An oxidation product of tryptophan metabolism. It may be a free radical scavenger and a carcinogen.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of 3-hydroxyanthranilate to 2-amino-3-carboxymuconate semialdehyde. It was formerly characterized as EC 1.13.1.6.
Benzoic acids, salts, or esters that contain an amino group attached to carbon number 2 or 6 of the benzene ring structure.
Six-membered heterocycles containing an oxygen and a nitrogen.
An actinomycete from which the antibiotic OLEANDOMYCIN is obtained.
An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.
A water-soluble vitamin of the B complex occurring in various animal and plant tissues. It is required by the body for the formation of coenzymes NAD and NADP. It has PELLAGRA-curative, vasodilating, and antilipemic properties.
A metabolite of tryptophan with a possible role in neurodegenerative disorders. Elevated CSF levels of quinolinic acid are correlated with the severity of neuropsychological deficits in patients who have AIDS.
Oxidases that specifically introduce DIOXYGEN-derived oxygen atoms into a variety of organic molecules.
A dioxygenase with specificity for the oxidation of the indoleamine ring of TRYPTOPHAN. It is an extrahepatic enzyme that plays a role in metabolism as the first and rate limiting enzyme in the kynurenine pathway of TRYPTOPHAN catabolism.
Non-heme iron-containing enzymes that incorporate two atoms of OXYGEN into the substrate. They are important in biosynthesis of FLAVONOIDS; GIBBERELLINS; and HYOSCYAMINE; and for degradation of AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS.
A genus of bacteria that form a nonfragmented aerial mycelium. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. This genus is responsible for producing a majority of the ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS of practical value.
A phylum of fungi that produce their sexual spores (basidiospores) on the outside of the basidium. It includes forms commonly known as mushrooms, boletes, puffballs, earthstars, stinkhorns, bird's-nest fungi, jelly fungi, bracket or shelf fungi, and rust and smut fungi.
Substances that influence the course of a chemical reaction by ready combination with free radicals. Among other effects, this combining activity protects pancreatic islets against damage by cytokines and prevents myocardial and pulmonary perfusion injuries.
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Striped GRAY MATTER and WHITE MATTER consisting of the NEOSTRIATUM and paleostriatum (GLOBUS PALLIDUS). It is located in front of and lateral to the THALAMUS in each cerebral hemisphere. The gray substance is made up of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the lentiform nucleus (the latter consisting of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and PUTAMEN). The WHITE MATTER is the INTERNAL CAPSULE.
The systematic identification and quantitation of all the metabolic products of a cell, tissue, organ, or organism under varying conditions. The METABOLOME of a cell or organism is a dynamic collection of metabolites which represent its net response to current conditions.
The dynamic collection of metabolites which represent a cell's or organism's net metabolic response to current conditions.
Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.
The period in the MENSTRUAL CYCLE that is optimal for FERTILIZATION of the OVUM and yielding PREGNANCY. The duration of fertile period depends on the life span of male GAMETES within the female reproductive tract and the time of OVULATION. It usually begins a few days before ovulation and ends on the day of ovulation.
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
Mathematical procedure that transforms a number of possibly correlated variables into a smaller number of uncorrelated variables called principal components.
A colorless, syrupy, strongly acidic liquid that can form detergents with oleic acid.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.
An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group from S-adenosylmethionine to N-acetylserotonin to form N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine (MELATONIN).
A broad-spectrum excitatory amino acid antagonist used as a research tool.

Influence of adenine-induced renal failure on tryptophan-niacin metabolism in rats. (1/40)

To discover the role of the kidney in tryptophan degradation, especially tryptophan to niacin, rat kidneys were injured by feeding a diet containing a large amount of adenine. The kidney contains very high activity of aminocarboxymuconate-semialdehyde decarboxylase (ACMSD), which leads tryptophan into the glutaric acid pathway and then the TCA cycle, but not to the niacin pathway. On the other hand, kidneys contain significant activity of quinolinate phosphoribosyltransferase (QPRT), which leads tryptophan into the niacin pathway. The ACMSD activity in kidneys were significantly lower in the adenine group than in the control group, while the QPRT activity was almost the same, however, the formations of niacin and its compounds such as N1-methylnicotinamide and its pyridones did not increase, and therefore, the conversion ratio of tryptophan to niacin was lower in the adenine group than in the control group. The contents of NAD and NADP in liver, kidney, and blood were also lower in the adenine group. The decreased levels of niacin and the related compounds were consistent with the changes in the enzyme activities involved in the tryptophan-niacin metabolism in liver. It was concluded from these results that the conversion of tryptophan to niacin is due to only the liver enzymes and that the role of the kidney would be extremely low.  (+info)

Inhibition of allogeneic T cell proliferation by indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-expressing dendritic cells: mediation of suppression by tryptophan metabolites. (2/40)

Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), an enzyme involved in the catabolism of tryptophan, is expressed in certain cells and tissues, particularly in antigen-presenting cells of lymphoid organs and in the placenta. It was shown that IDO prevents rejection of the fetus during pregnancy, probably by inhibiting alloreactive T cells, and it was suggested that IDO-expression in antigen-presenting cells may control autoreactive immune responses. Degradation of tryptophan, an essential amino acid required for cell proliferation, was reported to be the mechanism of IDO-induced T cell suppression. Because we wanted to study the action of IDO-expressing dendritic cells (DCs) on allogeneic T cells, the human IDO gene was inserted into an adenoviral vector and expressed in DCs. Transgenic DCs decreased the concentration of tryptophan, increased the concentration of kynurenine, the main tryptophan metabolite, and suppressed allogeneic T cell proliferation in vitro. Kynurenine, 3-hydroxykynurenine, and 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid, but no other IDO-induced tryptophan metabolites, suppressed the T cell response, the suppressive effects being additive. T cells, once stopped in their proliferation, could not be restimulated. Inhibition of proliferation was likely due to T cell death because suppressive tryptophan catabolites exerted a cytotoxic action on CD3(+) cells. This action preferentially affected activated T cells and increased gradually with exposure time. In addition to T cells, B and natural killer (NK) cells were also killed, whereas DCs were not affected. Our findings shed light on suppressive mechanisms mediated by DCs and provide an explanation for important biological processes in which IDO activity apparently is increased, such as protection of the fetus from rejection during pregnancy and possibly T cell death in HIV-infected patients.  (+info)

T cell apoptosis by tryptophan catabolism. (3/40)

Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) is a tryptophan-catabolizing enzyme that, expressed by different cell types, has regulatory effects on T cells resulting from tryptophan depletion in specific local tissue microenvironments. Different mechanisms, however, might contribute to IDO-dependent immune regulation. We show here that tryptophan metabolites in the kynurenine pathway, such as 3-hydroxyanthranilic and quinolinic acids, will induce the selective apoptosis in vitro of murine thymocytes and of Th1 but not Th2 cells. T cell apoptosis was observed at relatively low concentrations of kynurenines, did not require Fas/Fas ligand interactions, and was associated with the activation of caspase-8 and the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria. When administered in vivo, the two kynurenines caused depletion of specific thymocyte subsets in a fashion qualitatively similar to dexamethasone. These data suggest that the selective deletion of T lymphocytes may be a major mechanism whereby tryptophan metabolism affects immunity under physiopathologic conditions.  (+info)

Prokaryotic homologs of the eukaryotic 3-hydroxyanthranilate 3,4-dioxygenase and 2-amino-3-carboxymuconate-6-semialdehyde decarboxylase in the 2-nitrobenzoate degradation pathway of Pseudomonas fluorescens strain KU-7. (4/40)

The 2-nitrobenzoic acid degradation pathway of Pseudomonas fluorescens strain KU-7 proceeds via a novel 3-hydroxyanthranilate intermediate. In this study, we cloned and sequenced a 19-kb DNA locus of strain KU-7 that encompasses the 3-hydroxyanthranilate meta-cleavage pathway genes. The gene cluster, designated nbaEXHJIGFCDR, is organized tightly and in the same direction. The nbaC and nbaD gene products were found to be novel homologs of the eukaryotic 3-hydroxyanthranilate 3,4-dioxygenase and 2-amino-3-carboxymuconate-6-semialdehyde decarboxylase, respectively. The NbaC enzyme carries out the oxidation of 3-hydroxyanthranilate to 2-amino-3-carboxymuconate-6-semialdehyde, while the NbaD enzyme catalyzes the decarboxylation of the latter compound to 2-aminomuconate-6-semialdehyde. The NbaC and NbaD proteins were overexpressed in Escherichia coli and characterized. The substrate specificity of the 23.8-kDa NbaC protein was found to be restricted to 3-hydroxyanthranilate. In E. coli, this enzyme oxidizes 3-hydroxyanthranilate with a specific activity of 8 U/mg of protein. Site-directed mutagenesis experiments revealed the essential role of two conserved histidine residues (His52 and His96) in the NbaC sequence. The NbaC activity is also dependent on the presence of Fe(2+) but is inhibited by other metal ions, such as Zn(2+), Cu(2+), and Cd(2+). The NbaD protein was overproduced as a 38.7-kDa protein, and its specific activity towards 2-amino-3-carboxymuconate-6-semialdehyde was 195 U/mg of protein. Further processing of 2-aminomuconate-6-semialdehyde to pyruvic acid and acetyl coenzyme A was predicted to proceed via the activities of NbaE, NbaF, NbaG, NbaH, NbaI, and NbaJ. The predicted amino acid sequences of these proteins are highly homologous to those of the corresponding proteins involved in the metabolism of 2-aminophenol (e.g., AmnCDEFGH in Pseudomonas sp. strain AP-3). The NbaR-encoding gene is predicted to have a regulatory function of the LysR family type. The function of the product of the small open reading frame, NbaX, like the homologous sequences in the nitrobenzene or 2-aminophenol metabolic pathway, remains elusive.  (+info)

First evidence of catalytic mediation by phenolic compounds in the laccase-induced oxidation of lignin models. (5/40)

The sulfonephthalein indicator, phenol red, exhibits an unusually slow rate of oxidation by laccase from Poliporus pinsitus, in spite of the fact that it is a phenol and therefore a natural substrate for this phenoloxidase enzyme. Nevertheless, after prolonged exposure to laccase (24 h) phenol red is oxidized by more than 90%. We found that phenol red, which can be oxidatively converted into a resonance-stabilized phenoxy radical, performs as a mediator in the laccase-catalyzed oxidation of a nonphenolic substrate (4-methoxybenzyl alcohol) and also of a hindered phenol (2,4,6-tri-tert-butylphenol). In particular, phenol red was found to be at least 10 times more efficient than 3-hydroxyanthranilate (a reported natural phenolic mediator of laccase) in the oxidation of 4-methoxybenzyl alcohol. Other phenols, which do not bear structural analogies to phenol red, underwent rapid degradation and did not perform as laccase mediators. On the other hand, several variously substituted sulfonephthaleins, of different pK2 values, mediated the laccase catalysis, the most efficient being dichlorophenol red, which has the lowest pK2 of the series. The mediating efficiency of phenol red and dichlorophenol red was found to be pH dependent, as was their oxidation Ep value (determined by cyclic voltammetry). We argue that the relative abundance of the phenoxy anion, which is easier to oxidize than the protonated phenol, may be one of the factors determining the efficiency of a phenolic mediator, together with its ability to form relatively stable oxidized intermediates that react with the desired substrate before being depleted in undesired routes.  (+info)

Excretion of anthranilate and 3-hydroxyanthranilate by Saccharomyces cerevisiae: relationship to iron metabolism. (6/40)

