Hydroxybutyrates: Salts and esters of hydroxybutyric acid.3-Hydroxybutyric Acid: BUTYRIC ACID substituted in the beta or 3 position. It is one of the ketone bodies produced in the liver.Polyesters: Polymers of organic acids and alcohols, with ester linkages--usually polyethylene terephthalate; can be cured into hard plastic, films or tapes, or fibers which can be woven into fabrics, meshes or velours.Succinate-Semialdehyde Dehydrogenase (NADP+)Sodium Oxybate: The sodium salt of 4-hydroxybutyric acid. It is used for both induction and maintenance of ANESTHESIA.Carboxylic Ester Hydrolases: Enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of carboxylic acid esters with the formation of an alcohol and a carboxylic acid anion.Gram-Negative Aerobic Bacteria: A large group of aerobic bacteria which show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method. This is because the cell walls of gram-negative bacteria are low in peptidoglycan and thus have low affinity for violet stain and high affinity for the pink dye safranine.4-Butyrolactone: One of the FURANS with a carbonyl thereby forming a cyclic lactone. It is an endogenous compound made from gamma-aminobutyrate and is the precursor of gamma-hydroxybutyrate. It is also used as a pharmacological agent and solvent.Hydroxybutyrate DehydrogenaseSuccinate-Semialdehyde Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that plays a role in the GLUTAMATE and butanoate metabolism pathways by catalyzing the oxidation of succinate semialdehyde to SUCCINATE using NAD+ as a coenzyme. Deficiency of this enzyme, causes 4-hydroxybutyricaciduria, a rare inborn error in the metabolism of the neurotransmitter 4-aminobutyric acid (GABA).Acetoacetates: Salts and derivatives of acetoacetic acid.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
(1/526) Effects of fatty acids and ketone bodies on basal insulin secretion in type 2 diabetes.

The objective of this study was to assess the role of free fatty acids (FFAs) as insulin secretagogues in patients with type 2 diabetes. To this end, basal insulin secretion rates (ISR) in response to acute increases in plasma FFAs were evaluated in patients with type 2 diabetes and in age- and weight-matched nondiabetic control subjects during 1) intravenous infusion of lipid plus heparin (L/H), which stimulated intravascular lipolysis, and 2) the FFA rebound, which followed lowering of plasma FFAs with nicotinic acid (NA) and was a consequence of increased lipolysis from the subject's own adipose tissue. At comparable euglycemia, diabetic patients had similar ISR but higher plasma beta-hydroxybutyrate (beta-OHB) levels during L/H infusion and higher plasma FFA and beta-OHB levels during the FFA rebound than nondiabetic control subjects. Correlating ISR with plasma FFA plus beta-OHB levels showed that in response to the same changes in FFA plus beta-OHB levels, diabetic patients secreted approximately 30% less insulin than nondiabetic control subjects. In addition, twice as much insulin was secreted during L/H infusion as during the FFA rebound in response to the same FFA/beta-OHB stimulation by both diabetic patients and control subjects. Glycerol, which was present in the infused lipid (272 mmol/l) did not affect ISR. We concluded that 1) assessment of FFA effects on ISR requires consideration of effects on ISR by ketone bodies; 2) ISR responses to FFA/beta-OHB were defective in patients with type 2 diabetes (partial beta-cell lipid blindness), but this defect was compensated by elevated plasma levels of FFAs and ketone bodies; and 3) approximately two times more insulin was released per unit change in plasma FFA plus beta-OHB during L/H infusion than during the FFA rebound after NA. The reason for this remains to be explored.  (+info)

(2/526) Within- and between-subject variation in commonly measured anthropometric and biochemical variables.

BACKGROUND: The biological variation of some commonly assessed metabolic variables in healthy subjects has not been studied extensively. The aim of the study was to assess, in 12 healthy subjects (6 male and 6 female; mean (SD) age; 22.7 (1.5) years) following an overnight fast, the day-to-day variation of body fat (impedance method), triglycerides, nonesterified fatty acid (NEFAs), glycerol, 3-hydroxybutyrate (3-OHB), lactate, glucose, insulin (RIA), C-peptide, and glucagon on 12 consecutive days. METHODS: Between- and within-subject coefficients of variation (CVG and CVW) were estimated using a random effects analysis of variance, and assay variation was subtracted to give the coefficient of within-subject biological variation (CVI). Individuality indices were calculated as CVW/CVG. RESULTS: The overall means, CVI, and individuality indices were as follows: for body fat, 24.2%, 10%, and 0.3; for triglycerides, 0.61 mmol/L, 21%, and 1.1; for NEFAs, 376 micromol/L, 45%, and 1.4; for glycerol, 48 micromol/L, 36%, and 0.8; for 3-OHB, 43 micromol/L, 61%, and 1.5; for lactate, 0.88 mmol/L, 31%, and 1.1; for glucose, 4.9 mmol/L, 4.8%, and 0.7; for insulin, 52 pmol/L, 26%, and 1.0; for C-peptide, 0.39 nmol/L, 24%, and 0.9; and for glucagon, 53 ng/L, 19%, and 0.8. CONCLUSIONS: The data presented here are necessary for the evaluation of several important metabolic variables in individual and group studies. The biological variation of some metabolites makes it difficult to characterize the status of healthy subjects with a single measurement.  (+info)

(3/526) Production of poly(3-hydroxybutyric acid-co-4-hydroxybutyric acid) and poly(4-hydroxybutyric acid) without subsequent degradation by Hydrogenophaga pseudoflava.

