3-Hydroxyanthranilate 3,4-Dioxygenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of 3-hydroxyanthranilate to 2-amino-3-carboxymuconate semialdehyde. It was formerly characterized as EC 1.13.1.6.3-Hydroxyanthranilic Acid: An oxidation product of tryptophan metabolism. It may be a free radical scavenger and a carcinogen.Quinolinic Acid: A metabolite of tryptophan with a possible role in neurodegenerative disorders. Elevated CSF levels of quinolinic acid are correlated with the severity of neuropsychological deficits in patients who have AIDS.KynurenineDioxygenases: Non-heme iron-containing enzymes that incorporate two atoms of OXYGEN into the substrate. They are important in biosynthesis of FLAVONOIDS; GIBBERELLINS; and HYOSCYAMINE; and for degradation of AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS.ortho-Aminobenzoates: Benzoic acids, salts, or esters that contain an amino group attached to carbon number 2 or 6 of the benzene ring structure.Oxygenases: Oxidases that specifically introduce DIOXYGEN-derived oxygen atoms into a variety of organic molecules.Kynurenine 3-Monooxygenase: An NADPH-dependent flavin monooxygenase that plays a key role in the catabolism of TRYPTOPHAN by catalyzing the HYDROXYLATION of KYNURENINE to 3-hydroxykynurenine. It was formerly characterized as EC 1.14.1.2 and EC 1.99.1.5.Nitrobenzoates: Benzoic acid or benzoic acid esters substituted with one or more nitro groups.Tryptophan: An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvate Dioxygenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate plus oxygen to homogentisic acid and carbon dioxide. EC 1.13.11.27.Catechol 2,3-Dioxygenase: Catalyzes the oxidation of catechol to 2-hydroxymuconate semialdehyde in the carbazole and BENZOATE degradation via HYDROXYLATION pathways. It also catalyzes the conversion of 3-methylcatechol to cis, cis-2-hydroxy-6-oxohept-2,4-dienoate in the TOLUENE and XYLENE degradation pathway. This enzyme was formerly characterized as EC 1.13.1.2.Carboxy-Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze the addition of a carboxyl group to a compound (carboxylases) or the removal of a carboxyl group from a compound (decarboxylases). EC 4.1.1.Protocatechuate-3,4-Dioxygenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of protocatechuate to 3-carboxy-cis-cis-muconate in the presence of molecular oxygen. It contains ferric ion. EC 1.13.11.3.Cysteine Dioxygenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-CYSTEINE to 3-sulfinoalanine (3-sulfino-L-alanine) in the CYSTEINE metabolism and TAURINE and hypotaurine metabolic pathways.Catechol 1,2-Dioxygenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of catechol to muconic acid with the use of Fe3+ as a cofactor. This enzyme was formerly characterized as EC 1.13.1.1 and EC 1.99.2.2.Tryptophan Oxygenase: A dioxygenase with specificity for the oxidation of the indoleamine ring of TRYPTOPHAN. It is a LIVER-specific enzyme that is the first and rate limiting enzyme in the kynurenine pathway of TRYPTOPHAN catabolism.Homogentisate 1,2-Dioxygenase: A mononuclear Fe(II)-dependent oxygenase, this enzyme catalyzes the conversion of homogentisate to 4-maleylacetoacetate, the third step in the pathway for the catabolism of TYROSINE. Deficiency in the enzyme causes ALKAPTONURIA, an autosomal recessive disorder, characterized by homogentisic aciduria, OCHRONOSIS and ARTHRITIS. This enzyme was formerly characterized as EC 1.13.1.5 and EC 1.99.2.5.Catechols: A group of 1,2-benzenediols that contain the general formula R-C6H5O2.Pseudomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.Biodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.Ralstonia: A genus in the family BURKHOLDERIACEAE, comprised of many species. They are associated with a variety of infections including MENINGITIS; PERITONITIS; and URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS.Cupriavidus necator: A gram-negative, facultatively chemoautotrophic bacterium, formerly called Wautersia eutropha, found in water and soil.Cupriavidus: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria, in the family BURKHOLDERIACEAE, that are mobile by means of peritrichous FLAGELLA. The genus was formerly called Wautersia and species in this genus were formerly in the genus RALSTONIA.Ralstonia solanacearum: A species of Ralstonia previously classed in the genera PSEUDOMONAS and BURKHOLDERIA. It is an important plant pathogen.Genome-Wide Association Study: An analysis comparing the allele frequencies of all available (or a whole GENOME representative set of) polymorphic markers in unrelated patients with a specific symptom or disease condition, and those of healthy controls to identify markers associated with a specific disease or condition.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Breeding: The production of offspring by selective mating or HYBRIDIZATION, GENETIC in animals or plants.Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.Bayes Theorem: A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.Hepatitis, Infectious Canine: A contagious disease caused by canine adenovirus (ADENOVIRUSES, CANINE) infecting the LIVER, the EYE, the KIDNEY, and other organs in dogs, other canids, and bears. Symptoms include FEVER; EDEMA; VOMITING; and DIARRHEA.Litter Size: The number of offspring produced at one birth by a viviparous animal.ArchivesBiological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Directories as Topic: Lists of persons or organizations, systematically arranged, usually in alphabetic or classed order, giving address, affiliations, etc., for individuals, and giving address, officers, functions, and similar data for organizations. