3-Hydroxyanthranilic Acid: An oxidation product of tryptophan metabolism. It may be a free radical scavenger and a carcinogen.Quinolinic Acid: A metabolite of tryptophan with a possible role in neurodegenerative disorders. Elevated CSF levels of quinolinic acid are correlated with the severity of neuropsychological deficits in patients who have AIDS.Quinolinic Acids3-Hydroxyanthranilate 3,4-Dioxygenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of 3-hydroxyanthranilate to 2-amino-3-carboxymuconate semialdehyde. It was formerly characterized as EC 1.13.1.6.Corpus Striatum: Striped GRAY MATTER and WHITE MATTER consisting of the NEOSTRIATUM and paleostriatum (GLOBUS PALLIDUS). It is located in front of and lateral to the THALAMUS in each cerebral hemisphere. The gray substance is made up of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the lentiform nucleus (the latter consisting of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and PUTAMEN). The WHITE MATTER is the INTERNAL CAPSULE.Kynurenineortho-Aminobenzoates: Benzoic acids, salts, or esters that contain an amino group attached to carbon number 2 or 6 of the benzene ring structure.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Microscopy, Immunoelectron: Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate: A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by affinity for N-methyl-D-aspartate. NMDA receptors have an allosteric binding site for glycine which must be occupied for the channel to open efficiently and a site within the channel itself to which magnesium ions bind in a voltage-dependent manner. The positive voltage dependence of channel conductance and the high permeability of the conducting channel to calcium ions (as well as to monovalent cations) are important in excitotoxicity and neuronal plasticity.Dictionaries, MedicalOxazines: Six-membered heterocycles containing an oxygen and a nitrogen.Streptomyces antibioticus: An actinomycete from which the antibiotic OLEANDOMYCIN is obtained.XanthurenatesTryptophan: An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.Dictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.Metals: Electropositive chemical elements characterized by ductility, malleability, luster, and conductance of heat and electricity. They can replace the hydrogen of an acid and form bases with hydroxyl radicals. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Terbium: Terbium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Tb, atomic number 65, and atomic weight 158.92.Zinc: A metallic element of atomic number 30 and atomic weight 65.38. It is a necessary trace element in the diet, forming an essential part of many enzymes, and playing an important role in protein synthesis and in cell division. Zinc deficiency is associated with ANEMIA, short stature, HYPOGONADISM, impaired WOUND HEALING, and geophagia. It is known by the symbol Zn.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Arthritis, Rheumatoid: A chronic systemic disease, primarily of the joints, marked by inflammatory changes in the synovial membranes and articular structures, widespread fibrinoid degeneration of the collagen fibers in mesenchymal tissues, and by atrophy and rarefaction of bony structures. Etiology is unknown, but autoimmune mechanisms have been implicated.Fas Ligand Protein: A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that was originally discovered on cells of the lymphoid-myeloid lineage, including activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS. It plays an important role in immune homeostasis and cell-mediated toxicity by binding to the FAS RECEPTOR and triggering APOPTOSIS.Antigens, CD95: A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Research Personnel: Those individuals engaged in research.Antirheumatic Agents: Drugs that are used to treat RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS.Research Support as Topic: Financial support of research activities.Biomedical Research: Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.Coronary Vessel Anomalies: Malformations of CORONARY VESSELS, either arteries or veins. Included are anomalous origins of coronary arteries; ARTERIOVENOUS FISTULA; CORONARY ANEURYSM; MYOCARDIAL BRIDGING; and others.ArthritisInflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Immunity, Innate: The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory: CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Th2 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.Th17 Cells: Subset of helper-effector T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete IL-17, IL-17F, and IL-22. These cytokines are involved in host defenses and tissue inflammation in autoimmune diseases.Th1 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.Allergy and Immunology: A medical specialty concerned with the hypersensitivity of the individual to foreign substances and protection from the resultant infection or disorder.ArchivesBiological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Retroviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the RETROVIRIDAE.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Directories as Topic: Lists of persons or organizations, systematically arranged, usually in alphabetic or classed order, giving address, affiliations, etc., for individuals, and giving address, officers, functions, and similar data for organizations. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Publishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.Indoleamine-Pyrrole 2,3,-Dioxygenase: A dioxygenase with specificity for the oxidation of the indoleamine ring of TRYPTOPHAN. It is an extrahepatic enzyme that plays a role in metabolism as the first and rate limiting enzyme in the kynurenine pathway of TRYPTOPHAN catabolism.Murine Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: Acquired defect of cellular immunity that occurs in mice infected with mouse leukemia viruses (MuLV). The syndrome shows striking similarities with human AIDS and is characterized by lymphadenopathy, profound immunosuppression, enhanced susceptibility to opportunistic infections, and B-cell lymphomas.Serial Publications: Publications in any medium issued in successive parts bearing numerical or chronological designations and intended to be continued indefinitely. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p203)Acetylserotonin O-Methyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group from S-adenosylmethionine to N-acetylserotonin to form N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine (MELATONIN).Kynurenic Acid: A broad-spectrum excitatory amino acid antagonist used as a research tool.Melatonin: A biogenic amine that is found in animals and plants. In mammals, melatonin is produced by the PINEAL GLAND. Its secretion increases in darkness and decreases during exposure to light. Melatonin is implicated in the regulation of SLEEP, mood, and REPRODUCTION. Melatonin is also an effective antioxidant.International Cooperation: The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.Intracranial Aneurysm: Abnormal outpouching in the wall of intracranial blood vessels. Most common are the saccular (berry) aneurysms located at branch points in CIRCLE OF WILLIS at the base of the brain. Vessel rupture results in SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Giant aneurysms (>2.5 cm in diameter) may compress adjacent structures, including the OCULOMOTOR NERVE. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p841)Aneurysm: Pathological outpouching or sac-like dilatation in the wall of any blood vessel (ARTERIES or VEINS) or the heart (HEART ANEURYSM). It indicates a thin and weakened area in the wall which may later rupture. Aneurysms are classified by location, etiology, or other characteristics.Registries: The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.Aneurysm, Infected: Aneurysm due to growth of microorganisms in the arterial wall, or infection arising within preexisting arteriosclerotic aneurysms.Hypermedia: Computerized compilations of information units (text, sound, graphics, and/or video) interconnected by logical nonlinear linkages that enable users to follow optimal paths through the material and also the systems used to create and display this information. (From Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors, 1994)Genetic Linkage: The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.Genetic Markers: A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.ADAM Proteins: A family of membrane-anchored glycoproteins that contain a disintegrin and metalloprotease domain. They are responsible for the proteolytic cleavage of many transmembrane proteins and the release of their extracellular domain.Leukocyte Disorders: Disordered formation of various types of leukocytes or an abnormal accumulation or deficiency of these cells.

Influence of adenine-induced renal failure on tryptophan-niacin metabolism in rats. (1/40)

To discover the role of the kidney in tryptophan degradation, especially tryptophan to niacin, rat kidneys were injured by feeding a diet containing a large amount of adenine. The kidney contains very high activity of aminocarboxymuconate-semialdehyde decarboxylase (ACMSD), which leads tryptophan into the glutaric acid pathway and then the TCA cycle, but not to the niacin pathway. On the other hand, kidneys contain significant activity of quinolinate phosphoribosyltransferase (QPRT), which leads tryptophan into the niacin pathway. The ACMSD activity in kidneys were significantly lower in the adenine group than in the control group, while the QPRT activity was almost the same, however, the formations of niacin and its compounds such as N1-methylnicotinamide and its pyridones did not increase, and therefore, the conversion ratio of tryptophan to niacin was lower in the adenine group than in the control group. The contents of NAD and NADP in liver, kidney, and blood were also lower in the adenine group. The decreased levels of niacin and the related compounds were consistent with the changes in the enzyme activities involved in the tryptophan-niacin metabolism in liver. It was concluded from these results that the conversion of tryptophan to niacin is due to only the liver enzymes and that the role of the kidney would be extremely low.  (+info)

Inhibition of allogeneic T cell proliferation by indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-expressing dendritic cells: mediation of suppression by tryptophan metabolites. (2/40)

Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), an enzyme involved in the catabolism of tryptophan, is expressed in certain cells and tissues, particularly in antigen-presenting cells of lymphoid organs and in the placenta. It was shown that IDO prevents rejection of the fetus during pregnancy, probably by inhibiting alloreactive T cells, and it was suggested that IDO-expression in antigen-presenting cells may control autoreactive immune responses. Degradation of tryptophan, an essential amino acid required for cell proliferation, was reported to be the mechanism of IDO-induced T cell suppression. Because we wanted to study the action of IDO-expressing dendritic cells (DCs) on allogeneic T cells, the human IDO gene was inserted into an adenoviral vector and expressed in DCs. Transgenic DCs decreased the concentration of tryptophan, increased the concentration of kynurenine, the main tryptophan metabolite, and suppressed allogeneic T cell proliferation in vitro. Kynurenine, 3-hydroxykynurenine, and 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid, but no other IDO-induced tryptophan metabolites, suppressed the T cell response, the suppressive effects being additive. T cells, once stopped in their proliferation, could not be restimulated. Inhibition of proliferation was likely due to T cell death because suppressive tryptophan catabolites exerted a cytotoxic action on CD3(+) cells. This action preferentially affected activated T cells and increased gradually with exposure time. In addition to T cells, B and natural killer (NK) cells were also killed, whereas DCs were not affected. Our findings shed light on suppressive mechanisms mediated by DCs and provide an explanation for important biological processes in which IDO activity apparently is increased, such as protection of the fetus from rejection during pregnancy and possibly T cell death in HIV-infected patients.  (+info)

T cell apoptosis by tryptophan catabolism. (3/40)

Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) is a tryptophan-catabolizing enzyme that, expressed by different cell types, has regulatory effects on T cells resulting from tryptophan depletion in specific local tissue microenvironments. Different mechanisms, however, might contribute to IDO-dependent immune regulation. We show here that tryptophan metabolites in the kynurenine pathway, such as 3-hydroxyanthranilic and quinolinic acids, will induce the selective apoptosis in vitro of murine thymocytes and of Th1 but not Th2 cells. T cell apoptosis was observed at relatively low concentrations of kynurenines, did not require Fas/Fas ligand interactions, and was associated with the activation of caspase-8 and the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria. When administered in vivo, the two kynurenines caused depletion of specific thymocyte subsets in a fashion qualitatively similar to dexamethasone. These data suggest that the selective deletion of T lymphocytes may be a major mechanism whereby tryptophan metabolism affects immunity under physiopathologic conditions.  (+info)

Prokaryotic homologs of the eukaryotic 3-hydroxyanthranilate 3,4-dioxygenase and 2-amino-3-carboxymuconate-6-semialdehyde decarboxylase in the 2-nitrobenzoate degradation pathway of Pseudomonas fluorescens strain KU-7. (4/40)

