds which are defined as salts. The BHB salt is simply a compound that consists of sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), and the ketone body β-hydroxybutyrate. In the Keto OS product package, these individual components are being held together by ionic bonds; however, when you eat the product, it is absorbed into the blood where it dissociates into free Na+, K+, and BHB since it is a water-based solution. Thus, consuming the product directly ...
BHB is found in nature in many foods including eggs and milk. Salts are acids and bases bound by ionic bonds. Salt is a chemistry term used to describe a specific type of chemical compound. Technically, they are defined as ionic compounds formed by the neutralization of an acid and a base. They consist of positively charged and negatively charged components, which typically dissociate in water or water-based solutions (such as blood). In lay terminology, we call table salt, which is actually sodium chloride (NaCl) salt, but it is just one of many chemical compounds which are defined as salts. The BHB salt is simply a compound that consists of sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), and the ketone body β-hydroxybutyrate. In the Keto OS product package, these individual components are being held together by ionic bonds; however, when you eat the product, it is absorbed into the blood where it dissociates into free Na+, K+, and BHB since it is a water-based solution. Thus, consuming the product directly ...
BHB is found in nature in many foods including eggs and milk. Salts are acids and bases bound by ionic bonds. Salt is a chemistry term used to describe a specific type of chemical compound. Technically, they are defined as ionic compounds formed by the neutralization of an acid and a base. They consist of positively charged and negatively charged components, which typically dissociate in water or water-based solutions (such as blood). In lay terminology, we call table salt, which is actually sodium chloride (NaCl) salt, but it is just one of many chemical compounds which are defined as salts. The BHB salt is simply a compound that consists of sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), and the ketone body β-hydroxybutyrate. In the Keto OS product package, these individual components are being held together by ionic bonds; however, when you eat the product, it is absorbed into the blood where it dissociates into free Na+, K+, and BHB since it is a water-based solution. Thus, consuming the product directly ...
BHB is found in nature in many foods including eggs and milk. Salts are acids and bases bound by ionic bonds. Salt is a chemistry term used to describe a specific type of chemical compound. Technically, they are defined as ionic compounds formed by the neutralization of an acid and a base. They consist of positively charged and negatively charged components, which typically dissociate in water or water-based solutions (such as blood). In lay terminology, we call table salt, which is actually sodium chloride (NaCl) salt, but it is just one of many chemical compounds which are defined as salts. The BHB salt is simply a compound that consists of sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), and the ketone body β-hydroxybutyrate. In the Keto OS product package, these individual components are being held together by ionic bonds; however, when you eat the product, it is absorbed into the blood where it dissociates into free Na+, K+, and BHB since it is a water-based solution. Thus, consuming the product directly ...
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Ketosis? What is ketosis? Learn about the many benefits of a keto lifestyle, and how exogenous ketones can unlock you human potential. Burn fat for fuel.
Q. Ashton, Acton (2013). Advances in 3-Hydroxybutyric Acid Research and Application: 2013 Edition: ScholarlyBrief. ...
2009). "Docosahexaenoic acid is a substrate for ACAT1 and inhibits cholesteryl ester formation from oleic acid in MCF-10A cells ... in which the dysfunction of a specific step of amino acid catabolism results in the excretion of non-amino acids in the urine. ... Fatty Acids. 80 (2-3): 165-71. doi:10.1016/j.plefa.2009.01.001. PMID 19217763. Bzoma B; Debska-Slizieñ A; Dudziak M; et al. ( ... The resulting transcript encodes ACAT1, which is a 45.1 kDa protein composed of 427 amino acids. It is also a homotetrameric ...
... γ-hydroxybutyric acid, and ketamine fall under the umbrella of the term "party drugs," each with differing neuropharmacological ... The 24 hour mean urinary concentration of phenylacetic acid was increased by 77% after exercise. ... As phenylacetic acid ... γ-hydroxybutyric acid, and ketamine. Some barbiturates and benzodiazepines may cause euphoria. Euphoriant effects are ... A 30 minute bout of moderate to high intensity aerobic exercise increases phenylacetic acid levels in healthy regularly ...
This enzyme participates in the synthesis and degradation of ketone bodies and the metabolism of butyric acid. The systematic ... Lehninger AL, Sudduth HC, Wise JB (1960). "D-beta-Hydroxybutyric dehydrogenase of mitochondria". J. Biol. Chem. 235: 2450-2455 ... Delafield FP, Cooksey KE, Doudoroff M (1965). "beta-Hydroxybutyric dehydrogenase and dimer hydrolase of Pseudomonas lemoignei ... In enzymology, 3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.30) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction: (R)-3- ...
Hydroxybutyric acids: 2-Hydroxybutyric acid (alpha-hydroxybutyric acid) beta-Hydroxybutyric acid (3-hydroxybutyric acid) gamma- ... Hydroxybutyric acid (4-hydroxybutyric acid, GHB) 3-Hydroxyisobutyric acid Methyl lactate This set index page lists chemical ...
Instead of using the acid itself, its salts are used. It is now mainly used for depilation. Hydroxybutyric acid 3- ... Thiolactic acid is the organosulfur compound with the formula HSCH2CO2H. The molecule contains both carboxylic acid and thiol ... It is structurally related to lactic acid by the interchange of SH for OH. It is a colorless oil. Thiolactic acid was once ... Mercaptopropionic acid T. Clausen (2006). "Hair Preparations". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley- ...
A synonym for beta-hydroxy-butyric acid or 3-hydroxybutyric acid) . When fused with an alkali, it forms propanoic acid. Sodium ... Isobutyric acid can also be dehydrogenated to methacrylic acid. It can also be prepared by decarboxylation of itaconic acid, ... Methacrylic acid is used in some nail primers to help acrylic nails adhere to the nail plate. Methacrylic acid was first ... Methacrylic acid, abbreviated MAA, is an organic compound. This colorless, viscous liquid is a carboxylic acid with an acrid ...
... a ligand for the gamma-hydroxybutyric acid receptor lacking a 4-hydroxyl group". Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry. 12 (7): 1643 ... The compound is produced by the hydrochlorination of acrylic acid. With the name UMB66, this compound is a drug used in ... Samel U, Kohler W, Gamer AO, Keuser U (2005). "Propionic Acid and Derivatives". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry ... 3-Chloropropanoic acid (also 3-chloropropionic acid) is the organic compound with the formula ClCH2CH2CO2H. A white or ...
... alpha-Hydroxybutyric acid (2-hydroxybutyric acid) beta-Hydroxybutyric acid (3-hydroxybutyric acid) gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid (4 ... The carboxylate anion and the esters of hydroxybutyric acids are known as hydroxybutyrates. β-hydroxybutyric acid is relevant ... Hydroxybutyric acid is a group of four-carbon organic compounds that have both hydroxyl and carboxylic acid functional groups. ... hydroxybutyric acid, GHB) beta-Hydroxy beta-methylbutyric acid Sodium oxybate Hydroxybutyrates at the US National Library of ...
... γ-hydroxybutyric acid, and ketamine fall under the umbrella of the term "party drugs," each with differing neuropharmacological ... 86 (3): 646-664. May 2015. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2015.02.018. PMC 4425246 . PMID 25950633.. ... 3] [4] Euforia juga merupakan gejala penyakit neurologi atau neuropsychiatrik tertentu, seperti mania. [5] Cinta cinta dan ...
... s are involved in behavioral actions of ethanol, gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), and possibly in pain. Recent ... receptors are involved in behavioral effects of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB)". European Journal of Pharmacology. 519 (3): ... Dzitoyeva S, Dimitrijevic N, Manev H (April 2003). "Gamma-aminobutyric acid B receptor 1 mediates behavior-impairing actions of ... November 2001). "Positive allosteric modulation of native and recombinant gamma-aminobutyric acid(B) receptors by 2,6-Di-tert- ...
β-Hydroxybutyric acid is a chiral compound with two enantiomers: D-β-hydroxybutyric acid and L-β-hydroxybutyric acid. Its ... β-Hydroxybutyric acid is able to cross the blood-brain-barrier into the central nervous system. Levels of β-hydroxybutyric acid ... Hydroxybutyric acid Ketogenesis Gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid This reaction is catalyzed by an unknown thioesterase enzyme. ... D-β-Hydroxybutyric acid, along with butyric acid, are the two primary endogenous agonists of hydroxycarboxylic acid receptor 2 ...