Resting suspensions of cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae grown in iron-rich or iron-deficient conditions were studied by following the fluorescence emission changes (lambda em. 400-460 nm, lambda exc. 300-340 nm) occurring in these suspensions upon addition of glucose and ferric iron. The results show that, in addition to NAD(P)H, metabolites of the aromatic amino acid pathway interfere with the fluorescence measurements, and that they could be involved in ferric iron reduction. Wild-type strains of S. cerevisiae are known to excreted anthranilic acid and 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid in response to glucose. The major fluorescing compound excreted by a chorismate-mutase-deficient mutant strain of S. cerevisiae was identified as anthranilic acid. The excretion of anthranilic and 3-hydroxyanthranilic acids was correlated with the ferric-reducing capacity of the extracellular medium. Excretion during growth was much greater by cells cultured in iron-rich medium than by cells grown in iron-deficient medium. The possibility was examined that a link could exist between the biosynthesis of aromatics and the ferri-reductase activity of the cells, via chorismate synthase and its putative diaphorase-associated activity. Two ferri-reductase-deficient mutants excreted much less 3-hydroxyanthranilate than did the parental wild-type strains. However, the ferri-reductase activity of a chorismate-synthase-deficient mutant was comparable to that of the parental strain.  (+info)

Inducible and constitutive kynureninases. Control of the inducible enzyme activity by transamination and inhibition of the constitutive enzyme by 3-hydroxyanthranilate. (7/40)

The inducible kynureninase from Neurospora crassa is inactivated by incubation with L-alanine or L-ornithine. The inactivated enzyme is resolved to the apoenzyme by dialysis. Reactivation of the apoenzyme is achieved by incubation with pyridoxamine 5'-phosphate plus pyruvate, as well as with pyridoxal 5'-phosphate. The kynurenine hydrolysis proceeds linearly in the presence of added pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, or pyridoxamine 5'-phosphate plus pyruvate. These findings indicate that the fungal inducible kynureninase can act as an amino-transferase to control the enzyme activity, and that the control mechanism is similar to that reported for the bacterial kynureninase (Moriguchi, M. & Soda, K. (1973) Biochemistry 12, 2974-2980). The ratio of kynureninase activity to aminotransferase activity was determined with bacterial and fungal enzymes. All the inducible kynureninases from various fungal species examined are also controlled by the transamination. In contrast, the pig liver kynureninase and the fungal constitutive enzymes are little or not at all affected by preincubation with amino acids. Thus, the present regulatory mechanism does not operate in these constitutive-type enzymes. The rate of hydrolysis of L-3-hydroxykynurenine by the pig liver enzyme decreases with increase in the incubation time; the enzyme is inhibited by 3-hydroxyanthranilate produced from L-3-hydroxykynurenine. The inhibition is found in all the constitutive-type enzymes, suggesting that 3-hydroxyanthranilate plays a regulatory role in NAD biosynthesis from tryptophan.  (+info)

Characterization of a pseudomonad 2-nitrobenzoate nitroreductase and its catabolic pathway-associated 2-hydroxylaminobenzoate mutase and a chemoreceptor involved in 2-nitrobenzoate chemotaxis. (8/40)

Pseudomonas fluorescens strain KU-7 is a prototype microorganism that metabolizes 2-nitrobenzoate (2-NBA) via the formation of 3-hydroxyanthranilate (3-HAA), a known antioxidant and reductant. The initial two steps leading to the sequential formation of 2-hydroxy/aminobenzoate and 3-HAA are catalyzed by a NADPH-dependent 2-NBA nitroreductase (NbaA) and 2-hydroxylaminobenzoate mutase (NbaB), respectively. The 216-amino-acid protein NbaA is 78% identical to a plasmid-encoded hypothetical conserved protein of Polaromonas strain JS666; structurally, it belongs to the homodimeric NADH:flavin mononucleotide (FMN) oxidoreductase-like fold family. Structural modeling of complexes with the flavin, coenzyme, and substrate suggested specific residues contributing to the NbaA catalytic activity, assuming a ping-pong reaction mechanism. Mutational analysis supports the roles of Asn40, Asp76, and Glu113, which are predicted to form the binding site for a divalent metal ion implicated in FMN binding, and a role in NADPH binding for the 10-residue insertion in the beta5-alpha2 loop. The 181-amino-acid sequence of NbaB is 35% identical to the 4-hydroxylaminobenzoate lyases (PnbBs) of various 4-nitrobenzoate-assimilating bacteria, e.g., Pseudomonas putida strain TW3. Coexpression of nbaB with nbaA in Escherichia coli produced a small amount of 3-HAA from 2-NBA, supporting the functionality of the nbaB gene. We also showed by gene knockout and chemotaxis assays that nbaY, a chemoreceptor NahY homolog located downstream of the nbaA gene, is responsible for strain KU-7 being attracted to 2-NBA. NbaY is the first chemoreceptor in nitroaromatic metabolism to be identified, and this study completes the gene elucidation of 2-NBA metabolism that is localized within a 24-kb chromosomal locus of strain KU-7.  (+info)

