Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of CYCLIC AMP to form adenosine 5'-phosphate. The enzymes are widely distributed in animal tissue and control the level of intracellular cyclic AMP. Many specific enzymes classified under this heading demonstrate additional spcificity for 3',5'-cyclic IMP and CYCLIC GMP.
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
A cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase subfamily that is found predominantly in inflammatory cells and may play a role in the regulation of CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. The enzyme family includes over twenty different variants that occur due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of the mRNA of at least four different genes.
A cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase subfamily that is inhibited by the binding of CYCLIC GMP to an allosteric domain found on the enzyme and through phosphorylation by regulatory kinases such as PROTEIN KINASE A and PROTEIN KINASE B. The two members of this family are referred to as type 3A, and type 3B, and are each product of a distinct gene. In addition multiple enzyme variants of each subtype can be produced due to multiple alternative mRNA splicing.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of one of the two ester bonds in a phosphodiester compound. EC 3.1.4.
A CALCIUM and CALMODULIN-dependent cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase subfamily. The three members of this family are referred to as type 1A, type 1B, and type 1C and are each product of a distinct gene. In addition, multiple enzyme variants of each subtype can be produced due to multiple alternative mRNA splicing. Although the type 1 enzymes are classified as 3',5'-cyclic-AMP phosphodiesterases (EC 3.1.4.17), some members of this class have additional specificity for CYCLIC GMP.
A cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase subfamily that is activated by the binding of CYCLIC GMP to an allosteric domain found on the enzyme. Multiple enzyme variants of this subtype can be produced due to multiple alternative mRNA splicing. The subfamily is expressed in a broad variety of tissues and may play a role in mediating cross-talk between CYCLIC GMP and CYCLIC CMP pathways. Although the type 2 enzymes are classified as 3',5'-cyclic-AMP phosphodiesterases (EC 3.1.4.17), members of this class have additional specificity for CYCLIC GMP.
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of cyclic GMP to yield guanosine-5'-phosphate.
Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or actions of phosphodiesterases.
Nucleoside-2',3'-cyclic phosphate nucleotidohydrolase. Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of the 2'- or 3'- phosphate bonds of 2',3'-cyclic nucleotides. Also hydrolyzes nucleoside monophosphates. Includes EC 3.1.4.16 and EC 3.1.4.37. EC 3.1.4.-.
A cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase subfamily that is highly specific for CYCLIC GMP. It is found predominantly in vascular tissue and plays an important role in regulating VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE contraction.
A phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor with antidepressant properties.
Guanosine cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to the sugar moiety in both the 3'- and 5'-positions. It is a cellular regulatory agent and has been described as a second messenger. Its levels increase in response to a variety of hormones, including acetylcholine, insulin, and oxytocin and it has been found to activate specific protein kinases. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase subfamily that is highly specific for CYCLIC AMP. Several isoforms of the enzyme type exist, each with its own tissue localization. The isoforms are encoded by at least two genes and are a product of multiple alternative splicing of their mRNAs.
A potent cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase inhibitor; due to this action, the compound increases cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP in tissue and thereby activates CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE-REGULATED PROTEIN KINASES
Cyclic nucleotides are closed-chain molecules formed from nucleotides (ATP or GTP) through the action of enzymes called cyclases, functioning as second messengers in various cellular signaling pathways, with cAMP and cGMP being the most prominent members.
'Purines' is a term used in medical biochemistry to refer to naturally occurring heterocyclic aromatic organic compounds, which include adenine and guanine (components of nucleotides and nucleic acids), and are formed in the body from purine bases through various metabolic processes.

3',5'-Cyclic-AMP (cyclic adenosine monophosphate) phosphodiesterases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the breakdown of cyclic AMP to 5'-AMP. These enzymes play a crucial role in regulating the levels of intracellular second messengers, such as cyclic AMP, which are involved in various cellular signaling pathways.

There are several subtypes of phosphodiesterases (PDEs) that specifically target cyclic AMP, including PDE1, PDE2, PDE3, PDE4, PDE7, PDE8, and PDE10. Each subtype has distinct regulatory and catalytic properties, allowing for specific regulation of cyclic AMP levels in different cellular compartments and signaling pathways.

Inhibition of these enzymes can lead to an increase in intracellular cyclic AMP levels, which can have therapeutic effects in various diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, pulmonary hypertension, and central nervous system disorders. Therefore, PDE inhibitors are a valuable class of drugs for the treatment of these conditions.

Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is a key secondary messenger in many biological processes, including the regulation of metabolism, gene expression, and cellular excitability. It is synthesized from adenosine triphosphate (ATP) by the enzyme adenylyl cyclase and is degraded by the enzyme phosphodiesterase.

In the body, cAMP plays a crucial role in mediating the effects of hormones and neurotransmitters on target cells. For example, when a hormone binds to its receptor on the surface of a cell, it can activate a G protein, which in turn activates adenylyl cyclase to produce cAMP. The increased levels of cAMP then activate various effector proteins, such as protein kinases, which go on to regulate various cellular processes.

Overall, the regulation of cAMP levels is critical for maintaining proper cellular function and homeostasis, and abnormalities in cAMP signaling have been implicated in a variety of diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and neurological disorders.

Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDEs) are a family of enzymes that regulate intracellular levels of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), which are important second messengers involved in various cellular processes.

Type 4 phosphodiesterases (PDE4) specifically hydrolyze cAMP and play a crucial role in regulating its intracellular concentration. PDE4 is widely expressed in many tissues, including the brain, heart, lungs, and immune system. It is involved in various physiological functions such as smooth muscle relaxation, neurotransmission, and inflammation.

PDE4 inhibitors have been developed as therapeutic agents for a variety of diseases, including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and depression. These drugs work by increasing intracellular cAMP levels, which can lead to bronchodilation, anti-inflammatory effects, and mood regulation. However, PDE4 inhibitors may also have side effects such as nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea, which limit their clinical use.

Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDEs) are a family of enzymes that regulate intracellular levels of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), which are important second messengers involved in various cellular processes.

Type 3 PDEs, also known as PDE3, are a subtype of this enzyme family that specifically hydrolyze cAMP and cGMP. They are widely expressed in various tissues, including the heart, vascular smooth muscle, platelets, and adipose tissue.

PDE3 plays a crucial role in regulating cardiovascular function, lipolysis, and insulin sensitivity. Inhibition of PDE3 has been shown to have positive inotropic and vasodilatory effects, making it a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of heart failure and pulmonary hypertension. Additionally, PDE3 inhibitors have been used as antiplatelet agents to prevent thrombosis.

There are two isoforms of PDE3, PDE3A and PDE3B, which differ in their tissue distribution and regulatory mechanisms. PDE3A is primarily expressed in the heart and vascular smooth muscle, while PDE3B is found in adipose tissue and insulin-sensitive cells.

Overall, the regulation of intracellular cAMP and cGMP levels by PDE3 plays a critical role in maintaining cardiovascular function, metabolism, and hemostasis.

Phosphoric diester hydrolases are a class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of phosphoric diester bonds. These enzymes are also known as phosphatases or nucleotidases. They play important roles in various biological processes, such as signal transduction, metabolism, and regulation of cellular activities.

Phosphoric diester hydrolases can be further classified into several subclasses based on their substrate specificity and catalytic mechanism. For example, alkaline phosphatases (ALPs) are a group of phosphoric diester hydrolases that preferentially hydrolyze phosphomonoester bonds in a variety of organic molecules, releasing phosphate ions and alcohols. On the other hand, nucleotidases are a subclass of phosphoric diester hydrolases that specifically hydrolyze the phosphodiester bonds in nucleotides, releasing nucleosides and phosphate ions.

