Guanosine cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to the sugar moiety in both the 3'- and 5'-positions. It is a cellular regulatory agent and has been described as a second messenger. Its levels increase in response to a variety of hormones, including acetylcholine, insulin, and oxytocin and it has been found to activate specific protein kinases. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of CYCLIC AMP to form adenosine 5'-phosphate. The enzymes are widely distributed in animal tissue and control the level of intracellular cyclic AMP. Many specific enzymes classified under this heading demonstrate additional spcificity for 3',5'-cyclic IMP and CYCLIC GMP.
A cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase subfamily that is found predominantly in inflammatory cells and may play a role in the regulation of CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. The enzyme family includes over twenty different variants that occur due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of the mRNA of at least four different genes.
A cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase subfamily that is inhibited by the binding of CYCLIC GMP to an allosteric domain found on the enzyme and through phosphorylation by regulatory kinases such as PROTEIN KINASE A and PROTEIN KINASE B. The two members of this family are referred to as type 3A, and type 3B, and are each product of a distinct gene. In addition multiple enzyme variants of each subtype can be produced due to multiple alternative mRNA splicing.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of one of the two ester bonds in a phosphodiester compound. EC 3.1.4.
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of cyclic GMP to yield guanosine-5'-phosphate.
A CALCIUM and CALMODULIN-dependent cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase subfamily. The three members of this family are referred to as type 1A, type 1B, and type 1C and are each product of a distinct gene. In addition, multiple enzyme variants of each subtype can be produced due to multiple alternative mRNA splicing. Although the type 1 enzymes are classified as 3',5'-cyclic-AMP phosphodiesterases (EC 3.1.4.17), some members of this class have additional specificity for CYCLIC GMP.
A cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase subfamily that is activated by the binding of CYCLIC GMP to an allosteric domain found on the enzyme. Multiple enzyme variants of this subtype can be produced due to multiple alternative mRNA splicing. The subfamily is expressed in a broad variety of tissues and may play a role in mediating cross-talk between CYCLIC GMP and CYCLIC CMP pathways. Although the type 2 enzymes are classified as 3',5'-cyclic-AMP phosphodiesterases (EC 3.1.4.17), members of this class have additional specificity for CYCLIC GMP.
Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or actions of phosphodiesterases.
Nucleoside-2',3'-cyclic phosphate nucleotidohydrolase. Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of the 2'- or 3'- phosphate bonds of 2',3'-cyclic nucleotides. Also hydrolyzes nucleoside monophosphates. Includes EC 3.1.4.16 and EC 3.1.4.37. EC 3.1.4.-.
A cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase subfamily that is highly specific for CYCLIC GMP. It is found predominantly in vascular tissue and plays an important role in regulating VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE contraction.
A phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor with antidepressant properties.
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
N-(1-Oxobutyl)-cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate)-2'-butanoate guanosine. A derivative of cyclic GMP. It has a higher resistance to extracellular and intracellular phosphodiesterase than cyclic GMP.
A cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase subfamily that is highly specific for CYCLIC AMP. Several isoforms of the enzyme type exist, each with its own tissue localization. The isoforms are encoded by at least two genes and are a product of multiple alternative splicing of their mRNAs.
A potent cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase inhibitor; due to this action, the compound increases cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP in tissue and thereby activates CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE-REGULATED PROTEIN KINASES
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of GTP to 3',5'-cyclic GMP and pyrophosphate. It also acts on ITP and dGTP. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.6.1.2.
Compounds that specifically inhibit PHOSPHODIESTERASE 4.
Compounds that specifically inhibit PHOSPHODIESTERASE 3.
Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a phosphorus-oxygen bond by means other than hydrolysis or oxidation. EC 4.6.
A phosphoric diester hydrolase that removes 5'-nucleotides from the 3'-hydroxy termini of 3'-hydroxy-terminated OLIGONUCLEOTIDES. It has low activity towards POLYNUCLEOTIDES and the presence of 3'-phosphate terminus on the substrate may inhibit hydrolysis.
A group of cyclic GMP-dependent enzymes that catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues of proteins.
A group of compounds that are derivatives of oxo-pyrrolidines. A member of this group is 2-oxo pyrrolidine, which is an intermediate in the manufacture of polyvinylpyrrolidone. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
Inhibitor of phosphodiesterases.
A positive inotropic cardiotonic agent with vasodilator properties. It inhibits cAMP phosphodiesterase type 3 activity in myocardium and vascular smooth muscle. Milrinone is a derivative of amrinone and has 20-30 times the inotropic potency of amrinone.
A compound consisting of dark green crystals or crystalline powder, having a bronze-like luster. Solutions in water or alcohol have a deep blue color. Methylene blue is used as a bacteriologic stain and as an indicator. It inhibits GUANYLATE CYCLASE, and has been used to treat cyanide poisoning and to lower levels of METHEMOGLOBIN.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
Compounds that specifically inhibit PHOSPHODIESTERASE 5.
Systems in which an intracellular signal is generated in response to an intercellular primary messenger such as a hormone or neurotransmitter. They are intermediate signals in cellular processes such as metabolism, secretion, contraction, phototransduction, and cell growth. Examples of second messenger systems are the adenyl cyclase-cyclic AMP system, the phosphatidylinositol diphosphate-inositol triphosphate system, and the cyclic GMP system.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
An alkaloid found in opium but not closely related to the other opium alkaloids in its structure or pharmacological actions. It is a direct-acting smooth muscle relaxant used in the treatment of impotence and as a vasodilator, especially for cerebral vasodilation. The mechanism of its pharmacological actions is not clear, but it apparently can inhibit phosphodiesterases and it may have direct actions on calcium channels.
A powerful vasodilator used in emergencies to lower blood pressure or to improve cardiac function. It is also an indicator for free sulfhydryl groups in proteins.
A group of enzymes that are dependent on CYCLIC AMP and catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues on proteins. Included under this category are two cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase subtypes, each of which is defined by its subunit composition.
A methyl xanthine derivative from tea with diuretic, smooth muscle relaxant, bronchial dilation, cardiac and central nervous system stimulant activities. Theophylline inhibits the 3',5'-CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE PHOSPHODIESTERASE that degrades CYCLIC AMP thus potentiates the actions of agents that act through ADENYLYL CYCLASES and cyclic AMP.
A group of indole-indoline dimers which are ALKALOIDS obtained from the VINCA genus of plants. They inhibit polymerization of TUBULIN into MICROTUBULES thus blocking spindle formation and arresting cells in METAPHASE. They are some of the most useful ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS.
A potent natriuretic and vasodilatory peptide or mixture of different-sized low molecular weight PEPTIDES derived from a common precursor and secreted mainly by the HEART ATRIUM. All these peptides share a sequence of about 20 AMINO ACIDS.
An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the formation of CYCLIC AMP and pyrophosphate from ATP. EC 4.6.1.1.
A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety and found widely in nature.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Potent activator of the adenylate cyclase system and the biosynthesis of cyclic AMP. From the plant COLEUS FORSKOHLII. Has antihypertensive, positive inotropic, platelet aggregation inhibitory, and smooth muscle relaxant activities; also lowers intraocular pressure and promotes release of hormones from the pituitary gland.
A long-acting derivative of cyclic AMP. It is an activator of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, but resistant to degradation by cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase.
A component of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINES or LECITHINS, in which the two hydroxy groups of GLYCEROL are esterified with fatty acids. (From Stedman, 26th ed) It counteracts the effects of urea on enzymes and other macromolecules.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.
The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.
The portion of a retinal rod cell situated between the ROD INNER SEGMENT and the RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIUM. It contains a stack of photosensitive disk membranes laden with RHODOPSIN.
Purine bases found in body tissues and fluids and in some plants.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A group of enzymes within the class EC 3.6.1.- that catalyze the hydrolysis of diphosphate bonds, chiefly in nucleoside di- and triphosphates. They may liberate either a mono- or diphosphate. EC 3.6.1.-.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
That phase of a muscle twitch during which a muscle returns to a resting position.
Specialized cells that detect and transduce light. They are classified into two types based on their light reception structure, the ciliary photoreceptors and the rhabdomeric photoreceptors with MICROVILLI. Ciliary photoreceptor cells use OPSINS that activate a PHOSPHODIESTERASE phosphodiesterase cascade. Rhabdomeric photoreceptor cells use opsins that activate a PHOSPHOLIPASE C cascade.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
A cyclic nucleotide derivative that mimics the action of endogenous CYCLIC AMP and is capable of permeating the cell membrane. It has vasodilator properties and is used as a cardiac stimulant. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
3-Mercapto-D-valine. The most characteristic degradation product of the penicillin antibiotics. It is used as an antirheumatic and as a chelating agent in Wilson's disease.
A series of heterocyclic compounds that are variously substituted in nature and are known also as purine bases. They include ADENINE and GUANINE, constituents of nucleic acids, as well as many alkaloids such as CAFFEINE and THEOPHYLLINE. Uric acid is the metabolic end product of purine metabolism.
A structurally-diverse family of intracellular-signaling adaptor proteins that selectively tether specific protein kinase A subtypes to distinct subcellular sites. They play a role in focusing the PROTEIN KINASE A activity toward relevant substrates. Over fifty members of this family exist, most of which bind specifically to regulatory subunits of CYCLIC AMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE TYPE II such as CAMP PROTEIN KINASE RIIALPHA or CAMP PROTEIN KINASE RIIBETA.
A heat-stable, low-molecular-weight activator protein found mainly in the brain and heart. The binding of calcium ions to this protein allows this protein to bind to cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases and to adenyl cyclase with subsequent activation. Thereby this protein modulates cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP levels.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.
Cell surface proteins that bind ATRIAL NATRIURETIC FACTOR with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. They contain intrinsic guanylyl cyclase activity.
A genus of protozoa, formerly also considered a fungus. Its natural habitat is decaying forest leaves, where it feeds on bacteria. D. discoideum is the best-known species and is widely used in biomedical research.
The portion of the descending aorta proceeding from the arch of the aorta and extending to the DIAPHRAGM, eventually connecting to the ABDOMINAL AORTA.
A sulfur-containing alkyl thionitrite that is one of the NITRIC OXIDE DONORS.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
A group of compounds with the heterocyclic ring structure of benzo(c)pyridine. The ring structure is characteristic of the group of opium alkaloids such as papaverine. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.
Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
A group of pyrido-indole compounds. Included are any points of fusion of pyridine with the five-membered ring of indole and any derivatives of these compounds. These are similar to CARBAZOLES which are benzo-indoles.
A group of derivatives of naphthyridine carboxylic acid, quinoline carboxylic acid, or NALIDIXIC ACID.
Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.
A morpholinyl sydnone imine ethyl ester, having a nitrogen in place of the keto oxygen. It acts as NITRIC OXIDE DONORS and is a vasodilator that has been used in ANGINA PECTORIS.
An enzyme that catalyzes the reversible oxidation of inosine 5'-phosphate (IMP) to guanosine 5'-phosphate (GMP) in the presence of AMMONIA and NADP+. This enzyme was formerly classified as EC 1.6.6.8.