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FUNCTION: [Summary is not available for the mouse gene. This summary is for the human ortholog.] Kynureninase is a pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (pyridoxal-P) dependent enzyme that catalyzes the cleavage of L-kynurenine and L-3-hydroxykynurenine into anthranilic and 3-hydroxyanthranilic acids, respectively. Kynureninase is involved in the biosynthesis of NAD cofactors from tryptophan through the kynurenine pathway. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2010 ...
The tryptophan metabolite 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid plays anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective roles during inflammation: role of hemeoxygenase-1. Krause D, Suh HS, Tarassishin L, Cui QL, Durafourt BA, Choi N, Bauman A, Cosenza-Nashat M, Antel JP, Zhao ML, Lee SC. Am J Pathol. 2011 Sep;179(3):1360-72. doi: 10.1016/j.ajpath.2011.05.048. PMID: ...
Glutamate, the major transmitter of the corticostriatal pathway, is present in abundance in the striatum. 3-Hydroxyanthranilic acid oxygenase (3HAO) is the biosynthetic enzyme for quinolinic acid, an endogenous agonist of the NMDA glutamate receptor subtype and a potent neurotoxin. In order to explore the anatomical basis of possible functional interactions between glutamate and quinolinic acid in the rat striatum, pre- and postembedding immunocytochemical methods were used to localize 3HAO immunoreactivity (-i) and glutamate-i at the electron microscopic level. In accordance with previous light microscopic and biochemical studies, 3HAO-i was detected exclusively in astrocytes throughout the striatum. Notably, 3HAO-i was present in fine- caliber glial processes that often surrounded or abutted synaptic profiles, both asymmetric and symmetric. Glutamate-i was heavily deposited (3-13-fold higher gold particle density than tissue average) in axon terminals forming asymmetric synapses with spines ...
Wang, Qiongxin et al Tryptophan-Derived 3-Hydroxyanthranilic Acid Contributes to Angiotensin II-Induced Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Formation in Mice In Vivo. Circulation (2017): CIRCULATIONAHA.117.030972. Web. 22 Jan. 2018. ...
論文Prokaryotic homologs of the eukaryotic 3-hydroxyanthranilate 3,4-dioxygenase and 2-amino-3-carboxymuconate-6-semialdehyde decarboxylase in the degradation pathway of 2-nitrobenzoate by Pseudomonas fluorescens strain KU-7査読有学術雑誌共著岩木 宏明;T.Muraki;M.Taki;Y.Hasegawa;H.Iwaki;P.C.K.Lau;adipic acid;green chemistry;Acinetobacter;gene cloning;Biodegradation;Cyclohexanol;Appl. Enviorn. Microbiol.69巻3号 1564-1572頁2003年3月 英文The 2-nitrobenzoic acid degradation pathway of Pseudomonas fluorescens strain KU-7 proceeds via a novel 3-hydroxyanthranilate intermediate.In this study, we cloned and sequenced a 19-kb DNA locus of strain KU-7 that enocompasses the 3-hydroxyanthranilate meta-cleavage pathway genes.The gene cluster, designated nbaEX HJIGFCDR, is organized tightly and in the same derection.The nbaC and nbaDgene products were found to be novel homologs of the eukaryotic 3-hydroxyanthranilate 3,4-dioxygenase and 2-amino-3carboxymuconate-6semialdehyde ...
1. A vitamin B6-deficient diet was fed to an adult male subject to confirm previously described changes in tryptophan metabolism and urinary 4-pyridoxic acid excretion, and erythrocyte alanine and aspartate aminotransferase activities.. 2. The results were compared with those obtained in women taking oestrogen-containing oral contraceptives.. 3. The development of dietary vitamin B6 deficiency was indicated by decreased 4-pyridoxic acid excretion, increased urinary concentrations of xanthurenic acid, kynurenine and 3-hydroxykynurenine, an elevated 3-hydroxykynurenine/3-hydroxyanthranilic acid ratio and impaired erythrocyte aminotransferase activities.. 4. Tryptophan metabolites and 4-pyridoxic acid excretion were determined in thirty-one women when they had been taking an oral contraceptive for 6-36 months. Of these, twenty-six had abnormal tryptophan metabolism, but the 4-pyridoxic acid was decreased in only seven. In six of these seven a raised 3-hydroxykynurenine/3-hydroxyanthranilic acid ...
3-Hydroxyanthranilate 3,4-dioxygenase (3HAO) is a non-heme iron dependent enzyme. It catalyses the cleavage of the benzene ring of 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid (3-Ohaa), an intermediate in the kynurenine pathway, and therefore represents a potential target in treating numerous disorders related to the concentra
Mono- and Stereopictres of 5.0 Angstrom coordination sphere of Iron atom in PDB 1yfy: Crystal Structure of 3-Hydroxyanthranilate-3,4-Dioxygenase From Ralstonia Metallidurans Complexed With 3-Hydroxyanthranilic Acid
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Reactome is pathway database which provides intuitive bioinformatics tools for the visualisation, interpretation and analysis of pathway knowledge.
The interaction between the 1-47 N-terminus of the CCK(1)-R and the anthranilic acid based antagonists has been investigated by fluorescence spectroscopy. These antagonists interact with W39 of the N-terminal domain of the CCK(1)-R like that of the e
Ortega, M.A., Cogan, D.P., Mukherjee, S., Garg, N., Li, B., Thibodeaux, G.N., Maffioli, S.I., Donadio, S., Sosio, M., Escano, J., Smith, L., Nair, S.K.*, and van der Donk, W.A. (2017) Two Flavoenzymes Catalyze the Post-translational Generation of 5-Chlorotryptophan and Aminovinyl-Cysteine During NAI-107 Biosynthesis. ACS Chem. Bio. 12, 548-557. (*Corresponding author ...
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Personal protection: particulate filter respirator adapted to the airborne concentration of the substance. Sweep spilled substance into covered containers. If appropriate, moisten first to prevent dusting. Then store and dispose of according to local regulations. Do NOT let this chemical enter the environment ...
Personal protection: particulate filter respirator adapted to the airborne concentration of the substance. Sweep spilled substance into covered containers. If appropriate, moisten first to prevent dusting. Then store and dispose of according to local regulations. Do NOT let this chemical enter the environment ...
The Auditoriums B L_U E_ is haunting, melancholic refrain, a reflection of the minuscule feeling you feel when you realize how big the world really is.
Comprehension is hard. Even if youre good at languages and speak one regularly, you will never own it as much as a native does, and will always experience some issues when trying to express yourself or understand what others are saying. Simply said: you suck! I remember the time I started watching the first episode…
The kynurenine pathway of tryptophan degradation is the focus in a variety of research fields and several of the metabolites produced along the pathway are suggested as future biomarkers. Growing interest in a better understanding of the physiological and the pathophysiological importance of kynurenine pathway metabolites is followed by the need for a robust, sensitive method that can quantify multiple metabolites simultaneously. In the present thesis, the first aim was to develop and validate robust and sensitive methods for the analysis of kynurenine pathway metabolites in body and brain. Our method thus allows for simultaneous quantification of low concentrations of tryptophan, kynurenine, kynurenic acid (KYNA), 3- hydroxykynurenine (3-HK), xanthurenic acid (XA), 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid (3-HANA), quinolinic acid (QUIN), picolinic acid (PIC), nicotinic acid (NA) and nicotinamide (NAA) in human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma. In addition, our new method clearly separates the peaks of ...
available through Sub-core. **= 9-HOTrE, 13-HOTrE, 13-oxo-ODE, 9-oxo-ODE, 13-HODE, 9-HODE, 12(13)-EpOME, 9(10)-EpOME, EKODE, 12,13-DiHOME, 9,10-DiHOME, 15-deoxy-Prostaglandin J2, 15-HEPE, 8-HEPE, 12-HEPE, 5-HEPE, 17(18)-EpETE, 15-oxo-ETE, 14(15)-EpETE, 11(12)-EpETE, 8(9)-EpETE, 12-oxo-ETE, 5-oxo-ETE, 20-HETE, 15-HETE, 11-HETE, 8-HETE, 12-HETE, 9-HETE, 5-HETE, 14(15)-EET, 11(12)-EET, 8(9)-EET, 5(6)-EET, 15(S)-HETrE, Prostaglandin J2, Prostaglandin B2, 8,15-DiHETE, 6-trans-Leukotriene B4, 5,15-DiHETE, 17,18-DiHET, Leukotriene B4, 14,15-DiHETE, 5,6-DiHETE, 14,15-DiHET, Leukotriene B3, 11,12-DiHET, 8,9-DiHET, 5,6-DiHET, 17-HDHA, 19(20)-EpDPA, 16(17)-EpDPA, 13(14)-EpDPA, 10(11)-EpDPA, 7(8)-EpDPA, Prostaglandin E3, Prostaglandin D3, 20-OH-Leukotriene B4, Prostaglandin E2, Prostaglandin D2, Lipoxin A4, Prostaglandin F2a, Prostaglandin E1, Prostaglandin D1, 19,20-DiHDPE, 20-COOH-LTB4, 6-keto-PGF1a, TXB2, Resolvin D1. ***= 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid, quinolinic acid, anthranilic acid, L-tryptophan, ...
The use of specific compounds of the Formula 1 (and also corresponding mixtures) in particular as cosmetic agents for the inhibition of the substance P-induced release of histamine from mast cells is described.
Methyl nitrobenzoate melting point.Thus, the formation of byproduct increased immediately and reduced the amount of product aquired during the end of the experiment.
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Pull-Out School Music Classes. Pull-outs have become almost a nightmare for many elementary school principals, who view the practice as a kind of pernicious anemia that attacks whole-class instruction time. Once pull-outs take hold in a school, there appears to be no end to them, and no way to rid the instructional program of their debilitating impact.- From Pull-outs: How much do they erode whole-class teaching? by F. English, appearing in Principal, May 1984, p. 32.. BACKGROUND. Many school instrumental music programs remove students from aregular classroom for individual or small-group instrumentalinstruction. Often, this practice causes tension among teachers and administrators. Many of those opposed to pull-out lessons are concerned that students will fall behind in their academic performance by missing classroom instruction time. In the study described below, the test scores of students who leave theirclassroom for thirty-minute string instrument lessons twice each week are compared to ...
In the present study, we investigated the peripheral concentration of cytokines and kynurenine metabolites in unipolar patients diagnosed with an ongoing severe major depressive episode. Our data, showing increased plasma levels of IL-6, decreased KYNA levels, and an increased QUIN/KYNA ratio in these patients, supports the view of an ongoing low-grade inflammation [42] and an imbalanced kynurenine pathway [30-33] in MDD. The finding that the QUIN/KYNA ratio was increased in patients supports the hypothesis of a netstimulation of NMDA receptors in depression [30-33]. The observation of low plasma KYNA was confirmed in a second, age- and gender-matched, healthy control cohort. Furthermore, we found that treatment with ECT induced major changes in peripheral kynurenine metabolites in patients with MDD. Thus, plasma levels of tryptophan, kynurenine, and QUIN significantly decreased after a series of three ECT administrations whereas plasma levels of KYNA did not change. Interestingly, following ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of immune activation on quinolinic acid and neuroactive kynurenines in the mouse. AU - Saito, K.. AU - Markey, S. P.. AU - Heyes, M. P.. PY - 1992/11. Y1 - 1992/11. N2 - Accumulation of quinolinic acid and neuroactive kynurenines derived from tryptophan are of potential significance in human neuropathologic diseases because of their neurotoxic and convulsant properties. Clinical studies have established that sustained elevations of quinolinic acid, l-kynurenine and kynurenic acid within the cerebrospinal fluid occur in patients with a broad spectrum of inflammatory diseases and correlate with markers of immune activation and interferon-y activity. The present study describes an animal model that replicates these clinical observations and investigates the role of interferon-γ as a mediator between immune activation and increased kynurenine pathway metabolism. Marked elevations in quinolinic acid, l-kynurenine and 3-hydroxykynurenine as well as an increased ratio of ...
Type 2 melastatin-related transient receptor potential channel (TRPM2), a member of the melastatin-related TRP (transient receptor potential) subfamily is a Ca(2+)-permeable channel activated by hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)). We have investigated the role of TRPM2 channels in mediating the H(2)O(2)-induced increase in the cytoplasmic free Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) in insulin-secreting cells. In fura-2 loaded INS-1E cells, a widely used model of beta-cells, and in human beta-cells, H(2)O(2) increased [Ca(2+)](i), in the presence of 3 mM glucose, by inducing Ca(2+) influx across the plasma membrane. H(2)O(2)-induced Ca(2+) influx was not blocked by nimodipine, a blocker of the L-type voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels nor by 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate, a blocker of several TRP channels and store-operated channels, but it was completely blocked by N-(p-amylcinnamoyl)anthranilic acid (ACA), a potent inhibitor of TRPM2. Adenosine diphosphate phosphate ribose, a specific activator of TRPM2 ...