... or γ-Hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), also known as 4-hydroxybutanoic acid, is a naturally occurring ... May 2003). "A tertiary alcohol analog of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid as a specific gamma-hydroxybutyric acid receptor ligand". ... Beta-Hydroxybutyric acid γ-Hydroxyvaleric acid (GHV) γ-Valerolactone (GVL) Riviello, Ralph J. (2010). Manual of forensic ... "Resuscitative effect of a gamma-aminobutyric acid B receptor antagonist on gamma-hydroxybutyric acid mortality in mice". Annals ...
Ketone salts are usually a synthetic compound of Beta-hydroxybutyric acid, also known as βHB. It is then bonded to sodium, ... This monoester links the same beta hydroxybutyric acid found in ketone salts, but bonded with D 1,3-butanediol instead of bases ... In the body, β-HB can be converted to acetoacetic acid. It is this acetoacetic acid that will enter the energy pathway using ... β-Hydroxybutyrate is also synthesized within liver cells; this is accomplished through the metabolism of fatty acids. Through a ...
Nyhan's areas of research span a variety of amino acid metabolism disorders, among them 4-hydroxybutyric aciduria, 3- ... "A familial disorder of uric acid metabolism and central nervous system function". Am. J. Med. 36 (4): 561-70. doi:10.1016/0002- ...
... a putative antagonist of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) receptor". CNS Drug Reviews. 10 (3): 243-260. doi:10.1111/j.1527- ... "Blockade of the discriminative stimulus effects of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) by the GHB receptor antagonist NCS-382". ... gamma-hydroxybutyric aciduria)". Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. 302 (1): 180-187. doi:10.1124/jpet. ... 58 (3): 587-590. doi:10.1016/0031-9384(95)00086-X. PMID 8587968. Gupta M, Greven R, Jansen EE, Jakobs C, Hogema BM, Froestl W, ...
... accumulates and cannot be oxidized to succinic acid and is therefore reduced to gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) by gamma- ... Gibson, K. M.; Hoffmann, G. F.; Hodson, A. K.; Bottiglieri, T.; Jakobs, C. (1998). "4-Hydroxybutyric acid and the clinical ... Under normal conditions, SSADH works with the enzyme GABA transaminase to convert GABA to succinic acid. Succinic acid can then ... Succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency (SSADHD), also known as 4-hydroxybutyric aciduria or gamma-hydroxybutyric ...
"Drosophila GABAB receptors are involved in behavioral effects of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB)". Eur. J. Pharmacol. 519 (3): ... gamma-Aminobutyric acid, or γ-aminobutyric acid /ˈɡæmə əˈmiːnoʊbjuːˈtɪrɪk ˈæsɪd/, or GABA /ˈɡæbə/, is the chief inhibitory ... Although in chemical terms, GABA is an amino acid (as it has both a primary amine and a carboxylic acid functional group), it ... By convention the term "amino acid", when used without a qualifier, refers specifically to an alpha amino acid. GABA is not an ...
... mice and characterization of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid pharmacology". Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease. 30 (3): 279-94. ... is a rare inborn error in the metabolism of the neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). In response to the defect, ... 4-hydroxybutyric aciduria)". American Journal of Human Genetics. 63 (2): 399-408. doi:10.1086/301964. PMC 1377305. PMID 9683595 ... gamma-hydroxybutyric aciduria). Hypotheses evolved from 25 years of patient evaluation, studies in Aldh5a1-/- ...
... crotonic acid converts to the acid anhydride: Esterification of crotonic acid using sulfuric acid as a catalyst provides the ... Crotonic acid is soluble in water and many organic solvents. Its odor is similar to butyric acid. Crotonic acid may be obtained ... Crotonic acid ((2E)-but-2-enoic acid) is a short-chain unsaturated carboxylic acid, described by the formula CH3CH=CHCO2H. It ... Crotonic acid converts into butyric acid by hydrogenation or by reduction with zinc and sulfuric acid. Upon treatment with ...
... sorbic acid MeSH D10.251.355.920 - trans fatty acids MeSH D10.251.400.092 - acetic acids MeSH D10.251.400.092.129 - acetic acid ... fatty acids, omega-6 MeSH D10.251.355.343.249 - gamma-linolenic acid MeSH D10.251.355.343.500 - linoleic acids MeSH D10.251. ... linolenic acids MeSH D10.251.355.310.640.400 - alpha-linolenic acid MeSH D10.251.355.310.640.425 - gamma-linolenic acid MeSH ... oleic acids MeSH D10.251.355.325.600.525 - oleic acid MeSH D10.251.355.325.600.780 - ricinoleic acids MeSH D10.251.355.325.919 ...
... the sodium salt of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid. In acidic water, a mixture of the lactone and acid forms coexist in an ... In humans GBL acts as a prodrug for γ-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), and it is used as a recreational CNS depressant with effects ... Elliott, S.; Burgess, V. (2005). "The presence of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) and gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) in alcoholic ... "Abuse and therapeutic potential of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid". Alcohol. 20 (3): 263-269. doi:10.1016/S0741-8329(99)00090-7. ...
It is an analogue of γ-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), as well as an active metabolite of GHB. Similarly to GHB, T-HCA has been ... trans-4-Hydroxycrotonic acid (T-HCA), also known as γ-hydroxycrotonic acid (GHC), is an agent used in scientific research to ... "Analogues of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid. Synthesis and binding studies". J. Med. Chem. 31 (5): 893-7. doi:10.1021/jm00400a001. ... "Selective gamma-hydroxybutyric acid receptor ligands increase extracellular glutamate in the hippocampus, but fail to activate ...
... γ-Hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) γ-Hydroxyvaleric acid (GHV; 4-methyl-GHB) γ-Valerolactone (GVL) - by bioactivation to GHV trans- ... Hydroxycrotonic acid (T-HCA) Aceburic acid NCS-356 (4-(4-chlorophenyl)-4-hydroxy-but-2-enoic acid, CAS# 430440-66-7) NCS-435 (4 ... Crunelli V, Emri Z, Leresche N (February 2006). "Unravelling the brain targets of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid". Current Opinion ... Snead OC (November 2000). "Evidence for a G protein-coupled gamma-hydroxybutyric acid receptor" (PDF). Journal of ...
... γ-hydroxybutyric acid and ethanol: Relationships and interactions", Neuropharmacology, 23 (1): 109-13, doi:10.1016/0028-3908(84 ... 4-butanediol into γ-hydroxybutyric acid in vivo", Eur. J. Pharmacol., 473 (2-3): 149-52, doi:10.1016/S0014-2999(03)01993-9, ... 4-butanediol are mediated by GABAB receptors via its conversion into γ-hydroxybutyric acid", Eur. J. Pharmacol., 441 (3): 157- ... Other routes are from butadiene, allyl acetate and succinic acid. A biological route to BD has been commercialized that uses a ...
4-hydroxybutyric acid) hemp oil (concentrate of plants from the Cannabis species (hemp) obtained by extraction of hemp or ... 4-phenylpiperidine-4-carbonic acid ethylester) pethidine Intermediate C (1-methyl-4-phenylpiperidine-4-carbonic acid) ... 1-diphenylpropane-carboxylic acid) morpheridine morphine morphine-methobromide morphine-N-oxide myrophine nicocodeine ... and morpholinederivates of lysergic acid, and the thereby introduction of methyl-, acetyl- or halogengroups obtained substances ...
butyric acid. β-hydroxybutyric acid. β-hydroxy β-methylbutyric acid Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials ... Isovaleric acid has been used to synthesize β-hydroxyisovaleric acid - otherwise known as β-hydroxy β-methylbutyric acid - via ... Valerian constituents (e.g., isovaleric acid, isovaleramide, valerenic acid, valerenol). *Unsorted benzodiazepine site positive ... β-methylbutyric acid or more commonly isovaleric acid, is an organic compound with the formula (CH3)2CHCH2CO2H. It is sometimes ...