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Microsatellite Instability: The occurrence of highly polymorphic mono- and dinucleotide MICROSATELLITE REPEATS in somatic cells. It is a form of genome instability associated with defects in DNA MISMATCH REPAIR.RNA Polymerase Sigma 54: A DNA-directed RNA polymerase found in BACTERIA. It is a holoenzyme that consists of multiple subunits including sigma factor 54.Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Hernia, Abdominal: A protrusion of abdominal structures through the retaining ABDOMINAL WALL. It involves two parts: an opening in the abdominal wall, and a hernia sac consisting of PERITONEUM and abdominal contents. Abdominal hernias include groin hernia (HERNIA, FEMORAL; HERNIA, INGUINAL) and VENTRAL HERNIA.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Antilymphocyte Serum: Serum containing GAMMA-GLOBULINS which are antibodies for lymphocyte ANTIGENS. It is used both as a test for HISTOCOMPATIBILITY and therapeutically in TRANSPLANTATION.Homeostasis: The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.Chromatin Assembly and Disassembly: The mechanisms effecting establishment, maintenance, and modification of that specific physical conformation of CHROMATIN determining the transcriptional accessibility or inaccessibility of the DNA.Prolamins: A group of seed storage proteins restricted to the POACEAE family. They are rich in GLUTAMINE and PROLINE.Avena sativa: A plant species of the family POACEAE that is widely cultivated for its edible seeds.Transcriptome: The pattern of GENE EXPRESSION at the level of genetic transcription in a specific organism or under specific circumstances in specific cells.Polyploidy: The chromosomal constitution of a cell containing multiples of the normal number of CHROMOSOMES; includes triploidy (symbol: 3N), tetraploidy (symbol: 4N), etc.Seeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Genomics: The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.
In enzymology, a 3-hydroxyanthranilate 3,4-dioxygenase (EC 1.13.11.6) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction 3- ... hydroxyanthranilate + O2 ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } 2-amino-3-carboxymuconate semialdehyde Thus, the two substrates ... DECKER RH, KANG HH, LEACH FR, HENDERSON LM (1961). "Purification and properties of 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid oxidase". J. Biol ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is 3-hydroxyanthranilate:oxygen 3,4-oxidoreductase (decyclizing). Other names in ...
... dioxygenases MeSH D08.811.682.690.416.277 --- catechol 1,2-dioxygenase MeSH D08.811.682.690.416.305 --- catechol 2,3- ... 2-oxoglutarate 5-dioxygenase MeSH D08.811.682.690.708.673 --- procollagen-proline dioxygenase MeSH D08.811.682.690.708.715 --- ... cysteine dioxygenase MeSH D08.811.682.690.416.326 --- homogentisate 1,2-dioxygenase MeSH D08.811.682.690.416.328 --- 3- ... hydroxyanthranilate 3,4-dioxygenase MeSH D08.811.682.690.416.330 --- 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase MeSH D08.811.682.690. ...
... sulfur dioxygenase EC 1.13.11.19: cysteamine dioxygenase EC 1.13.11.20: cysteine dioxygenase EC 1.13.11.21: now *EC 1.14.99.36 ... gibberellin 3b-dioxygenase EC 1.14.11.16: peptide-aspartate b-dioxygenase EC 1.14.11.17: taurine dioxygenase EC 1.14.11.18: ... 2-dioxygenase EC 1.14.12.11: toluene dioxygenase EC 1.14.12.12: naphthalene 1,2-dioxygenase EC 1.14.12.13: 2-chlorobenzoate 1,2 ... 2-dioxygenase EC 1.14.12.16: 2-hydroxyquinoline 5,6-dioxygenase EC 1.14.12.17: nitric oxide dioxygenase EC 1.14.12.18: biphenyl ...
α-Ketoisocaproate dioxygenase. *Leucine 2,3-aminomutase. *Methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase. *Methylglutaconyl-CoA hydratase ... 44 (3): e69. doi:10.1136/jmg.2006.043448. PMC 2598024. PMID 17361008.. *^ Kure S, Mandel H, Rolland MO, Sakata Y (April 1998 ... 45 (3): 137-49. doi:10.1007/bf00230082. PMID 6750353.. *^ Yoshida T, Kikuchi G, Tada K, Narisawa K, Arakawa T (May 1969). " ... doi:10.1016/0003-9861(79)90267-4. PMID 389161.. *^ Pares S, Cohen-Addad C, Sicker L, Neuburger M, Douce R (May 1994). "X-ray ...
α-Ketoisocaproate dioxygenase. *Leucine 2,3-aminomutase. *Methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase. *Methylglutaconyl-CoA hydratase ... See Template:Leucine metabolism in humans - this diagram does not include the pathway for β-leucine synthesis via leucine 2,3- ... Lima S, Kumar S, Gawandi V, Momany C, Phillips RS (January 2009). "Crystal structure of the Homo sapiens kynureninase-3- ... Inada J, Okuno E, Kimura M, Kido R (1984). "Intracellular localization and characterization of 3-hydroxykynureninase in human ...
α-Ketoisocaproate dioxygenase. *Leucine 2,3-aminomutase. *Methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase. *Methylglutaconyl-CoA hydratase ... 128 (3): 489-94. PMC 1204522. PMID 1874410.. *^ Lehninger, Albert L.; Nelson, David L.; Cox, Michael M. (2000). Principles of ... 3-Phosphoglycerates: serine, glycine, cysteine[edit]. Serine[edit]. Serine is the first amino acid in this family to be ... 1 (4): 495-505. doi:10.1016/0020-711X(70)90065-0.. *^ Pilzer LI (December 1963). "The Pathway and Control of Serine ...