The 2-nitrobenzoic acid degradation pathway of Pseudomonas fluorescens strain KU-7 proceeds via a novel 3-hydroxyanthranilate intermediate. In this study, we cloned and sequenced a 19-kb DNA locus of strain KU-7 that encompasses the 3-hydroxyanthranilate meta-cleavage pathway genes. The gene cluster, designated nbaEXHJIGFCDR, is organized tightly and in the same direction. The nbaC and nbaD gene products were found to be novel homologs of the eukaryotic 3-hydroxyanthranilate 3,4-dioxygenase and 2-amino-3-carboxymuconate-6-semialdehyde decarboxylase, respectively. The NbaC enzyme carries out the oxidation of 3-hydroxyanthranilate to 2-amino-3-carboxymuconate-6-semialdehyde, while the NbaD enzyme catalyzes the decarboxylation of the latter compound to 2-aminomuconate-6-semialdehyde. The NbaC and NbaD proteins were overexpressed in Escherichia coli and characterized. The substrate specificity of the 23.8-kDa NbaC protein was found to be restricted to 3-hydroxyanthranilate. In E. coli, this enzyme oxidizes 3-hydroxyanthranilate with a specific activity of 8 U/mg of protein. Site-directed mutagenesis experiments revealed the essential role of two conserved histidine residues (His52 and His96) in the NbaC sequence. The NbaC activity is also dependent on the presence of Fe(2+) but is inhibited by other metal ions, such as Zn(2+), Cu(2+), and Cd(2+). The NbaD protein was overproduced as a 38.7-kDa protein, and its specific activity towards 2-amino-3-carboxymuconate-6-semialdehyde was 195 U/mg of protein. Further processing of 2-aminomuconate-6-semialdehyde to pyruvic acid and acetyl coenzyme A was predicted to proceed via the activities of NbaE, NbaF, NbaG, NbaH, NbaI, and NbaJ. The predicted amino acid sequences of these proteins are highly homologous to those of the corresponding proteins involved in the metabolism of 2-aminophenol (e.g., AmnCDEFGH in Pseudomonas sp. strain AP-3). The NbaR-encoding gene is predicted to have a regulatory function of the LysR family type. The function of the product of the small open reading frame, NbaX, like the homologous sequences in the nitrobenzene or 2-aminophenol metabolic pathway, remains elusive.  (+info)

First evidence of catalytic mediation by phenolic compounds in the laccase-induced oxidation of lignin models. (5/40)

The sulfonephthalein indicator, phenol red, exhibits an unusually slow rate of oxidation by laccase from Poliporus pinsitus, in spite of the fact that it is a phenol and therefore a natural substrate for this phenoloxidase enzyme. Nevertheless, after prolonged exposure to laccase (24 h) phenol red is oxidized by more than 90%. We found that phenol red, which can be oxidatively converted into a resonance-stabilized phenoxy radical, performs as a mediator in the laccase-catalyzed oxidation of a nonphenolic substrate (4-methoxybenzyl alcohol) and also of a hindered phenol (2,4,6-tri-tert-butylphenol). In particular, phenol red was found to be at least 10 times more efficient than 3-hydroxyanthranilate (a reported natural phenolic mediator of laccase) in the oxidation of 4-methoxybenzyl alcohol. Other phenols, which do not bear structural analogies to phenol red, underwent rapid degradation and did not perform as laccase mediators. On the other hand, several variously substituted sulfonephthaleins, of different pK2 values, mediated the laccase catalysis, the most efficient being dichlorophenol red, which has the lowest pK2 of the series. The mediating efficiency of phenol red and dichlorophenol red was found to be pH dependent, as was their oxidation Ep value (determined by cyclic voltammetry). We argue that the relative abundance of the phenoxy anion, which is easier to oxidize than the protonated phenol, may be one of the factors determining the efficiency of a phenolic mediator, together with its ability to form relatively stable oxidized intermediates that react with the desired substrate before being depleted in undesired routes.  (+info)

Excretion of anthranilate and 3-hydroxyanthranilate by Saccharomyces cerevisiae: relationship to iron metabolism. (6/40)

Resting suspensions of cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae grown in iron-rich or iron-deficient conditions were studied by following the fluorescence emission changes (lambda em. 400-460 nm, lambda exc. 300-340 nm) occurring in these suspensions upon addition of glucose and ferric iron. The results show that, in addition to NAD(P)H, metabolites of the aromatic amino acid pathway interfere with the fluorescence measurements, and that they could be involved in ferric iron reduction. Wild-type strains of S. cerevisiae are known to excreted anthranilic acid and 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid in response to glucose. The major fluorescing compound excreted by a chorismate-mutase-deficient mutant strain of S. cerevisiae was identified as anthranilic acid. The excretion of anthranilic and 3-hydroxyanthranilic acids was correlated with the ferric-reducing capacity of the extracellular medium. Excretion during growth was much greater by cells cultured in iron-rich medium than by cells grown in iron-deficient medium. The possibility was examined that a link could exist between the biosynthesis of aromatics and the ferri-reductase activity of the cells, via chorismate synthase and its putative diaphorase-associated activity. Two ferri-reductase-deficient mutants excreted much less 3-hydroxyanthranilate than did the parental wild-type strains. However, the ferri-reductase activity of a chorismate-synthase-deficient mutant was comparable to that of the parental strain.  (+info)

Inducible and constitutive kynureninases. Control of the inducible enzyme activity by transamination and inhibition of the constitutive enzyme by 3-hydroxyanthranilate. (7/40)

The inducible kynureninase from Neurospora crassa is inactivated by incubation with L-alanine or L-ornithine. The inactivated enzyme is resolved to the apoenzyme by dialysis. Reactivation of the apoenzyme is achieved by incubation with pyridoxamine 5'-phosphate plus pyruvate, as well as with pyridoxal 5'-phosphate. The kynurenine hydrolysis proceeds linearly in the presence of added pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, or pyridoxamine 5'-phosphate plus pyruvate. These findings indicate that the fungal inducible kynureninase can act as an amino-transferase to control the enzyme activity, and that the control mechanism is similar to that reported for the bacterial kynureninase (Moriguchi, M. & Soda, K. (1973) Biochemistry 12, 2974-2980). The ratio of kynureninase activity to aminotransferase activity was determined with bacterial and fungal enzymes. All the inducible kynureninases from various fungal species examined are also controlled by the transamination. In contrast, the pig liver kynureninase and the fungal constitutive enzymes are little or not at all affected by preincubation with amino acids. Thus, the present regulatory mechanism does not operate in these constitutive-type enzymes. The rate of hydrolysis of L-3-hydroxykynurenine by the pig liver enzyme decreases with increase in the incubation time; the enzyme is inhibited by 3-hydroxyanthranilate produced from L-3-hydroxykynurenine. The inhibition is found in all the constitutive-type enzymes, suggesting that 3-hydroxyanthranilate plays a regulatory role in NAD biosynthesis from tryptophan.  (+info)

Characterization of a pseudomonad 2-nitrobenzoate nitroreductase and its catabolic pathway-associated 2-hydroxylaminobenzoate mutase and a chemoreceptor involved in 2-nitrobenzoate chemotaxis. (8/40)

Pseudomonas fluorescens strain KU-7 is a prototype microorganism that metabolizes 2-nitrobenzoate (2-NBA) via the formation of 3-hydroxyanthranilate (3-HAA), a known antioxidant and reductant. The initial two steps leading to the sequential formation of 2-hydroxy/aminobenzoate and 3-HAA are catalyzed by a NADPH-dependent 2-NBA nitroreductase (NbaA) and 2-hydroxylaminobenzoate mutase (NbaB), respectively. The 216-amino-acid protein NbaA is 78% identical to a plasmid-encoded hypothetical conserved protein of Polaromonas strain JS666; structurally, it belongs to the homodimeric NADH:flavin mononucleotide (FMN) oxidoreductase-like fold family. Structural modeling of complexes with the flavin, coenzyme, and substrate suggested specific residues contributing to the NbaA catalytic activity, assuming a ping-pong reaction mechanism. Mutational analysis supports the roles of Asn40, Asp76, and Glu113, which are predicted to form the binding site for a divalent metal ion implicated in FMN binding, and a role in NADPH binding for the 10-residue insertion in the beta5-alpha2 loop. The 181-amino-acid sequence of NbaB is 35% identical to the 4-hydroxylaminobenzoate lyases (PnbBs) of various 4-nitrobenzoate-assimilating bacteria, e.g., Pseudomonas putida strain TW3. Coexpression of nbaB with nbaA in Escherichia coli produced a small amount of 3-HAA from 2-NBA, supporting the functionality of the nbaB gene. We also showed by gene knockout and chemotaxis assays that nbaY, a chemoreceptor NahY homolog located downstream of the nbaA gene, is responsible for strain KU-7 being attracted to 2-NBA. NbaY is the first chemoreceptor in nitroaromatic metabolism to be identified, and this study completes the gene elucidation of 2-NBA metabolism that is localized within a 24-kb chromosomal locus of strain KU-7.  (+info)

*3-Hydroxyanthranilic acid

Mechanism of Formation of Quinolinic Acid". Journal of Biological Chemistry. 234 (4): 880-883. PMID 13654282. Retrieved 2015-09 ... 3-Hydroxyanthranilic acid is an intermediate in the metabolism of tryptophan. It is new antioxidant isolated from methanol ... "3-Hydroxyanthranilic acid". Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Inc. Retrieved 2015-09-24. Armarego, Wilfred L.F.; Chai, Christina L.L. ( ... 44 (3): 696. doi:10.1021/jf950454t. HAA concentration graph in lyophilized tempeh powder extract (in Indonesian). ...

*3-hydroxyanthranilate 3,4-dioxygenase

In enzymology, a 3-hydroxyanthranilate 3,4-dioxygenase (EC 1.13.11.6) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction 3- ... DECKER RH, KANG HH, LEACH FR, HENDERSON LM (1961). "Purification and properties of 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid oxidase". J. Biol ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is 3-hydroxyanthranilate:oxygen 3,4-oxidoreductase (decyclizing). Other names in ... 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid oxidase, and 3HAO. This enzyme participates in tryptophan metabolism. It employs one cofactor, iron. ...

*3-hydroxyanthranilate oxidase

In enzymology, a 3-hydroxyanthranilate oxidase (EC 1.10.3.5) (also called 3-HAO) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical ... This enzyme is also called 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid oxidase. Vécsei, L; Szalárdy, L; Fülöp, F; Toldi, J (January 2013). " ... Morgan LR Jr, Weimorts DM, Aubert CC (1965). "Oxidation Of 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid by a soluble liver fraction from ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is 3-hydroxyanthranilate:oxygen oxidoreductase. ...

*Aminocarboxymuconate-semialdehyde decarboxylase

Other names in common use include picolinic acid carboxylase, picolinic acid decarboxylase, alpha-amino-beta-carboxymuconate- ... ENZYMIC FORMATION OF ALPHA-AMINOMUCONIC ACID FROM 3-HYDROXYANTHRANILIC ACID". J. Biol. Chem. 240: 740-9. PMID 14275130. ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is 2-amino-3-(3-oxoprop-1-en-1-yl)but-2-enedioate carboxy-lyase (2-aminomuconate- ... 3-oxoprop-2-enyl)but-2-enedioate carboxy-lyase, and 2-amino-3-(3-oxoprop-1-en-1-yl)but-2-enedioate carboxy-lyase. This enzyme ...