A Hydrogenophaga pseudoflava strain was able to synthesize poly(3-hydroxybutyric acid-co-4-hydroxybutyric acid) [P(3HB-co-4HB)] having a high level of 4-hydroxybutyric acid monomer unit (4HB) from gamma-butyrolactone. In a two-step process in which the first step involved production of cells containing a minimum amount of poly(3-hydroxybutyric acid) [P(3HB)] and the second step involved polyester accumulation from the lactone, approximately 5 to 10 mol% of the 3-hydroxybutyric acid (3HB) derived from the first-step culture was unavoidably reincorporated into the polymer in the second cultivation step. Reincorporation of the 3HB units produced from degradation of the first-step residual P(3HB) was confirmed by high-resolution 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. In order to synthesize 3HB-free poly(4-hydroxybutyric acid) [P(4HB)] homopolymer, a three-stage cultivation technique was developed by adding a nitrogen addition step, which completely removed the residual P(3HB). The resulting polymer was free of 3HB. However, when the strain was grown on gamma-butyrolactone as the sole carbon source in a synthesis medium, a copolyester of P(3HB-co-4HB) containing 45 mol% 3HB was produced. One-step cultivation on gamma-butyrolactone required a rather long induction time (3 to 4 days). On the basis of the results of an enzymatic study performed with crude extracts, we suggest that the inability of cells to produce 3HB in the multistep culture was due to a low level of 4-hydroxybutyric acid (4HBA) dehydrogenase activity, which resulted in a low level of acetyl coenzyme A. Thus, 3HB formation from gamma-butyrolactone is driven by a high level of 4HBA dehydrogenase activity induced by long exposure to gamma-butyrolactone, as is the case for a one-step culture. In addition, intracellular degradation kinetics studies showed that P(3HB) in cells was completely degraded within 30 h of cultivation after being transferred to a carbon-free mineral medium containing additional ammonium sulfate, while P(3HB-co-4HB) containing 5 mol% 3HB and 95 mol% 4HB was totally inert in interactions with the intracellular depolymerases. Intracellular inertness could be a useful factor for efficient synthesis of the P(4HB) homopolymer and of 4HB-rich P(3HB-co-4HB) by the strain used in this study.  (+info)

(4/526) Requirement for the heart-type fatty acid binding protein in cardiac fatty acid utilization.

Nonenzymatic cytosolic fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs) are abundantly expressed in many animal tissues with high rates of fatty acid metabolism. No physiological role has been demonstrated for any FABP, although these proteins have been implicated in transport of free long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs) and protection against LCFA toxicity. We report here that mice lacking heart-type FABP (H-FABP) exhibit a severe defect of peripheral (nonhepatic, non-fat) LCFA utilization. In these mice, the heart is unable to efficiently take up plasma LCFAs, which are normally its main fuel, and switches to glucose usage. Altered plasma levels of LCFAs, glucose, lactate and beta-hydroxybutyrate are consistent with depressed peripheral LCFA utilization, intensified carbohydrate usage, and increased hepatic LCFA oxidation; these changes are most pronounced under conditions favoring LCFA oxidation. H-FABP deficiency is only incompletely compensated, however, causing acute exercise intolerance and, at old age, a localized cardiac hypertrophy. These data establish a requirement for H-FABP in cardiac intracellular lipid transport and fuel selection and a major role in metabolic homeostasis. This new animal model should be particularly useful for investigating the significance of peripheral LCFA utilization for heart function, insulin sensitivity, and blood pressure.  (+info)

(5/526) Relations between plasma acetate, 3-hydroxybutyrate, FFA, glucose levels and energy nutrition in lactating dairy cows.

To clarify the implication of an energy nutrition on a metabolic alteration with advancing lactation, total 270 blood samples were taken from 16 lactating dairy cows. Amounts of dietary allowance and the refusals were measured daily, and the energy (TDN) intakes and a satisfaction (energy balance) of each cow were estimated. Plasma acetate, 3-hydroxybutyrate (3-HB), free fatty acid (FFA) and glucose levels were estimated. The data were divided into 3 groups depending on the days in milk; early (up to 70 days postpartum), mid (71 to 140 days), and late (after 141 days) lactation. There were many cases of higher FFA level in early lactation, especially with declining acetate and glucose levels. There were proportional elevations of 3-HB in connection with FFA levels in many samples of early lactation, though the 3-HB increased independently of FFA levels in the most cases of the mid and late lactations. Plasma 3-HB levels increased in many cases of decreased glucose level, especially in the early lactation. Plasma acetate level correlated positively with 3-HB level, but not correlated with glucose level. Higher FFA level and elevation of FFA/3-HB ratio were observed in the conditions of negative energy balance. This implies the metabolic importance of FFA in a ketogenesis of the early lactation.  (+info)

(6/526) Effect of hyperketonemia on plasma lipid peroxidation levels in diabetic patients.

OBJECTIVE: This study was undertaken to examine the effect of ketosis on plasma lipid peroxidation levels in diabetic patients. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Plasma levels of lipid peroxidation products (malondialdehyde) and ketone bodies (acetoacetate and beta-hydroxybutyrate) were determined in diabetic patients (n = 70) and age-matched normal volunteers (n = 25). Diabetic patients with total ketone body levels > 1.0 mmol/l were considered hyperketonemic, and those with levels < or = 1.0 mmol/l were considered normoketonemic. RESULTS: After normalization versus total lipids, levels of lipid peroxidation were significantly higher in the plasma of hyperketonemic diabetic patients (P < 0.05), but not in normoketonemic diabetic patients, compared with age-matched normal volunteers. In addition, low ketonemia was associated with lower lipid peroxidation levels when lipid peroxidation and ketonemia were determined in the same patient (n = 7) at two different clinic visits. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated an association between hyperketonemia and increased lipid peroxidation levels in diabetic patients, which suggests that ketosis is a risk factor in the elevated lipid peroxidation levels associated with diabetes. Further investigation is needed to determine whether antioxidant supplementation can be particularly beneficial in reducing lipid peroxidation and complications in type 1 diabetic patients who frequently encounter ketosis.  (+info)

(7/526) The metabolic effects of estriol in female rat liver.