α-Ketoisocaproate dioxygenase. *Leucine 2,3-aminomutase. *Methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase. *Methylglutaconyl-CoA hydratase ... 31 (3): 171-5. doi:10.1080/07435800500371706. PMID 16392619.. *^ Johannsen S, Berberich C, Metterlein T, Roth C, Reiners K, ... 978-0-7817-4611-3. . OCLC 56446391.. *^ Johnsen SH, Lilleng H, Wilsgaard T, Bekkelund SI (January 2011). "Creatine kinase ... 1991 [4]). The atomic structure of cytosolic brain-type BB-CK was solved at 1.4 ! Angstroms in 1999. (Eder et al. 1999 [5]). ...
... (/ˌɛlˈdoʊpə/), also known as levodopa (/ˌlɛvoʊˈdoʊpə/) or L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine is an amino acid that is made and ... 16 (3): 106-112. doi:10.1021/ar00087a006.. *^ "Synthetic scheme for total synthesis of DOPA, L- (Monsanto)". UW Madison, ... 81 (3-4): 1-21. doi:10.1080/00218460590944602.. *^ "Study Reveals Details Of Mussels' Tenacious Bonds". Science Daily. Aug 16, ... 2 (3): 126-133.. *^ Waite, J. Herbert; Andersen, Niels Holten; et al. (2005). "Mussel Adhesion: Finding the Tricks Worth ...
... (KYNA or KYN) is a product of the normal metabolism of amino acid L-tryptophan. It has been shown that kynurenic acid possesses neuroactive activity. It acts as an antiexcitotoxic and anticonvulsant, most likely through acting as an antagonist at excitatory amino acid receptors. Because of this activity, it may influence important neurophysiological and neuropathological processes. As a result, kynurenic acid has been considered for use in therapy in certain neurobiological disorders. Conversely, increased levels of kynurenic acid have also been linked to certain pathological conditions. Kynurenic acid was discovered in 1853 by the German chemist Justus von Liebig in dog urine, which it was apparently named after. It is formed from L-kynurenine in a reaction catalyzed by the enzyme kynurenine-oxoglutarate transaminase. KYNA has been proposed to act on four targets: As an antagonist at ionotropic AMPA, NMDA and Kainate glutamate receptors in the concentration range of 0.1-2.5 mM. ...
... is an organic compound with the molecular formula C9H9NO3. It is an intermediate product in catabolism of quinaldine in Arthrobacter sp., and is further metabolized to anthranilic acid.[1][2] N-Acetylanthranilic acid can be synthesized from 2-bromoacetanilide via palladium-catalyzed carbonylation in tri-n-butylamine-water at 110-130 °C, under 3 atm of carbon monoxide.[3] In the laboratory, it can be easily synthesized from anthranilic acid and acetic anhydride. N-Acetylanthranilic acid exhibits triboluminescence when crushed.[4] The fractured crystals have large electrical potentials between areas of high and low charge. When the electrons suddenly migrate to neutralize these potentials, flashes of deep blue light are created. In the United States, it is a Drug Enforcement Administration-controlled Table I illicit drug precursor,[5] because it has been used in the synthesis of methaqualone. ...
... (KYNA or KYN) is a product of the normal metabolism of amino acid L-tryptophan. It has been shown that kynurenic acid possesses neuroactive activity. It acts as an antiexcitotoxic and anticonvulsant, most likely through acting as an antagonist at excitatory amino acid receptors. Because of this activity, it may influence important neurophysiological and neuropathological processes. As a result, kynurenic acid has been considered for use in therapy in certain neurobiological disorders. Conversely, increased levels of kynurenic acid have also been linked to certain pathological conditions. Kynurenic acid was discovered in 1853 by the German chemist Justus von Liebig in dog urine, which it was apparently named after. It is formed from L-kynurenine in a reaction catalyzed by the enzyme kynurenine-oxoglutarate transaminase. KYNA has been proposed to act on four targets: As an antagonist at ionotropic AMPA, NMDA and Kainate glutamate receptors in the concentration range of 0.1-2.5 mM. ...
... can occur from substances produced within the body (endogenous excitotoxins). Glutamate is a prime example of an excitotoxin in the brain, and it is also the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian CNS.[10] During normal conditions, glutamate concentration can be increased up to 1mM in the synaptic cleft, which is rapidly decreased in the lapse of milliseconds.[11] When the glutamate concentration around the synaptic cleft cannot be decreased or reaches higher levels, the neuron kills itself by a process called apoptosis.[12][13]. This pathologic phenomenon can also occur after brain injury and spinal cord injury. Within minutes after spinal cord injury, damaged neural cells within the lesion site spill glutamate into the extracellular space where glutamate can stimulate presynaptic glutamate receptors to enhance the release of additional glutamate.[14] Brain trauma or stroke can cause ischemia, in which blood flow is reduced to inadequate levels. Ischemia is followed ...