A diverse group of agents, with unique chemical structures and biochemical requirements, which generate NITRIC OXIDE. These compounds have been used in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases and the management of acute myocardial infarction, acute and chronic congestive heart failure, and surgical control of blood pressure. (Adv Pharmacol 1995;34:361-81)
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
An NADPH-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-ARGININE and OXYGEN to produce CITRULLINE and NITRIC OXIDE.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
A species of the family Ranidae (true frogs). The only anuran properly referred to by the common name "bullfrog", it is the largest native anuran in North America.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A phosphodiesterase inhibitor that blocks uptake and metabolism of adenosine by erythrocytes and vascular endothelial cells. Dipyridamole also potentiates the antiaggregating action of prostacyclin. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p752)
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
A cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase subtype that is expressed in SMOOTH MUSCLE tissues and plays a role in regulation of smooth muscle contraction. Two isoforms, PKGIalpha and PKGIbeta, of the type I protein kinase exist due to alternative splicing of its mRNA.
Quinolines substituted in any position by one or more amino groups.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
A group of compounds which consist of a nucleotide molecule to which an additional nucleoside is attached through the phosphate molecule(s). The nucleotide can contain any number of phosphates.
An inhibitor of nitric oxide synthetase which has been shown to prevent glutamate toxicity. Nitroarginine has been experimentally tested for its ability to prevent ammonia toxicity and ammonia-induced alterations in brain energy and ammonia metabolites. (Neurochem Res 1995:200(4):451-6)
Peptides that regulate the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in the body, also known as natriuretic peptide hormones. Several have been sequenced (ATRIAL NATRIURETIC FACTOR; BRAIN NATRIURETIC PEPTIDE; C-TYPE NATRIURETIC PEPTIDE).
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
A cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase subfamily that is highly specific for CYCLIC GMP. It is found predominantly in the outer segment PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS of the RETINA. It is comprised of two catalytic subunits, referred to as alpha and beta, that form a dimer. In addition two regulatory subunits, referred to as gamma and delta, modulate the activity and localization of the enzyme.
A slowly hydrolyzed CHOLINERGIC AGONIST that acts at both MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS and NICOTINIC RECEPTORS.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A competitive inhibitor of nitric oxide synthetase.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A PEPTIDE of 22 amino acids, derived mainly from cells of VASCULAR ENDOTHELIUM. It is also found in the BRAIN, major endocrine glands, and other tissues. It shares structural homology with ATRIAL NATRIURETIC FACTOR. It has vasorelaxant activity thus is important in the regulation of vascular tone and blood flow. Several high molecular weight forms containing the 22 amino acids have been identified.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A sulfur-containing alkyl thionitrite that is one of the NITRIC OXIDE DONORS.
Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Contractile activity of the MYOCARDIUM.
Striated muscle cells found in the heart. They are derived from cardiac myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, CARDIAC).
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A non-selective inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase. It has been used experimentally to induce hypertension.
A serotonin uptake inhibitor that is used as an antidepressive agent. It has been shown to be effective in patients with major depressive disorders and other subsets of depressive disorders. It is generally more useful in depressive disorders associated with insomnia and anxiety. This drug does not aggravate psychotic symptoms in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p309)
The increase in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
A type of FLUORESCENCE SPECTROSCOPY using two FLUORESCENT DYES with overlapping emission and absorption spectra, which is used to indicate proximity of labeled molecules. This technique is useful for studying interactions of molecules and PROTEIN FOLDING.
The conformation, properties, reaction processes, and the properties of the reactions of carbon compounds.
One of two major pharmacologically defined classes of adrenergic receptors. The beta adrenergic receptors play an important role in regulating CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, SMOOTH MUSCLE relaxation, and GLYCOGENOLYSIS.
A volatile vasodilator which relieves ANGINA PECTORIS by stimulating GUANYLATE CYCLASE and lowering cytosolic calcium. It is also sometimes used for TOCOLYSIS and explosives.
The lower right and left chambers of the heart. The right ventricle pumps venous BLOOD into the LUNGS and the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood into the systemic arterial circulation.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
The main trunk of the systemic arteries.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A species of the true toads, Bufonidae, becoming fairly common in the southern United States and almost pantropical. The secretions from the skin glands of this species are very toxic to animals.
Guanosine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.
A nonapeptide messenger that is enzymatically produced from KALLIDIN in the blood where it is a potent but short-lived agent of arteriolar dilation and increased capillary permeability. Bradykinin is also released from MAST CELLS during asthma attacks, from gut walls as a gastrointestinal vasodilator, from damaged tissues as a pain signal, and may be a neurotransmitter.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
A group of hydrolases which catalyze the hydrolysis of monophosphoric esters with the production of one mole of orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
Inosine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). An inosine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. Synonym: IRPPP.
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
An ionophorous, polyether antibiotic from Streptomyces chartreusensis. It binds and transports CALCIUM and other divalent cations across membranes and uncouples oxidative phosphorylation while inhibiting ATPase of rat liver mitochondria. The substance is used mostly as a biochemical tool to study the role of divalent cations in various biological systems.
Nucleotides in which the base moiety is substituted with one or more sulfur atoms.
Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.
Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
A heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein that mediates the light activation signal from photolyzed rhodopsin to cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase and is pivotal in the visual excitation process. Activation of rhodopsin on the outer membrane of rod and cone cells causes GTP to bind to transducin followed by dissociation of the alpha subunit-GTP complex from the beta/gamma subunits of transducin. The alpha subunit-GTP complex activates the cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase which catalyzes the hydrolysis of cyclic GMP to 5'-GMP. This leads to closure of the sodium and calcium channels and therefore hyperpolarization of the rod cells. EC 3.6.1.-.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.
Long-lasting voltage-gated CALCIUM CHANNELS found in both excitable and nonexcitable tissue. They are responsible for normal myocardial and vascular smooth muscle contractility. Five subunits (alpha-1, alpha-2, beta, gamma, and delta) make up the L-type channel. The alpha-1 subunit is the binding site for calcium-based antagonists. Dihydropyridine-based calcium antagonists are used as markers for these binding sites.
A class of enzymes that catalyze oxidation-reduction reactions of amino acids.
A potassium-channel opening vasodilator that has been investigated in the management of hypertension. It has also been tried in patients with asthma. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p352)
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
A compound formed by the combination of hemoglobin and oxygen. It is a complex in which the oxygen is bound directly to the iron without causing a change from the ferrous to the ferric state.
A group of compounds that are derivatives of beta-methylacetylcholine (methacholine).
The external reproductive organ of males. It is composed of a mass of erectile tissue enclosed in three cylindrical fibrous compartments. Two of the three compartments, the corpus cavernosa, are placed side-by-side along the upper part of the organ. The third compartment below, the corpus spongiosum, houses the urethra.
Mixtures of closely related hypotensive alkaloids from Veratrum album (Liliaceae). They have been used in the treatment of hypertension but have largely been replaced by drugs with fewer adverse effects.
An amine derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of HISTIDINE. It is a powerful stimulant of gastric secretion, a constrictor of bronchial smooth muscle, a vasodilator, and also a centrally acting neurotransmitter.
... cyclic-AMP and -GMP phosphodiesterase 11A is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PDE11A gene. The 3',5'-cyclic ... Yuasa K, Ohgaru T, Asahina M, Omori K (2001). "Identification of rat cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase 11A (PDE11A): ... Beavo JA, Conti M, Heaslip RJ (1994). "Multiple cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases". Mol. Pharmacol. 46 (3): 399-405. PMID ... cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase 11A: localization in human tissues". Int. J. Impot. Res. 17 (4): 320-5. doi:10.1038/sj.ijir ...
... cyclic di-GMP). Degradation of cyclic di-GMP to guanosine monophosphate (GMP) is catalyzed by a phosphodiesterase (PDE). ... Cyclic di-GMP binds to interface between the DGC and D2 domains stabilizing the open structure and preventing catalysis. Strong ... Often, GGDEF domains with DGC activity are found in the same proteins as c-di-GMP-specific phosphodiesterase (PDE) EAL (Glu-Ala ... Jenal U, Malone J (2006). "Mechanisms of cyclic-di-GMP signaling in bacteria". Annual Review of Genetics. 40: 385-407. doi: ...
... cyclic-GMP phosphodiesterase MeSH D08.811.277.352.640.150 - 3',5'-cyclic-nucleotide phosphodiesterase MeSH D08.811.277.352. ... cyclic gmp-dependent protein kinases MeSH D08.811.913.696.620.682.700.150.575 - protamine kinase MeSH D08.811.913.696.620.682. ... cyclic-nucleotide phosphodiesterases MeSH D08.811.277.352.640.295 - glycerophosphoinositol inositolphosphodiesterase MeSH ... cyclic nucleotide-regulated protein kinases MeSH D08.811.913.696.620.682.700.150.125 - cyclic amp-dependent protein kinases ...
1975). "Biologic regulation through opposing influences of cyclic GMP and cyclic AMP: the Yin Yang hypothesis". Adv Cyclic ... The PDE2 (phosphodiesterase 2) enzyme is one of 21 different phosphodiesterases (PDE) found in mammals. These different PDEs ... cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDE2) on guinea pig left atria in eu- and hyperthyroidism" (PDF). Gen Physiol Biophys. 22 ... "Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases: molecular regulation to clinical use". Pharmacol. Rev. 58 (3): 488-520. doi:10.1124/pr. ...
Numerous cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDE) can degrade cGMP by hydrolyzing cGMP into 5'-GMP. PDE 5, -6 and -9 are cGMP ... Cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) is a cyclic nucleotide derived from guanosine triphosphate (GTP). cGMP acts as a second ... cyclic monophosphate (8-Br-cGMP) Francis SH, Corbin JD (August 1999). "Cyclic nucleotide-dependent protein kinases: ... Phosphodiesterase inhibitors prevent the degradation of cGMP, thereby enhancing and/or prolonging its effects. For example, ...
1975). "Biologic regulation through opposing influences of cyclic GMP and cyclic AMP: the Yin Yang hypothesis". Adv Cyclic ... June 1997). "cGMP-stimulated cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase regulates the basal calcium current in human atrial myocytes ... Bender AT, Beavo JA (September 2006). "Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases: molecular regulation to clinical use". Pharmacol. ... The PDE2 (phosphodiesterase 2) enzyme is one of 21 different phosphodiesterases (PDE) found in mammals. These different PDEs ...
... phosphate phosphodiesterase, cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase, cyclic 3',5'-GMP phosphodiesterase, cyclic guanosine 3',5'- ... Cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase". Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 334: 368-377. doi:10.1016/0005-2744(74)90180-6. Biology ... cyclic-GMP phosphodiesterase (EC 3.1.4.35) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction guanosine 3',5'-cyclic phosphate ... phosphate phosphodiesterase, cGMP phosphodiesterase, cGMP-PDE, and cyclic guanosine 3',5'-phosphate phosphodiesterase. As of ...
2006). "Effect of icariin on cyclic GMP levels and on the mRNA expression of cGMP-binding cGMP-specific phosphodiesterase (PDE5 ... Ning H, Xin ZC, Lin G, Banie L, Lue TF, Lin CS (2006). "Effects of icariin on phosphodiesterase-5 activity in vitro and cyclic ... 2008). "Potent inhibition of human phosphodiesterase-5 by icariin derivatives". J. Nat. Prod. 71 (9): 1513-1517. doi:10.1021/ ... August 5, 2019. Retrieved November 7, 2019. Xiao H, Wignall N, Brown ES (2016). "An open-label pilot study of icariin for co- ...