1 in 50,000 Inborn errors of amino acid metabolism Tyrosinemia I (TYR I) < 1 in 100,000 Argininosuccinic aciduria (ASA) < 1 in ... 1 in 100,000 Inborn errors of organic acid metabolism Glutaric acidemia type I (GA I) > 1 in 75,000 Hydroxymethylglutaryl lyase ... 1 in 100,000 Inborn errors of fatty acid metabolism Long-chain hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (LCHAD) > 1 in 75,000 ... Inborn errors of amino acid metabolism Tyrosinemia II Argininemia Benign hyperphenylalaninemia Defects of biopterin cofactor ...
It is notable for metabolising beta-Hydroxybutyric acid. Janssen, Peter H.; Harfoot, C. G. (1990). "Ilyobacter delafieldii sp. ... 154 (3): 253-259. doi:10.1007/BF00248964. ISSN 0302-8933. S2CID 6520728. Noel R. Krieg; Aidan Parte; Wolfgang Ludwig; William B ...
Crunelli V, Emri Z, Leresche N (2006). „Unravelling the brain targets of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid". Curr Opin Pharmacol. 6 (1 ... Snead OC (2000). „Evidence for a G protein-coupled gamma-hydroxybutyric acid receptor". J. Neurochem. 75 (5): 1986-96. PMID ... 2003). „Selective gamma-hydroxybutyric acid receptor ligands increase extracellular glutamate in the hippocampus, but fail to ... Castelli MP (2008). „Multi-faceted aspects of gamma-hydroxybutyric Acid: a neurotransmitter, therapeutic agent and drug of ...
"2000 - Addition of Gamma-Hydroxybutyric Acid to Schedule I". US Department of Justice via the Federal Register. March 13, 2000. ... Ergine (lysergic acid amide), listed as a sedative but considered by some to be psychedelic.[51][52] An inefficient precursor ... LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide), a semi-synthetic psychedelic drug famous for its involvement in the counterculture of the ... 3. Schaffer Library of Drug Policy.. *^ Musto, David F. "History of Legislative Control Over Opium, Cocaine, and Their ...
... accumulates and cannot be oxidized to succinic acid and is therefore reduced to gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) by gamma- ... Gibson, K. M.; Hoffmann, G. F.; Hodson, A. K.; Bottiglieri, T.; Jakobs, C. (1998). "4-Hydroxybutyric acid and the clinical ... Succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency (SSADHD), also known as 4-hydroxybutyric aciduria or gamma-hydroxybutyric ... Under normal conditions, SSADH works with the enzyme GABA transaminase to convert GABA to succinic acid. Succinic acid can then ...
... γ-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), has been associated with euphoria, abuse, and addiction.[13] These effects are likely mediated not ... Chemically, baclofen is a derivative of the neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). It is believed to work by activating ( ... InChI=1S/C10H12ClNO2/c11-9-3-1-7(2-4-9)8(6-12)5-10(13)14/h1-4,8H,5-6,12H2,(H,13,14) Y ... the French drug agency ANSM issued a 3-year temporary recommendation allowing the use of baclofen in alcoholism.[27] In 2018, ...
... recessive gene disorder where mutations in the ALDH5A1 gene results in the accumulation of gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) in ... 3 June 2020. Retrieved 10 August 2020.. *^ a b c d e f g Schmahmann JD (2004). "Disorders of the cerebellum: ataxia, dysmetria ... Antibodies against the enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD: enzyme changing glutamate into GABA) cause cerebellar deficits. ... glutamic acid decarboxylase ataxia.[43] Novel therapies target the RNA defects associated with cerebellar disorders, using in ...
β-Hydroxybutyric acid (β-hydroxybutyrate). *Abexinostat. *Acetoacetic acid (acetoacetate). *Allyl mercaptan. *Apicidin ... 47 (3): 301-10. doi:10.7164/antibiotics.47.301. PMID 7513682.. *^ Li KW, Wu J, Xing W, Simon JA (July 1996). "Total synthesis ... 47 (3): 311-314. doi:10.7164/antibiotics.47.311. PMID 8175483.. *^ Ueda, H.; Manda, T.; Matsumoto, S.; Mukumoto, S.; Nishigaki ... 47 (3): 315-323. doi:10.7164/antibiotics.47.315. PMID 8175484.. *^ Greshock, Thomas J.; Johns, Deidre M.; Noguchi, Yasuo; ...
2-Hydroxybutyric acid. Преузето из „https://sr.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=2-Hidroksibuterna_kiselina&oldid=10782284" ...
gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid (GHB; sodium oxybate; sodium oxybutyrate) except formulations in an FDA-approved drug product are ... 83 (3): 469-72. PMID 29319947.. *^ a b c d e f g Drug Enforcement Administration, Department of Justice (2018). "Schedules of ... 1-pentyl-3-(2-chlorophenylacetyl)indole (JWH-203) 7144 (1-pentyl-1H-indol-3-yl)(2,2,3,3-tetramethylcyclopropyl)methanone, its ... 3,4,5-trimethoxyamphetamine (TMA) 7431 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (5-methoxy-3-[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl]indole; 5-MeO-DMT ...
Droperidol • Etomidate • Fospropofol • gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid • Ketamine# /Esketamine • Midazolam • Propanidid • Propofol. # ... Esters of aminobenzoic acid. Amylocaine • Benzocaine • Butacaine • Butamben • Chloroprocaine • Dimethocaine • Meprylcaine • ...
At low glucose levels, the production of acetyl-CoA is linked to β-oxidation of fatty acids. Fatty acids are first converted to ... Degradation of branched-chain ketogenic amino acids such as valine, leucine, and isoleucine occurs. These amino acids are ... where the fatty acids are combined with glycerol to form triglycerides, the major fuel reservoir of most animals. Fatty acids ... Citric acid cycle: *Acetyl-CoA reacts with oxaloacetate to form citrate, which is then oxidized to CO2 in the cycle.[9][page ...
... receptors are involved in behavioral effects of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB)". Eur J Pharmacol. 519 (3): 246-52. PMID ... Dzitoyeva S, Dimitrijevic N, Manev H (2003). „Gamma-aminobutyric acid B receptor 1 mediates behavior-impairing actions of ... Positive allosteric modulation of native and recombinant gamma-aminobutyric acid(B) receptors by 2,6-Di-tert-butyl-4-(3-hydroxy ... CysLT (1, 2) • LTB4 (1, 2) • FPRL1 • OXE • Prostaglandin (DP (1, 2), EP (1, 2, 3, 4), FP) • Prostaciklin • Tromboksan ...
Ketone bodies that commonly appear in the urine when fats are burned for energy are acetoacetate and beta-hydroxybutyric acid. ... meant to provide an alternate source of fuel from fatty acids. Ketones are metabolic end-products of fatty acid metabolism. In ... 279 (3): 399-400. doi:10.1007/s00404-008-0715-3. PMID 18592261. National Institute of Health (NIH) webpage on Ketonuria. ... 3-beta-hydroxybutyrate) in hyperglycaemic patients". Diabetes & Metabolism. 33 (2): 135-139. doi:10.1016/j.diabet.2006.11.006. ...
Valerian constituents (e.g., isovaleric acid, isovaleramide, valerenic acid, valerenol). *Unsorted benzodiazepine site positive ... β-Hydroxybutyric acid. to DMAPP. *Mevalonic acid. *Phosphomevalonic acid. *5-Diphosphomevalonic acid ... ഇതിന്റെ രാസസൂത്രം (CH3)2CO ആണ്.[14] നിറമില്ലാത്ത, ബാഷ്പീകരണശേഷിയുള്ള, കത്തുന്ന ഈ ദ്രാവകം ഏറ്റവും ലളിതവും ചെറുതുമായ കീറ്റോൺ ആണ് ...