*Aminomuconate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase

ENZYMIC FORMATION OF ALPHA-AMINOMUCONIC ACID FROM 3-HYDROXYANTHRANILIC ACID". J. Biol. Chem. 240: 740-9. PMID 14275130. ... Other names in common use include 2-aminomuconate semialdehyde dehydrogenase, 2-hydroxymuconic acid semialdehyde dehydrogenase ... benzoic acid degradation via hydroxylation, tryptophan metabolism, and the degradation pathway for toluene and xylene. SENOH S ... 2 H+ The 3 substrates of this enzyme are 2-aminomuconate 6-semialdehyde, NAD+, and H2O, whereas its 3 products are 2- ...

*C7H7NO3

The molecular formula C7H7NO3 may refer to: Aminosalicylic acids 3-Hydroxyanthranilic acid Mesalazine o-Nitroanisole 3- ...

*A23187

Commercially, A23187 is available as free acid, Ca2+ salt, and 4-brominated analog. "A23187". Medical Dictionary Online. 2006. ... 55 (3): 974-82. doi:10.1128/AAC.01130-10. PMC 3067094 . PMID 21173184. A23187 Archived June 26, 2006, at the Wayback Machine. ... The core biosynthetic enzymes are thought to include 3 proteins for the biosynthesis of the α-ketopyrrole moiety, 5 for modular ... "A23187". Archived from the original on 3 November 2006. Retrieved 2006-11-01. Liposomal Encapsulation of Topotecan Enhances ...

*Quinolinic acid

... and other amino acids. Lesions in the pallidum can suppress effects of quinolinic acid in monkeys injected with quinolinic acid ... Quinolinic acid has also been found in HAND patients' brains. In fact, the amount of quinolinic acid found in the brain of HAND ... Quinolinic acid is a downstream product of the kynurenine pathway, which metabolizes the amino acid tryptophan. It acts as an ... Quinolinic acid levels are too high at these sites to be controlled by KYNA, causing neurotoxicity to occur. Quinolinic acid ...

*List of MeSH codes (D02)

... edetic acid MeSH D02.241.081.038.455 --- egtazic acid MeSH D02.241.081.038.581 --- iodoacetic acid MeSH D02.241.081.038.581.400 ... muramic acids MeSH D02.241.081.844.562 --- neuraminic acids MeSH D02.241.081.844.562.668 --- sialic acids MeSH D02.241.081.844. ... quinic acid MeSH D02.241.511.852 --- shikimic acid MeSH D02.241.511.902 --- sugar acids MeSH D02.241.511.902.107 --- ascorbic ... muramic acids MeSH D02.241.511.902.562 --- neuraminic acids MeSH D02.241.511.902.562.668 --- sialic acids MeSH D02.241.511.902. ...

*Neurospora

"Hydroxyanthranilic Acid as a Precursor of Nicotinic Acid in Neurospora". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 34 (1): 1-5. doi:10.1073 ... Zimmer, E. M., August 1946, "MUTANT STRAINS OF NEUROSPORA DEFICIENT IN PARA-AMINOBENZOIC ACID", MA Thesis, Stanford University ... 3 (2): 115-132. doi:10.1016/S0740-0020(86)80035-1. Garcia, D.; et al. (2004). "A synopsis and re-circumscription of Neurospora ... 3] Fungal Genetics Reports [4] Montenegro-Montero A. (2010) "The Almighty Fungi: The Revolutionary Neurospora crassa". A ...