... a Specific Inhibitor of Cyclic GMP Phosphodiesterase, on Human Platelet Aggregation". The Journal of Pharmacology and ... Aubin, C; Webster, L; Rebeyka, IM; Ross, DB; Light, PE; Dyck, JR; Michelakis, ED (17 July 2007). "Phosphodiesterase Type 5 is ... MY-5445 is a relatively specific phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor. Vatalanib - a structurally related angiogenesis inhibitor ... and Acute Inhibition of Phosphodiesterase Type 5 Improves Contractility" (PDF). Circulation. 116 (3): 238-48. doi:10.1161/ ...
In mammals, GAF domains are found in five members of the cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase superfamily: PDE2, PDE5, and PDE6 ... a ubiquitous signaling motif and a new class of cyclic GMP receptor". The EMBO Journal. 19 (20): 5288-99. doi:10.1093/emboj/ ... The GAF domain is named after some of the proteins it is found in: cGMP-specific phosphodiesterases, adenylyl cyclases and FhlA ... "The two GAF domains in phosphodiesterase 2A have distinct roles in dimerization and in cGMP binding". Proceedings of the ...
The two most well-studied cyclic nucleotides are cyclic AMP (cAMP) and cyclic GMP (cGMP), while cyclic CMP (cCMP) and cyclic ... cAMP's role in this process terminates upon hydrolysis to AMP by phosphodiesterase. Cyclic nucleotides are well-suited to act ... Lincoln, TM; Cornwell TL (1991). "Towards an understanding of the mechanism of action of cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP in smooth ... As can be seen in the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) images, the 'cyclic' ...
Cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP) is a cyclic dinucleotide (CDN) and the first to be found in metazoans. Other CDNs (c-di-GMP and c-di-AMP ... phosphodiesterases. Other advantages of the unique 2'-5' linkage may be that cGAMP is able to bind multiple allelic variants of ... Upon binding DNA, the protein cyclic GMP-AMP Synthase (cGAS) triggers reaction of GTP and ATP to form cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP). ... specifically by the cyclic-GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS). Upon DNA recognition, cGAS dimerizes and stimulates the formation of cyclic ...
Nitric oxide and cyclic GMP in cell signaling and drug development". The New England Journal of Medicine. 355 (19): 2003-11. ... Phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5), which is abundant in the pulmonary tissue, hydrolyzes the cyclic bond of cGMP. Consequently, ... Levels of cAMP (which mediates most of the biological effects of prostacyclin) are reduced by phosphodiesterases 3 and 4. The ... Francis SH, Busch JL, Corbin JD, Sibley D (2010). "cGMP-dependent protein kinases and cGMP phosphodiesterases in nitric oxide ...
Linari M, Hanzal-Bayer M, Becker J (Sep 1999). "The delta subunit of rod specific cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase, PDE delta, ... interacts with the delta subunit of rod cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the ... interacts with the delta subunit of rod cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the ... cyclic phosphodiesterase subunit delta is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PDE6D gene. PDE6D was originally ...
... c-di-GMP-specific phosphodiesterase, c-di-GMP phosphodiesterase, phosphodiesterase, phosphodiesterase A1, PDEA1, VieA) is an ... Cyclic-guanylate-specific phosphodiesterase (EC 3.1.4.52, cyclic bis(3->5')diguanylate phosphodiesterase, ... "Identification and characterization of a cyclic di-GMP-specific phosphodiesterase and its allosteric control by GTP". J. Biol. ... Cyclic-guanylate-specific+phosphodiesterase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Biology ...
Organization of the gene for the beta-subunit of human photoreceptor cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase]". Bioorganicheskaia Khimiia ... "In vivo differential prenylation of retinal cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase catalytic subunits". The Journal of Biological ... "Enzymic basis for cyclic GMP accumulation in degenerative photoreceptor cells of mouse retina". Journal of Cyclic Nucleotide ... cyclic phosphodiesterase subunit beta is the beta subunit of the protein complex PDE6 that is encoded by the PDE6B gene. PDE6 ...
"Localization of the human gene for the type I cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase to chromosome 10". Cytogenetics and Cell ... and kinase-directed regulation of phosphorylation of a cGMP-binding phosphodiesterase by cGMP". The Journal of Biological ... 96 (5): 2467-72. doi:10.1073/pnas.96.5.2467. PMC 26808. PMID 10051666. Wang X, Bruderer S, Rafi Z, Xue J, Milburn PJ, Krämer A ... 27 (3 Pt 2): 552-7. doi:10.1161/01.hyp.27.3.552. PMID 8613202. Salih E, Zhou HY, Glimcher MJ (Jul 1996). "Phosphorylation of ...
Kroll S, Phillips WJ, Cerione RA (March 1989). "The regulation of the cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase by the GDP-bound form of the ... 3'5'-cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases are a family of phosphodiesterases. Generally, these enzymes hydrolyze some ... monophosphate phosphodiesterase (cyclic CMP), cyclic 3',5-nucleotide monophosphate phosphodiesterase, nucleoside 3',5'-cyclic ... cyclic GMP 3',5'-cyclic CMP There are 11 distinct phosphodiesterase families (PDE1-PDE11) with a variety in isoforms and ...
... for instance a bond in a molecule of cyclic AMP or cyclic GMP. An enzyme that plays an important role in the repair of ... Phosphodiesterase Phosphodiesterase inhibitor DNA replication, DNA, ATP Teichoic acid, DNase I PDE5 Nick (DNA) "Phosphodiester ... A phosphodiesterase is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphodiester bonds, ... Hydrolysis of phosphodiester bonds is catalyzed by phosphodiesterases, which are involved in repairing DNA sequences. The ...
... inhibition with BAY 73-6691 increases corpus cavernosum relaxations mediated by nitric oxide-cyclic GMP pathway in mice". ... Effects of phosphodiesterase 10 inhibition on striatal cyclic AMP and peripheral physiology in rats; An Torremans, Abdellah ... 2001). "Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases". The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. 108 (5): 671-80. doi:10.1067/mai ... A phosphodiesterase inhibitor is a drug that blocks one or more of the five subtypes of the enzyme phosphodiesterase (PDE), ...
... cyclic-GMP phosphodiesterase. *Protein kinase G. *G alpha subunit Gα *GNAO1 ...
... cyclic-GMP phosphodiesterase. *Protein kinase G. *G alpha subunit Gα *GNAO1 ... alkylglycerophosphoethanolamine phosphodiesterase activity. • macromolecular complex binding. Cellular component. • ... Guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(T) subunit beta-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GNB1 gene.[5] ... This gene uses alternative polyadenylation signals.[5][6] Interactive pathway map[edit]. Click on genes, proteins and ...
... cyclic-GMP phosphodiesterase. *Protein kinase G. *G alpha subunit Gα *GNAO1 ... Gαs activates the cAMP-dependent pathway by stimulating the production of cyclic AMP (cAMP) from ATP. This is accomplished by ... An example is adenylate cyclase, which produces the second messenger cyclic AMP.[6] For this discovery, they won the 1994 Nobel ... 3 Types of G protein signaling *3.1 Heterotrimeric G proteins *3.1.1 Common mechanism *3.1.1.1 Activation ...
... cyclic-GMP phosphodiesterase. *Protein kinase G. *G alpha subunit Gα *GNAO1 ... doi:10.1016/S0969-2126(01)00259-3. PMID 8591034.. *^ Davies TG, Tunnah P, Meijer L, Marko D, Eisenbrand G, Endicott JA, Noble ... 9 (1): 22-3. doi:10.4161/cc.9.1.10735. PMID 20016257.. *^ Baumann K (November 2013). "Cell cycle: Cyclin A corrections". Nature ... cyclin D 1,2,3 (Cdk4, Cdk6) cyclin E (Cdk2) cyclin A (Cdk2, Cdk1) cyclin B (Cdk1) ...
... cyclic-GMP phosphodiesterase. *Protein kinase G. *G alpha subunit Gα *GNAO1 ... 244 (20): 5763-, 5. PMID 4310608.. *^ Takeuchi M, Yanagida M (1993). "A mitotic role for a novel fission yeast protein kinase ... A major target of Akt kinases is glycogen synthase kinase-3. EC 2.7.1.37 Pelle. is a serine/threonine kinase that can ... Langan TA (1969). "Action of adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate-dependent histone kinase in vivo". J. Biol. Chem. ...
... cyclic-GMP phosphodiesterase. *Protein kinase G. *G alpha subunit Gα *GNAO1 ...
... cyclic-GMP phosphodiesterase. *Protein kinase G. *G alpha subunit Gα *GNAO1 ... Once formed, cGMP can be degraded by phosphodiesterases, which themselves are under different forms of regulation, depending on ... Because RETGC-1 produces cGMP, which keeps cyclic nucleotide-gated channels open allowing the influx of calcium, this mutation ... doi:10.1007/978-3-540-68964-5_2.. *^ Tseng K, Caballero A, Dec A, Cass D, Simak N, Sunu E, Park M, Blume S, Sammut S, Park D, ...
... cyclic-GMP phosphodiesterase. *Protein kinase G. *G alpha subunit Gα *GNAO1 ... Kaupp UB, Seifert R (July 2002). "Cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channels". Physiol. Rev. 82 (3): 769-824. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.319. ... cAMP phosphodiesterase converts cAMP into AMP by breaking the phosphodiester bond, in turn reducing the cAMP levels ... caffeine and theophylline inhibit cAMP phosphodiesterase, which degrades cAMP - thus enabling higher levels of cAMP than would ...
... interacts with the delta subunit of rod cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the ... interacts with the delta subunit of rod cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the ... 5 (7): 1035-41. doi:10.1093/hmg/5.7.1035. PMID 8817343.. *^ Murga-Zamalloa CA, Atkins SJ, Peranen J, Swaroop A, Khanna H (Sep ... X-linked retinitis pigmentosa GTPase regulator is a GTPase-binding protein that in humans is encoded by the RPGR gene.[5][6][7] ...
... cyclic-GMP phosphodiesterase EC 3.1.4.36: now with EC 3.1.4.43 EC 3.1.4.37: 2',3'-cyclic-nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase EC 3.1 ... CMP-N-acylneuraminate phosphodiesterase EC 3.1.4.41: sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase D EC 3.1.4.42: glycerol-1,2-cyclic- ... glucose-1-phospho-D-mannosylglycoprotein phosphodiesterase EC 3.1.4.52: cyclic-guanylate-specific phosphodiesterase EC 3.1.4.53 ... cyclic-nucleotide phosphodiesterase EC 3.1.4.18: now EC 3.1.16.1 EC 3.1.4.19: now EC 3.1.13.3 EC 3.1.4.20: now EC 3.1.13.1 EC ...
Unstimulated (in the dark), cyclic-nucleotide gated channels in the outer segment are open because cyclic GMP (cGMP) is bound ... Each transducin then activates the enzyme cGMP-specific phosphodiesterase (PDE).. *PDE then catalyzes the hydrolysis of cGMP to ... GMP via PDE), resulting in the closure of cyclic nucleotide-gated Na+ ion channels located in the photoreceptor outer segment ... In the dark, cells have a relatively high concentration of cyclic guanosine 3'-5' monophosphate (cGMP), which opens ion ...