Overall, phosphoric diester hydrolases are essential for maintaining the balance of various cellular processes by regulating the levels of phosphorylated molecules and nucleotides.

Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDEs) are a family of enzymes that regulate intracellular levels of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), which are important second messengers involved in various cellular processes.

Type 1 PDEs (PDE1A, PDE1B, PDE1C) are calcium/calmodulin-regulated enzymes that hydrolyze both cAMP and cGMP with similar catalytic efficiency. They play a crucial role in the regulation of vascular smooth muscle contraction, platelet aggregation, and neuronal excitability.

Dysregulation of PDE1 activity has been implicated in various pathological conditions, including hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, and neurological disorders. Therefore, PDE1 inhibitors have emerged as potential therapeutic agents for the treatment of these conditions.

Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDEs) are a family of enzymes that regulate intracellular levels of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), which are important second messengers involved in various cellular processes.

Type 2 phosphodiesterases (PDE2) are a subtype of this family that specifically hydrolyze both cAMP and cGMP to their respective 5'-monophosphates, thereby reducing their intracellular concentrations. PDE2 enzymes are widely expressed in various tissues, including the brain, heart, and vasculature, where they play important roles in regulating signal transduction pathways.

PDE2 enzymes are composed of two regulatory subunits and one catalytic subunit, which contains the active site for phosphodiesterase activity. The regulatory subunits can bind to cGMP, leading to an increase in PDE2 activity towards both cAMP and cGMP. This unique property of PDE2 enzymes allows them to act as coincidence detectors that integrate signals from multiple second messenger pathways.

Inhibition of PDE2 has been shown to have therapeutic potential in various diseases, including cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative disorders, and cancer. For example, PDE2 inhibitors have been shown to improve cardiac function, protect against ischemic injury, and enhance cognitive function in animal models. However, further research is needed to fully understand the therapeutic potential of PDE2 inhibition and its potential side effects.

3',5'-Cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) phosphodiesterases are a group of enzymes that play a role in regulating the levels of cGMP, an important intracellular signaling molecule involved in various biological processes. These enzymes catalyze the hydrolysis of cGMP to 5'-GMP, thereby terminating cGMP-mediated signals within cells.

There are several isoforms of cGMP phosphodiesterases, which differ in their regulatory properties, substrate specificity, and cellular distribution. These enzymes can be activated or inhibited by various factors, including drugs, hormones, and neurotransmitters, and play a crucial role in modulating the activity of cGMP-dependent signaling pathways in different tissues and organs.

Dysregulation of cGMP phosphodiesterase activity has been implicated in various diseases, including cardiovascular disorders, pulmonary hypertension, neurodegenerative diseases, and cancer. Therefore, these enzymes are considered important targets for the development of novel therapeutic strategies for the treatment of these conditions.

Phosphodiesterase inhibitors (PDE inhibitors) are a class of drugs that work by blocking the action of phosphodiesterase enzymes, which are responsible for breaking down cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), two crucial intracellular signaling molecules.

By inhibiting these enzymes, PDE inhibitors increase the concentration of cAMP and cGMP in the cells, leading to a variety of effects depending on the specific type of PDE enzyme that is inhibited. These drugs have been used in the treatment of various medical conditions such as erectile dysfunction, pulmonary arterial hypertension, and heart failure.

Examples of PDE inhibitors include sildenafil (Viagra), tadalafil (Cialis), vardenafil (Levitra) for erectile dysfunction, and iloprost, treprostinil, and sildenafil for pulmonary arterial hypertension. It's important to note that different PDE inhibitors have varying levels of selectivity for specific PDE isoforms, which can result in different therapeutic effects and side effect profiles.

2,3'-Cyclic-nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDEs) are a subclass of enzymes that belong to the family of phosphodiesterases. These enzymes are responsible for the hydrolysis of 2,3'-cyclic nucleotides, which are cyclic forms of nucleotides that act as second messengers in various cellular signaling pathways.

The two primary types of 2,3'-cyclic nucleotides are 2',3'-cGMP and 2',3'-cAMP, which are produced by the action of certain enzymes on their respective precursors, guanosine triphosphate (GTP) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP). These cyclic nucleotides play important roles in regulating various cellular processes, including metabolism, gene expression, and ion channel activity.

2,3'-Cyclic-nucleotide phosphodiesterases catalyze the hydrolysis of these cyclic nucleotides to their corresponding 5'-monophosphates, thereby terminating their signaling activity. There are several isoforms of 2,3'-cyclic-nucleotide PDEs that have been identified, each with distinct substrate specificities and regulatory properties.

Dysregulation of 2,3'-cyclic-nucleotide PDE activity has been implicated in various diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and neurological disorders. Therefore, these enzymes have emerged as important targets for the development of therapeutic agents that can modulate their activity and restore normal cellular function.

Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDEs) are a family of enzymes that regulate intracellular levels of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) by catalyzing the hydrolysis of these second messenger molecules to their inactive forms. These signaling molecules play crucial roles in various cellular processes, including smooth muscle relaxation, cardiac contractility, and neurotransmission.

Type 5 PDEs (PDE5) are a subtype of this enzyme family that specifically hydrolyze cGMP. They are widely distributed in various tissues, including vascular smooth muscle, lung, platelets, and the corpus cavernosum of the penis. PDE5 is particularly important in the regulation of smooth muscle relaxation in the corpus cavernosum, where it plays a key role in the physiological response to sexual stimulation leading to penile erection.

PDE5 inhibitors, such as sildenafil (Viagra), tadalafil (Cialis), and vardenafil (Levitra), are commonly used to treat erectile dysfunction by increasing cGMP levels in the corpus cavernosum, thereby promoting smooth muscle relaxation and enhancing blood flow to the penis. These medications have also been investigated for their potential therapeutic benefits in other conditions, such as pulmonary arterial hypertension and benign prostatic hyperplasia.

Rolipram is not a medical term per se, but it is the name of a pharmaceutical compound. Rolipram is a selective inhibitor of phosphodiesterase-4 (PDE4), an enzyme that plays a role in regulating the body's inflammatory response and is involved in various cellular signaling pathways.

Rolipram has been investigated as a potential therapeutic agent for several medical conditions, including depression, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and Alzheimer's disease. However, its development as a drug has been hindered by issues related to its pharmacokinetics, such as poor bioavailability and a short half-life, as well as side effects like nausea and emesis.

Therefore, while Rolipram is an important compound in the field of pharmacology and has contributed significantly to our understanding of PDE4's role in various physiological processes, it is not typically used as a medical term to describe a specific disease or condition.

Cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) is a important second messenger molecule that plays a crucial role in various biological processes within the human body. It is synthesized from guanosine triphosphate (GTP) by the enzyme guanylyl cyclase.

Cyclic GMP is involved in regulating diverse physiological functions, such as smooth muscle relaxation, cardiovascular function, and neurotransmission. It also plays a role in modulating immune responses and cellular growth and differentiation.

In the medical field, changes in cGMP levels or dysregulation of cGMP-dependent pathways have been implicated in various disease states, including pulmonary hypertension, heart failure, erectile dysfunction, and glaucoma. Therefore, pharmacological agents that target cGMP signaling are being developed as potential therapeutic options for these conditions.

Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDEs) are a family of enzymes that play a crucial role in regulating intracellular levels of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), which are important second messengers involved in various cellular processes.

Type 7 PDEs, also known as PDE7, is a subtype of the PDE family that specifically hydrolyzes cAMP. PDE7 is primarily expressed in hematopoietic cells, including T lymphocytes, monocytes, and natural killer (NK) cells, and plays a critical role in regulating immune cell functions.

PDE7 has two isoforms, PDE7A and PDE7B, which are encoded by different genes but share similar structures and functions. These isoforms are differentially expressed in various tissues and cells, with PDE7A being more abundant in T lymphocytes and monocytes, while PDE7B is predominantly expressed in NK cells.

