DNA Contamination: The presence of DNA from a source foreign to the sample being analysed.Streptococcus mutans: A polysaccharide-producing species of STREPTOCOCCUS isolated from human dental plaque.Enterobacter: Gram-negative gas-producing rods found in feces of humans and other animals, sewage, soil, water, and dairy products.Embryonic Stem Cells: Cells derived from the BLASTOCYST INNER CELL MASS which forms before implantation in the uterine wall. They retain the ability to divide, proliferate and provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching: A method used to study the lateral movement of MEMBRANE PROTEINS and LIPIDS. A small area of a cell membrane is bleached by laser light and the amount of time necessary for unbleached fluorescent marker-tagged proteins to diffuse back into the bleached site is a measurement of the cell membrane's fluidity. The diffusion coefficient of a protein or lipid in the membrane can be calculated from the data. (From Segen, Current Med Talk, 1995).Streptococcus: A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the B-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the B-cell receptor are located on the surface of the antigen.Aphanizomenon: A form-genus of planktonic CYANOBACTERIA in the order Nostocales.Cyanobacteria: A phylum of oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria comprised of unicellular to multicellular bacteria possessing CHLOROPHYLL a and carrying out oxygenic PHOTOSYNTHESIS. Cyanobacteria are the only known organisms capable of fixing both CARBON DIOXIDE (in the presence of light) and NITROGEN. Cell morphology can include nitrogen-fixing heterocysts and/or resting cells called akinetes. Formerly called blue-green algae, cyanobacteria were traditionally treated as ALGAE.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Brassica: A plant genus of the family Cruciferae. It contains many species and cultivars used as food including cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, Brussel sprouts, kale, collard greens, MUSTARD PLANT; (B. alba, B. junica, and B. nigra), turnips (BRASSICA NAPUS) and rapeseed (BRASSICA RAPA).Brassica napus: A plant species of the family BRASSICACEAE best known for the edible roots.Brassicaceae: A plant family of the order Capparales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. They are mostly herbaceous plants with peppery-flavored leaves, due to gluconapin (GLUCOSINOLATES) and its hydrolysis product butenylisotrhiocyanate. The family includes many plants of economic importance that have been extensively altered and domesticated by humans. Flowers have 4 petals. Podlike fruits contain a number of seeds. Cress is a general term used for many in the Brassicacea family. Rockcress is usually ARABIS; Bittercress is usually CARDAMINE; Yellowcress is usually RORIPPA; Pennycress is usually THLASPI; Watercress refers to NASTURTIUM; or RORIPPA or TROPAEOLUM; Gardencress refers to LEPIDIUM; Indiancress refers to TROPAEOLUM.Brassica rapa: A plant species cultivated for the seed used as animal feed and as a source of canola cooking oil.Elymus: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The common name of wild rye is used with some other grasses.Genome, Plant: The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Vegetables: A food group comprised of EDIBLE PLANTS or their parts.Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.Genomics: The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.Gene Transfer Techniques: The introduction of functional (usually cloned) GENES into cells. A variety of techniques and naturally occurring processes are used for the gene transfer such as cell hybridization, LIPOSOMES or microcell-mediated gene transfer, ELECTROPORATION, chromosome-mediated gene transfer, TRANSFECTION, and GENETIC TRANSDUCTION. Gene transfer may result in genetically transformed cells and individual organisms.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Transgenes: Genes that are introduced into an organism using GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Genetic Therapy: Techniques and strategies which include the use of coding sequences and other conventional or radical means to transform or modify cells for the purpose of treating or reversing disease conditions.Transduction, Genetic: The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Gene Transfer, Horizontal: The naturally occurring transmission of genetic information between organisms, related or unrelated, circumventing parent-to-offspring transmission. Horizontal gene transfer may occur via a variety of naturally occurring processes such as GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; and TRANSFECTION. It may result in a change of the recipient organism's genetic composition (TRANSFORMATION, GENETIC).Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Adenoviridae: A family of non-enveloped viruses infecting mammals (MASTADENOVIRUS) and birds (AVIADENOVIRUS) or both (ATADENOVIRUS). Infections may be asymptomatic or result in a variety of diseases.Conjugation, Genetic: A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.Transcription Factor RelA: A subunit of NF-kappa B that is primarily responsible for its transactivation function. It contains a C-terminal transactivation domain and an N-terminal domain with homology to PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-REL.Acute-Phase Reaction: An early local inflammatory reaction to insult or injury that consists of fever, an increase in inflammatory humoral factors, and an increased synthesis by hepatocytes of a number of proteins or glycoproteins usually found in the plasma.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-rel: Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the rel gene (GENES, REL). They are expressed predominately in hematopoietic cells and may play a role in lymphocyte differentiation. Rel frequently combines with other related proteins (NF-KAPPA B, I-kappa B, relA) to form heterodimers that regulate transcription. Rearrangement or overexpression of c-rel can cause tumorigenesis.