Differential activation and inhibition of the multiple forms of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase". Adv Cyclic Nucleotide Res ... ciklične-GMP fosfodiesteraze. Celularna komponenta. • celularna komponenta. Biološki proces. • prenos signala. • biologiški ... B enzm: 1.1/2/3/4/5/6/7/8/10/11/13/14/15-18, 2.1/2/3/4/5/6/7/8, 2.7.10, 2.7.11-12, 3.1/2/3/4/5/6/7, 3.1.3.48, 3.4.21/22/23/24, ... B enzm: 1.1/2/3/4/5/6/7/8/10/11/13/14/15-18, 2.1/2/3/4/5/6/7/8, 2.7.10, 2.7.11-12, 3.1/2/3/4/5/6/7, 3.1.3.48, 3.4.21/22/23/24, ...
... cyclic GMP; Guanosine cyclic monophosphate; Cyclic 3',5'-GMP; Guanosine 3',5'-cyclic phosphate ... Numerous cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDE) can degrade cGMP by hydrolyzing cGMP into 5'-GMP. PDE 5, -6 and -9 are cGMP ... Cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) is a cyclic nucleotide derived from guanosine triphosphate (GTP). cGMP acts as a second ... Phosphodiesterase inhibitors prevent the degradation of cGMP, thereby enhancing and/or prolonging its effects. For example, ...
Essayan DM (November 2001). "Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases". The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. 108 (5): ... inhibition with BAY 73-6691 increases corpus cavernosum relaxations mediated by nitric oxide-cyclic GMP pathway in mice". ... Studies have found that Paraxanthine is a phosphodiesterase type 9 (PDE9) inhibitor[13] and It's sold as a research molecule ... PDE9 is a cGMP preferring phosphodiesterase and It's expressed in corpus cavernosum as high as PDE5 is.[15] ...
2001). "Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases". J Allergy Clin Immunol. 108 (5): 671-80. doi:10.1067/mai.2001.119555. PMID ... AMP (cAMP) • UMP • GMP (cGMP) • CMP • ADP • UDP (m5UDP) • GDP • CDP • ATP • UTP • GTP • CTP ... the effects of non-specific phosphodiesterase inhibition". Clinics (São Paulo). 63 (3): 321-8. doi:10.1590/S1807- ... dAMP • dTMP • dUMP • dGMP • dCMP • dADP • dTDP • dUDP • dGDP • dCDP • dATP • dTTP • dUTP (m5UTP) • dGTP • dCTP ...
"Effect of icariin on cyclic GMP levels and on the mRNA expression of cGMP-binding cGMP-specific phosphodiesterase (PDE5) in ... "Differential Activation and Inhibition of the Multiple Forms of Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterase". Advances in Cyclic ... Weiss, B; Hait, W N (1977). "Selective Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors as Potential Therapeutic Agents". Annual ... Fertel, Richard; Weiss, Benjamin (1976). "Properties and Drug Responsiveness of Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases of Rat ...
Yeast tRNA cyclic phosphodiesterase cleaves the cyclic phosphodiester group to form a 2'-phosphorylated 3' end. Yeast tRNA ... 3'OH of a free guanine nucleoside (or one located in the intron) or a nucleotide cofactor (GMP, GDP, GTP) attacks phosphate at ... cyclic phosphodiester group, and a 3'-half tRNA, terminating at a 5'-hydroxyl group, along with a discarded intron.[20] Yeast ... 6 (5): 386-98. doi:10.1038/nrm1645. PMID 15956978.. *^ Matera, A. Gregory; Wang, Zefeng (23 January 2014). "A day in the life ...
Essayan DM (2001). "Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases". J Allergy Clin Immunol. 108 (5): 671-80. doi:10.1067/mai.2001.119555 ... competitive nonselective phosphodiesterase inhibitor,[19] which raises intracellular cAMP, activates PKA, inhibits TNF-alpha[20 ... 33 (3): 3035-3056. doi:10.1002/cber.19000330352.. *^ Minkowski O (1902). "Über Theocin (Theophyllin) als Diureticum". Ther. ... 28 (3): 3139. doi:10.1002/cber.189502803156.. *^ Traube W (1900). "Der synthetische Aufbau der Harnsäure, des Xanthins, ...
Den hæmmer omdannelsen af det vasodilatoriske cGMP til GMP. Derved stiger niveauet af cGMP, der via PKG virker vasodilatorisk. ... 2003): Vardenafil, a New Phosphodiesterase Type 5 Inhibitor, in the Treatment of Erectile Dysfunction in Men With Diabetes: A ... 3 Sildenafils historie og patentforløb *3.1 Viagra fra Pfizer *3.1.1 Lovlig generisk Viagra ... 1-[4-ethoxy-3-(6,7-dihydro-1-methyl-7-oxo-3-propyl-1H-pyrazolo[4,3-d]pyrimidin-5-yl)phenylsulfonyl]-4-methylpiperazin. ...
... protects cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) from degradation by cGMP-specific phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) in ... Retrieved 5 November 2016.. *^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "Sildenafil Citrate". The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists ... Smith KM, Romanelli F (2005). "Recreational use and misuse of phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors". J Am Pharm Assoc (2003). 45 (1 ... Dunn PJ (2005). "Synthesis of Commercial Phosphodiesterase(V) Inhibitors". Org Process Res Dev. 2005 (1): 88-97. doi:10.1021/ ...
2001). "Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases". J Allergy Clin Immunol. 108 (5): 671-80. doi:10.1067/mai.2001.119555. PMID ... Theobromine is weaker in both its inhibition of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases and its antagonism of adenosine receptors. ... 24] The potential inhibitory effect of theobromine on phosphodiesterases is seen only at amounts much higher than what people ... Its effect as a phosphodiesterase inhibitor[22] is thought to be small.[1] ...
2001). "Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases". J Allergy Clin Immunol. 108 (5): 671-80. doi:10.1067/mai.2001.119555. PMID ... competitive nonselective phosphodiesterase inhibitors [10] which raise intracellular cAMP, activate PKA, inhibit TNF-α [9][11] ... Xanthine (/ˈzænθiːn/ or /ˈzænθaɪn/; archaically xanthic acid) (3,7-dihydropurine-2,6-dione), is a purine base found in most ... 3,7-Dihydro-purine-2,6-dione. Plants, animals Caffeine. CH3. CH3. CH3. H. 1,3,7-Trimethyl-1H-purine-2,6(3H,7H)-dione. Coffee, ...
... which stimulates the synthesis of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (more commonly known as cyclic GMP or cGMP) in smooth muscle ... The inhibition of phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) enhances erectile function by increasing the amount of cGMP. Tadalafil (and ... Penedones A, Alves C, Batel Marques F (2020). "Risk of nonarteritic ischaemic optic neuropathy with phosphodiesterase type 5 ... a phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) enzyme inhibitor. In 1994, Pfizer scientists discovered that sildenafil, which also inhibits ...
This α-subunit then activates a phosphodiesterase that catalyzes the conversion of cGMP to GMP, thereby reducing current ... Known genetic causes of this are mutations in the cone cell cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channels CNGA3 (ACHM2) and CNGB3 (ACHM3 ... There are at least four genetic causes of congenital ACHM, two of which involve cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channels (ACHM2/ ... Rojas, C.V.; María, L.S.; Santos, J.L.; Cortés, F.; Alliende, M.A. (2002). "A frameshift insertion in the cone cyclic ...
July 5 - Dolly the sheep, the first mammal to be successfully cloned from an adult cell, is born at The Roslin Institute in ... October 3 - Reinhard Genzel and Andrea Ghez demonstrate the existence of a supermassive compact object at the centre of our ... April 3 - Jennifer Ringley becomes an early practitioner of lifecasting (video stream), from her dorm room at Dickinson College ... 4 (3): 389-398. doi:10.1534/g3.113.008995. PMC 3962479. PMID 24374639. Hofmann, S.; Ninov, V.; Heßberger, F. P.; Armbruster, P ...
Cyclic GMP possibly opens cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) K+-selective channels, thereby causing hyperpolarization of the ... The cGMP signal is terminated by the hydrolysis of cGMP through phosphodiesterase (PDE) activity and inactivation of GC. On ... Yoshida, M., Inaba, K., Ishida, K. and Morisawa, M. (1994) Calcium and cyclic AMP mediate sperm activation, but Ca2+ alone ... The consequential hyperpolarization activates hyperpolarization-activated and cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels. The ...
... cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), guanosine pentaphosphate ((p)ppGpp), and cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP). c-di-AMP is a ... Phosphodiesterase (PDE) enzymes degrade cyclic di-AMP to the linear molecule 5'-pApA (phosphadenylyl adenosine). pApA is also ... Cyclic di-GMP Dey B, Dey RJ, Cheung LS, Pokkali S, Guo H, Lee JH, Bishai WR (April 2015). "A bacterial cyclic dinucleotide ... December 2012). "The helicase DDX41 recognizes the bacterial secondary messengers cyclic di-GMP and cyclic di-AMP to activate a ...
... inhibition with BAY 73-6691 increases corpus cavernosum relaxations mediated by nitric oxide-cyclic GMP pathway in mice". ... A phosphodiesterase (PDE) is an enzyme that breaks a phosphodiester bond. Usually, phosphodiesterase refers to cyclic ... "Ontogenic development of a phosphodiesterase activator and the multiple forms of cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase of rat brain". ... "Differential activation and inhibition of the multiple forms of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase". Advances in Cyclic ...
... protects cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) from degradation by cGMP-specific phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) in ... Phosphodiesterase inhibitors (e.g., sildenafil) can also improve [Raynaud's phenomenon] symptoms and ulcer healing Nieto ... Laties AM (January 2009). "Vision disorders and phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors: a review of the evidence to date". Drug ... Sildenafil acts by blocking phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5), an enzyme that promotes breakdown of cGMP, which regulates blood flow ...
... phosphate phosphodiesterase, cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase, cyclic 3,5-GMP phosphodiesterase, cyclic guanosine 3,5- ... Cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase". Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 334: 368-377. doi:10.1016/0005-2744(74)90180-6. Biology ... cyclic-GMP phosphodiesterase (EC 3.1.4.35) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction guanosine 3,5-cyclic phosphate ... phosphate phosphodiesterase, cGMP phosphodiesterase, cGMP-PDE, and cyclic guanosine 3,5-phosphate phosphodiesterase. As of ...
Plays a role in signal transduction by regulating the intracellular concentration of cyclic nucleotides cAMP and cGMP. ... Catalyzes the hydrolysis of both cAMP and cGMP to 5-AMP and 5-GMP, respectively (By similarity). ... cGMP-stimulated cyclic-nucleotide phosphodiesterase activity Source: UniProtKB. *cyclic-nucleotide phosphodiesterase activity ... cyclic-AMP and -GMP phosphodiesterase 11AAdd BLAST. 933. Amino acid modifications. Feature key. Position(s). DescriptionActions ...
A cDNA clone for cyclic GMP Stimulated Phosphodiesterase (cGSPDE; PDE2) was isolated from a rat brain cDNA library. The cDNA ... A novel cyclic GMP stimulated phosphodiesterase from rat brain Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1994 Dec 30;205(3):1850-8. doi: ... A cDNA clone for cyclic GMP Stimulated Phosphodiesterase (cGSPDE; PDE2) was isolated from a rat brain cDNA library. The cDNA ... 266, 17655-17661). Although the overall homology of these two cDNAs is high, they are distinctly different in their 5 ends, ...