The effects of estriol on oxygen uptake, glucose release, lactate and pyruvate production, beta-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate production in perfused rat liver as well as, carbon uptake in rat liver and intracellular calcium in isolated Kupffer cells were investigated. Basal oxygen consumption of perfused liver increased significantly in estriol or ethanol-treated rats. But these increased effects were blocked by gadolinium chloride pretreatment. In a metabolic study, pretreatment with estriol resulted in a decrease in glucose production and in glycolysis while an increase in ketogenesis. A more oxidized redox state of the mitochondria was indicated by increased ratios of perfusate [lactate]/[pyruvate] and decreased ratios of perfusate [beta-hydroxybutyrate]/[acetoacetate]. Carbon uptake of Kupffer-cell increased significantly in estriol-treated rats. But these increased uptake were not shown in rats pre-treated by gadolinium chloride blocking phagocytosis. In isolated Kupffer cells from estriol-treated rats, intracellular calcium was more significantly increased after addition of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) than in controls. These findings suggest that the metabolic effects of estriol (two mg per 100 mg body wt) can be summarized to be highly toxic in rat liver, and these findings suggest that oral administration of estrogens may induce hepatic dysfunctions and play a role in the development of liver disease.  (+info)

(8/526) Hormonal and metabolic responses to maintained hyperglycemia during prolonged exercise.

We studied the effects of maintained hyperglycemia (12 mmol/l) on endurance exercise to determine the hormonal and metabolic responses, the maximal rate of glucose infusion (i.e., utilization), and the effects on muscle glycogen stores. Eight men undertook two trials during which they exercised on a cycle ergometer at an intensity of approximately 70% peak O(2) uptake for 120 min. In the first trial (trial A), subjects had their blood glucose concentration clamped at 12 mmol/l 30 min before exercise and throughout exercise. The same rate and volume of infusion of saline as had occurred for trial A were used in a placebo trial (trial B). Maintained hyperglycemia resulted in significantly lowered plasma concentrations of nonesterified fatty acid, glycerol, 3-hydroxybutyrate, epinephrine, norepinephrine, and growth hormone (P < 0.001) during exercise, whereas concentrations of plasma insulin were significantly elevated (P < 0.001). Calculations of the rates of total carbohydrate oxidation showed that trial A resulted in significantly higher values when compared with trial B (P < 0.01) and that the maximal rates of glucose infusion varied between 1.33 and 2.78 g/min at 100-120 min. Muscle glycogen concentrations were significantly depleted (P < 0.01) after both trials (trial A, 170.3 micromol/g dry wt decrease; trial B, 206 micromol/g dry wt decrease), although this apparent difference may be accounted for by storage of 22.6 g glucose during the 30-min prime infusion. The results from this study confirm that maintained hyperglycemia attenuates the hormonal response and promotes carbohydrate oxidation and utilization and that muscle glycogen may not be spared.  (+info)