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Transcription Factor RelB: A transcription factor that takes part in the NF-kappa-B complex by interacting with NF-KAPPA B P50 SUBUNIT or NF-KAPPA B P52 SUBUNIT. It regulates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION that is involved in immune and inflammatory responses.Dimerization: The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Inventions: A novel composition, device, or process, independently conceived de novo or derived from a pre-existing model.Intellectual Property: Property, such as patents, trademarks, and copyright, that results from creative effort. The Patent and Copyright Clause (Art. 1, Sec. 8, cl. 8) of the United States Constitution provides for promoting the progress of science and useful arts by securing for limited times to authors and inventors, the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries. (From Black's Law Dictionary, 5th ed, p1014)Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Oligonucleotides: Polymers made up of a few (2-20) nucleotides. In molecular genetics, they refer to a short sequence synthesized to match a region where a mutation is known to occur, and then used as a probe (OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES). (Dorland, 28th ed)Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Foramen Ovale, Patent: A condition in which the FORAMEN OVALE in the ATRIAL SEPTUM fails to close shortly after birth. This results in abnormal communications between the two upper chambers of the heart. An isolated patent ovale foramen without other structural heart defects is usually of no hemodynamic significance.Biotechnology: Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.Asialoglycoprotein Receptor: A C-type lectin that is a cell surface receptor for ASIALOGLYCOPROTEINS. It is found primarily in the LIVER where it mediates the endocytosis of serum glycoproteins.Receptors, Immunologic: Cell surface molecules on cells of the immune system that specifically bind surface molecules or messenger molecules and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Although these receptors were first identified in the immune system, many have important functions elsewhere.Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear: Intracellular receptors that can be found in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. They bind to extracellular signaling molecules that migrate through or are transported across the CELL MEMBRANE. Many members of this class of receptors occur in the cytoplasm and are transported to the CELL NUCLEUS upon ligand-binding where they signal via DNA-binding and transcription regulation. Also included in this category are receptors found on INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES that act via mechanisms similar to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Adiponectin: A 30-kDa COMPLEMENT C1Q-related protein, the most abundant gene product secreted by FAT CELLS of the white ADIPOSE TISSUE. Adiponectin modulates several physiological processes, such as metabolism of GLUCOSE and FATTY ACIDS, and immune responses. Decreased plasma adiponectin levels are associated with INSULIN RESISTANCE; TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS; OBESITY; and ATHEROSCLEROSIS.Insulin Resistance: Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Adipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1: A member of the serpin family of proteins. It inhibits both the tissue-type and urokinase-type plasminogen activators.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Angiotensinogen: An alpha-globulin of about 453 amino acids, depending on the species. It is produced by the liver and secreted into blood circulation. Angiotensinogen is the inactive precursor of natural angiotensins. Upon successive enzyme cleavages, angiotensinogen yields angiotensin I, II, and III with amino acids numbered at 10, 8, and 7, respectively.Prostatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.Prostate: A gland in males that surrounds the neck of the URINARY BLADDER and the URETHRA. It secretes a substance that liquefies coagulated semen. It is situated in the pelvic cavity behind the lower part of the PUBIC SYMPHYSIS, above the deep layer of the triangular ligament, and rests upon the RECTUM.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Receptors, Androgen: Proteins, generally found in the CYTOPLASM, that specifically bind ANDROGENS and mediate their cellular actions. The complex of the androgen and receptor migrates to the CELL NUCLEUS where it induces transcription of specific segments of DNA.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Androgens: Compounds that interact with ANDROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of TESTOSTERONE. Depending on the target tissues, androgenic effects can be on SEX DIFFERENTIATION; male reproductive organs, SPERMATOGENESIS; secondary male SEX CHARACTERISTICS; LIBIDO; development of muscle mass, strength, and power.Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Prostate-Specific Antigen: A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.
*  ACTA2
... flanking region of the human aortic smooth muscle actin gene". Nucleic Acids Res. 18 (5): 1318. doi:10.1093/nar/18.5.1318. PMC ... Analysis of a cDNA and 5' upstream region". J. Biol. Chem. 265 (3): 1683-7. PMID 2295650. Kamada S, Nakano Y, Kakunaga T (1990 ... 1991). "Transcriptional regulatory elements in the 5' upstream and first intron regions of the human smooth muscle (aortic type ... 99 (3): 627-36. PMID 1939373. Ueyama H, Ohsugi R (1990). "TaqI polymorphism in the 3′ ...
*  RASD1
... flanking region of this gene allows glucocorticoids to induce expression of RASD1. This protein is a small GTPase belonging to ... flanking region of the human Dexras1 gene". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. 1627 (2-3): 85-9. doi:10.1016/s0167-4781(03)00079-4 ... As a GTPase, RASD1 also shares motifs, such as in the regions G-1 to G-3, with other GTPases. The full-length RASD1 cDNA ... the phosphate/magnesium binding regions GXXXXGK(S/T) (domain Σ1), DXXG (domain Σ2), and the guanine base binding loops NKXD ( ...
*  Class III β-tubulin
... flanking region with the interaction of the miR-200c family of micro-RNA. MiR-200c is in turn modulated by the protein HuR ( ... flanking region". Gene. 409 (1-2): 100-8. doi:10.1016/j.gene.2007.11.015. PMID 18178340. Raspaglio G, De Maria I, Filippetti F ... flanking region at +168 nucleotides. This site binds basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) hypoxia induced transcription factors Hif-1α ... and class III β-tubulin are limited to only 13aa within region 1-429aa, while all amino acids in region 430-450aa are divergent ...