... cyclic phosphodiesterase subunit delta - EC 3.1.4.17; GMP-PDE delta; p17 protein \ 10-288-22226F for more molecular products ... cyclic phosphodiesterase subunit delta - EC 3.1.4.17; GMP-PDE delta; p17 protein ... cyclic phosphodiesterase subunit delta - EC 3.1.4.17; GMP-PDE delta; p17 protein Related products : Retinal rod rhodopsin- ... cyclic phosphodiesterase subunit delta - EC 3.1.4.17; GMP-PDE delta; p17 protein / Product Detail : 10-288-22226F Retinal rod ...
... cyclic monophosphate (cGMP) synthesis counters this response. Here, we show that blocking the intrinsic catabolism of c … ... Chronic inhibition of cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase 5A prevents and reverses cardiac hypertrophy Nat Med. 2005 Feb;11(2):214-22. ... Here, we show that blocking the intrinsic catabolism of cGMP with an oral phosphodiesterase-5A (PDE5A) inhibitor (sildenafil) ... Genetically engineered hyperstimulation of guanosine 3,5-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP) synthesis counters this response. ...
J:32329 Tuteja N, et al., Gamma-subunit of mouse retinal cyclic-GMP phosphodiesterase: cDNA and corresponding amino acid ... 5 phenotypes from 1 allele in 1 genetic background 2 phenotypes from multigenic genotypes 18 phenotype references ...
... cyclic-GMP phosphodiesterase activity Source: UniProtKB-EC. *cGMP binding Source: InterPro. View the complete GO annotation on ... cyclic phosphodiesterase subunit gammaAdd BLAST. 87. Amino acid modifications. Feature key. Position(s). DescriptionActions. ... cyclic phosphodiesterase subunit gamma OS=Canis lupus familiaris OX=9615 GN=PDE6G PE=3 SV=1 ... p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and ...
... cyclic-GMP phosphodiesterase activity IBA Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor. more info ... cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase. cGMP-specific phosphodiesterase PDE5A2. cGMP-specific phosphodiesterase type 5A. ... This gene encodes a cGMP-binding, cGMP-specific phosphodiesterase, a member of the cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase family. ... cyclic-GMP phosphodiesterase activity IDA Inferred from Direct Assay. more info ...
Cyclic GMP. 7665-99-8. C10H12N5O7P. 345.2053. 345.047434275. Not Available. ... Cyclic AMP. 60-92-4. C10H12N5O6P. 329.2059. 329.052519653. Not Available. ... 7732-18-5. H2O. 18.0153. 18.010564686. Not Available. HMDB0001397. Guanosine monophosphate. 85-32-5. C10H14N5O8P. 363.2206. ... C10H14N5O7P. 347.2212. 347.063084339. Not Available. ...
Cyclic GMP. 7665-99-8. C10H12N5O7P. 345.2053. 345.047434275. Not Available. ... Cyclic AMP. 60-92-4. C10H12N5O6P. 329.2059. 329.052519653. Not Available. ... Rundfeldt C, Socala K, Wlaz P: The atypical anxiolytic drug, tofisopam, selectively blocks phosphodiesterase isoenzymes and is ... 7732-18-5. H2O. 18.0153. 18.010564686. Not Available. HMDB0001397. Guanosine monophosphate. 85-32-5. C10H14N5O8P. 363.2206. ...
Cyclic GMP-Hydrolyzing Phosphodiesterases Sharron H. Francis, Jackie D. Corbin, Erwin Bischoff ... This book is an enthusiastic celebration of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) and amply illustrates the importance of this ... 3.Bayer Schering Pharma AG Cardiology ResearchPharma Research CenterWuppertalGermany ...
Cyclic-GMP Phosphodiesterases [D08.811.277.352.640.155]. *Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 5 [D08.811.277.352.640.155 ... A cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase subfamily that is highly specific for CYCLIC GMP. It is found predominantly in vascular ... Cyclic-AMP Phosphodiesterases [D08.811.277.352.640.150]. *Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 5 [D08.811.277.352.640.150 ... Novel Mechanism for Cyclic Dinucleotide Degradation Revealed by Structural Studies of Vibrio Phosphodiesterase V-cGAP3. J Mol ...
Phosphodiesterase 6B, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene ... Belongs to the cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase family.. Family:. * Belongs to the cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase ... GMP-PDE Beta 3 4 * EC 3.1.4.35 4 58 * PDEB 3 4 ... PDE6B (Phosphodiesterase 6B) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases ... A novel mutation in exon 17 of the beta-subunit of rod phosphodiesterase in two RP sisters of a consanguineous family. (PMID: ...
... cyclic-GMP phosphodiesterase) inhibitor (CHEBI:71942) tadalafil (CHEBI:71940) has role vasodilator agent (CHEBI:35620) ... cyclic-GMP phosphodiesterase) inhibitor An EC 3.1.4.* (phosphoric diester hydrolase) inhibitor that blocks the action of 3,5- ... A phosphodiesterase V inhibitor inhibitor, currently marketed in pill form for treating erectile dysfunction under the name ... BENZO[1,3]DIOXOL-. 5-. YL-. 2-. METHYL-. 2,3,6,7,12,12A-. HEXAHYDRO-. PYRAZINO[1,2:1,6]PYRIDO[3,4-. B]INDOLE-. 1,4-. DIONE ...
... cyclic-AMP and -GMP phosphodiesterase 11A. *EC 3.1.4. *EC 3.1.4.17 ... Lane 2: Human cell line RT-4. Lane 3: Human cell line U-251MG sp ... cAMP and cGMP cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase 11A. *cAMP ...
In addition, a clear therapeutic effect was present in mice treated at 2 weeks of age as well as in mice treated at 3 months of ... In addition, a clear therapeutic effect was present in mice treated at 2 weeks of age as well as in mice treated at 3 months of ... Specifically, we compare the influence of two different AAV vector capsids, AAV2/5 (Y719F) and AAV2/8 (Y733F), on restoration ... Specifically, we compare the influence of two different AAV vector capsids, AAV2/5 (Y719F) and AAV2/8 (Y733F), on restoration ...
... cyclic-GMP phosphodiesterase activity *[MF] calmodulin-dependent cyclic-nucleotide phosphodiesterase activity *[MF] hydrolase ... cyclic-AMP phosphodiesterase activity *[MF] cGMP binding *[MF] calcium- and calmodulin-regulated 3,5- ...
... cyclic GMP: step 1/1.. * Sequence similarities. Belongs to the cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase family.. Contains 2 GAF ... cGMP binding cGMP specific 35 cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase antibody. *cGMP binding cGMP specific phosphodiesterase ... Plays a role in signal transduction by regulating the intracellular concentration of cyclic nucleotides. This phosphodiesterase ... See all 5 Publications for this product Publishing research using ab14672? Please let us know so that we can cite the reference ...
... cyclic GMP: step 1/1.. * Sequence similarities. Belongs to the cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase family.. Contains 2 GAF ... cGMP binding cGMP specific 35 cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase antibody. *cGMP binding cGMP specific phosphodiesterase ... Plays a role in signal transduction by regulating the intracellular concentration of cyclic nucleotides. This phosphodiesterase ... cGMP binding cGMP specific 3 5 cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase antibody. * ...
One important second messenger in transducing the regulable nature of motile cilia is cyclic guanosine 3′,5′-monophosphate ( ... Francis, S.H.; Thomas, M.K.; Corbin, J.D. Cyclic GMP-Binding Cyclic GMP-Specific Phosphodiesterase from Lung; John Wiley and ... These consist of cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG), cGMP-binding, cGMP specific phosphodiesterase (PDE5), cGMP-binding ... Lincoln, T.M.; Cornwell, T.L. Towards an understanding of the mechanism of action of cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP in smooth muscle ...
1975). "Biologic regulation through opposing influences of cyclic GMP and cyclic AMP: the Yin Yang hypothesis". Adv Cyclic ... The PDE2 (phosphodiesterase 2) enzyme is one of 21 different phosphodiesterases (PDE) found in mammals. These different PDEs ... cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDE2) on guinea pig left atria in eu- and hyperthyroidism" (PDF). Gen Physiol Biophys. 22 ... "Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases: molecular regulation to clinical use". Pharmacol. Rev. 58 (3): 488-520. doi:10.1124/pr. ...
Design and synthesis of xanthines and cyclic GMP analogs as potent inhibitors of PDE5. Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors (1996), 135 ... Cyclic GMP. Description. Guanosine cyclic 3,5-(hydrogen phosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which ... cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase 1A. General function:. Involved in catalytic activity. Specific function:. Cyclic ... cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase 1B. General function:. Involved in catalytic activity. Specific function:. Cyclic ...
... whereas the c-di-GMP phosphodiesterases (PDEs) contain an EAL domain or an HD-GYP domain and hydrolyze c-di-GMP into linear ... cyclic diguanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) plays multiple key roles in bacterial physiology and virulence (10-12). c-di-GMP ... Cyclic di-GMP: the first 25 years of a universal bacterial second messenger. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 77:1-52. doi:10.1128/MMBR. ... Cyclic Di-GMP Riboswitch-Regulated Type IV Pili Contribute to Aggregation of Clostridium difficile. Eric Bordeleau, Erin B. ...
... which activates a cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase. The question arises as to whether the hydrolysis of cyclic GMP that results ... CYCLIC-GMP CASCADE OF VISION ANNUAL REVIEW OF NEUROSCIENCE Stryer, L. 1986; 9: 87-119 Abstract. Cyclic GMP is central to visual ... cyclic monophosphorothioate was hydrolyzed by cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase in H2(18)O to give [16O,18O]guanosine 5- ... TRANSDUCIN AND THE CYCLIC-GMP PHOSPHODIESTERASE OF RETINAL ROD OUTER SEGMENTS METHODS IN ENZYMOLOGY Stryer, L., Hurley, J. B., ...
... namely cyclic GMP, the neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), and cyclic GMP-binding protein kinases type I (cGKI alpha, cGKI ... less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanThe findings give hints that the cyclic GMP- and cyclic AMP-dependent signal ... Cyclic GMP/cyclic AMP signaling, Immunohistochemistry National Category Engineering and Technology Identifiers. URN: urn:nbn:se ... immunosignals specific for the PDE5 were found co-localized with cyclic GMP, cGKI alpha, and cGKI, as well as with the cyclic ...
Cyclic di-GMP is produced from GTP by diguanylate cyclases (DGCs) and is degraded by phosphodiesterases (PDEs). Genetic, ... As a ubiquitous second messenger, cyclic dimeric GMP (c-di-GMP) has been studied in numerous bacteria. The oral spirochete ... cyclic dimeric GMP (c-di-GMP) is a soluble molecule that functions as a second messenger in bacteria (1). As a ubiquitous ... Cyclic di-GMP allosterically inhibits the CRP-like protein (Clp) of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri. J. Bacteriol. 191:7121- ...
GMP-PDE beta; rod cGMP-phosphodiesterase beta-subunit; CSNBAD2;. ... Antigen standard for phosphodiesterase 6B, cGMP-specific, rod, ... PDE6B; phosphodiesterase 6B, cGMP-specific, rod, beta; PDEB; rod cGMP-specific 3,5-cyclic phosphodiesterase subunit beta; ... This product includes 3 vials: 1 vial of gene-specific cell lysate, 1 vial of control vector cell lysate, and 1 vial of loading ... Each lysate vial contains 0.1 mg lysate in 0.1 ml (1 mg/ml) of RIPA Buffer (50 mM Tris-HCl pH7.5, 250 mM NaCl, 5 mM EDTA, 50 mM ...