*4-Chlorokynurenine

Most of its therapeutic potential is believed to occur via 7-chlorokynurenic acid which inhibits the glycine co-agonist site of ... 4-Chlorokynurenine is prodrug of 7-chlorokynurenic acid (7-Cl-KYNA), which in turn is a halogenated derivative of L-kynurenine ... 4-Chlorokynurenine penetrates the blood-brain barrier via the large neutral amino acid transporter 1. In the central nervous ... is an orally active small molecule prodrug of 7-chlorokynurenic acid, a NMDA receptor antagonist. It appears to be a rapid- ...
Looking for online definition of 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid in the Medical Dictionary? 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid explanation free. What is 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid? Meaning of 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid medical term. What does 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid mean?
5-Hydroxyanthranilic Acid containing medications, 5-Hydroxyanthranilic Acid indications and usages ATC and ICD codes, combinations with other active ingredients and trade names information from Drugs-about.com
Glutamate, the major transmitter of the corticostriatal pathway, is present in abundance in the striatum. 3-Hydroxyanthranilic acid oxygenase (3HAO) is the biosynthetic enzyme for quinolinic acid, an endogenous agonist of the NMDA glutamate receptor subtype and a potent neurotoxin. In order to explore the anatomical basis of possible functional interactions between glutamate and quinolinic acid in the rat striatum, pre- and postembedding immunocytochemical methods were used to localize 3HAO immunoreactivity (-i) and glutamate-i at the electron microscopic level. In accordance with previous light microscopic and biochemical studies, 3HAO-i was detected exclusively in astrocytes throughout the striatum. Notably, 3HAO-i was present in fine- caliber glial processes that often surrounded or abutted synaptic profiles, both asymmetric and symmetric. Glutamate-i was heavily deposited (3-13-fold higher gold particle density than tissue average) in axon terminals forming asymmetric synapses with spines ...
Wang, Qiongxin et al "Tryptophan-Derived 3-Hydroxyanthranilic Acid Contributes to Angiotensin II-Induced Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Formation in Mice In Vivo." Circulation (2017): CIRCULATIONAHA.117.030972. Web. 22 Jan. 2018. ...
論文Prokaryotic homologs of the eukaryotic 3-hydroxyanthranilate 3,4-dioxygenase and 2-amino-3-carboxymuconate-6-semialdehyde decarboxylase in the degradation pathway of 2-nitrobenzoate by Pseudomonas fluorescens strain KU-7査読有学術雑誌共著岩木 宏明;T.Muraki;M.Taki;Y.Hasegawa;H.Iwaki;P.C.K.Lau;adipic acid;green chemistry;Acinetobacter;gene cloning;Biodegradation;Cyclohexanol;Appl. Enviorn. Microbiol.69巻3号 1564-1572頁2003年3月 英文The 2-nitrobenzoic acid degradation pathway of Pseudomonas fluorescens strain KU-7 proceeds via a novel 3-hydroxyanthranilate intermediate.In this study, we cloned and sequenced a 19-kb DNA locus of strain KU-7 that enocompasses the 3-hydroxyanthranilate meta-cleavage pathway genes.The gene cluster, designated nbaEX HJIGFCDR, is organized tightly and in the same derection.The nbaC and nbaDgene products were found to be novel homologs of the eukaryotic 3-hydroxyanthranilate 3,4-dioxygenase and 2-amino-3carboxymuconate-6semialdehyde ...
Mono- and Stereopictres of 5.0 Angstrom coordination sphere of Iron atom in PDB 1yfy: Crystal Structure of 3-Hydroxyanthranilate-3,4-Dioxygenase From Ralstonia Metallidurans Complexed With 3-Hydroxyanthranilic Acid
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The interaction between the 1-47 N-terminus of the CCK(1)-R and the anthranilic acid based antagonists has been investigated by fluorescence spectroscopy. These antagonists interact with W39 of the N-terminal domain of the CCK(1)-R like that of the e
Personal protection: particulate filter respirator adapted to the airborne concentration of the substance. Sweep spilled substance into covered containers. If appropriate, moisten first to prevent dusting. Then store and dispose of according to local regulations. Do NOT let this chemical enter the environment ...
befuddled discombobulated lost melancholic despondent wistful anxious apprehensive sad losing my fucking mind. A perfect representation of inside my head right now. Completely random, somewhat surprising and a little bit scary. Share this:TwitterFacebookGoogle Related
The Auditoriums B L_U E_ is haunting, melancholic refrain, a reflection of the minuscule feeling you feel when you realize how big the world really is.
The use of specific compounds of the Formula 1 (and also corresponding mixtures) in particular as cosmetic agents for the inhibition of the substance P-induced release of histamine from mast cells is described.
METHYL 2-CHLORO-4-NITROBENZOATE chemical properties, What are the chemical properties of METHYL 2-CHLORO-4-NITROBENZOATE 13324-11-3, What are the physical properties of METHYL 2-CHLORO-4-NITROBENZOATE ect.
Thank you for your interest in spreading the word about Biochemical Society Transactions.. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. We do not capture any email address.. ...
Demeter Ildikó, Nagy Károly, Farkas Tamás, Kis Zsolt, Kocsis Kitti, Knapp Levente, Gellért Levente, Fülöp Ferenc, Vécsei László, Toldi József ...
Pull-Out School Music Classes. "Pull-outs have become almost a nightmare for many elementary school principals, who view the practice as a kind of pernicious anemia that attacks whole-class instruction time. Once pull-outs take hold in a school, there appears to be no end to them, and no way to rid the instructional program of their debilitating impact."- From "Pull-outs: How much do they erode whole-class teaching?" by F. English, appearing in Principal, May 1984, p. 32.. BACKGROUND. Many school instrumental music programs remove students from aregular classroom for individual or small-group instrumentalinstruction. Often, this practice causes tension among teachers and administrators. Many of those opposed to pull-out lessons are concerned that students will fall behind in their academic performance by missing classroom instruction time. In the study described below, the test scores of students who leave theirclassroom for thirty-minute string instrument lessons twice each week are compared to ...
The association between the pro-inflammatory state of schizophrenia and increased tryptophan degradation into kynurenine has been reported. However, the relationship between metabolites from subdivisions of the kynurenine pathway, kynurenic acid and 3-hydroxykynurenine, remains unknown. The present study tested the relationship between these kynurenine metabolites in the plasma of medication-naïve (n = 35) or medication-free (n = 18) patients with schizophrenia at admission and following 6-week antipsychotic treatment compared to healthy controls (n = 48). The plasma concentrations of kynurenic acid (nmol/l) were lower (difference = −8.44 (−13.22 to −3.65); p = 0.001) and of 3-hydroxykynurenine (nmol/l) were higher (difference = 11.24 (8.1114.37); p < 0.001) in the patients compared with the healthy controls. The kynurenic acid/kynurenine (difference = −2.75 (−5.115 to −0.336); p = 0.026) and kynurenic acid/3-hydroxykynurenine (difference = −1.08 (−1.431 to −0.729); p < 0.001) ...
In the present study, we investigated the peripheral concentration of cytokines and kynurenine metabolites in unipolar patients diagnosed with an ongoing severe major depressive episode. Our data, showing increased plasma levels of IL-6, decreased KYNA levels, and an increased QUIN/KYNA ratio in these patients, supports the view of an ongoing low-grade inflammation [42] and an imbalanced kynurenine pathway [30-33] in MDD. The finding that the QUIN/KYNA ratio was increased in patients supports the hypothesis of a netstimulation of NMDA receptors in depression [30-33]. The observation of low plasma KYNA was confirmed in a second, age- and gender-matched, healthy control cohort. Furthermore, we found that treatment with ECT induced major changes in peripheral kynurenine metabolites in patients with MDD. Thus, plasma levels of tryptophan, kynurenine, and QUIN significantly decreased after a series of three ECT administrations whereas plasma levels of KYNA did not change. Interestingly, following ...
Type 2 melastatin-related transient receptor potential channel (TRPM2), a member of the melastatin-related TRP (transient receptor potential) subfamily is a Ca(2+)-permeable channel activated by hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)). We have investigated the role of TRPM2 channels in mediating the H(2)O(2)-induced increase in the cytoplasmic free Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) in insulin-secreting cells. In fura-2 loaded INS-1E cells, a widely used model of beta-cells, and in human beta-cells, H(2)O(2) increased [Ca(2+)](i), in the presence of 3 mM glucose, by inducing Ca(2+) influx across the plasma membrane. H(2)O(2)-induced Ca(2+) influx was not blocked by nimodipine, a blocker of the L-type voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels nor by 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate, a blocker of several TRP channels and store-operated channels, but it was completely blocked by N-(p-amylcinnamoyl)anthranilic acid (ACA), a potent inhibitor of TRPM2. Adenosine diphosphate phosphate ribose, a specific activator of TRPM2 ...
All information about the latest scientific publications of the Clínica Universidad de Navarra. Tryptophan metabolites interfere with the Ehrlich reaction used for the measurement of kynurenine
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24. The method according to claim 1, wherein the compound is selected from the group consisting of: 5-(2,4-Dichloro-benzyloxy)-2-propionylamino-benzoic acid, 5-(4-Bromo-2-trifluoromethyl-benzyloxy)-2-(cyclopropanecarbonyl-amino)-be- nzoic acid, 5-(4-Fluoro-2-trifluoromethyl-benzyloxy)-2-propionylamino-benzoic acid, 5-(2,4-Bis-trifluoromethyl-benzyloxy)-2-propionylamino-benzoic acid, 5-(4-Chloro-2-trifluoromethyl-benzyloxy)-2-propionylamino-benzoic acid, 5-(2-Chloro-4-fluoro-benzyloxy)-2-propionylamino-benzoic acid, 2-(Cyclopropanecarbonyl-amino)-5-(4-fluoro-2-trifluoromethyl-benzyloxy)-b- enzoic acid, 5-(2-Bromo-4-fluoro-benzyloxy)-2-propionylamino-benzoic acid, 5-(2-Fluoro-4-trifluoromethyl-benzyloxy)-2-propionylamino-benzoic acid, 5-(2-Bromo-4-trifluoromethyl-benzyloxy)-2-propionylamino-benzoic acid, 5-(4-Chloro-3-trifluoromethyl-benzyloxy)-2-propionylamino-benzoic acid, 5-(3,4-Dibromo-benzyloxy)-2-propionylamino-benzoic acid, 5-(4-Bromo-3-chloro-benzyloxy)-2-propionylamino-benzoic acid, ...
Ethyl 2-chloro-5-nitrobenzoate 16588-17-3 NMR spectrum, Ethyl 2-chloro-5-nitrobenzoate H-NMR spectral analysis, Ethyl 2-chloro-5-nitrobenzoate C-NMR spectral analysis ect.
Methyl 4-(butyrylamino)-3-methyl-5-nitrobenzoate 152628-01-8 NMR spectrum, Methyl 4-(butyrylamino)-3-methyl-5-nitrobenzoate H-NMR spectral analysis, Methyl 4-(butyrylamino)-3-methyl-5-nitrobenzoate C-NMR spectral analysis ect.
Define pellagra: a disease marked by dermatitis, gastrointestinal disorders, and mental disturbances and associated with a diet deficient in niacin
When I was a kid, the local bakery made "frogs" for St. Patricks day - which are pretty much what the green blobs looked like, only better. My birthday is March 15th, so my aunt would buy "frogs" for the family. My older brother never ate his, we just thought it was because he wasnt much of a sweets person. Last year, he reavealed it was because of the brains in the frog. The base was yellow cupcake, topped with pink cream (later pink marshmallow), then covered with green fondant, with the face piped on. He said they gave him nightmares, and my aunt bought these for like, 15 years. I thought they were the best things ever!!. ...
When I was a kid, the local bakery made "frogs" for St. Patricks day - which are pretty much what the green blobs looked like, only better. My birthday is March 15th, so my aunt would buy "frogs" for the family. My older brother never ate his, we just thought it was because he wasnt much of a sweets person. Last year, he reavealed it was because of the brains in the frog. The base was yellow cupcake, topped with pink cream (later pink marshmallow), then covered with green fondant, with the face piped on. He said they gave him nightmares, and my aunt bought these for like, 15 years. I thought they were the best things ever!!. ...
The kynurenine pathway of tryptophan metabolism is activated by pro-inflammatory cytokines. L-kynurenine, an upstream metabolite of the pathway, acts as a putative endothelium-derived relaxing factor, and has been hypothesized to play a causative role in the pathophysiology of inflammation-induced hypotension. Here, we show that xanthurenic acid, the transamination product of 3-hydroxykynurenine, is more efficacious than L-kynurenine in causing relaxation of a resistance artery, but fails to relax pre-contracted aortic rings. In the mesenteric artery, xanthurenic acid enhanced activating phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS), and the relaxing action of xanthurenic acid was abrogated by pharmacological inhibition of NOS and endothelial-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF). Systemic injection of xanthurenic acid reduced blood pressure in mice, and serum levels of xanthurenic acid increased by several fold in response to a pulse with the endotoxin, lipopolysaccaride (LPS). LPS-induced
Antimicrobial peptides are important effector molecules of the innate immune system. Here, we describe that peptides derived from the heparin-binding disulfide-constrained loop region of human beta-amyloid precursor protein are antimicrobial. The peptides investigated were linear and cyclic forms of NWCKRGRKQCKTHPH (NWC15) as well as the cyclic form comprising the C-terminal hydrophobic amino acid extension FVIPY (NWCKRGRKQCKTHPHFVIPY; NWC20c). Compared with the benchmark antimicrobial peptide LL-37, these peptides efficiently killed the Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis, and the fungi Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis. Correspondingly, fluorescence and electron microscopy demonstrated that the peptides caused defects in bacterial membranes. Analogously, the peptides permeabilised negatively charged liposomes. Despite their bactericidal effect, the peptides displayed very limited hemolytic ...
Five new anthranilic acid derivatives, penipacids A-E (1-5), together with one known analogue (6), which was previously synthesized, were characterized from the ethyl acetate extract of the marine sediment-derived fungus Penicillium paneum SD-44. Their structures were elucidated mainly by extensive NMR spectroscopic and mass spectrometric analysis. The cytotoxicity and antimicrobial activity of the isolated compounds were evaluated. Compounds 1, and 5 exhibited inhibitory activity against human colon cancer RKO cell line, while compound 6 displayed cytotoxic activity against Hela cell line.
