An oxidation product of tryptophan metabolism. It may be a free radical scavenger and a carcinogen.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of 3-hydroxyanthranilate to 2-amino-3-carboxymuconate semialdehyde. It was formerly characterized as EC 1.13.1.6.
Benzoic acids, salts, or esters that contain an amino group attached to carbon number 2 or 6 of the benzene ring structure.
Kynurenine is a metabolic product of the amino acid tryptophan, formed via the kynurenine pathway, and serves as an important intermediate in the biosynthesis of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) and other neuroactive compounds, while also playing a role in immune response regulation and potential involvement in various neurological disorders.
Six-membered heterocycles containing an oxygen and a nitrogen.
An actinomycete from which the antibiotic OLEANDOMYCIN is obtained.
Xanthurenic acid and its salts, formed as byproducts during the metabolism of tryptophan, are collectively referred to as xanthurenates, which can accumulate in conditions like hyperphenylalaninemia and may contribute to oxidative stress and cellular damage.
An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.
A water-soluble vitamin of the B complex occurring in various animal and plant tissues. It is required by the body for the formation of coenzymes NAD and NADP. It has PELLAGRA-curative, vasodilating, and antilipemic properties.
A metabolite of tryptophan with a possible role in neurodegenerative disorders. Elevated CSF levels of quinolinic acid are correlated with the severity of neuropsychological deficits in patients who have AIDS.
Oxidases that specifically introduce DIOXYGEN-derived oxygen atoms into a variety of organic molecules.
A dioxygenase with specificity for the oxidation of the indoleamine ring of TRYPTOPHAN. It is an extrahepatic enzyme that plays a role in metabolism as the first and rate limiting enzyme in the kynurenine pathway of TRYPTOPHAN catabolism.
Non-heme iron-containing enzymes that incorporate two atoms of OXYGEN into the substrate. They are important in biosynthesis of FLAVONOIDS; GIBBERELLINS; and HYOSCYAMINE; and for degradation of AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS.
A genus of bacteria that form a nonfragmented aerial mycelium. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. This genus is responsible for producing a majority of the ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS of practical value.
A phylum of fungi that produce their sexual spores (basidiospores) on the outside of the basidium. It includes forms commonly known as mushrooms, boletes, puffballs, earthstars, stinkhorns, bird's-nest fungi, jelly fungi, bracket or shelf fungi, and rust and smut fungi.
Substances that influence the course of a chemical reaction by ready combination with free radicals. Among other effects, this combining activity protects pancreatic islets against damage by cytokines and prevents myocardial and pulmonary perfusion injuries.
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)

Influence of adenine-induced renal failure on tryptophan-niacin metabolism in rats. (1/40)

To discover the role of the kidney in tryptophan degradation, especially tryptophan to niacin, rat kidneys were injured by feeding a diet containing a large amount of adenine. The kidney contains very high activity of aminocarboxymuconate-semialdehyde decarboxylase (ACMSD), which leads tryptophan into the glutaric acid pathway and then the TCA cycle, but not to the niacin pathway. On the other hand, kidneys contain significant activity of quinolinate phosphoribosyltransferase (QPRT), which leads tryptophan into the niacin pathway. The ACMSD activity in kidneys were significantly lower in the adenine group than in the control group, while the QPRT activity was almost the same, however, the formations of niacin and its compounds such as N1-methylnicotinamide and its pyridones did not increase, and therefore, the conversion ratio of tryptophan to niacin was lower in the adenine group than in the control group. The contents of NAD and NADP in liver, kidney, and blood were also lower in the adenine group. The decreased levels of niacin and the related compounds were consistent with the changes in the enzyme activities involved in the tryptophan-niacin metabolism in liver. It was concluded from these results that the conversion of tryptophan to niacin is due to only the liver enzymes and that the role of the kidney would be extremely low.  (+info)

Inhibition of allogeneic T cell proliferation by indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-expressing dendritic cells: mediation of suppression by tryptophan metabolites. (2/40)

Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), an enzyme involved in the catabolism of tryptophan, is expressed in certain cells and tissues, particularly in antigen-presenting cells of lymphoid organs and in the placenta. It was shown that IDO prevents rejection of the fetus during pregnancy, probably by inhibiting alloreactive T cells, and it was suggested that IDO-expression in antigen-presenting cells may control autoreactive immune responses. Degradation of tryptophan, an essential amino acid required for cell proliferation, was reported to be the mechanism of IDO-induced T cell suppression. Because we wanted to study the action of IDO-expressing dendritic cells (DCs) on allogeneic T cells, the human IDO gene was inserted into an adenoviral vector and expressed in DCs. Transgenic DCs decreased the concentration of tryptophan, increased the concentration of kynurenine, the main tryptophan metabolite, and suppressed allogeneic T cell proliferation in vitro. Kynurenine, 3-hydroxykynurenine, and 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid, but no other IDO-induced tryptophan metabolites, suppressed the T cell response, the suppressive effects being additive. T cells, once stopped in their proliferation, could not be restimulated. Inhibition of proliferation was likely due to T cell death because suppressive tryptophan catabolites exerted a cytotoxic action on CD3(+) cells. This action preferentially affected activated T cells and increased gradually with exposure time. In addition to T cells, B and natural killer (NK) cells were also killed, whereas DCs were not affected. Our findings shed light on suppressive mechanisms mediated by DCs and provide an explanation for important biological processes in which IDO activity apparently is increased, such as protection of the fetus from rejection during pregnancy and possibly T cell death in HIV-infected patients.  (+info)

T cell apoptosis by tryptophan catabolism. (3/40)

Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) is a tryptophan-catabolizing enzyme that, expressed by different cell types, has regulatory effects on T cells resulting from tryptophan depletion in specific local tissue microenvironments. Different mechanisms, however, might contribute to IDO-dependent immune regulation. We show here that tryptophan metabolites in the kynurenine pathway, such as 3-hydroxyanthranilic and quinolinic acids, will induce the selective apoptosis in vitro of murine thymocytes and of Th1 but not Th2 cells. T cell apoptosis was observed at relatively low concentrations of kynurenines, did not require Fas/Fas ligand interactions, and was associated with the activation of caspase-8 and the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria. When administered in vivo, the two kynurenines caused depletion of specific thymocyte subsets in a fashion qualitatively similar to dexamethasone. These data suggest that the selective deletion of T lymphocytes may be a major mechanism whereby tryptophan metabolism affects immunity under physiopathologic conditions.  (+info)

Prokaryotic homologs of the eukaryotic 3-hydroxyanthranilate 3,4-dioxygenase and 2-amino-3-carboxymuconate-6-semialdehyde decarboxylase in the 2-nitrobenzoate degradation pathway of Pseudomonas fluorescens strain KU-7. (4/40)