... mice and characterization of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid pharmacology". Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease 30 (3): 279-94. ... "Two exon-skipping mutations as the molecular basis of succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency (4-hydroxybutyric aciduria ... ń pè ní γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Lati ṣàtúnṣe àìṣe dédé yìí, omi ara ẹni tí ó ní ààrùn yìí máa ń kó GHB mọ́ra. Irú rè. méjì ... "Therapeutic concepts in succinate semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH; ALDH5a1) deficiency (gamma-hydroxybutyric aciduria). ...
β-Hydroxybutyric acid (β-hydroxybutyrate). *Abexinostat. *Acetoacetic acid (acetoacetate). *Allyl mercaptan. *Apicidin ... Valpromide is no safer during pregnancy than valproic acid. Valpromide is formed through the reaction of valproic acid and ... Valpromide (marketed as Depamide by Sanofi-Aventis) is a carboxamide derivative of valproic acid used in the treatment of ... It may produce more stable plasma levels than valproic acid or sodium valproate and may be more effective at preventing febrile ...
malonic acid. butyric acid. hydroxybutyric acid. Related compounds. 1-propanol. 2-propanol. propionaldehyde. acrolein. sodium ... One is known as L-(+)-lactic acid or (S)-lactic acid and the other, its mirror image, is D-(−)-lactic acid or (R)-lactic acid. ... Related carboxylic acids. acetic acid. glycolic acid. propionic acid. 3-hydroxypropanoic acid. ... Chemistry and production of lactic acid, lactide and poly(lactic acid) in Poly(Lactic acid). Hoboken: Wiley. p. 3. ISBN 978-0- ...
Ketonska telesa: acetone, acetoacetic acid, and beta-hydroxybutyric acid. Specializacija. endokrinologija Ketoza je metabolično ... and Essential Fatty Acids. 70 (3): 309-19. doi:10.1016/j.plefa.2003.09.007. PMID 14769489.. ... Ravni ketonov načeloma ostanejo pod 3 mM. [5] Ketoacidoza (diabetična)[uredi , uredi kodo]. Ketoacidoza je patološko stanje ... 5,0 5,1 5,2 5,3 5,4 5,5 Laffel, Lori (November 1999). "Ketone bodies: a review of physiology, pathophysiology and application ...
Drosophila GABAB receptors are involved in behavioral effects of γ-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB). European Journal of Pharmacology ... γ-Aminobutyric acid B receptor 1 mediates behavior-impairing actions of alcohol in Drosophila: Adult RNA interference and ... Positive allosteric modulation of native and recombinant gamma-aminobutyric acid(B) receptors by 2,6-Di-tert-butyl-4-(3-hydroxy ... 2007, 13 (3): 308-316. ISSN 1080-563X. PMID 17894647. doi:10.1111/j.1527-3458.2007.00021.x.. ...
... and nucleic acids and polymeric inclusions, such as poly-B-hydroxybutyric acid and polyphosphates in bacteria and sterols in ... nucleic acids, and fatty acids. Sophisticated signal- and image-processing techniques can be used to ignore the presence of ... 215 (3): 465-469. doi:10.1042/bj2150465. PMC 1152424. PMID 6362659.. *^ Chou, K.C. (1984). "Low-frequency vibration of DNA ... 86 (3): 035410. Bibcode:2012PhRvB..86c5410P. doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.86.035410.. *^ Proietti Zaccaria, R; De Angelis, F; Toma, A; ...
An iba na alkohol sugad san 2-methyl-2-butanol ngan γ-hydroxybutyric acid ginkukunsumo liwat san ira psychoactive na epekto. ...
Substances that may cause this toxidrome include anticonvulsants, barbiturates, benzodiazepines, gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid, ... 17 (3): 583-90. PMID 5491430.. *^ a b c d Stead, LG; Stead, SM; Kaufman, MS (2006). First Aid for the Emergency Medicine ... "Classic" toxidromes are presented below, but they are often variable[1] or obscured by the co-ingestion of multiple drugs.[3] ... The symptoms of an opiate toxidrome include the classic triad of coma, pinpoint pupils, and respiratory depression[3] as well ...
Gamma-Amino-beta-hydroxybutyric acid. *v. *r. *u. Hipnotici/sedativi (N05C). GABAA receptor. ... doi:10.1186/1758-2946-2-3. edit. *↑ Ghose, A.K., Viswanadhan V.N., and Wendoloski, J.J. (1998). "Prediction of Hydrophobic ( ... InChI=1S/C4H9NO3/c5-2-3(6)1-4(7)8/h3,6H,1-2,5H2,(H,7,8). Key: YQGDEPYYFWUPGO-UHFFFAOYSA-N Y. ...
... ethchlorvynol gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) methyprylon Stimulants: amfepramone aminorex benzphetamine etilamfetamine ... or Hawaian Baby Woodrose plant and morning glory flowers that contains LSA or Lysergic Acid Amide or the Chacruna, a ... 3 May 1999. Retrieved 15 April 2006. "World drug threat, the UN reports". United Nations International Drug Control Programme. ... 9-trimethyl-3-pentyl-6H-dibenzo[b,d]pyran-1-ol (6aR,9R,10aR)-Δ7-tetrahydrocannabinol - (6aR,9R,10aR)-6a,9,10,10a-tetrahydro-6,6 ...
The monomers, 3-hydroxybutanoic acid and 3-hydroxypentanoic acid, are joined by ester bonds; the back bone of the polymer is ... 3-hydroxybutanoic acid provides stiffness while 3-hydroxypentanoic acid promotes flexibility. Thus PHBV can be made to resemble ... ISBN 978-3-540-63567-3. Retrieved 10 July 2012. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) William D. Luzier. "Materials derived ... Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate), commonly known as PHBV, is a polyhydroxyalkanoate-type polymer. It is ...
Hydroxybutyric acid (2TMS); 3-Trimethylsilyloxybutyric acid, trimethylsilyl ester; 3-Hydroxybutanoic acid, bis-TMS; 3- ... Hydroxybutyric acid, diTMS; Butanoic acid, 3-hydroxy, bis-TMS; Butanoic acid, 3-hydroxy, di-TMS; 3-Hydroxybutyric acid, TMS; ... Other names: Butanoic acid, 3-[(trimethylsilyl)oxy]-, trimethylsilyl ester; «beta»- ... CAS Registry Number: 55133-94-3. *Chemical structure: This structure is also available as a 2d Mol file or as a computed 3d SD ...
IUPAC Standard InChI: InChI=1S/C10H24O3Si2/c1-9(12-14(2,3)4)8-10(11)13-15(5,6)7/h9H,8H2,1-7H3 Copy ... R)-3-Hydroxybutyric acid, 2TMS derivative. *Formula: C10H24O3Si2 ... 3-[(trimethylsilyl)oxy]butanoate *Information on this page: * ... Other names: (R)-3-Hydroxybutyric acid, trimethylsilyl ether, trimethylsilyl ester; Trimethylsilyl (3R)- ...
Hoffmann GF, Meier-Augenstein W, Stockler S, Surtees R, Rating D, Nyhan WL: Physiology and pathophysiology of organic acids in ... This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as beta hydroxy acids and derivatives. These are compounds ... Tserng KY, Jin SJ, Kerr DS, Hoppel CL: Abnormal urinary excretion of unsaturated dicarboxylic acids in patients with medium- ... Abrahamsson K, Eriksson BO, Holme E, Jodal U, Jonsson A, Lindstedt S: Pivalic acid-induced carnitine deficiency and physical ...
Ethyl (S)-(+)-3-hydroxybutyrate is used for synthesis of optically active products, used as medical and organic intermediates, ... Poly-d-(-)(3-hydroxybutyrate)/poly(ethylene oxide) blends: phase diagram, thermal and crystallization behavior. Polymer. 1988, ... Hydrolytic degradation and protein release studies of thermogelling polyurethane copolymers consisting of poly[(R)-3- ...