Inhibition of PDE7 has been shown to enhance cAMP signaling and modulate immune cell functions, suggesting that PDE7 inhibitors may have therapeutic potential for the treatment of various inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, as well as cancer.

1-Methyl-3-isobutylxanthine is a chemical compound that belongs to the class of xanthines. It is a methylated derivative of xanthine and is commonly found in some types of tea, coffee, and chocolate. This compound acts as a non-selective phosphodiesterase inhibitor, which means it can increase the levels of intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP) by preventing its breakdown.

In medical terms, 1-Methyl-3-isobutylxanthine is often used as a bronchodilator and a stimulant of central nervous system. It is also known to have diuretic properties. This compound is sometimes used in the treatment of asthma, COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), and other respiratory disorders.

It's important to note that 1-Methyl-3-isobutylxanthine can have side effects, including increased heart rate, blood pressure, and anxiety. It should be used under the supervision of a medical professional and its use should be carefully monitored to avoid potential adverse reactions.

Cyclic nucleotides are formed by the intramolecular phosphoester bond between the phosphate group and the hydroxyl group at the 3'-carbon atom of the ribose sugar in a nucleotide. This creates a cyclic structure, specifically a cyclic phosphate. The most common cyclic nucleotides are cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP). These molecules function as second messengers in cells, playing crucial roles in various cellular signaling pathways related to metabolism, gene expression, and cell differentiation. The levels of cAMP and cGMP are tightly regulated by the activities of enzymes such as adenylate cyclase and guanylate cyclase for their synthesis, and phosphodiesterases for their degradation.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Purinones" is not a recognized term in medical terminology. It seems there might be a spelling mistake or a misunderstanding of the term. If you meant "purines," I can provide a definition for that. Purines are heterocyclic aromatic organic compounds that form the basis of several important biomolecules, such as nucleotides and their derivatives found in DNA and RNA. If you had something different in mind, please provide clarification so I can give you an accurate and helpful response.