Dizaltı arteriya (lat. Arteria poplitea) - bud arteriyasının ardı olub, dizaltı çuxurda yerləşmişdir. Yaxınlaşdırıcı kanalın aşağı dəliyi səviyyəsində başlayaraq dizaltı əzələnin və diz oynağının kapsulunun arxa səthi ilə aşağıya doğru gedir və dizaltı əzələnin aşağı kənarına çatır. Dizaltı arteriya dizaltı çuxurda vena və sinirlərə nisbətən ən dərində yerləşmişdir. Dizaltı vena - lat. V. poplitea dizaltı arteriyanın bayır və arxa tərəfində, qamış siniri - lat. N. tibialis isə bir az səthdə və bayır tərəfdə yerləşmişdir. Belə ki, səthdən getsək, əvvəlcə bayır tərəfdə və səthdə qamış sinirinə, bir az içəri tərəfdə və dərində dizaltı venaya və ondan da bir az dərində və içəri tərəfdə dizaltı arteriyaya rast gəlinir. ...
La cefalèa qu'es un mau de cap, la podem trobar hens mantuas malaudias, neuròlogica com autas. Aquera dolor se pòt definircom cada dolor, qu'es a dìser per lo lòc (quin costat, darrèr...), lo tipe (en casco, cremada, agulha..), la durada (quauquas segondas, mantuas òras....), lo ritme (puja chic a chic, demora tostemps medish, anartornar...), l'apareishuda (d'un còp,pujada léser...), factor favorisent. ...
... (KYNA or KYN) is a product of the normal metabolism of amino acid L-tryptophan. It has been shown that kynurenic acid possesses neuroactive activity. It acts as an antiexcitotoxic and anticonvulsant, most likely through acting as an antagonist at excitatory amino acid receptors. Because of this activity, it may influence important neurophysiological and neuropathological processes. As a result, kynurenic acid has been considered for use in therapy in certain neurobiological disorders. Conversely, increased levels of kynurenic acid have also been linked to certain pathological conditions. Kynurenic acid was discovered in 1853 by the German chemist Justus von Liebig in dog urine, which it was apparently named after. It is formed from L-kynurenine in a reaction catalyzed by the enzyme kynurenine-oxoglutarate transaminase. KYNA has been proposed to act on four targets: As an antagonist at ionotropic AMPA, NMDA and Kainate glutamate receptors in the concentration range of 0.1-2.5 mM. ...
... s are individual compounds or mixtures that block or absorb ultraviolet (UV) light. UV filters are used in sunscreens to protect skin or in photography to reduce the level of ultraviolet light that strikes the recording medium. UV filters can undergo transformation into less protective or more toxic products. These transformation products can have health and environmental effects. Historically, photographic films were mostly sensitive to UV light, which caused haziness or fogginess, and in color films a bluish hue. Therefore, as a standard, a UV (blocking) filter was used, transparent to visible light while filtering out shorter ultraviolet wavelengths. However, newer photographic film and digital cameras are highly insensitive to UV wavelengths. UV filters are sometimes referred to as L37 or L39 filters, depending on the wavelengths of light that they filter out; an L37 filter removes ultraviolet light with a wavelength shorter than 370 nm, whereas an L39 filter eliminates light with a ...
... (Ertaczo, Dermofix, Konzert, Zalain) is an antifungal medication of the imidazole class. It is available as a cream to treat skin infections such as athlete's foot. It is also available in a vaginal tablet form. The most popular of these is Gyno-Dermofix.[citation needed] Sertaconazole has several known mechanisms of action. It is considered fungistatic, fungicidal, antibacterial, antiinflammatory, antitrichomonal, and antipruritic.[medical citation needed] Like other imidazole antifungals, sertaconazole blocks the synthesis of ergosterol by inhibiting the 14α-demethylase enzyme. Ergosterol is a critical component of the fungal cell membrane. Inhibition of ergosterol synthesis prevents fungal cells from multiplying and impairs hyphae growth. Chemically, sertaconazole contains a benzothiophene ring which makes it unique from other imidazole antifungals. A benzothiophene ring is a sulfur analogue of the indole ring found in the amino acid tryptophan. Tryptophan is found in the ...
... (EC 3.1.3.77, E1, E-1 enolase-phosphatase) is an enzyme with systematic name 5-(methylthio)-2,3-dioxopentyl-phosphate phosphohydrolase (isomerizing). This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction 5-(methylthio)-2,3-dioxopentyl phosphate + H2O ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } 1,2-dihydroxy-5-(methylthio)pent-1-en-3-one + phosphate (overall reaction) (1a) 5-(methylthio)-2,3-dioxopentyl phosphate ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } 2-hydroxy-5-(methylthio)-3-oxopent-1-enyl phosphate (probably spontaneous) (1b) 2-hydroxy-5-(methylthio)-3-oxopent-1-enyl phosphate + H2O ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } 1,2-dihydroxy-5-(methylthio)pent-1-en-3-one + phosphate Myers, R.W.; Wray, J.W.; Fish, S.; Abeles, R.H. (1993). "Purification and characterization of an enzyme involved in oxidative carbon-carbon bond cleavage reactions in the methionine salvage pathway of Klebsiella pneumoniae". J. Biol. Chem. 268 (33): 24785-24791. PMID 8227039. Wray, J.W.; Abeles, R.H. ...
Fat mass and obesity-associated protein also known as alpha-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase FTO is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the FTO gene located on chromosome 16. As one homolog in the AlkB family proteins, it is the first mRNA demethylase that has been identified. Certain variants of the FTO gene appear to be correlated with obesity in humans. The amino acid sequence of the transcribed FTO protein shows high similarity with the enzyme AlkB which oxidatively demethylates DNA. FTO is a member of the superfamily of non-haem Fe(II) and 2-oxoglutarate (2OG)-dependent dioxygenases. Recombinant FTO protein was first discovered to catalyze demethylation of 3-methylthymine in single-stranded DNA, and 3-methyluridine in single-stranded RNA, with low efficiency. The nucleoside N6-methyladenosine, an abundant modification in RNA, was then found to be a major substrate of FTO. The FTO gene expression was also found to be significantly upregulated in the hypothalamus of ...