The 2-nitrobenzoic acid degradation pathway of Pseudomonas fluorescens strain KU-7 proceeds via a novel 3-hydroxyanthranilate intermediate. In this study, we cloned and sequenced a 19-kb DNA locus of strain KU-7 that encompasses the 3-hydroxyanthranilate meta-cleavage pathway genes. The gene cluster, designated nbaEXHJIGFCDR, is organized tightly and in the same direction. The nbaC and nbaD gene products were found to be novel homologs of the eukaryotic 3-hydroxyanthranilate 3,4-dioxygenase and 2-amino-3-carboxymuconate-6-semialdehyde decarboxylase, respectively. The NbaC enzyme carries out the oxidation of 3-hydroxyanthranilate to 2-amino-3-carboxymuconate-6-semialdehyde, while the NbaD enzyme catalyzes the decarboxylation of the latter compound to 2-aminomuconate-6-semialdehyde. The NbaC and NbaD proteins were overexpressed in Escherichia coli and characterized. The substrate specificity of the 23.8-kDa NbaC protein was found to be restricted to 3-hydroxyanthranilate. In E. coli, this enzyme oxidizes 3-hydroxyanthranilate with a specific activity of 8 U/mg of protein. Site-directed mutagenesis experiments revealed the essential role of two conserved histidine residues (His52 and His96) in the NbaC sequence. The NbaC activity is also dependent on the presence of Fe(2+) but is inhibited by other metal ions, such as Zn(2+), Cu(2+), and Cd(2+). The NbaD protein was overproduced as a 38.7-kDa protein, and its specific activity towards 2-amino-3-carboxymuconate-6-semialdehyde was 195 U/mg of protein. Further processing of 2-aminomuconate-6-semialdehyde to pyruvic acid and acetyl coenzyme A was predicted to proceed via the activities of NbaE, NbaF, NbaG, NbaH, NbaI, and NbaJ. The predicted amino acid sequences of these proteins are highly homologous to those of the corresponding proteins involved in the metabolism of 2-aminophenol (e.g., AmnCDEFGH in Pseudomonas sp. strain AP-3). The NbaR-encoding gene is predicted to have a regulatory function of the LysR family type. The function of the product of the small open reading frame, NbaX, like the homologous sequences in the nitrobenzene or 2-aminophenol metabolic pathway, remains elusive.  (+info)

First evidence of catalytic mediation by phenolic compounds in the laccase-induced oxidation of lignin models. (5/40)

The sulfonephthalein indicator, phenol red, exhibits an unusually slow rate of oxidation by laccase from Poliporus pinsitus, in spite of the fact that it is a phenol and therefore a natural substrate for this phenoloxidase enzyme. Nevertheless, after prolonged exposure to laccase (24 h) phenol red is oxidized by more than 90%. We found that phenol red, which can be oxidatively converted into a resonance-stabilized phenoxy radical, performs as a mediator in the laccase-catalyzed oxidation of a nonphenolic substrate (4-methoxybenzyl alcohol) and also of a hindered phenol (2,4,6-tri-tert-butylphenol). In particular, phenol red was found to be at least 10 times more efficient than 3-hydroxyanthranilate (a reported natural phenolic mediator of laccase) in the oxidation of 4-methoxybenzyl alcohol. Other phenols, which do not bear structural analogies to phenol red, underwent rapid degradation and did not perform as laccase mediators. On the other hand, several variously substituted sulfonephthaleins, of different pK2 values, mediated the laccase catalysis, the most efficient being dichlorophenol red, which has the lowest pK2 of the series. The mediating efficiency of phenol red and dichlorophenol red was found to be pH dependent, as was their oxidation Ep value (determined by cyclic voltammetry). We argue that the relative abundance of the phenoxy anion, which is easier to oxidize than the protonated phenol, may be one of the factors determining the efficiency of a phenolic mediator, together with its ability to form relatively stable oxidized intermediates that react with the desired substrate before being depleted in undesired routes.  (+info)

Excretion of anthranilate and 3-hydroxyanthranilate by Saccharomyces cerevisiae: relationship to iron metabolism. (6/40)

Resting suspensions of cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae grown in iron-rich or iron-deficient conditions were studied by following the fluorescence emission changes (lambda em. 400-460 nm, lambda exc. 300-340 nm) occurring in these suspensions upon addition of glucose and ferric iron. The results show that, in addition to NAD(P)H, metabolites of the aromatic amino acid pathway interfere with the fluorescence measurements, and that they could be involved in ferric iron reduction. Wild-type strains of S. cerevisiae are known to excreted anthranilic acid and 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid in response to glucose. The major fluorescing compound excreted by a chorismate-mutase-deficient mutant strain of S. cerevisiae was identified as anthranilic acid. The excretion of anthranilic and 3-hydroxyanthranilic acids was correlated with the ferric-reducing capacity of the extracellular medium. Excretion during growth was much greater by cells cultured in iron-rich medium than by cells grown in iron-deficient medium. The possibility was examined that a link could exist between the biosynthesis of aromatics and the ferri-reductase activity of the cells, via chorismate synthase and its putative diaphorase-associated activity. Two ferri-reductase-deficient mutants excreted much less 3-hydroxyanthranilate than did the parental wild-type strains. However, the ferri-reductase activity of a chorismate-synthase-deficient mutant was comparable to that of the parental strain.  (+info)

Inducible and constitutive kynureninases. Control of the inducible enzyme activity by transamination and inhibition of the constitutive enzyme by 3-hydroxyanthranilate. (7/40)

The inducible kynureninase from Neurospora crassa is inactivated by incubation with L-alanine or L-ornithine. The inactivated enzyme is resolved to the apoenzyme by dialysis. Reactivation of the apoenzyme is achieved by incubation with pyridoxamine 5'-phosphate plus pyruvate, as well as with pyridoxal 5'-phosphate. The kynurenine hydrolysis proceeds linearly in the presence of added pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, or pyridoxamine 5'-phosphate plus pyruvate. These findings indicate that the fungal inducible kynureninase can act as an amino-transferase to control the enzyme activity, and that the control mechanism is similar to that reported for the bacterial kynureninase (Moriguchi, M. & Soda, K. (1973) Biochemistry 12, 2974-2980). The ratio of kynureninase activity to aminotransferase activity was determined with bacterial and fungal enzymes. All the inducible kynureninases from various fungal species examined are also controlled by the transamination. In contrast, the pig liver kynureninase and the fungal constitutive enzymes are little or not at all affected by preincubation with amino acids. Thus, the present regulatory mechanism does not operate in these constitutive-type enzymes. The rate of hydrolysis of L-3-hydroxykynurenine by the pig liver enzyme decreases with increase in the incubation time; the enzyme is inhibited by 3-hydroxyanthranilate produced from L-3-hydroxykynurenine. The inhibition is found in all the constitutive-type enzymes, suggesting that 3-hydroxyanthranilate plays a regulatory role in NAD biosynthesis from tryptophan.  (+info)

Characterization of a pseudomonad 2-nitrobenzoate nitroreductase and its catabolic pathway-associated 2-hydroxylaminobenzoate mutase and a chemoreceptor involved in 2-nitrobenzoate chemotaxis. (8/40)

Pseudomonas fluorescens strain KU-7 is a prototype microorganism that metabolizes 2-nitrobenzoate (2-NBA) via the formation of 3-hydroxyanthranilate (3-HAA), a known antioxidant and reductant. The initial two steps leading to the sequential formation of 2-hydroxy/aminobenzoate and 3-HAA are catalyzed by a NADPH-dependent 2-NBA nitroreductase (NbaA) and 2-hydroxylaminobenzoate mutase (NbaB), respectively. The 216-amino-acid protein NbaA is 78% identical to a plasmid-encoded hypothetical conserved protein of Polaromonas strain JS666; structurally, it belongs to the homodimeric NADH:flavin mononucleotide (FMN) oxidoreductase-like fold family. Structural modeling of complexes with the flavin, coenzyme, and substrate suggested specific residues contributing to the NbaA catalytic activity, assuming a ping-pong reaction mechanism. Mutational analysis supports the roles of Asn40, Asp76, and Glu113, which are predicted to form the binding site for a divalent metal ion implicated in FMN binding, and a role in NADPH binding for the 10-residue insertion in the beta5-alpha2 loop. The 181-amino-acid sequence of NbaB is 35% identical to the 4-hydroxylaminobenzoate lyases (PnbBs) of various 4-nitrobenzoate-assimilating bacteria, e.g., Pseudomonas putida strain TW3. Coexpression of nbaB with nbaA in Escherichia coli produced a small amount of 3-HAA from 2-NBA, supporting the functionality of the nbaB gene. We also showed by gene knockout and chemotaxis assays that nbaY, a chemoreceptor NahY homolog located downstream of the nbaA gene, is responsible for strain KU-7 being attracted to 2-NBA. NbaY is the first chemoreceptor in nitroaromatic metabolism to be identified, and this study completes the gene elucidation of 2-NBA metabolism that is localized within a 24-kb chromosomal locus of strain KU-7.  (+info)

3-Hydroxyanthranilic acid is an intermediate metabolite in the catabolism (breakdown) of tryptophan, an essential amino acid. It is formed from the oxidation of 3-hydroxykynurenine by the enzyme kynureninase. Further breakdown of 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid can lead to the formation of various other metabolites, including quinolinic acid and picolinic acid, which are involved in the synthesis of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+), a coenzyme that plays a crucial role in cellular metabolism.