... cyclic-AMP phosphodiesterase (EC 3.1.4.53, cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase, cAMP-specific PDE, PDE1, PDE2A, PDE2B, PDE4, PDE7, ... cyclic-AMP+phosphodiesterase at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Portal: Biology (Articles ... Johner A, Kunz S, Linder M, Shakur Y, Seebeck T (March 2006). "Cyclic nucleotide specific phosphodiesterases of Leishmania ... cyclic phosphate + H2O ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } AMP This enzyme requires Mg2+ or Mn2+ for activity. Alonso GD, ...
Cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase". Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 334: 368-377. doi:10.1016/0005-2744(74)90180-6. Portal: ... phosphate phosphodiesterase, cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase, cyclic 3′,5′-GMP phosphodiesterase, cyclic guanosine 3′,5′- ... phosphate phosphodiesterase, cGMP phosphodiesterase, cGMP-PDE, and cyclic guanosine 3′,5′-phosphate phosphodiesterase. As of ... cyclic-GMP phosphodiesterase (EC 3.1.4.35) catalyzes the reaction guanosine 3′,5′-cyclic phosphate + H2O ⇌ {\displaystyle \ ...
Effects of phosphodiesterase 10 inhibition on striatal cyclic AMP and peripheral physiology in rats; An Torremans, Abdellah ... 2001). "Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases". The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. 108 (5): 671-80. doi:10.1067/mai ... A phosphodiesterase inhibitor is a drug that blocks one or more of the five subtypes of the enzyme phosphodiesterase (PDE), ... Fertel R, Weiss B (1976). "Properties and drug responsiveness of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases of rat lung". Mol. ...
... cyclic-AMP and -GMP phosphodiesterase 11A is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PDE11A gene. The 3',5'-cyclic ... Yuasa K, Ohgaru T, Asahina M, Omori K (2001). "Identification of rat cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase 11A (PDE11A): ... Beavo JA, Conti M, Heaslip RJ (1994). "Multiple cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases". Mol. Pharmacol. 46 (3): 399-405. PMID ... cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase 11A: localization in human tissues". Int. J. Impot. Res. 17 (4): 320-5. doi:10.1038/sj.ijir ...
... and it is long-acting because it is resistant to degradation by cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase. 8-Bromoguanosine 3',5'-cyclic ... is a brominated derivative of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). 8-Br-cAMP is an activator of cyclic AMP-dependent protein ... cyclic monophosphate at Sigma-Aldrich 8-Bromo Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate at PubChem (Articles without InChI source, ...
cAMP's role in this process terminates upon hydrolysis to AMP by phosphodiesterase. Cyclic nucleotides are well-suited to act ... The two most well-studied cyclic nucleotides are cyclic AMP (cAMP) and cyclic GMP (cGMP), while cyclic CMP (cCMP) and cyclic ... where it stimulates a protein kinase called cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase. By phosphorylating proteins, cyclic AMP- ... Lincoln, TM; Cornwell TL (1991). "Towards an understanding of the mechanism of action of cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP in smooth ...
... cyclic-AMP phosphodiesterase Phosphodiesterase (PDE) PDE4 inhibitor This set index article lists chemical compounds articles ... At least four types of the enzyme phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) are known: PDE4A PDE4B PDE4C PDE4D 3',5'- ...
"Ontogenetic development of a phosphodiesterase activator and the multiple forms of cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase of rat brain". ... A phosphodiesterase (PDE) is an enzyme that breaks a phosphodiester bond. Usually, phosphodiesterase refers to cyclic ... "Differential activation and inhibition of the multiple forms of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase". Advances in Cyclic ... as well as numerous less-well-characterized small-molecule phosphodiesterases. The cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases ...
Winchurch, R., Hait, W. and Weiss, B.: Cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase activity of murine T and B lymphocytes. Cell. Immunol. 41: ... PMID 4370207 Uzunov, P., Shein, H.M. and Weiss, B.: Cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase in cloned astrocytoma cells: norepinephrine ... Strada, S.J. and Weiss, B.: Increased response to catecholamines of the cyclic AMP system of rat pineal gland induced by ... He is best known for his work with cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases. He was the first to propose, based on his experimental ...
Direct smooth muscle relaxation is achieved by inhibiting phosphodiesterase type IV, which leads to increased cyclic AMP and ... 5). "Camylofin". PubChem. Retrieved 2019-06-02. Sarbhjit K, Bajwa SK, Parmjit K, Surinder B (September 2013). "To compare the ... 123-51-3] gives 3-methylbutyl bromo(phenyl)acetate [92018-48-9] (3). Alkylation with N,N-Diethylethylenediamine [100-36-7] (4) ...
Chapter 33 in Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases in Health and Disease, Eds Joseph A. Beavo et al. CRC Press, Dec 5, 2006 ... Hannila SS, Filbin MT (Feb 2008). "The role of cyclic AMP signaling in promoting axonal regeneration after spinal cord injury ... Nov 2012). "Phosphodiesterases as therapeutic targets for Alzheimer's disease". ACS Chem Neurosci. 3 (11): 832-44. doi:10.1021/ ... Apr 2013). "Phosphodiesterase 4-targeted treatments for autoimmune diseases". BMC Med. 11 (1): 96. doi:10.1186/1741-7015-11-96 ...
Denis D, Riendeau D (February 1999). "Phosphodiesterase 4-dependent regulation of cyclic AMP levels and leukotriene B4 ... Phosphodiesterase inhibitor David J. Triggle (1996). Dictionary of Pharmacological Agents. Boca Raton: Chapman & Hall/CRC. ISBN ... Osinski MT, Schrör K (August 2000). "Inhibition of platelet-derived growth factor-induced mitogenesis by phosphodiesterase 3 ... 367 (2-3): 343-50. doi:10.1016/S0014-2999(98)00987-X. PMID 10079010. Media related to Quazinone at Wikimedia Commons (Articles ...
PDE4 hydrolyzes cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) to inactive adenosine monophosphate (AMP). Inhibition of PDE4 blocks ... Moustafa, F; Feldman, SR (16 May 2014). "A Review of Phosphodiesterase-Inhibition and the Potential Role for Phosphodiesterase ... is a drug used to block the degradative action of phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) on cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). It is a ... "Functional and biochemical evidence for diazepam as a cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase type 4 inhibitor". British Journal of ...
Cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP) is a cyclic dinucleotide (CDN) and the first to be found in metazoans. Other CDNs (c-di-GMP and c-di-AMP ... phosphodiesterases. Other advantages of the unique 2'-5' linkage may be that cGAMP is able to bind multiple allelic variants of ... Upon binding DNA, the protein cyclic GMP-AMP Synthase (cGAS) triggers reaction of GTP and ATP to form cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP). ... specifically by the cyclic-GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS). Upon DNA recognition, cGAS dimerizes and stimulates the formation of cyclic ...
Zhang HT (2009). "Cyclic AMP-specific phosphodiesterase-4 as a target for the development of antidepressant drugs". Current ... Némoz G, Zhang R, Sette C, Conti M (Apr 1996). "Identification of cyclic AMP-phosphodiesterase variants from the PDE4D gene ... "Cyclic AMP-dependent transcriptional up-regulation of phosphodiesterase 4D5 in human airway smooth muscle cells. Identification ... "Isolation of a cDNA encoding a human rolipram-sensitive cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase (PDE IVD)". Gene. 138 (1-2): 253-6. doi: ...
... for instance a bond in a molecule of cyclic AMP or cyclic GMP. An enzyme that plays an important role in the repair of ... Phosphodiesterase Phosphodiesterase inhibitor DNA replication, DNA, ATP Teichoic acid, DNase I PDE5 Nick (DNA) "Phosphodiester ... A phosphodiesterase is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphodiester bonds, ... Hydrolysis of phosphodiester bonds is catalyzed by phosphodiesterases, which are involved in repairing DNA sequences. The ...
... cyclic AMP 3′,5′-cyclic dAMP 3′,5′-cyclic IMP 3′,5′-cyclic GMP 3′,5′-cyclic CMP There are 11 distinct phosphodiesterase ... cyclic-nucleotide phosphodiesterases (EC 3.1.4.17) are a family of phosphodiesterases. Generally, these enzymes hydrolyze a ... monophosphate phosphodiesterase (cyclic CMP), cyclic 3′,5-nucleotide monophosphate phosphodiesterase, nucleoside 3′,5′-cyclic ... Kroll S, Phillips WJ, Cerione RA (March 1989). "The regulation of the cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase by the GDP-bound form of the ...