... cyclic-AMP and -GMP phosphodiesterase 11A is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PDE11A gene. The 3,5-cyclic ... Yuasa K, Ohgaru T, Asahina M, Omori K (2001). "Identification of rat cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase 11A (PDE11A): ... Beavo JA, Conti M, Heaslip RJ (1994). "Multiple cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases". Mol. Pharmacol. 46 (3): 399-405. PMID ... cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase 11A: localization in human tissues". Int. J. Impot. Res. 17 (4): 320-5. doi:10.1038/sj.ijir ...
... cyclic-AMP and -GMP phosphodiesterase 11 [EC:3.1.4.17 3.1.4.35] K01939 purA; adenylosuccinate synthase [EC:6.3.4.4] K01490 AMPD ... cyclic phosphodiesterase 8 [EC:3.1.4.53] K18424 ENPP4; ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase family member 4 [EC:3.6 ... 113790332 GMP synthase [glutamine-hydrolyzing]-like 113790347 GMP reductase 1-like 113791309 guanylate kinase-like 113788644 ... cyclic phosphodiesterase subunit delta K13763 PDE6N; cGMP-specific 3,5-cyclic phosphodiesterase, invertebrate [EC:3.1.4.35] ...
... inhibited the cyclic GMP (cGMP) phosphodiesterases (PDE) 2 and 5 in human colon cells, and these compounds caused rapid and ... cyclic GMP; PDE, phosphodiesterase; CP248, (Z)-5-fluoro-2-methyl-1(3,4,5-trimethoxybenzylidene)-3-(N-benzyl)-indenylacetamide; ... a specific inhibitor of cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase, on human platelet aggregation. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther., 228: 467-471, ... induced apoptosis in cultured colonic tumor cells involves inhibition of cyclic GMP (cG) phosphodiesterase (PDE). Cancer Res., ...
  • Genetically engineered hyperstimulation of guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP) synthesis counters this response. (nih.gov)
  • Inhibition of PDE5A1 guanosine cyclic monophosphate (cGMP) hydrolysing activity by sildenafil analogues that inhibit cellular cGMP efflux. (nih.gov)
  • This book is an enthusiastic celebration of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) and amply illustrates the importance of this field of science to patients and the way in which the field has evolved. (springer.com)
  • Phosphodiesterases (PDEs) are a family of phosphohydrolyases that catalyze the hydrolysis of 3' cyclic phosphate bonds in adenosine and/or guanine 3',5' cyclic monophosphate (cAMP and/or cGMP). (genecards.org)
  • One important second messenger in transducing the regulable nature of motile cilia is cyclic guanosine 3′,5′-monophosphate (cGMP). (mdpi.com)
  • Cyclic diguanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) is a bacterial second messenger that typically regulates the switch from motile, free-living to sessile and multicellular behaviors in Gram-negative bacteria. (asm.org)
  • The bacterial second messenger 3′-5′ cyclic diguanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) plays multiple key roles in bacterial physiology and virulence ( 10 - 12 ). (asm.org)
  • Cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) and its primary signaling kinase, protein kinase G, play an important role in counterbalancing stress remodeling in the heart. (elsevier.com)
  • Here we report a novel role for epinephrine and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) in the regulation of human SS RBC adhesiveness via the laminin receptor, basal cell adhesion molecule/Lutheran (BCAM/Lu). (bloodjournal.org)
  • Guanosine 3', 5'-cyclic monophosphate (cyclic GMP) is a second messenger that is typically present in lower level than cAMP. (biovendor.com)
  • Nucleotide second messenger signalling in bacteria has recently moved back into the focus of attention when bis‐(3′-5′)‐cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate (c‐di‐GMP) was discovered to ubiquitously promote biofilm formation (for recent reviews, see Wolfe and Visick, 2010 ). (embopress.org)
  • Impaired endothelium-dependent, flow-mediated vasodilation in patients with heart failure is partly attributable to hyporesponsiveness of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) mediated vasorelaxation effector mechanisms in vascular smooth muscle. (onlinejacc.org)
  • Nitric oxide, released by vascular endothelial cells in response to hormonal agonists and shear stress, induces vasorelaxation by increasing production of the second messenger cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) via the activation of soluble guanylate cyclase in vascular smooth muscle (2) . (onlinejacc.org)
  • c-di-AMP Control, also known as 5'-pApA, is a linear dinucleotide analog that can be obtained after hydrolysis of cyclic diadenylate monophosphate (c-di-AMP) by phosphodiesterases [1]. (invivogen.com)
  • The transition between the different developmental stages is regulated by the secondary messenger bis- (3´- 5´) -cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) and the c-di-GMP effector proteins BldD and RsiG. (hu-berlin.de)
  • It is most abundant in the internal membranes of retinal photoreceptors, where it reduces cytoplasmic levels of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) in rod and cone outer segments in response to light. (unh.edu)
  • Among the most important for pulmonary vascular homeostasis are factors that utilise cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) as an intracellular second messenger. (ersjournals.com)
  • Schematic diagram of the nitric oxide (NO)-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (GMP) signalling pathway. (ersjournals.com)
  • Are Phosphodiesterase-5 Inhibitors a New Frontier for Prevention of Colorectal Cancer? (harvard.edu)
  • Experimental studies have provided the basis for the evaluation of inhibitors of the phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) in the treatment of lower urinary tract symptomatology (LUTS) secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). (diva-portal.org)
  • Both preparations displayed similar IC 50 s with the known PDE5 inhibitors E4021 and zaprinast (3 n m and 1.5 μ m , respectively) and with the compounds listed in the table. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Phosphodiesterase type 5A (PDE5A) inhibitors acutely suppress beta-adrenergic receptor (β-AR) stimulation in left ventricular myocytes and hearts. (springer.com)
  • The guanylyl cyclase (GC) activator, NOR-3, and cGMP PDE inhibitors, trequinsin and MY5445, displayed similar growth-inhibitory activity as SS, but the adenylyl cyclase activator, forskolin, and other PDE inhibitors had no effect. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Cyclic peptide libraries have successfully been employed for the identification of inhibitors of highly challenging targets. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Phosphodiesterase inhibitors and the eye. (cogprints.org)
  • These data suggest that phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors may have effects that distinguish them from other treatments for pulmonary hypertension and merit further study. (ersjournals.com)
  • The two histidine and two aspartic acid residues, which bind zinc are conserved among all studied PDEs (See review article [3] ). (wikipedia.org)
  • [5] The co-crystal structures for PDE4B, PDE4D and PDE5 A have revealed two common features of inhibitor binding to PDEs. (wikipedia.org)
  • In PDEs that are selective for either cAMP or cGMP, this glutamine is constrained by neighboring residues to a position favoring selectivity for either cyclic nucleotide . (wikipedia.org)
  • Cyclic di-GMP is produced from GTP by diguanylate cyclases (DGCs) and is degraded by phosphodiesterases (PDEs). (asm.org)
  • 3',5'-cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDEs) catalyze the hydrolysis of cAMP and cGMP to the corresponding 5'-monophosphates and provide a mechanism to downregulate cAMP and cGMP signaling. (wikipedia.org)
  • c-di-GMP homeostasis is carried out by GGDEF domain proteins, cyclic diguanylate cyclases (DGCs), which synthesize c-di-GMP, as well as EAL and HD-GYP domain proteins, c-di-GMP phosphodiesterases (PDEs), which degrade this nucleotide. (asmscience.org)
  • Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDEs) constitute a family of enzymes that degrade cAMP and cGMP. (cdc.gov)
  • Intracellular cyclic nucleotide levels increase in response to extracellular stimulation by hormones, neurotransmitters, or growth factors and are down-regulated through hydrolysis catalyzed by PDEs, which are therefore candidate therapeutic targets. (cdc.gov)
  • 2,3 Cyclic GMP is degraded by cGMP-hydrolyzing phosphodiesterases (PDEs). (ahajournals.org)
  • 6 Like NO, cGMP can affect multiple signaling pathways ( Figure 1 A). 1,5,6 To date, three classes of cGMP receptor proteins have been identified: cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) cation channels, cGMP-regulated PDEs, which hydrolyze cAMP and/or cGMP, and cGMP-dependent protein kinases (cGKs). (ahajournals.org)
  • C‐di‐GMP-which is produced by diguanylate cyclases (DGC) and degraded by specific phosphodiesterases (PDEs)-is a ubiquitous second messenger in bacterial biofilm formation. (embopress.org)
  • Its degradation is catalysed by specific 3′‐phosphodiesterases (PDEs) with either EAL or HD‐GYP domains ( Schirmer and Jenal, 2009 ). (embopress.org)
  • This questioned the concept that the activities of dozens of DGCs and PDEs simply converge to control a cellular pool of freely diffusible c‐di‐GMP and therefore a common spectrum of outputs differentiated only by different affinities of various c‐di‐GMP‐binding effectors. (embopress.org)
  • In turn, c-di-GMP is hydrolyzed by EAL domain phosphodiesterases (PDEs), including VieA, which is described below ( 9 , 10 , 45 , 48 ). (asm.org)
  • Functions of cyclic GMP include the regulation of cation channels and PDEs and activation of cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG). (ersjournals.com)
  • PKG), cGMP-regulated phosphodiesterases (PDEs) and cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channels 4 . (ersjournals.com)
  • Plays a role in signal transduction by regulating the intracellular concentration of cyclic nucleotides cAMP and cGMP. (uniprot.org)
  • It is involved in the regulation of intracellular concentrations of cyclic nucleotides and is important for smooth muscle relaxation in the cardiovascular system. (nih.gov)
  • Increased intracellular c-di-GMP concentration in C. difficile was recently shown to reduce flagellar motility and to increase cell aggregation. (asm.org)
  • Consistent with our prediction, high intracellular c-di-GMP concentration increased transcript levels of T4P genes. (asm.org)
  • In a signaling network of c-di-GMP, bacteria typically use DGC and PDE enzymes to dynamically modulate the intracellular level of c-di-GMP in response to internal and/or external environmental cues ( 2 - 4 ). (asm.org)
  • Alterations in the intracellular levels of cyclic-di-GMP (c-di-GMP) regulate the transition between the different stages of infection in E. amylovora . (frontiersin.org)
  • We propose that the deregulation of the PI3K/PDE3B pathway might result in increased intracellular cyclic AMP accumulation, which promotes apoptosis. (strath.ac.uk)
  • In general, increased levels of cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) inside bacterial cells correlate with biofilm formation and expression of exopolysaccharide (EPS) and adherence factors, while decreased intracellular levels stimulate motility and a planktonic lifestyle. (asmscience.org)
  • Intracellular oscillations and release of cyclic AMP from Dictyostelium cells. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Two cyclic-nucleotide phosphodiesterases (DdPDE 1 and 2) have been identified previously, an extracellular dual-specificity enzyme and an intracellular cAMP-specific enzyme (encoded by the psdA and regA genes respectively). (embl.de)
  • The enzyme is widely distributed in animal tissue and controls the level of intracellular cyclic AMP. (termsciences.fr)
  • We show that the reporter constructs give a fluorescent readout of the intracellular level of cyclic di-GMP in P. aeruginosa strains with different levels of cyclic di-GMP. (asm.org)