*  Glycoside hydrolase family 42
Shimizu T, Kobayashi T, Ba-Thein W, Ohtani K, Hayashi H (1995). "Sequence analysis of flanking regions of the pfoA gene of ... flanking region". Microbiol Immunol. 39 (9): 677-86. doi:10.1111/j.1348-0421.1995.tb03256.x. PMID 8577281. This article ... 3 (9): 853-859. doi:10.1016/S0969-2126(01)00220-9. PMID 8535779. Bairoch, A. "Classification of glycosyl hydrolase families and ... Clostridium perfringens: beta-galactosidase gene (pbg) is located in the 3'- ...
*  Wayne M. Becker
... flanking regions of the NADH-dependent hydroxypyruvate reductase gene from Cucumis sativus L". Plant Molecular Biology. 28 (5 ... 103 (3): 933-941. doi:10.1104/pp.103.3.933. PMC 159066 . PMID 8022942. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) Sloan, J. S., B ... CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) Daniel, S.G. and W.M. Becker (1995). "Transgenic analysis of the 5' and 3'- ... 3 (6): 867-874. doi:10.1111/j.1365-313X.1993.00867.x. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) http://www.cies.org/grantee/ ...
*  FUT2
... flanking region of the human ABO-secretor gene (FUT2) and association between FUT2 and FUT2/01 loci". Hum. Biol. 76 (5): 789-95 ... 1995). "Molecular cloning of a human genomic region containing the H blood group alpha(1,2)fucosyltransferase gene and two H ... 34 (3): 314-8. PMID 15487706. Pang H, Soejima M, Koda Y, Kimura H (2005). "A novel tetrameric short tandem repeat located in ... 246 (3): 750-5. doi:10.1111/j.1432-1033.1997.t01-1-00750.x. PMID 9219535. Koda Y; Soejima M; Johnson PH; et al. (1997). " ...
*  Beta-globin co-transcriptional cleavage ribozyme
... flanking region of the beta-globin gene. The CoTC core is highly conserved in the 3' UTR of other primate beta-globin genes. ... The CoTC process in the human beta-globin gene was proposed to involve an RNA self-cleaving activity located in the 3' ...
*  List of MeSH codes (G14)
... flanking region MeSH G14.340.024.220.282 --- 5' flanking region MeSH G14.340.024.220.400 --- introns MeSH G14.340.024.220.760 ... flanking region MeSH G14.340.024.340.137.295 --- 5' flanking region MeSH G14.340.024.340.137.430 --- immunoglobulin switch ... locus control region MeSH G14.080.689.650 --- operator regions (genetics) MeSH G14.080.689.675 --- promoter regions (genetics) ... locus control region MeSH G14.340.024.630 --- nucleolus organizer region MeSH G14.340.024.686 --- operon MeSH G14.340.024.686. ...
*  Index of molecular biology articles
... flanking region - 5' end - 5' flanking region - 5'-ribose- 3' - acrylamide gels - adenine - adenosine deaminase deficiency - ... Contents : Top 0-9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 3' end - 3' ...
*  Directionality (molecular biology)
The 5′-flanking region of a gene often denotes a region of DNA which is not transcribed into RNA. The 5′-flanking region ... flanking region is a region of DNA that is not copied into the mature mRNA, but which is present adjacent to 3′-end of the gene ... The 5′-untranslated region (5′-UTR) is a region of a gene which is transcribed into mRNA, and is located at the 5′-end of the ... flanking region often contains sequences that affect the formation of the 3′-end of the message. It may also contain enhancers ...
*  Potato virus Y
Primers bound to the regions flanking the target DNA provide 3'-hydroxyl groups for DNA polymerase catalyzed extension. The ... This means that each newly synthesized strand of DNA will have a region complimentary to a primer. There is an exponential ... terminal region (5'-NTR) as well as a 3'-poly-A tail. The positive sense genome contains a single extended open reading frame ... terminal region of potato virus YN RNA. J. Gen. Virol., 70: 229-233. Dallaire, B.J., Charest, P.J., Devantier., Y. and ...
*  CYP1A2
The transcript from this gene contains four Alu sequences flanked by direct repeats in the 3' untranslated region. CYP1A2 also ... nontranslated region, and localization of gene to chromosome 15". Journal of Experimental Pathology. 3 (1): 1-17. PMID 3681487 ... doi:10.1210/mend-3-9-1399. PMID 2575218. Butler MA, Iwasaki M, Guengerich FP, Kadlubar FF (Oct 1989). "Human cytochrome P-450PA ... 51 (3): 313-9. doi:10.1016/0006-2952(95)02178-7. PMID 8573198. Hakkola J, Raunio H, Purkunen R, Pelkonen O, Saarikoski S, ...
*  UCP3
Acín A, Rodriguez M, Rique H, Canet E, Boutin JA, Galizzi JP (1999). "Cloning and characterization of the 5' flanking region of ... 86 (3): 372-5. doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6600074. PMC 2375209 . PMID 11875702. Hu X, Murphy F, Karwautz A, Li T, Freeman B, Franklin D ... Mitochondrial uncoupling protein 3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the UCP3 gene. UCP3 is a mitochondrial uncoupling ... 47 (3): 425-6. doi:10.1006/geno.1997.5135. PMID 9480760. Vidal-Puig A, Solanes G, Grujic D, Flier JS, Lowell BB (July 1997). " ...