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24. The method according to claim 1, wherein the compound is selected from the group consisting of: 5-(2,4-Dichloro-benzyloxy)-2-propionylamino-benzoic acid, 5-(4-Bromo-2-trifluoromethyl-benzyloxy)-2-(cyclopropanecarbonyl-amino)-be- nzoic acid, 5-(4-Fluoro-2-trifluoromethyl-benzyloxy)-2-propionylamino-benzoic acid, 5-(2,4-Bis-trifluoromethyl-benzyloxy)-2-propionylamino-benzoic acid, 5-(4-Chloro-2-trifluoromethyl-benzyloxy)-2-propionylamino-benzoic acid, 5-(2-Chloro-4-fluoro-benzyloxy)-2-propionylamino-benzoic acid, 2-(Cyclopropanecarbonyl-amino)-5-(4-fluoro-2-trifluoromethyl-benzyloxy)-b- enzoic acid, 5-(2-Bromo-4-fluoro-benzyloxy)-2-propionylamino-benzoic acid, 5-(2-Fluoro-4-trifluoromethyl-benzyloxy)-2-propionylamino-benzoic acid, 5-(2-Bromo-4-trifluoromethyl-benzyloxy)-2-propionylamino-benzoic acid, 5-(4-Chloro-3-trifluoromethyl-benzyloxy)-2-propionylamino-benzoic acid, 5-(3,4-Dibromo-benzyloxy)-2-propionylamino-benzoic acid, 5-(4-Bromo-3-chloro-benzyloxy)-2-propionylamino-benzoic acid, ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
Ethyl 2-chloro-5-nitrobenzoate 16588-17-3 NMR spectrum, Ethyl 2-chloro-5-nitrobenzoate H-NMR spectral analysis, Ethyl 2-chloro-5-nitrobenzoate C-NMR spectral analysis ect.
Methyl 2-methyl-3-nitrobenzoate 59382-59-1 NMR spectrum, Methyl 2-methyl-3-nitrobenzoate H-NMR spectral analysis, Methyl 2-methyl-3-nitrobenzoate C-NMR spectral analysis ect.
One-pot synthesis of various 2,3-polymethylene-4(3H)-quinazolinones from anthranilic acid, corresponding lactam and SOCl2 is described, which can be applicable to the synthesis of simple 4(3H ...
FUROSEMIDE INJECTION USP (Furosemide) is a potent diuretic with rapid action which is an anthranilic acid derivative. Chemically, Furosemide is 4-chloro-N-furfuryl-5-sulfamoylanthranilic acid. The molecular formula is C12H11CIN2O5S and molecular weight is 330.74.
When I was a kid, the local bakery made frogs for St. Patricks day - which are pretty much what the green blobs looked like, only better. My birthday is March 15th, so my aunt would buy frogs for the family. My older brother never ate his, we just thought it was because he wasnt much of a sweets person. Last year, he reavealed it was because of the brains in the frog. The base was yellow cupcake, topped with pink cream (later pink marshmallow), then covered with green fondant, with the face piped on. He said they gave him nightmares, and my aunt bought these for like, 15 years. I thought they were the best things ever!!. ...
When I was a kid, the local bakery made frogs for St. Patricks day - which are pretty much what the green blobs looked like, only better. My birthday is March 15th, so my aunt would buy frogs for the family. My older brother never ate his, we just thought it was because he wasnt much of a sweets person. Last year, he reavealed it was because of the brains in the frog. The base was yellow cupcake, topped with pink cream (later pink marshmallow), then covered with green fondant, with the face piped on. He said they gave him nightmares, and my aunt bought these for like, 15 years. I thought they were the best things ever!!. ...
haa.. tajuk yang sedikit over.. hee~ tapi itulah bahan-bahannye.. memang la tomyam masam masam tapi kalau tak cukup pedas atau terlebih pedas memang tak brape sedap.. haa.. nah !! resepi dari ceruk dapo kakak.. TOMYAM AYAM BERSAMA TAUHU TELUR PEDAS pedas tapi sedap gile.. untuk yang tengah diet, menu ni memang lulus tanpa diragui.. serius ...
The kynurenine pathway of tryptophan metabolism is activated by pro-inflammatory cytokines. L-kynurenine, an upstream metabolite of the pathway, acts as a putative endothelium-derived relaxing factor, and has been hypothesized to play a causative role in the pathophysiology of inflammation-induced hypotension. Here, we show that xanthurenic acid, the transamination product of 3-hydroxykynurenine, is more efficacious than L-kynurenine in causing relaxation of a resistance artery, but fails to relax pre-contracted aortic rings. In the mesenteric artery, xanthurenic acid enhanced activating phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS), and the relaxing action of xanthurenic acid was abrogated by pharmacological inhibition of NOS and endothelial-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF). Systemic injection of xanthurenic acid reduced blood pressure in mice, and serum levels of xanthurenic acid increased by several fold in response to a pulse with the endotoxin, lipopolysaccaride (LPS). LPS-induced
Antimicrobial peptides are important effector molecules of the innate immune system. Here, we describe that peptides derived from the heparin-binding disulfide-constrained loop region of human beta-amyloid precursor protein are antimicrobial. The peptides investigated were linear and cyclic forms of NWCKRGRKQCKTHPH (NWC15) as well as the cyclic form comprising the C-terminal hydrophobic amino acid extension FVIPY (NWCKRGRKQCKTHPHFVIPY; NWC20c). Compared with the benchmark antimicrobial peptide LL-37, these peptides efficiently killed the Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis, and the fungi Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis. Correspondingly, fluorescence and electron microscopy demonstrated that the peptides caused defects in bacterial membranes. Analogously, the peptides permeabilised negatively charged liposomes. Despite their bactericidal effect, the peptides displayed very limited hemolytic ...
Five new anthranilic acid derivatives, penipacids A-E (1-5), together with one known analogue (6), which was previously synthesized, were characterized from the ethyl acetate extract of the marine sediment-derived fungus Penicillium paneum SD-44. Their structures were elucidated mainly by extensive NMR spectroscopic and mass spectrometric analysis. The cytotoxicity and antimicrobial activity of the isolated compounds were evaluated. Compounds 1, and 5 exhibited inhibitory activity against human colon cancer RKO cell line, while compound 6 displayed cytotoxic activity against Hela cell line.
We observed that repeated exposure to SEB increased the expression of CD152 on SEB-specific Foxp3+CD25+CD4+ T cells and provided the cells with the capacity to regulate and control the strong primary T cell response stimulated by SEB. This regulatory function was dependent on the activation of tryptophan catabolism and could be inhibited by neutralization of CD152-B7 interactions. In addition, we also observed that CD11c+ DC from unresponsive animals acquired regulatory activity through CD152-mediated stimulation of tryptophan catabolism. DC isolated from normal or IFN-γ-deficient BALB/c mice were equally effective in up-regulating the molecule as well as in inducing tryptophan catabolism following CD152-Ig exposure. These results, in agreement with previous observations made by others (19), indicated that IFN-γ signaling was not necessary for IDO expression and activity. We conclude that repeated TCR-mediated stimulation of Foxp3+CD25+CD4+ T regulatory cells within a short period of time ...
Radical scavenging properties of tryptophan metabolites were estimated using their radical reactivity. Metabolites of the kynurenine and the melatonin biosynthesis pathway were mainly examined by use...
Definition of Quinolinic acid synthetase with photos and pictures, translations, sample usage, and additional links for more information.
Novel chiral 4,1-benzoxazepine-2,5-diones have been unusually synthesized in a single step by exploiting the chiral pool methodology. Substituted anthranilic acids afford N-acylanthranilic acids and (3R)-3-alkyl-4,1-benzoxazepines-2,5-dione upon coupling with α-chloroacids or α-bromoacids, respectively.
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SWISS-MODEL Repository entry for C3K5G7 (PDXB_PSEFS), Erythronate-4-phosphate dehydrogenase. Pseudomonas fluorescens (strain SBW25)
Diets described in historical studies of human pellagra, have been reexamined by using modern tables of nutrient composition. Five apparently pellagragenic diets from field studies were estimated to have niacin equivalents (NE) well in excess of the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA), i.e., 6.6 mg/ …
today, the energy shifted. i made a conscious effort to do just that, and i did it in the smallest way. i decided to pick up an old faithful - East of Eden (perhaps my favorite book of all time???!!!), and began the first chapter on the bus on the way to work on a deserted highway ...
I rubbed your feet. You wanted to be touched, always. The sweetness of it broke my heart. Tice picked up your guitar and started playing little bits of songs here and there. We were so scared, we didnt know what to do. But he followed his true self (which, you would definitely say, is always the right thing to do) and in that moment, the music was everything ...
hm . gila sengal kott hari niee . lagi terok siot hari niee ramai taa datangg . ish3 . next week lagi ramainye kan , sbb naa dekat raya dahh oh . ngee! LOL . bengong kott naem hari niee . larh . saya engad dea kenal selama niee shahrul saya tuu , so selama niee dea pandeyy sebot jelah . ye lahh , ikot azim kann . mmg macam tuu . koya parok ! taa kenal rupenye mamat niee si shahrul tuu . HAHA . nganjengg saya punye lahh segala macam bagai je . last last bole pulak tanye saya weyy , shahrul tuu umur brape ? naa gelak saya rase mase tuu . tapi mase tuu saya tgah termenung kott , so taa dengar sangat lahh apee dea cakap . then apih terang terang kan sikitt , baru lahh haa . lahh shahrul hakim tuu ke . yang tinggi tinggi , yang puteh puteh tuu . ngee! hotak kau lembap betol naa pick-up kan naem , gila slengaa ahh kau niee . pastuu si naem niee buat statement yang saya sendiri taa tahuu menahuu . ntah pape meyh ! WTF punye statement haa ? naem cakapp , aqib cakap mase skola rendah , kau suke ...
Buy The Joint by fobee on AudioJungle. Deep Electronica track, melodic yet melancholic and beautiful. Lots of Fx, synths, bass and many gorgeous pads. Works...
A complete definition of temperament and its four types: choleric, phlegmatic, sanguine, and melancholic; with strengths and weaknesses.
3-hydroxyanthranilate 3,4-dioxygenase (EC 1.13.11.6) is an enzyme encoded by the HAAO gene that catalyzes the chemical reaction ... DECKER RH, KANG HH, LEACH FR, HENDERSON LM (1961). "Purification and properties of 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid oxidase". J. Biol ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is 3-hydroxyanthranilate:oxygen 3,4-oxidoreductase (decyclizing). Other names in ... 2-amino-3-carboxymuconate semialdehyde Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are 3-hydroxyanthranilate and O2, whereas its ...
Other names in common use include picolinic acid carboxylase, picolinic acid decarboxylase, alpha-amino-beta-carboxymuconate- ... Enzymic Formation of Alpha-Aminomuconic Acid from 3-Hydroxyanthranilic Acid". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 240: 740-9. ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is 2-amino-3-(3-oxoprop-1-en-1-yl)but-2-enedioate carboxy-lyase (2-aminomuconate- ... 3-oxoprop-1-en-1-yl)but-2-enedioate carboxy-lyase. Ichiyama A, Nakamura S, Kawai H, Honjo T, Nishizuka Y, Hayaishi O, Senoh S ( ...
enzymic formation of alpha-aminomuconic acid from 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 240: 740-9. ... Other names in common use include 2-aminomuconate semialdehyde dehydrogenase, 2-hydroxymuconic acid semialdehyde dehydrogenase ... benzoic acid degradation via hydroxylation, tryptophan metabolism, and the degradation pathway for toluene and xylene. The ... 2 H+ The 3 substrates of this enzyme are 2-aminomuconate 6-semialdehyde, NAD+, and H2O, whereas its 3 products are 2- ...
In enzymology, a 3-hydroxyanthranilate oxidase (EC 1.10.3.5) (also called 3-HAO) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical ... This enzyme is also called 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid oxidase. Vécsei, L; Szalárdy, L; Fülöp, F; Toldi, J (January 2013). " ... Morgan LR Jr, Weimorts DM, Aubert CC (1965). "Oxidation Of 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid by a soluble liver fraction from ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is 3-hydroxyanthranilate:oxygen oxidoreductase. ...
Commercially, A23187 is available as free acid, Ca2+ salt, and 4-brominated analog. "A23187". Medical Dictionary Online. 2006. ... 55 (3): 974-82. doi:10.1128/AAC.01130-10. PMC 3067094. PMID 21173184. A23187 Archived June 26, 2006, at the Wayback Machine ... The core biosynthetic enzymes are thought to include 3 proteins for the biosynthesis of the α-ketopyrrole moiety, 5 for modular ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "A23187". Archived from the original on 3 November 2006. Retrieved 2006-11-01. CS1 ...
The molecular formula C7H7NO3 may refer to: Aminosalicylic acids 4-Aminosalicylic acid Mesalazine 3-Hydroxyanthranilic acid o- ... Nitroanisole 3-Nitrobenzyl alcohol Salicylhydroxamic acid This set index page lists chemical structure articles associated with ...
... and other amino acids. Lesions in the pallidum can suppress effects of quinolinic acid in monkeys injected with quinolinic acid ... Quinolinic acid has also been found in HAND patients' brains. In fact, the amount of quinolinic acid found in the brain of HAND ... Quinolinic acid is a downstream product of the kynurenine pathway, which metabolizes the amino acid tryptophan. It acts as an ... Quinolinic acid levels are too high at these sites to be controlled by KYNA, causing neurotoxicity to occur. Quinolinic acid ...
Mechanism of Formation of Quinolinic Acid". Journal of Biological Chemistry. 234 (4): 880-883. PMID 13654282. Retrieved 2015-09 ... 44 (3): 696. doi:10.1021/jf950454t. HAA concentration graph in lyophilized tempeh powder extract (in Indonesian) v t e. ... 3-Hydroxyanthranilic acid is an intermediate in the metabolism of tryptophan. It is new antioxidant isolated from methanol ... "3-Hydroxyanthranilic acid". Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Inc. Retrieved 2015-09-24. Armarego, Wilfred L.F.; Chai, Christina L.L. ( ...