*  Succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency
... accumulates and cannot be oxidized to succinic acid and is therefore reduced to gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) by gamma- ... Gibson, K. M.; Hoffmann, G. F.; Hodson, A. K.; Bottiglieri, T.; Jakobs, C. (1998). "4-Hydroxybutyric acid and the clinical ... Under normal conditions, SSADH works with the enzyme GABA transaminase to convert GABA to succinic acid. Succinic acid can then ... Succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency (SSADHD), also known as 4-hydroxybutyric aciduria or gamma-hydroxybutyric ...
*  Streptomyces bangladeshensis
ISBN 0-387-68233-3. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) List of Streptomyces species LPSN bacterio.net Straininfo of ... Q. Ashton, Acton (2013). Advances in 3-Hydroxybutyric Acid Research and Application: 2013 Edition: ScholarlyBrief. ...
*  ACAT1
2009). "Docosahexaenoic acid is a substrate for ACAT1 and inhibits cholesteryl ester formation from oleic acid in MCF-10A cells ... in which the dysfunction of a specific step of amino acid catabolism results in the excretion of non-amino acids in the urine. ... Fatty Acids. 80 (2-3): 165-71. doi:10.1016/j.plefa.2009.01.001. PMID 19217763. Bzoma B; Debska-Slizieñ A; Dudziak M; et al. ( ... The resulting transcript encodes ACAT1, which is a 45.1 kDa protein composed of 427 amino acids. It is also a homotetrameric ...
*  3-Hydroxyisobutyric acid
... (or 3-hydroxy-2-methylpropanoic acid) is an intermediate in the metabolism of valine.- It is a chiral ... D-3-hydroxybutyric acid and L-3-hydroxybutyric acid. 3-hydroxyisobutyrate dehydrogenase. ...
*  Beta-Hydroxybutyric acid
β-Hydroxybutyric acid is a chiral compound having two enantiomers, D-β-hydroxybutyric acid and L-β-hydroxybutyric acid. Its ... β-Hydroxybutyric acid is able to cross the blood-brain-barrier into the central nervous system. Levels of β-hydroxybutyric acid ... β-Hydroxybutyric acid, also known as 3-hydroxybutyric acid, is an organic compound and a beta hydroxy acid with the formula ... Through inhibition of the HDAC class I isoenzymes HDAC2 and HDAC3, β-hydroxybutyric acid has been found to increase brain- ...
*  List of MeSH codes (D02)
... edetic acid MeSH D02.241.081.038.455 --- egtazic acid MeSH D02.241.081.038.581 --- iodoacetic acid MeSH D02.241.081.038.581.400 ... muramic acids MeSH D02.241.081.844.562 --- neuraminic acids MeSH D02.241.081.844.562.668 --- sialic acids MeSH D02.241.081.844. ... quinic acid MeSH D02.241.511.852 --- shikimic acid MeSH D02.241.511.902 --- sugar acids MeSH D02.241.511.902.107 --- ascorbic ... muramic acids MeSH D02.241.511.902.562 --- neuraminic acids MeSH D02.241.511.902.562.668 --- sialic acids MeSH D02.241.511.902. ...
*  List of MeSH codes (D10)
... oleic acids MeSH D10.251.355.325.600.525 --- oleic acid MeSH D10.251.355.325.600.780 --- ricinoleic acids MeSH D10.251.355.325. ... fatty acids, omega-6 MeSH D10.251.355.343.249 --- gamma-linolenic acid MeSH D10.251.355.343.500 --- linoleic acids MeSH D10.251 ... gamma-linolenic acid MeSH D10.251.355.840 --- sorbic acid MeSH D10.251.355.920 --- trans fatty acids MeSH D10.251.400.092 --- ... linoleic acid MeSH D10.251.355.310.640 --- linolenic acids MeSH D10.251.355.310.640.400 --- alpha-linolenic acid MeSH D10.251. ...
*  Euphoria
... γ-hydroxybutyric acid, and ketamine fall under the umbrella of the term "party drugs," each with differing neuropharmacological ... γ-hydroxybutyric acid, and ketamine. Some barbiturates and benzodiazepines may cause euphoria. Euphoriant effects are ... As phenylacetic acid reflects phenylethylamine levels3, and the latter has antidepressant effects, the antidepressant effects ... These results show substantial increases in urinary phenylacetic acid levels 24 hours after moderate to high intensity aerobic ...
*  3-Hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase
... beta-hydroxybutyric acid dehydrogenase, 3-D-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase, and beta-hydroxybutyric dehydrogenase. This enzyme ... Lehninger AL, Sudduth HC, Wise JB (1960). "D-beta-Hydroxybutyric dehydrogenase of mitochondria". J. Biol. Chem. 235: 2450-2455 ... Delafield FP, Cooksey KE, Doudoroff M (1965). "beta-Hydroxybutyric dehydrogenase and dimer hydrolase of Pseudomonas lemoignei ... In enzymology, a 3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.30) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction (R)-3- ...
*  Methacrylic acid
A synonym for beta-hydroxy-butyric acid or 3-hydroxybutyric acid) . It is, however, more readily obtained by boiling citra- or ... Isobutyric acid can also be dehydrogenated to methacrylic acid. Methacrylic acid was first obtained in the form of its ethyl ... Methacrylic acid, abbreviated MAA, is an organic compound. This colorless, viscous liquid is a carboxylic acid with an acrid ... When fused with an alkali, it forms propanoic acid. Sodium amalgam reduces it to isobutyric acid. A polymeric form of ...
*  Gamma-Amino-beta-hydroxybutyric acid
γ-Amino-β-hydroxybutyric acid (GABOB), also known as β-hydroxy-γ-aminobutyric acid (β-hydroxy-GABA), and sold under the brand ... GABOB, or β-hydroxy-GABA, is a close structural analogue of GABA (see GABA analogue), as well as of γ-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB ... García-Flores E, Farías R (1997). "γ-Amino-β-hydroxybutyric acid as add-on therapy in adult patients with severe focal epilepsy ... Chemello R, Giaretta D, Pellegrini A, Testa G (1980). "[Effect of gamma-amino-beta-hydroxybutyric acid (GABHB) on ...
*  UMB66
A ligand for the gamma-hydroxybutyric acid receptor lacking a 4-hydroxyl group". Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry. 12 (7): 1643 ... 3-Chloropropanoic acid (also 3-chloropropionic acid) or UMB66 is a drug used in scientific research. It is structurally related ... Macias, A. T.; Hernandez, R. J.; Mehta, A. K.; MacKerell, A. D. Jr; Ticku, M. K.; Coop, A. (2004). "3-Chloropropanoic acid ( ... Wahab, R.; Cooper, R. A.; Huyop, F. (2005). "Degradation Of Herbicide (3-Chloropropionic Acid) By Bacterial Dehalogenases" (pdf ...