*  5' flanking region
The 5' flanking region is a region of DNA that is adjacent to the 5' end of the gene. The 5' flanking region contains the ... 5' flanking regions differ between prokaryotes and eukaryotes. In eukaryotes, the 5' flanking region has a complex set of ... Flanking SNPs are Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) that appear in the flanking region. Polymorphisms in this region can ... flanking region of the insulin gene have been associated with type 2 diabetes. Polymorphisms in the 5' flanking region of the ...
*  TFAP2A
Its binding site is a GC-rich sequence that is present in the cis-regulatory regions of several viral and cellular genes. AP2- ... flanking IRF6 were screened by direct sequencing for potential causative variants in 184 NSCL/P cases. The rare allele of the ... A search of NSCL/P cases for potential regulatory elements for IRF6 gene was made aligning genomic sequences to a 500 Kb region ... Sequencing of candidate genes in that region in 4 additional unrelated BOFS patients revealed 4 different de novo missense ...
*  DIO2
2000). "Characterization of the 5'-flanking and 5'-untranslated regions of the cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate-responsive ... untranslated region of human type 2 iodothyronine deiodinase mRNA contains a functional selenocysteine insertion sequence ... The 3' UTR of Sec-containing genes have a common stem-loop structure, the Sec insertion sequence (SECIS), which is necessary ... 144 (3): 937-946. doi:10.1210/en.2002-220960. PMID 12586771. Ambroziak M, Pachucki J, Chojnowski K, et al. (2003). "Pax-8 ...
*  Gene structure
Only the region between the start and stop codons encodes the final protein product. The flanking untranslated regions (UTRs) ... Indeed, the intron regions of a gene can be considerably longer than the exon regions. Once spliced together, the exons form a ... These sequence regions can either be next to the transcribed region (the promoter) or separated by many kilobases (enhancers ... Exon regions are retained in the final mature mRNA molecule, while intron regions are spliced out (excised) during post- ...
*  DNA vaccination
Additionally, flanking regions outside this immunostimulatory hexamer must be guanine-rich to ensure binding and uptake into ... Accessory regions pertaining to the plasmid backbone may engage in a wide range of structural instability phenomena. Well-known ... The optimal immunostimulatory sequence is an unmethylated CpG dinucleotide flanked by two 5' purines and two 3' pyrimidines. ... Extrapolation of this data to other species requires caution - individual species may require different flanking sequences, as ...
*  Kupe virus
There is a non coding regions: the 5′ region of 40 nt and the 3region of 137 nt. This open reading frame encodes several ... The M segment RNA is 4,818 nucleotides in length and contains one open reading frame flanked by 5′ and 3′ non coding regions of ... It contains a unique potential N-gly site in the Gn and Gc glycoprotein regions at amino acids 612 and 1514 respectively. The S ... noncoding regions are 49 nt and 193 nt in length respectively. Sang R, Onyango C, Gachoya J, Mabinda E, Konongoi S, Ofula V, ...
*  CELA1
... flanking region". Journal of Biochemistry. 101 (3): 591-9. doi:10.1093/jb/101.3.591. PMID 3648024. Kawashima I, Tani T, Mita- ... 44 (1): 210-3. PMID 9952246. Borowitz D, Baker SS, Duffy L, Baker RD, Fitzpatrick L, Gyamfi J, Jarembek K (September 2004). " ... 44 (1): 210-3. PMID 9952246. Gullo L, Ventrucci M, Tomassetti P, Migliori M, Pezzilli R (January 1999). "Fecal elastase 1 ... 145 (3): 322-6. doi:10.1016/j.jpeds.2004.04.049. PMID 15343184. Edelstein C, Italia JA, Scanu AM (April 1997). " ...
*  ADAMTS4
Mizui Y, Yamazaki K, Kuboi Y, Sagane K, Tanaka I (Sep 2000). "Characterization of 5'-flanking region of human aggrecanase-1 ( ... Adjacent to the C-terminal TSR is a disintegrin-like domain, a cysteine-rich region that stacks against the active-site of the ... Members of the family share several distinct protein modules, including a propeptide region, a metalloproteinase domain, a ... 5 (3): 169-76. doi:10.1093/dnares/5.3.169. PMID 9734811. Tortorella MD, Burn TC, Pratta MA, Abbaszade I, Hollis JM, Liu R, ...
*  E-box
Apr 2013). "Genomic Regions Flanking E-Box Binding Sites Influence DNA Binding Specificity of bHLH Transcription Factors ... The CT-Rich Regions(CTRR) located about 23 nucleotides upstream of the E-box is important in E-box binding, transactivation ( ... Besides, each bHLH monomer has a basic region, which helps mediate recognition between the bHLH monomer and the E-box (the ... Furthermore, the sequence constraints on the region around the circadian E-box are not fully understood: it is believed to be ...