Abnormal accumulation or dysregulation of 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid has been implicated in several pathological conditions, including neurodegenerative disorders and certain types of cancer. However, more research is needed to fully understand the role of this metabolite in human health and disease.

3-Hydroxyanthranilate 3,4-Dioxygenase is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction:

3-hydroxyanthranilate + O2 -> 2-amino-3-carboxymuconate semialdehyde

This enzyme is involved in the catabolism of tryptophan, an essential amino acid, through the kynurenine pathway. The reaction catalyzed by this enzyme involves the cleavage of the aromatic ring of 3-hydroxyanthranilate and the formation of 2-amino-3-carboxymuconate semialdehyde, which is further metabolized to produce NAD+ and other products. Defects in this enzyme have been associated with certain neurological disorders.

Ortho-Aminobenzoates are chemical compounds that contain a benzene ring substituted with an amino group in the ortho position and an ester group in the form of a benzoate. They are often used as pharmaceutical intermediates, plastic additives, and UV stabilizers. In medical contexts, one specific ortho-aminobenzoate, para-aminosalicylic acid (PABA), is an antibiotic used in the treatment of tuberculosis. However, it's important to note that "ortho-aminobenzoates" in general do not have a specific medical definition and can refer to any compound with this particular substitution pattern on a benzene ring.

Kynurenine is an organic compound that is produced in the human body as part of the metabolism of the essential amino acid tryptophan. It is an intermediate in the kynurenine pathway, which leads to the production of several neuroactive compounds and NAD+, a coenzyme involved in redox reactions.

Kynurenine itself does not have any known physiological function, but some of its metabolites have been found to play important roles in various biological processes, including immune response, inflammation, and neurological function. For example, the kynurenine pathway produces several neuroactive metabolites that can act as agonists or antagonists at various receptors in the brain, affecting neuronal excitability, synaptic plasticity, and neurotransmission.

Abnormalities in the kynurenine pathway have been implicated in several neurological disorders, including depression, schizophrenia, Alzheimer's disease, and Huntington's disease. Therefore, understanding the regulation of this pathway and its metabolites has become an important area of research in neuroscience and neuropsychopharmacology.

Oxazines are heterocyclic organic compounds that contain a six-membered ring with one nitrogen atom, one oxygen atom, and four carbon atoms. The structure of oxazine is similar to benzene, but with one methine group (=CH−) replaced by a nitrogen atom and another methine group replaced by an oxygen atom.

Oxazines have important applications in the pharmaceutical industry as they are used in the synthesis of various drugs, including anti-inflammatory, antiviral, and anticancer agents. However, oxazines themselves do not have a specific medical definition, as they refer to a class of chemical compounds rather than a medical condition or treatment.

"Streptomyces antibioticus" is not a medical term per se, but rather a scientific name used in microbiology and biochemistry. It refers to a specific species of bacteria belonging to the genus "Streptomyces," which are known for their ability to produce various antibiotics. The species "S. antibioticus" has been particularly important in the discovery and production of several clinically relevant antibiotics, such as neomycin and ribostamycin. These antibiotics have been used in medical treatments to target various bacterial infections. However, it is essential to note that the bacteria itself is not a medical condition or disease; instead, its products (antibiotics) are significant in medical contexts.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "xanthurenates" is not a recognized term in medicine or physiology. It seems that you might be referring to "xanthurenic acid," which is a metabolic byproduct produced during the breakdown of the amino acid tryptophan. An accumulation of xanthurenic acid can occur due to certain genetic disorders, such as Hartnup disease or defects in the coenzyme Q10 synthesis pathway. However, without more context, it's difficult for me to provide a precise definition related to your specific question. If you could provide additional information, I would be happy to help further!

Tryptophan is an essential amino acid, meaning it cannot be synthesized by the human body and must be obtained through dietary sources. Its chemical formula is C11H12N2O2. Tryptophan plays a crucial role in various biological processes as it serves as a precursor to several important molecules, including serotonin, melatonin, and niacin (vitamin B3). Serotonin is a neurotransmitter involved in mood regulation, appetite control, and sleep-wake cycles, while melatonin is a hormone that regulates sleep-wake patterns. Niacin is essential for energy production and DNA repair.

Foods rich in tryptophan include turkey, chicken, fish, eggs, cheese, milk, nuts, seeds, and whole grains. In some cases, tryptophan supplementation may be recommended to help manage conditions related to serotonin imbalances, such as depression or insomnia, but this should only be done under the guidance of a healthcare professional due to potential side effects and interactions with other medications.

Niacin, also known as vitamin B3 or nicotinic acid, is a water-soluble vitamin that is essential for human health. It is a crucial component of the coenzymes NAD (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) and NADP (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate), which play key roles in energy production, DNA repair, and cellular signaling.

Niacin can be obtained from various dietary sources, including meat, poultry, fish, legumes, whole grains, and fortified foods. It is also available as a dietary supplement and prescription medication. Niacin deficiency can lead to a condition called pellagra, which is characterized by symptoms such as diarrhea, dermatitis, dementia, and, if left untreated, death.

In addition to its role in energy metabolism and DNA repair, niacin has been shown to have potential benefits for cardiovascular health, including lowering LDL (low-density lipoprotein) cholesterol and triglyceride levels while raising HDL (high-density lipoprotein) cholesterol levels. However, high-dose niacin therapy can also have adverse effects, such as flushing, itching, and liver toxicity, so it should be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

Quinolinic acid is a metabolite found in the human body, produced during the metabolism of tryptophan, an essential amino acid. It is a component of the kynurenine pathway and acts as a neuroexcitatory chemical in the brain. In excessive amounts, quinolinic acid can lead to neurotoxicity, causing damage to neurons and contributing to several neurological disorders such as Huntington's disease, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, AIDS-dementia complex, and multiple sclerosis. It also plays a role in the pathogenesis of psychiatric conditions like schizophrenia and major depressive disorder.

Oxygenases are a class of enzymes that catalyze the incorporation of molecular oxygen (O2) into their substrates. They play crucial roles in various biological processes, including the biosynthesis of many natural products, as well as the detoxification and degradation of xenobiotics (foreign substances).

There are two main types of oxygenases: monooxygenases and dioxygenases. Monooxygenases introduce one atom of molecular oxygen into a substrate while reducing the other to water. An example of this type of enzyme is cytochrome P450, which is involved in drug metabolism and steroid hormone synthesis. Dioxygenases, on the other hand, incorporate both atoms of molecular oxygen into their substrates, often leading to the formation of new carbon-carbon bonds or the cleavage of existing ones.

It's important to note that while oxygenases are essential for many life-sustaining processes, they can also contribute to the production of harmful reactive oxygen species (ROS) during normal cellular metabolism. An imbalance in ROS levels can lead to oxidative stress and damage to cells and tissues, which has been linked to various diseases such as cancer, neurodegeneration, and cardiovascular disease.

Indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) is an enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of L-tryptophan to N-formylkynurenine, which is the first and rate-limiting step in the kynurenine pathway. This enzymatic reaction plays a crucial role in regulating tryptophan metabolism and immune responses. IDO is expressed in various tissues, including the brain, liver, and placenta, as well as in some immune cells such as dendritic cells and macrophages. It can be upregulated by inflammatory stimuli, and its expression has been associated with immune tolerance and suppression of T-cell responses. IDO is also being investigated as a potential therapeutic target for various diseases, including cancer, autoimmune disorders, and neuropsychiatric conditions.