"Hydroxyanthranilic Acid as a Precursor of Nicotinic Acid in Neurospora" (PDF). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 34 (1): 1-5. doi: ... Zimmer, E. M., August 1946, "MUTANT STRAINS OF NEUROSPORA DEFICIENT IN PARA-AMINOBENZOIC ACID", MA Thesis, Stanford University ... 3 (2): 115-132. doi:10.1016/S0740-0020(86)80035-1. Garcia, D.; et al. (2004). "A synopsis and re-circumscription of Neurospora ... 3] Fungal Genetics Reports [4] Montenegro-Montero A. (2010) "The Almighty Fungi: The Revolutionary Neurospora crassa". A ...
2-Phosphoglyceric acid. References[edit]. *^ Berg, Jeremy M.; Tymoczko, Stryer (2002). Biochemistry (5th ed.). New York: W.H. ... Amino acid synthesis[edit]. Glycerate 3-phosphate is also a precursor for serine, which, in turn, can create cysteine and ... is the conjugate acid of glycerate 3-phosphate (GP). The glycerate is a biochemically significant metabolic intermediate in ... 1,3-bisphospho-D-glycerate 3-phosphoglycerate kinase 3-phospho-D-glycerate Phosphoglyceromutase 2-phospho-D-glycerate ...
HMB is a metabolite of the amino acid leucine (Van Koverin and Nissen 1992), an essential amino acid. The first step in HMB ... fatty acids, and other compounds. Figure 8.57: Metabolism of L-leucine ... Human metabolic pathway for HMB and isovaleryl-CoA relative to L-leucine.[1][2][3] Of the two major pathways, L-leucine is ... 3-Methylcrotonyl-CoA or β-Methylcrotonyl-CoA is an intermediate in the metabolism of leucine.[1][2][3] ...
... is the thioester consisting of coenzyme A linked to methylmalonic acid. It is an important intermediate in ... 9R)-1-[(2R,3S,4R,5R)-5-(6-Amino-9H-purin-9-yl)-4-hydroxy-3-(phosphonooxy)tetrahydro-2-furanyl]-3,5,9-trihydroxy-8,8,20- ... 5-diphosphahenicosan-21-oic acid 3,5-dioxide (non-preferred name) ... β-Hydroxy β-methylbutyric acid. *β-Hydroxy β-methylbutyryl-CoA ...
At low glucose levels, the production of acetyl-CoA is linked to β-oxidation of fatty acids. Fatty acids are first converted to ... Degradation of branched-chain ketogenic amino acids such as valine, leucine, and isoleucine occurs. These amino acids are ... where the fatty acids are combined with glycerol to form triglycerides, the major fuel reservoir of most animals. Fatty acids ... Citric acid cycle: *Acetyl-CoA reacts with oxaloacetate to form citrate, which is then oxidized to CO2 in the cycle.[9][page ...
With acid chlorides, one obtains the amidocarboxylic acid, such as hippuric acid[23] and acetylglycine.[24] With nitrous acid, ... It is the simplest amino acid (since carbamic acid is unstable), with the chemical formula NH2‐CH2‐COOH. Glycine is one of the ... Amino acid neurotransmitter. References[edit]. *^ The Merck Index: An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals (11th ... Glycine (symbol Gly or G;[5] /ˈɡlaɪsiːn/)[6] is an amino acid that has a single hydrogen atom as its side chain. ...
... is one of the amino acids that can be converted to intermediates of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle.[19] Histidine ... Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. pp. 589-768.. ... Histidine (symbol His or H)[2] is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins. It contains an α-amino group ( ... The conjugate acid (protonated form) of the imidazole side chain in histidine has a pKa of approximately 6.0. This means that, ...
Most of its therapeutic potential is believed to occur via 7-chlorokynurenic acid which inhibits the glycine co-agonist site of ... 4-Chlorokynurenine is prodrug of 7-chlorokynurenic acid (7-Cl-KYNA), which in turn is a halogenated derivative of L-kynurenine ... 4-Chlorokynurenine penetrates the blood-brain barrier via the large neutral amino acid transporter 1. In the central nervous ... is an orally active small molecule prodrug of 7-chlorokynurenic acid, a NMDA receptor antagonist. It appears to be a rapid- ...
R1-amino acid + R2-α-ketoacid ⇌ R1-α-ketoacid + R2-amino acid. A very common α-keto acid is α-ketoglutarate, an intermediate in ... Glutamic acid (symbol Glu or E)[4] is an α-amino acid that is used by almost all living beings in the biosynthesis of proteins ... At pH values between about 2.5 and 4.1,[6] the carboxylic acid closer to the amine generally loses a proton, and the acid ... Glutamic acid is produced on the largest scale of any amino acid, with an estimated annual production of about 1.5 million tons ...
... and glutamic acid. While glutamic acid is usually sufficient because amino acid nitrogen is recycled through glutamate as an ... More aggressive oxidants convert cysteine to the corresponding sulfinic acid and sulfonic acid. Cysteine residues play a ... "Amino Acid Properties and Consequences of Substitutions, In: Bioinformatics for Geneticists. Wiley. Retrieved 2012-09-16.. ... "A Review of Amino Acids (tutorial)". Curtin University.. *^ Nagano N, Ota M, Nishikawa K (September 1999). "Strong hydrophobic ...
... so it must be biosynthesized from its constituent amino acids, cysteine, glycine and glutamic acid. Glutamic acid and glycine ... More aggressive oxidants convert cysteine to the corresponding sulfinic acid and sulfonic acid. Cysteine residues play a ... "Amino Acid Properties and Consequences of Substitutions, In: Bioinformatics for Geneticists. Wiley. Retrieved 2012-09-16.. ... "A Review of Amino Acids (tutorial)". Curtin University.. *^ Nagano N, Ota M, Nishikawa K (September 1999). "Strong hydrophobic ...
It is one of two isomeric unsaturated dicarboxylic acids, the other being maleic acid. In fumaric acid the carboxylic acid ... Fumaric acid or trans-butenedioic acid is the chemical compound with the formula HO2CCH=CHCO2H. Fumaric acid has a fruit-like ... Maleic acid, the cis-isomer of fumaric acid. References[edit]. *^ Record in the GESTIS Substance Database of the Institute for ... at a rate of 1 g of fumaric acid to every ~1.5 g of citric acid, in order to add sourness, similarly to the way malic acid is ...
L-Ornithine L-aspartate (LOLA), a stable salt of ornithine and aspartic acid, has been used in the treatment of cirrhosis.[8] ... Ornithine is a non-proteinogenic amino acid that plays a role in the urea cycle. Ornithine is abnormally accumulated in the ... Ornithine is not an amino acid coded for by DNA, that is, not proteinogenic. However, in mammalian non-hepatic tissues, the ... Amino acid supplements, including L-ornithine, are frequently marketed to bodybuilders and weightlifters with claims for ...
HMB is a metabolite of the amino acid leucine (Van Koverin and Nissen 1992), an essential amino acid. The first step in HMB ... Isovaleryl-coenzyme A, also known as isovaleryl-CoA, is an intermediate in the metabolism of branched-chain amino acids.[1][2][ ... fatty acids, and other compounds. Figure 8.57: Metabolism of L-leucine ... Human metabolic pathway for HMB and isovaleryl-CoA relative to L-leucine.[1][2][3] Of the two major pathways, L-leucine is ...
Mechanism of Formation of Quinolinic Acid". Journal of Biological Chemistry. 234 (4): 880-883. PMID 13654282. Retrieved 2015-09 ... 44 (3): 696. doi:10.1021/jf950454t. HAA concentration graph in lyophilized tempeh powder extract (in Indonesian) v t e. ... 3-Hydroxyanthranilic acid is an intermediate in the metabolism of tryptophan. It is new antioxidant isolated from methanol ... "3-Hydroxyanthranilic acid". Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Inc. Retrieved 2015-09-24. Armarego, Wilfred L.F.; Chai, Christina L.L. ( ...
3-hydroxyanthranilic acid. ↓Other names: Regulatory process names [2] IUPAC names [2] ...
Since quinolinic acid is known to enter the extracellular compartment readily, these results suggest that astrocytic quinolinic ... In order to explore the anatomical basis of possible functional interactions between glutamate and quinolinic acid in the rat ... is the biosynthetic enzyme for quinolinic acid, an endogenous agonist of the NMDA glutamate receptor subtype and a potent ... 3-Hydroxyanthranilic acid oxygenase-containing astrocytic processes surround glutamate-containing axon terminals in the rat ...
Molecular characterization of the genes of actinomycin synthetase I and of a 4-methyl-3-hydroxyanthranilic acid carrier protein ... ACMS I in the presence of ATP acylated the purified AcmACP with radioactive p-toluic acid, used as substrate in place of 4-MHA ... which encodes a 78-amino acid protein with similarity to various acyl carrier proteins, is located downstream of acmA. The acmD ... Molecular characterization of the genes of actinomycin synthetase I and of a 4-methyl-3-hydroxyanthranilic acid carrier protein ...
A Repository for Data from NMR Spectroscopy on Proteins, Peptides, Nucleic Acids, and other Biomolecules Member of ... Benzoic acid, 2-amino-3-hydroxy-; benzoic acid, 2-amino-3-hydroxy-; 2-amino-3-hydroxybenzoic acid; 2-Amino-3-hydroxy-benzoic ... 2-amino-3-hydroxybenzoic acid. PUBCHEM iupac TRADITIONAL NAME: PUBCHEM iupac OPENEYE NAME: PUBCHEM iupac SYSTEMATIC NAME. 2- ... 3-Hydroxyanthranilic Acid bmse000321 - Data 3-Hydroxyanthranilic Acid synonyms. 2-AMINO-3-HYDROXY-BENZOIC ACID; 3-Hydroxy- ...
What is 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid? Meaning of 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid medical term. What does 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid mean? ... Looking for online definition of 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid in the Medical Dictionary? 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid explanation ... and formiminoglutamic acid, were determined by liquid chromatography--tandem mass spectrometry (14-17), and methylmalonic acid ... kynurenic acid, anthranilic acid, 3-hydroxykynurenine, xanthurenic acid, 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid, ...
... kynurenic acid; KYNU, kynureninase; QA, quinolinic acid; PIC, picolinic acid; TRP, tryptophan; XA, xanthurenic acid. Bold box ... xanthurenic acid [XA], QA, picolinic acid [PIC], and neopterin were analyzed in CSF and serum by liquid chromatography-tandem ... Quinolinic acid in cerebrospinal fluid and serum in HIV-1 infection: relationship to clinical and neurological status. Ann ... Valle M, Price RW, Nilsson A, Heyes M, Verotta D. CSF quinolinic acid levels are determined by local HIV infection: cross- ...
Catalyzes the oxidative ring opening of 3-hydroxyanthranilate to 2-amino-3-carboxymuconate semialdehyde, which spontaneously ... section describes the interaction between a single amino acid and another chemical entity. Priority is given to the annotation ... 3-hydroxyanthranilate 3,4-dioxygenaseAdd BLAST. 286. Proteomic databases. PaxDb, a database of protein abundance averages ... 3. Helixi. 141 - 149. Combined sources. Manual assertion inferred from combination of experimental and computational evidencei ...
Catalyzes the oxidative ring opening of 3-hydroxyanthranilate to 2-amino-3-carboxymuconate semialdehyde, which spontaneously ... p>This subsection of the Function section describes the interaction between a single amino acid and another chemical entity. ... p>This subsection of the Function section describes the interaction between a single amino acid and another chemical entity. ... p>This subsection of the Function section describes the interaction between a single amino acid and another chemical entity. ...
3-hydroxyanthranilate 3,4-dioxygenase (EC 1.13.11.6) is an enzyme encoded by the HAAO gene that catalyzes the chemical reaction ... DECKER RH, KANG HH, LEACH FR, HENDERSON LM (1961). "Purification and properties of 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid oxidase". J. Biol ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is 3-hydroxyanthranilate:oxygen 3,4-oxidoreductase (decyclizing). Other names in ... 2-amino-3-carboxymuconate semialdehyde Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are 3-hydroxyanthranilate and O2, whereas its ...
Other Amino Acids. Besides BCAAs and AAAs, there were other amino acids related to IR, including sulfur amino acids (cysteine, ... Aromatic Amino Acids. Aromatic amino acids (AAAs) refer to amino acids that include an aromatic ring, such as phenylalanine, ... Amino acids metabolism. Branched-chain amino acids. Valine, leucine, and isoleucine. [21-24, 26]. ... S. J. Mihalik, S. F. Michaliszyn, J. de las Heras et al., "Metabolomic profiling of fatty acid and amino acid metabolism in ...
Flufenamic Acid. Prostaglandin G/H synthase 1. target. DB02266. Flufenamic Acid. Solute carrier family 22 member 6. transporter ... Aminosalicylic Acid. Group IIE secretory phospholipase A2. target. DB00233. Aminosalicylic Acid. Prostaglandin G/H synthase 2. ... Flufenamic Acid. Androgen receptor. target. DB02266. Flufenamic Acid. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha. target ... 4-(DIMETHYLAMINO)BENZOIC ACID. Replicase polyprotein 1ab. target. DB08748. 4-(DIMETHYLAMINO)BENZOIC ACID. Orf1a polyprotein. ...
Overexpression of kynurenic acid and 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid after rat traumatic brain injury. ... The Response Regulator YycF Inhibits Expression of the Fatty Acid Biosynthesis Repressor FabT in Streptococcus pneumoniae. ... 3.. Branched clonal evolution: nodal follicular lymphoma and primary diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the central nervous ... 3, 3, 5-triiodo-L-thyronine Increases In Vitro Chondrogenesis of Mesenchymal Stem Cells From Human Umbilical Cord Stroma ...
Moderation of breastfeeding effects on the IQ by genetic variation in fatty acid metabolism Avshalom Caspi, Benjamin Williams, ... Human β-defensin-3 activates professional antigen-presenting cells via Toll-like receptors 1 and 2 Nicholas Funderburg, Michael ... 3-Hydroxyanthranilic acid inhibits PDK1 activation and suppresses experimental asthma by inducing T cell apoptosis Tomoko ...