*  Corticotropin-releasing hormone
Vamvakopoulos NC, Chrousos GP (1994). "Structural organization of the 5' flanking region of the human corticotropin releasing ... "Structural analysis of the regulatory region of the human corticotropin releasing hormone gene". FEBS Lett. 267 (1): 1-5. doi: ... 47 (3): 113-6. doi:10.1159/000132525. PMID 3259914. Sasaki A, Tempst P, Liotta AS, Margioris AN, Hood LE, Kent SB, Sato S, ... 1 (5): 460-3. doi:10.1038/nm0595-460. PMID 7585095. Slominski A, Ermak G, Hwang J, Chakraborty A, Mazurkiewicz JE, Mihm M (1995 ...
*  Syndecan 1
... core protein is mediated by a novel structural motif in the transmembrane domain and ectodomain flanking region". The Journal ... cleaves off heparan sulfate to expose a binding site in the N-terminal region of syndecan-1's core protein. Three SDC1 elements ... "The mapping and visual ordering of the human syndecan-1 and N-myc genes near the telomeric region of chromosome 2p". Human ... 3) An N-terminal chondroitin sulfate chain that also likely binds to the cationic face. Point mutagenesis of lacritin has ...
*  Pleiotrophin
... core protein is mediated by a novel structural motif in the transmembrane domain and ectodomain flanking region". J. Biol. Chem ... Promoter region and chromosomal localization". J. Biol. Chem. 267 (36): 26011-6. PMID 1464612. Tezuka K, Takeshita S, Hakeda Y ... Asundi VK, Carey DJ (1995). "Self-association of N-syndecan (syndecan-3) ... syndecan-3)". J. Biol. Chem. 269 (17): 12999-3004. PMID 8175719. Fabri L, Maruta H, Muramatsu H, et al. (1993). "Structural ...
*  Classical Anatolia
Armenia lay to the north-east of the Anatolian region, on the Armenian highlands to the south and west of the Caucasus. Its ... Pompey's first move was to persuade the Parthians to harass Tigranes' eastern flank. Following Roman tradition he offered ... Anatolia remained one of the most principal regions of the empire during its entire existence. During the reign of Darius the ... Armenia in the 1st century BC formed a mountainous region in eastern Anatolia, bounded to the south by Syria and Mesopotamia ...
3 flanking region Protocols and Video...  '3 flanking region' Protocols and Video...
Localization of Genetic Elements and Characterization of Unknown Flanking DNA', 'Lateral Diffusion and Exocytosis of Membrane ... Video articles in JoVE about 3 flanking region include 'Generation of Marked and Markerless Mutants in Model Cyanobacterial ... Flanking Region: The region of DNA which borders the 3' end of a transcription unit and where a variety of regulatory sequences ... Linear Amplification Mediated PCR - Localization of Genetic Elements and Characterization of Unknown Flanking DNA. Richard ...
more infohttps://www.jove.com/keyword/3+flanking+region
Genetic and epigenetic characterization of the cry1Ab coding region and its 3′ flanking genomic region in MON810 maize using...  Genetic and epigenetic characterization of the cry1Ab coding region and its 3flanking genomic region in MON810 maize using...
... flanking genomic region in three different MON810 maize varieties. Genetic characterization of the cry1Ab coding region allowed ... flanking genomic region in MON810 maize using next-generation sequencing. ... In conclusion, the variation in the coding region is either due to the increased age of the seeds from the tested maize ... Specifically, position 71 of the analyzed region varied in 15 of 600 samples tested and thus appears to be a mutational hotspot ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00217-018-3062-z
Phenotypic characterization of patients with deletions in the 3-flanking SHOX region [PeerJ]  Phenotypic characterization of patients with deletions in the 3'-flanking SHOX region [PeerJ]
... flanking SHOX region in order to determine the relevance of the regulatory sequences in this region.Design. We collected DNA ... flanking region. Recently, a 47.5 kb recurrent PAR1 deletion downstream of SHOX was reported, but its frequency and clinical ... PAR1 region. Clinical data were available from 23 index patients and 21 relatives.Results. In 9 families (20 individuals) a ... PAR1 region is remarkably variable. Height, sitting height/height ratio and the presence of Madelung deformity were not ...
more infohttps://peerj.com/articles/35/
Family-Based Association Analysis of Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF) Gene Polymorphisms in High Myopia | IOVS | ARVO Journals  Family-Based Association Analysis of Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF) Gene Polymorphisms in High Myopia | IOVS | ARVO Journals
5′ Flanking region. Novel. AAGGATTAGC. [A/-]. ATAGAAACGG. 0.0033. -. −1652C→T HGF5-5b 5′ Flanking region rs3735520 AAAATAGATC [ ... 5′ Flanking region. Novel. AAGGATTAGC. [A/-]. ATAGAAACGG. 0.0033. -. −1652C→T HGF5-5b 5′ Flanking region rs3735520 AAAATAGATC [ ... Flanking region rs5745787 AATCTCTATG [C/T] ACTTTAGTTT 0.2295 1.00 71207G→A HGF3-12b 3Flanking region rs5745788 TTCTCCCACC [A/ ... Flanking region rs5745787 AATCTCTATG [C/T] ACTTTAGTTT 0.2295 1.00 71207G→A HGF3-12b 3Flanking region rs5745788 TTCTCCCACC [A/ ...