Dioxygenases are a class of enzymes that catalyze the incorporation of both atoms of molecular oxygen (O2) into their substrates. They are classified based on the type of reaction they catalyze and the number of iron atoms in their active site. The two main types of dioxygenases are:

1. Intradiol dioxygenases: These enzymes cleave an aromatic ring by inserting both atoms of O2 into a single bond between two carbon atoms, leading to the formation of an unsaturated diol (catechol) intermediate and the release of CO2. They contain a non-heme iron(III) center in their active site.

An example of intradiol dioxygenase is catechol 1,2-dioxygenase, which catalyzes the conversion of catechol to muconic acid.

2. Extradiol dioxygenases: These enzymes cleave an aromatic ring by inserting one atom of O2 at a position adjacent to the hydroxyl group and the other atom at a more distant position, leading to the formation of an unsaturated lactone or cyclic ether intermediate. They contain a non-heme iron(II) center in their active site.

An example of extradiol dioxygenase is homogentisate 1,2-dioxygenase, which catalyzes the conversion of homogentisate to maleylacetoacetate in the tyrosine degradation pathway.

Dioxygenases play important roles in various biological processes, including the metabolism of aromatic compounds, the biosynthesis of hormones and signaling molecules, and the detoxification of xenobiotics.

Streptomyces is a genus of Gram-positive, aerobic, saprophytic bacteria that are widely distributed in soil, water, and decaying organic matter. They are known for their complex morphology, forming branching filaments called hyphae that can differentiate into long chains of spores.

Streptomyces species are particularly notable for their ability to produce a wide variety of bioactive secondary metabolites, including antibiotics, antifungals, and other therapeutic compounds. In fact, many important antibiotics such as streptomycin, neomycin, tetracycline, and erythromycin are derived from Streptomyces species.

Because of their industrial importance in the production of antibiotics and other bioactive compounds, Streptomyces have been extensively studied and are considered model organisms for the study of bacterial genetics, biochemistry, and ecology.

Basidiomycota is a phylum in the kingdom Fungi that consists of organisms commonly known as club fungi or club mushrooms. The name Basidiomycota is derived from the presence of a characteristic reproductive structure called a basidium, which is where spores are produced.

The basidiomycetes include many familiar forms such as mushrooms, toadstools, bracket fungi, and other types of polypores. They have a complex life cycle that involves both sexual and asexual reproduction. The sexual reproductive stage produces a characteristic fruiting body, which may be microscopic or highly visible, depending on the species.

Basidiomycota fungi play important ecological roles in decomposing organic matter, forming mutualistic relationships with plants, and acting as parasites on other organisms. Some species are economically important, such as edible mushrooms, while others can be harmful or even deadly to humans and animals.

Free radical scavengers, also known as antioxidants, are substances that neutralize or stabilize free radicals. Free radicals are highly reactive atoms or molecules with unpaired electrons, capable of causing damage to cells and tissues in the body through a process called oxidative stress. Antioxidants donate an electron to the free radical, thereby neutralizing it and preventing it from causing further damage. They can be found naturally in foods such as fruits, vegetables, and nuts, or they can be synthesized and used as dietary supplements. Examples of antioxidants include vitamins C and E, beta-carotene, and selenium.

Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) is a type of chromatography used to separate, identify, and quantify the components of a mixture. In TLC, the sample is applied as a small spot onto a thin layer of adsorbent material, such as silica gel or alumina, which is coated on a flat, rigid support like a glass plate. The plate is then placed in a developing chamber containing a mobile phase, typically a mixture of solvents.

As the mobile phase moves up the plate by capillary action, it interacts with the stationary phase and the components of the sample. Different components of the mixture travel at different rates due to their varying interactions with the stationary and mobile phases, resulting in distinct spots on the plate. The distance each component travels can be measured and compared to known standards to identify and quantify the components of the mixture.

TLC is a simple, rapid, and cost-effective technique that is widely used in various fields, including forensics, pharmaceuticals, and research laboratories. It allows for the separation and analysis of complex mixtures with high resolution and sensitivity, making it an essential tool in many analytical applications.