cAMP decomposition into AMP is catalyzed by the enzyme phosphodiesterase. cAMP is a second messenger, used for intracellular ... such as cyclic adenosine monophosphate, cyclic AMP). Cyclic AMP is synthesized from ATP by adenylate cyclase located on the ... Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP, cyclic AMP, or 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate) is a second messenger, or cellular ... Since cyclic AMP is a second messenger and plays vital role in cell signalling, it has been implicated in various disorders but ...
"Purification to homogeneity and general properties of a novel phosphodiesterase hydrolyzing cyclic CMP and cyclic AMP". The ... Nov 2003). "Structural evidence that brain cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase is a member of the 2H phosphodiesterase ... "A homogeneous cyclic CMP phosphodiesterase hydrolyzes both pyrimidine and purine cyclic 2':3'- and 3':5'-nucleotides". The ... selectively activates the calcium-calmodulin sensitive isoform of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase from human myometrium". ...
Lugnier, C. (2006). "Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDE) superfamily: A new target for the development of specific ... into AMP and GMP. These second messengers control many physiological processes. The cAMP is formed from ATP by the enzyme ... Their function is to degrade intracellular second messengers such as cyclic adenine monophosphate (cAMP) and cyclic guanosine ... Phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) is widely expressed in several tissues in the body for example brain, lung, kidney, urinary bladder ...
Phosphodiesterase (PDE) enzymes degrade cyclic di-AMP to the linear molecule 5'-pApA (phosphadenylyl adenosine). 5'-pApA is ... Cyclic di-AMP (also called c-di-AMP and c-di-adenosine monophosphate) is a second messenger used in signal transduction in ... Cyclic di-AMP has also been linked to bacterial RNA synthesis inhibition. c-di-AMP stimulates the production of (p)ppGpp, an ... At high concentrations, cyclic di-AMP binds to receptor and target proteins to control specific pathways. Elevated c-di-AMP ...
Holden CA, Chan SC, Norris S, Hanifin JM (October 1987). "Histamine induced elevation of cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase activity ... affects intracellular messaging including downstream signaling accomplished through various intermediaries such as cyclic AMP, ... cyclic GMP, calcium, and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), a ubiquitous transcription factor thought to play an important role in ... 109 (3): 524-531. doi:10.1067/mai.2002.121944. PMID 11898002. Idzko M, la Sala A, Ferrari D, Panther E, Herouy Y, Dichmann S, ...
The activated OR in turn activates the intracellular G-protein, GOLF (GNAL), adenylate cyclase and production of cyclic AMP ( ... CaMKII will also activate phosphodiesterase, which will then hydrolyze cAMP. The effect of this negative feedback response ... "Molecular cloning and characterization of a calmodulin-dependent phosphodiesterase enriched in olfactory sensory neurons". Proc ... 21 (3): 495-504. doi:10.1016/s0896-6273(00)80561-9. PMID 9768837. S2CID 9860137. Yan, C; Zhao, AZ; Bentley, JK; Loughney, K; ...
... phosphodiesterase * EC 3.1.4.59: cyclic-di-AMP phosphodiesterase * EC 3.1.4.60: pApA phosphodiesterase * EC 3.1.4.61: cyclic 2, ... cyclic-AMP phosphodiesterase EC 3.1.4.54: N-acetylphosphatidylethanolamine-hydrolysing phospholipase D EC 3.1.4.55: ... CMP-N-acylneuraminate phosphodiesterase EC 3.1.4.41: sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase D EC 3.1.4.42: glycerol-1,2-cyclic- ... cyclic phosphate phosphodiesterase EC 3.1.4.57: phosphoribosyl 1,2-cyclic phosphate 1,2-diphosphodiesterase * EC 3.1.4.58: RNA ...
This gene is a member of the type IV, cyclic AMP (cAMP)-specific, cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDE) family. Cyclic ... The cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDEs) regulate the cellular concentrations of cyclic nucleotides and thereby play a ... "The cDNA of a human lymphocyte cyclic-AMP phosphodiesterase (PDE IV) reveals a multigene family". Gene. 129 (2): 239-47. doi: ... "Entrez Gene: PDE4B phosphodiesterase 4B, cAMP-specific (phosphodiesterase E4 dunce homolog, Drosophila)". Swerdlow, Neal R. ( ...
Dransfield DT, Bradford AJ, Smith J, Martin M, Roy C, Mangeat PH, Goldenring JR (Jan 1997). "Ezrin is a cyclic AMP-dependent ... "mAKAP assembles a protein kinase A/PDE4 phosphodiesterase cAMP signaling module". The EMBO Journal. 20 (8): 1921-30. doi: ... Beebe SJ, Salomonsky P, Holroyd C, Becker D (Dec 1993). "Differential expression of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase ... "Phosphorylation of the type-II regulatory subunit of cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase by glycogen synthase kinase 3 and ...
Jones GH, Venuti MC, Alvarez R, Bruno JJ, Berks AH, Prince A (February 1987). "Inhibitors of cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase. 1. ... The exact mechanism of action is unclear, although it is known to be a phosphodiesterase inhibitor. It is a potent (IC50 = 36nM ... inhibitor of phosphodiesterase-II.[citation needed] It inhibits PDE-3 and phospholipase A2. Condensation of benzyl chloride 1 ... Phosphodiesterase inhibitors, Imidazoquinazolines, Lactams, Chloroarenes, Takeda Pharmaceutical Company brands). ...
... cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase and localization of the gene to the p13.2-q12 region of human chromosome 19 [corrected]" (PDF). ... "The human cyclic AMP-specific phosphodiesterase PDE-46 (HSPDE4A4B) expressed in transfected COS7 cells occurs as both ... rolipram-sensitive cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase". Molecular and Cellular Biology. 10 (6): 2678-86. doi:10.1128/MCB.10.6.2678. ... cyclic AMP specific phosphodiesterase (hPDE-IVA-h6.1)". Cellular Signalling. 6 (7): 793-812. doi:10.1016/0898-6568(94)00039-5. ...
1975). "Biologic regulation through opposing influences of cyclic GMP and cyclic AMP: the Yin Yang hypothesis". Adv Cyclic ... van Calker D, Müller M, Hamprecht B (1978). "Adenosine inhibits the accumulation of cyclic AMP in cultured brain cells". Nature ... June 1997). "cGMP-stimulated cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase regulates the basal calcium current in human atrial myocytes ... Bender AT, Beavo JA (September 2006). "Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases: molecular regulation to clinical use". Pharmacol. ...
... but an inhibition of the enzyme phosphodiesterase causing elevation of cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP[clarification needed] levels ... Papaverine has also been demonstrated to be a selective phosphodiesterase inhibitor for the PDE10A subtype found mainly in the ... August 2006). "Inhibition of the striatum-enriched phosphodiesterase PDE10A: a novel approach to the treatment of psychosis". ... Hebb AL, Robertson HA, Denovan-Wright EM (May 2008). "Phosphodiesterase 10A inhibition is associated with locomotor and ...
... cyclic-AMP phosphodiesterase (EC 3.1.4.53, cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase, cAMP-specific PDE, PDE1, PDE2A, PDE2B, PDE4, PDE7, ... cyclic-AMP+phosphodiesterase at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Portal: Biology (Articles ... Johner A, Kunz S, Linder M, Shakur Y, Seebeck T (March 2006). "Cyclic nucleotide specific phosphodiesterases of Leishmania ... cyclic phosphate + H2O ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } AMP This enzyme requires Mg2+ or Mn2+ for activity. Alonso GD, ...
... cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) within cells. cAMP activates the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). In patients, PDE ... Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases / metabolism * Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 3 * Cyclic Nucleotide ... Phosphodiesterase 4D deficiency in the ryanodine-receptor complex promotes heart failure and arrhythmias Cell. 2005 Oct 7;123(1 ... The phosphodiesterase 4D3 (PDE4D3) was found in the cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR2)/calcium-release-channel complex (required ...
cAMP decomposition into AMP is catalyzed by the enzyme phosphodiesterase. Functions edit cAMP is a second messenger, used for ... cyclic AMP). Synthesis edit Cyclic AMP is synthesized from ATP by adenylate cyclase located on the inner side of the plasma ... Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP, cyclic AMP, or 3,5-cyclic adenosine monophosphate) is a second messenger, or cellular ... Since cyclic AMP is a second messenger and plays vital role in cell signalling, it has been implicated in various disorders but ...