more infohttps://iovs.arvojournals.org/article.aspx?articleid=2125361
Cyclin-dependent kinase 12 increases 3 end processing of growth factor-induced c-FOS transcripts.  - PubMed - NCBI  Cyclin-dependent kinase 12 increases 3' end processing of growth factor-induced c-FOS transcripts. - PubMed - NCBI
... flanking region 1. (B) Depletion of CDK12 has little effect on levels of RNAPII at the c-FOS gene. ChIPs were performed using ... flanking regions 1 and 2, respectively. (B) CDK12 depletion does not affect c-FOS RNA splicing. CDK12-depleted or control cells ... A) Knockdown of eIF4A3 reduces CDK12 enrichment at the c-FOS exon 2/intron 2 region and the polyadenylation site. ChIPs were ... Horizontal lines below transcripts represent regions amplified by RT-qPCR. Primers span exon-exon junctions, as follows: exons ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25384976
The influence of the gag-pol junction region in directi | Open-i  The influence of the gag-pol junction region in directi | Open-i
The Tca2 gag-pol junction region was cloned in between translationally-fused lacZ and ... The influence of the gag-pol junction region in directing pol expression. ... Results: The hypothesis was tested that in Tca2, gag stop codon flanking sequences direct translational readthrough and ... Figure 2: The influence of the gag-pol junction region in directing pol expression. The Tca2 gag-pol junction region was cloned ...
more infohttps://openi.nlm.nih.gov/detailedresult.php?img=PMC2194720_1471-2199-8-94-2&req=4
ACTA2 - Wikipedia  ACTA2 - Wikipedia
... flanking region of the human aortic smooth muscle actin gene". Nucleic Acids Res. 18 (5): 1318. doi:10.1093/nar/18.5.1318. PMC ... Analysis of a cDNA and 5' upstream region". J. Biol. Chem. 265 (3): 1683-7. PMID 2295650. Kamada S, Nakano Y, Kakunaga T (1990 ... 1991). "Transcriptional regulatory elements in the 5' upstream and first intron regions of the human smooth muscle (aortic type ... 99 (3): 627-36. PMID 1939373. Ueyama H, Ohsugi R (1990). "TaqI polymorphism in the 3′ ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ACTA2
A specific insertion of a solo-LTR characterizes the Y-chromosome of Bryonia dioica (Cucurbitaceae) | BMC Research Notes | Full...  A specific insertion of a solo-LTR characterizes the Y-chromosome of Bryonia dioica (Cucurbitaceae) | BMC Research Notes | Full...
Within this region, which should be suppressed for recombination, we observed a solo-LTR nested in a Copia-like transposable ... We sequenced 2321 bp of the Y-chromosome in Bryonia dioica that flank a male-linked marker, BdY1, reported previously. ... Given that solo-LTRs arise via recombination events, it is noteworthy that we find one in a genomic region where recombination ... dioica suggested that BdY1 may not lie in the recombination-suppressed region of the Y-chromosome in all populations. Presence ...
more infohttps://bmcresnotes.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1756-0500-3-166
BRAD, the genetics and genomics database for Brassica plants | BMC Plant Biology | Full Text  BRAD, the genetics and genomics database for Brassica plants | BMC Plant Biology | Full Text
The flanking region of these markers can then be searched to locate candidate genomic elements, such as genes or miRNAs, which ... This section was developed to help users find genomic elements that are co-located with or that flank a region of interest. ... There are three sub-categories in search part: searching using annotations, syntenic genes, and flanking regions.. Table 1 The ... As research progresses, we will further enable the searching of flanking regions by adding more datasets, making it an ...
more infohttps://bmcplantbiol.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2229-11-136
RASD1 - Wikipedia  RASD1 - Wikipedia
... flanking region of this gene allows glucocorticoids to induce expression of RASD1. This protein is a small GTPase belonging to ... flanking region of the human Dexras1 gene". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. 1627 (2-3): 85-9. doi:10.1016/s0167-4781(03)00079-4 ... As a GTPase, RASD1 also shares motifs, such as in the regions G-1 to G-3, with other GTPases. The full-length RASD1 cDNA ... the phosphate/magnesium binding regions GXXXXGK(S/T) (domain Σ1), DXXG (domain Σ2), and the guanine base binding loops NKXD ( ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RASD1
Functional characterization of the copper transcription factor AfMac1 from Aspergillus fumigatus | Biochemical Journal  Functional characterization of the copper transcription factor AfMac1 from Aspergillus fumigatus | Biochemical Journal
... flanking region, Afmac1-3URF/Afmac1-3URR. The Afmac1 deletion cassette was completed by inserting the 5′-flanking or 3′- ... The following primer pairs were used to generate the Afmac1 deletion cassette: for the 5′-flanking region, Afmac1-5UTRF/Afmac1- ... Afmac1 binds to the 5′-upstream region of ctrC. To confirm whether AfMac1 binds directly to the 5′-promoter region of ctrC and ... AfMac1-GFP was purified from E. coli, and an EMSA was performed using the 5′-upstream region of ctrC. The 5′-upstream region of ...