Monohydroxybenzoic acids, Anthranilic acids, All stub articles, Aromatic compound stubs). ... Mechanism of Formation of Quinolinic Acid". Journal of Biological Chemistry. 234 (4): 880-883. doi:10.1016/S0021-9258(18)70194- ... 3-Hydroxyanthranilic acid is an intermediate in the metabolism of tryptophan. It is new antioxidant isolated from methanol ... 44 (3): 696. doi:10.1021/jf950454t. HAA concentration graph in lyophilized tempeh powder extract (in Indonesian) v t e ( ...
3-hydroxyanthranilate 3,4-dioxygenase (EC 1.13.11.6) is an enzyme encoded by the HAAO gene that catalyzes the chemical reaction ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is 3-hydroxyanthranilate:oxygen 3,4-oxidoreductase (decyclizing). Other names in ... 2-amino-3-carboxymuconate semialdehyde Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are 3-hydroxyanthranilate and O2, whereas its ... 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid oxidase and 3HAO. This enzyme participates in tryptophan metabolism. It employs one cofactor, iron. ...
In enzymology, a 3-hydroxyanthranilate oxidase (EC 1.10.3.5) (also called 3-HAO) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical ... This enzyme is also called 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid oxidase. Vécsei, L; Szalárdy, L; Fülöp, F; Toldi, J (January 2013). " ... Morgan LR Jr, Weimorts DM, Aubert CC (1965). "Oxidation Of 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid by a soluble liver fraction from ... Portal: Biology (Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, EC 1.10.3, Enzymes of unknown structure) ...
Other names in common use include picolinic acid carboxylase, picolinic acid decarboxylase, alpha-amino-beta-carboxymuconate- ... Enzymic Formation of Alpha-Aminomuconic Acid from 3-Hydroxyanthranilic Acid". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 240 (2): 740 ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is 2-amino-3-(3-oxoprop-1-en-1-yl)but-2-enedioate carboxy-lyase (2-aminomuconate- ... The enzyme aminocarboxymuconate-semialdehyde decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.45) catalyzes the chemical reaction 2-amino-3-(3-oxoprop-1 ...
enzymic formation of alpha-aminomuconic acid from 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 240: 740-9. ... Other names in common use include 2-aminomuconate semialdehyde dehydrogenase, 2-hydroxymuconic acid semialdehyde dehydrogenase ... benzoic acid degradation via hydroxylation, tryptophan metabolism, and the degradation pathway for toluene and xylene. The ... 2 H+ The 3 substrates of this enzyme are 2-aminomuconate 6-semialdehyde, NAD+, and H2O, whereas its 3 products are 2- ...
115 (3): 476-481. doi:10.1016/j.ygyno.2009.09.012. PMID 19818481. Arndt CA, Stoner JA, Hawkins DS, Rodeberg DA, Hayes-Jordan AA ... 16 (3): 1432-1438. doi:10.1111/j.1525-1438.2006.00606.x. PMID 16803542. S2CID 32560653. D'Angio GJ, Evans A, Breslow N, ... Troost T, Katz E (March 1979). "Phenoxazinone biosynthesis: accumulation of a precursor, 4-methyl-3-hydroxyanthranilic acid, by ... Jones GH (December 1987). "Actinomycin synthesis in Streptomyces antibioticus: enzymatic conversion of 3-hydroxyanthranilic ...
The other pathway is based on tomaymycin biosynthesis, and involves chorismate being converted to anthranilic acid which ... First, 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid (3HAA) is biosynthesized from enzymes AroX and 3-dehydroquinate synthase AroB which are ... In this pathway, ADIC is converted to trans-2-Dihydro-3-hydroxyanthranilic acid (DHAA) by the isochorismate IcmX. This is ... After compound 6 has been biosynthesized, this leads to either tilimycin (2) or culdesacin (3) via two different spontaneous ...
With the addition of p-hydroxybenzoic acid, the product that arises is 3-polyprenyl-4-hydroxybenzoic acid D. The next three ... instead of p-hydroxybenzoic acid) which leads to RQ. "[Prevention and control of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted ... 49 (3): 57. June 2012. ISBN 978-9241209120. Stairs CW, Eme L, Muñoz-Gómez SA, Cohen A, Dellaire G, Shepherd JN, et al. (April ... and activity from certain genes like kynu-1 which encodes for the KYNU-1 enzyme that catalyzes production of 3-hydroxy-L- ...
Commercially, A23187 is available as free acid, Ca2+ salt, and 4-brominated analog. "A23187". Medical Dictionary Online. 2006. ... 55 (3): 974-82. doi:10.1128/AAC.01130-10. PMC 3067094. PMID 21173184. A23187 Archived June 26, 2006, at the Wayback Machine ... The core biosynthetic enzymes are thought to include 3 proteins for the biosynthesis of the α-ketopyrrole moiety, 5 for modular ... "A23187". Archived from the original on 3 November 2006. Retrieved 2006-11-01. Liposomal Encapsulation of Topotecan Enhances ...
The molecular formula C7H7NO3 may refer to: Aminosalicylic acids 4-Aminosalicylic acid Mesalazine 3-Hydroxyanthranilic acid o- ... Nitroanisole 3-Nitrobenzyl alcohol Salicylhydroxamic acid This set index page lists chemical structure articles associated with ...
... and other amino acids. Lesions in the pallidum can suppress effects of quinolinic acid in monkeys injected with quinolinic acid ... Quinolinic acid has also been found in HAND patients' brains. In fact, the amount of quinolinic acid found in the brain of HAND ... Quinolinic acid is a downstream product of the kynurenine pathway, which metabolizes the amino acid tryptophan. It acts as an ... Quinolinic acid levels are too high at these sites to be controlled by KYNA, causing neurotoxicity to occur. Quinolinic acid ...
The activity may be that of an acid phosphatase EC 3.1.3.31: The activity may be that of an acid phosphatase EC 3.1.3.32: ... ABC-type polar-amino-acid transporter EC 3.6.3.22: Now EC 7.4.2.2, ABC-type nonpolar-amino-acid transporter EC 3.6.3.23: Now EC ... EC 3.1.2.25: phenylacetyl-CoA hydrolase EC 3.1.2.26: Now EC 2.8.3.25, bile acid CoA transferase EC 3.1.2.27: choloyl-CoA ... N-acylD-amino-acid deacylase EC 3.5.1.82: N-acyl-D-glutamate deacylase EC 3.5.1.83: N-acyl-D-aspartate deacylase EC 3.5.1.84: ...
"Hydroxyanthranilic Acid as a Precursor of Nicotinic Acid in Neurospora" (PDF). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 34 (1): 1-5. ... Zimmer, E. M., August 1946, "MUTANT STRAINS OF NEUROSPORA DEFICIENT IN PARA-AMINOBENZOIC ACID", MA Thesis, Stanford University ... 3 (2): 115-132. doi:10.1016/S0740-0020(86)80035-1. Garcia, D.; et al. (2004). "A synopsis and re-circumscription of Neurospora ... 12 (3): 649-663. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2011.03.023. PMID 21439389.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link ...
Alpha-Amino acids, Antidepressants, Chlorobenzenes, Excitatory amino acid reuptake inhibitors, Experimental drugs, NMDA ... Most of its therapeutic potential is believed to occur via 7-chlorokynurenic acid which inhibits the glycine co-agonist site of ... 4-Chlorokynurenine is prodrug of 7-chlorokynurenic acid (7-Cl-KYNA), which in turn is a halogenated derivative of L-kynurenine ... 4-Chlorokynurenine penetrates the blood-brain barrier via the large neutral amino acid transporter 1. In the central nervous ...
... quinic acid MeSH D02.241.511.852 - shikimic acid MeSH D02.241.511.902 - sugar acids MeSH D02.241.511.902.107 - ascorbic acid ... edetic acid MeSH D02.241.081.038.455 - egtazic acid MeSH D02.241.081.038.581 - iodoacetic acid MeSH D02.241.081.038.581.400 - ... hexuronic acids MeSH D02.241.081.844.915.400.500 - iduronic acid MeSH D02.241.081.901.177 - aconitic acid MeSH D02.241.081.901. ... muramic acids MeSH D02.241.081.844.562 - neuraminic acids MeSH D02.241.081.844.562.668 - sialic acids MeSH D02.241.081.844. ...
Monohydroxybenzoic acids, Anthranilic acids, All stub articles, Aromatic compound stubs). ... Mechanism of Formation of Quinolinic Acid". Journal of Biological Chemistry. 234 (4): 880-883. doi:10.1016/S0021-9258(18)70194- ... 3-Hydroxyanthranilic acid is an intermediate in the metabolism of tryptophan. It is new antioxidant isolated from methanol ... 44 (3): 696. doi:10.1021/jf950454t. HAA concentration graph in lyophilized tempeh powder extract (in Indonesian) v t e ( ...
... PISCIANZ, ELISA; ... After preliminary experiments, 3-HAA and bortezomib were selected as the most suitable compounds for our purposes. The possible ... 3-HAA was confirmed to be the most reliable pharmacologic approach to inhibit proliferation with acceptable toxicity on resting ... While in the case of PHA stimulation 3-HAA led to death of most lymphocytes, only a minor percentage of cells were killed after ...