Protein Jumonji is a protein that in humans is encoded by the JARID2 gene. JARID2 is a member of the 2-oxoglutarate (2OG)-dependent dioxygenase superfamily. Jarid2 (jumonji, AT rich interactive domain 2) is a protein coding gene that functions as a putative transcription factor. Distinguished as a nuclear protein necessary for mouse embryogenesis, Jarid2 is a member of the jumonji family that contains a DNA binding domain known as the AT-rich interaction domain (ARID). In vitro studies of Jarid2 reveal that ARID along with other functional domains are involved in DNA binding, nuclear localization, transcriptional repression, and recruitment of Polycomb-repressive complex 2 (PRC2). Intracellular mechanisms underlying these interactions remain largely unknown. In search of developmentally important genes, Jarid2 has previously been identified by gene trap technology as an important factor necessary for organ development. During mouse organogenesis, Jarid2 is involved in the formation of the ...
No classification of Hodï has yet been established to the satisfaction of linguists.. Attempts have been made to link Hodï with the nearby Piaroa-Saliban languages. A recent proposal classifies Hodï and (Piaroa-)Saliban as the branches of a single Jodï-Saliban macrofamily.[3] However, similarities in vocabulary with the Piaroa-Saliban languages may in fact be due to sprachbunding: Henley, Mattéi-Müller and Reid (1996) argue that the apparent cognates between Hodï and Piaroa-Saliban are rather loanwords.. Limited by poor data, Henley et al. argue that Hodï may be related to the Nadahup languages.[4] The only linguist to speak Hodï and Piaroa, Stanford Zent, has collected more reliable data and argues that it is "probably" related to the Piaroa-Saliban languages.[5]. Since 1985 a relationship to the Yanomaman languages has also been suggested, in part on the grounds that Hodï shares 20% of its vocabulary with this family,[6] but this hypothesis has since been largely rejected.. ...
2-dioxygenase.学術研究助成基金 200504-200603 ... KU-46株の2,4-ジニトロフェノール分解系遺伝子群の取得査読無その他共著高田健吾 (D);岩木宏明;長谷川喜衛;日本農芸化 ... KU-46株による2,4-ジニトロフェノールの分解査読無その他共
In enzymology, a 3-hydroxyanthranilate 3,4-dioxygenase (EC 1.13.11.6) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction 3- ... hydroxyanthranilate + O2 ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } 2-amino-3-carboxymuconate semialdehyde Thus, the two substrates ... DECKER RH, KANG HH, LEACH FR, HENDERSON LM (1961). "Purification and properties of 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid oxidase". J. Biol ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is 3-hydroxyanthranilate:oxygen 3,4-oxidoreductase (decyclizing). Other names in ...
Catalyzes the oxidative ring opening of 3-hydroxyanthranilate to 2-amino-3-carboxymuconate semialdehyde, which spontaneously ... 3-hydroxyanthranilate 3,4-dioxygenaseAdd BLAST. 286. Proteomic databases. PaxDb, a database of protein abundance averages ... 3. Helixi. 141 - 149. Combined sources. Manual assertion inferred from combination of experimental and computational evidencei ... 3. Helixi. 183 - 188. Combined sources. Manual assertion inferred from combination of experimental and computational evidencei ...
Catalyzes the oxidative ring opening of 3-hydroxyanthranilate to 2-amino-3-carboxymuconate semialdehyde, which spontaneously ... 3-HAOUniRule annotation. ,p>Manual validated information which has been generated by the UniProtKB automatic annotation system ... Annotation score:3 out of 5. ,p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB ... 3-hydroxyanthranilate 3,4-dioxygenaseUniRule annotation. ,p>Manual validated information which has been generated by the ...
3hydroxyanthranilic acid dioxygenase; 3-HAO; 3-hydroxyanthranilate 3;3-hydroxyanthranilate oxygenase; 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid ... Recombinant Human 3-hydroxyanthranilate 3,4-dioxygenase, His-tagged. Download Datasheet See All HAAO Products. Bring this ... Can be stored at+4°C short term (1-2 weeks). For long term storage, aliquot and store at -20°Cor -70°C. Avoid repeated freezing ... dioxygenase;3HAO_HUMAN; 4-dioxygenase; haao; HAD; HAO; HAD; 3-hydroxyanthranilateoxygenase; 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid ...
The Crystal Structure of 3-Hydroxyanthranilate 3,4- Dioxygenase From Saccharomyces Cerevisiae ... Dioxygenase From Saccharomyces Cerevisiae (pdb code 1zvf). This binding sites where shown with 5.0 Angstroms radius around ... Nickel binding site 3 out of 4 in 1zvf. Click to enlarge. Click to enlarge. Mono- and Stereo- picture of 5.0 Angstrom ... Nickel binding site 4 out of 4 in 1zvf. Click to enlarge. Click to enlarge. Mono- and Stereo- picture of 5.0 Angstrom ...