Xiao-Hong Chen; Ping Wei; Xiao-Ting Wang; Min-Hua Zong; Wen-Yong Lou. A novel carbonyl reductase with anti-Prelog stereospecificity from Acetobacter sp. CCTCC M209061: purification and characterization. PLoS ONE. 2014, 9, (4), e94543.. Bezhan Chankvetadze; Mayuko Saito; Eiji Yashima and Yoshio Okamoto. Enantioseparation of atropisomeric 1,1?-binaphthyl-2,2?-diyl hydrogen phosphate in capillary electrophoresis by using di- and oligosaccharides as chiral selectors: di- and oligosaccharide chiral selectors in capillary electrophoresis. Chirality. 1998, 10, (1-2), 134-139.. For use in the synthesis of chiral ß-lactams, see: J. Chem. Soc., Chem. Commun., 1376 (1988). Can undergo aldol-type reactions with aldehydes with either syn- or anti-selectivity according to the conditions: Chem. Lett., 1931 (1990). ...
belongs to the class of organic compounds known as hydroxy fatty acids. These are fatty acids in which the chain bears a ... Jakobs C, Sweetman L, Nyhan WL: Hydroxy acid metabolites of branched-chain amino acids in amniotic fluid. Clin Chim Acta. 1984 ... Guneral F, Bachmann C: Age-related reference values for urinary organic acids in a healthy Turkish pediatric population. Clin ... as well as presumably beta-oxidation of fatty acids and ketogenesis, excreted in abnormally high amounts in beta-ketothiolase ...
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H2NCH2CH CH2COOH Crystals that decompose at 218°C; soluble in water; used as an anticonvulsant Explanation of 4-amino-3- ... Looking for 4-amino-3-hydroxybutyric acid? Find out information about 4-amino-3-hydroxybutyric acid. ... 4-amino-3-hydroxybutyric acid. [¦fȯr ə¦me·nō ¦thrē ‚hī¦dräk·sē‚byü¦tir·ik ′as·əd] (pharmacology) H2NCH2CH(OH)CH2COOH Crystals ... encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/4-amino-3-hydroxybutyric+acid,4-amino-3-hydroxybutyric acid,/a,. *Facebook ...
Literature References: Prepn: Jollès, Fromageot, Bull. Soc. Chim. Fr. 1951, 862; Chibnall et al., Biochem. J. 68, 122 (1958); Piskov, Zh. Obshch. Khim. 32, 3407 (1962); Nagai et al., Arzneim.-Forsch. 17, 1575 (1967); Kondo, Tanaka, JP 68 12127 (1968 to Kaken Kagaku), C.A. 70, 77328r (1969). ...
DL-beta-Hydroxybutyric acid sodium salt, Sodium 3-hydroxybutyrate, Sodium dl-beta-hydroxybutyrate, Sodium beta-hydroxybutyrate ... R)-2-Hydroxybutyric acid alpha-Hydroxybutyric acid (S)-2-Hydroxybutyric acid 3-Hydroxybutyric acid 4-Hydroxybutyric acid (R)-3- ... beta-Hydroxybutyric acid sodium salt. Synonyms. DL-beta-Hydroxybutyric acid sodium salt; Sodium 3-hydroxybutyrate; Sodium dl- ... Hydroxybutyric acid (S)-3-Hydroxybutyric acid 3-Hydroxybutyric acid methyl ester (S)-(+)-3-Hydroxybutyric acid sodium salt (R ...
Poly(3-hydroxybutyric acid) P(3HB), as one of these alternatives, have attracted much attention in recent years due to their ... ascorbic acid (117.6 mg/100 g peel) and quinic acid (98.5 mg/100 g peel), but malic acid and citric acid were not detected. ... Law, J.H. and Slepecky, R.A. (1961) Assay of Poly-β-hydroxybutyric Acid. Journal of Bacteriology, 82, 33-36. ... nant organic acids in freshly prepared peel samples were found to be oxalic acid (257.5 mg/100 g peel), ...
... gamma-amino-beta-hydroxybutyric acid,buksamin,GABOB,Gabomade,Gamibetal,DL-Form,DL-4-Amino-3-hydroxybutyric Acid,D(+)-Form,D(+)- ... 4-Amino-3-hydroxybutyric Acid,L(-)-Form,L(-)-4-Amino-3-hydroxybutyric Acid ...
... gamma-hydroxy-beta-aminobutyric acid,GOBAB,Hydrochloride,3-Amino-4-hydroxybutyric Acid Hydrochloride ...
Beta hydroxy acids and derivatives are compounds containing a carboxylic acid substituted with a hydroxyl group on the C3 ... Beta-hydroxybutyrate is a typical partial-degradation product of branched-chain amino acids (primarily valine) released from ... Belongs to the class of organic compounds known as beta hydroxy acids and derivatives. ... R)-3-Hydroxybutyric acid is a butyric acid substituted with a hydroxyl group in the beta or 3 position. It is involved in the ...
Discover exactly what 4 Amino 3 Hydroxybutyric Acid does for your skin. Heres everything you need to know about this skincare ... 4 Amino 3 Hydroxybutyric Acid. Our database has 0 products that contain 4 Amino 3 Hydroxybutyric Acid. ...
DL-3-Hydroxybutyric Acid Sodium Salt Powder. July 1st, 2015. by Drawk Kwast Leave a Comment ...
... ß-hydroxybutyric acid. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical terms and definitions. ... Synonym(s): 3-hydroxybutyric acid. Further information. Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the information ... ß-hydroxybutyric acid. Pronunciation: hi-drokse-byu-tirik asid. ...
Blog on rac 3-Hydroxybutyric Acid-d4 Sodium Salt biochemical product: The rac 3-Hydroxybutyric Acid-d4 Sodium Salt n/a (Catalog ... Glycochenodeoxycholic Acid-d5 3-Sulfate Disodium Salt biochemical blog. • p-Cyanoacetophenone-d4 biochemical blog. • 1,3- ... 2-Nitro-5-thiothiocyanatobenzoic acid biochemical blog. • N-Ethylmethylamine biochemical blog. • Acepromazine, Maleate ... rac 3-Hydroxybutyric Acid-d4 Sodium Salt biochemical. LOG IN MY ACCOUNT CART CONTENTS CHECKOUT ...
What is 3-hydroxybutanoic acid? Meaning of 3-hydroxybutanoic acid medical term. What does 3-hydroxybutanoic acid mean? ... Looking for online definition of 3-hydroxybutanoic acid in the Medical Dictionary? 3-hydroxybutanoic acid explanation free. ... β-hydroxybutyric acid. 3-hydroxybutyric acid, β-hydroxybutyric acid. major ketone body in circulation; hydroxyacid rather than ... The l-isomer is found as a coenzyme A derivative in β oxidation of fatty acids. ...
5g Alfa Aesar™ 3-Hydroxybutyric acid, tech. Hydroxya to Hydroxyethylphthal -Organics ...
beta-ketobutyric acid synonyms, beta-ketobutyric acid pronunciation, beta-ketobutyric acid translation, English dictionary ... definition of beta-ketobutyric acid. n. 1. The second letter of the Greek alphabet. See Table at alphabet. 2. The second item ... beta-hydroxybutyric acid. *beta-hydroxybutyric acid. *beta-hydroxybutyric acid. *beta-hydroxyethyldimethylamine. *beta- ... Related to beta-ketobutyric acid: 3-hydroxybutyric acid be·ta. (bā′tə, bē′-). n.. 1. The second letter of the Greek alphabet. ...
Hydroxyalkanoic acids fermentation can revolutionize the polyhydroxyalkanoic acids (PHA) production by increasing efficiency ... R)-hydroxyalkanoic acids (R-HAs) are valuable building blocks for the synthesis of fine chemicals and biopolymers because of ... Using Paulownia elongate WEH as a feedstock, the R-3-HB concentration in fermentation broth reached as high as 14.2 g/L after 3 ... Wood extract hydrolysate (WEH) was found to be a suitable substrate for R-3-hydroxybutyric acid (R-3-HB) production by ...
4-Hydroxybutyric acid gamma-lactone; BLO; Butyronitrile,99%; 4,5-Dihydro-2(3H)-furanone; 4-Hydroxybutyric acid lactone; n- ... 3,4,5-tetrahydro-2-furanone; 2(3H)-furanone,dihydro-; 2(3H)-dihydrofuranone; 1-Oxacyclopentan-2-one; γ-Butyrrolactone. ... 3-dihydroxybutanoic acid; GBL; γ-Butyroalctone; Gamma-Butyroalctone; 3-Hydroxybutyric acid lactone; 2-Oxotetrahydrofuran; 2- ...