4-Hydroxybenzoic Acid. 4-Hydroxybenzoic acid. ME545053. -. C00156. -. -. 4-Pyridoxic Acid. 4-Pyridoxic acid. ME545121. -. ... 2-isoPropylmalic Acid. 2-Isopropylmalic acid. ME545107. -. C02504. -. -. 2-Methylglutaric Acid. 2-Methylglutaric acid. ME545059 ... Alpha-Ketoglutaric Acid. Oxoglutaric acid. ME545058. -. C00026. -. -. alpha-Ketophenylacetic Acid. Phenylglyoxylic acid. ... Tauro-alpha/beta-Muricholic Acid. Tauromuricholic acid. ME545212. -. N/A. -. -. Taurocholate. Taurocholic acid. ME545213. -. ...
Acid, 3-Hydroxyanthranilic. Tree number(s):. D02.241.223.100.050.400.400. D02.241.223.100.300.300. D02.241.511.390.300. D02.455 ... 3-Hydroxyanthranilic Acid - Preferred Concept UI. M0023218. Scope note. An oxidation product of tryptophan metabolism. It may ... ácido 3-hidroxiantranílico. Scope note:. Producto de oxidación del metabolismo del triptófano. Puede ser un barrendero de ... Acide 3-hydroxy-anthranilique Entry term(s):. 3 Hydroxyanthranilic Acid. ...
Contents Summary Function Nervous system Hemoglobin synthesis Tryptophan metabolism Hormone function Nucleic acid synthesis ... Nucleic acid synthesis. The synthesis of nucleic acids from precursors thymidine and purines is dependent on folate coenzymes. ... During protein digestion, amino acids, including methionine, are released. Methionine is an essential amino acid and precursor ... such as hemoglobin and amino acid biosynthesis, as well as fatty acid metabolism. Of note, PLP also functions as a coenzyme for ...
Several amino acids (AAs) have been shown to be associated with insulin resistance and increased risk of type 2 diabetes, but ... Several metabolites, including especially branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) and aromatic amino acids, have been reported to be ... Nine Amino Acids Are Associated With Decreased Insulin Secretion and Elevated Glucose Levels in a 7.4-Year Follow-up Study of ... Several amino acids (AAs) have been shown to be associated with insulin resistance and increased risk of type 2 diabetes, but ...
Reduction of kynurenic acid to quinolinic acid ratio in both the depressed and remitted phases of major depressive disorder. ... kynurenic acid; QUIN: quinolinic acid; THC: ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol; TNFα: tumor necrosis factor α; Trp: tryptophan; SRT: ... kynurenic acid; QUIN: quinolinic acid; THC: ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol; TNFα: tumor necrosis factor α; Trp: tryptophan; SRT: ... Tryptophan (Trp) is an essential amino acid, which is pivotal in the brain and in mammalian cells, and is mainly metabolized ...
... acid soluble, acid insoluble-SDS/dithiothreitol (DTT) soluble, and acid insoluble-SDS/DTT insoluble fractions. In our previous ... Valproic acid (VPA) is a short-chained, branched fatty acid that is widely used in humans as an anticonvulsant and mood ... The deduced amino acid sequence of MalA, consisting of 663 amino acids, showed homology to α-amylase family enzymes. The ... 2 were identified in the acid insoluble-SDS/DTT soluble fraction. In this study, acid insoluble-SDS/DTT insoluble materials ...
rac-6-(4-isopropyl-4-methyl-5-oxo-2-imidazolin-2-yl)-m-toluic acid + ... rac-6-(4-isopropyl-4-methyl-5-oxo-2-imidazolin-2-yl)-p-toluic acid + ... rac-(3R,5R,6E)-7-[3-(4-fluorophenyl)-1-(propan-2-yl)-1H-indol-2-yl]-3,5-dihydroxyhept-6-enoic acid ... rac-1,2-di-O-dodecanylglycero-3-glutaric acid 6-methylresorufin ester ...
... that xanthurenic acid excretion is increased within 21 days and that by three months the urinary levels of xanthurenic acid, ... Volume 25, Issue 3 *Oral contraceptives and tryptophan metabolism: Effects of oestrogen in low dose combined with a progestagen ... been studied by determining the excretion of tryptophan metabolites in urine collected after a 2 g oral dose of the amino acid. ... and 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid may all be elevated.. Ten other women studied after taking a combined type of oral contraceptive ...
... nilic acid, quinolinic acid, nicotinic acid, and in fine nicotinamine adenine dinucleotides. Additional lateral branches of the ... Quinolinic acid (QA). Metabolite. wikidata:Q411945. Nicotinic acid (NA). Metabolite. wikidata:Q11324215. Provided by diet and, ... Anthranilic acid (AA). Metabolite. wikidata:Q385140. Indoxyl acetic acid (IAA). Metabolite. wikidata:Q411208. indol derivative ... Nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide (NaAD+). Metabolite. wikidata:Q905651. Assuming that NAADP+ is referred to (since the ...
The 11-amino acid HiBiT tag binds with high affinity to a large inactive subunit (LgBiT), generating a reporter luciferase with ... In addition, nucleic acid probes often cause nonspecific and undesired cell internalization during cell imaging. In this work, ... In this study, the NTERA2-D1 (NT2) cells were induced towards differentiation (NT2-RA) with 10-5 M retinoic acid (RA) for three ... The safe and efficient delivery of nucleic acids is crucial for both clinical applications of gene therapy and pre-clinical ...
2023 - Robin Ohm - Utrecht University - The Netherlands. Built with Python Django and Wagtail. ...
Acids, Carbocyclic (9) * Benzoates (5) * Aminobenzoates (3) * meta-Aminobenzoates (0) * ortho-Aminobenzoates (1) * Fenamates (1 ...
... cyclopropane mycolic acid synthase 2) (mycolic acid trans-cyclopropane synthetase) [Ensembl]. Mycolic acid cyclopropane ... ","amino acid ABC transporter, amino acid-binding/permease protein [Ensembl]. ABC transporter type 1, Solute-binding protein ... ","Putative amino acid permease [Ensembl]. Amino acid permease [Interproscan].","protein_coding" "CCL19106","No alias"," ... ","amino acid permease [Ensembl]. Amino acid permease [Interproscan].","protein_coding" "AEA94579","typA","Enterococcus ...
... kynurenic acid, picolinic acid, quinolinic acid, serotonin, xanthurenic acid, and N′-formyl-kynurenine) in deproteinized plasma ... A list of amino acid metabolism-related genes (AAMGs), including those involved in amino acid metabolic pathways and amino acid ... However, the clinical significance of free amino acids (plasma-free amino acids (PFAAs)) and tryptophan-related metabolites in ... Concentrations of the following 21 amino acids were measured: alanine, alpha-amino-butyric acid, arginine, asparagine, ...
High selectivity for the determination of mandelic acid was achieved compared to metal ions, amino acids, and sugars that ... and glutamic acid (GLU), i.e. [FMN-H]-·TRP and [FMN-H]-·GLU, to investigate the extent to which these amino acids perturb the ... quinolinic acid (QUIN) and kynurenic acid (KYNA)]. We found sexual dimorphism for the total LPA and most LPA species in the ... and the kynurenic acid-to-quinolinic acid ratio (KA/QA) (standardized ß: 0.12; 95% CI: 0.02,0.22). In contrast, higher total ...
Evaluation of poly lactic-co-glycolic acid-coated ß-tricalcium phosphate for alveolar ridge preservation: A multicenter ... Mechanism and kinetics of tyrosinase inhibition by glycolic acid: a study using conventional spectroscopy methods and hydrogen/ ... Robust antimicrobial photodynamic therapy with curcumin-poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles against COVID-19: A ...
Fatty Acid-Binding Protein 5 Mediates the Uptake of Fatty Acids, but not Drugs, Into Human Brain Endothelial Cells ... Keywords: سد خونی مغزی; blood-brain barrier; fatty acid uptake; drug uptake; fatty acid-binding protein 5; BBB; blood-brain ... Keywords: سد خونی مغزی; AD; Alzheimers disease; Aβ; amyloid-β; BBB; blood-brain barrier; CAs; cinnamic acid derivatives; CD ... Keywords: سد خونی مغزی; 2-AG; 2-arachidonoylglycerol; Aβ; β-amyloid; GABA; γ-amino butyric acid; AD; Alzheimers diseases; ...
Mitchell, Herschel K. and Nyc, Joseph F. (1948) Hydroxyanthranilic acid as a precursor of nicotinic acid in Neurospora; ... 1949) The use of isotopic carbon in a study of the metabolism of anthanilic acid in Neurospora; Journal of Biological Chemistry ... 1950) The Growth-Promoting Properties of Quinic Acid; Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of ... Snell, Esmond E. and Mitchell, Herschel K. (1941) Purine and pyrimidine bases as growth substances for lactic acid bacteria; ...
2013 Nov;17(3):721-6. 5. G-CSF-treated donor CD4+ T cells attenuate acute GVHD through a reduction in Th17 cell differentiation ... 3. Effect of upregulated TLR2 expression from G-CSF-mobilized donor grafts on acute graft-versus-host disease. Lee WS, Kim JY, ... 9. Tryptophan metabolite 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid selectively induces activated T cell death via intracellular GSH depletion. ... 4. The tryptophan metabolite 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid suppresses T cell responses by inhibiting dendritic cell activation. Lee ...