*  PHBV
The monomers, 3-hydroxybutanoic acid and 3-hydroxypentanoic acid, are joined by ester bonds; the back bone of the polymer is ... 3-hydroxybutanoic acid provides stiffness while 3-hydroxypentanoic acid promotes flexibility. Thus PHBV can be made to resemble ... Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate), commonly known as PHBV, is a polyhydroxyalkanoate-type polymer. It is ... Ewa Rudnik (3 January 2008). Compostable Polymer Materials. Elsevier. p. 21. ISBN 978-0-08-045371-2. Retrieved 10 July 2012. ...
*  C4H8O3
Hydroxybutyric acids: 2-Hydroxybutyric acid (alpha-hydroxybutyric acid) beta-Hydroxybutyric acid (3-hydroxybutyric acid) gamma- ... Hydroxybutyric acid (4-hydroxybutyric acid, GHB) 3-Hydroxyisobutyric acid Methyl lactate. ...
*  Gamma-Butyrolactone
... the sodium salt of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid. In acidic water, a mixture of the lactone and acid forms coexist in an ... In humans it acts as a prodrug for γ-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), and it is used as a recreational intoxicant with effects ... Elliott, S.; Burgess, V. (2005). "The presence of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) and gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) in alcoholic ... "Abuse and therapeutic potential of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid". Alcohol. 20 (3): 263-269. doi:10.1016/S0741-8329(99)00090-7. ...
*  Hydroxybutyric acid
... alpha-Hydroxybutyric acid (2-hydroxybutyric acid) beta-Hydroxybutyric acid (3-hydroxybutyric acid) gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid (4 ... Hydroxybutyric acid is a group of four-carbon organic compounds that have both hydroxyl and carboxylic acid functional groups. ... They can be viewed as derivatives of butyric acid. The carboxylate anion and the esters of hydroxybutyric acids are known as ... hydroxybutyric acid, GHB) beta-Hydroxy beta-methylbutyric acid Sodium oxybate Hydroxybutyrates at the US National Library of ...
*  GABAB receptor
... gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), and possibly in pain. Recent research suggests that these receptors may play an important ... receptors are involved in behavioral effects of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB)". Eur J Pharmacol. 519 (3): 246-52. doi:10.1016 ... GABAB receptors (GABABR) are metabotropic transmembrane receptors for gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) that are linked via G- ... Dzitoyeva S, Dimitrijevic N, Manev H (2003). "Gamma-aminobutyric acid B receptor 1 mediates behavior-impairing actions of ...
*  NCS-382
... a putative antagonist of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) receptor" (pdf). CNS Drug Reviews. 10 (3): 243-260. doi:10.1111/j.1527 ... "Blockade of the discriminative stimulus effects of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) by the GHB receptor antagonist NCS-382". ... gamma-hydroxybutyric aciduria)" (pdf). Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. 302 (1): 180-187. doi:10.1124/ ... 58 (3): 587-590. doi:10.1016/0031-9384(95)00086-X. PMID 8587968. Gupta M, Greven R, Jansen EE, Jakobs C, Hogema BM, Froestl W, ...
*  William Nyhan
Nyhan's areas of research span a variety of amino acid metabolism disorders, among them 4-hydroxybutyric aciduria, 3- ... "A familial disorder of uric acid metabolism and central nervous system function". Am. J. Med. 36 (4): 561-70. doi:10.1016/0002- ...
*  Aldehyde dehydrogenase 5 family, member A1
... mice and characterization of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid pharmacology". Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease. 30 (3): 279-94. ... is a rare inborn error in the metabolism of the neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). In response to the defect, ... 4-hydroxybutyric aciduria)". American Journal of Human Genetics. 63 (2): 399-408. doi:10.1086/301964. PMC 1377305 . PMID ... gamma-hydroxybutyric aciduria). Hypotheses evolved from 25 years of patient evaluation, studies in Aldh5a1-/- ...
*  Gamma-Aminobutyric acid
"Drosophila GABAB receptors are involved in behavioral effects of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB)". Eur. J. Pharmacol. 519 (3): ... By convention the term "amino acid", when used without a qualifier, refers specifically to an alpha amino acid. GABA is not an ... gamma-Aminobutyric acid (γ-Aminobutyric acid) /ˈɡæmə əˈmiːnoʊbjuːˈtɪrɪk ˈæsɪd/ (GABA /ˈɡæbə/) is the chief inhibitory ... GABA is an amino acid (as it has both a primary amine and a carboxylic acid functional group), it is rarely referred to as such ...
*  GHB receptor
... γ-Hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) γ-Hydroxyvaleric acid (GHV; 4-methyl-GHB) γ-Valerolactone (GVL) trans-Hydroxycrotonic acid (T-HCA) ... Crunelli V, Emri Z, Leresche N (February 2006). "Unravelling the brain targets of γ-hydroxybutyric acid". Curr Opin Pharmacol. ... 2008). "Novel High-Affinity and Selective Biaromatic 4-Substituted gamma-Hydroxybutyric Acid (GHB) Analogues as GHB Ligands: ... Castelli MP (November 2008). "Multi-faceted aspects of gamma-hydroxybutyric Acid: a neurotransmitter, therapeutic agent and ...
*  T-HCA
It is an analogue of γ-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), as well as an active metabolite of GHB. Similarly to GHB, T-HCA has been ... trans-4-Hydroxycrotonic acid (T-HCA), also known as γ-hydroxycrotonic acid (GHC), is an agent used in scientific research to ... "Analogues of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid. Synthesis and binding studies". J. Med. Chem. 31 (5): 893-7. doi:10.1021/jm00400a001. ... "Selective gamma-hydroxybutyric acid receptor ligands increase extracellular glutamate in the hippocampus, but fail to activate ...
*  1,4-Butanediol