... cyclic-AMP mediate most of caffeines pharmacologic actions. Caffeine competitively inhibits phosphodiesterase, the enzyme that ... degrades cyclic 3- 5 adenosine monophosphate. Caffeine stimulates all levels of the CNS. Caffeines cortical effects are ... In one 5-year-old patient, death occurred following oral ingestion of approximately 3 grams caffeine. Convulsions may be ... Caffeine has approximately a half-life (T½) 3-4 hours in adults. In adults, the drug is rapidly metabolized in the liver to 1- ...
... cyclic AMP)-metabolizing enzyme in lung tissue) activity leads to accumulation of intracellular cyclic AMP. While the specific ... DALIRESP is a selective phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor indicated as a treatment to reduce the risk of COPD exacerbations in ... it is thought to be related to the effects of increased intracellular cyclic AMP in lung cells. ... Roflumilast and its active metabolite (roflumilast N-oxide) are selective phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) inhibitors. The chemical ...
... cyclic-AMP and -GMP phosphodiesterase 11A(Homo sapiens (Human)). Schering-Plough Research Institute. Curated by ChEMBL. ... cyclic-AMP and -GMP phosphodiesterase 11A (PDE11A1) 35-489] 1. *High affinity cGMP-specific 3,5-cyclic phosphodiesterase 9A [ ... cyclic-AMP and -GMP phosphodiesterase 11A 5. *Dual specificity calcium/calmodulin-dependent 3,5-cyclic nucleotide ... cyclic-AMP and -GMP phosphodiesterase 11A (PDE11A1) 35-489](Homo sapiens (Human)). Plexxikon. ...
... cyclic AMP) metabolizing enzyme) activity leads to accumulation of intracellular cyclic AMP ... Roflumilast and its active metabolite (roflumilast N-oxide) are inhibitors of phosphodiesterase (PDE)-4 ... Inhibition of PDE4 (a major cyclic 3′,5′-adenosine monophosphate ( ... 5. This drug is available at a higher level co-pay. Most commonly, these are "non-preferred" brand drugs or specialty ...
Exchange protein activated by cyclic AMP (EPACs) C. *Phosphodiesterases, 3,5-cyclic nucleotide (PDEs) C ... Type I PIP kinases (1-phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase family). *Type II PIP kinases (1-phosphatidylinositol-5- ...
Cyclic AMP / analogs & derivatives * Cyclic AMP / metabolism * Cyclic AMP / pharmacology * Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases ... Activation of endogenous deltaF508 cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator by phosphodiesterase inhibition J Clin ... efflux in response to beta-agonist and phosphodiesterase inhibitor. Primary cells isolated from CF nasal polyps gave similar ... above baseline by beta-adrenoreceptor agonists and cGI-phosphodiesterase inhibitors in transformed nasal polyp (CF-T43) cells ...
... cyclic AMP (cAMP)/protein kinase A (PKA) signaling pathway, and increased the concentration of free fatty acid receptor 1 ( ... cAMP phosphodiesterase-4: signalling complexes, regulation and potential therapeutic targets.. George Baillie. Medical Research ... Phosphodiesterase-4 isoforms - intracellular targeting, regulation and potential therapeutic targets. Miles Houslay. Medical ... FFAR1). Deficiency of phosphodiesterase 4A (PDE4A), an enzyme that degrades cAMP and modulates stimulatory regulative G protein ...
... cyclic-AMP phosphodiesterase activity IBA Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor. more info ... cyclic phosphodiesterase subunit alpha. Names. cGMP phosphodiesterase 6C. phosphodiesterase 6C, cGMP-specific, cone, alpha ... GAF; Domain present in phytochromes and cGMP-specific phosphodiesterases. pfam00233. Location:561 → 806. PDEase_I; 35-cyclic ... PDE6C phosphodiesterase 6C [Homo sapiens] PDE6C phosphodiesterase 6C [Homo sapiens]. Gene ID:5146 ...
Cyclic-AMP Phosphodiesterases 100% * Islet Cell Adenoma 80% * Cyclic Nucleotide 71% ... Characterization of cyclic 3, 5-nucleotide phosphodiesterase activity in an islet cell tumor of the syrian hamster. Schubart ... Fields, B. N., Raine, C. S. & Baum, S. G., Mar 1971, In: Virology. 43, 3, p. 569-578 10 p.. Research output: Contribution to ... Rowe, W. P., Baum, S. G., Pugh, E. & Hoggan, M. D., Nov 1 1965, In: The Journal of experimental medicine. 122, 5, p. 943-954 12 ...
This list of 582 genes contains 12 proteases and 3 antiproteases. We found that ... cyclic-AMP and -GMP phosphodiesterase 11A" would have a role in signal transduction (Table 1). The last constituent of this ... cyclic-AMP and -GMP phosphodiesterase 11A" (GeneID:424133, 24-fold increase) and "PREDICTED: nebulin-related-anchoring protein ... Table 5 Antiproteases identified in the egg yolk [[14],[15]] and the vitelline membrane (VM) [[30]]. Full size table. ...
... cyclic-AMP and #NAME? phosphodiesterase 11A isoform X2 XM_045033997.1. XP_044889932.1. dual 3,5-cyclic-AMP and #NAME? ... cyclic-AMP and #NAME? phosphodiesterase 11A isoform X1 XM_045033996.1. XP_044889931.1. dual 3,5-cyclic-AMP and #NAME? ... phosphodiesterase 11A isoform X4 XM_045033995.1. XP_044889930.1. dual 3,5-cyclic-AMP and #NAME? phosphodiesterase 11A isoform ... phosphodiesterase 11A isoform X5 XM_045033994.1. XP_044889929.1. dual 3,5- ...
Cyclic-AMP Phosphodiesterases). Abrin D12.776.765.678.249 D8.811.277.450.430.700.750.111. D12.776.765.678.906.111. ... Cyclic-GMP Phosphodiesterase D8.811.277.352.640.125 D8.811.277.352.640.155. D12.644.360.09. D12.776.476.09. (Replaced for 2008 ... Cyclic-GMP Phosphodiesterases). 3,5-Cyclic-Nucleotide Phosphodiesterase. D12.644.360.08. D12.776.476.08. (Replaced for 2008 ...
Cyclic-AMP Phosphodiesterases). Abrin D12.776.765.678.249 D8.811.277.450.430.700.750.111. D12.776.765.678.906.111. ... Cyclic-GMP Phosphodiesterase D8.811.277.352.640.125 D8.811.277.352.640.155. D12.644.360.09. D12.776.476.09. (Replaced for 2008 ... Cyclic-GMP Phosphodiesterases). 3,5-Cyclic-Nucleotide Phosphodiesterase. D12.644.360.08. D12.776.476.08. (Replaced for 2008 ...
Cyclic-AMP Phosphodiesterases). Abrin D12.776.765.678.249 D8.811.277.450.430.700.750.111. D12.776.765.678.906.111. ... Cyclic-GMP Phosphodiesterase D8.811.277.352.640.125 D8.811.277.352.640.155. D12.644.360.09. D12.776.476.09. (Replaced for 2008 ... Cyclic-GMP Phosphodiesterases). 3,5-Cyclic-Nucleotide Phosphodiesterase. D12.644.360.08. D12.776.476.08. (Replaced for 2008 ...
Cyclic-AMP Phosphodiesterases). Abrin D12.776.765.678.249 D8.811.277.450.430.700.750.111. D12.776.765.678.906.111. ... Cyclic-GMP Phosphodiesterase D8.811.277.352.640.125 D8.811.277.352.640.155. D12.644.360.09. D12.776.476.09. (Replaced for 2008 ... Cyclic-GMP Phosphodiesterases). 3,5-Cyclic-Nucleotide Phosphodiesterase. D12.644.360.08. D12.776.476.08. (Replaced for 2008 ...
Cyclic-AMP Phosphodiesterases). Abrin D12.776.765.678.249 D8.811.277.450.430.700.750.111. D12.776.765.678.906.111. ... Cyclic-GMP Phosphodiesterase D8.811.277.352.640.125 D8.811.277.352.640.155. D12.644.360.09. D12.776.476.09. (Replaced for 2008 ... Cyclic-GMP Phosphodiesterases). 3,5-Cyclic-Nucleotide Phosphodiesterase. D12.644.360.08. D12.776.476.08. (Replaced for 2008 ...
Cyclic-AMP Phosphodiesterases). Abrin D12.776.765.678.249 D8.811.277.450.430.700.750.111. D12.776.765.678.906.111. ... Cyclic-GMP Phosphodiesterase D8.811.277.352.640.125 D8.811.277.352.640.155. D12.644.360.09. D12.776.476.09. (Replaced for 2008 ... Cyclic-GMP Phosphodiesterases). 3,5-Cyclic-Nucleotide Phosphodiesterase. D12.644.360.08. D12.776.476.08. (Replaced for 2008 ...
Cyclic-AMP Phosphodiesterases). Abrin D12.776.765.678.249 D8.811.277.450.430.700.750.111. D12.776.765.678.906.111. ... Cyclic-GMP Phosphodiesterase D8.811.277.352.640.125 D8.811.277.352.640.155. D12.644.360.09. D12.776.476.09. (Replaced for 2008 ... Cyclic-GMP Phosphodiesterases). 3,5-Cyclic-Nucleotide Phosphodiesterase. D12.644.360.08. D12.776.476.08. (Replaced for 2008 ...
Cyclic-AMP Phosphodiesterases). Abrin D12.776.765.678.249 D8.811.277.450.430.700.750.111. D12.776.765.678.906.111. ... Cyclic-GMP Phosphodiesterase D8.811.277.352.640.125 D8.811.277.352.640.155. D12.644.360.09. D12.776.476.09. (Replaced for 2008 ... Cyclic-GMP Phosphodiesterases). 3,5-Cyclic-Nucleotide Phosphodiesterase. D12.644.360.08. D12.776.476.08. (Replaced for 2008 ...
Cyclic-AMP Phosphodiesterases). Abrin D12.776.765.678.249 D8.811.277.450.430.700.750.111. D12.776.765.678.906.111. ... Cyclic-GMP Phosphodiesterase D8.811.277.352.640.125 D8.811.277.352.640.155. D12.644.360.09. D12.776.476.09. (Replaced for 2008 ... Cyclic-GMP Phosphodiesterases). 3,5-Cyclic-Nucleotide Phosphodiesterase. D12.644.360.08. D12.776.476.08. (Replaced for 2008 ...
Cyclic-AMP Phosphodiesterases). Abrin D12.776.765.678.249 D8.811.277.450.430.700.750.111. D12.776.765.678.906.111. ... Cyclic-GMP Phosphodiesterase D8.811.277.352.640.125 D8.811.277.352.640.155. D12.644.360.09. D12.776.476.09. (Replaced for 2008 ... Cyclic-GMP Phosphodiesterases). 3,5-Cyclic-Nucleotide Phosphodiesterase. D12.644.360.08. D12.776.476.08. (Replaced for 2008 ...