Crystal Structure of 3-Hydroxyanthranilate-3,4-Dioxygenase From Ralstonia Metallidurans Complexed With 3-Hydroxyanthranilic ... The binding sites of Iron atom in the structure of Crystal Structure of 3-Hydroxyanthranilate-3,4-Dioxygenase From Ralstonia ... Iron in the structure of Crystal Structure of 3-Hydroxyanthranilate-3,4-Dioxygenase From Ralstonia Metallidurans Complexed With ... Metallidurans Complexed With 3-Hydroxyanthranilic Acid (pdb code 1yfy). This binding sites where shown with 5.0 Angstroms ...
Keywords: Complex structure, Dioxygenase, Mutant I142P, OXIDOREDUCTASE, 4-Cl-3-HAA. Deposited on 2018-04-19, released 2018-06- ... Compound: 3-hydroxyanthranilate 3,4-dioxygenase. Species: Cupriavidus metallidurans (strain ATCC 43123 / DSM 2839 / NBRC 102507 ... Description: Crystal structure of 3-hydroxyanthranilate-3,4-dioxygenase I142P from Cupriavidus metallidurans in complex with 4- ...
Table 4 Significant SNPs for age at first calving with chromosome number, percentage of phenotypic variance explained by the ... 4.. Shiotsuki L, Silva 2nd JAV, Tonhati H, Albuquerque LG. Genetic associations of sexual precocity with growth traits and ... 3.. Formigoni IB, Ferraz JBS, Silva JAIIV, Eler JP, Brumatti RC. Valores econômicos para habilidade de permanência e ... Table 3 Significant SNPs for heifer rebreeding with chromosome number, percentage of phenotypic variance explained by the SNP ...
... 18 sulfur dioxygenase. EC 1.13.11.19 cysteamine dioxygenase. EC 1.13.11.20 cysteine dioxygenase. EC 1.13.11.21 now ... 5-dioxygenase. EC 1.13.11.9 2,5-dihydroxypyridine 5,6-dioxygenase. EC 1.13.11.10 7,8-dihydroxykynurenate 8,8a-dioxygenase. EC ... Other name(s): 10R-DOX; (10R)-dioxygenase; 10R-dioxygenase. Systematic name: linoleate:oxygen (10R)-oxidoreductase. Comments: ... EC 1.13.11.87 endo-cleaving rubber dioxygenase. EC 1.13.11.1. Accepted name: catechol 1,2-dioxygenase. Reaction: catechol + O2 ...
2. 3-hydroxyanthranilate 3,4-dioxygenase. General function:. Involved in 3-hydroxyanthranilate 3,4-dioxygenase activity. ... 2-Amino-3-carboxymuconic acid semialdehyde. Description. 2-amino-3-carboxymuconic acid semialdehyde is an intermediate ... I. ENZYMIC FORMATION OF GLUTARIC ACID FROM 3-HYDROXYANTHRANILIC ACID. J Biol Chem. 1965 Feb;240:733-9. [PubMed:14275129 ] ... 2-Amino-3-carboxymuconic semialdehyde is enzymatically converted to 2-aminomuconate via 2-aminomuconic semialdehyde. (PMID: ...
3. Jones PA, Baylin SB. The epigenomics of cancer. Cell. 2007;128:683-92. [PMC free article] [PubMed] ... 4. Esteller M. Cancer epigenomics: DNA methylomes and histone-modification maps. Nat Rev Genet. 2007;8:286-98. [PubMed] ... 4. Methylation of HAAO CpG island and clinicopathologic covariates analyses in primary endometrial carcinomas. (A) Methylation ... 2). The detailed methylation level of each CpG unit (1-4 CpG sites per unit) was showed in Supplementary Fig. S1. These results ...
DNA methylation in the promoter region of a gene is associated with a loss of that genes expression and plays an important role in gene silencing. The inactivation of tumor-suppressor genes by aberrant methylation in the promoter region is well recognized in carcinogenesis. However, there has been little study in this area when it comes to genome-wide profiling of the promoter methylation. Here, we developed a genome-wide profiling method called Microarray-based Integrated Analysis of Methylation by Isoschizomers to analyse the DNA methylation of promoter regions of 8091 human genes. With this method, resistance to both the methylation-sensitive restriction enzyme HpaII and the methylation-insensitive isoschizomer MspI was compared between samples by using a microarray with promoter regions of the 8091 genes. The reliability of the difference in HpaII resistance was judged using the difference in MspI resistance. We demonstrated the utility of this method by finding epigenetic mutations in ...
3-Hydroxyanthranilate 34-dioxygenase is a monomeric cytosolic protein belonging to the family of intramolecular dioxygenases ... HAAO catalyzes the synthesis of quinolinic acid (QUIN) from 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid. QUIN is an excitotoxin whose toxicity is ...
4-1BBL, Human recombinant Supplier: RayBiotech • Format: Lyophilized from 5 mM Tris,pH 8.0 + 75 mM NaCl. ... 3-Hydroxy-3-Methylglutaryl-CoA Synthase 1, Human Recombinant Supplier: RayBiotech • Format: Sterile Filtered clear solution. ... 3-Ketodihydrosphingosine Reductase, Human Recombinant Supplier: RayBiotech • Format: The ,KDSR is supplied as a sterile ... 4-1BB Ligand, Human Recombinant Supplier: RayBiotech • Format: Sterile Filtered White lyophilized (freeze-dried) powder. ...