... and flavonoid antimicrobial agents-using artemisinin and oleanolic acid (terpenoids), berberine and colchicine (alkaloids), and ... The reaction process is as follows: amino acid Phe was used as a biosynthesis precursor that could generate cinnamic acid under ... Biosynthesis Pathway Investigation of the Terpenoid Antimicrobial Agent-Oleanolic Acid. Oleanolic acid (Table 1) is a ... ursolic acid and oleanolic acid in tissue cultures of Rabdosia japonica Hara fed [5-13C2H2] mevalonolactone and [2-13C2H3] ...
Kynurenine, anthranilic acid, quinolinic acid, and markers of immune activation (neopterin, kynurenine/tryptophan ratio, and ... Xanthurenic acid decreased with age (β: -0.42, p , 0.001). Elderly AD patients with high quinolinic acid performed worse on the ... Low xanthurenic acid occurred in both AD and with aging. Inflammation-related markers were associated with age, but not AD. ... and quinolinic acid were lower in AD (Odds ratios (ORs) 0.24 -0.47; p-values ,0.001 -0.01). Pyridoxal 5phosphate did not ...
Buy Cinnabarinic acid for research. Visit TOKU-E.com for details. ... hydroxyanthranilic acid strongly induces apoptosis in ... hydroxyanthranilic acid and transamination of 3-​hydroxykynurenine. Cinnabarinic acid activates glutamate receptors by ... Cinnabarinic acid induces apoptosis in T cells through generation of reactive oxygen species, the loss of mitochondrial ... Cinnabarinic acid is an endogenous kynurenine metabolite formed from oxidative dimerization of 3-​ ...
0 ml with hydrochloric acid (10 gl HCl). The question then arises as to how the receptorG-protein coupling selectivity can best ... Explain.p. 3 (ff)(x)f( 2x3) 2( 2x3)3 2 2x33,D{x,x2}. There is a specific methyl- transferase that methylates C-terminal ... Introduction 3 In my head, Ive constructed a picture of you, the reader. Free to join. In the initial survey, the patient ... 3 0. Low back pain has been relieved completely, and function of the knees has been improved greatly Physical Stimulation of ...
... and mass spectrometry for detection of carboxylic acids and amines. many carboxylic acids and unidentified peaks were detected ... the major fractions of worm-free incubates from separated worms were free fatty acids and free sterols; traces of ... of these, certain aromatic amines and some tryptophan metabolites (anthranilic acid, 3 hydroxy anthranilic acid) have been ... histochemical localization of alkaline and acid phosphatase in cercariae of schistosoma mansoni, schistosoma haematobium, and ...
9-dicarboxylic acid (actinocin). The actinocin moiety is formed through oxidative condensation of two 3-hydroxy-4- ... methylanthranilic acid (4-MHA) pentapeptide lactones (actinomycin halves) as the last step of actinomycin biosynthesis. We ... 3-HA was not converted to 4-MHA as revealed by its inability to stimulate synthesis of actinomycin or hemi-actinomycin ... 3-HA also induces synthesis of various C-demethylactinomycins formed through condensation of actinomycin halves in which 3-HA ...
3 to five days immediately after infection, the guts had been dissected as well as the oocysts have been counted.. These ... were injected with pharmacological autonomic antagonists and supervised with ECG information loggers spawned between one and 3 ...
Sarett, H.P., Huff, J. W., and Perlzweig, W. A. Studies in Nicotinic Acid Metabolism. I. The Fate of Nicotinic Acid in Man. J. ... c. Further Studies on the Effect of Some Amino Acids on the Growth and Nicotinic Acid Storage of Rats on Low Casein Diets. J. ... a. The Effect of Some Amino Acids on the Growth and Nicotinic Acid Storage of Rats on Low Casein Diets. J. Biol. Chem. 171:203 ... Sarett, H.P. Studies in Nicotinic Acid Metabolism. II. The Fate of Nicotinic Acid in Normal and Black Tongue Dogs. J. Nutr. 23: ...
... is an essential dietary amino acid that, unless otherwise committed to protein synthesis, undergoes metabolism via the ... The aromatic amino acid L-tryptophan (TRP) is one of nine essential amino acids required by all living organisms for protein ... receptor agonist quinolinic acid (QUIN) or is further converted to the neuroprotective picolinic acid (PIC) after enzymatic ... Amino Acids 2017, 49, 67-74. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]. *Van der Leek, A.P.; Yanishevsky, Y.; Kozyrskyj, A.L. The Kynurenine ...
  • A reduction in PLP availability appears to primarily affect kynureninase activity, limiting NAD production and leading to higher concentrations of kynurenine, 3-hydroxykynurenine, and xanthurenic acid in blood and urine ( Figure 2 ) (9) . (oregonstate.edu)
  • Additional lateral branches of the kynurenine pathway lead to the formation of other terminal kynurenines, such as KA, xanthurenic acid, and anthranilic acid. (wikipathways.org)
  • An investigation of 10 women before being given oral contraceptives and after 21 days and three months of their use showed that xanthurenic acid excretion is increased within 21 days and that by three months the urinary levels of xanthurenic acid, kynurenine, 3-hydroxykynurenine, and 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid may all be elevated. (bmj.com)
  • This paper reports a validated Liquid Chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method to simultaneously quantify TRP, L-kynurenine (KYN), xanthurenic acid (XA), 3-hydroxykynurenine (3OHKYN), kynurenic acid (KA), 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid (3OHAA), anthranilic acid (AA), 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin, 5HT) and tryptamine (TRYP) in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle and Eagle's Minimum Essential Media (DMEM and EMEM, respectively). (bvsalud.org)
  • Low xanthurenic acid occurred in both AD and with aging. (ox.ac.uk)
  • 3-Hydroxyanthranilic acid is an intermediate in the metabolism of tryptophan. (wikipedia.org)
  • serotonin from the amino acid tryptophan and dopamine from L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-Dopa). (oregonstate.edu)
  • The dietary requirement for niacin and the niacin coenzyme , nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD), can be also met, though to a fairly limited extent, by the catabolism of the essential amino acid tryptophan in the tryptophan-kynurenine pathway ( Figure 2 ). (oregonstate.edu)
  • A very small proportion of tryptophan is also transformed into indol derivatives, such as indoxyl acetic acid. (wikipathways.org)
  • The effect upon tryptophan metabolism of the use of combined oestrogen-progestagen oral contraceptives containing a low (0·05 mg) dose of oestrogen, or of the continuous administration of megestrol acetate, has been studied by determining the excretion of tryptophan metabolites in urine collected after a 2 g oral dose of the amino acid. (bmj.com)
  • However, the clinical significance of free amino acids (plasma-free amino acids (PFAAs)) and tryptophan-related metabolites in plasma has not been fully understood in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who receive immune checkpoint inhibitors. (bmj.com)
  • Amino-functional silica-coated N-doped carbon dots (NH2-SiO2-CDs) were covalently modified by l-tryptophan (chiral selector) by producing an amide bond between carboxyl groups of L-try and amino groups of NH2-SiO2-CDs to develop a novel high throughput chiral nanoprobes (L-try-CONH-SiO2-CDs) for highly sensitive and enantioselective quantification of S-/R-mandelic acid (S-/R-Man). (bvsalud.org)
  • 4. The tryptophan metabolite 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid suppresses T cell responses by inhibiting dendritic cell activation. (kseh.kr)
  • 9. Tryptophan metabolite 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid selectively induces activated T cell death via intracellular GSH depletion. (kseh.kr)
  • This enzyme is acknowledged for its capability to oxidize tryptophan to various metabolites which includes kynurenine, three hydroxykynurenine, and 3 hydroxyanthranilic acid. (statpathway.com)
  • Tryptophan (TRP) is an essential dietary amino acid that, unless otherwise committed to protein synthesis, undergoes metabolism via the Tryptophan-Kynurenine (TRP-KYN) pathway in vertebrate organisms. (mdpi.com)
  • Cinnabarinic acid induces apoptosis in T cells through generation of reactive oxygen species, the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and caspase activation. (toku-e.com)