We observed that repeated exposure to SEB increased the expression of CD152 on SEB-specific Foxp3+CD25+CD4+ T cells and provided the cells with the capacity to regulate and control the strong primary T cell response stimulated by SEB. This regulatory function was dependent on the activation of tryptophan catabolism and could be inhibited by neutralization of CD152-B7 interactions. In addition, we also observed that CD11c+ DC from unresponsive animals acquired regulatory activity through CD152-mediated stimulation of tryptophan catabolism. DC isolated from normal or IFN-γ-deficient BALB/c mice were equally effective in up-regulating the molecule as well as in inducing tryptophan catabolism following CD152-Ig exposure. These results, in agreement with previous observations made by others (19), indicated that IFN-γ signaling was not necessary for IDO expression and activity. We conclude that repeated TCR-mediated stimulation of Foxp3+CD25+CD4+ T regulatory cells within a short period of time ...
Radical scavenging properties of tryptophan metabolites were estimated using their radical reactivity. Metabolites of the kynurenine and the melatonin biosynthesis pathway were mainly examined by use...
Definition of Quinolinic acid synthetase with photos and pictures, translations, sample usage, and additional links for more information.
La antranilato 3-monoossigenasi è un enzima appartenente alla classe delle ossidoreduttasi, che catalizza la seguente reazione: antranilato + tetraidrobiopterina + O2 ⇄ 3-idrossiantranilato + diidrobiopterina + H2O Lenzima richiede Fe2+. Jequier, E., Robinson, B.S., Lovenberg, W. and Sjoerdsma, A., Further studies on tryptophan hydroxylase in rat brainstem and beef pineal, in Biochem. Pharmacol., vol. 18, 1969, pp. 1071-1081, Entrez PubMed 5789774. Nair, P.M. and Vaidyanathan, C.S., Anthranilic acid hydroxylase from Tecoma stans, in Biochim. Biophys. Acta, vol. 110, 1965, pp. 521-531 ...
Novel chiral 4,1-benzoxazepine-2,5-diones have been unusually synthesized in a single step by exploiting the chiral pool methodology. Substituted anthranilic acids afford N-acylanthranilic acids and (3R)-3-alkyl-4,1-benzoxazepines-2,5-dione upon coupling with α-chloroacids or α-bromoacids, respectively.
Betapa dasar jalan menuju kelas web. The respiratory rate, heart rate, and lasix pulse rate also improved; however, there were no buy major differences between the buy treatment groups. Brands Classes Brand name Lasix, Frusenex, Frusemide Generic name Furosemide Chemical class Anthranilic acid derivative Therapeutic class Antihypertensive; Diuretic, loop Avail forms Tablets - Oral lasix 40 mg, 100. Desain ada dan jenis yang lasix menggabungkan komisi yang lasix menguntungkan selama saya menyadari di buy sekitar mereka. Ini diaplikasikan dalam arahan termasuk isi buku harian atau informasi sebagai hasil dari pemilik (blogger). Special information May be taken with food or milk. Further, since Lasix tends to buy drain potassium from the body, your doctor may lasix advise a buy diet rich buy in buy potassium from sources such getting lasix from canada as buy bananas and oranges or may prescribe potassium supplements. The shoreline is buy clean with a hard sand entry and. Lasix tablets will increase ...
Pellagra is a disease resulting from a nutritional deficiency, the lack of niacin, one of the B vitamins. Since pellagra is caused by lack of niacin, wh...
Pellagra is a condition thats caused by a severe niacin or tryptophan deficiency. Its characterized by dementia, dermatitis...
I rubbed your feet. You wanted to be touched, always. The sweetness of it broke my heart. Tice picked up your guitar and started playing little bits of songs here and there. We were so scared, we didnt know what to do. But he followed his true self (which, you would definitely say, is always the right thing to do) and in that moment, the music was everything ...
today, the energy shifted. i made a conscious effort to do just that, and i did it in the smallest way. i decided to pick up an old faithful - East of Eden (perhaps my favorite book of all time???!!!), and began the first chapter on the bus on the way to work on a deserted highway ...
hm . gila sengal kott hari niee . lagi terok siot hari niee ramai taa datangg . ish3 . next week lagi ramainye kan , sbb naa dekat raya dahh oh . ngee! LOL . bengong kott naem hari niee . larh . saya engad dea kenal selama niee shahrul saya tuu , so selama niee dea pandeyy sebot jelah . ye lahh , ikot azim kann . mmg macam tuu . koya parok ! taa kenal rupenye mamat niee si shahrul tuu . HAHA . nganjengg saya punye lahh segala macam bagai je . last last bole pulak tanye saya " weyy , shahrul tuu umur brape ? " naa gelak saya rase mase tuu . tapi mase tuu saya tgah termenung kott , so taa dengar sangat lahh apee dea cakap . then apih terang terang kan sikitt , baru lahh " haa . lahh shahrul hakim tuu ke . yang tinggi tinggi , yang puteh puteh tuu . " ngee! hotak kau lembap betol naa pick-up kan naem , gila slengaa ahh kau niee . pastuu si naem niee buat statement yang saya sendiri taa tahuu menahuu . ntah pape meyh ! WTF punye statement haa ? naem cakapp , " aqib cakap mase skola rendah , kau suke ...
The UAB Digital Collections contain a variety of digitized materials designed to support the teaching and research of UAB faculty, students, the community and beyond.. ...
Buy The Joint by fobee on AudioJungle. Deep Electronica track, melodic yet melancholic and beautiful. Lots of Fx, synths, bass and many gorgeous pads. Works...
Sorrow: My roommate had just left, had to move out due to university rules. I... kinda feel melancholic now, coz I like him as a friend. We might only knew each other for 3 months, but it was a good experience after all the bad things that revolves around me and my IRL friends last year. He kinda restored my faith on the word friendship as a whole. So... yeah. Sad me ...
© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) plays a key role in immune homeostasis via depletion of tryptophan and accumulation of kynurenines and is recognized as an important factor contributing to suppression of antitumor immune responses. However, the possibility of harnessing the IDO pathway for the therapy of autoimmune disease represents an intriguing possibility, and in this review, we highlight recent research on the involvement of IDO in immune-mediated infl ammatory diseases, with a focus on rheumatoid arthritis. Inhibition of IDO was shown to exacerbate experimental arthritis and increase numbers of pathogenic Th1 and Th17 cells in the joints and draining lymph nodes. Analysis of the kinetics of expression of kynurenine pathway enzymes in animal models also pointed to a potential role for tryptophan metabolites in disease resolution and administration of L -kynurenine or [3,4-dimethoxycinnamonyl]-anthranilic acid (a synthetic derivative of 3
2003) A Short History of Nearly Everything, Sydney, Australia: Doubleday. Danish University Antidepressant Group (1986) Citalopram. Clinical effect profile and comparison with clomipramine: a controlled multicenter study. Psychopharmacology, 90, 131-138. Danish University Antidepressant Group (1990) Paroxetine. a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor showing better tolerance, but weaker antidepressant effect than clomipramine in a controlled multicenter study. Journal of Affective Disorder, 18, 289-299. Furthermore, boundaries between depression with psychotic features and bipolar depressions remain a clinical quagmire. 2. Is melancholic depression ready to be classified as a distinct subtype of depressive disorders? On the basis of inconsistent data on psychobiological validators of melancholic depression, Rush and Weissenburger (1994) recommended retaining melancholic features as one of the DSM-IV depression specifiers and noted that further research to test their distinct biological and ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Reactome is pathway database which provides intuitive bioinformatics tools for the visualisation, interpretation and analysis of pathway knowledge.
Students examine a case study documenting the experience of three teens in the 1920s era with a disease (Pellagra) which was prevalent throughout the United States, most particularly in persons with a corn based diet. They create a brochureelating to the topic.
IDO1 / INDO, 0.1 ml. This gene encodes indoleamine 2,3-dioxygese (IDO) - a heme enzyme that catalyzes the first and rate-limiting step in tryptophan catabolism to N-formyl-kynurenine.
Debut album from APHRA - the electropop alter-ego of Philadelphias Rebecca Waychunas - is challenging, melancholic, and fascinating to hear
haa. tu la list barang ak beli. makan tak kira lagi. sampai2 je kat CS tu terus melantak mekdi. kami pegi 5 org sume. ak, ecah, wawa, k.jannah & nisah. haha. nisah dah buat kitorang glemer jap kat mekdi tu. boleh dia sendawa KOATT GILA ! tu baru sendawa. sekali dia gelak. NYARINGNYA !!! semua pakwe makwe kat situ tgk meja kitorang. kitorang melantak gelak punya kuat kat situ..hahaha..gila lah wei !! : ...
Osteopetrosis is a bone disease that makes bones abnormally dense and prone to breakage (fracture). Researchers have described several major types of osteopetrosis, which are usually distinguished by their pattern of inheritance: autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, or X-linked. The different types of the disorder can also be distinguished by the severity of their signs and symptoms. Mutations in at least nine genes cause the various types of osteopetrosis ...
In a little more than 10 years, the kynurenine metabolites of tryptophan have emerged from their former position as biochemical curiosities, to occupy a prominent position in research on the causes and treatment of several major CNS disorders. The pathway includes two compounds, quinolinic acid and kynurenic acid, which are remarkably specific in their pharmacological profiles: one is a selective agonist at receptors sensitive to NMDA, whereas the other is a selective antagonist at low concentrations at the strychnine-resistant glycine modulatory site associated with the NMDA receptor. It has been argued that these agents cannot be of physiological or pathological relevance because their normal extracellular concentrations, in the nanomolar range, are at least 3 orders of magnitude lower than those required to act at NMDA receptors. This is a facile argument, however, that ignores at least two possibilities. One is that both quinolinate and kynurenate may be present in very high concentrations ...
به منظور بررسی اثر باکتری های محرک رشد در تلفیق با کودهای شیمیائی و آلی بر عملکرد کمی و غلظت عناصر غذایی سورگوم رقم پگاه، آزمایشی به صورت طرح بلوک کامل تصادفی با 3 تکرار طی فصل زراعی 91-90 در موسسه تحقیقات برنج رشت انجام شد. تیمارهای مورد استفاده، بدون کود و بدون تلقیح (شاهد)، استفاده از کود شیمیائی و بدون تلقیح، تلقیح بذر باPseudomonas fluorescens strain 12 +Azotobacter chroococcum strain 41 + بدون کود شیمیایی، تلقیح بذر با P. fluorescens strain 12+A. chroococcum strain 41 + 50 درصد کود شیمیائی، تلقیح بذر باP. fluorescens strain 12 +A. chroococcum strain 41 + 75 درصد کود شیمیائی، استفاده از ورمی-کمپوست (6 تن در هکتار) و بدون کود شیمیایی،
Quinolinic acid (QA) is a product of tryptophan degradation and may serve as a precursor for nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+), an important enzymatic cofactor for enzymes such as the DNA repair protein poly(adenosine diphsophate[ADP]-ribose)polymerase. Pathologic accumulation of QA has been found in neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimers and Huntingtons disease, where it is thought to be toxic for neurons by activating the NMDA receptor and inducing excitotoxicity. While many tumors including gliomas constitutively catabolize tryptophan, it is unclear whether QA is produced in gliomas and whether it is involved in tumor progression. Here we show that QA accumulated in human gliomas and was associated with a malignant phenotype. QA was produced by microglial cells as expression of the QA-producing enzyme 3-hydroxyanthranilate oxygenase (HAAO) was confined to microglia in glioma tissue. Human malignant glioma cells but not non-neoplastic astrocytes expressed quinolinic acid ...
Pellagra is a vitamin deficiency disease most commonly caused by a chronic lack of niacin (vitamin B3) in the diet. Native New World cultivators who had domesticated corn that required treatment of the grain with lime, an alkali. It has now been shown that the lime treatment makes niacin nutritionally available and reduces the chance of developing pellagra. Pellagra became common only when corn became a staple that was eaten without the traditional treatment. In the early 1900s, pellagra reached epidemic proportions in the American South. There were 1,306 reported pellagra deaths in South Carolina during the first ten months of 1915; 100,000 Southerners were affected in 1916. At this time, the scientific community held that pellagra was probably caused by a germ or some unknown toxin in corn. The Spartanburg Pellagra Hospital in Spartanburg, South Carolina, was the nations first facility dedicated to discovering the cause of pellagra. It was established in 1914 with a special congressional ...
Global Quinolinic Acid Market Research Report is a professional and in-depth research report on the worlds major regional market conditions of the Quinolinic
An endogenous NMDA receptor agonist and neurotoxin produced in the kynurenine pathway. May be responsible for the pathogenesis of several major neuroinflammatory diseases, particularly AIDS dementia.. http://www.jneuroinflammation.com/content/2/1/16 Article in the Journal of Neuroinflammation (2005). ...
A First Insight into Pycnoporus sanguineus BAFC 2126 Transcriptome. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
hydroxanthommatin: structure given in first source; a free radical derived from hydroxanthomatin is detected with the oxidation of 3-hydroxykynurenine by horseradish peroxidase and hydrogen peroxide
Kriya Yoga - A bridge between the inner and the outer world. Kriya Yoga - to the depth of your nature. Time for Learning… Time for Insight… Time for Teaching…. On Sadhana - on cycles in healing and learning, and on keeping Silence during the initiation in Kriya Yoga. The Greenhouse, the Process and the Ritual - On initiating and being initiated into advanced Kriya Yoga. Mapping the brains activity after Kriya Yoga. ...
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You should be able to feel around under the door to see if the flange is there. I have used the generic and found it to be good quality and fits just like the original. But if having original parts is worth it to you, look at 81-098 without flanges, or 81-244 for the one with flanges. I have only seen these 2 types of rollers referenced to Pella. If you know of others, Im curious ...
Dr. Coles article reports on the "successful" treatment by blood transfusion of a pellagra patient at the Mt. Vernon Hospital. In this case, blood from a recovered pellagra patient was given to one suffering the advanced stages of the disease. The ...
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Concentrations of KP metabolites in the supernatants of IFN-γ activated PBMCs.Levels of KP metabolites: tryptophan (TRP) and kynurenine (KYN)-shown as TRP:KYN