Identification of a Chemoreceptor for C2 and C3 Carboxylic Acids. Vanina García, Jose-Antonio Reyes-Darias, David Martín-Mora, ... FIG 3 Mutation of the mcpP gene does not alter motility but reduces chemotaxis to pyruvate and propionate. (A) Swim plate ... The NbaY LBD was dialyzed into 5 mM Tris-HCl-5 mM PIPES-5 mM MES (pH 8.0), adjusted to 4 μM, loaded into a 3-mm quartz cuvette ... 4). As mentioned above, the McpS chemoreceptor of P. putida KT2440 mediates chemotaxis toward Krebs cycle organic acids and, ...
It expands the number of oat ESTs 3-fold, and constitutes the first comprehensive transcriptome study in oat. This resource ... Ishihara A, Miyagawa H, Matsukawa T, Ueno T, Mayama S, Iwamura H: Induction of hydroxyanthranilate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase ... TXT 3 MB). Additional file 9: File containing the dn OST gene-derived SSR markers with the potential to be used in oat breeding ... Figure 3. Abundance and distribution of the dn OST transcript assembly compared to the Brachypodium genome. SSR-bearing oat ...
Rabbit Anti-Human/Mouse/Rat Small Ubiquitin-related Modifier 2 and 3 (SMT3B, SMT3H2, SMT3 homolog 2). 100 µg. PK-AB718-5755. ... Rabbit Anti-Human/Mouse/Rat Small Ubiquitin-related Modifier 3 (SMT3A, SMT3H1, SMT3 homolog 1. 100 µg. PK-AB718-5757. ... Rabbit Anti-Human/Mouse/Rat ZBED3 (Zinc Finger BED-type Domain Containing 3; NT). 100 µg. PK-AB718-5123. ... Rabbit Anti-Human/Mouse Zinc finger MYM-type protein 3 (ZNF261, ZNF198L2, XFIM, MYM). 100 µg. PK-AB718-6137. ...
Crystallization and X-ray Diffraction Analysis to 1.5 A Resolution of Rat Cysteine Dioxygenase, a Mononuclear Iron Enzyme ... Pereira R, Cerione RA; "A Switch 3 Point Mutation in the Alpha Subunit of Transducin Yields a Unique Dominant-negative ... Gump JC, Peiris SM; "Isothermal Equations of State of Beta octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine at High ... "4-Benzyl and 4-Benzoyl-3-dimethylaminopyridin-2(1H)-ones: In vitro evaluation of new C-3-Amino-subsituted and C-5,6-Alkyl- ...
steroid-5-alpha-reductase, alpha polypeptide 2 (3-oxo-5 alpha-steroid delta 4-dehydrogenase alpha 2). 0.093. ... SWI/SNF related, matrix associated, actin dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily a, member 4. 0.727. ... signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (acute-phase response factor). 0.923. ...
membrane-spanning 4-domains, subfamily A, member 2 (Fc fragment of IgE, high affinity I, receptor for; beta polypeptide). 0.035 ... ST6 (alpha-N-acetyl-neuraminyl-2,3-beta-galactosyl-1,3)-N-acetylgalactosaminide alpha-2,6-sialyltransferase 3. 0.011. ... protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, f polypeptide (PTPRF), interacting protein (liprin), alpha 4. 0.017. ... hydroxy-delta-5-steroid dehydrogenase, 3 beta- and steroid delta-isomerase 1. 0.078. ...
3-Hydroxyanthranilate 3,4-dioxygenase Current Synonym true false 32272011 3-Hydroxyanthranilate oxygenase Current Synonym true ... 3-hydroxyanthranilate oxygenase Current Synonym true false 3721341019 3-hydroxyanthranilate 3,4-dioxygenase Current Synonym ... 3-hydroxyanthranilate 3,4-dioxygenase (substance). Code System Preferred Concept Name. 3-hydroxyanthranilate 3,4-dioxygenase ( ...
... dioxygenases MeSH D08.811.682.690.416.277 --- catechol 1,2-dioxygenase MeSH D08.811.682.690.416.305 --- catechol 2,3- ... 2-oxoglutarate 5-dioxygenase MeSH D08.811.682.690.708.673 --- procollagen-proline dioxygenase MeSH D08.811.682.690.708.715 --- ... cysteine dioxygenase MeSH D08.811.682.690.416.326 --- homogentisate 1,2-dioxygenase MeSH D08.811.682.690.416.328 --- 3- ... hydroxyanthranilate 3,4-dioxygenase MeSH D08.811.682.690.416.330 --- 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase MeSH D08.811.682.690. ...
Investigation Of A Novel Mammalian Thiol Dioxygenase Structure: Human Cysteamine Dioxygenase, Tseng Xiong and Tseng Xiong ... Interactions of Metals and Radicals: A Biochemical Perspective in Tryptophan Dioxygenase, Kednerlin Dornevil ... Exploring HIV Integrase 3-processing Using Designed DNA Substrates and Structural Study of HIV DNA Hairpins, Qiushi Li ... Understanding Integrase-DNA Interactions in Retroviruses Through 3-processing, Zachary E. Ferris and Markus W. Germann ...
... hydroxyanthranilate to 2-amino-3-carboxymuconate semialdehyde, which spontaneously cyclizes to quinolinate (180 aa) ... hydroxyanthranilate to 2-amino-3-carboxymuconate semialdehyde, which spontaneously cyclizes to quinolinate ... hydroxyanthranilate to 2-amino-3-carboxymuconate semialdehyde, which spontaneously cyclizes to quinolinate ... hydroxyanthranilate to 2-amino-3-carboxymuconate semialdehyde, which spontaneously cyclizes to quinolinate ...