... γ-hydroxybutyric acid and ethanol: Relationships and interactions", Neuropharmacology, 23: 109-13, doi:10.1016/0028-3908(84) ... 4-butanediol into γ-hydroxybutyric acid in vivo", Eur. J. Pharmacol., 473 (2-3): 149-52, doi:10.1016/S0014-2999(03)01993-9, ... 4-butanediol are mediated by GABAB receptors via its conversion into γ-hydroxybutyric acid", Eur. J. Pharmacol., 441 (3): 157- ... In organic chemistry, 1,4-butanediol is used for the synthesis of γ-butyrolactone (GBL). In the presence of phosphoric acid and ...
*  Opium Law
4-hydroxybutyric acid) hemp oil (concentrate of plants from the Cannabis species (hemp) obtained by extraction of hemp or ... 4-phenylpiperidine-4-carbonic acid ethylester) pethidine Intermediate C (1-methyl-4-phenylpiperidine-4-carbonic acid) ... 1-diphenylpropane-carboxylic acid) morpheridine morphine morphine-methobromide morphine-N-oxide myrophine nicocodeine ... and morpholinederivates of lysergic acid, and the thereby introduction of methyl-, acetyl- or halogengroups obtained substances ...
*  Convention on Psychotropic Substances
... ethchlorvynol gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) methyprylon Stimulants: amfepramone aminorex benzphetamine etilamfetamine ... 3 May 1999. Retrieved 15 April 2006. "World drug threat, the UN reports". United Nations International Drug Control Programme. ... 9-trimethyl-3-pentyl-6H-dibenzo[b,d]pyran-1-ol (6aR,9R,10aR)-Δ7-tetrahydrocannabinol - (6aR,9R,10aR)-6a,9,10,10a-tetrahydro-6,6 ... 9-trimethyl-3-pentyl-6H-dibenzo[b,d]pyran-1-ol (6aR,10aR)-Δ9,11-tetrahydrocannabinol - (6aR,10aR)-6a,7,8,9,10,10a-hexahydro-6,6 ...
Succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency - Wikipedia  Succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency - Wikipedia
... accumulates and cannot be oxidized to succinic acid and is therefore reduced to gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) by gamma- ... Gibson, K. M.; Hoffmann, G. F.; Hodson, A. K.; Bottiglieri, T.; Jakobs, C. (1998). "4-Hydroxybutyric acid and the clinical ... Under normal conditions, SSADH works with the enzyme GABA transaminase to convert GABA to succinic acid. Succinic acid can then ... Succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency (SSADHD), also known as 4-hydroxybutyric aciduria or gamma-hydroxybutyric ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Succinic_semialdehyde_dehydrogenase_deficiency
Sodium Oxybate in Schizophrenia With Insomnia - Tabular View - ClinicalTrials.gov  Sodium Oxybate in Schizophrenia With Insomnia - Tabular View - ClinicalTrials.gov
The importance of a good night's sleep: an open-label trial of the sodium salt of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid in insomnia ... and a g-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) receptor agonist, for the study of persistent symptoms of schizophrenia. Sodium oxybate is a ... The present protocol proposes study of the recently approved compound sodium oxybate (Xyrem), a gamma-aminobutyric acid type b ... The 19 items are combined to form seven 'component' scores, each of which has a range of O-3 points. The seven component scores ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/record/NCT00594256
Anti-3-hyrdoxybutyrate dehydrogenase antibodies  Anti-3-hyrdoxybutyrate dehydrogenase antibodies
3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase antibody, (EC=1.1.1.30), 3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase antibody, (EC=1.1.1.30)NAD+-beta- ... beta-hydroxybutyric acid dehydrogenase, -D-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase, and beta-hydroxybutyric dehydrogenase. ... 3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (EC=1.1.1.30) is an oxidoreductase which participates in synthesis and degradation of ketone ... AS09 563 , anti-3-hydroxybutyrate dexydrogenase (biotinylated). AS09 564 , anti-3-hydroxybutyrate dexydrogenase (affinity ...
more infohttp://www.agrisera.com/en/artiklar/plantalgal-cell-biology/carbohydrates/3-hyrdoxybutyrate-dehydrogenase.html
Plus it  Plus it
2005) Resuscitative effect of a γ-aminobutyric acid B receptor antagonist on γ-hydroxybutyric acid mortality in mice. Ann Emerg ... 2001) Role of GABAB receptors in the sedative/hypnotic effect of γ-hydroxybutyric acid. Eur J Pharmacol 428:315-321. ... 1976) Absorption and first-pass metabolism of 14C-γ-hydroxybutyric acid. Res Commun Chem Pathol Pharmacol 13:425-437. ... 2010a) Concentration-effect relationships for the drug of abuse gamma-hydroxybutyric acid. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 333:764-771. ...
more infohttp://molpharm.aspetjournals.org/content/82/2/226
Gamma-Hydroxybutyrate (Ghb) Effectiveness, Safety, and Drug Interactions on RxList  Gamma-Hydroxybutyrate (Ghb) Effectiveness, Safety, and Drug Interactions on RxList
4-Hydroxybutanoate, 4-Hydroxy Butyrate, 4-hydroxybutyric acid, Acide 4-hydroxybutanoïque, Acide Gamma-Hydroxybutyrique, Acide ... Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid, Gamma-Hidroxibutirato, Gamma-OH, Oxybate de Sodium, Oxybutyrate de Sodium, Sodium 4-hydroxybutyrate ... GHB and two closely related chemicals, gamma butyrolactone (GBL) and butanediol (BD), were linked to 3 deaths and 122 serious ...
more infohttps://www.rxlist.com/gamma-hydroxybutyrate_ghb/supplements.htm
Gamma hydroxybutyrate - Answers on HealthTap  Gamma hydroxybutyrate - Answers on HealthTap
It is passive, and usually gone in 3-6 months. It can protect you from the said disease for a short period of time. ... Probable ketosis: Beta hydroxybutyric acid is a compound formed during starvation, or diabetic ketoacidosis as the result of ... Mildly effective: Patients can expect a mild improvement from these acids that peel the epidermis. In-office peels with higher ... S it fine to take glutathione 500mg,milk thistle extract 100mg, alpha lipoic acid 50mg, combined with d alpha tocopheryl ...
more infohttps://www.healthtap.com/topics/gamma-hydroxybutyrate
Human Metabolome Database: Showing metabocard for 3-Hydroxybutyric acid (HMDB0000357)  Human Metabolome Database: Showing metabocard for 3-Hydroxybutyric acid (HMDB0000357)