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Quinolinic acid is an endogenous NMDA agonist. Quinolinic acid is a metabolite of tryptophan that acts as a putative NMDA receptor agonist. Quinolinic acid is an excitotoxic metabolite and an agonist of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors. properties of KYNA raise the possibility of a functional link between KYNA and QUIN in the brain which may be of relevance for an understanding of human neurodegenerative disorders. Quinolinic acid is a potent endogenous excitant at amino acid receptors in CNS.. ...
The enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO, EC 1.13.11.42) belongs to the family of heme-containing oxidoreductases and catalyzes the first and rate-limiting step in the kynurenine pathway, the major pathway of tryptophan metabolism. IDO is folded into one large and one small distinct α-helical domains, with the heme prosthetic ring positioned between them. The enzyme, through the oxidative properties of the Fe3+ atom present at the centre of the heme ring, catalyses the oxidative cleavage of the pyrrole ring of L-Trp to generate N-formyl-kynurenine. The active IDO conformer exists only in the presence of reducing cofactors (such as cytochrome b5), requiring the single electron reduction of ferric-to-ferrous iron (Fe3+ Fe2+), which facilitates binding of L-Trp and O2 to the enzyme active site. IDO, through production of kynurenine and other downstream metabolites, can regulate immune responses, suppressing effector T-cell function and favouring the differentiation of regulatory T cells. Local ...
This gene encodes a heme enzyme that plays a critical role in tryptophan metabolism by catalyzing the first and rate-limiting step of the kynurenine pathway. Increased activity of the encoded protein and subsequent kynurenine production may also play a role in cancer through the suppression of antitumor immune responses, and single nucleotide polymorphisms in this gene may be associated with autism. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2012 ...
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Director Noah Buschels melancholic neo-modern yarn about a hard-drinking private eye (Revolutionary Roads? Michael Shannon) tracking a man reported missing…
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The fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) was released in May 2013. There are several proposed revisions to occur in the diagnostic criteria of Bipolar I Disorder and its subtypes. For Bipolar I Disorder 296.40 Most Recent Episode Hypomanic and 296.4x Most Recent Episode Manic, the proposed revision includes the following specifiers: with Psychotic Features, with Mixed Features, with Catatonic Features, with Rapid Cycling, with Anxiety (mild to severe), with Suicide Risk Severity, with Seasonal Pattern, and with Postpartum Onset. Bipolar I Disorder 296.5x Most Recent Episode Depressed will include all of the above specifiers plus the following: with Melancholic Features and with Atypical Features. The categories for specifiers will be removed in DSM-5 and part A will add "or there are at least 3 symptoms of Major Depression of which one of the symptoms is depressed mood or anhedonia. For Bipolar I Disorder 296.7 Most Recent Episode Unspecified, the ...
The primary aim of this study was to investigate the effects of seed inoculation with the biocontrol agent Pseudomonas fluorescens strain F113 (producing the antibiotic DAPG) and its modified derivative strain F113G22 (with DAPG production disrupted) on the uptake of nitrogen by pea and wheat plants. Uptake of N by the two plant species was investigated in soil microcosms amended with 15N-labelled fertilisers (urea or ammonium nitrate) or 15N-labelled plant residues. Uptake of fertiliser-N was unaffected by inoculation. However, uptake of N derived from organic residues was enhanced in pea inoculated with either strain. In contrast, uptake of N by wheat was reduced in the presence of either strain F113 or F113G22, suggesting that the effects of these microbial inocula on N-mineralisation in the rhizosphere were dependent on plant species. It was subsequently found that microfaunal populations, especially soil nematodes in the rhizosphere of inoculated pea were significantly larger than those ...
Accepted name: tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase. Reaction: L-tryptophan + O2 = N-formyl-L-kynurenine. For diagram, click here. Other name(s): tryptophan pyrrolase (ambiguous); tryptophanase; tryptophan oxygenase; tryptamine 2,3-dioxygenase; tryptophan peroxidase; indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (ambiguous); indolamine 2,3-dioxygenase (ambiguous); L-tryptophan pyrrolase; TDO; L-tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase; L-tryptophan:oxygen 2,3-oxidoreductase (decyclizing). Systematic name: L-tryptophan:oxygen 2,3-oxidoreductase (ring-opening). Comments: A protohemoprotein. In mammals, the enzyme appears to be located only in the liver. This enzyme, together with EC 1.13.11.52, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, catalyses the first and rate-limiting step in the kynurenine pathway, the major pathway of tryptophan metabolism [5]. The enzyme is specific for tryptophan as substrate, but is far more active with L-tryptophan than with D-tryptophan [2]. Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, Metacyc, PDB, CAS registry number: ...
Although pellagra is a recognized complication of isoniazid therapy, the diagnosis may be overlooked or delayed--sometimes with life-threatening consequences. We report a case of isoniazid-induced pellagra which occurred despite pyridoxine supplementation. Drug withdrawal and supplementation with niacin led to a rapid and sustained clinical improvement. The possible mechanisms of isoniazid induced pellagra are discussed.
Breakdown of tryptophan to kynurenine by the enzyme indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) inhibits T cell responses and promotes immune tolerance. Tryptophan degradation by IDO in tumor cells is associated with immune evasion and increased tumor growth (see commentary by Prendergast). Thus, better understanding of how tryptophan catabolism affects immune responses might help to develop anticancer therapies. Opitz et al. found that cultured human glioma cell lines and glioma-initiating cells degraded tryptophan and produced large quantities of kynurenine. Knockdown of IDO isoforms in these cells had no effect on tryptophan metabolism; rather, knockdown of another tryptophan-degrading enzyme, TDO, blocked production of kynurenine. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that the abundance of TDO correlated with malignancy in human brain tumors. The amount of kynurenine produced by glioma cells correlated with inhibition of the proliferation of cocultured T cells. Knockdown of TDO in glioma cells restored ...
Wide range of quinazolinone biological properties including: antibacterial, anticancer, and anti-inflammatory activities encouraged us to synthesis some fused quinazolinone derivatives. Anthranilic acid was condensed with chloro acylchloride followed by dehydration to form the benzoxazinone intermediate; subsequent addition of an amine provided the fused quinazolinones. Deoxyvasicinone which was previously synthesized by a multi step complex reactions was prepared in three steps using the following procedure: Log P values of the compounds were measured using the shake flask method in octanol/water solvent system. The synthesized compounds were evaluated against six strains of bacteria (three Gram-positive and three Gram-negative) and three strains of fungi. Overall results of antimicrobial tests showed that the compounds had better bacteriostatic activity against Gram-negative bacteria. The obtained results of MBC revealed that these compounds had more significant bacteriostatic than bactericidal
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In the developed world, pellagra is a rare condition that is restricted to a small number of at-risk groups. It mainly affects alcoholic patients and those with dietary deficiencies, with intestinal malabsorption, or in tre
Kalau dah nama entry part 3, for surela nak sambung cerita pasal rumah 2kan.hehe. Korg dah baca kisah aku kt Pdg Jawa tu? seram kan? ahaa. Hari ke-2 mencari rumah berjalan lancar setelah misi pertama gagal. Bangun pagi2 kteorg bersiap sedia nak pergi mencari rumah. Haa yang tak boleh bla tu mak cik yang nak sewakan rumah kat Pdg Jawa tu call nana pagi tu. Eh? wujud rupanya mak cik tu. hehe. Aku ingatkan mak cik tu tak wujud. Korg nak tau, rupanya yang dia tak agkat call tu hp die tertinggal dalam kereta. haa cool tak?? kteorg punyala bersusah payah cari rumah dia sesedap hati je kan.... Mak cik tu suruh datang petang nanti tengok rumah tu. Kiteorg semua memang dah tak de hati dah nak pergi, kang sesat barat lagi. Uishh.. Tapi kiteorg pergi jugak tengok rumah tu tanpa makcik tula, rumah tu takdela pulak papan tanda Jalan Kundang Dua. Pelik2. Korang rajin tengok cerita indon kan? haa rumah kat situ macam kat Indonla.hehe. Kalau korg nak duduk tak? mesti tak nak kan? hehe. Ok abaikanla cerita mak ...
Jennifer Radden here provides a re-interpretation of the classic text by 17th century scholar Robert Burton, The Anatomy of Melancholy. Her new reading of Burtons essential text brings several key facets of his thought to light: the role of imagination in inciting and averting melancholy as disorder; the part played by daily habits of thought in engendering severe and incurable conditions; the multi-directional feedback loops linking fee
Haunting is an important component of the uncanny, yet it is always the question rather than the answer that is key to the definition. In studies of hauntings, spatialization has been the classic starting point. In haunted houses and haunted castles: ghosts are almost always locked into buildings and ancient sites. Ruins have traditionally been thought of as uncanny, haunted places. As well as simply being the traces of the buildings in which people long since dead once lived, ruins have themselves often been figured as skeletons, corpses or ghosts. The sight of a ghost is necessarily spatial. Indeed, the idea of a haunted place depends upon the very materiality of a ghost assuming a habitual routine in place. As scholar of the uncanny Dylan Trigg observes, "a placeless ghost is, after all, as inconceivable as a placeless memory; the shadow in the hallway does not linger aimlessly, but dwells in a specific place, indeed, if not even in specific things within that place. The sense, therefore, of ...
Brassicas Hayat Zor blends rave-nostalgia, 80s electro-pop and Italo, all shot through with a melancholic, wistful air of analog synths, vintage drum machines, and live instrumentation. Remixes from Gavin Russom and Petrels, released 18th November 2013.
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Poliovirus induces indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase and quinolinic acid synthesis in macaque brain. AU - Heyes, M. P.. AU - Saito, Kuniaki. AU - Jacobowitz, D.. AU - Markey, S. P.. AU - Takikawa, O.. AU - Vickers, J. H.. PY - 1992/1/1. Y1 - 1992/1/1. N2 - Accumulation of the neurotoxin quinolinic acid within the brain occurs in a broad spectrum of patients with inflammatory neurologic disease and may be of neuropathologic significance. The production of quinolinic acid was postulated to reflect local induction of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase by cytokines in reactive cells and inflammatory cell infiltrates within the central nervous system. To test this hypothesis, macaques received an intraspinal injection of poliovirus as a model of localized inflammatory neurologic disease. Seventeen days later, spinal cord indoleamine 2,3- dioxygenase activity and quinolinic acid concentrations in spinal cord and cerebrospinal fluid were both increased in proportion to the degree of inflammatory ...
The neurotoxic actions of quinolinic acid in the central nervous system. Article date: 1986/3/1 PubMed ID: 2939936 Journal name: Canadian journal of physiology and pharmacology (ISSN: 0008-4212) ABSTRACT Excitotoxins such as kainic acid, ibotenic acid, and quinolinic acid are a group of molecules structurally related to glutamate or aspartate. They are capable of exciting neurons and producing axon sparing neuronal degeneration. Quinolinic acid (QUIN), an endogenous metabolite of th…
The crystal structures of six novel salts of 4-nitrobenzoic acid - namely, 2-hydroxyethylammonium 4-nitrobenzoate (I), 2-hydroxypropylammonium 4-nitrobenzoate (II), 1-(hydroxymethyl)propylammonium 4-nitrobenzoate (III), 3-hydroxypropylammonium 4-nitrobenzoate (IV), bis-(2-hydroxyethylammonium) 4-nitrobenzoate (V), morpholinium 4-nitrobenzoate (VI) - containing the same anion but different cations have been studied. The ionic forms of I-VI serve as building blocks of the supramolecular architecture, and in crystals they are held together via ionic N-H···O and O-H···O hydrogen bonds. In the crystal packing the building blocks of I-III are self-assembled via N-H...O, O-H···O and C-H...O hydrogen bonds to form the chains which are further consolidated into two-dimensional layers by the same type of interactions. In IV-VI the chain-like structures have been generated by building blocks ...
Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are relatively common neurodevelopmental conditions whose biological basis has been incompletely determined. Several biochemical markers have been associated with ASDs
A 56-year-old man with a history of heavy alcohol consumption (100 g/day for 2 years) had disorientation and memory disturbance for 4 months. He was unable to walk because of instability and ...
Translation of pellagra at Merriam-Websters Spanish-English Dictionary. Audio pronunciations, verb conjugations, quizzes and more.
Kynureninase is a pyridoxal-5\-phosphate (pyridoxal-P) dependent enzyme that catalyzes the cleavage of L-kynurenine and L-3-hydroxykynurenine into…
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10 PAGES The Flora Journal- 1 PARTdte =h. TOU SHOHtO RBAD THE JOUpNALJIEOORD ^THB NEWSIBST NEWSPAPER IN CLAY OOUfinY Etc VOLUME XII ™« OUBHAI.. VoL 69. NO. 49 FLORA. ILUNOIS. THURSDAY. DECEMBER 6. 1923 NUMBER 12 r : . 1^ THE CHRISTMAS GIFT OF TllE FLORA JOURNAL-RECORD wm Ba Qtwen fir FlftMn Day*, Baglaiilng TtlAer, D«eemb« 7th, Continotaig UMtll and Indudlnf Noiday. DMember 24th, ClurMiiMui Ere v.i_.-." , x.v-«-" tba adttor of tiM Vlora jonmal-RMord haa bean doing the best he eonld. aided by a loyal offlee tore* nad nn nggmslwa, wlda- ftwnke bnneh of eorreaptmdenta and apacM wHtorf. to gtvn tho peo»Ie ot norm nnd Clny Conaty an np-to-data bottapagat during tha fonr .yeare-ba haa been loeatad In the matropoUa ot tha commonwealth of Clay. . "Hutt onr combined efforts bara beon appraelated ia eah- ¦tnAtlally attested by the loyal support aad patronage of the good people of this city and rlelnlty, thus maklnc the Jonrnal-Reeord ano¬ ceasful In erery sense of the word. At this ...