  • Increasing evidence suggests that the intracellular distribution of cGMP is not uniform, but rather is compartmentalised within cells, and this may underlie the differential effects of cGMP generated by soluble and particulate guanylyl cyclases 3 . (ersjournals.com)
  • PKG is the most important of these intracellular mediators, whereas the cGMP-regulated PDE type 5 (PDE5) is mainly responsible for modulating intracellular cGMP levels and PKG-dependent signalling produced by NO and natriuretic peptides 5 - 7 . (ersjournals.com)
  • The cGMP-Degrading Enzyme Phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE5) in Cerebral Small Arteries of Older People. (nih.gov)
  • less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanThe present study aimed to investigate by means of immunohistochemistry in the human prostate the expression and distribution of key mediators of the NO pathway, namely cyclic GMP, the neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), and cyclic GMP-binding protein kinases type I (cGKI alpha, cGKI), in relation to PDE5, protein kinase A (cAK), and the vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP). (diva-portal.org)
  • less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanIn the smooth muscle portion of the transition zone, immunosignals specific for the PDE5 were found co-localized with cyclic GMP, cGKI alpha, and cGKI, as well as with the cyclic cAMP-binding protein kinase A. Smooth muscle bundles were seen innervated by slender varicose nerves characterized by the expression of nNOS. (diva-portal.org)
  • The latter is regulated by members of the phosphodiesterase (PDE) superfamily, of which cGMP-selective PDE5 has been best studied. (elsevier.com)
  • Expression of three isoforms of cGMP-binding cGMP-specific phosphodiesterase (PDE5) in human penile cavernosum. (embl.de)
  • Inhibition of cGMP-specific phosphodiesterase type V (PDE5) has been shown to improve penile erection in patients with erectile dysfunction. (embl.de)
  • In the search for therapeutic strategies that engage the cGMP signalling pathway for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), inhibition of cGMP metabolism by phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5)-targeted compounds has proven most successful to date. (ersjournals.com)
  • In vascular smooth muscle cells, NO interacts with soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) to convert guanosine triphosphate (GTP) to cyclic GMP, which is hydrolysed and inactivated by phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5). (ersjournals.com)
  • In addition to these feedback mechanisms, there is the potential for gene regulation, as the promoter region of human PDE5 contains sites responsive to cyclic nucleotides 11 , 12 . (ersjournals.com)
  • Catalyzes the hydrolysis of both cAMP and cGMP to 5'-AMP and 5'-GMP, respectively (By similarity). (uniprot.org)
  • Some are cAMP ( figure 1 ) selective hydrolases (PDE 4, -7 and -8), others are cGMP ( figure 1 ) selective hydrolases (PDE 5, -6 and -9) and the rest can hydrolyse both cAMP and cGMP (PDE1, -2, -3, -10 and -11). (wikipedia.org)
  • As mentioned above, PDE2 is able to hydrolyze both cAMP and cGMP ( figure 1 ), whereas some other members of the PDE family are selective for either of the two cyclic nucleotides. (wikipedia.org)
  • The 3',5'-cyclic nucleotides cAMP and cGMP function as second messengers in a wide variety of signal transduction pathways. (wikipedia.org)
  • Such enzymes include, but are not limited to, adenylyl cyclase (AC) for synthesis of cyclic AMP (cAMP), guanylyl cyclase for synthesis of cyclic GMP (cGMP), cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDE) for hydrolysis of cAMP and cGMP, and phospholipase C (PLC) for hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate to inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP 3 ) and DAG. (ahajournals.org)
  • Kass, DA 2012, ' Cardiac role of cyclic-gmp hydrolyzing phosphodiesterase type 5: From experimental models to clinical trials ', Current heart failure reports , vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 192-199. (elsevier.com)
  • Here, we show that blocking the intrinsic catabolism of cGMP with an oral phosphodiesterase-5A (PDE5A) inhibitor (sildenafil) suppresses chamber and myocyte hypertrophy, and improves in vivo heart function in mice exposed to chronic pressure overload induced by transverse aortic constriction. (nih.gov)
  • Preimplant Phosphodiesterase-5 Inhibitor Use Is Associated With Higher Rates of Severe Early Right Heart Failure After Left Ventricular Assist Device Implantation. (harvard.edu)
  • Analysis of short-term treatment with the phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor tadalafil on long bone development in young rats. (harvard.edu)
  • phosphoric diester hydrolase) inhibitor that blocks the action of 3',5'-cyclic-GMP phosphodiesterase (EC 3.1.4.35). (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Preincubation with 100 microM zaprinast, a cGMP-phosphodiesterase inhibitor able to increase cGMP levels, mimicked the inhibitory effects of SNP and CNP. (aspetjournals.org)
  • We investigated the effect of the soluble guanylate cyclase inhibitor methylene blue and the cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) inhibitor 8-(4-chlorophenylthio)-guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphorothioate, Rp isomer, on inhibition by SNP or CNP. (aspetjournals.org)
  • When assayed, the phosphodiesterase inhibitor sildenafil citrate was able to induce adventitious rooting in both nondepleted and auxin-depleted explants. (plantphysiol.org)
  • This was shown using SKF94836 (PDE3 inhibitor) which maximally inhibited membrane-bound cyclic AMP PDE activity by approximately 25-30% and by RT-PCR. (strath.ac.uk)
  • The effect of inhibition of cGMP degradation with sildenafil, a specific type 5 cGMP phosphodiesterase inhibitor, on flow-mediated dilation in heart failure is unknown. (onlinejacc.org)
  • Development of a Cyclic Peptide Inhibitor of the p6/UEV Protein-Protein Interaction. (bioportfolio.com)
  • We report the development of a cyclic peptide inhibitor of the p6/UEV interaction, from a non cell-permeable parent that was identified in a SICLOPPS screen. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Oral sildenafil: an orally active type 5 cyclic GMP specific phosphodiesterase inhibitor for the treatment of penile erectile dysfunction. (cogprints.org)
  • Achromatopsia type 2 (ACHM2) is a severe, inherited eye disease caused by mutations in the CNGA3 gene encoding the α subunit of the cone photoreceptor cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) channel. (frontiersin.org)
  • Human PDE6D was initially identified as a fourth subunit of rod-specific cGMP phosphodiesterase, PDE6. (prospecbio.com)
  • Heteromeric olfactory cyclic nucleotide-gated channels: a subunit that confers increased sensitivity to cAMP. (guidetopharmacology.org)
  • Activation of PKG results in the regulation of several downstream targets, including myosin phosphatase targeting subunit (MYPT), myosin light chain kinase (MLCK), regulator of G-protein signalling (RGS)2, RhoA, Rho kinase (ROCK), inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor-associated PKG substrate (IRAG), phospholamban (PLB) and calcium-sensitive potassium channels (BK Ca ). PGC: particulate guanylyl cyclases. (ersjournals.com)
  • As a ubiquitous second messenger, cyclic dimeric GMP (c-di-GMP) has been studied in numerous bacteria. (asm.org)
  • In Wolfe A, Visick K (ed), The Second Messenger Cyclic Di-GMP . (asmscience.org)
  • The second messenger cyclic di-GMP is a positive regulator of biofilm formation, and cyclic di-GMP signaling is now regarded as a potential target for the development of antipathogenic compounds. (asm.org)
  • In Vibrio cholerae , the second messenger cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) positively regulates biofilm formation and negatively regulates virulence and is proposed to play an important role in the transition from persistence in the environment to survival in the host. (asm.org)
  • Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of cyclic GMP to yield guanosine-5'-phosphate. (bvsalud.org)
  • Novel Mechanism for Cyclic Dinucleotide Degradation Revealed by Structural Studies of Vibrio Phosphodiesterase V-cGAP3. (harvard.edu)
  • The endogenous level of cGMP is regulated by both the synthesis via GC and its degradation by the phosphodiesterase activity. (plantphysiol.org)
  • cGMP is responsible for regulating cellular composition through cGMP-dependent kinase, cGMP-dependent ion channels or transporters, and through its hydrolytic degradation by phosphodiesterase. (biovendor.com)
  • c-di-GMP is synthesized by diguanylate cyclases (DGCs) with GGDEF domains, and its degradation is catalyzed by phosphodiesterases (PDE) with EAL or HD-GYP domains. (hu-berlin.de)
  • Biosynthesis and degradation of c-di-GMP are performed by three protein domains. (asm.org)
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA4781 protein, a phosphodiesterase involved in cyclic di-3',5'-GMP (c-di-GMP) degradation. (expasy.org)
  • Biochemical studies showed that TDE0214 binds c-di-GMP in a specific manner, with a dissociation constant ( K d ) value of 1.73 μM, which is in the low range compared to those of other reported c-di-GMP binding proteins. (asm.org)
  • In several bacterial species, PilZ-containing proteins have been confirmed to bind c-di-GMP in a highly specific manner, with dissociation constants ( K d ) in the submicromolar range. (asm.org)
  • Those proteins play a pivotal role in the regulatory networks of c-di-GMP ( 12 , 24 - 28 ). (asm.org)
  • C‐di‐GMP‐binding effector components include proteins of different families as well as RNAs ( Hengge, 2010a ). (embopress.org)
  • In S. venezuelae, the Streptomyces strain which was used as a model organism in this work, there are ten potentially c-di-GMP metabolizing enzymes, of which two GGDEF-EAL tandem proteins, RmdA and RmdB, are the focus of this work. (hu-berlin.de)
  • This is presumably due to the increased c-di-GMP concentrations in the deletion mutants, with the c-di-GMP effector proteins BldD and RsiG delaying the transition to the next growth phase. (hu-berlin.de)
  • A causal correlation between defective cyclic GMP metabolism and the altered chemotactic response is suggested, and a model is proposed that accounts for the formation of huge aggregation streams in clones of these mutants. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Cyclic GMP metabolism and its role in brain physiology. (biovendor.com)
  • Achromatopsia, also known as total color blindness , is related to achromatopsia 4 and achromatopsia 2 , and has symptoms including photophobia An important gene associated with Achromatopsia is PDE6C (Phosphodiesterase 6C), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Phototransduction and Metabolism of fat-soluble vitamins . (malacards.org)
  • In enzymology, a 3',5'-cyclic-GMP phosphodiesterase (EC 3.1.4.35) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction guanosine 3',5'-cyclic phosphate + H2O ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } guanosine 5'-phosphate Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are guanosine 3',5'-cyclic phosphate and H2O, whereas its product is guanosine 5'-phosphate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Distinct phosphodiesterase 5A-containing compartments allow selective regulation of cGMP-dependent signalling in human arterial smooth muscle cells. (nih.gov)
  • Rhodopsin phosphorylation as a mechanism of cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase regulation by S-modulin. (nih.gov)
  • Bis-(3′-5′)-cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP), first identified as an allosteric activator of cellulose synthase in Gluconacetobacter xylinus ( 40 , 41 , 53 ), has been recognized as an important bacterial second messenger involved in the regulation of a number of processes. (asm.org)
  • This modulation requires cyclic GMP synthesis via nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-NO stimulation, but upstream and downstream mechanisms remain un-defined. (springer.com)
  • We also observed that with an influx of Zn 2+ in the environment, the transcription of the znuAeagA/znuBC gene cluster is regulated by both Zur and a yet to be characterized c-di-GMP dependent pathway. (frontiersin.org)