more infohttp://www.biochemj.org/content/474/14/2365?ijkey=ee7b946aae24cb34cee3f1b1ecad0e9b55e2a9a2&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha
Rel/NF-kappaB target genes  Rel/NF-kappaB target genes
... flanking region 946/-956. GGGATTTCCA, GGAATTTTCC. 9845534 CD105. endoglin (Osler-Rendu-Weber syndrome 1) (ENG). 131195 human. ... immunoglobulin heavy constant gamma 3 (G3m marker). 147120 human. M12958 M12958 8036173 APOC3. apolipoprotein C-III. 107720 ... kallikrein 3, (prostate specific antigen). 176820 human. NM_145864 NM_145864 4 sites located in an enhancer at -4366/-3824. ... colony stimulating factor 3 (granulocyte) (G-CSF). 138970 human. NM_000759 NM_000759 NM_009971 -179/-188 GAGATTCCAC. ...
more infohttps://bioinfo.lifl.fr/NF-KB/
An imperfect inverted repeat and its hairpin structure. | Open-i  An imperfect inverted repeat and its hairpin structure. | Open-i
... flanks of genes than in their 5' flanks. However, the S. cerevisiae genome is not enriched in those IRs that would extrude ... The S. cerevisiae IRs are highly clustered in intergenic regions, while their occurrence in coding sequences is consistent with ... flanks of genes than in their 5' flanks. However, the S. cerevisiae genome is not enriched in those IRs that would extrude ... The S. cerevisiae IRs are highly clustered in intergenic regions, while their occurrence in coding sequences is consistent with ...
more infohttps://openi.nlm.nih.gov/detailedresult.php?img=PMC2908449_294_2010_302_Fig1_HTML&req=4
Plus it  Plus it
... flanking region, +3726 T/C (rs2530797). The LD within the CCL2 gene locus is very strong and all r2 values between selected ... flanking region: +3726 T/C. Four of the above-mentioned SNPs (−2136 T, −2518 G, −2835 A, +764 G) in the CCL2 gene were found to ... Light gray boxes, coding region; black boxes, untranslated regions; arrow, transcription start site; round cycles, selected ... Another promoter region polymorphism, −2835 C/A, and a downstream SNP, +3726 T/C, are associated with higher biopsy Gleason ...
more infohttp://clincancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/17/6/1546
Lecture 9 - PLB 113 Lecture 9 III Gene Transfer and Epigenetic C Development of Gene Transfer System D Transgene Expression E...  Lecture 9 - PLB 113 Lecture 9 III Gene Transfer and Epigenetic C Development of Gene Transfer System D Transgene Expression E...
... flanking region =, indicates where transcription should be determined 2. Combine the regions of NOS plant gene (eukaryote) with ... flanking region has the signal for where the poly-A will be added) * 5' UTR =, contains sequence important for START of mRNA * ... Why we can use a protein coding region from a bacteria and has it being expressed by eukaryotic promoter? Why does the protein ... 3. Put the chimeric gene into plant cell * plant cell is now able to grow in the presence Kanamycin * If we put the chimeric ...
more infohttps://www.coursehero.com/file/5886726/Lecture-9/
Frontiers | Contrasting Evolutionary Rates between Social and Parasitic Bumblebees for Three Social Effect Genes | Ecology and...  Frontiers | Contrasting Evolutionary Rates between Social and Parasitic Bumblebees for Three Social Effect Genes | Ecology and...
Three social-effect genes, foraging (for), salivary gland secretion 3 (sgs3) and vitellogenin (vg), were chosen as well as some ... salivary gland secretion 3 (sgs3) and vitellogenin (vg), were chosen as well as some control genes to be amplified in two ... flanking region, introns). Divergence estimates were calculated for synonymous (Ks), non-synonymous (Ka), and silent sites (K ... Silent sites include variable sites within non-coding regions (5′ and 3′ ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fevo.2016.00064/full
NF-κB RelA-deficient Lymphocytes: Normal Development of  T Cells and B Cells, Impaired Production of IgA and IgG1 and Reduced...  NF-κB RelA-deficient Lymphocytes: Normal Development of T Cells and B Cells, Impaired Production of IgA and IgG1 and Reduced...
... flanking region probes (see Fig. 1).. Immunohistochemistry and Histology.. Whole embryos were fixed in buffered formalin and ... flanking region probes. Eight clones with the targeted allele were obtained and injected into B6 blastocysts. The blastocysts ... flanking at the 3′ end of the relA sequence. We expected that this targeting vector would generate a null mutant allele by ... 3 × 105 spleen cells from transplanted mice were plated in 96-well plates (200 μl per well). Con A (2 μg/ml; Boehringer ...
more infohttp://jem.rupress.org/content/185/5/953?ijkey=665cfe93919778bd3717d72a4fa85fe089175804&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha
Patent US7524827 - Methods and compositions for the inhibition of gene expression - Google Patents  Patent US7524827 - Methods and compositions for the inhibition of gene expression - Google Patents
These sequences are referred to as "flanking" sequences or regions (these flanking sequences are located 5′ or 3′ to the non- ... In some embodiments, regions within the promoter region of an oncogene are further defined as preferred regions for ... The term also encompasses the coding region of a structural gene and the sequences located adjacent to the coding region on ... In some embodiments, oligonucleotides are designed to hybridize to regions of the promoter region of an oncogene known to be ...