3-hydroxyanthranilic acid | definition of 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid by Medical dictionary3-hydroxyanthranilic acid | definition of 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid by Medical dictionary

What is 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid? Meaning of 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid medical term. What does 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid mean? ... Looking for online definition of 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid in the Medical Dictionary? 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid explanation ... and formiminoglutamic acid, were determined by liquid chromatography--tandem mass spectrometry (14-17), and methylmalonic acid ... kynurenic acid, anthranilic acid, 3-hydroxykynurenine, xanthurenic acid, 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid, ...
more infohttp://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/3-hydroxyanthranilic+acid

3-hydroxyanthranilic acid - Substance Information - ECHA3-hydroxyanthranilic acid - Substance Information - ECHA

3-hydroxyanthranilic acid. ↓Other names: Regulatory process names [2] IUPAC names [2] ...
more infohttps://echa.europa.eu/fr/substance-information/-/substanceinfo/100.008.148

3-Hydroxyanthranilic acid - Wikipedia3-Hydroxyanthranilic acid - Wikipedia

Mechanism of Formation of Quinolinic Acid". Journal of Biological Chemistry. 234 (4): 880-883. PMID 13654282. Retrieved 2015-09 ... 3-Hydroxyanthranilic acid is an intermediate in the metabolism of tryptophan. It is new antioxidant isolated from methanol ... "3-Hydroxyanthranilic acid". Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Inc. Retrieved 2015-09-24. Armarego, Wilfred L.F.; Chai, Christina L.L. ( ... 44 (3): 696. doi:10.1021/jf950454t. HAA concentration graph in lyophilized tempeh powder extract (in Indonesian). ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/3-Hydroxyanthranilic_acid

3-Hydroxyanthranilic acid oxygenase-containing astrocytic processes surround glutamate-containing axon terminals in the rat...3-Hydroxyanthranilic acid oxygenase-containing astrocytic processes surround glutamate-containing axon terminals in the rat...

Since quinolinic acid is known to enter the extracellular compartment readily, these results suggest that astrocytic quinolinic ... In order to explore the anatomical basis of possible functional interactions between glutamate and quinolinic acid in the rat ... is the biosynthetic enzyme for quinolinic acid, an endogenous agonist of the NMDA glutamate receptor subtype and a potent ... 3-Hydroxyanthranilic acid oxygenase-containing astrocytic processes surround glutamate-containing axon terminals in the rat ...
more infohttp://www.jneurosci.org/content/15/2/1150

bmse000321  3-Hydroxyanthranilic Acid at BMRBbmse000321 3-Hydroxyanthranilic Acid at BMRB

A Repository for Data from NMR Spectroscopy on Proteins, Peptides, Nucleic Acids, and other Biomolecules Member of ... Benzoic acid, 2-amino-3-hydroxy-; benzoic acid, 2-amino-3-hydroxy-; 2-amino-3-hydroxybenzoic acid; 2-Amino-3-hydroxy-benzoic ... 2-amino-3-hydroxybenzoic acid. PUBCHEM iupac TRADITIONAL NAME: PUBCHEM iupac OPENEYE NAME: PUBCHEM iupac SYSTEMATIC NAME. 2- ... 3-Hydroxyanthranilic Acid bmse000321 - Data 3-Hydroxyanthranilic Acid synonyms. 2-AMINO-3-HYDROXY-BENZOIC ACID; 3-Hydroxy- ...
more infohttp://bmrb.wisc.edu/metabolomics/mol_summary/?molName=3-Hydroxyanthranilic+acid

High neopterin and IP-10 levels in cerebrospinal fluid are associated with neurotoxic tryptophan metabolites in acute central...High neopterin and IP-10 levels in cerebrospinal fluid are associated with neurotoxic tryptophan metabolites in acute central...

... kynurenic acid; KYNU, kynureninase; QA, quinolinic acid; PIC, picolinic acid; TRP, tryptophan; XA, xanthurenic acid. Bold box ... xanthurenic acid [XA], QA, picolinic acid [PIC], and neopterin were analyzed in CSF and serum by liquid chromatography-tandem ... Quinolinic acid in cerebrospinal fluid and serum in HIV-1 infection: relationship to clinical and neurological status. Ann ... Valle M, Price RW, Nilsson A, Heyes M, Verotta D. CSF quinolinic acid levels are determined by local HIV infection: cross- ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1186%2Fs12974-018-1366-3

Aminobenzoates - DrugBankAminobenzoates - DrugBank

Flufenamic Acid. Prostaglandin G/H synthase 1. target. DB02266. Flufenamic Acid. Solute carrier family 22 member 6. transporter ... Aminosalicylic Acid. Group IIE secretory phospholipase A2. target. DB00233. Aminosalicylic Acid. Prostaglandin G/H synthase 2. ... Flufenamic Acid. Androgen receptor. target. DB02266. Flufenamic Acid. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha. target ... 4-(DIMETHYLAMINO)BENZOIC ACID. Replicase polyprotein 1ab. target. DB08748. 4-(DIMETHYLAMINO)BENZOIC ACID. Orf1a polyprotein. ...
more infohttps://www.drugbank.ca/categories/DBCAT000585

haao - 3-hydroxyanthranilate 3,4-dioxygenase - Xenopus laevis (African clawed frog) - haao gene & proteinhaao - 3-hydroxyanthranilate 3,4-dioxygenase - Xenopus laevis (African clawed frog) - haao gene & protein

Catalyzes the oxidative ring opening of 3-hydroxyanthranilate to 2-amino-3-carboxymuconate semialdehyde, which spontaneously ... p>This subsection of the Function section describes the interaction between a single amino acid and another chemical entity. ... p>This subsection of the Function section describes the interaction between a single amino acid and another chemical entity. ... p>This subsection of the Function section describes the interaction between a single amino acid and another chemical entity. ...
more infohttp://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/Q6P7I0

de la Fuente A[au] - PubMed - NCBIde la Fuente A[au] - PubMed - NCBI

Overexpression of kynurenic acid and 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid after rat traumatic brain injury. ... The Response Regulator YycF Inhibits Expression of the Fatty Acid Biosynthesis Repressor FabT in Streptococcus pneumoniae. ... 3.. Branched clonal evolution: nodal follicular lymphoma and primary diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the central nervous ... 3, 3, 5-triiodo-L-thyronine Increases In Vitro Chondrogenesis of Mesenchymal Stem Cells From Human Umbilical Cord Stroma ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?cmd=search&term=de+la+Fuente+A%5Bau%5D&dispmax=50

ANTHRANILIC ACID PRODUCTSANTHRANILIC ACID PRODUCTS

N-(4-Chloro-1-naphthyl)anthranilic acid 51671-14-8. N-(4-Chloro-alpha,alpha,alpha-trifluoro-o-tolyl)anthranilic acid. 51679-39- ... N-((m-Bromophenoxy)acetyl)-5-chloroanthranilic acid. 70796-19-9. N-(1-(Dimethylcarbamoyl)ethyl)anthranilic acid ethyl ester ... 4,5-Dimethoxyanthranilic acid 5653-40-7. 4-Acetamido-5-((2-methoxy-5-((2-(sulphooxy)ethyl)sulphonyl)phenyl)azo)anthranilic acid ... N-(m-Trifluoromethoxyphenyl)anthranilic acid. 51679-40-4. N-(N-(2-Bromoethyl)carbamoyl)anthranilic acid methyl ester 102583-94 ...
more infohttp://www.chemicalland21.com/info/ANTHRANILIC%20ACID%20PRODUCTS.htm

BNA1 - 3-hydroxyanthranilate 3,4-dioxygenase - Podospora anserina (strain S / ATCC MYA-4624 / DSM 980 / FGSC 10383) (Pleurage...BNA1 - 3-hydroxyanthranilate 3,4-dioxygenase - Podospora anserina (strain S / ATCC MYA-4624 / DSM 980 / FGSC 10383) (Pleurage...

Catalyzes the oxidative ring opening of 3-hydroxyanthranilate to 2-amino-3-carboxymuconate semialdehyde, which spontaneously ... Biosynthesis of nicotinic acid protein 1UniRule annotation. ,p>Manual validated information which has been generated by the ... p>This subsection of the Function section describes the interaction between a single amino acid and another chemical entity. ... p>This subsection of the Function section describes the interaction between a single amino acid and another chemical entity. ...
more infohttp://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/B2AAJ5

Human Metabolome Database: Showing metabocard for Cinnavalininate (HMDB0004078)Human Metabolome Database: Showing metabocard for Cinnavalininate (HMDB0004078)

Cinnavalininate, also known as cinnabarinic acid or cinnabarinate, is a member of the class of compounds known as phenoxazines ... InChI=1S/C14H8N2O6/c15-10-6(17)4-8-12(9(10)14(20)21)16-11-5(13(18)19)2-1-3-7(11)22-8/h1-4H,15H2,(H,18,19)(H,20,21) ... It is generated from 3-hydroxyanthranilate via the enzyme catalase (EC:1.11.1.6)... ...
more infohttp://www.hmdb.ca/metabolites/HMDB04078

SCOP: Superfamily: RmlC-like cupinsSCOP: Superfamily: RmlC-like cupins

Quercetin 2,3-dioxygenase-like [75035] (2) Share a common two-domain fold with the 7S protein; there is a metal-binding site in ... Pfam 06052; 3-HAO *Acetylacetone-cleaving enzyme-like [159293] (1) PfamB 026844 *VPA0057-like [159296] (1) Pfam 06865; DUF1255 ... Type I phosphomannose isomerase [51191] (3) Share a common two-domain fold with the 7S protein; there is a metal-binding site ... Gentisate 1,2-dioxygenase-like [159299] (3) Share a common two-domain fold with the 7S protein; there is a metal-binding site ...
more infohttp://scop.mrc-lmb.cam.ac.uk/scop/data/scop.b.c.bdi.b.html

Chemotaxis of Burkholderia sp. Strain SJ98 towards chloronitroaromatic compounds that it can metabolise | BMC Microbiology |...Chemotaxis of Burkholderia sp. Strain SJ98 towards chloronitroaromatic compounds that it can metabolise | BMC Microbiology |...