The missing ACP could possibly be provided in trans from a type II PKS or fatty acid synthetase.) The pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid ... A seven-gene locus for synthesis of phenazine-1-carboxylic acid by Pseudomonas fluorescens 2-79. J. Bacteriol. 180:2541-2548. ... Aligning the amino acid sequences of six adenyltransferases involved in the biosynthesis of five different antibiotics ... CalC resembles ATP-dependent fatty acid-CoA ligase FadDs, and it contains an N-terminal domain homologous to the LuxE ...
DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid)IBA 12/2014. 1. Proteins (Proteins, Gene)IBA 12/2014. ...
GO is a graphene sheet with carboxylic acids at its edges and phenol, hydroxyl and epoxide groups along the basal plane.167 GO ... For example, β-gal proteins can have half-lives in vivo from three minutes to over 20 hours depending on their amino acid ... Glucose + O2 → gluconic acid + H2O2. −0.080 V at pH 7.042. ... 64 Formic acid production of 413.8 mg mL−1 was achieved at −1 V ... Tan et al. (2016) recently replaced the phenylalanine and tyrosine amino acids on the carboxyl terminus of Geobacter ...
1981) Quinolinic acid: A potent endogenous excitant at amino acid receptors in CNS. Eur J Pharmacol 72(4):411-412. ... 1984) Kynurenic acid blocks neurotoxicity and seizures induced in rats by the related brain metabolite quinolinic acid. ... 1990) Determination of extracellular kynurenic acid in the striatum of unanesthetized rats: Effect of aminooxyacetic acid. ... propionic acids, kynurenic acid, and related metabolites as luminophores and free-radical scavengers. Adv Exp Med Biol 467:389- ...
Amino acid metabolism as drug target in autoimmune diseases.. Mondanelli G, Iacono A, Carvalho A, Orabona C, Volpi C, Pallotta ... Amino-acid sensing and degrading pathways in immune regulation.. Grohmann U, Mondanelli G, Belladonna ML, Orabona C, Pallotta ... The immune regulation in cancer by the amino acid metabolizing enzymes ARG and IDO. ... Advances in indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 medicinal chemistry.. Coletti A, Greco FA, Dolciami D, Camaioni E, Sardella R, ...
Mitchell, H. K., and J. F. Nyc: Hydroxy-anthranilic acid as a precursor of nicotinic acid in Neurospora. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. ... Jono, Y.: Nucleic acid. I. Enzymes which split nucleic acid. Acta Scholae med. Kioto 13:162-175 (1930).Google Scholar ... Kalan, E. B., and P. B. Srinivasan: Synthesis of 5-dehydro-shikimic acid from carbohydrates in a cell-free extract. Amino Acid ... Hardin, M. B.: On the occurrence of meta-phosphoric acid and pyrophosphoric acid in cotton seed meal. S. Carolina Exper. Sta. ...
... an early amino acid catabolite of l-tryptophan in the IDO-dependent pathway (22). These data expand on previous data of ... in which STAT3 as well as retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor (ROR)γ and more recently RORα (40) mediate lineage ... 3⇓ and Refs 2 and 3). These observations also suggest that IDO and kynurenines, in their capacity to induce Tregs and inhibit ... FIGURE 3. Metabolic regulation of Th17/Treg lineage decision; the opposing roles of IL-17 and kynurenines. In its ability to ...
Original Reports,The effect of glucuronic acid on the blood sulfonamide concentration and its acetylation (1959) ... Gas Chromatography of Urinary Anthranilic Acid and 3-Hydroxyanthranilic Acid by Solvent Extraction Method (1972) ... 3. 割合関係の系統的指導 (小学校第5分科会 割合(その1)) (1964) ... Fluorometric Determination of Urinary Phosphate with 3-Hydroxy-3, 4-dimethoxyflavone-magnesium
Serotonin + 5-Methyltetrahydrofolic acid → 5-Methoxytryptamine + Tetrahydrofolic acid. details N-Methyltyramine + S- ... Xanthurenic acid + S-Adenosylmethionine → 8-Methoxykynurenate + S-Adenosylhomocysteine. details R + Se-Adenosylselenomethionine ... 3-Hydroxyanthranilic acid + S-Adenosylmethionine → 3-Methoxyanthranilate + S-Adenosylhomocysteine. details ... L-Histidine + S-Adenosylmethionine → 3-Methylhistidine + S-Adenosylhomocysteine. details ...
Goda, K., Kishimoto, R., Shimizu, S., Hamane, Y., and Ueda, M., 1996, Quinolinic acid and active oxygens; possible contribution ... xanthurenic acid, serotonin, N-acetylserotonin) is similar to that of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT); the third group ( ... kynurenic acid, melatonin, and other ones) is less reactive than BHT.. Keywords. Glutathione Serotonin Disulfide NADPH ... The first group (3-hydroxykynurenine, 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid, and indole-3-pyruvic acid) is more reactive than α-tocopherol ...
... ll-octadecadienoic Acid from Linoleic Acid by Fatty Acid Cyclooxygenase. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 617, 545 (1980).Google Scholar ... Tack, B. F., P. J. Chapman, and S. Dagely: Metabolism of Gallic Acid and Syringic Acid by Pseudomonas putida. J. Biological ... White, G. A., and R. M. Krupka: Ascorbic Acid Oxidase and Ascorbic Acid Oxygenase of Myrothecium verrucaria. Arch. Biochem. ... Siegel, B., and J. Lanphear: Kinetics and Mechanism for the Acid-catalyzed Oxidative Decarboxylation of Benzoylformic Acid. J. ...
Several metabolites, including especially branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) and aromatic amino acids, have been reported to be ... Branched-chain amino acids in metabolic signalling and insulin resistance. Nat Rev Endocrinol 2014;10:723-736pmid:25287287. ... Nine Amino Acids Are Associated With Decreased Insulin Secretion and Elevated Glucose Levels in a 7.4-Year Follow-up Study of ... Nine Amino Acids Are Associated With Decreased Insulin Secretion and Elevated Glucose Levels in a 7.4-Year Follow-up Study of ...
Retinoic acid inhibits nitric oxide synthase-2 expression through the retinoic acid receptor-alpha. Sirsjo A, Gidlof Ac, Olsson ... Induction of CD36 by all-trans retinoic acid: retinoic acid receptor signaling in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Wuttge ... Conserved amino acid residues in T cell receptros of atherosclerotic lesions in apoE KO mice. Paulsson G, Tornquist E, Hansson ... Retinoic acid regulates arterial smooth muscle cell proliferation and phenotypic features in vivo and in vitro through an RAR ...
belongs to the class of organic compounds known as alpha amino acids. These are amino acids in which the amino group is ... I. ENZYMIC FORMATION OF GLUTARIC ACID FROM 3-HYDROXYANTHRANILIC ACID. J Biol Chem. 1965 Feb;240:733-9. [PubMed:14275129 ] ... 2. 3-hydroxyanthranilate 3,4-dioxygenase. General function:. Involved in 3-hydroxyanthranilate 3,4-dioxygenase activity. ... 2-Amino-3-carboxymuconic acid semialdehyde. Description. 2-amino-3-carboxymuconic acid semialdehyde is an intermediate ...
Cinnavalininate, also known as cinnabarinic acid or cinnabarinate, is a member of the class of compounds known as phenoxazines ... InChI=1S/C14H8N2O6/c15-10-6(17)4-8-12(9(10)14(20)21)16-11-5(13(18)19)2-1-3-7(11)22-8/h1-4H,15H2,(H,18,19)(H,20,21) ... It is generated from 3-hydroxyanthranilate via the enzyme catalase (EC:1.11.1.6)... ...
  • 2006, 3-Hydroxyanthranilic acid , one of L-tryptophan metabolites, inhibits monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 secretion and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression via heme oxygenase-1 induction in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Neopterin and IP-10 were associated with marked changes in KP metabolites in CSF with increasing kynurenine/tryptophan ratio reflecting indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase activity. (springer.com)
  • Then we generated all the metabolites identified in each study and found amino acid metabolism and lipid metabolism were the main affected metabolic pathways in obese children. (hindawi.com)
  • Among identified metabolites, branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), aromatic amino acids (AAAs), and acylcarnitines were reported to be associated with IR as biomarkers most frequently. (hindawi.com)
  • Here we show that genetic inhibition of two KP enzymes-kynurenine-3-monooxygenase and tryptophan-2,3-dioxygenase (TDO)-improved neurodegeneration and other disease symptoms in fruit fly models of AD, PD, and HD, and that alterations in levels of neuroactive KP metabolites likely underlie the beneficial effects. (pnas.org)
  • quinolinic acid (QUIN)] and neuroprotective [kynurenic acid (KYNA)] KP metabolites. (pnas.org)
  • Several metabolites, including especially branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) and aromatic amino acids, have been reported to be associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes in previous studies ( 2 - 5 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • IDO expression induces tryptophan catabolism, resulting in reduced tryptophan levels and increased levels of toxic downstream metabolites (kynurenine, quinolic acid, and picolinic acid), all of which can contribute to T-cell suppression [ 8 , 11 , 12 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • 4. Tryptophan metabolites and 4-pyridoxic acid excretion were determined in thirty-one women when they had been taking an oral contraceptive for 6-36 months. (portlandpress.com)
  • The kynurenine pathway metabolizes tryptophan into nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, producing a number of intermediary metabolites, including 3-hydroxy kynurenine and quinolinic acid, which are involved in the neurodegenerative mechanisms that underlie Alzheimer's disease (AD). (frontiersin.org)
  • The mechanism remains to be established but may operate via the action of tryptophan metabolites, such as 5-hydroxyanthranilic acid, which become reactive towards protein upon oxidation. (clinsci.org)
  • KYN is further degraded into the neuroprotective NMDAr antagonist KYNA by KAT, or by KMO and KYNU into the neurotoxic metabolites of 3-HK and QA. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The excretion of the tryptophan metabolites - kynurenine, kynurenic acid, acetylkynurenine, hydroxykynurenine, xanthurenicacid,o-aminohippuric acid and N-methyl-2-pyridone-5-carboxa- mide-was measured quantitatively in the urine of non pregnant women, pregnant women without and with vitamin supplementation, and in the same subjects postpartum. (tahomaclinic.com)
  • In addition, metabolites of kynurenine downstream of KMO, such as anthranilic acid and 3-hydroxy-anthranilic acid can influence inflammation, and the ratio of these compounds is a valuable biomarker of inflammatory status although the underlying molecular mechanisms of the changes require clarification. (ox.ac.uk)
  • In addition to lipoproteins, amino acids and their metabolites can shape immune cell responses, which has been the subject of intense research in the emerging field of immunometabolism. (wesrch.com)
  • 20%) relative to methionine and/or low 3-hydroxykynurenine and 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid in combination with high anthranilic acid. (uib.no)
  • FUNCTION: Catalyzes the cleavage of L-kynurenine (L-Kyn) and L-3- CC hydroxykynurenine (L-3OHKyn) into anthranilic acid (AA) and 3- CC hydroxyanthranilic acid (3-OHAA), respectively. (genome.jp)
  • A gas chromatographic method with alkali flame ionization detection is described for the determination of urinary total (free and conjugated) anthranilic acid (AA) and 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid (HAA) as their pentafluorobenzyl esters. (tudelft.nl)
  • 3. Tryptophan, kynurenine, kynurenic acid, xanthurenic acid, 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid, 5-hydroxyanthranilic acid, 5-hydroxytryptophan and anthranilic acid were measured by HPLC with dual electrochemical and programmable wavelength fluorescence detection. (clinsci.org)
  • No statistically significant differences in free tryptophan, anthranilic acid, 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid, xanthurenic acid or 5-hydroxytryptophan levels were noted. (clinsci.org)
  • The present work involves a further investigation of a Neurospora mutant, C-86, previously mentioned by Lein, Mitchell and Houlahan (1) as one that can utilize anthranilic acid, indole, tryptophan, kynurenine, 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid, and nicotinic acid as supplements for growth. (unl.edu)
  • Kynureninase is a pyridoxal-5\'-phosphate (pyridoxal-P) dependent enzyme that catalyzes the cleavage of L-kynurenine and L-3-hydroxykynurenine into anthranilic and 3-hydroxyanthranilic acids, respectively. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • Kynureninase is involved in the biosynthesis of NAD cofactors from tryptophan through the kynurenine pathway.Kynureninase is a pyridoxal-5\'-phosphate (pyridoxal-P) dependent enzyme that catalyzes the cleavage of L-kynurenine and L-3-hydroxykynurenine into anthranilic and 3-hydroxyanthranilic acids, respectively. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.Kynureninase is a pyridoxal-5\'-phosphate (pyridoxal-P) dependent enzyme that catalyzes the cleavage of L-kynurenine and L-3-hydroxykynurenine into anthranilic and 3-hydroxyanthranilic acids, respectively. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • The metabolism of tryptophan was studied in 10 patients with diabetes mellitus and 12 control subjects by deter- mining the urinary excretion of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, kynurenine, anthranilic acid, 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid and xanthurenic acid before and after a loading dose of 2 g of L-tryptophan. (tahomaclinic.com)