more infohttp://www.google.com/patents/US7524827?dq=6,548,982
Thrombomodulin Promoter Mutations, Venous Thrombosis, and Varicose Veins | Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology  Thrombomodulin Promoter Mutations, Venous Thrombosis, and Varicose Veins | Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
... flanking regions have been determined.5 6 7 8 Nine point mutations of the coding sequence (nucleotides 127G/A, 129G/C, 236G/C, ... Direct Sequencing of the TM Promoter Region. The TM promoter region (up to nucleotide −2052) was screened for sequence ... untranslated region,16 we sequenced this region in all of the patients heterozygous for the del TT mutation but found no ... This region contains a silencer element,15 a putative shear stress-responsive element (SSRE),20 and 4 retinoic acid response ...
more infohttp://atvb.ahajournals.org/content/21/3/445
Human Metabolome Database: Showing Protein Serum albumin (HMDBP02075)  Human Metabolome Database: Showing Protein Serum albumin (HMDBP02075)
... flanking regions and the polymorphic gene transcripts. J Biol Chem. 1986 Mar 5;261(7):3244-51. [PubMed:2419329 ] ... 1990 Jul 20;249(4966):302-3. [PubMed:2374930 ] *He XM, Carter DC: Atomic structure and chemistry of human serum albumin. Nature ... 1992 Mar 12;1119(3):232-8. [PubMed:1347703 ] *Carlson J, Sakamoto Y, Laurell CB, Madison J, Watkins S, Putnam FW: ... 1986 May 14;136(3):983-8. [PubMed:3087352 ] *Carraway RE, Mitra SP, Cochrane DE: Structure of a biologically active neurotensin ...
more infohttp://www.hmdb.ca/proteins/HMDBP02075
  • Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were screened and identified in the HGF gene region with denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography, and their linkage disequilibrium pattern was established in a Han Chinese population ( n = 150). (arvojournals.org)
  • Flanking SNPs are Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) that appear in the flanking region. (wikipedia.org)
  • described a cohort of patients with different deletions in the downstream enhancer region, where various deletion sizes all resulted in LWD or idiopathic short stature. (peerj.com)
  • There is limited information about the phenotype of patients with a deletion in the enhancer region downstream of SHOX . (peerj.com)
  • UTF1 expression is, like the FGF-4 gene, regulated by the synergistic action of Oct-3/4 and another embryonic factor, Sox-2, implying that the requirement for Sox-2 by Oct-3/4 is not limited to the FGF-4 enhancer but is rather a general mechanism of activation for Oct-3/4. (asm.org)
  • Besides, each bHLH monomer has a basic region, which helps mediate recognition between the bHLH monomer and the E-box (the basic region interacts with the major groove of the DNA). (wikipedia.org)
  • In conclusion, the variation in the coding region is either due to the increased age of the seeds from the tested maize varieties, which is known to increase the mutation rate, or due to the presence of a second (non-functional) cry1Ab fragment in the genome of the MON810 maize variety. (springer.com)
  • ABI3 , FUS3 ) are located within hypomethylated regions of the soybean genome. (pnas.org)
  • As a Ras superfamily member, RASD1 shares several motifs characteristic of Ras proteins, including four highly conserved GTP binding pocket domains: the phosphate/magnesium binding regions GXXXXGK(S/T) (domain Σ1), DXXG (domain Σ2), and the guanine base binding loops NKXD (domain Σ3) and EXSAK (domain Σ4). (wikipedia.org)
  • Dexras1/AGS-1, a steroid hormone-induced guanosine triphosphate-binding protein, inhibits 3′, 5′-cyclic adenosine monophosphate-stimulated secretion in AtT-20 corticotroph cells 1. (springer.com)
  • We scanned soybean and Arabidopsis seed genomes for hypomethylated regions, or DNA methylation valleys (DMVs), present in mammalian cells. (pnas.org)
  • Transgenic analysis of the 5' and 3'-flanking regions of the NADH-dependent hydroxypyruvate reductase gene from Cucumis sativus L". Plant Molecular Biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • We sequenced 2321 bp of the Y-chromosome in Bryonia dioica that flank a male-linked marker, BdY1 , reported previously. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Although the solo-LTR could have arisen before recombination was suppressed, creating the male-linked marker BdY1 , our previous study on B. dioica suggested that BdY1 may not lie in the recombination-suppressed region of the Y-chromosome in all populations. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cyclin-dependent kinase 12 increases 3' end processing of growth factor-induced c-FOS transcripts. (nih.gov)
  • These effects impaired 3' end processing of c-FOS transcripts. (nih.gov)
  • These findings show that IRF6 and AP-2 alpha are in the same developmental pathway and identify a variant in a regulatory region that contributes substantially to a common complex disorder. (wikipedia.org)
  • These 3 mutations were screened for in the entire study population of 327 patients and 398 controls. (ahajournals.org)
  • This is the case of PC and PS gene mutations, as well as the FV Leiden mutation (which modifies the activated PC cleavage site at position 506 of FVa 3 ) and the prothrombin gene 20210G/A mutation associated with high levels of circulating prothrombin. (ahajournals.org)
  • and 3 ) an A-to-C substitution at nucleotide 748 led to amino acid substitution from histidine to proline at position 241 (H241P). (diabetesjournals.org)