  • Hariamatsu R et al (2008) Cinnabarinic acid generated from 3-​hydroxyanthranilic acid strongly induces apoptosis in thymocytes through the generation of reactive oxygen species and the induction of caspase. (toku-e.com)
  • 3-HA also induces synthesis of various C-demethylactinomycins formed through condensation of actinomycin halves in which 3-HA had been incorporated by the 4-MHA incorporating enzyme in lieu of 4-MHA. (tu-berlin.de)
  • Quinolinic acid is intended for Pharmaceuticals applications. (alsachim.com)
  • All information about [13C4,15N]-Quinolinic acid is provided in the MSDS. (alsachim.com)
  • The main route of the kynurenine pathway leads to the formation of N -formyl kynurenine, L -kynurenine, 3-hydroxykynurenine, 3-hydroxyanthra- nilic acid, quinolinic acid, nicotinic acid, and in fine nicotinamine adenine dinucleotides. (wikipathways.org)
  • Cinnabarinic acid is an endogenous kynurenine metabolite formed from oxidative dimerization of 3-​hydroxyanthranilic acid and transamination of 3-​hydroxykynurenine. (toku-e.com)
  • Fazio F et al (2012) Cinnabarinic Acid, an endogenous metabolite of the kynurenine pathway, activates type 4 metabotropic glutamate receptors. (toku-e.com)
  • The many biochemical reactions catalyzed by PLP-dependent enzymes are involved in essential biological processes, such as hemoglobin and amino acid biosynthesis, as well as fatty acid metabolism . (oregonstate.edu)
  • Background Amino acid metabolism is essential for tumor cell proliferation and regulation of immune cell function. (bmj.com)
  • From the transcriptome analysis in PBMCs, this multivariate model was significantly correlated with the gene signatures related to immune responses, such as CD8 T-cell activation/proliferation and proinflammatory immune responses, and 12 amino acid-related genes were differentially expressed between the high-risk and low-risk groups. (bmj.com)
  • The Arg72Pro polymorphism of the p53 gene alters the amino acid 72 from arginine to proline and studies indicate that there is a considerable increase in the risk of cancer in patients with this polymorphism, because the protein becomes more susceptible to degradation. (geneticsmr.com)
  • in particular, PLP is the cofactor for the enzyme kynureninase, which catalyzes the conversion of 3-hydroxykynurenine to 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid. (oregonstate.edu)
  • iii) screen hIDO1 (human indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase) inhibitors and evaluate their effect on downstream TRP-catabolizing enzymes. (bvsalud.org)
  • Several metabolites, including especially branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) and aromatic amino acids, have been reported to be associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes in previous studies ( 2 - 5 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • statistical methods analyzing changes in dispersion patterns of parasites among hosts were applied to schistosoma haematobium egg excretion data from a five-year study of a cohort of 1,400 boys in 3 villages in upper egypt. (liverpool.ac.uk)
  • 1. Albert, P. W., Scheer, B. T. and Deuel, H. J., Jr. The Effect of 3-Hydroxyanthranilic Acid on the Excretion of Niacin by the Rat. (hull.ee)
  • 3-Hydroxyanthranilic Acid Metabolism: VII. (wikipedia.org)
  • Successful resection results in both clinical Amyloid precursor protein (APP) metabolism -secretase -secretase (BACE) NC 1 11 17 4042 or Amyloidogenic sAPP -secretase CTF 4042 1 4 kD A 11 3.Mehta, R. (forexrin.com)
  • Mice that are homozygous for a targeted disruption of the LDL receptor gene (LDLR-/- mice) were fed a diet that contained 1.25% cholesterol, 7.5% cocoa butter, 7.5% casein, and 0.5% cholic acid. (jci.org)
  • NaMN is then adenylylated to form nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide (NaAD+), which is converted to NAD+. (wikipathways.org)
  • 20. Briggs, G.M. Influence of Gelatrn and Tryptophane on Nicotinic Acid Requirement of Chicks. (hull.ee)
  • 32. Cleckley, H. M., Sydenstricker, V.P., and Geeslin, L. E. Nicotinic Acid in the Treatment of Atypical Psychotic States Associated with Malnutrition. (hull.ee)
  • The actinocin moiety is formed through oxidative condensation of two 3-hydroxy-4-methylanthranilic acid (4-MHA) pentapeptide lactones (actinomycin halves) as the last step of actinomycin biosynthesis. (tu-berlin.de)
  • We found that feeding of 4-MHA or its putative biogenetic precursor 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid (3-HA) to Streptomyces antibioticus induced formation of different new compounds at the expense of actinomycins. (tu-berlin.de)
  • Other neurotransmitters, including glycine, D-serine, glutamate, histamine, and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), are also synthesized in reactions catalyzed by PLP-dependent enzymes (7) . (oregonstate.edu)
  • Phospholipides containing amino acids other than serine. (caltech.edu)
  • After preliminary experiments, 3-HAA and bortezomib were selected as the most suitable compounds for our purposes. (units.it)
  • A further phytochemical investigation of the rhizomes of Acorus gramineus afforded three new quinone derivatives ( 1 - 3 ), together with two known compounds ( 4 and 5 ). (go.jp)
  • Robust antimicrobial photodynamic therapy with curcumin-poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles against COVID-19: A preliminary in vitro study in Vero cell line as a model. (harvard.edu)
  • Evaluation of poly lactic-co-glycolic acid-coated ß-tricalcium phosphate for alveolar ridge preservation: A multicenter randomized controlled trial. (harvard.edu)
  • Mechanism and kinetics of tyrosinase inhibition by glycolic acid: a study using conventional spectroscopy methods and hydrogen/deuterium exchange coupling with mass spectrometry. (harvard.edu)
  • The possible synergic effect of 3-HAA with bortezomib or with manganese ions was also assessed. (units.it)
  • High selectivity for the determination of mandelic acid was achieved compared to metal ions, amino acids, and sugars that commonly coexist with it. (bvsalud.org)
  • PLP is also a coenzyme for reactions that generate glucose from amino acids, a process known as gluconeogenesis (6) . (oregonstate.edu)
  • Vitamin B 6 deficiency may impair hemoglobin synthesis and lead to microcytic anemia (3) . (oregonstate.edu)
  • Cinnabarinic acid activates glutamate receptors by interacting with residues of the glutamate binding pocket of mGlu4. (toku-e.com)
  • While in the case of PHA stimulation 3-HAA led to death of most lymphocytes, only a minor percentage of cells were killed after allo-stimulation, suggesting that the effect is proportional to the percentage of stimulated lymphocytes. (units.it)
  • 3. Effect of upregulated TLR2 expression from G-CSF-mobilized donor grafts on acute graft-versus-host disease. (kseh.kr)
  • Differential action of 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid on viability and activation of stimulated lymphocytes. (units.it)
  • PLP functions as a coenzyme of 5-aminolevulinic acid synthase, which is involved in the synthesis of heme , an iron -containing component of hemoglobin . (oregonstate.edu)
  • 3-HA was not converted to 4-MHA as revealed by its inability to stimulate synthesis of actinomycin or hemi-actinomycin synthesis and thus remained a substrate analogue of 4-MHA rather than its precursor. (tu-berlin.de)
  • the 3 groups did not differ significantly before treatment in age, sex ratio, anthropometry or prevalence of other parasite infections. (liverpool.ac.uk)
  • They do not possess the enzyme phenoxazinone synthase (PHS) which in S. antibioticus is present and most probably catalyses premature condensation of abundant 4-MHA or 3-HA with actinomycin halves. (tu-berlin.de)
  • Growing evidence demonstrates that various cancer treatment modalities, including chemotherapy, radiation therapy, targeted therapy, immunotherapy, hormone therapy, stem cell or bone marrow transplant, and surgery [ 3 - 5 ] , cause premature senescence, as reviewed elsewhere [ 6 - 8 ] . (oaepublish.com)
  • Na and Nam are also converted to nicotinuric acid and N-methylnicotinamide elimination products. (wikipathways.org)
  • Several amino acids (AAs) have been shown to be associated with insulin resistance and increased risk of type 2 diabetes, but no previous studies have investigated the association of AAs with insulin secretion in a longitudinal setting. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Zollner H et al (1976) Effects of cinnabarinic acid on mitochondrial respiration. (toku-e.com)
  • fourteen of 15 patients had hepatomegaly, five had ascites, and six had serum albumin below 3 g dl-1. (liverpool.ac.uk)