  • 3-Hydroxyanthranilic acid oxygenase (3HAO) is the biosynthetic enzyme for quinolinic acid, an endogenous agonist of the NMDA glutamate receptor subtype and a potent neurotoxin. (jneurosci.org)
  • In order to explore the anatomical basis of possible functional interactions between glutamate and quinolinic acid in the rat striatum, pre- and postembedding immunocytochemical methods were used to localize 3HAO immunoreactivity (-i) and glutamate-i at the electron microscopic level. (jneurosci.org)
  • Since quinolinic acid is known to enter the extracellular compartment readily, these results suggest that astrocytic quinolinic acid may participate in the regulation of glutamatergic neurotransmission in the rat striatum. (jneurosci.org)
  • It catalyses the cleavage of the benzene ring of 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid (3-Ohaa), an intermediate in the kynurenine pathway, and therefore represents a potential target in treating numerous disorders related to the concentration of quinolinic acid (QUIN), the kynurenine pathway product, in tissues. (rsc.org)
  • Increased ratio of quinolinic acid to kynurenic acid in cerebrospinal fluid of D retrovirusЧinfected rhesus macaques Relationship to clinical and viral status. (docme.ru)
  • Increased Ratio of Quinolinic Acid to Kynurenic Acid in Cerebrospinal Fluid of D Retrovirus-infected Rhesus Macaques: Relationshp to Clinical and Viral Status Melvyn P. Heyes, PhD," Ivan N. Mefford, PhD,t Bonnie J. Quearry, BS," Manish Dedhia," and Andrew Lackner, DVMS. (docme.ru)
  • Increased concentrations of excitotoxin quinolinic acid in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are associated with infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) and have been implicated in the pathogenesis of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) dementia complex. (docme.ru)
  • In the present study, inoculation of macaques with D/ l/California, an immunosuppressive serotype 1 type D retrovirus, was associated with acute and chronic increases in CSF and serum quinolinic acid concentrations in macaques that had developed SAIDS, a simian disease analogous to AIDS in humans-particularly macaques with demonstrable opportunistic infections. (docme.ru)
  • quinolinic acid, 15.6fold). (docme.ru)
  • CSF quinolinic acid, but not kynurenic acid, was also increased in viremic macaques with SAIDS-related complex (2.4-fold) and asymptomatic virus positive carriers (3.4-fold). (docme.ru)
  • Macaques that had recovered from D/ Kalifornia infection and were antibody positive and virus negative had normal CSF quinolinic acid and kynurenic acid concentrations. (docme.ru)
  • Macaques infected with D/ l/California may provide a primate model for investigation of the mechanisms involved in increases in CSF quinolinic acid in retrovirus and other infectious diseases, including HIV-1. (docme.ru)
  • It remains to be determined whether the increased CSF quinolinic acid concentrations and the increased ratio of quinolinic acid to kynurenic acid have neurological significance or are a useful "marker" of infection. (docme.ru)
  • Heyes MP, Mefford IN, Quearry BJ, Dedhia M, Lackner A. Increased ratio of quinolinic acid to kynurenic acid in cerebrospinal fluid of D retrovirus-infected rhesus macaques: relationship to clinical and viral status. (docme.ru)
  • A central compound of the pathway is Kynurenine (KYN) which can be metabolized in two separate ways: to Kynurenic acid (KYNA), or to 3-hydroxykynurenine (3-OH-KYN) and quinolinic acid (QUIN), the precursors of NAD. (ukessays.com)
  • Severe depression is associated with increased microglial quinolinic acid in subregions of the anterior cingulate gyrus: evidence for an immune-modulated glutamatergic neurotransmission? (edu.au)
  • HAAO catalyzes the synthesis of quinolinic acid (QUIN) from 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid. (bio-rad.com)
  • Several amino acids (AAs) have been shown to be associated with insulin resistance and increased risk of type 2 diabetes, but no previous studies have investigated the association of AAs with insulin secretion in a longitudinal setting. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • However, most of these studies have been cross-sectional, and none of these studies has investigated the association of amino acids (AAs) with changes in insulin secretion in a longitudinal setting. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • belongs to the class of organic compounds known as alpha amino acids. (hmdb.ca)
  • These are amino acids in which the amino group is attached to the carbon atom immediately adjacent to the carboxylate group (alpha carbon). (hmdb.ca)
  • Various studies revealed that C. gattii could assimilate d -proline ( 2 , 3 , 13 , 31 ) and d -tryptophan ( 2 , 3 , 35 ) whereas C. neoformans , including serotype AD, did not assimilate these amino acids. (asm.org)
  • ROS are produced in various cellular processes and organelles: electron leakage from the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC), degradation of lipids, amino acids, and biogenic polyamines, protein folding in the lumen of endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and so forth [ 3 - 7 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • It is shown here that Cu(II), and to a lesser extent Fe(III), enhance oxidation of free 3OHKyn, 3OHAA and 3OHKyn bound to specific amino acids and lens proteins, with this resulting in increased cross-linking of lens proteins. (figshare.com)
  • A Metabolic Relationship Between the Aromatic Amino Acids" by Joseph F. Nyc, Francis A. Haskins et al. (unl.edu)
  • The evidence presented suggests the possibility of a common precursor to the aromatic amino acids. (unl.edu)
  • In this work, seven peptides (13-18 amino acids) were synthesized and used as templates for the. (infona.pl)
  • Three peptides (each containing 13-18 amino acids) were synthesized and used as templates for molecular imprinting and epitope recognition of the Regenerating Protein 1B (REG1B), which is one of the urinary biomarkers for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). (infona.pl)
  • the third group (kynurenic acid, melatonin, and other ones) is less reactive than BHT. (springer.com)
  • Kynurenic acid (KYNA) is an antagonist to the α-7nACh and NMDA receptors. (psychiatrist.com)
  • The focus of this article is to shed light on cognitive impairments due to ECT, TBI, and neurologic and psychiatric disorders and the potential role of galantamine-memantine combination treatment with kynurenic acid (KYNA) and mismatch negativity (MMN) as target engagement. (psychiatrist.com)
  • Kynurenine aminotransferases (KATs) catalyze the synthesis of kynurenic acid (KYNA), a compound of significant biological activity. (molvis.org)
  • The responses of kynurenine and 5-hydroxyanthranilic acid were higher in cataract patients, but those of kynurenic acid and total tryptophan were lower than in control subjects. (clinsci.org)
  • 3. The development of dietary vitamin B 6 deficiency was indicated by decreased 4-pyridoxic acid excretion, increased urinary concentrations of xanthurenic acid, kynurenine and 3-hydroxykynurenine, an elevated 3-hydroxykynurenine/3-hydroxyanthranilic acid ratio and impaired erythrocyte aminotransferase activities. (portlandpress.com)
  • Vasorelaxing Action of the Kynurenine Metabolite, Xanthurenic Acid: The Missing Link in Endotoxin-Induced Hypotension? (elsevier.com)
  • In 13 an increased urinary xanthurenic-acid excretion after an oral load of L-tryptophan indicated a relative pyridoxine deficiency. (tahomaclinic.com)
  • Our results substantiated our hypothesis that increased xanthurenic-acid synthesis during pregnancy may cause gestational diabetes. (tahomaclinic.com)
  • Treatment with vitamin B6 makes the production of xanthurenic-acid normal by restoring tryptophan metabolism and improves the oral glucose tolerance in patients with gestational diabetes. (tahomaclinic.com)
  • Pyridone excretion remained high even after pyridoxine supplementation had significantly lowered the excretion of xanthurenic acid, hydroxykynurenine and kynurenine. (tahomaclinic.com)
  • Studies on the xanthurenic acid-insulin complex. (tahomaclinic.com)
  • The activity of xanthurenic acid-insulin complex on the blood sugar levels of rabbits is about 50% of that of native insulin. (tahomaclinic.com)
  • 3. Distribution of xanthurenic acid and formation of xanthurenic acid-insulin complex in serum. (tahomaclinic.com)
  • This appeared as a markedly increased excretion of xanthurenic acid both before and after the loading dose of L-tryptophan. (tahomaclinic.com)
  • Interaction between xanthurenic acid-insulin complex and zinc ions. (tahomaclinic.com)
  • An equimolar mixture of a xanthurenic acid-insulin complex and ZnSO4 was separated into an insulin peak and a peak containing xanthurenic acid (XA) and Zn by Sephadex G-75 column chromatograpy. (tahomaclinic.com)
  • Other names in common use include 3-hydroxyanthranilate oxygenase, 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid oxygenase, 3-hydroxyanthranilic oxygenase, 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid oxidase and 3HAO. (wikipedia.org)
  • 3-Hydroxyanthranilate 3,4-dioxygenase ( 3HAO ) is a non-heme iron dependent enzyme. (rsc.org)
  • Finally, using the hybrid quantum-mechanics/molecular-mechanics (QM/MM) calculations the 3HAO catalysed 3-Ohaa oxidation into 2-amino-3-carboxymuconic acid semialdehyde was elucidated. (rsc.org)
  • 2-amino-3-carboxymuconic acid semialdehyde is an intermediate metabolite of the tryptophan-niacin catabolic pathway. (hmdb.ca)
  • Publications] Morita.T: '3-Hydroxyanthranilic acid, AL-Tryptophan metabolite, induces apoptosis in monocyte-derived cell stimulated by interferon-γ'Ann,Clin,Biochem. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Publications] MORITA Toshiko, et al: '3-Hydroxyanthranilic Acid, AL-Tryptophan Metabolite, Induces Apoptosis in Monocyte-derived Cell Stimulated by Interferon-γ. (nii.ac.jp)
  • In vivo and in vitro data indicated that IDO1 regulates vascular inflammation, particularly in smooth muscle cells, and inhibits atherosclerosis possibly via the generation of the metabolite 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid (3HAA). (wesrch.com)
  • This protein catalyzes the synthesis ofquinolinic acid (QUIN) from 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid. (creativebiomart.net)
  • In endotoxin-treated mice, the activity of indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase(IDO), the first enzyme of the kynurenine pathway that synthesizes QUIN, is increased in several extrahepatic tissues, plasma L-kynurenine (L-KYN) is elevated [4], and QUIN, 3-hydroxykynurenine L-TRP and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) concentrations are increased in cerebral cortex [5, 61. (docme.ru)
  • 2008), it may be predicted that in some forms of epilepsy, over activation of microglial branch with respect to the astrocytic branch of the KP leads to accumulation of QUIN and 3-HK in the CNS. (ukessays.com)
  • It has been proposed that adjunctive treatment with KMO inhibitor along with anti-convulsants can improve the treatment outcome, as inhibition of KMO increase the KYNA production and decrease the 3-HK and QUIN production in the CNS (Campbell et al. (ukessays.com)
  • Cinnavalininate, also known as cinnabarinic acid or cinnabarinate, is a member of the class of compounds known as phenoxazines. (hmdb.ca)
  • Cinnabarinic acid is a valuable phenoxazinone that has broad applications in the pharmaceutical, chemical, and dyeing industries. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • However, few studies have investigated the production of cinnabarinic acid or its derivatives using genetically engineered microorganisms. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Herein, an efficient synthetic pathway of cinnabarinic acid was designed and constructed in Pseudomonas chlororaphis GP72 for the first tim, which was more straightforward and robust than the known eukaryotic biosynthetic pathways. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • NRRL12068 (encoded by bomO) and Streptomyces chartreusis NRRL3882 (encoded by calB3) based on the structural similarity of the substrate and product, and the DHHA dehydrogenase encoded by calB3 was selected for the synthesis of cinnabarinic acid due to its high DHHA conversion rate. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Subsequently, cinnabarinic acid was synthesized by the expression of the DHHA dehydrogenase CalB3 and the phenoxazinone synthase CotA in the DHHA-producing strain P. chlororaphis GP72, resulting in a cinnabarinic acid titer of 20.3 mg/L at 48 hr. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Further fermentation optimization by the addition of Cu2+ , H2 O2 , and with adding glycerol increased cinnabarinic acid titer to 136.2 mg/L in shake flasks. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The results indicate that P. chlororaphis GP72 may be engineered as a microbial cell factory to produce cinnabarinic acid or its derivatives from renewable bioresources. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Probably catalyzes the final step in the conversion of trans-2,3-dihydro-3-hydroxyanthranilic acid (DHHA) to phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA). (rcsb.org)