  • The first three of these enzymes produce nicotinamide as a side product that is recycled back to NAD via the salvage pathway as shown in Figure 24-4. (basicmedicalkey.com)
  • [4] Like other transaminase enzymes (as well as many enzymes of other classes), BCATs require the cofactor pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP) for activity. (ipfs.io)
  • Brain tissue QUIN levels at 4 days postischemia exceeded blood concentrations, minimizing a role for breakdown of the blood-brain barrier. (fujita-hu.ac.jp)
  • However, accumulation of QUIN was demonstrated in both cerebellum and hippocampus of control gerbils following an intracisternal injection of 3‐hydroxyanthranilic acid, which verifies the availability of precursor to both regions when administered intracisternally. (fujita-hu.ac.jp)
  • In the next steps, Kyn is further converted to other active metabolites, such as hydroxykynurenine, anthranilic acid, kynurenic acid, 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid, quinolinic acid, and picolinic acid (Figure 1 A). The two end-products of the pathway are NAD + and ATP that both fuel cellular metabolism ( 2 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Apart from quinaldine utilization, strain Rue61a has a limited set of aromatic degradation pathways, enabling the utilization of 4-hydroxy-substituted aromatic carboxylic acids, which are characteristic products of lignin depolymerization, via ortho cleavage of protocatechuate. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To estimate the association between changes in levels of LDL-C (and other lipoproteins) and the risk of cardiovascular events related to variants in the CETP (显示 CETP ELISA试剂盒 ) gene, both alone and in combination with variants in the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR ) gene. (antibodies-online.cn)
  • Auf www.antikoerper-online.de finden Sie aktuell 36 3-Hydroxy-3-Methylglutaryl-CoA Synthase 2 (Mitochondrial) (HMGCS2) Antikörper von 14 unterschiedlichen Herstellern. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Data suggest that AGPAT2 regulates adipogenesis through modulation of lipid metabolism/signal transduction, altering normal activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protooncogene c-Akt and PPARgamma signaling in early stage of adipogenesis. (antibodies-online.cn)
  • Based on previous findings, it was hypothesized that low vitamin B-6 status decreases n-6/n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) but increases their precursors, linoleic acid and a-linolenic acid in both blood lipids and cultured human hepatoma (HepG2) cell line by impairing LCPUFA synthesis. (ufl.edu)
  • [4] Structural studies of human branched-chain aminotransferases (hBCAT) revealed that the peptide bonds in both isoforms are all trans except for the bond between residues Gly338-Pro339. (ipfs.io)
  • BCATs in mammals catalyze the first step in branched-chain amino acid metabolism, a reversible transamination followed by the oxidative decarboxylation of the transamination products α-ketoisocaproate, α-keto-β-methylvalerate, and α-ketoisovalerate to isovaleryl-CoA, 3-methylbutyryl-CoA, and isobutyryl-CoA, respectively. (ipfs.io)
  • Glutaminase is expressed and active in periportal hepatocytes , where it generates NH 3 (ammonia) for urea synthesis, as does glutamate dehydrogenase . (worldheritage.org)
  • [ 3 ] These striking similarities in metabolic pathways are likely due to their early appearance in evolutionary history , and being retained because of their efficacy. (enacademic.com)
  • Eastman CL, Guilarte TR (1990) The role of hydrogen peroxide in the in vitro cytotoxicity of 3-hydroxykynurenine. (springer.com)
  • Phosphorylates inositol hexakisphosphate (InsP6) at positions 1 or 3 to produce PP-InsP5 which is in turn phosphorylated by IP6Ks to produce (PP)2-InsP4. (mybiosource.com)
  • Figure 4 shows the alpha helices (pink) and beta sheets (yellow) involved in the secondary structure of SDH. (wikidoc.org)
  • [3] Both subunits consist of four alpha-helices and a beta-pleated sheet . (ipfs.io)
  • Data show that missense mutation c.299G>A changes serine in the acyltransferase NHX4D motif of AGPAT2, and intronic c.493-1G>C mutation destroy a splicing site that leads to exon 4 skipping and deletion of whole AGPAT2 substrate binding domain. (antibodies-online.cn)
  • Here we test for the chemotaxis of this strain towards six chloro-nitroaromatic compounds (CNACs), namely 2-chloro-4-nitrophenol (2C4NP), 2-chloro-3-nitrophenol (2C3NP), 4-chloro-2-nitrophenol (4C2NP), 2-chloro-4-nitrobenzoate (2C4NB), 4-chloro-2-nitrobenzoate (4C2NB) and 5-chloro-2-nitrobenzoate (5C2NB), and examine its relationship to the degradation of such compounds. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Ishii T, Iwahashi H, Sugata R et al (1992) Formation of hydroxanthommatin-derived radical in the oxidation of 3-hydroxykynurenine. (springer.com)
  • Eastman CL, Guilarte TR (1989) Cytotoxicity of 3-hydroxykynurenine in a neuronal hybrid cell line. (springer.com)
  • Okuda S, Nishiyama N, Saito H et al (1996) Hydrogen peroxide-mediated neuronal cell death induced by an endogenous neurotoxin, 3-hydroxykynurenine. (springer.com)
  • Guidetti P, Schwarcz R (1999) 3-Hydroxykynurenine potentiates quinolinate but not NMDA toxicity in the rat striatum. (springer.com)