Hoffmann GF, Meier-Augenstein W, Stockler S, Surtees R, Rating D, Nyhan WL: Physiology and pathophysiology of organic acids in ... This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as beta hydroxy acids and derivatives. These are compounds ... Tserng KY, Jin SJ, Kerr DS, Hoppel CL: Abnormal urinary excretion of unsaturated dicarboxylic acids in patients with medium- ... Abrahamsson K, Eriksson BO, Holme E, Jodal U, Jonsson A, Lindstedt S: Pivalic acid-induced carnitine deficiency and physical ...
more infohttp://www.hmdb.ca/metabolites/HMDB00357
3-HYDROXYBUTYRIC ACID - 25 GM  3-HYDROXYBUTYRIC ACID - 25 GM
ArtChemicals.com is a certified Green Company, supplying a wide variety of chemicals, tools, accessories, lab equipment, safety equipment, safety supplies, and chemical information. We supply chemicals in pre-set sizes or will custom package to fit your needs and minimize environmental impacts.
more infohttps://www.artchemicals.com/product_p/h2744-25gm.htm
Human Metabolome Database: Showing metabocard for 2-Methyl-3-hydroxybutyric acid (HMDB0000354)  Human Metabolome Database: Showing metabocard for 2-Methyl-3-hydroxybutyric acid (HMDB0000354)
belongs to the class of organic compounds known as hydroxy fatty acids. These are fatty acids in which the chain bears a ... Jakobs C, Sweetman L, Nyhan WL: Hydroxy acid metabolites of branched-chain amino acids in amniotic fluid. Clin Chim Acta. 1984 ... Guneral F, Bachmann C: Age-related reference values for urinary organic acids in a healthy Turkish pediatric population. Clin ... as well as presumably beta-oxidation of fatty acids and ketogenesis, excreted in abnormally high amounts in beta-ketothiolase ...
more infohttp://www.hmdb.ca/metabolites/HMDB0000354
56816-01-4 - Ethyl (S)-(+)-3-hydroxybutyrate - (S)-(+)-3-Hydroxybutyric acid ethyl ester - J63184 - Alfa Aesar  56816-01-4 - Ethyl (S)-(+)-3-hydroxybutyrate - (S)-(+)-3-Hydroxybutyric acid ethyl ester - J63184 - Alfa Aesar
Ethyl (S)-(+)-3-hydroxybutyrate is used for synthesis of optically active products, used as medical and organic intermediates, ... Poly-d-(-)(3-hydroxybutyrate)/poly(ethylene oxide) blends: phase diagram, thermal and crystallization behavior. Polymer. 1988, ... Hydrolytic degradation and protein release studies of thermogelling polyurethane copolymers consisting of poly[(R)-3- ...
more infohttps://www.alfa.com/en/catalog/J63184/
3976-69-0 - Methyl (R)-(-)-3-hydroxybutyrate, 98% - (R)-(-)-3-Hydroxybutyric acid methyl ester - L14151 - Alfa Aesar  3976-69-0 - Methyl (R)-(-)-3-hydroxybutyrate, 98% - (R)-(-)-3-Hydroxybutyric acid methyl ester - L14151 - Alfa Aesar
Xiao-Hong Chen; Ping Wei; Xiao-Ting Wang; Min-Hua Zong; Wen-Yong Lou. A novel carbonyl reductase with anti-Prelog stereospecificity from Acetobacter sp. CCTCC M209061: purification and characterization. PLoS ONE. 2014, 9, (4), e94543.. Bezhan Chankvetadze; Mayuko Saito; Eiji Yashima and Yoshio Okamoto. Enantioseparation of atropisomeric 1,1?-binaphthyl-2,2?-diyl hydrogen phosphate in capillary electrophoresis by using di- and oligosaccharides as chiral selectors: di- and oligosaccharide chiral selectors in capillary electrophoresis. Chirality. 1998, 10, (1-2), 134-139.. For use in the synthesis of chiral ß-lactams, see: J. Chem. Soc., Chem. Commun., 1376 (1988). Can undergo aldol-type reactions with aldehydes with either syn- or anti-selectivity according to the conditions: Chem. Lett., 1931 (1990). ...
more infohttps://www.alfa.com/es/catalog/L14151/
4-amino-3-hydroxybutyric acid | Article about 4-amino-3-hydroxybutyric acid by The Free Dictionary  4-amino-3-hydroxybutyric acid | Article about 4-amino-3-hydroxybutyric acid by The Free Dictionary
H2NCH2CH CH2COOH Crystals that decompose at 218°C; soluble in water; used as an anticonvulsant Explanation of 4-amino-3- ... Looking for 4-amino-3-hydroxybutyric acid? Find out information about 4-amino-3-hydroxybutyric acid. ... 4-amino-3-hydroxybutyric acid. [¦fȯr ə¦me·nō ¦thrē ‚hī¦dräk·sē‚byü¦tir·ik ′as·əd] (pharmacology) H2NCH2CH(OH)CH2COOH Crystals ... encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/4-amino-3-hydroxybutyric+acid',4-amino-3-hydroxybutyric acid,/a,. *Facebook ...
more infohttps://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/4-amino-3-hydroxybutyric+acid
4-Amino-3-hydroxybutyric Acid  4-Amino-3-hydroxybutyric Acid
... gamma-amino-beta-hydroxybutyric acid,buksamin,GABOB,Gabomade,Gamibetal,DL-Form,DL-4-Amino-3-hydroxybutyric Acid,D(+)-Form,D(+)- ... 4-Amino-3-hydroxybutyric Acid,L(-)-Form,L(-)-4-Amino-3-hydroxybutyric Acid ...
more infohttp://www.druglead.com/cds/4-Amino-3-hydroxybutyric-Acid.html
DL-3-Hydroxybutyric Acid Sodium Salt Powder | Drawk Kwast  DL-3-Hydroxybutyric Acid Sodium Salt Powder | Drawk Kwast
DL-3-Hydroxybutyric Acid Sodium Salt Powder. July 1st, 2015. by Drawk Kwast Leave a Comment ...
more infohttp://www.drawkkwast.com/2015/07/chemically-induced-ketosis/nabhb/
rac 3-Hydroxybutyric Acid-d4 Sodium Salt biochemical product blog  rac 3-Hydroxybutyric Acid-d4 Sodium Salt biochemical product blog
Blog on rac 3-Hydroxybutyric Acid-d4 Sodium Salt biochemical product: The rac 3-Hydroxybutyric Acid-d4 Sodium Salt n/a (Catalog ... Glycochenodeoxycholic Acid-d5 3-Sulfate Disodium Salt biochemical blog. • p-Cyanoacetophenone-d4 biochemical blog. • 1,3- ... 2-Nitro-5-thiothiocyanatobenzoic acid biochemical blog. • N-Ethylmethylamine biochemical blog. • Acepromazine, Maleate ... rac 3-Hydroxybutyric Acid-d4 Sodium Salt biochemical. LOG IN MY ACCOUNT CART CONTENTS CHECKOUT ...
more infohttp://biochem.mybiosource.com/rac-3-hydroxybutyric-acid-d4-sodium-salt-biochemical_6014875
Production of (R)-3-hydroxybutyric acid by Burkholderia cepacia from wood extract hydrolysates | AMB Express | Full Text  Production of (R)-3-hydroxybutyric acid by Burkholderia cepacia from wood extract hydrolysates | AMB Express | Full Text
Hydroxyalkanoic acids fermentation can revolutionize the polyhydroxyalkanoic acids (PHA) production by increasing efficiency ... R)-hydroxyalkanoic acids (R-HAs) are valuable building blocks for the synthesis of fine chemicals and biopolymers because of ... Using Paulownia elongate WEH as a feedstock, the R-3-HB concentration in fermentation broth reached as high as 14.2 g/L after 3 ... Wood extract hydrolysate (WEH) was found to be a suitable substrate for R-3-hydroxybutyric acid (R-3-HB) production by ...