L-α-amino-β-hydroxybutyric acid NIST Chemistry WebBook L-Threonin ChEBI ... L-threonine (CHEBI:16857) is a L-α-amino acid (CHEBI:15705) L-threonine (CHEBI:16857) is a aspartate family amino acid (CHEBI: ... L-threonine (CHEBI:16857) is a proteinogenic amino acid (CHEBI:83813) L-threonine (CHEBI:16857) is a threonine (CHEBI:26986) L- ... L-threoninium (CHEBI:32822) is conjugate acid of L-threonine (CHEBI:16857). L-threoninate (CHEBI:32820) is conjugate base of L- ...
2019 American Association for the Advancement of Science. All rights reserved. AAAS is a partner of HINARI, AGORA, OARE, CHORUS, CLOCKSS, CrossRef and COUNTER. Science ISSN 1095-9203.. ...
AIBN,tartaric acid,N-Methyl Formamide,mandelic acid,Methyl thioacetate. Total Revenue: US$5 Million - US$10 Million ... Top 3 Markets: South America 30.0% , South Asia 20.0% , Southeast Asia 10.0% ... Top 3 Markets: Southeast Asia 30% , North America 20% , Eastern Europe 15% ... Top 3 Markets: North America 30% , Western Europe 20% , Southeast Asia 10% ...
3-Amino-4-hydroxybutyric acid hydrochloride, (S)- - Similar structures search, synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other ... Substance Name: 3-Amino-4-hydroxybutyric acid hydrochloride, (S)-. RN: 1245645-62-8. UNII: L44PBA0QA3. InChIKey: XHGZYMNGKDOSJB ... 1S/C4H9NO3.ClH/c5-3(2-6)1-4(7)8;/h3,6H,1-2,5H2,(H,7,8);1H/t3-;/m0./s1. Download. ...
산소 투과도의 경우 PHB 필름이 0.026,TEX,${\times}$,/TEX,,TEX,$10^{-10}$,/TEX,,TEX,$cm^3$,/TEX,(STP) cm/,TEX,$cm^2$,/TEX,ㆍsecㆍcmHg로 가장 높았으며 ... The blend films of poly(3-hydroxybutyric acid) (PHB) with chitosan were prepared and water vapor transmission rate, oxygen ... The effect of fatty acid content on water vapour and carbon dioxide transmissions of cellulose-based edible films. Food ... 제 3 장 계약 당사자의 의무. * 제 10 조 (KISTI의 의무) ① 당 사이트는 이용고객이 희망한 서비스 제공 개시일에 특별한 사정이 없는 한 서비스를 이용할 수 있도록 하여야 합니다. ② 당 사이트는 개인정보 보호를 위해 ...
... l 2 amino 3 hydroxybutyric acid,l 2 amino butyric acid... ... l amino acid. l amino acid manufacturers. l amino acids. l and ... l ascorbic acid 6 palmitate. l ascorbic acid bp usp. l ascorbic acid buy. l ascorbic acid cas. l ascorbic acid cas50 81 7. l ... l ascorbic acid face cream. l ascorbic acid face serum. l ascorbic acid fcc. l ascorbic acid fcc bp. l ascorbic acid feed. l ... l ascorbic acid powder in bulk. l ascorbic acid powder skin. l ascorbic acid prices. l ascorbic acid s. l ascorbic acid serum. ...
Results of studies of films and nonwoven membranes made of a copolymer of 3-hydroxybutiric and 4-hydroxybutyric acid [P(3HB/4HB ... Study of Biocompatible Films and Nonwoven Membranes Made of Copolymer of 3-hydroxybutyric Acid and 4-hydroxybutyric Acid in ... Borovkova, Natalia V.:N.V. Sklifosovsky Institute of Emergency Care 3 Bolshaya Suharevskaya sq,. Moscow, 129090, Russia; Evseev ... Anatoly K.:N.V. Sklifosovsky Institute of Emergency Care 3 Bolshaya Suharevskaya sq,. Moscow, 129090, Russia; Makarov, Maksim S ...
  • Lactic acid is produced as an extracellular product, and then lactic acid is chemically polymerized to PLA. (springeropen.com)
  • It is structurally related to lactic acid by the interchange of SH for OH. (wikipedia.org)
  • Soetaert, W., Buchholz, K. and Vandamme, E.J. (1995) Production of D-Mannitol and D-Lactic Acid by Fermentation with Leuconostoc mesenteroides. (scirp.org)
  • Dumbrepatil A, Adsul M, Chaudhari S, Khire J, Gokhale D (2008) Utilization of molasses sugar for lactic acid production by Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. (springer.com)
  • The spontaneous hydrolyses of lactic acid O-phenyl phosphate (I) and, to a lesser extent, 3-hydroxybutyric acid O-phenyl phosphate (II) have been investigated and compared with similar intramolecular and bimolecular reactions. (elsevier.com)
  • Beta-hydroxybutyric acid and lactic acid are related molecules. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 3-Hydroxybutyric acid (or beta-hydroxybutyrate) is a ketone body. (hmdb.ca)
  • In humans, D-β-hydroxybutyrate can be synthesized in the liver via the metabolism of fatty acids (e.g., butyrate), β-hydroxy β-methylbutyrate, and ketogenic amino acids through a series of reactions that metabolize these compounds into acetoacetate, which is the first ketone body that is produced in the fasting state. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because oxaloacetate is crucial for entry of acetyl-CoA into the TCA cycle, the rapid production of acetyl-CoA from fatty acid oxidation in the absence of ample oxaloacetate overwhelms the decreased capacity of the TCA cycle, and the resultant excess of acetyl-CoA is shunted towards ketone body production. (wikipedia.org)
  • R)-3-Hydroxybutyric acid is a butyric acid substituted with a hydroxyl group in the beta or 3 position. (foodcomex.org)
  • citation needed] D-β-Hydroxybutyric acid, along with butyric acid, are the two primary endogenous agonists of hydroxycarboxylic acid receptor 2 (HCA2), a Gi/o-coupled GPCR. (wikipedia.org)
  • Effects of beta-hydroxy butyric acid on insulin binding to its receptor and on autophosphorylation of the receptor: H. Ohtusaka, et al. (nordicbiosite.com)
  • Beta-hydroxybutyrate is a typical partial-degradation product of branched-chain amino acids (primarily valine) released from muscle for hepatic and renal gluconeogenesis This acid is metabolized by 3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (catalyzes the oxidation of D-3-hydroxybutyrate to form acetoacetate, using NAD+ as an electron acceptor). (foodcomex.org)
  • Diets that are low in carbohydrates and high in fatty acids can either prompt the body to produce ketone bodies, such as beta hydroxybutyrate, or allow people to consume them exogenously (outside the body) instead. (nootropedia.com)
  • Alfa Aesar™ 3-Hydroxybutyric acid, tech. 5g Alfa Aesar™ 3-Hydroxybutyric acid, tech. (fishersci.co.uk)
  • Alfa Aesar™ 3-Hydroxybutyric acid, tech. (fishersci.co.uk)
  • 3-Hydroxy-2-methyl-butanoic acid (HMBA) is a normal urinary metabolite involved in the isoleucine catabolism, as well as presumably beta-oxidation of fatty acids and ketogenesis, excreted in abnormally high amounts in beta-ketothiolase deficiency, which is a genetic disorder. (hmdb.ca)
  • Besides biohydrolysis and biooxidation, now a bioisomerization reaction can be employed, converting the common metabolite 3-hydroxybutyric acid to 2-HIBA by a novel cobalamin-dependent CoA-carbonyl mutase. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Ketosis (ketonemia and ketonuria) is a metabolic disorder in dairy animals caused by impaired metabolism of carbohydrate and volatile fatty acids leading to excessive production of ketone bodies: Acetoacetic acid, beta-hydroxybutyric acid and their decarboxylation products such as acetone and isopropanol (Radostits et al. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as beta hydroxy acids and derivatives. (hmdb.ca)
  • These are compounds containing a carboxylic acid substituted with a hydroxyl group on the C3 carbon atom. (hmdb.ca)
  • Beta hydroxy acids and derivatives are compounds containing a carboxylic acid substituted with a hydroxyl group on the C3 carbon atom. (foodcomex.org)
  • The compounds include α-hydroxy acids, keto acids and esters thereof, and 3-hydroxybutyric acid. (google.com.au)
  • Starting from this carboxylic acid, practically all compounds possessing the isobutane structure are accessible by simple chemical conversions, e. g. the commodity methacrylic acid as well as isobutylene glycol and oxide. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Ketone bodies are three water-soluble compounds that are produced as by-products when fatty acids are broken down for energy in the liver and kidney. (wikipathways.org)
  • common therapies include restricting diet to avoid the precursor amino acids and use of compounds to either dispose of toxic metabolites or increase enzyme activity. (wikidoc.org)
  • Another important function of ketone bodies is to provide acetoacetyl-CoA and acetyl-CoA for synthesis of cholesterol, fatty acids, and complex lipids. (hmdb.ca)
  • Ethyl (S)-(+)-3-hydroxybutyrate is used for synthesis of optically active products, used as medical and organic intermediates, an important amino protective agents, pharmaceuticals and synthetic organic makes intermediates, organic synthesis used to introduce t-Boc protect gene. (alfa.com)