  • PhzF is part of the seven-gene operon phzABCDEFG, responsible for the synthesis of phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA) in Pseudomonas species. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Weaver wants to study the brains of deceased people with and without Alzheimer's to see if there's a difference in 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid concentration, as well as to study the pharmacokinetics of this molecule and its derivatives. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Derivatives of BENZOIC ACID that contain one or more amino groups attached to the benzene ring structure. (drugbank.ca)
  • Pyridine derivatives substituted with a carboxy group at the 2-, 3-, or 4-position. (curehunter.com)
  • The isolation and synthesis of glucose-1-phosphoric acid. (springer.com)
  • It is suggested that succinate synthesis under functional (sodium azide) or environmental (N(2)) anaerobic conditions occurs via the reductive part of the tricarboxylic acid cycle. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Perkins and Stone, 1982) discovered that KYNA is a broad spectrum antagonists of glutamate receptor which can inhibit three types of ionotropic receptors- N -methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), kainate and a-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA) receptors. (ukessays.com)
  • Recent work has highlighted the therapeutic potential of inhibiting two critical regulatory enzymes in this pathway-kynurenine-3-monooxygenase (KMO) and tryptophan-2,3-dioxygenase (TDO). (pnas.org)
  • The enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) is an intracellular heme-containing enzyme that catalyzes the initial and rate-limiting step in tryptophan degradation along the so-called kynurenine pathway ( 9 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Indolamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), the first and rate-limiting enzyme of this pathway, is increased in AD, and it has been hypothesized that blocking this enzyme may slow the progression of AD. (frontiersin.org)
  • Increased activity of indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase,the first enzyme of the kynurenine pathway, was indicated in the macaques with SAIDS by reduced serum Gtryptophan and elevated serum Gkynurenine concentrations. (docme.ru)
  • The kynurenine pathway (KP) is a major route for the metabolism of an essential amino acid, tryptophan which results in the production of biologically active molecules, kynurenines. (ukessays.com)
  • This enzyme utilizes a non-heme Fe and dioxygen to convert 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid (3-HAA) to 2-amino-3-carboxymuconate-6-semialdehyde (ACMS). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Catalyzes the oxidative ring opening of 3-hydroxyanthranilate to 2-amino-3-carboxymuconate semialdehyde, which spontaneously cyclizes to quinolinate. (uniprot.org)
  • 3-hydroxyanthranilate + O 2 = 2-amino-3-carboxymuconate semialdehyde. (uniprot.org)
  • 3-hydroxyanthranilate 3,4-dioxygenase (EC 1.13.11.6) is an enzyme encoded by the HAAO gene that catalyzes the chemical reaction 3-hydroxyanthranilate + O2 ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } 2-amino-3-carboxymuconate semialdehyde Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are 3-hydroxyanthranilate and O2, whereas its product is 2-amino-3-carboxymuconate semialdehyde. (wikipedia.org)
  • Quinolinate is a neurotoxin formed nonenzymatically from 2-amino-3-carboxymuconic semialdehyde in mammalian tissues. (hmdb.ca)
  • 2-Amino-3-carboxymuconic semialdehyde is enzymatically converted to 2-aminomuconate via 2-aminomuconic semialdehyde. (hmdb.ca)
  • The study is the first to show that genetic deletion of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) or the decrease in the gene expression of kynureninase (KNU) in the body restrained AngII-induced abdominal aortic aneurysm in mice deficient in apolipoprotein e. (eurekalert.org)
  • Moderate decay due conversion to glutamic acid in improperly stored serum/plasma samples, leading to a marked increase in the Glu/Gln ratio. (uib.no)
  • Moderate decay due conversion to aspartic acid in improperly stored serum/plasma samples, leading to an increase in the Asp/Asn ratio. (uib.no)
  • Molecular characterization of the genes of actinomycin synthetase I and of a 4-methyl-3-hydroxyanthranilic acid carrier protein involved in the assembly of the acylpeptide chain of actinomycin in Streptomyces. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Sequence analysis and expression of acmA in Streptomyces lividans as enzymatically active hexa-His-fusion confirmed the acmA gene product to be ACMS I. An open reading frame of 234 base pairs (acmD), which encodes a 78-amino acid protein with similarity to various acyl carrier proteins, is located downstream of acmA. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • This protein is involved in step 3 of the subpathway that synthesizes quinolinate from L-kynurenine. (uniprot.org)
  • IFNγ can induce chemokine and cytokine secretion in the tumor microenvironment, including IP-10, an angiostatic protein ( 8 , 13 ), and can inhibit tumor angiogenesis ( 3 , 13 , 14 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • The stability and behaviour of the enzyme in nearly physiological conditions, studied by the empirical molecular modelling methods enabled us to determine the influence of several, for the enzyme activity relevant, point mutations (Arg43Ala, Arg95Ala and Glu105Ala) on the protein structure, particularly on the active site architecture and the metal ion environment, as well as on the substrate, 3-Ohaa, binding. (rsc.org)
  • Besides, the water population of the active site, and the protein flexibility as well as the amino acid residues interaction networks relevant for the enzyme activity were determined for the 3-Ohaa complexes with the native and mutated enzyme variants. (rsc.org)
  • 1 It acts as an antioxidant whether it is free or albumin bound, 2 unconjugated or conjugated, 3,4 and it inhibits both lipid and protein oxidation. (ahajournals.org)
  • The latter may promote the oxidation of free, or protein-bound, o -aminophenols, such as the UV filter compounds 3-hydroxykynurenine (3OHKyn) and 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid (3OHAA). (figshare.com)
  • 3-Hydroxyanthranilate 34-dioxygenase is a monomeric cytosolic protein belonging to the family of intramolecular dioxygenases containing nonheme ferrous iron. (bio-rad.com)
  • 1. A vitamin B 6 -deficient diet was fed to an adult male subject to confirm previously described changes in tryptophan metabolism and urinary 4-pyridoxic acid excretion, and erythrocyte alanine and aspartate aminotransferase activities. (portlandpress.com)
  • The excretion of kynurenine was diminished compared to normal and that of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid slightly enhanced after the tryptophan load. (tahomaclinic.com)
  • One molecule, 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid , was orders of magnitude better than the others, and was selected for follow-up in the lab. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Thus, two equivalents of 3-phosphoglycerate are produced for each molecule of CO 2 that is fixed. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the light-independent reactions (also known as the Calvin cycle), two 3-phosphoglycerate molecules are synthesized, one of which continues through the Calvin cycle to be regenerated to RuBP and the other is reduced to form one molecule of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (G3P). (wikipedia.org)
  • The systematic name of this enzyme class is 3-hydroxyanthranilate:oxygen 3,4-oxidoreductase (decyclizing). (wikipedia.org)
  • It is generated from 3-hydroxyanthranilate via the enzyme catalase (EC:1.11.1.6). (hmdb.ca)
  • Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) is an immunomodulatory intracellular enzyme involved in tryptophan degradation. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase is an immunomodulatory intracellular enzyme involved in the first, rate-limiting step of tryptophan catabolism [ 1 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • We have found that mature, immunogenic human monocyte-derived DCs (moDCs) up-regulate the immune-inhibitory enzyme, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO). (bloodjournal.org)
  • The KP is initiated by pro-inflammatory cytokines via induction of the enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), which degrades tryptophan (TRP) into kynurenine (KYN). (ed.gov)
  • We investigated the role of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), an IFNγ-inducible enzyme that may down-regulate T cells by affecting local tryptophan catabolism in tumor resistance to repeated treatments with IFNγ-NGR. (aacrjournals.org)
  • It has been proposed that the essential amino acid tryptophan is catabolized in the tumor tissue by the rate-limiting enzyme indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) expressed in tumor cells or antigen-presenting cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Immunotherapy with these DCs promoted an immune response to apoB100 that favoured the accumulation of Treg cells in atherosclerotic plaques, increased vascular expression of the immunomodulatory enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1), and ameliorated atherosclerosis. (wesrch.com)
  • In addition, activation of caspase-3 by caspase-9 can be blocked by inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • These hormones were employed as templates when generating molecular imprints from aniline and metanilic acid by electropolymerization on the surface of screen-printed electrodes. (infona.pl)
  • SPANI was in situ polymerised and assembled on CBs by mixing the monomers o-aminobenzenesulphonic acid (SAN) and aniline (AN) with an initiator and CNPs. (infona.pl)
  • Actinomycin synthetase I (ACMS I) activates 4-methyl-3-hydroxyanthranilic acid, the precursor of the chromophoric moiety of the actinomycin, as adenylate. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Glycerate 3-phosphate is also a precursor for serine , which, in turn, can create cysteine and glycine through the homocysteine cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Our data found a previously undescribed causative role for 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid (3-HAA), a product of tryptophan metabolism, in abdominal aortic aneurysm formation," said Dr. Ming-Hui Zou, director of the Center for Molecular and Translational Medicine at Georgia State and a Georgia Research Alliance Eminent Scholar in Molecular Medicine. (eurekalert.org)
  • First, we screened and identified trans-2,3-dihydro-3-hydroxyanthranilic acid (DHHA) dehydrogenases from Escherichia coli MG1655 (encoded by entA), Streptomyces sp. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • PhzF is a trans-2,3-dihydro-3-hydroxyanthranilate isomerase that catalyses the condensation of two molecules of trans-2,3-dihydro-3-hydroxyanthranilic acid (DHHA) into the phenazine ring system. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • A computerized screen of chemicals found in the brain has identified 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid as a potential Alzheimer's therapeutic. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In its HO2 form, superoxide can also initiate lipid peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids. (hmdb.ca)
  • In this article we review evidence supporting opposing roles for IDO-dependent immune regulation-including the generation of regulatory T (Treg) 3 cells ( 4 , 5 )-and the IL-23/Th17 axis in controlling inflammation to specific fungi. (jimmunol.org)
  • In addition to the Th1/Th2 balance, it has recently been shown that the occurrence of long-lasting antifungal protection is dependent on the presence of CD4 + CD25 + regulatory T cells (Treg) 3 that, by negatively regulating anticandidal Th1 reactivity, limit exaggerated inflammatory responses ( 2 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • 3 ⇓ - 5 Less well characterized and of emerging importance are regulatory checkpoints intrinsic to mature, immunostimulatory DCs in controlling the degree and duration of immune responses. (bloodjournal.org)
  • According to the generally accepted concept, tryptophan, an essential amino acid, is catabolized in the local microenvironment of tumors, immune-privileged sites, or sites of inflammation ( 2 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • It has been suggested that the essential amino acid tryptophan may be implicated in the aetiology but definitive evidence has been lacking. (clinsci.org)
  • Gas chromatographic determination of urinary indole-3-acetic acid. (nii.ac.jp)
  • SODs accelerated the oxidation of 3-HAT, but inactivated Cu.ZnSOD caused little acceleration. (wikigenes.org)
  • 3,4 The causative factors of vascular access stenosis include small diameter of artery and vein, surgical technique, previous venipunctures, hemodynamic stress, and the presence of accessory veins. (ahajournals.org)
  • Here we test for the chemotaxis of this strain towards six chloro-nitroaromatic compounds (CNACs), namely 2-chloro-4-nitrophenol (2C4NP), 2-chloro-3-nitrophenol (2C3NP), 4-chloro-2-nitrophenol (4C2NP), 2-chloro-4-nitrobenzoate (2C4NB), 4-chloro-2-nitrobenzoate (4C2NB) and 5-chloro-2-nitrobenzoate (5C2NB), and examine its relationship to the degradation of such compounds. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Lobocka M, Hennig J, Wild J, Kłopotowski T. Organization and expression of the Escherichia coli K-12 dad operon encoding the smaller subunit of D-amino acid dehydrogenase and the catabolic alanine racemase. (labome.org)
  • CATALYTIC ACTIVITY: L-3-hydroxykynurenine + H(2)O = 3- CC hydroxyanthranilate + L-alanine. (genome.jp)