Cyclic-AMP Phosphodiesterases). Abrin D12.776.765.678.249 D8.811.277.450.430.700.750.111. D12.776.765.678.906.111. ... Cyclic-GMP Phosphodiesterase D8.811.277.352.640.125 D8.811.277.352.640.155. D12.644.360.09. D12.776.476.09. (Replaced for 2008 ... Cyclic-GMP Phosphodiesterases). 3,5-Cyclic-Nucleotide Phosphodiesterase. D12.644.360.08. D12.776.476.08. (Replaced for 2008 ...
Cyclic-AMP Phosphodiesterases. *3,5-Cyclic-GMP Phosphodiesterases. *Activating Transcription Factor 6 ...
... c-AMP). These processes respond to bronchodilators. The six cases presented to us, in Edward Francis Small Teaching Hospital ( ... The median duration for resolution of most symptoms with treatment was two days, with a range of 1-5 days. Clinically ... and mucosal oedema consequent upon a reduced cyclic 3,5-adenosine monophosphate ( ... Cyclic AMP (cAMP) plays a crucial role in neonatal airway function, tone, and caliber. It controls the airway smooth muscle ( ...
Cyclic AMP (cAMP) and cGMP regulate a myriad of cellular functions, such as metabolism, contractility, motility, and ... Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterase Activity, Expression, and Targeting in Cells of the Cardiovascular System. Donald H. ... Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterase Activity, Expression, and Targeting in Cells of the Cardiovascular System. Donald H. ... Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterase Activity, Expression, and Targeting in Cells of the Cardiovascular System. Donald H. ...
Pinapataas din ng kapeina ang mga antas ng cyclic AMP sa pamamagitan ng nonselective inhibition ng phosphodiesterase. [16] ... DSM-5 will not include caffeine use disorder, although research shows that as little as two to three cups of coffee can trigger ... "EFSA Journal (sa Ingles). 13 (5): 4102. 2015. doi:10.2903/j.efsa.2015.4102. ISSN 1831-4732. Inarkibo mula sa ang orihinal noong ... Adults: 3-7 hours[7]. Infants (full term): 8 hours[7]. Infants (premature): 100 hours[7]. ...
Activates the 3B isoform of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDE3B) via phosphorylation of Ser-273, resulting in reduced ... cyclic AMP (cAMP)-response element binding protein). The phosphorylation of CREB1 induces the binding of accessory proteins ... cyclic AMP levels and inhibition of lipolysis. Phosphorylates PIKFYVE on Ser-318, which results in increased PI(3)P-5 ... Cleavage by caspase-3/CASP3. Cleaved at the caspase-3 consensus site Asp-462 during apoptosis, resulting in down-regulation of ...
  • Considerably higher resistance against cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases compared to dibutyryl- or 8-Br-cAMP (Cat. (biolog.de)
  • [15] Pinapataas din ng kapeina ang mga antas ng cyclic AMP sa pamamagitan ng nonselective inhibition ng phosphodiesterase. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2. There was a progressive decline during pregnancy in sensitivity of platelets to inhibition of the arachidonic acid-induced release reaction by agents which act via cyclic AMP. (portlandpress.com)
  • Activates the 3B isoform of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDE3B) via phosphorylation of 'Ser-273', resulting in reduced cyclic AMP levels and inhibition of lipolysis. (cusabio.com)
  • Preincubation of CF-T43 cells with CFTR anti-sense oligonucleotides prevented an increase in 36Cl- efflux in response to beta-agonist and phosphodiesterase inhibitor. (nih.gov)
  • A phosphodiesterase inhibitor that blocks uptake and metabolism of adenosine by erythrocytes and vascular endothelial cells. (lookformedical.com)
  • VIP's lack of effect on IL-10 and its slight effect on TNF-alpha results from cAMP being rapidly degraded as the phosphodiesterase IV inhibitor, rolipram, rescues cAMP-dependent activation of cAMP response element binding protein. (ox.ac.uk)
  • In conclusion, VIP may represent an efficaceous anti-arthritic treatment modulating macrophage and T-cell cytokine profiles when used alongside a phosphodiesterase inhibitor. (ox.ac.uk)
  • A phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor used to treat erectile dysfunction, benign prostatic hyperplasia, and pulmonary arterial hypertension. (drugbank.com)
  • 3. Basal platelet cyclic AMP levels, and those in the presence of a phosphodiesterase inhibitor, did not change throughout the period of the study. (portlandpress.com)
  • This effect was noted when platelets were incubated with prostaglandins acting via different surface receptors or with forskolin and was most marked on co-incubation with a phosphodiesterase inhibitor. (portlandpress.com)
  • The interaction with the non-selective PDE (cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase) inhibitor 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX) was tested after three days. (scirp.org)
  • Considerable effort over the last 20 years has allowed identification of the cellular components involved in the synthesis of cyclic nucleotides, as well as effectors of cyclic nucleotide-mediated signaling. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Bronchoconstriction, a state of bronchial smooth muscle tone is modulated by the interactions of the beta-adrenergic receptors and the metabolism of the intracellular cyclic nucleotides. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Chen, Z.S., Lee, K. and Kruh, G.D. (2001) Transport of Cyclic Nucleotides and Estradiol 17-Beta-d-glucuronide by Multidrug Resistance Protein 4. (scirp.org)
  • We have found that, 36Cl- efflux can be stimulated 19-61% above baseline by beta-adrenoreceptor agonists and cGI-phosphodiesterase inhibitors in transformed nasal polyp (CF-T43) cells homozygous for the deltaF508 mutation. (nih.gov)
  • Activation of A 2A ARs results in an increase in cyclic AMP concentration in inflammatory cells which is increased further by concurrent type IV phosphodiesterase inhibitors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This gene encodes the alpha-prime subunit of cone phosphodiesterase, which is composed of a homodimer of two alpha-prime subunits and 3 smaller proteins of 11, 13, and 15 kDa. (nih.gov)
  • Somatic mutations of the catalytic subunit of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PRKACA) gene in Japanese patients with several adrenal adenomas secreting cortisol [Rapid Communication]. (cdc.gov)
  • In eukaryotes, cyclic AMP works by activating protein kinase A (PKA, or cAMP-dependent protein kinase ). (wikipedia.org)
  • Cyclic AMP binds to specific locations on the regulatory units of the protein kinase, and causes dissociation between the regulatory and catalytic subunits, thus enabling those catalytic units to phosphorylate substrate proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Consumption of an HFD selectively induced accumulation of palmitic acid in the hypothalamus, suppressed the 3', 5'-cyclic AMP (cAMP)/protein kinase A (PKA) signaling pathway, and increased the concentration of free fatty acid receptor 1 (FFAR1). (gla.ac.uk)
  • 3'-5'-Cyclic adenosine monophosphate/protein kinase A (cAMP/PKA) signalling is activated by different extracellular stimuli and mediates many diverse processes within the same cell. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Activator of protein kinase A (cyclic AMP agonist). (biolog.de)
  • It is an activator of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, but resistant to degradation by cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase. (ouhsc.edu)
  • Cyclic AMP (cAMP) and cGMP regulate a myriad of cellular functions, such as metabolism, contractility, motility, and transcription in virtually all cell types, including those of the cardiovascular system. (aspetjournals.org)
  • AKT1 is one of 3 closely related serine/threonine-protein kinases (AKT1, AKT2 and AKT3) called the AKT kinase, and which regulate many processes including metabolism, proliferation, cell survival, growth and angiogenesis. (stjohnslabs.com)
  • AMP-activated protein kinases modify enzymes involved in LIPID METABOLISM, which in turn provide substrates needed to convert AMP into ATP. (rush.edu)
  • In fact, CCB interfere with calcium cell influx blocking "L" type voltage dependent channels3, whereas BB lower intracellular cyclic AMP and thereby reduce intracellular calcium contents4 (Figure 1). (doczz.net)
  • Phosphodiesterases (PDEs) regulate the local concentration of 3',5' cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) within cells. (nih.gov)
  • An antidepressant agent used for the treatment of major depressive disorder that targets the 5-HT transporter and 5-HT1A receptors. (drugbank.com)
  • Adenosine can bind to four G protein coupled receptors, A 1 , A 2A , A 2B , and A 3 . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Risk factors for depression initiate an infection-like inflammation in the brain that involves activation microglial Toll-like receptors and glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β). (mdpi.com)