  • Analysis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa diguanylate cyclases and phosphodiesterases reveals a role for bis-(3'-5')-cyclic-GMP in virulence. (pseudomonas.com)
  • C‐di‐GMP is synthesised by diguanylate cyclases (DGCs) characterised by GGDEF domains, with this amino‐acid motif constituting the active site (A‐site). (embopress.org)
  • Diguanylate cyclases (DGCs) containing a GGDEF domain, named for conserved residues, synthesize c-di-GMP from two GTPs ( 4 , 36 , 43 ). (asm.org)
  • Herein we describe a characterization of the infection-induced gene cdpA , which encodes both GGDEF and EAL domains, which are known to mediate diguanylate cyclase and c-di-GMP phosphodiesterase (PDE) activities, respectively. (asm.org)
  • Trigger enzymes may represent a general principle in local c‐di‐GMP signalling. (embopress.org)
  • Bacterial CCA-adding enzymes, catalyze the addition and repair of the essential 3'-terminal CCA sequence in tRNAs without using a nucleic acid template. (expasy.org)
  • Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 5" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (harvard.edu)
  • less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanThe findings give hints that the cyclic GMP- and cyclic AMP-dependent signal transduction may synergistically work together in regulating muscle tension in the transition zone. (diva-portal.org)
  • To determine the acute effects of type 5 phosphodiesterase inhibition with sildenafil on flow-mediated vasodilation in the brachial artery of patients with chronic heart failure. (onlinejacc.org)
  • Flow-mediated vasodilation after release of 1, 3 and 5 min of transient arterial occlusion was measured in the brachial artery with high resolution two-dimensional ultrasound imaging in 48 patients with chronic heart failure before and 1 h after randomized, double-blind assignment to a single oral dose of sildenafil 12.5, 25 or 50 mg or matching placebo. (onlinejacc.org)
  • Acute type 5 phosphodiesterase inhibition with sildenafil 25 and 50 mg increases endothelium-dependent, flow-mediated vasodilation in patients with chronic heart failure when compared with placebo. (onlinejacc.org)
  • This gene encodes a cGMP-binding, cGMP-specific phosphodiesterase, a member of the cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase family. (nih.gov)
  • We previously reported that hyper-elevation of c-di-GMP levels in E. amylovora Ea1189, resulting from the deletion of all three c-di-GMP specific phosphodiesterase genes (Ea1189Δ pdeABC ), resulted in an autoaggregation phenotype. (frontiersin.org)
  • We report here that the cyclic GMP-inhibited cyclic AMP specific phosphodiesterase (PDE3B) is expressed as a membrane-bound protein in clonal insulin-secreting BRIN-BD11 cells. (strath.ac.uk)
  • Biochemical data suggest the presence of at least one cGMP-specific phosphodiesterase (PDE) that is activated by cGMP. (embl.de)
  • Isolation and characterization of PDE9A, a novel human cGMP-specific phosphodiesterase. (embl.de)
  • Connecting quorum sensing, c-di-GMP, pel polysaccharide, and biofilm formation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa through tyrosine phosphatase TpbA (PA3885). (pseudomonas.com)
  • Importantly, an optimal concentration of 4,5-dihydroxy-2,3-pentanedione (DPD) was critical for maximal biofilm development. (asmscience.org)
  • c‐di‐GMP nearly ubiquitously downregulates bacterial motility and stimulates biofilm formation, that is, the synthesis of bacterial adhesins and extracellular matrix components. (embopress.org)
  • Also, virulence genes involved in acute infections by some pathogenic bacteria are downregulated by c‐di‐GMP, while chronic infections are often associated with high c‐di‐GMP levels and biofilm formation ( Tamayo et al , 2007 ). (embopress.org)
  • Guanosine 3',5'-cyclic phosphate + H 2 O = guanosine 5'-phosphate. (uniprot.org)
  • Guanosine cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate). (hmdb.ca)
  • A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to the sugar moiety in both the 3'- and 5'-positions. (hmdb.ca)
  • An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of cyclic AMP to form adenosine 5'-phosphate. (termsciences.fr)
  • Cumulatively, these results support a model of the V. cholerae life cycle in which c-di-GMP must be down-regulated early after entering the small intestine and maintained at a low level to allow virulence gene expression, colonization, and motility at appropriate stages of infection. (asm.org)
  • Sulindac is a prodrug that is metabolized to a pharmacologically active sulfide derivative that inhibits Cox 3 -1 and Cox-2 activity and thereby inhibits prostaglandin synthesis. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Waldman SA, Murad F. Cyclic GMP synthesis and function. (biovendor.com)
  • 5 Likely, the action of sAC involves cAMP synthesis in a cellular compartment different from that affected by AC1-9. (ahajournals.org)
  • The production of estrogen and at a lower magnitude testosterone by the theca of the growing follicle increases 2 to 3 weeks before the production of the first egg and contributes to the development of reproductive organs and the synthesis of egg constituents [ 1 - 6 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Inactivation of two T4P genes, pilA1 (CD3513) and pilB1 (CD3512), abolished pilus formation and significantly reduced cell aggregation under high c-di-GMP conditions. (asm.org)
  • This list of 582 genes contains 12 proteases and 3 antiproteases. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We have created cyclic di-GMP level reporters by transcriptionally fusing the cyclic di-GMP-responsive cdrA promoter to genes encoding green fluorescent protein. (asm.org)
  • Guvener ZT, Harwood CS (2007) Subcellular location characteristics of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa GGDEF protein, WspR, indicate that it produces cyclic-di-GMP in response to growth on surfaces. (springer.com)
  • Abbau von c-di-GMP wird von Diguanylatzyklasen (DGC) mit GGDEF-Domänen bzw. (hu-berlin.de)
  • In S. venezuelae, einem Modellorganismus der Streptomyceten, konnten zehn potenziell c-di-GMP metabolisierende Enzyme identifiziert werden, von welchen mit RmdA und RmdB zwei GGDEF-EAL-Tandem-Proteine im Fokus dieser Arbeit stehen. (hu-berlin.de)
  • 2015. Identification and characterization of phosphodiesterases that specifically degrade 3'3'-cyclic GMP-AMP. (invivogen.com)
  • Recent evidence shows that the protein domain HD-GYP can also degrade c-di-GMP ( 42 ). (asm.org)
  • Bis-(3′,5′)-cyclic dimeric GMP (c-di-GMP) is a soluble molecule that functions as a second messenger in bacteria ( 1 ). (asm.org)
  • This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as 3',5'-cyclic purine nucleotides. (hmdb.ca)
  • We found that sulindac sulfone and two potent derivatives, CP248 and CP461, inhibited the cyclic GMP (cGMP) phosphodiesterases (PDE) 2 and 5 in human colon cells, and these compounds caused rapid and sustained activation of the c-Jun NH 2 -terminal kinase 1 (JNK1). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Further research shows that two compounds, 3'5' cyclic AMP and NH3, can affect the course of morphogenesis in D. discoideum. (elsevier.com)
  • The engineered bioflocs also improved E. coli tolerance to other toxic compounds such as furfural, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, and guaiacol. (springer.com)
  • Phosphodiesterase 5 Inhibition Limits Doxorubicin-induced Heart Failure by Attenuating Protein Kinase G Ia Oxidation. (harvard.edu)
  • Effect of cyclic GMP-increasing agents nitric oxide and C-type natriuretic peptide on bovine chromaffin cell function: inhibitory role mediated by cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase. (aspetjournals.org)
  • We therefore evaluated the role of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and p42/p44 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p42/p44 MAPK) pathways in regulating this enzyme. (strath.ac.uk)
  • The PDE2 (phosphodiesterase 2) enzyme is one of 21 different phosphodiesterases (PDE) found in mammals . (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been shown that PDE2 lowers cAMP through increased cGMP caused by atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) resulting in decreased aldosterone secretion (See review article [3] ). (wikipedia.org)
  • Phosphodiesterase type 5 in men with vasculogenic and post-radical prostatectomy erectile dysfunction: is there a molecular difference? (nih.gov)
  • Type 5 phosphodiesterase regulates glioblastoma multiforme aggressiveness and clinical outcome. (nih.gov)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 5" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 5" was a major or minor topic of these publication. (harvard.edu)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 5" by people in Profiles. (harvard.edu)
  • Upregulation of Phosphodiesterase type 5 in the Hyperplastic Prostate. (harvard.edu)
  • In this work, we investigated the role of the primary type IV pilus (T4P) locus in c-di-GMP-dependent cell aggregation. (asm.org)
  • Among those effectors, PilZ was first identified in silico as a putative c-di-GMP binding domain (Pfam 07238) based on the BcsA1 protein of Acetobacter xylinus ( 22 ) and named after the type IV pilus control protein from Pseudomonas aeruginosa ( 23 ). (asm.org)
  • Representatives of the six complementation groups previously identified ( stmA-stmF ) were found to be similar to the parental wild-type strain XP55 in both the extent and timing of their ability to initiate and relay chemotactic signals and in the formation of cyclic AMP receptors and phosphodiesterases. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Due to its linear conformation, 5'-pApA is intended to serve as a negative control for c-di-AMP in type I IFN induction assays. (invivogen.com)
  • Another is the expression of phosphodiesterase type 5 in the hypertrophied right ventricle. (ersjournals.com)
  • YfiBNR mediates cyclic di-GMP dependent small colony variant formation and persistence in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. (pseudomonas.com)
  • Photon absorption triggers a signaling cascade in rod photoreceptors that activates cGMP phosphodiesterase (PDE), resulting in the rapid hydrolysis of cGMP, closure of cGMP-gated cation channels, and hyperpolarization of the cell. (genecards.org)
  • Our search identified a peptidoglycan hydrolase, specifically, a D, D-endopeptidase of the metallopeptidase class, EagA ( E rwinia ag gregation factor A), that was found to physiologically contribute to autoaggregation in a c-di-GMP dependent manner. (frontiersin.org)
  • 1994 Dec 30;205(3):1850-8. (nih.gov)
  • Cyclic nucleotide analogs used to study phosphodiesterase catalytic and allosteric sites. (ac.be)
  • Functional co-assembly among subunits of cyclic-nucleotide-activated, nonselective cation channels, and across species from nematode to human. (guidetopharmacology.org)
  • Here, we show that sulindac sulfide (SS) induces apoptosis and inhibits the growth of human breast tumor cells with IC 50 values of 60 to 85 μmol/L. Within the same concentration range, SS inhibited cyclic GMP (cGMP) hydrolysis in tumor cell lysates but did not affect cyclic AMP hydrolysis. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Also RmdA has an influence on the global cellular c-di-GMP concentration during the transition from the vegetative to the reproductive growth phase. (hu-berlin.de)
  • Cyclic 3′,5′-AMP relay in Dictyostelium discoideum. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • A separate phosphodiesterase for the hydrolysis of cGMP in growing Dictyostelium discoideum amoebae. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Cyclic AMP controlled oscillations in suspended Dictyostelium cells: their relation to morphogenetic cell interactions. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Identification and characterization of DdPDE3, a cGMP-selective phosphodiesterase from Dictyostelium. (embl.de)
  • Specificity of cGMP binding to a purified cGMP-stimulated phosphodiesterase from bovine adrenal tissue. (ac.be)