more infohttps://amb-express.springeropen.com/articles/10.1186/s13568-014-0028-9
Study of Biocompatible Films and Nonwoven Membranes Made of Copolymer of 3-hydroxybutyric Acid and 4-hydroxybutyric Acid in...  Study of Biocompatible Films and Nonwoven Membranes Made of Copolymer of 3-hydroxybutyric Acid and 4-hydroxybutyric Acid in...
Results of studies of films and nonwoven membranes made of a copolymer of 3-hydroxybutiric and 4-hydroxybutyric acid [P(3HB/4HB ... Study of Biocompatible Films and Nonwoven Membranes Made of Copolymer of 3-hydroxybutyric Acid and 4-hydroxybutyric Acid in ... Borovkova, Natalia V.:N.V. Sklifosovsky Institute of Emergency Care 3 Bolshaya Suharevskaya sq,. Moscow, 129090, Russia; Evseev ... Anatoly K.:N.V. Sklifosovsky Institute of Emergency Care 3 Bolshaya Suharevskaya sq,. Moscow, 129090, Russia; Makarov, Maksim S ...
more infohttp://journal.sfu-kras.ru/en/article/20180
3-Amino-4-hydroxybutyric Acid  3-Amino-4-hydroxybutyric Acid
... gamma-hydroxy-beta-aminobutyric acid,GOBAB,Hydrochloride,3-Amino-4-hydroxybutyric Acid Hydrochloride ...
more infohttp://www.druglead.com/cds/3-Amino-4-hydroxybutyric-Acid.html
gamma-butyrolactone 96-48-0, Information for gamma-butyrolactone 96-48-0, Suppliers of gamma-butyrolactone 96-48-0  gamma-butyrolactone 96-48-0, Information for gamma-butyrolactone 96-48-0, Suppliers of gamma-butyrolactone 96-48-0
4-Hydroxybutyric acid gamma-lactone; BLO; Butyronitrile,99%; 4,5-Dihydro-2(3H)-furanone; 4-Hydroxybutyric acid lactone; n- ... 3,4,5-tetrahydro-2-furanone; 2(3H)-furanone,dihydro-; 2(3H)-dihydrofuranone; 1-Oxacyclopentan-2-one; γ-Butyrrolactone. ... 3-dihydroxybutanoic acid; GBL; γ-Butyroalctone; Gamma-Butyroalctone; 3-Hydroxybutyric acid lactone; 2-Oxotetrahydrofuran; 2- ...
more infohttp://chemnet.com/Global/Products/gamma-butyrolactone/Suppliers-0-0.html
  • Under normal conditions, SSADH works with the enzyme GABA transaminase to convert GABA to succinic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • GABA is metabolized by successive transamination and oxidation to yield succinic semialdehyde and succinic acid respectively via the catalyzing effects of GABA transaminase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Succinic acid can then be utilized for energy production via the Krebs cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ethyl (S)-(+)-3-hydroxybutyrate is used for synthesis of optically active products, used as medical and organic intermediates, an important amino protective agents, pharmaceuticals and synthetic organic makes intermediates, organic synthesis used to introduce t-Boc protect gene. (alfa.com)
  • The resulting transcript encodes ACAT1, which is a 45.1 kDa protein composed of 427 amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • This deficiency belongs to a more general class of disorders known as organic acidemias, in which the dysfunction of a specific step of amino acid catabolism results in the excretion of non-amino acids in the urine. (wikipedia.org)
  • This tertiary carbon atom-containing C4 carboxylic acid is currently not a high-volume product of the chemical industry but only a specialty chemical. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In humans, 3-hydroxybutyrate is synthesized in the liver from acetyl-CoA, and can be used as an energy source by the brain when blood glucose is low. (hmdb.ca)
  • R)-hydroxyalkanoic acids (R-HAs) are valuable building blocks for the synthesis of fine chemicals and biopolymers because of the chiral center and the two active functional groups. (springeropen.com)
  • We have identified the tertiary carbon atom-containing 2-hydroxyisobutyric acid (2-HIBA) as an interesting building block for polymer synthesis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Like the other ketone bodies (acetoacetate and acetone), levels of 3-hydroxybutyrate in blood and urine are raised in ketosis. (hmdb.ca)
  • Blood levels of 3-Hydroxybutyric acid levels may be monitored in diabetic patients to look for diabetic ketoacidosis. (hmdb.ca)
  • The direct measurement of 3-beta-hydroxy butyrate enhances the management of diabetic ketoacidosis in children and reduces time and costs of treatment: M. Vanelli, et al. (nordicbiosite.com)
  • Hydrolytic degradation and protein release studies of thermogelling polyurethane copolymers consisting of poly[(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate], poly(ethylene glycol), and poly(propylene glycol). (alfa.com)
  • 3. The method of claim 1 wherein said composition is an ointment containing said compound dissolved in about 1% to about 30% by volume of a solvent selected from the group consisting of water and ethanol, and admixed with an ointment base selected from the group consisting of petrolatum and hydrophilic ointment. (google.com.au)
  • For this compound alone, the market exceeds 3 million tons. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Lotions or ointments formulated with one or more α-hydroxy acids, keto acids and esters thereof, or 3-hydroxybutyric acid present in from one to about twenty percent by weight were found to achieve complete remission of ichthyosis in humans. (google.com.au)
  • Poly-d-(-)(3-hydroxybutyrate)/poly(ethylene oxide) blends: phase diagram, thermal and crystallization behavior. (alfa.com)
  • Hydroxyalkanoic acids fermentation can revolutionize the polyhydroxyalkanoic acids (PHA) production by increasing efficiency and enhancing product utility. (springeropen.com)
  • Stereoselective product of D-3-hydroxybutyrate dehydreogenase. (nordicbiosite.com)
  • In Experiment 3, four early lactation cows were treated with 5 and 10 mg/d of glucagon. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Using Paulownia elongate WEH as a feedstock, the R-3-HB concentration in fermentation broth reached as high as 14.2 g/L after 3 days of batch fermentation and the highest concentration of 16.8 g/L was obtained at day 9. (springeropen.com)