  • Cyclic adenosine monophosphate ( cAMP , cyclic AMP , or 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate ) is a second messenger , or cellular signal occurring within cells, that is important in many biological processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because cell behavior is a dynamic process influenced by numerous factors, we will attempt to emphasize how changes in the activity, expression, and targeting of PDE influence cyclic nucleotide-mediated regulation of the behavior of these cells. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Cyclic AMP also controls the clearance of the airway mucus by modulating the ciliary beat frequency [ 6 ] and suppresses the pro-inflammatory activities of the body's immune and inflammatory cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Moreover, double-stranded RNA-mediated silencing of MjDAD1 significantly changed the levels of protein kinases (PKA and PKC), second messengers (cyclic AMP (cAMP), cyclic cGMP, calmodulin, and diacyl glycerol), and G-protein effectors (adenylate cyclase and phospholipase C). Furthermore, MjDAD1 silencing increased the apoptosis rate of gill and hepatopancreas cells. (bvsalud.org)
  • Cyclic GMP was able to mimic the antiproliferative effect of SNP on HEK293 cells. (scirp.org)
  • When cGMP (1000 μM) was added to the cell culture medium for 5 days the cell densities were reduced with 37% below baseline and cGMP in increased from 5.3 to 195 pmol/10 7 cells. (scirp.org)
  • Garg, U.C. and Hassid, A. (1989) Nitric Oxide-Generating Vasodilators and 8-Bromo-cyclic Guanosine Monophosphate Inhibit Mitogenesis and Proliferation of Cultured Rat Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells. (scirp.org)
  • Cyclic AMP activates B-Raf and ERK in cyst epithelial cells from autosomal-dominant polycystic kidneys. (ouhsc.edu)
  • A corresponding effect was observed after addition of 1000 μM cGMP and 1000 μM IBMX for 3 days. (scirp.org)
  • Earl Sutherland of Vanderbilt University won a Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1971 "for his discoveries concerning the mechanisms of the action of hormones", especially epinephrine, via second messengers (such as cyclic adenosine monophosphate, cyclic AMP). (wikipedia.org)
  • Bronchiolar obstruction, which causes airway obstruction in hyperresponsive airways, often results from the contraction of the airway's smooth muscles, increased viscid mucous secretions, and mucosal oedema consequent upon a reduced cyclic 3,5-adenosine monophosphate (c-AMP). (biomedcentral.com)
  • This study investigated the effects of cyclic adenosine monophosphate modulating during cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) pre-maturation and the role of melatonin on in vitro maturation (IVM) of bovine COCs. (bvsalud.org)
  • Adenyl Cyclase - A membrane-bound enzyme that converts adenosine monophosphate to cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), an intracellular second messenger. (poisonfluoride.com)
  • Tissue hypoxia, as occurs in sepsis, enhances breakdown of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to adenosine monophosphate (AMP), which is then dephosphorylated by the cytosolic 5'nucloeotidase to adenosine [ 4 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 8-Bromo Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (ouhsc.edu)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "8-Bromo Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate" by people in this website by year, and whether "8-Bromo Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (ouhsc.edu)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "8-Bromo Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate" by people in Profiles. (ouhsc.edu)
  • Adenosine monophosphate, also known as adenylic acid or 5'-AMP, belongs to the class of organic compounds known as purine ribonucleoside monophosphates. (ymdb.ca)
  • AKT has an important role in the regulation of NF-kappa-B-dependent gene transcription and positively regulates the activity of CREB1 (cyclic AMP (cAMP)-response element binding protein). (cusabio.com)
  • Pilz, R.B. and Broderick, K.E. (2005) Role of Cyclic GMP in Gene Regulation. (scirp.org)
  • Macronodular adrenal hyperplasia due to mutations in an armadillo repeat containing 5 (ARMC5) gene: a clinical and genetic investigation. (cdc.gov)
  • In addition, may inhibit phosphodiesterase activity, leading to increased cyclic-3', 5'-AMP within platelets and formation of potent platelet activator thromboxane A2. (medscape.com)
  • 5. Compared with healthy women, platelets from women with a previous history of pre-eclampsia tended to accumulate less cyclic AMP in response to adenylate cyclase stimulators. (portlandpress.com)
  • Deficiency of phosphodiesterase 4A (PDE4A), an enzyme that degrades cAMP and modulates stimulatory regulative G protein (Gs)-coupled G protein-coupled receptor signaling, protected animals either from genetic- or dietary-induced depression phenotype. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Theophylline inhibits the 3',5'-CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE PHOSPHODIESTERASE that degrades CYCLIC AMP thus potentiates the actions of agents that act through ADENYLYL CYCLASES and cyclic AMP. (lookformedical.com)
  • The phosphodiesterase 4D3 (PDE4D3) was found in the cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR2)/calcium-release-channel complex (required for excitation-contraction [EC] coupling in heart muscle). (nih.gov)
  • Calmodulin-dependent cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase in an experimental rat model of cardiac ischemia-reperfusion. (ouhsc.edu)
  • A serotonin 5-HT3 receptor antagonist used to prevent nausea and vomiting in cancer chemotherapy and postoperatively. (drugbank.com)
  • Cyclic AMP is synthesized from ATP by adenylate cyclase located on the inner side of the plasma membrane and anchored at various locations in the interior of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • 4. By contrast, platelet cyclic AMP accumulation in response to a variety of adenylate cyclase stimulators was reduced from early pregnancy, throughout the gestational period, compared with post-natally. (portlandpress.com)
  • Pharmacology & Pharmacy , 5 , 262-271. (scirp.org)
  • In addition, cAMP binds to and regulates the function of ion channels such as the HCN channels and a few other cyclic nucleotide-binding proteins such as Epac1 and RAPGEF2 . (wikipedia.org)
  • Phosphorylation of TBC1D4 triggers the binding of this effector to inhibitory 14-3-3 proteins, which is required for insulin-stimulated glucose transport. (stjohnslabs.com)
  • AKT is involved in the phosphorylation of members of the FOXO factors (Forkhead family of transcription factors), leading to binding of 14-3-3 proteins and cytoplasmic localization. (cusabio.com)
  • The production of estrogen and at a lower magnitude testosterone by the theca of the growing follicle increases 2 to 3 weeks before the production of the first egg and contributes to the development of reproductive organs and the synthesis of egg constituents [ 1 - 6 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Their activity largely depends upon the concentration of cellular AMP which is increased under conditions of low energy or metabolic stress. (rush.edu)
  • A member of the triptan class of 5-HT(1B/1D/1F) receptor agonist drugs used for the acute treatment of migraine with or without aura in adults. (drugbank.com)
  • A 5HT-3 receptor antagonist used as an antiemetic in the treatment of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. (drugbank.com)
  • A 5-HT1B/1D receptor agonist used to treat migraines. (drugbank.com)
  • Leucine's insulin-mediated effects are largely the result of its activation of the classical insulin receptor substrate (IRS)/phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mTOR signal transduction pathway. (tigerfitness.com)
  • juega un papel crítico en la PLASTICIDAD SINÁPTICA mediada por el receptor NMDA. (bvsalud.org)
  • The principal process by which intracellular cAMP levels are reduced is via hydrolysis by the phosphodiesterase enzymes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase subclass that includes enzymes whose specificity is limited to 1-phosphatidylinositol. (rush.edu)
  • A long-acting derivative of cyclic AMP. (ouhsc.edu)
  • cAMP phosphodiesterase-4: signalling complexes, regulation and potential therapeutic targets. (gla.ac.uk)
  • It catalyses the following reaction adenosine 3′,5′-cyclic phosphate + H2O ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } AMP This enzyme requires Mg2+ or Mn2+ for activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cleaved at the caspase-3 consensus site Asp-462 during apoptosis, resulting in down-regulation of the AKT signaling pathway and decreased cell survival. (stjohnslabs.com)
  • 1. Platelet behaviour in vitro in relation to cyclic AMP was studied longitudinally during pregnancy and in the same women when they were not pregnant. (portlandpress.com)