2-chloro-3-nitrophenol (2C3NP), 4-chloro-2-nitrophenol (4C2NP), 2-chloro-4-nitrobenzoate (2C4NB), 4-chloro-2-nitrobenzoate ( ... glacial acetic acid in methanol and 1% glacial acetic acid in the ratio 80:20 at a constant flow rate of 1.0 ml.min-1 as the ... sulphanilic acid, nitric acid and all the high quality growth media from local vendors. Calibrated capillary tubes (10 μl) used ... 5-dinitrobenzoic acid in aqueous solutions. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2004, 23: 1129-1135. 10.1897/03-73.PubMedView ArticleGoogle ...
more infohttps://bmcmicrobiol.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2180-12-19

KAKEN - Research Projects | Significance of soluble Fas and its related cytokines in serum of rheumatoid arthritis patients. ...KAKEN - Research Projects | Significance of soluble Fas and its related cytokines in serum of rheumatoid arthritis patients. ...

12(3). 241-247 (2000). *. Description. 「研究成果報告書概要(和文)」より ... Publications] Morita.T: 3-Hydroxyanthranilic acid, AL-Tryptophan metabolite, induces apoptosis in monocyte-derived cell ... Publications] Morita.T: 3-Hydroxyanthranilic acid, AL-Tryptophan metabolite, induces apoptosis in monocyte-derived cell ... Publications] MORITA Toshiko, et al: 3-Hydroxyanthranilic Acid, AL-Tryptophan Metabolite, Induces Apoptosis in Monocyte- ...
more infohttps://kaken.nii.ac.jp/grant/KAKENHI-PROJECT-10671352/

Tryptophan-2,3-dioxygenase (TDO) inhibition ameliorates neurodegeneration by modulation of kynurenine pathway metabolites | PNASTryptophan-2,3-dioxygenase (TDO) inhibition ameliorates neurodegeneration by modulation of kynurenine pathway metabolites | PNAS

1981) Quinolinic acid: A potent endogenous excitant at amino acid receptors in CNS. Eur J Pharmacol 72(4):411-412. ... 1984) Kynurenic acid blocks neurotoxicity and seizures induced in rats by the related brain metabolite quinolinic acid. ... 1990) Determination of extracellular kynurenic acid in the striatum of unanesthetized rats: Effect of aminooxyacetic acid. ... propionic acids, kynurenic acid, and related metabolites as luminophores and free-radical scavengers. Adv Exp Med Biol 467:389- ...
more infohttps://www.pnas.org/content/113/19/5435.full

IL-17 and Therapeutic Kynurenines in Pathogenic Inflammation to Fungi | The Journal of ImmunologyIL-17 and Therapeutic Kynurenines in Pathogenic Inflammation to Fungi | The Journal of Immunology

... an early amino acid catabolite of l-tryptophan in the IDO-dependent pathway (22). These data expand on previous data of ... in which STAT3 as well as retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor (ROR)γ and more recently RORα (40) mediate lineage ... 3⇓ and Refs 2 and 3). These observations also suggest that IDO and kynurenines, in their capacity to induce Tregs and inhibit ... FIGURE 3. Metabolic regulation of Th17/Treg lineage decision; the opposing roles of IL-17 and kynurenines. In its ability to ...
more infohttp://www.jimmunol.org/content/180/8/5157

CiNii Articles - 大野 武男CiNii Articles - 大野 武男

Original Reports,The effect of glucuronic acid on the blood sulfonamide concentration and its acetylation (1959) ... Gas Chromatography of Urinary Anthranilic Acid and 3-Hydroxyanthranilic Acid by Solvent Extraction Method (1972) ... 3. 割合関係の系統的指導 (小学校第5分科会 割合(その1)) (1964) ... Fluorometric Determination of Urinary Phosphate with 3-Hydroxy-3, 4-dimethoxyflavone-magnesium
more infohttps://ci.nii.ac.jp/author?q=%E5%A4%A7%E9%87%8E+%E6%AD%A6%E7%94%B7

Antibodies / Antigens | Buy Direct | Eagle BiosciencesAntibodies / Antigens | Buy Direct | Eagle Biosciences

Anti-Conjugated Anthranilic Acid Polyclonal Antibody. SKU: IS1013. $750.00 Add to cart ...
more infohttps://eaglebio.com/product-category/all-products/antibodies-antigens/

3-hydroxyanthranilate 3,4-dioxygenase - Wikipedia3-hydroxyanthranilate 3,4-dioxygenase - Wikipedia

In enzymology, a 3-hydroxyanthranilate 3,4-dioxygenase (EC 1.13.11.6) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction 3- ... DECKER RH, KANG HH, LEACH FR, HENDERSON LM (1961). "Purification and properties of 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid oxidase". J. Biol ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is 3-hydroxyanthranilate:oxygen 3,4-oxidoreductase (decyclizing). Other names in ... 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid oxidase, and 3HAO. This enzyme participates in tryptophan metabolism. It employs one cofactor, iron. ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/3-hydroxyanthranilate_3,4-dioxygenase

Göran K Hansson | Profile page | Karolinska InstitutetGöran K Hansson | Profile page | Karolinska Institutet

Retinoic acid inhibits nitric oxide synthase-2 expression through the retinoic acid receptor-alpha. Sirsjo A, Gidlof Ac, Olsson ... Induction of CD36 by all-trans retinoic acid: retinoic acid receptor signaling in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Wuttge ... Conserved amino acid residues in T cell receptros of atherosclerotic lesions in apoE KO mice. Paulsson G, Tornquist E, Hansson ... Retinoic acid regulates arterial smooth muscle cell proliferation and phenotypic features in vivo and in vitro through an RAR ...
more infohttps://ki.se/en/people/gorhan

Der Stoffwechsel der P-haltigen Verbindungen | Springer for Research & DevelopmentDer Stoffwechsel der P-haltigen Verbindungen | Springer for Research & Development

Mitchell, H. K., and J. F. Nyc: Hydroxy-anthranilic acid as a precursor of nicotinic acid in Neurospora. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. ... Jono, Y.: Nucleic acid. I. Enzymes which split nucleic acid. Acta Scholae med. Kioto 13:162-175 (1930).Google Scholar ... Kalan, E. B., and P. B. Srinivasan: Synthesis of 5-dehydro-shikimic acid from carbohydrates in a cell-free extract. Amino Acid ... Hardin, M. B.: On the occurrence of meta-phosphoric acid and pyrophosphoric acid in cotton seed meal. S. Carolina Exper. Sta. ...
more infohttps://rd.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-662-21766-5_3

Ursula Grohmann - PubMed - NCBIUrsula Grohmann - PubMed - NCBI

Amino acid metabolism as drug target in autoimmune diseases.. Mondanelli G, Iacono A, Carvalho A, Orabona C, Volpi C, Pallotta ... Amino-acid sensing and degrading pathways in immune regulation.. Grohmann U, Mondanelli G, Belladonna ML, Orabona C, Pallotta ... The immune regulation in cancer by the amino acid metabolizing enzymes ARG and IDO. ... Advances in indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 medicinal chemistry.. Coletti A, Greco FA, Dolciami D, Camaioni E, Sardella R, ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?cmd=Search&term=Ursula%20Grohmann

Biomimetic and bioinspired approaches for wiring enzymes to electrode interfaces  - Energy & Environmental Science (RSC...Biomimetic and bioinspired approaches for wiring enzymes to electrode interfaces - Energy & Environmental Science (RSC...

GO is a graphene sheet with carboxylic acids at its edges and phenol, hydroxyl and epoxide groups along the basal plane.167 GO ... For example, β-gal proteins can have half-lives in vivo from three minutes to over 20 hours depending on their amino acid ... Glucose + O2 → gluconic acid + H2O2. −0.080 V at pH 7.042. ... 64 Formic acid production of 413.8 mg mL−1 was achieved at −1 V ... Tan et al. (2016) recently replaced the phenylalanine and tyrosine amino acids on the carboxyl terminus of Geobacter ...
more infohttps://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlehtml/2017/ee/c6ee02801b

Products | AlsachimProducts | Alsachim

13C4,15N]-Quinolinic acid. Product Number: C4847 CAS number: 89-00-9 unlabeled ...
more infohttps://www.alsachim.com/en/33-products?q=Application-Cox--2+inhibitors--1583-Biomarkers--1642
  • Moderate decay due conversion to glutamic acid in improperly stored serum/plasma samples, leading to a marked increase in the Glu/Gln ratio. (uib.no)
  • Moderate decay due conversion to aspartic acid in improperly stored serum/plasma samples, leading to an increase in the Asp/Asn ratio. (uib.no)
  • It is generated from 3-hydroxyanthranilate via the enzyme catalase (EC:1.11.1.6). (hmdb.ca)
  • The systematic name of this enzyme class is 3-hydroxyanthranilate:oxygen 3,4-oxidoreductase (decyclizing). (wikipedia.org)
  • Cinnavalininate, also known as cinnabarinic acid or cinnabarinate, is a member of the class of compounds known as phenoxazines. (hmdb.ca)
  • In this article we review evidence supporting opposing roles for IDO-dependent immune regulation-including the generation of regulatory T (Treg) 3 cells ( 4 , 5 )-and the IL-23/Th17 axis in controlling inflammation to specific fungi. (jimmunol.org)
  • In addition to the Th1/Th2 balance, it has recently been shown that the occurrence of long-lasting antifungal protection is dependent on the presence of CD4 + CD25 + regulatory T cells (Treg) 3 that, by negatively regulating anticandidal Th1 reactivity, limit exaggerated inflammatory responses ( 2 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • In the information for tolfenamic acid, it is stated that this drug, being an NSAID, is effective in treating the pain associated with the acute attack of migraines in adults. (drugbank.ca)
  • Engagement of Nuclear Coactivator 7 by 3-Hydroxyanthranilic Acid Enhances Activation of Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor in Immunoregulatory Dendritic Cells. (nih.gov)
  • The online version of this article ( https://doi.org/10.1186/s12974-018-1366-3 ) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. (springer.com)
  • Glutamate-i was heavily deposited (3-13-fold higher gold particle density than tissue average) in axon terminals forming asymmetric synapses with spines and, occasionally, dendrites. (jneurosci.org)
  • IDO and tryptophan catabolites contribute to this delicate balance in experimental candidiasis and aspergillosis by providing the host with immune mechanisms adequate for protection without necessarily eliminating fungal pathogens or causing an unacceptable level of tissue damage ( 2 , 3 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the aminobenzoate structure. (drugbank.ca)
  • In addition, particularly with commensals, elaborate modalities of immune evasion and prolonged stimulation of the host's immune system contribute toward shaping inflammatory and immune mechanisms ( 2 , 3 ). (jimmunol.org)