  • R)-hydroxyalkanoic acids (R-HAs) are valuable building blocks for the synthesis of fine chemicals and biopolymers because of the chiral center and the two active functional groups. (springeropen.com)
  • We have identified the tertiary carbon atom-containing 2-hydroxyisobutyric acid (2-HIBA) as an interesting building block for polymer synthesis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The absence of both phbA and phB genes of A. eutrophus leads to no synthesis of D(-)-3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA. (kenyon.edu)
  • In A. eutrophus , the synthesis of PHB involves glucose as a carbon source and three enzymes: 3-ketothiolase, acetoacetyl-CoA reductase, and PHA synthase [5]. (kenyon.edu)
  • We assessed the effects of different arcA mutations on poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) synthesis in recombinant Escherichia coli strains carrying the pha synthesis genes from Azotobacter sp. (asm.org)
  • Vitamin C is necessary for multiple hydroxylation reactions, including hydroxylation of proline and lysine in collagen synthesis, beta-hydroxybutyric acid in carnitine synthesis, and dopamine-beta-hydroxylase in catecholamine synthesis. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In humans, D-β-hydroxybutyric acid is one of two primary endogenous agonists of hydroxycarboxylic acid receptor 2 (HCA2), a Gi/o-coupled G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR). (wikipedia.org)
  • Hydrolytic degradation and protein release studies of thermogelling polyurethane copolymers consisting of poly[(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate], poly(ethylene glycol), and poly(propylene glycol). (alfa.com)
  • Poly-d-(-)(3-hydroxybutyrate)/poly(ethylene oxide) blends: phase diagram, thermal and crystallization behavior. (alfa.com)
  • Poly(3-hydroxybutyric acid) P(3HB), as one of these alternatives, have attracted much attention in recent years due to their varied mechanical properties, biocompatibility and biodegradability. (scirp.org)
  • The blend films of poly(3-hydroxybutyric acid) (PHB) with chitosan were prepared and water vapor transmission rate, oxygen permeability and lipid permeability of the PHB/chitosan films were measured. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • Molecular dynamics of the spin probes in dry and wet poly (3-hydroxybutyrate) films with different morphology. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • Crystallization and thermal behavior of poly(D(-)-3-hydroxybutyrate)-based blends. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • Crystallization and morphology of poly(vinylidene fluoride)/poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) blends. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • Mechanical and crystallization properties of the blend films of poly(3-hydroxybutyric acid) with chitosan. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • Effects of chitosan addition on physical properties and crystallization of poly(3-hydroxybutyric acid) film. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • Crystallization kinetics and morphology of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate)/cellulose ester blends. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • 2000. Modification via preparation for poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) films: watertransport phenomena and sorption. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • This polymer, poly(3-hydroxybutyrate), is also naturally produced by the bacteria Alcaligenes eutrophus. (wikipedia.org)
  • β-Hydroxybutyrate can be extracted from poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) by acid hydrolysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Poly(hydroxyalkanoate)s (PHAs), one such eco-friendly polymeric materials, are polyesters synthesized by a variety of bacteria as an intracellular storage material of carbon and energy ( Figure 1 ) [ 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • These mechanical properties of PHA are comparable to PE and polypropylene (PP) of industrial level as well as poly(glycolic acid) which is used for sutures. (mdpi.com)
  • The tools are applied to the production of poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) by using the halophilic bacteria Halomonas sp. (springer.com)
  • Choi J, Lee SY (1997) Process analysis and economic evaluation for poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) production by fermentation. (springer.com)
  • Garcia-Lillo J, Rodriguez-Valera F (1990) Effects of culture conditions on poly(3-hydroxybutyric acid) production by Haloferax mediterranei. (springer.com)
  • Intracellular poly[ d -(−)-3-hydroxybutyrate] (PHB) depolymerases degrade PHB granules to oligomers and monomers of 3-hydroxybutyric acid. (asm.org)
  • The resultant ( R )-3HB-CoA molecules are then polymerized into poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB)] by the function of PHA synthase. (asm.org)
  • Maurice Lemoigne (mid-1920s) was the first person who discovered monopolyester of identified poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) or PHB (Figure 3) [4]. (kenyon.edu)
  • Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) is the best-characterized PHA. (asm.org)
  • Degradation of poly(3-hydroxyoctanoic acid) [P(3HO)] by bacteria: purification and properties of a P(3HO) depolymerase from Pseudomonas fluorescens GK13. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Bacteroids of indeterminate nodules are terminally differentiated and, unlike their non-terminally differentiated counterparts in determinate nodules, do not accumulate large quantities of Poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) during symbiosis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Most of the carbon supplied by the plant is used to fuel nitrogen fixation, however, under certain circumstances, some of the carbon appears to be diverted by the bacteroid into the production of intracellular carbon storage polymers such as poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB). (biomedcentral.com)
  • 3-Hydroxybutyric acid is a chiral compound having two enantiomers, D-3-hydroxybutyric acid and L-3-hydroxybutyric acid. (foodcomex.org)
  • Threonine is an amino acid. (ewg.org)
  • An essential amino acid occurring naturally in the L-form, which is the active form. (drugbank.ca)
  • The N-terminal amino acid sequence of the purified hydratase corresponded to the amino acid sequence deduced from the nucleotide sequence of phaJ Ac except for the initial Met residue. (asm.org)
  • Systems are provided which can utilize amino acid degradation pathways, .alpha. (patents.com)
  • Additionally, the isoleucine amino acid pathway is affected, such that proper metabolism of it is halted. (wikidoc.org)
  • This deficiency belongs to a more general class of disorders known as organic acidemias , in which the dysfunction of a specific step of amino acid catabolism results in the excretion of non-amino acids in the urine. (wikidoc.org)
  • The molecule contains both carboxylic acid and thiol functional groups. (wikipedia.org)
  • This tertiary carbon atom-containing C4 carboxylic acid is currently not a high-volume product of the chemical industry but only a specialty chemical. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Optically active 3-hydroxybutyric acids are key intermediates of the biosynthesis and metabolism of fatty acids and exist widely in biological systems. (mybiosource.com)
  • The threshold for optimal anticonvulsant effect appears to be approximately 4 mmol/L. β-Hydroxybutyric acid is the precursor to polyesters, which are biodegradable plastics. (wikipedia.org)
  • The median plasma concentration of ketone bodies (3-hydroxybutyric acid) was 3.3 mmol/l. (gu.se)
  • Like the other ketone bodies (acetoacetate and acetone), levels of 3-hydroxybutyrate in blood and urine are raised in ketosis. (hmdb.ca)
  • These are fatty acids in which the chain bears a hydroxyl group. (hmdb.ca)
  • Azobacterium and many recombinant strains through the fermentation of sugars, lipids, alkanes, alkenes and alkanoic acids, in the presence of excess carbon while another essential nutrient, such as nitrogen or phosphorus, is limiting [4] -[8] ( Figure 1 ). (scirp.org)
  • Pseudomonads belonging to rRNA homology group I accumulated PHA consisting of medium-chain-length (C 5 to C 14 ) 3-hydroxyalkanoate (3HA) units from simple carbon sources, such as sugars ( 13 , 15 , 32 ) or n -alkanoic acids, n -alkanols, or n -alkanes ( 4 , 12 , 14 , 16 ). (asm.org)
  • In the production of PHA from alkanoic acids with six to nine carbon atoms by Pseudomonas oleovorans , the major monomer unit in PHA has the same chain length as the alkanoic acids fed as a carbon source, but monomer units with more or fewer carbon atoms than the acid fed are also generally present in the PHA formed. (asm.org)
  • Aeromonas caviae isolated from soil has been reported to produce a random copolyester of 3HB and ( R )-3-hydroxyhexanoate [( R )-3HHx], P(3HB- co -3HHx), from alkanoic acids with even carbon numbers or from plant oils ( 8 , 26 ). (asm.org)
  • On the basis of the fact that this bacterium does not accumulate any PHA from sugars, C 4 and C 6 ( R )-3HA units were proposed to be supplied from the β-oxidation intermediates, similar to the PHA biosynthesis pathway in pseudomonads on alkanoic acids ( 8 ). (asm.org)
  • In this paper, we report direct evidence that ORF3 is essential for PHA biosynthesis from alkanoic acids in A. caviae . (asm.org)
  • 3. The method of claim 1 wherein said composition is an ointment containing said compound dissolved in about 1% to about 30% by volume of a solvent selected from the group consisting of water and ethanol, and admixed with an ointment base selected from the group consisting of petrolatum and hydrophilic ointment. (google.com.au)
  • Thiolactic acid is the organosulfur compound with the formula HSCH2CO2H. (wikipedia.org)
  • For this compound alone, the market exceeds 3 million tons. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The dual-layered catabolite repression was identified and successfully removed in the engineered E. coli , and the compound ( R )-3-hydroxybutyric acid was produced from simultaneous assimilation of glucose, xylose and arabinose. (diva-portal.org)
  • In humans, 3-hydroxybutyrate is synthesized in the liver from acetyl-CoA, and can be used as an energy source by the brain when blood glucose is low. (hmdb.ca)
  • Lotions or ointments formulated with one or more α-hydroxy acids, keto acids and esters thereof, or 3-hydroxybutyric acid present in from one to about twenty percent by weight were found to achieve complete remission of ichthyosis in humans. (google.com.au)
  • urinary secretion of 2-hydroxybutyric acid is increased with alcohol ingestion or vigorous physical exercise and is associated with lactic acidosis and ketoacidosis in humans and diabetes in animals. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Hydroxyalkanoic acids fermentation can revolutionize the polyhydroxyalkanoic acids (PHA) production by increasing efficiency and enhancing product utility. (springeropen.com)
  • Many bacterial species synthesize polyhydroxyalkanoic acids (PHAs), which accumulate in the cytoplasm as hydrophobic granules and function as a carbon reservoir and as an electron sink ( 2 ). (asm.org)
  • First-order kinetics analysis of monomer composition dependent polyhydroxyalkanoic acid degradation in Pseudomonas spp. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In addition, we demonstrated that the relative increase of each individual acylcarnitine during enhanced fatty acid oxidation is tightly related to its molecular structure and chain length. (nih.gov)
  • In response to intraduodenal glucose infusion in the presence of fructose, net hepatic glucose balance switched from 9 ± 1 μmol · kg −1 · min −1 output to 12 ± 3 and 28 ± 5 μmol · kg −1 · min −1 uptake by 15 and 30 min, respectively. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • After oral glucose ingestion in the healthy human, 50-77% of the liver glycogen synthesized is derived via the direct pathway ( 3 - 6 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Trimethylsilyl (TMS) derivatives of cyclohexane carboxylate, cyclohex-1-ene carboxylate, benzoate, pimelate, glutarate, 3-hydroxybutyrate, and acetoacetate were detected as intermediates by comparison of retention times and mass spectral profiles to authentic standards. (asm.org)
  • With [U- 13 C]crotonate, the m/z -15 ion of TMS-derivatized glutarate, 3-hydroxybutyrate, and acetoacetate each increased by +4 mass units, and the m/z -15 ion of TMS-derivatized pimelate, cyclohex-1-ene carboxylate, benzoate, and cyclohexane carboxylate each increased by +6 mass units. (asm.org)
  • The anaerobic degradation of saturated fatty acids and aromatic acids in the absence of terminal electron processes necessitates the presence of a hydrogen-consuming organism to maintain a hydrogen partial pressure low enough for these reactions to be thermodynamically favorable ( 9 , 28 , 29 , 34 ). (asm.org)
  • Hydroxybutyric acid Ketogenesis Gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid This reaction is catalyzed by an unknown thioesterase enzyme. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is a final rule issued by the Deputy Administrator of the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) placing gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) and its salts, isomers, and salts of isomers into Schedule I of the Controlled Substances Act (CSA) pursuant to Public Law 106-172. (usdoj.gov)
  • GHB is gamma-hydroxybutyric acid, including its salts, isomers and salts of isomers. (usdoj.gov)
  • Gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid (4-hydroxybutanoic acid, C 4 H 8 O 3 ), commonly abbreviated GHB , is a neuroprotective therapeutic drug that is illegal in a number of countries [1] , and is a naturally-occurring substance found in the central nervous system , wine, beef, small citrus fruits, and almost all living creatures in small amounts. (bionity.com)
  • The air/breath/headspace sample is introduced into fast flowing helium carrier gas where the trace gases in the sample react with embedded reagent ions (H 3 O + , NO + or O 2 + ) to produce characteristic product ions that identify the trace gases, and accurate quantification is achieved from knowledge of the kinetics of the ion/trace gas molecule reactions. (keele.ac.uk)
  • The rac 3-Hydroxybutyric Acid-d4 Sodium Salt n/a (Catalog # MBS6014875 ) is a Biochemical and is intended for research purposes only. (mybiosource.com)
  • S. aciditrophicus metabolizes various saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, methyl esters of butyrate and hexanoate, and benzoate in coculture with hydrogen/formate-using microorganisms. (asm.org)
  • Escherichia coli has a proven track record for successful production of anything from small molecules like organic acids to large therapeutic proteins, and has thus important applications in both R&D and commercial production. (diva-portal.org)
  • The spontaneous and metal ion catalyzed hydrolyses of salicylic acid O-aryl phosphates (IIIa-d) proceed through cyclic acyl phosphate intermediates after expulsion of phenol. (elsevier.com)
  • In animals of each sex, most of the administered erythritol was recovered in urine (85-100% in males and 60-85% in females) and small amounts were found in the faeces (4-7% in males and 3-5% in females). (inchem.org)
  • The mutase enzyme has to be active in a suitable biological system producing 3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA, which is the precursor of the well-known bacterial bioplastic polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB). (biomedcentral.com)
  • its conjugate base is β-hydroxybutyrate, also known as 3-hydroxybutyrate. (wikipedia.org)
  • The effect of fatty acid content on water vapour and carbon dioxide transmissions of cellulose-based edible films. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • In Alcaligenes eutrophus , two molecules of acetyl coenzymeA (acetyl-CoA) derived from various carbon sources are converted to ( R )-3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA [( R )-(3HB)-CoA] via dimerization catalyzed by β-ketothiolase and subsequent ( R )-specific reduction catalyzed by NADPH-acetoacetyl-CoA reductase. (asm.org)
  • The new pathways provide means for producing 4HB containing PHAs from cheap carbon sources such as sugars and fatty acids, in high yields, which are stable. (patents.com)
  • EXPLANATION Erythritol is a four-carbon sugar alcohol ( meso -1,2,3,4-butanetetrol) which is 60-80% as sweet as sucrose. (inchem.org)
  • 1985. On the preparation of methyl and ethyl (R)-(-)-3-hydroxy-valerate by depolymerization of a mixed PHB/PHV biopolymer. (koreascience.or.kr)